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Sample records for vp1 capsid protein

  1. Interaction between Simian Virus 40 Major Capsid Protein VP1 and Cell Surface Ganglioside GM1 Triggers Vacuole Formation.

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    Luo, Yong; Motamedi, Nasim; Magaldi, Thomas G; Gee, Gretchen V; Atwood, Walter J; DiMaio, Daniel

    2016-03-22

    Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus that has served as an important model to understand many aspects of biology, induces dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolization late during productive infection of monkey host cells. Although this activity led to the discovery of the virus in 1960, the mechanism of vacuolization is still not known. Pentamers of the major SV40 capsid protein VP1 bind to the ganglioside GM1, which serves as the cellular receptor for the virus. In this report, we show that binding of VP1 to cell surface GM1 plays a key role in SV40 infection-induced vacuolization. We previously showed that SV40 VP1 mutants defective for GM1 binding fail to induce vacuolization, even though they replicate efficiently. Here, we show that interfering with GM1-VP1 binding by knockdown of GM1 after infection is established abrogates vacuolization by wild-type SV40. Vacuole formation during permissive infection requires efficient virus release, and conditioned medium harvested late during SV40 infection rapidly induces vacuoles in a VP1- and GM1-dependent fashion. Furthermore, vacuolization can also be induced by a nonreplicating SV40 pseudovirus in a GM1-dependent manner, and a mutation in BK pseudovirus VP1 that generates GM1 binding confers vacuole-inducing activity. Vacuolization can also be triggered by purified pentamers of wild-type SV40 VP1, but not by GM1 binding-defective pentamers or by intracellular expression of VP1. These results demonstrate that SV40 infection-induced vacuolization is caused by the binding of released progeny viruses to GM1, thereby identifying the molecular trigger for the activity that led to the discovery of SV40. The DNA tumor virus SV40 was discovered more than a half century ago as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccine stocks, because it caused dramatic cytoplasmic vacuolization of permissive host cells. Although SV40 played a historically important role in the development of molecular and cellular biology, restriction mapping, molecular

  2. Expression of enterovirus 71 capsid protein VP1 in Escherichia coli and its clinical application

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    Mei Shi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The VPl gene of enterovirus 71 (EV71 was synthesized, construct a recombinant plasmid pET15b/VP1 and expressed in E. coli BL21. The recombinant VP1 protein could specifically react with EV71-infected patient sera without the cross-reaction with serum antibodies of coxsackievirus A16 (CA16, A4, A5, B3 and B5 as well as echovirus 6. In acute and convalescent phases, IgM and IgG antibodies of 182 serum samples were detected by ELISA with recombinant VP1 protein as a coated antigen. The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of IgM antibodies in serum samples for the diagnosis of EV71 infection were 90.1, 98.4, 98.8 and 88.7%, respectively; similarly, those of IgG antibodies in serum samples were 82.4, 89.1, 91.5 and 78.1%, respectively. Five of 80 samples (6.25% from CA16infected patients were detected positive by ELISA with recombinant VP1 protein in which indicated the cross reactions and 0 of 5 samples from patients infected with other enteroviruses including CA4, CA5, CB3, CB5 and echovirus 6. Therefore, the recombinant VP1 protein of EV7l may provide a theoretical reference for establishing an effective antibody screening of IgM for EV71-infected patients with clinically suspected hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD.

  3. Antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein VP1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1

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    Alam SM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SM Sabbir Alam,1 Ruhul Amin,1 Mohammed Ziaur Rahman,2 M Anwar Hossain,1 Munawar Sultana11Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. The serotype Asia1 occurs mainly in Asian regions. An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein VP1 of Asia1. A total of 47 VP1 sequences of Asia1 isolates from different countries of South Asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. The structure of VP1 protein was modeled using a homology modeling approach. Several antigenic sites were identified and mapped onto the three-dimensional protein structure. Variations at these antigenic sites were analyzed by calculating the protein variability index and finding mutation combinations. The data suggested that vaccine escape mutants have derived from only few mutations at several antigenic sites. Five antigenic peptides have been identified as the least variable epitopes, with just fewer amino acid substitutions. Only a limited number of serotype Asia1 antigenic variants were found to be circulated within the South Asian region. This emphasizes a possibility of formulating synthetic vaccines for controlling foot-and-mouth disease by Asia1 serotypes.Keywords: protein modeling, antigenic sites, sequence variation

  4. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 infections by a novel antiviral peptide derived from EV-71 capsid protein VP1.

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    Chee Wah Tan

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD. In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC(50 values ranging from 6-9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71.

  5. Inhibition of Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) Infections by a Novel Antiviral Peptide Derived from EV-71 Capsid Protein VP1

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    Tan, Chee Wah; Chan, Yoke Fun; Sim, Kooi Mow; Tan, Eng Lee; Poh, Chit Laa

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers) overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC50 values ranging from 6–9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71. PMID:22563456

  6. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development

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    You Bang-Jau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Conclusions Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  7. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development.

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    Lee, Meng-Shiou; Hseu, You-Cheng; Lai, Guan-Hua; Chang, Wen-Te; Chen, Hsi-Jien; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lee, Meng-Shiunn; Wang, Min-Ying; Kao, Jung-Yie; You, Bang-Jau; Lin, Wen- Hsin; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2011-07-23

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  8. Immunodominant T-Cell Epitopes in the VP1 Capsid Protein of Rhinovirus Species A and C.

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    Gaido, Cibele M; Stone, Shane; Chopra, Abha; Thomas, Wayne R; Le Souëf, Peter N; Hales, Belinda J

    2016-12-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) species A and C are the most frequent cause of respiratory viral illness worldwide, and RV-C has been linked to more severe exacerbations of asthma in young children. Little is known about the immune responses to the different RV species, although studies comparing IgG1 antibody titers found impaired antibody responses to RV-C. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether T-cell immunity to RV-C is similarly impaired. We measured T-cell proliferation to overlapping synthetic peptides covering the entire VP1 capsid protein of an RV-A and RV-C genotype for 20 healthy adult donors. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was typed in all the donors in order to investigate possible associations between the HLA type and RV peptide recognition. Total and specific IgG1 antibody titers to the VP1 proteins of both RV-A and RV-C were also measured to examine associations between the antibody and T-cell responses. We identified T-cell epitopes that are specific to and representative of each RV-A and RV-C species. These epitopes stimulated CD4(+)-specific T-cell proliferation, with similar magnitudes of response for both RV species. All the donors, independent of their HLA-DR or -DQ type, were able to recognize the immunodominant RV-A and -C regions of VP1. Furthermore, the presence or absence of specific antibody titers was not related to changes in T-cell recognition. Our results indicate a dissociation between the antibody and T-cell responses to rhinoviruses. The species-representative T-cell epitopes identified in this study are valuable tools for future studies investigating T-cell responses to the different RV species. Rhinoviruses (RVs) are mostly associated with the common cold and asthma exacerbations, although their contributions to most upper and lower respiratory tract diseases have increasingly been reported. Species C (RV-C) has been associated with more frequent and severe asthma exacerbations in young children and, along with RV-A, is the most

  9. Surface-exposed adeno-associated virus Vp1-NLS capsid fusion protein rescues infectivity of noninfectious wild-type Vp2/Vp3 and Vp3-only capsids but not that of fivefold pore mutant virions.

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    Grieger, Joshua C; Johnson, Jarrod S; Gurda-Whitaker, Brittney; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Samulski, R Jude

    2007-08-01

    Over the past 2 decades, significant effort has been dedicated to the development of adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a vector for human gene therapy. However, understanding of the virus with respect to the functional domains of the capsid remains incomplete. In this study, the goal was to further examine the role of the unique Vp1 N terminus, the N terminus plus the recently identified nuclear localization signal (NLS) (J. C. Grieger, S. Snowdy, and R. J. Samulski, J. Virol 80:5199-5210, 2006), and the virion pore at the fivefold axis in infection. We generated two Vp1 fusion proteins (Vp1 and Vp1NLS) linked to the 8-kDa chemokine domain of rat fractalkine (FKN) for the purpose of surface exposure upon assembly of the virion, as previously described (K. H. Warrington, Jr., O. S. Gorbatyuk, J. K. Harrison, S. R. Opie, S. Zolotukhin, and N. Muzyczka, J. Virol 78:6595-6609, 2004). The unique Vp1 N termini were found to be exposed on the surfaces of these capsids and maintained their phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, as determined by native dot blot Western and PLA2 assays, respectively. Incorporation of the fusions into AAV type 2 capsids lacking a wild-type Vp1, i.e., Vp2/Vp3 and Vp3 capsid only, increased infectivity by 3- to 5-fold (Vp1FKN) and 10- to 100-fold (Vp1NLSFKN), respectively. However, the surface-exposed fusions did not restore infectivity to AAV virions containing mutations at a conserved leucine (Leu336Ala, Leu336Cys, or Leu336Trp) located at the base of the fivefold pore. EM analyses suggest that Leu336 may play a role in global structural changes to the virion directly impacting downstream conformational changes essential for infectivity and not only have local effects within the pore, as previously suggested.

  10. Species-specific and cross-reactive IgG1 antibody binding to viral capsid protein 1 (VP1 antigens of human rhinovirus species A, B and C.

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    Jua Iwasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRV are associated with upper and lower respiratory illnesses, including severe infections causing hospitalization in both children and adults. Although the clinical significance of HRV infections is now well established, no detailed investigation of the immune response against HRV has been performed. The purpose of this study was to assess the IgG1 antibody response to the three known HRV species, HRV-A, -B and -C in healthy subjects. METHODS: Recombinant polypeptides of viral capsid protein 1 (VP1 from two genotypes of HRV-A, -B and -C were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST fusion proteins and purified by affinity and then size exclusion chromatography. The presence of secondary structures similar to the natural antigens was verified by circular dichroism analysis. Total and species-specific IgG1 measurements were quantitated by immunoassays and immunoabsorption using sera from 63 healthy adults. RESULTS: Most adult sera reacted with the HRV VP1 antigens, at high titres. As expected, strong cross-reactivity between HRV genotypes of the same species was found. A high degree of cross-reactivity between different HRV species was also evident, particularly between HRV-A and HRV-C. Immunoabsorption studies revealed HRV-C specific titres were markedly and significantly lower than the HRV-A and HRV-B specific titres (P<0.0001. A truncated construct of HRV-C VP1 showed greater specificity in detecting anti-HRV-C antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: High titres of IgG1 antibody were bound by the VP1 capsid proteins of HRV-A, -B and -C, but for the majority of people, a large proportion of the antibody to HRV-C was cross-reactive, especially to HRV-A. The improved specificity found for the truncated HRV-C VP1 indicates species-specific and cross-reactive regions could be defined.

  11. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development

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    Lee, Meng-Shiou; Hseu, You-Cheng; Lai, Guan-Hua; Chang, Wen-Te; Chen, Hsi-Jien; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lee, Meng-Shiunn; Wang, Min-Ying; Kao, Jung-Yie; You, Bang-Jau; Lin, Wen- Hsin; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV), the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length V...

  12. VP1 pseudocapsids, but not a glutathione-S-transferase VP1 fusion protein, prevent polyomavirus infection in a T-cell immune deficient experimental mouse model.

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    Vlastos, Andrea; Andreasson, Kalle; Tegerstedt, Karin; Holländerová, Dana; Heidari, Shirin; Forstová, Jitka; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina

    2003-06-01

    The ability to vaccinate against polyomavirus infection in a T-cell deficient as well as a normal immune context was studied using polyomavirus major capsid protein (VP1) pseudocapsids (VP1-ps) or a glutathione-S-transferase-VP1 (GST-VP1) fusion protein. VP1-ps (1 or 10 microg) were administered subcutaneously, alone or together with Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant, to CD4(-/-)8(-/-) T-cell deficient or normal C57Bl/6 mice on four occasions. Alternatively, CD4(-/-)8(-/-) and normal mice were inoculated with either GST-VP1 or Py-VP1-ps (5 microg). Following immunisation, antibody titres were tested by ELISA to VP1-ps or GST-VP1 or by haemagglutination inhibition (HAI). Mice were then infected with polyomavirus. Three weeks post-infection, the mice were killed and examined for the presence of polyomavirus DNA by PCR. Viral DNA was not detected in CD4(-/-)8(-/-) mice immunised with either VP1-ps alone or in combination with Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant, or in any of the normal mice immunised with VP1-ps or GST-VP1. However, viral DNA was detected in 2/5 of the CD4(-/-)8(-/-) mice immunised with GST-VP1 and in non-immunised controls. Greater antibody titres were observed to VP1-ps than to GST-VP1 in CD4(-/-)8(-/-) mice after VP1-ps compared to GST-VP1 immunisation and antibody responses were better in normal than in immune-deficient mice. Only immunisation with VP1-ps resulted in haemagglutination inhibition. Complete protection against polyomavirus infection in the T-cell deficient context was obtained with VP1-ps, but not with GST-VP1, immunisation using the present vaccination protocol. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Expression and immunogenic analysis of recombinant polypeptides derived from capsid protein VP1 for developing subunit vaccine material against hepatitis A virus.

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    Jang, Kyoung Ok; Park, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ho; Chung, Dae Kyun; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, In Sik

    2014-08-01

    Three recombinant polypeptides, VP1-His, VP1-3N-His, and 3D2-His, were produced by Escherichia coli expression system. Recombinant VP1-His, VP1-3N-His, and 3D2-His were expressed as bands with molecular weights of 32, 38, and 30 kDa, respectively. These were purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA Fast-flow resin and/or ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sepharose Fast-flow resin. Intraperitoneal immunizations of recombinant polypeptides successfully elicited the productions of VP1-His, VP1-3N-His, and 3D2-His specific IgG antibodies (IgG subclass distribution of IgG1>IgG2a>IgG2b>IgG3) in sera and induced the secretions of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6 in spleen cells. Sera from recombinant VP1-His-, VP1-3N-His-, and 3D2-His-immunized mice neutralized the propagation of HAV. The highest neutralizing activity was shown in sera from recombinant VP1-3N-His-immunized mice. These results suggest that recombinant VP1-3N-His can be a useful source for developing hepatitis A virus (HAV) subunit vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structure and Dynamics of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 1 VP1-Unique N-Terminal Domain and Its Role in Capsid Trafficking

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    Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Yarbrough, Joseph; Domsic, John; Bennett, Antonette; Bothner, Brian; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Samulski, R. Jude; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the phospholipase A2 domain located within the unique N terminus of the capsid viral protein VP1 (VP1u) in parvovirus infection has been reported. This study used computational methods to characterize the VP1 sequence for adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes 1 to 12 and circular dichroism and electron microscopy to monitor conformational changes in the AAV1 capsid induced by temperature and the pHs encountered during trafficking through the endocytic pathway. Circular dichroism was also used to monitor conformational changes in AAV6 capsids assembled from VP2 and VP3 or VP1, VP2, and VP3 at pH 7.5. VP1u was predicted (computationally) and confirmed (in solution) to be structurally ordered. This VP domain was observed to undergo a reversible pH-induced unfolding/refolding process, a loss/gain of α-helical structure, which did not disrupt the capsid integrity and is likely facilitated by its difference in isoelectric point compared to the other VP sequences assembling the capsid. This study is the first to physically document conformational changes in the VP1u region that likely facilitate its externalization from the capsid interior during infection and establishes the order of events in the escape of the AAV capsid from the endosome en route to the nucleus. PMID:23427155

  15. Processing of the VP1/2A Junction Is Not Necessary for Production of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Empty Capsids and Infectious Viruses: Characterization of “Self-Tagged” Particles

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    Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Bøtner, Anette

    2013-01-01

    the unmodified empty capsids in antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and integrin receptor binding assays. Furthermore, mutant viruses with uncleaved VP1-2A could be rescued in cells from full-length FMDV RNA transcripts encoding the K210E substitution in VP1. Thus, cleavage of the VP1/2A junction......, resulted in efficient capsid protein production and self-assembly of empty capsid particles. Removal of the 2A peptide from the capsid protein precursor had no effect on capsid protein processing or particle assembly. However, modification of E83K alone abrogated particle assembly with no apparent effect...... on protein processing. Interestingly, the K210E substitution, close to the VP1/2A junction, completely blocked processing by 3Cpro at this cleavage site, but efficient assembly of “self-tagged” empty capsid particles, containing the uncleaved VP1-2A, was observed. These self-tagged particles behaved like...

  16. Viral protein-coating of magnetic nanoparticles using simian virus 40 VP1.

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    Enomoto, Teruya; Kawano, Masaaki; Fukuda, Hajime; Sawada, Wataru; Inoue, Takamasa; Haw, Kok Chee; Kita, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Imai, Takeshi; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Sandhu, Adarsh; Matsui, Masanori; Aoki, Ichio; Handa, Hiroshi

    2013-08-10

    Artificial beads including magnetite and fluorescence particles are useful to visualize pathologic tissue, such as cancers, from harmless types by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or fluorescence imaging. Desirable properties of diagnostic materials include high dispersion in body fluids, and the ability to target specific tissues. Here we report on the development of novel magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) intended for use as diagnosis and therapy that are coated with viral capsid protein VP1-pentamers of simian virus 40, which are monodispersive in body fluid by conjugating epidermal growth factor (EGF) to VP1. Critically, the coating of MNPs with VP1 facilitated stable dispersion of the MNPs in body fluids. In addition, EGF was conjugated to VP1 coating on MNPs (VP1-MNPs). EGF-conjugated VP1-MNPs were successfully used to target EGF receptor-expressing tumor cells in vitro. Thus, using viral capsid protein VP1 as a coating material would be useful for medical diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of polyomavirus major capsid antigen (VP-1) in human pilomatricomas Detección del antígeno mayor de la cápside de poliomavirus (VP-1) en pilomatricomas humanos

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    Norberto A. Sanjuán; Silvina Símula; José Casas; Alberto Woscoff

    2010-01-01

    The family Polyomaviridae is composed of small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses widely used to study cell transformation in vitro and tumor induction in vivo. The development of pilomatricomas in mice experimentally infected with polyomavirus led us to detect the viral major capsid protein VP-1 in human pilomatricomas. This tumor, even uncommon, is one of the most frequent benign hair follicle tumors in humans and is composed of proliferating matrix cells that undergo keratinizatio...

  18. JCV GCN in a natalizumab-treated MS patient is associated with mutations of the VP1 capsid gene.

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    Agnihotri, Shruti P; Dang, Xin; Carter, Jonathan L; Fife, Terry D; Bord, Evelyn; Batson, Stephanie; Koralnik, Igor J

    2014-08-19

    To describe the clinical, neuroimaging, immunologic, and virologic characteristics of JC virus-associated granule cell neuronopathy (JCV GCN) in a natalizumab-treated patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) who developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after natalizumab withdrawal. We obtained longitudinal clinical data as well as MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy from this patient with MS. We measured JCV-specific cellular immune response in his peripheral blood by intracellular cytokine staining and sequenced a fragment of JCV VP1 capsid gene detected in his CSF. We contrast our findings with the first recently reported case. This patient presented with worsening cerebellar symptoms and progressive cerebellar atrophy without new MS lesions on MRI after 63 months of natalizumab monotherapy. JCV DNA was detected in his CSF by PCR and harbored novel GCN-type mutations in the VP1 gene. He developed IRIS upon discontinuation of natalizumab and plasma exchange, which manifested itself by a worsening of clinical symptoms and contrast enhancement in the cerebellum on MRI. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in resolution of IRIS, as demonstrated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patient had a strong JCV-specific T-cell response in his peripheral blood and remains alive after 15 months from onset of symptoms, although with significant disability. He did not have MS relapse on glatiramer acetate. JCV GCN should be considered in patients on natalizumab presenting with progressive cerebellar symptoms and cerebellar atrophy, and is associated with mutations in the JCV VP1 gene. Natalizumab withdrawal may be complicated by JCV GCN IRIS, and require treatment with corticosteroids. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Detection of polyomavirus major capsid antigen (VP-1 in human pilomatricomas Detección del antígeno mayor de la cápside de poliomavirus (VP-1 en pilomatricomas humanos

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    Norberto A. Sanjuán

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Polyomaviridae is composed of small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses widely used to study cell transformation in vitro and tumor induction in vivo. The development of pilomatricomas in mice experimentally infected with polyomavirus led us to detect the viral major capsid protein VP-1 in human pilomatricomas. This tumor, even uncommon, is one of the most frequent benign hair follicle tumors in humans and is composed of proliferating matrix cells that undergo keratinization, and form cystic neoplasms. The detection of VP-1 was performed using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique in paraffin-embedded slides with a specific primary serum. Adjacent slides treated with normal rabbit serum as a primary were employed as internal control. Positive and negative controls were also employed as well as slides of lesions caused by human papillomavirus to rule out any unspecific cross-reactivity. In 4 out of 10 cases polyomavirus VP-1 was clearly detected in nuclei of human pilomatricomas proliferating cells, in a patchy pattern of distribution. The controls confirmed the specificity of the immunocytochemical procedure. These results could indicate either an eventual infection of the virus in already developed tumors or alternatively, a direct involvement of polyomavirus in the pathogenesis of some pilomatricomas. The recent discovery of a new human polyomavirus associated with Merkel cell carcinomas has been a strong contribution to better understand the pathogenesis of some human uncommon skin cancers. Hopefully the results reported in this work will encourage further research on the role of polyomavirus in other human skin neoplasms.La familia Poliomaviridae está compuesta por virus oncogénicos pequeños, no envueltos, con ADN de doble cadena. En un modelo experimental murino pudimos desarrollar pilomatricomas inducidos por la inoculación de virus polioma. Eso nos llevó a estudiar la posibilidad de que otro virus polioma

  20. VP1 protein of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) impairs baculovirus surface display.

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    Peralta, A; Maroniche, G A; Alfonso, V; Molinari, P; Taboga, O

    2013-07-01

    The Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes important economical losses in livestock farming. In order to develop a novel subunit vaccine against FMDV, we constructed recombinant baculoviruses that display the protein VP1 of FMDV on their surface, with either polar (fused to gp64) or nonpolar (fused to anchor membrane from VSV-G protein) distribution. Insect cells infected with the different recombinant baculoviruses expressed VP1 fusion protein to high levels. However, the recombinant VP1 protein was not carried by budded virions. Subcellular localization of VP1 revealed that the trafficking of the fusion protein to the cell plasma membrane was impaired. Our results suggest that VP1 contains cryptic domains that interfere with protein secretion and subsequent incorporation into budded baculoviruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural type 3/type 2 intertypic vaccine-related poliovirus recombinants with the first crossover sites within the VP1 capsid coding region.

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    Yong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Complete genomic sequences revealed their vaccine-related genomic features and showed that their first crossover sites were randomly distributed in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region. The length of donor Sabin 2 sequences ranged from 55 to 136 nucleotides, which is the longest donor sequence reported in the literature for this type of poliovirus recombination. The recombination resulted in the introduction of Sabin 2 neutralizing antigenic site 3a (NAg3a into a Sabin 3 genomic background in the VP1 coding region, which may have been altered by some of the type 3-specific antigenic properties, but had not acquired any type 2-specific characterizations. NAg3a of the Sabin 3 strain seems atypical; other wild-type poliovirus isolates that have circulated in recent years have sequences of NAg3a more like the Sabin 2 strain. CONCLUSIONS: 10 natural type 3/type 2 intertypic VP1 capsid-recombinant polioviruses, in which the first crossover sites were found to be in the VP1 coding region, were isolated and characterized. In spite of the complete replacement of NAg3a by type 2-specific amino acids, the serotypes of the recombinants were not altered, and they were totally neutralized by polyclonal type 3 antisera but not at all by type 2 antisera. It is possible that recent type 3 wild poliovirus isolates may be a recombinant having NAg3a sequences derived from another strain during between 1967 and 1980, and the type 3/type 2 recombination events in the 3' end of the VP1 coding region may result in a higher fitness.

  2. Amino acid sequences mediating vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 binding to integrin alpha 4: homologous DSP sequence found for JC polyoma VP1 coat protein

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    Michael Andrew Meyer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The JC polyoma viral coat protein VP1 was analyzed for amino acid sequences homologies to the IDSP sequence which mediates binding of VLA-4 (integrin alpha 4 to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. Although the full sequence was not found, a DSP sequence was located near the critical arginine residue linked to infectivity of the virus and binding to sialic acid containing molecules such as integrins (3. For the JC polyoma virus, a DSP sequence was found at residues 70, 71 and 72 with homology also noted for the mouse polyoma virus and SV40 virus. Three dimensional modeling of the VP1 molecule suggests that the DSP loop has an accessible site for interaction from the external side of the assembled viral capsid pentamer.

  3. Recombinant VP1 protein as a potential marker for the diagnosis of acute hepatitis A virus infection.

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    da Silva Junior, Haroldo Cid; da Silva, Edimilson Domingos; Lewis-Ximenez de Souza Rodrigues, Lia Laura; Medeiros, Marco Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Since hepatitis A virus (HAV) production is time-consuming and expensive, the use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative source of antigens for diagnostic purposes. The present study aimed to express, purify and evaluate the potential of recombinant VP1 protein (rVP1) as a marker for the diagnosis of acute HAV infection. The rVP1 was expressed and purified successfully from Escherichia coli. The purified rVP1 was used to establish an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-rVP1) for detection of IgM antibodies in sera from HAV-positive patients. For a cut-off point of 0.351, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA-rVP1 were 100.0% and 95.0%, respectively. These results indicate that rVP1 may be a useful antigen for detection of IgM antibodies against HAV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression and Immunogenicity of Two Recombinant Fusion Proteins Comprising Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural Protein VP1 and DC-SIGN-Binding Glycoproteins.

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    Liu, Xinsheng; Lv, Jianliang; Fang, Yuzhen; Zhou, Peng; Lu, Yanzhen; Pan, Li; Zhang, Zhongwang; Ma, Junwu; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Yonglu

    2017-01-01

    Improving vaccine immunogenicity by targeting antigens to dendritic cells has recently emerged as a new design strategy in vaccine development. In this study, the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A was fused with the gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane glycoprotein gp120 or C2-V3 domain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2, both of which are DC-SIGN-binding glycoproteins. After codon optimization, the VP1 protein and the two recombinant VP1-gp120 and VP1-E2 fusion proteins were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using the insect cell-baculovirus expression system. Western blotting showed that the VP1 protein and two recombinant VP1-gp120 and VP1-E2 fusion proteins were correctly expressed in the Sf9 insect cells and had good reactogenicity. Guinea pigs were then immunized with the purified proteins, and the resulting humoral and cellular immune responses were analyzed. The VP1-gp120 and VP1-E2 fusion proteins induced significantly higher specific anti-FMDV antibody levels than the VP1 protein and stronger cell-mediated immune responses. This study provides a new perspective for the development of novel FMDV subunit vaccines.

  5. Expression and Immunogenicity of Two Recombinant Fusion Proteins Comprising Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural Protein VP1 and DC-SIGN-Binding Glycoproteins

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    Xinsheng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving vaccine immunogenicity by targeting antigens to dendritic cells has recently emerged as a new design strategy in vaccine development. In this study, the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype A was fused with the gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV membrane glycoprotein gp120 or C2-V3 domain of hepatitis C virus (HCV envelope glycoprotein E2, both of which are DC-SIGN-binding glycoproteins. After codon optimization, the VP1 protein and the two recombinant VP1-gp120 and VP1-E2 fusion proteins were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using the insect cell-baculovirus expression system. Western blotting showed that the VP1 protein and two recombinant VP1-gp120 and VP1-E2 fusion proteins were correctly expressed in the Sf9 insect cells and had good reactogenicity. Guinea pigs were then immunized with the purified proteins, and the resulting humoral and cellular immune responses were analyzed. The VP1-gp120 and VP1-E2 fusion proteins induced significantly higher specific anti-FMDV antibody levels than the VP1 protein and stronger cell-mediated immune responses. This study provides a new perspective for the development of novel FMDV subunit vaccines.

  6. Examining Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Minor Capsid Proteins | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) is a recently discovered member of the viral family Polyomaviridae. It is a skin-dwelling polyomavirus species that appears to cause a rare but highly lethal form of skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Despite MCC being uncommon, chronic MCV infection of human skin is widespread, and most infected people have no known symptoms. The surface of polyomavirus virions is made up of pentameric knobs of the major capsid protein VP1. VP1 enables attachment of the virus to the cell surface, permitting infectious entry and delivery of the viral genome to host cells. The VP1 protein of previously studied polyomaviruses, such as simian virus 40 and murine polyomavirus, associates with two minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, which are considered to play important roles during the infectious entry process.

  7. Identification of a conserved B-cell epitope on duck hepatitis A type 1 virus VP1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoying; Li, Xiaojun; Zhang, Qingshan; Wulin, Shaozhou; Bai, Xiaofei; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Yue; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is a major structural protein that induces neutralizing antibodies in ducks; however, B-cell epitopes on the VP1 protein of duck hepatitis A genotype 1 virus (DHAV-1) have not been characterized. To characterize B-cell epitopes on VP1, we used the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2D10 against Escherichia coli-expressed VP1 of DHAV-1. In vitro, mAb 2D10 neutralized DHAV-1 virus. By using an array of overlapping 12-mer peptides, we found that mAb 2D10 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motif LPAPTS. Sequence alignment showed that the epitope 173LPAPTS178 is highly conserved among the DHAV-1 genotypes. Moreover, the six amino acid peptide LPAPTS was proven to be the minimal unit of the epitope with maximal binding activity to mAb 2D10. DHAV-1-positive duck serum reacted with the epitope in dot blotting assay, revealing the importance of the six amino acids of the epitope for antibody-epitope binding. Competitive inhibition assays of mAb 2D10 binding to synthetic LPAPTS peptides and truncated VP1 protein fragments, detected by Western blotting, also verify that LPAPTS was the VP1 epitope. We identified LPAPTS as a VP1-specific linear B-cell epitope recognized by the neutralizing mAb 2D10. Our findings have potential applications in the development of diagnostic techniques and epitope-based marker vaccines against DHAV-1.

  8. Genetic Analysis of the Major Capsid Protein of the Archaeal Fusellovirus SSV1: Mutational Flexibility and Conformational Change

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    Eric A. Iverson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Viruses with spindle or lemon-shaped virions are rare in the world of viruses, but are common in viruses of archaeal extremophiles, possibly due to the extreme conditions in which they thrive. However, the structural and genetic basis for the unique spindle shape is unknown. The best-studied spindle-shaped virus, Sulfolobus Spindle-shaped Virus 1 (SSV1, is composed mostly of the major capsid protein VP1. Similar to many other viruses, proteolytic cleavage of VP1 is thought to be critical for virion formation. Unlike half of the genes in SSV1, including the minor capsid protein gene VP3, the VP1 gene does not tolerate deletion or transposon insertion. To determine the role of the VP1 gene and its proteolysis for virus function, we developed techniques for site-directed mutagenesis of the SSV1 genome and complemented deletion mutants with VP1 genes from other SSVs. By analyzing these mutants, we demonstrate that the N-terminus of the VP1 protein is required, but the N-terminus, or entire SSV1 VP1 protein, can be exchanged with VP1s from other SSVs. However, the conserved glutamate at the cleavage site is not essential for infectivity. Interestingly, viruses containing point mutations at this position generate mostly abnormal virions.

  9. Molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus: a new classification based on the complete VP1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Cristina, Juan; Romero, Héctor; Perez-Bercof, Raoul; Casane, Didier; Colina, Rodney; Garcia, Laura; Vega, Ines; Glikman, Graciela; Romanowsky, Victor; Castello, Alejandro; Nicand, Elisabeth; Gassin, Michelle; Billaudel, Sylviane; Ferré, Virginie

    2002-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus in the genus Hepatovirus in the family Picornaviridae So far, analysis of the genetic variability of HAV has been based on two discrete regions, the VP1/2A junction and the VP1 N terminus. In this report, we determined the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the complete VP1 gene of 81 strains from France, Kosovo, Mexico, Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay and compared them with the sequences of seven strains of HAV isolated elsewhere. Overall strain variation in the complete VP1 gene was found to be as high as 23.7% at the nucleotide level and 10.5% at the amino acid level. Different phylogenetic methods revealed that HAV sequences form five distinct and well-supported genetic lineages. Within these lineages, HAV sequences clustered by geographical origin only for European strains. The analysis of the complete VP1 gene allowed insight into the mode of evolution of HAV and revealed the emergence of a novel variant with a 15-amino-acid deletion located on the VP1 region where neutralization escape mutations were found. This could be the first antigenic variant of HAV so far identified.

  10. Analysis of amino acid variation in the P2 domain of the GII-4 norovirus VP1 protein reveals putative variant-specific epitopes.

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    David J Allen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human noroviruses are a highly diverse group of viruses classified into three of the five currently recognised Norovirus genogroups, and contain numerous genotypes or genetic clusters. Noroviruses are the major aetiological agent of endemic gastroenteritis in all age groups, as well as the cause of periodic epidemic gastroenteritis. The noroviruses most commonly associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis are genogroup II genotype 4 (GII-4 strains. The relationship between genotypes of noroviruses with their phenotypes and antigenic profile remains poorly understood through an inability to culture these viruses and the lack of a suitable animal model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a study of the diversity of amino acid sequences of the highly variable P2 region in the major capsid protein, VP1, of the GII-4 human noroviruses strains using sequence analysis and homology modelling techniques. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data identifies two sites in this region, which show significant amino acid substitutions associated with the appearance of variant strains responsible for epidemics with major public health impact. Homology modelling studies revealed the exposed nature of these sites on the capsid surface, providing supportive structural data that these two sites are likely to be associated with putative variant-specific epitopes. Furthermore, the patterns in the evolution of these viruses at these sites suggests that noroviruses follow a neutral network pattern of evolution.

  11. Evolutionary Analysis of Structural Protein Gene VP1 of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxun; Liu, Xinsheng; Fang, Yuzhen; Pan, Li; Lv, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhongwang; Zhou, Peng; Ding, Yaozhong; Chen, Haotai; Shao, Junjun; Zhao, Furong; Lin, Tong; Chang, Huiyun; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1 was mostly endemic in Asia and then was responsible for economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, but the study on its selection and evolutionary process is comparatively rare. In this study, we characterized 377 isolates from Asia collected up until 2012, including four vaccine strains. Maximum likelihood analysis suggested that the strains circulating in Asia were classified into 8 different groups (groups I–VIII) or were unclassified (viruses collected before 2000). On the basis of divergence time analyses, we infer that the TMRCA of Asia 1 virus existed approximately 86.29 years ago. The result suggested that the virus had a high mutation rate (5.745 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year) in comparison to the other serotypes of FMDV VP1 gene. Furthermore, the structural protein VP1 was under lower selection pressure and the positive selection occurred at many sites, and four codons (positions 141, 146, 151, and 169) were located in known critical antigenic residues. The remaining sites were not located in known functional regions and were moderately conserved, and the reason for supporting all sites under positive selection remains to be elucidated because the power of these analyses was largely unknown. PMID:25793223

  12. Expression and Immunogenicity of Two Recombinant Fusion Proteins Comprising Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Structural Protein VP1 and DC-SIGN-Binding Glycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Xinsheng Liu; Jianliang Lv; Yuzhen Fang; Peng Zhou; Yanzhen Lu; Li Pan; Zhongwang Zhang; Junwu Ma; Yongguang Zhang; Yonglu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Improving vaccine immunogenicity by targeting antigens to dendritic cells has recently emerged as a new design strategy in vaccine development. In this study, the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A was fused with the gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane glycoprotein gp120 or C2-V3 domain of hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2, both of which are DC-SIGN-binding glycoproteins. After codon optimization, the VP1 protein and the two recombi...

  13. Comparing Enterovirus 71 with Coxsackievirus A16 by analyzing nucleotide sequences and antigenicity of recombinant proteins of VP1s and VP4s

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    Sun Yu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16 are two major etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD. EV71 is associated with severe cases but not CA16. The mechanisms contributed to the different pathogenesis of these two viruses are unknown. VP1 and VP4 are two major structural proteins of these viruses, and should be paid close attention to. Results The sequences of vp1s from 14 EV71 and 14 CA16, and vp4s from 10 EV71 and 1 CA16 isolated in this study during 2007 to 2009 HFMD seasons were analyzed together with the corresponding sequences available in GenBank using DNAStar and MEGA 4.0. Phylogenetic analysis of complete vp1s or vp4s showed that EV71 isolated in Beijing belonged to C4 and CA16 belonged to lineage B2 (lineage C. VP1s and VP4s from 4 strains of viruses expressed in E. coli BL21 cells were used to detect IgM and IgG in human sera by Western Blot. The detection of IgM against VP1s of EV71 and CA16 showed consistent results with current infection, while none of the sera were positive against VP4s of EV71 and CA16. There was significant difference in the positive rates between EV71 VP1 and CA16 VP1 (χ2 = 5.02, P 2 = 15.30, P 2 = 26.47, P 2 = 16.78, P Conclusions EV71 and CA16 were highly diverse in the nucleotide sequences of vp1s and vp4s. The sera positive rates of VP1 and VP4 of EV71 were lower than those of CA16 respectively, which suggested a less exposure rate to EV71 than CA16 in Beijing population. Human serum antibodies detected by Western blot using VP1s and VP4s as antigen indicated that the immunological reaction to VP1 and VP4 of both EV71 and CA16 was different.

  14. A new monoclonal antibody (Cox mAB 31A2) detects VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3 with high sensitivity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettischer-Schmid, Nicole; Normann, Andrea; Sauter, Martina; Kraft, Lisa; Kalbacher, Hubert; Kandolf, Reinhard; Flehmig, Bertram; Klingel, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Human enteroviruses, e.g. coxsackieviruses, induce a variety of severe acute and chronic forms of disease, including myocarditis, meningitis and diabetes mellitus type 1. To visualize enterovirus infection with a diagnostic intent, many studies have applied a commercially available antibody (anti-CVB5 VP1, clone 5-D8/1, Dako, Hamburg, Germany) that identifies VP1 of different enteroviral serotypes. Many antibodies, however, have been found to bind non-specifically to proteins of cardiomyocytes and in the interstitial space, resulting in non-specific staining in immunohistochemistry. In this paper we show that the anti-CVB5 VP1 antibody, recognizing VP1 of coxsackieviruses and widely used in diagnostics and research, shows strong cross-reactivity with cellular proteins in the heart (and pancreas) of humans and mice, which calls for a more specific antibody to be used for diagnostic purposes. We observed by Western blot analyses of lysates from human heart tissue samples and HeLa cells two cross-reactive bands when using clone 5-D8/1. Peptide mass fingerprinting (MALDI-TOF) identified these proteins as creatine kinase (B-type) and tubulin, confirming that this mAb detects cellular proteins in addition to viral VP1. In order to overcome the problems of false positive VP1 staining we generated a new highly specific and sensitive monoclonal antibody (Cox mAB 31A2) that recognizes VP1 from CVB3. The new antibody was characterized and was found to function well in immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining, Western blotting, ELISA and FACS analyses.

  15. Display of VP1 on the surface of baculovirus and its immunogenicity against heterologous human enterovirus 71 strains in mice.

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    Tao Meng

    Full Text Available Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in young children. It is often associated with severe neurological diseases and has caused high mortalities in recent outbreaks across the Asia Pacific region. Currently, there is no effective vaccine and antiviral agents available against EV71 infections. VP1 is one of the major immunogenic capsid protein of EV71 and plays a crucial role in viral infection. Antibodies against VP1 are important for virus neutralization.In the present study, infectious EV71 viruses were generated from their synthetic complementary DNA using the human RNA polymerase I reverse genetics system. Secondly, the major immunogenic capsid protein (VP1 of EV71-Fuyang (subgenogroup C4 was displayed on the surface of recombinant baculovirus Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 as gp64 fusion protein under a novel White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV immediate early ie1 promoter. Baculovirus expressed VP1 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that VP1 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired VP1 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. After two immunizations in mice, Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 elicited neutralization antibody titer of 1∶64 against EV71 (subgenogroup C4 in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, the antisera showed high cross-neutralization activities against all 11 subgenogroup EV71 strains.Our results illustrated that Bac-Pie1-gp64-VP1 retained native epitopes of VP1 and acted as an effective EV71 vaccine candidate which would enable rapid production without any biosafety concerns.

  16. Adaptive mutations in the JC virus protein capsid are associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML.

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    Shamil R Sunyaev

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PML is a progressive and mostly fatal demyelinating disease caused by JC virus infection and destruction of infected oligodendrocytes in multiple brain foci of susceptible individuals. While JC virus is highly prevalent in the human population, PML is a rare disease that exclusively afflicts only a small percentage of immunocompromised individuals including those affected by HIV (AIDS or immunosuppressive drugs. Viral- and/or host-specific factors, and not simply immune status, must be at play to account for the very large discrepancy between viral prevalence and low disease incidence. Here, we show that several amino acids on the surface of the JC virus capsid protein VP1 display accelerated evolution in viral sequences isolated from PML patients but not in sequences isolated from healthy subjects. We provide strong evidence that at least some of these mutations are involved in binding of sialic acid, a known receptor for the JC virus. Using statistical methods of molecular evolution, we performed a comprehensive analysis of JC virus VP1 sequences isolated from 55 PML patients and 253 sequences isolated from the urine of healthy individuals and found that a subset of amino acids found exclusively among PML VP1 sequences is acquired via adaptive evolution. By modeling of the 3-D structure of the JC virus capsid, we showed that these residues are located within the sialic acid binding site, a JC virus receptor for cell infection. Finally, we go on to demonstrate the involvement of some of these sites in receptor binding by demonstrating a profound reduction in hemagglutination properties of viral-like particles made of the VP1 protein carrying these mutations. Collectively, these results suggest that a more virulent PML causing phenotype of JC virus is acquired via adaptive evolution that changes viral specificity for its cellular receptor(s.

  17. Capsid protein expression and adeno-associated virus like particles assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Backovic Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae supports replication of many different RNA or DNA viruses (e.g. Tombusviruses or Papillomaviruses and has provided means for up-scalable, cost- and time-effective production of various virus-like particles (e.g. Human Parvovirus B19 or Rotavirus. We have recently demonstrated that S. cerevisiae can form single stranded DNA AAV2 genomes starting from a circular plasmid. In this work, we have investigated the possibility to assemble AAV capsids in yeast. Results To do this, at least two out of three AAV structural proteins, VP1 and VP3, have to be simultaneously expressed in yeast cells and their intracellular stoichiometry has to resemble the one found in the particles derived from mammalian or insect cells. This was achieved by stable co-transformation of yeast cells with two plasmids, one expressing VP3 from its natural p40 promoter and the other one primarily expressing VP1 from a modified AAV2 Cap gene under the control of the inducible yeast promoter Gal1. Among various induction strategies we tested, the best one to yield the appropriate VP1:VP3 ratio was 4.5 hour induction in the medium containing 0.5% glucose and 5% galactose. Following such induction, AAV virus like particles (VLPs were isolated from yeast by two step ultracentrifugation procedure. The transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that their morphology is similar to the empty capsids produced in human cells. Conclusions Taken together, the results show for the first time that yeast can be used to assemble AAV capsid and, therefore, as a genetic system to identify novel cellular factors involved in AAV biology.

  18. Identification of a conformational neutralizing epitope on the VP1 protein of type A foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenming; Yang, Baolin; Wang, Mingxia; Wang, Haiwei; Yang, Decheng; Ma, Wenge; Zhou, Guohui; Yu, Li

    2017-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. In recent years, outbreaks of serotype A FMD have occurred in many countries. High-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of FMDV serotype A and protect against future pandemics. In this study, we generated a serotype A FMDV-specific potent neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb), 6C9, which recognizes a conformation-dependent epitope. MAb 6C9 potently neutralized FMDV A/XJBC/CHA/2010 with a 50% neutralization titer (NT50) of 4096. Screening of a phage-displayed random 12-mer peptide library revealed that MAb 6C9 bound to phages displaying the consensus motif YxxPxGDLG, which is highly homologous to the 135YxxPxxxxxGDLG147 motif found in the serotype A FMDV virus-encoded structural protein VP1. To further verify the authentic epitope recognized by MAb 6C9, two FMDV A/XJBC/CHA/2010 mutant viruses, P138A and G144A, were generated using a reverse genetic system. Subsequent micro-neutralization assays and double-antibody sandwich (DAS) ELISA analyses revealed that the Pro138 and Gly144 residues of the conformational epitope that are recognized by 6C9 are important for MAb 6C9 binding. Importantly, the epitope 135YxxPxxxxxGDLG147 was highly conserved among different topotypes of serotype A FMDV strains in a sequence alignment analysis. Thus, the results of this study could have potential applications in the development of novel epitope-based vaccines and suitable a MAb-based diagnostic method for the detection of serotype A FMDV and the quantitation of antibodies against this serotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection, characterization and quantitation of coxsackievirus A16 using polyclonal antibodies against recombinant capsid subunit proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingwei; Ku, Zhiqiang; Cai, Yicun; Sun, Bing; Leng, Qibin; Huang, Zhong

    2011-04-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), together with enterovirus type 71 (EV71), is responsible for most cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. Recent findings suggest that the recombination between CVA16 and EV71, and co-circulation of these two viruses may have contributed to the increase of HFMD cases in China over the past few years. Thus, for CVA16, further understanding of its virology, epidemiology and development of diagnostic tests and vaccines are of importance. The present study aimed to develop reagents and protocols for the detection, characterization and quantitation of CVA16. Recombinant CVA16 capsid subunit proteins VP0, VP3 and truncated VP1, were produced in Escherichia coli and used to immunize guinea pigs to generate polyclonal antibodies. The resultant three antisera detected specifically CVA16 propagated in Vero cells by immunostaining, ELISA and Western blotting. The antisera was used to show that CVA16 capsids were composed of correctly processed VP0, VP1 and VP3 subunits, and were present in the form of efficiently assembled particles. A method for the quantitation of the yield of CVA16 in Vero cells was established based on a Western blotting protocol using the recombinant VP0 as a reference standard and anti-VP0 as the detection antibody. This study shows the development and validation of reagents and methods, for qualitative and quantitative determination of CVA16, which are essential for the development of vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Point mutation in calcium-binding domain of mouse polyomavirus VP1 protein does not prevent virus-like particle formation, but changes VP1 interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, T.; Palková, Zdena; Velková, K.; Štokrová, Jitka; Forstová, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, 4-5 (2005), s. 331-340 ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/0593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : polyomavirus VP1 * Saccharomyces cerevisiae * heterologous expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.477, year: 2005

  1. The Papillomavirus Major Capsid Protein L1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher B.; Day, Patricia M.; Trus, Benes L.

    2013-01-01

    The elegant icosahedral surface of the papillomavirus virion is formed by a single protein called L1. Recombinant L1 proteins can spontaneously self-assemble into a highly immunogenic structure that closely mimics the natural surface of native papillomavirus virions. This has served as the basis for two highly successful vaccines against cancer-causing human papillomaviruses (HPVs). During the viral life cycle, the capsid must undergo a variety of conformational changes, allowing key functions including the encapsidation of the ~8 kb viral genomic DNA, maturation into a more stable state to survive transit between hosts, mediating attachment to new host cells, and finally releasing the viral DNA into the newly infected host cell. This brief review focuses on conserved sequence and structural features that underlie the functions of this remarkable protein. PMID:23800545

  2. Modeling virus capsids and their protein binding -- the search for weak regions within the HIV capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Otto F.; Benson, Daryn E.; Gilbert, C. Michael

    2011-03-01

    Viruses remain a threat to the health of humans worldwide with 33 million infected with HIV. Viruses are ubiquitous, infecting animals, plants, and bacteria. Each virus infects in its own unique manner making the problem seem intractable. However, some general physical steps apply to many viruses and the application of basic physical modeling can potentially have great impact. The aim of this theoretical study is to investigate the stability of the HIV viral capsid (protein shell). The structural shell can be compromised by physical probes such as pulsed laser light [1,2]. But, what are the weakest regions of the capsid so that we can begin to understand vulnerabilities of these deadly materials? The atomic structure of HIV capsids is not precisely known and we begin by describing our work to model the capsid structure. We have constructed three representative viral capsids of different CA protein number -- HIV-900, HIV-1260 and HIV-1740. The complexity of the assembly requires a course grained model to investigate protein interactions within the capsid which we will describe.

  3. Self-assembly of model proteins into virus capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołek, Karol; Cieplak, Marek

    2017-11-01

    We consider self-assembly of proteins into a virus capsid by the methods of molecular dynamics. The capsid corresponds either to SPMV or CCMV and is studied with and without the RNA molecule inside. The proteins are flexible and described by the structure-based coarse-grained model augmented by electrostatic interactions. Previous studies of the capsid self-assembly involved solid objects of a supramolecular scale, e.g. corresponding to capsomeres, with engineered couplings and stochastic movements. In our approach, a single capsid is dissociated by an application of a high temperature for a variable period and then the system is cooled down to allow for self-assembly. The restoration of the capsid proceeds to various extent, depending on the nature of the dissociated state, but is rarely complete because some proteins depart too far unless the process takes place in a confined space.

  4. Sequence adaptations affecting cleavage of the VP1/2A junction by the 3C protease in foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Belsham, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor P1-2A is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3C protease to VP0, VP3, VP1 and 2A. It was shown previously that modification of a single amino acid residue (K210E) within the VP1 protein and close to the VP1/2A cleavage site, inhibited...... cleavage of this junction and produced 'self-tagged' virus particles. A second site substitution (E83K) within VP1 was also observed within the rescued virus [Gullberg et al. (2013). J Virol 87: , 11591-11603]. It was shown here that introduction of this E83K change alone into a serotype O virus resulted...... in the rapid accumulation of a second site substitution within the 2A sequence (L2P), which also blocked VP1/2A cleavage. This suggests a linkage between the E83K change in VP1 and cleavage of the VP1/2A junction. Cells infected with viruses containing the VP1 K210E or the 2A L2P substitutions contained...

  5. Coupled adaptations affecting cleavage of the VP1/2A junction by 3C protease in foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Belsham, Graham

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor P1-2A is cleaved by the 3C protease to produce VP0, VP3, VP1 and 2A. It was shown previously that modification of a single amino acid residue (K210) within the VP1 protein, close to the VP1/2A cleavage site, inhibited cleavage...... of this junction and resulted in the production of “self-tagged” virus particles containing the 2A peptide. A second site substitution (E83K) within VP1 was also observed within the rescued virus (Gullberg et al., 2013). It is now shown that introduction of this E83K change alone into a serotype O virus resulted...... in the rapid accumulation of a second site substitution within the 2A sequence (L2P) that also blocked VP1/2A cleavage suggesting a linkage between the E83K change in VP1 and cleavage of the VP1/2A junction. In a serotype A background, the K210E substitution in VP1 rapidly reverted to wild type. However...

  6. A highly conserved amino acid in VP1 regulates maturation of enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xin Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in children, causing severe clinical outcomes and even death. Here, we report an important role of the highly conserved alanine residue at position 107 in the capsid protein VP1 (VP1A107 in the efficient replication of EV71. Substitutional mutations of VP1A107 significantly diminish viral growth kinetics without significant effect on viral entry, expression of viral genes and viral production. The results of mechanistic studies reveal that VP1A107 regulates the efficient cleavage of the VP0 precursor during EV71 assembly, which is required, in the next round of infection, for the transformation of the mature virion (160S into an intermediate or A-particle (135S, a key step of virus uncoating. Furthermore, the results of molecular dynamic simulations and hydrogen-bond networks analysis of VP1A107 suggest that flexibility of the VP1 BC loop or the region surrounding the VP1107 residue directly correlates with viral infectivity. It is possible that sufficient flexibility of the region surrounding the VP1107 residue favors VP0 conformational change that is required for the efficient cleavage of VP0 as well as subsequent viral uncoating and viral replication. Taken together, our data reveal the structural role of the highly conserved VP1A107 in regulating EV71 maturation. Characterization of this novel determinant of EV71 virulence would promote the study on pathogenesis of Enteroviruses.

  7. Assembly and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsid particles expressed within mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Muszynski, Bartosz; Organtini, Lindsey J.

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) structural protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro) into the capsid proteins VP0, VP1 and VP3 (and 2A). In some systems, it is difficult to produce large amounts of these processed capsid proteins since 3Cpro can be toxic...

  8. Recombinant VP1, an Akt inhibitor, suppresses progression of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing apoptosis and modulation of CCL2 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-An Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The application of viral elements in tumor therapy is one facet of cancer research. Recombinant capsid protein VP1 (rVP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Here, we aim to further investigate its apoptotic mechanism and possible anti-metastatic effect in murine models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, one of the most common human cancers worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Treatment with rVP1 inhibited cell proliferation in two murine HCC cell lines, BNL and Hepa1-6, with IC₅₀ values in the range of 0.1-0.2 µM. rVP1 also induced apoptosis in these cells, which was mediated by Akt deactivation and dissociation of Ku70-Bax, and resulted in conformational changes and mitochondrial translocation of Bax, leading to the activation of caspases-9, -3 and -7. Treatment with 0.025 µM rVP1, which did not affect the viability of normal hepatocytes, suppressed cell migration and invasion via attenuating CCL2 production. The production of CCL2 was modulated by Akt-dependent NF-κB activation that was decreased after rVP1 treatment. The in vivo antitumor effects of rVP1 were assessed in both subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse models of HCC in immune-competent BALB/c mice. Intratumoral delivery of rVP1 inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth as a result of increased apoptosis. Intravenous administration of rVP1 in an orthotopic HCC model suppressed tumor growth, inhibited intra-hepatic metastasis, and prolonged survival. Furthermore, a decrease in the serum level of CCL2 was observed in rVP1-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented herein suggest that, via inhibiting Akt phosphorylation, rVP1 suppresses the growth, migration, and invasion of murine HCC cells by inducing apoptosis and attenuating CCL2 production both in vitro and in vivo. Recombinant protein VP1 thus has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic agent for HCC.

  9. Stable expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus protein VP1 fused with cholera toxin B subunit in the potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-Mei; Qian, Kai-Xian; Shen, Gui-Fang; Li, Yi-Nü; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Su, Zhong-Liang; Shao, Hong-Bo

    2007-04-01

    The expression vector, pBI121CTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructed by fused PCR and transferred into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transformed plants were obtained by selecting on kanamycin-resistant medium strictly and regenerated. The transgenic plantlets were identified by PCR, Southern-blot and the production of fused protein was confirmed and quantified by Western-blot and ELISA assays. The results showed that the fused genes were expressed stablely under the control of specific-tuber patatin promoter. The expressed fused proteins have a certain degree of immunogenicity.

  10. Rhinovirus-induced VP1-specific Antibodies are Group-specific and Associated With Severity of Respiratory Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Cabauatan, Clarissa R; Jackson, David J; Gallerano, Daniela; Trujillo-Torralbo, Belen; Del Rosario, Ajerico; Mallia, Patrick; Valenta, Rudolf; Johnston, Sebastian L

    2015-01-01

    Rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major cause of common colds and induce exacerbations of asthma and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We expressed and purified recombinant RV coat proteins VP1-4, non-structural proteins as well as N-terminal fragments of VP1 from four RV strains (RV14, 16, 89, C) covering the three known RV groups (RV-A, RV-B and RV-C) and measured specific IgG-subclass-, IgA- and IgM-responses by ELISA in subjects with different severities of asthma or without asthma before and after experimental infection with RV16. Before infection subjects showed IgG1 > IgA > IgM > IgG3 cross-reactivity with N-terminal fragments from the representative VP1 proteins of the three RV groups. Antibody levels were higher in the asthmatic group as compared to the non-asthmatic subjects. Six weeks after infection with RV16, IgG1 antibodies showed a group-specific increase towards the N-terminal VP1 fragment, but not towards other capsid and non-structural proteins, which was highest in subjects with severe upper and lower respiratory symptoms. Our results demonstrate that increases of antibodies towards the VP1 N-terminus are group-specific and associated with severity of respiratory symptoms and suggest that it may be possible to develop serological tests for identifying causative RV groups.

  11. Nuclear entry of hepatitis B virus capsids involves disintegration to protein dimers followed by nuclear reassociation to capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Rabe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Assembly and disassembly of viral capsids are essential steps in the viral life cycle. Studies on their kinetics are mostly performed in vitro, allowing application of biochemical, biophysical and visualizing techniques. In vivo kinetics are poorly understood and the transferability of the in vitro models to the cellular environment remains speculative. We analyzed capsid disassembly of the hepatitis B virus in digitonin-permeabilized cells which support nuclear capsid entry and subsequent genome release. Using gradient centrifugation, size exclusion chromatography and immune fluorescence microscopy of digitonin-permeabilized cells, we showed that capsids open and close reversibly. In the absence of RNA, capsid re-assembly slows down; the capsids remain disintegrated and enter the nucleus as protein dimers or irregular polymers. Upon the presence of cellular RNA, capsids re-assemble in the nucleus. We conclude that reversible genome release from hepatitis B virus capsids is a unique strategy different from that of other viruses, which employs irreversible capsid destruction for genome release. The results allowed us to propose a model of HBV genome release in which the unique environment of the nuclear pore favors HBV capsid disassembly reaction, while both cytoplasm and nucleus favor capsid assembly.

  12. Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Stefanie; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Börner, Kathleen; Fakhiri, Julia; Laketa, Vibor; Krämer, Chiara; Wiedtke, Ellen; Gunkel, Manuel; Ménard, Lucie; Ayuso, Eduard; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-15

    The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. An expanded analysis comprising nine alternative AAV serotypes (1, 3 to 9, and rh10) showed that vector production always depends on the presence of AAP, with the exceptions of AAV4 and AAV5, which exhibited AAP-independent, albeit low-level, particle assembly. Interestingly, AAPs from all 10 serotypes could cross-complement AAP-depleted helper plasmids during vector production, despite there being distinct intracellular AAP localization patterns. These were most pronounced for AAP4 and AAP5, congruent with their inability to rescue an AAV2/AAP2 knockout. We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids.IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus

  13. Baculovirus expression of erythrovirus V9 capsids and screening by ELISA: serologic cross-reactivity with erythrovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Erik D; Qvortrup, Klaus; Christensen, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    to categorize V9 as an acute B19-like infection. Sequencing, combined with PCR studies, have since demonstrated the need for specific and differentiated techniques when examining samples for possible B19 or V9 viremia. The antigenic properties of the V9 capsid proteins have not been characterized previously....... To address this question, V9 VP1 and VP2 open reading frames were cloned and expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus vector. Large quantities of purified recombinant V9 capsid protein were produced and electron micrographs revealed self-assembly of V9 VP1/VP2 and VP2 capsids into empty icosahedral...

  14. Enterovirus 71 VP1 activates calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and results in the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocyte cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Haolong

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human.

  15. Enterovirus 71 VP1 Activates Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II and Results in the Rearrangement of Vimentin in Human Astrocyte Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haolong, Cong; Du, Ning; Hongchao, Tian; Yang, Yang; Wei, Zhang; Hua, Zhang; Wenliang, Zhang; Lei, Song; Po, Tien

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease. Its infection usually causes severe central nervous system diseases and complications in infected infants and young children. In the present study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection caused the rearrangement of vimentin in human astrocytoma cells. The rearranged vimentin, together with various EV71 components, formed aggresomes-like structures in the perinuclear region. Electron microscopy and viral RNA labeling indicated that the aggresomes were virus replication sites since most of the EV71 particles and the newly synthesized viral RNA were concentrated here. Further analysis revealed that the vimentin in the virus factories was serine-82 phosphorylated. More importantly, EV71 VP1 protein is responsible for the activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) which phosphorylated the N-terminal domain of vimentin on serine 82. Phosphorylation of vimentin and the formation of aggresomes were required for the replication of EV71 since the latter was decreased markedly after phosphorylation was blocked by KN93, a CaMK-II inhibitor. Thus, as one of the consequences of CaMK-II activation, vimentin phosphorylation and rearrangement may support virus replication by playing a structural role for the formation of the replication factories. Collectively, this study identified the replication centers of EV71 in human astrocyte cells. This may help us understand the replication mechanism and pathogenesis of EV71 in human. PMID:24073199

  16. A study of variability of capsid protein genes of Radish mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    HOLÁ, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    The part of RNA2 genome segment of several isolates of Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) including capsid protein genes was sequenced. Variability of capsid protein genes among the isolates of Radish mosaic virus was studied.

  17. AIM2 Co-immunization with VP1 Is Associated with Increased Memory CD8 T Cells and Mounts Long Lasting Protection against Coxsackievirus B3 Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The recurrent Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3 infection is the most important cause of intractable myocarditis which often leads to chronic myocarditis and even dilated cardiomyopathy. Therefore, enhanced DNA vaccines capable of memory CD8 T cells are essential for long-lasting immunological protection against CVB3 infection. In this study, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2 was used as an adjuvant to enhance the induction of memory CD8 T cells elicited by VP1 (viral capsid protein 1 vaccine. Mice were intramuscularly injected with 50 μg AIM2 plasmid and equal amount of VP1 plasmid (pAIM2/pVP1 vaccine 4 times at 2 week-intervals. We observed that the protection of pAIM2/pVP1 vaccine against CVB3 challenge was evidenced by significantly improved cardiac function, reduced myocardial injuries, and increased survival rate when compared with immunization with pVP1. Co-immunization with pAIM2/pVP1 robustly augmented T lymphocytes proliferation and CVB3-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. Importantly, 16 weeks after the last immunization, pAIM2/pVP1 co-immunization significantly enhanced the expression of Bcl-6, SOCS3, and Sca-1 which are critical for memory CD8 T cells as compared with pVP1 immunization. Notably, CD8 T cells that are likely vaccine-induced memory T cells were responsible for the protective efficacy of pAIM2/pVP1 vaccine by abolition of a CD8 T cell immune response following a lethal dose of CVB3 infection. Our results indicate that AIM2-adjuvanted vaccine could be a potential and promising approach to promote a long-lasting protection against CVB3-induced myocarditis.

  18. Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X from Pakistan. Arshad Jamal, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Bushra Tabassum, Muhammad Tariq, Abdul Munim Farooq, Zahida Qamar, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, M. Arshad Javed, Tayyab Husnain ...

  19. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: roden@jhmi.edu [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  20. Expression of VP1 protein of serotype A and O of foot-and-mouth disease virus in transgenic sunnhemp plants and its immunogenicity for guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, J P; Agrawal, P; Mohammad, R; Rao, S K; Reddy, G R; Dechamma, H J; S Suryanarayana, V V

    2012-01-01

    Recently, transgenic plants expressing immunogenic proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been used as oral or parenteral vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). They exhibit advantages like cost effectiveness, absence of processing, thermostability, and easy oral application. FMDV VP1 protein of single serotype has been mostly used as immunogen. Here we report the development of a bivalent vaccine with tandem-linked VP1 proteins of two serotypes, A and O, present in transgenic forage crop Crotalaria juncea. The expression of the bivalent protein in the transgenic plants was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Guinea pig reacted to orally or parenterally applied vaccine by humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses including serum antibodies and stimulated lymphocytes, respectively. The vaccine protected the animals against a challenge with the virus of serotype A as well as O. This is the first report on the development of a bivalent FMD vaccine using a forage crop. foot-and-mouth disease; sunnhemp; Agrobacterium tumefaciens; FMDV-VP1 gene; serotype O and A; in planta transformation; transgenic plants; bivalent vaccine.

  1. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ~8kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. PMID:23689062

  2. Broadly neutralizing human monoclonal JC polyomavirus VP1–specific antibodies as candidate therapeutics for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelcic, Ivan; Combaluzier, Benoit; Jelcic, Ilijas; Faigle, Wolfgang; Senn, Luzia; Reinhart, Brenda J.; Ströh, Luisa; Nitsch, Roger M.; Stehle, Thilo; Sospedra, Mireia; Grimm, Jan; Martin, Roland

    2016-01-01

    In immunocompromised individuals, JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) may mutate and gain access to the central nervous system resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an often fatal opportunistic infection for which no treatments are currently available. Despite recent progress, the contribution of JCPyV-specific humoral immunity to controlling asymptomatic infection throughout life and to eliminating JCPyV from the brain is poorly understood. We examined antibody responses against JCPyV major capsid protein VP1 (viral protein 1) variants in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy donors (HDs), JCPyV-positive multiple sclerosis patients treated with the anti-VLA-4 monoclonal antibody natalizumab (NAT), and patients with NAT-associated PML. Before and during PML, CSF antibody responses against JCPyV VP1 variants show “recognition holes”; however, upon immune reconstitution, CSF antibody titers rise, then recognize PML-associated JCPyV VP1 variants, and may be involved in elimination of the virus. We therefore reasoned that the memory B cell repertoire of individuals who recovered from PML could be a source for the molecular cloning of broadly neutralizing antibodies for passive immunization. We generated a series of memory B cell-derived JCPyV VP1-specific human monoclonal antibodies from HDs and a patient with NAT-associated PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). These antibodies exhibited diverse binding affinity, cross-reactivity with the closely related BK polyomavirus, recognition of PML-causing VP1 variants, and JCPyV neutralization. Almost all antibodies with exquisite specificity for JCPyV, neutralizing activity, recognition of all tested JCPyV PML variants, and high affinity were derived from one patient who had recovered from PML. These antibodies are promising drug candidates for the development of a treatment of PML. PMID:26400911

  3. Mutations in VP1 and 3A proteins improve binding and replication of rhinovirus C15 in HeLa-E8 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Yury A; Watters, Kelly; Basnet, Sarmila; Sijapati, Shakher; Hill, Marchel; Palmenberg, Ann C; Gern, James E

    2016-12-01

    Viruses in the rhinovirus C species (RV-C) can cause severe respiratory illnesses in children including pneumonia and asthma exacerbations. A transduced cell line (HeLa-E8) stably expressing the CDHR3-Y529 receptor variant, supports propagation of RV-C after infection. C15 clinical or recombinant isolates replicate in HeLa-E8, however progeny yields are lower than those of related strains of RV-A and RV-B. Serial passaging of C15 in HeLa-E8 resulted in stronger cytopathic effects and increased (≥10-fold) virus binding to cells and progeny yields. The adaptation was acquired by two mutations which increased binding (VP1 T125K) and replication (3A E41K), respectively. A similar 3A mutation engineered into C2 and C41 cDNAs also improved viral replication (2-8 fold) in HeLa but the heparan sulfate mediated cell-binding enhancement by the VP1 change was C15-specific. The findings now enable large-scale cost-effective C15 production by infection and the testing of RV-C infectivity by plaque assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of a Broadly Cross-Reactive Epitope in the Inner Shell of the Norovirus Capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Parra

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis. They are diverse viruses, with at least six genogroups (GI-GVI and multiple genotypes defined by differences in the major capsid protein, VP1. This diversity has challenged the development of broadly cross-reactive vaccines as well as efficient detection methods. Here, we report the characterization of a broadly cross-reactive monoclonal antibody (MAb raised against the capsid protein of a GII.3 norovirus strain. The MAb reacted with VLPs and denatured VP1 protein from GI, GII, GIV and GV noroviruses, and mapped to a linear epitope located in the inner shell domain. An alignment of all available VP1 sequences showed that the putative epitope (residues 52-56 is highly conserved across the genus Norovirus. This broadly cross-reactive MAb thus constitutes a valuable reagent for the diagnosis and study of these diverse viruses.

  5. Revised Mimivirus major capsid protein sequence reveals intron-containing gene structure and extra domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan-Monti Marie

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus (APM is the largest known dsDNA virus. The viral particle has a nearly icosahedral structure with an internal capsid shell surrounded with a dense layer of fibrils. A Capsid protein sequence, D13L, was deduced from the APM L425 coding gene and was shown to be the most abundant protein found within the viral particle. However this protein remained poorly characterised until now. A revised protein sequence deposited in a database suggested an additional N-terminal stretch of 142 amino acids missing from the original deduced sequence. This result led us to investigate the L425 gene structure and the biochemical properties of the complete APM major Capsid protein. Results This study describes the full length 3430 bp Capsid coding gene and characterises the 593 amino acids long corresponding Capsid protein 1. The recombinant full length protein allowed the production of a specific monoclonal antibody able to detect the Capsid protein 1 within the viral particle. This protein appeared to be post-translationnally modified by glycosylation and phosphorylation. We proposed a secondary structure prediction of APM Capsid protein 1 compared to the Capsid protein structure of Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella Virus 1, another member of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA virus family. Conclusion The characterisation of the full length L425 Capsid coding gene of Acanthamoebae polyphaga Mimivirus provides new insights into the structure of the main Capsid protein. The production of a full length recombinant protein will be useful for further structural studies.

  6. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  7. Quantum dot-induced viral capsid assembling in dissociation buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ding; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Feng; Men, Dong; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Wei, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xian-En; Cui, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Viruses encapsulating inorganic nanoparticles are a novel type of nanostructure with applications in biomedicine and biosensors. However, the encapsulation and assembly mechanisms of these hybridized virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs) are still unknown. In this article, it was found that quantum dots (QDs) can induce simian virus 40 (SV40) capsid assembly in dissociation buffer, where viral capsids should be disassembled. The analysis of the transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction experimental results showed that the SV40 major capsid protein 1 (VP1) can be assembled into ≈25 nm capsids in the dissociation buffer when QDs are present and that the QDs are encapsulated in the SV40 capsids. Moreover, it was determined that there is a strong affinity between QDs and the SV40 VP1 proteins (KD = 2.19E-10 M), which should play an important role in QD encapsulation in the SV40 viral capsids. This study provides a new understanding of the assembly mechanism of SV40 virus-based nanoparticles with QDs, which may help in the design and construction of other similar virus-based nanoparticles. PMID:23776332

  8. Functional Carboxy-Terminal Fluorescent Protein Fusion to Pseudorabies Virus Small Capsid Protein VP26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Ian B; Jean, Jolie; Esteves, Andrew D; Tanneti, Nikhila S; Scherer, Julian; Enquist, Lynn W

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent protein fusions to herpesvirus capsids have proven to be a valuable method to study virus particle transport in living cells. Fluorescent protein fusions to the amino terminus of small capsid protein VP26 are the most widely used method to visualize pseudorabies virus (PRV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) particles in living cells. However, these fusion proteins do not incorporate to full occupancy and have modest effects on virus replication and pathogenesis. Recent cryoelectron microscopy studies have revealed that herpesvirus small capsid proteins bind to capsids via their amino terminus, whereas the carboxy terminus is unstructured and therefore may better tolerate fluorescent protein fusions. Here, we describe a new recombinant PRV expressing a carboxy-terminal VP26-mCherry fusion. Compared to previously characterized viruses expressing amino-terminal fusions, this virus expresses more VP26 fusion protein in infected cells and incorporates more VP26 fusion protein into virus particles, and individual virus particles exhibit brighter red fluorescence. We performed single-particle tracking of fluorescent virus particles in primary neurons to measure anterograde and retrograde axonal transport, demonstrating the usefulness of this novel VP26-mCherry fusion for the study of viral intracellular transport.IMPORTANCE Alphaherpesviruses are among the very few viruses that are adapted to invade the mammalian nervous system. Intracellular transport of virus particles in neurons is important, as this process underlies both mild peripheral nervous system infection and severe spread to the central nervous system. VP26, the small capsid protein of HSV and PRV, was one of the first herpesvirus proteins to be fused to a fluorescent protein. Since then, these capsid-tagged virus mutants have become a powerful tool to visualize and track individual virus particles. Improved capsid tags will facilitate fluorescence microscopy studies of virus particle intracellular

  9. The smallest capsid protein mediates binding of the essential tegument protein pp150 to stabilize DNA-containing capsids in human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghong Dai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes birth defects in newborns and life-threatening complications in immunocompromised individuals. Among all human herpesviruses, HCMV contains a much larger dsDNA genome within a similarly-sized capsid compared to the others, and it was proposed to require pp150, a tegument protein only found in cytomegaloviruses, to stabilize its genome-containing capsid. However, little is known about how pp150 interacts with the underlying capsid. Moreover, the smallest capsid protein (SCP, while dispensable in herpes simplex virus type 1, was shown to play essential, yet undefined, role in HCMV infection. Here, by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM, we determine three-dimensional structures of HCMV capsid (no pp150 and virion (with pp150 at sub-nanometer resolution. Comparison of these two structures reveals that each pp150 tegument density is composed of two helix bundles connected by a long central helix. Correlation between the resolved helices and sequence-based secondary structure prediction maps the tegument density to the N-terminal half of pp150. The structures also show that SCP mediates interactions between the capsid and pp150 at the upper helix bundle of pp150. Consistent with this structural observation, ribozyme inhibition of SCP expression in HCMV-infected cells impairs the formation of DNA-containing viral particles and reduces viral yield by 10,000 fold. By cryoEM reconstruction of the resulting "SCP-deficient" viral particles, we further demonstrate that SCP is required for pp150 functionally binding to the capsid. Together, our structural and biochemical results point to a mechanism whereby SCP recruits pp150 to stabilize genome-containing capsid for the production of infectious HCMV virion.

  10. Sequence analysis and structural implications of rotavirus capsid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parbhoo, N; Dewar, J B; Gildenhuys, S

    Rotavirus is the major cause of severe virus-associated gastroenteritis worldwide in children aged 5 and younger. Many children lose their lives annually due to this infection and the impact is particularly pronounced in developing countries. The mature rotavirus is a non-enveloped triple-layered nucleocapsid containing 11 double stranded RNA segments. Here a global view on the sequence and structure of the three main capsid proteins, VP2, VP6 and VP7 is shown by generating a consensus sequence for each of these rotavirus proteins, for each species obtained from published data of representative rotavirus genotypes from across the world and across species. Degree of conservation between species was represented on homology models for each of the proteins. VP7 shows the highest level of variation with 14-45 amino acids showing conservation of less than 60%. These changes are localised to the outer surface alluding to a possible mechanism in evading the immune system. The middle layer, VP6 shows lower variability with only 14-32 sites having lower than 70% conservation. The inner structural layer made up of VP2 showed the lowest variability with only 1-16 sites having less than 70% conservation across species. The results correlate with each protein's multiple structural roles in the infection cycle. Thus, although the nucleotide sequences vary due to the error-prone nature of replication and lack of proof reading, the corresponding amino acid sequence of VP2, 6 and 7 remain relatively conserved. Benefits of this knowledge about the conservation include the ability to target proteins at sites that cannot undergo mutational changes without influencing viral fitness; as well as possibility to study systems that are highly evolved for structure and function in order to determine how to generate and manipulate such systems for use in various biotechnological applications.

  11. The assembly domain of the small capsid protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Dale; Capuano, Christopher M; Henson, Brandon W; Pryce, Erin N; Anacker, Daniel; McCaffery, J Michael; Desai, Prashant J

    2012-11-01

    Self-assembly of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus capsids occurs when six proteins are coexpressed in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses; however, if the small capsid protein (SCP) is omitted from the coinfection, assembly does not occur. Herein we delineate and identify precisely the assembly domain and the residues of SCP required for assembly. Hence, six residues, R14, D18, V25, R46, G66, and R70 in the assembly domain, when changed to alanine, completely abolish or reduce capsid assembly.

  12. Reactive oxygen species promote heat shock protein 90-mediated HBV capsid assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Sik, E-mail: yumshak@naver.com; Seo, Hyun Wook, E-mail: suruk@naver.com; Jung, Guhung, E-mail: drjung@snu.ac.kr

    2015-02-13

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and has been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ROS are also an important factor in HCC because the accumulated ROS leads to abnormal cell proliferation and chromosome mutation. In oxidative stress, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione (GSH) function as part of the defense mechanism. Hsp90 prevents cellular component from oxidative stress, and GSH acts as antioxidants scavenging ROS in the cell. However, it is not known whether molecules regulated by oxidative stress are involved in HBV capsid assembly. Based on the previous study that Hsp90 facilitates HBV capsid assembly, which is an important step for the packing of viral particles, here, we show that ROS enrich Hsp90-driven HBV capsid formation. In cell-free system, HBV capsid assembly was facilitated by ROS with Hsp90, whereas it was decreased without Hsp90. In addition, GSH inhibited the function of Hsp90 to decrease HBV capsid assembly. Consistent with the result of cell-free system, ROS and buthionine sulfoximine (BS), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased HBV capsid formation in HepG2.2.15 cells. Thus, our study uncovers the interplay between ROS and Hsp90 during HBV capsid assembly. - Highlights: • We examined H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH modulate HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} facilitates HBV capsid assembly in the presence of Hsp90. • GSH inhibits function of Hsp90 in facilitating HBV capsid assembly. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and GSH induce conformation change of Hsp90.

  13. Limited cross-reactivity of mouse monoclonal antibodies against Dengue virus capsid protein among four serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Noda,1 Promsin Masrinoul,1 Chaweewan Punkum,1 Chonlatip Pipattanaboon,2,3 Pongrama Ramasoota,2,4 Chayanee Setthapramote,2,3 Tadahiro Sasaki,6 Mikiko Sasayama,1 Akifumi Yamashita,1,5 Takeshi Kurosu,6 Kazuyoshi Ikuta,6 Tamaki Okabayashi11Mahidol-Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases, 2Center of Excellence for Antibody Research, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 4Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 5Graduate School of Life Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 6Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, JapanBackground: Dengue illness is one of the important mosquito-borne viral diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 are classified in the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. We prepared monoclonal antibodies against DENV capsid protein from mice immunized with DENV-2 and determined the cross-reactivity with each serotype of DENV and Japanese encephalitis virus.Methods and results: To clarify the relationship between the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies and the diversity of these viruses, we examined the situations of flaviviruses by analyses of phylogenetic trees. Among a total of 60 prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for DENV, five monoclonal antibodies stained the nuclei of infected cells and were found to be specific to the capsid protein. Three were specific to DENV-2, while the other two were cross-reactive with DENV-2 and DENV-4. No monoclonal antibodies were cross-reactive with all four serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that DENV-2 and DENV-4 were clustered in the same branch, while DENV-1 and DENV-3 were clustered in the other branch. However, these classifications of the capsid protein were different from those of the

  14. Characterization of post-translation products of herpes simplex virus gene 35 proteins binding to the surfaces of full capsids but not empty capsids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, D.K.; Roizman, B.; Pereira, L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on the properties of a genetically and immunologically related family of structural (..gamma..) polypeptides of herpes simplex virus 1 designated as infected cell polypeptides (ICP) 35. The members of this family were identified and studied with the aid of a panel of monoclonal antibodies exemplified by H745. This monoclonal antibody reacted with six bands (ICP35a to 35f) formed by ICPs contained in either HEp-2 or Vero cell lysates electrophoretically separated in denaturing gels and transferred to nitrocell sheets. The six bands had apparent molecular weights in the range 39,000 to 50,000. Pulse-chase experiments indicate that ICP35a to 35d are cytoplasmic precursors to nuclear products. ICP35 was labeled by /sup 32/P/sub i/ added to the medium, but the extent of phosphorylation varied and may be a determinant of isoelectric properties. Iodination studies indicate that ICP35e and 35f are the predominant forms of ICP35 present on the surface of full, nuclear capsids containing DNA. None of the members of the ICP35 family were detected in empty capsids. Surface iodination labeled the major capsid protein (ICP5) of empty capsids, but not of full capsids, indicating the ICP35e of 35f coat the surface of the viral capsid and block access to sites for iodination of ICP5, the major capsid protein.

  15. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Juan [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University (China); Wang, Shixia [China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States); Gan, Weihua [Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Zhang, Wenhong [Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University (China); Ju, Liwen [School of Public Health, Fudan University (China); Huang, Zuhu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Lu, Shan, E-mail: shan.lu@umassmed.edu [Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); China-US Vaccine Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University (China); Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

  16. Oral Administration of Astrovirus Capsid Protein Is Sufficient To Induce Acute Diarrhea In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Meliopoulos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The disease mechanisms associated with the onset of astrovirus diarrhea are unknown. Unlike other enteric virus infections, astrovirus infection is not associated with an inflammatory response or cellular damage. In vitro studies in differentiated Caco-2 cells demonstrated that human astrovirus serotype 1 (HAstV-1 capsid protein alone disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and tight junction complex, leading to increased epithelial barrier permeability. In this study, we show that oral administration of purified recombinant turkey astrovirus 2 (TAstV-2 capsid protein results in acute diarrhea in a dose- and time-dependent manner in turkey poults. Similarly to that induced by infectious virus, TAstV-2 capsid-induced diarrhea was independent of inflammation or histological changes but was associated with increased intestinal barrier permeability, as well as redistribution of sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3 from the membrane to the cytoplasm of the intestinal epithelium. Unlike other viral enterotoxins that have been identified, astrovirus capsid induces diarrhea after oral administration, reproducing the natural route of infection and demonstrating that ingestion of intact noninfectious capsid protein may be sufficient to provoke acute diarrhea. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the astrovirus capsid acts like an enterotoxin and induces intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.

  17. Generation of Helper Plasmids Encoding Mutant Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Capsid Proteins with Increased Resistance against Proteasomal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Ahmadiankia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2 vectors are widely used for both experimental and clinical gene therapy. A recent research has shown that the performance of these vectors can be greatly improved by substitution of specific surface-exposed tyrosine residues with phenylalanines. In this study, a fast and simple method is presented to generate AAV2 vector helper plasmids encoding capsid proteins with single, double or triple Y→F mutations.   Materials and Methods: A one-step, high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR cloning procedure involving the use of two partially overlapping primers to amplify a circular DNA template was applied to produce AAV2 cap genes encoding VP1 mutants with Y→F substitutions in residues 444, 500 or 730. The resulting constructs were used to make the different double and triple mutant by another round of PCR (Y444500F mutant, subcloning (Y444730F and Y500730F mutants or a combination of both techniques (Y444500730F mutant. Results: Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed successful introduction of the desired mutations in the AAV2 cap gene and showed the absence of any unintended mutations in the DNA fragments used to assemble the final set of AAV2 vector helper plasmids. The correctness of these plasmids was further confirmed by restriction mapping. Conclusion: PCR-based, single-step site-directed mutagenesis of circular DNA templates is a highly efficient and cost-effective method to generate AAV2 vector helper plasmids encoding mutant Cap proteins for the production of vector particles with increased gene transfer efficiency.

  18. Evaluation of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa-Associated Polyomavirus Capsid Protein as a New Carrier for Construction of Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Harboring Foreign Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedvilaite, Alma; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Lasickiene, Rita; Timinskas, Albertas; Vaitiekaite, Ausra; Ziogiene, Danguole; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2015-07-29

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising tool for protein engineering. Recently, trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) viral protein 1 (VP1) was efficiently produced in yeast expression system and shown to self-assemble to VLPs. In the current study, TSPyV VP1 protein was exploited as a carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring selected B and T cell-specific epitopes and evaluated in comparison to hamster polyomavirus VP1 protein. Chimeric VLPs with inserted either hepatitis B virus preS1 epitope DPAFR or a universal T cell-specific epitope AKFVAAWTLKAAA were produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Target epitopes were incorporated either at the HI or BC loop of the VP1 protein. The insertion sites were selected based on molecular models of TSPyV VP1 protein. The surface exposure of the insert positions was confirmed using a collection of monoclonal antibodies raised against the intact TSPyV VP1 protein. All generated chimeric proteins were capable to self-assemble to VLPs, which induced a strong immune response in mice. The chimeric VLPs also activated dendritic cells and T cells as demonstrated by analysis of cell surface markers and cytokine production profiles in spleen cell cultures. In conclusion, TSPyV VP1 protein represents a new potential carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring target epitopes.

  19. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  20. The Major Capsid Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Affects its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rate rose to 85 % compared with virus control. Knocking down VP5 expression abrogated the changes to F-actin that were induced by HSV-1 infection. Conclusion: Interfering with UL19 gene expression inhibits HSV-1 replication efficiently in vitro. The results indicate that the major capsid protein VP5 encoding gene UL19 ...

  1. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Synergic Investigation Of The Self-Assembly Structure And Mechanism Of Retroviral Capsid Proteins By Solid State NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy And Multiscale simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0074 Synergic investigation of the self-assembly structure and mechanism of retroviral capsid proteins by solid state NMR...assembly structure and mechanism of retroviral capsid proteins by solid state NMR, transmission electron microscopy and multiscale simulation 5a.  CONTRACT...capsid protein (CA). In vitro, tubular assembly can be obtained with the CA with similar underlying structural properties as the authentic RSV capsid

  3. A hydrophobic domain within the small capsid protein of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is required for assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Christopher M; Grzesik, Peter; Kreitler, Dale; Pryce, Erin N; Desai, Keshal V; Coombs, Gavin; McCaffery, J Michael; Desai, Prashant J

    2014-08-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) capsids can be produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses for protein expression. All six capsid proteins are required for this process to occur and, unlike for alphaherpesviruses, the small capsid protein (SCP) ORF65 is essential for this process. This protein decorates the capsid shell by virtue of its interaction with the capsomeres. In this study, we have explored the SCP interaction with the major capsid protein (MCP) using GFP fusions. The assembly site within the nucleus of infected cells was visualized by light microscopy using fluorescence produced by the SCP-GFP polypeptide, and the relocalization of the SCP to these sites was evident only when the MCP and the scaffold protein were also present - indicative of an interaction between these proteins that ensures delivery of the SCP to assembly sites. Biochemical assays demonstrated a physical interaction between the SCP and MCP, and also between this complex and the scaffold protein. Self-assembly of capsids with the SCP-GFP polypeptide was evident. Potentially, this result can be used to engineer fluorescent KSHV particles. A similar SCP-His6 polypeptide was used to purify capsids from infected cell lysates using immobilized affinity chromatography and to directly label this protein in capsids using chemically derivatized gold particles. Additional studies with SCP-GFP polypeptide truncation mutants identified a domain residing between aa 50 and 60 of ORF65 that was required for the relocalization of SCP-GFP to nuclear assembly sites. Substitution of residues in this region and specifically at residue 54 with a polar amino acid (lysine) disrupted or abolished this localization as well as capsid assembly, whereas substitution with non-polar residues did not affect the interaction. Thus, this study identified a small conserved hydrophobic domain that is important for the SCP-MCP interaction. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. A hydrophobic domain within the small capsid protein of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is required for assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Christopher M.; Grzesik, Peter; Kreitler, Dale; Pryce, Erin N.; Desai, Keshal V.; Coombs, Gavin; McCaffery, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) capsids can be produced in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses for protein expression. All six capsid proteins are required for this process to occur and, unlike for alphaherpesviruses, the small capsid protein (SCP) ORF65 is essential for this process. This protein decorates the capsid shell by virtue of its interaction with the capsomeres. In this study, we have explored the SCP interaction with the major capsid protein (MCP) using GFP fusions. The assembly site within the nucleus of infected cells was visualized by light microscopy using fluorescence produced by the SCP–GFP polypeptide, and the relocalization of the SCP to these sites was evident only when the MCP and the scaffold protein were also present – indicative of an interaction between these proteins that ensures delivery of the SCP to assembly sites. Biochemical assays demonstrated a physical interaction between the SCP and MCP, and also between this complex and the scaffold protein. Self-assembly of capsids with the SCP–GFP polypeptide was evident. Potentially, this result can be used to engineer fluorescent KSHV particles. A similar SCP–His6 polypeptide was used to purify capsids from infected cell lysates using immobilized affinity chromatography and to directly label this protein in capsids using chemically derivatized gold particles. Additional studies with SCP–GFP polypeptide truncation mutants identified a domain residing between aa 50 and 60 of ORF65 that was required for the relocalization of SCP–GFP to nuclear assembly sites. Substitution of residues in this region and specifically at residue 54 with a polar amino acid (lysine) disrupted or abolished this localization as well as capsid assembly, whereas substitution with non-polar residues did not affect the interaction. Thus, this study identified a small conserved hydrophobic domain that is important for the SCP–MCP interaction. PMID:24824860

  5. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, Jens; Sonntag, Eric; Wagner, Sabrina; Strojan, Hanife; Wangen, Christina; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Lisnic, Berislav; Jonjic, Stipan; Sticht, Heinrich; Britt, William J; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Marschall, Manfred

    2018-01-13

    The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  6. Two novel adeno-associated viruses from cynomolgus monkey: pseudotyping characterization of capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Seiichiro; Wang, Lina; Takeuchi, Takamasa; Kanda, Tadahito

    2004-12-20

    We demonstrated the presence of two adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), designated AAV10 and AAV11, in cynomolgus monkeys by isolating and sequencing the entire viral coding regions from the monkey DNA. AAV10 and AAV11 capsid proteins shared 84% and 65%, respectively, of amino acids with AAV2. A phylogenetic analysis of AAV capsid proteins showed that AAV10 and AAV11 resembled most AAV8 and AAV4, respectively. To characterize the capsid protein, we pseudotyped an AAV2 vector with the monkey AAV capsid proteins and examined the resulting pseudotypes AAV2/10 and AAV2/11, in comparison with the AAV2 vector, for their host ranges in cell lines and tissue tropism in mice. AAV2/10 and AAV2/11 transduced primate cells less efficiently than AAV2. Whereas AAV2 transduced undifferentiated C2C12 mouse myoblasts more efficiently than differentiated ones, AAV2/10 and AAV2/11 transduced the undifferentiated myoblasts less efficiently than differentiated ones. Three weeks after injection to the muscle of the hind legs, AAV2/10 and AAV2 induced transgene expression similarly, but AAV2/11 did not transduce the skeletal muscle. Six weeks after systemic administration, transduced vector DNA was detected by PCR in the liver and spleen of mice inoculated with AAV2, in the liver, heart, muscle, lung, kidney, and uterus of mice with AAV2/10, and the muscle, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and stomach of mice with AAV2/11. Mouse antisera against capsid protein VP2 of the three AAVs neutralized the respective vector particles in a type-specific manner. The results indicate that AAV10 and AAV11 capsid proteins, which are antigenically distinct from each other and AAV2, are likely to determine their host ranges and tissue tropism that are different from AAV2s, suggesting that cynomolgus AAVs could provide a broader choice of pseudotype AAV vectors for gene therapy.

  7. Transient Bluetongue virus serotype 8 capsid protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertha R. van Zyl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV causes severe disease in domestic and wild ruminants, and has recently caused several outbreaks in Europe. Current vaccines include live-attenuated and inactivated viruses; while these are effective, there is risk of reversion to virulence by mutation or reassortment with wild type viruses. Subunit or virus-like particle (VLP vaccines are safer options: VLP vaccines produced in insect cells by expression of the four BTV capsid proteins are protective against challenge; however, this is a costly production method. We investigated production of BTV VLPs in plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, an inexpensive production system very well suited to developing country use. Leaves infiltrated with recombinant pEAQ-HT vectors separately encoding the four BTV-8 capsid proteins produced more proteins than recombinant pTRA vectors. Plant expression using the pEAQ-HT vector resulted in both BTV-8 core-like particles (CLPs and VLPs; differentially controlling the concentration of infiltrated bacteria significantly influenced yield of the VLPs. In situ localisation of assembled particles was investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and it was shown that a mixed population of core-like particles (CLPs, consisting of VP3 and VP7 and VLPs were present as paracrystalline arrays in the cytoplasm of plant cells co-expressing all four capsid proteins.

  8. Thermodynamic characterization of the peptide assembly inhibitor binding to HIV-1 capsid protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kožíšek, Milan; Durčák, Jindřich; Konvalinka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, Suppl. 1 (2013), S37-S37 ISSN 1742-4690. [Frontiers of Retrovirology: Complex retorviruses, retroelements and their hosts. 16.09.2013-18.09.2013, Cambridge] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19561S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV -1 capsid protein * CAI Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.retrovirology.com/content/10/S1/P108

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins; analysis of protein processing, assembly and utility as vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    precursor enhances the yield of processed capsid proteins and their assembly into empty capsid particles within mammalian cells. Such particles can potentially form the basis of a vaccine but they may only have the same properties as the current inactivated vaccines. We have expressed the FMDV P1-2A alone...... or with FMDV 3Cpro using a “single cycle” alphavirus vector based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Cattle vaccinated with these rSFV-FMDV vectors alone, produced anti-FMDV antibodies but the immune response was insufficient to give protection against FMDV challenge. However, vaccination with these vectors primed...... a much stronger immune response against FMDV post-challenge. In subsequent experiments, cattle were sequentially vaccinated with a rSFV-FMDV followed by recombinant FMDV empty capsid particles, or vice versa, prior to challenge. Animals given a primary vaccination with the rSFV-FMDV vector...

  10. Stability of Norwalk virus capsid protein interfaces evaluated by in-silico nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Boyd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Norwalk virus causes severe gastroenteritis for which there is currently no specific anti-viral therapy. A stage of the infection process is uncoating of the protein capsid to expose the viral genome and allow for viral replication. A mechanical characterization of the Norwalk virus may provide important information relating to the mechanism of uncoating. The mechanical strength of the Norwalk virus has previously been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM nanoindentation experiments. Those experiments cannot resolve specific molecular interactions, and therefore we have employed a molecular modeling approach to gain insights into the potential uncoating mechanism of the Norwalk capsid. In this study, we perform simulated nanoindentation using a coarse-grained structure based model, which provides an estimate of the spring constant in good agreement with the experimentally determined value. We further analyze the fracture mechanisms and determine weak interfaces in the capsid structure which are potential sites to inhibit uncoating by stabilization of these weak interfaces. We conclude by identifying potential target sites at the junction of a weak protein-protein interface.

  11. Molecular Dissection of the Forces Responsible for Viral Capsid Assembly and Stabilization by Decoration Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Shannon; Yang, Qin; De Angeles, Rolando; Chang, Jenny R; Ortega, Marcos; Davis, Christal; Catalano, Carlos Enrique

    2017-02-07

    Complex double-stranded DNA viruses utilize a terminase enzyme to package their genomes into a preassembled procapsid shell. DNA packaging triggers a major conformational change in the proteins assembled into the shell and most often subsequent addition of a decoration protein that is required to stabilize the structure. In bacteriophage λ, DNA packaging drives a procapsid expansion transition to afford a larger but fragile shell. The gpD decoration protein adds to the expanded shell as trimeric spikes at each of the 140 three-fold axes. The spikes provide mechanical strength to the shell such that it can withstand the tremendous internal forces generated by the packaged DNA in addition to environmental insults. Hydrophobic, electrostatic, and aromatic-proline noncovalent interactions have been proposed to mediate gpD trimer spike assembly at the expanded shell surface. Here, we directly examine each of these interactions and demonstrate that hydrophobic interactions play the dominant role. In the course of this study, we unexpectedly found that Trp308 in the λ major capsid protein (gpE) plays a critical role in shell assembly. The gpE-W308A mutation affords a soluble, natively folded protein that does not further assemble into a procapsid shell, despite the fact that it retains binding interactions with the scaffolding protein, the shell assembly chaparone protein. The data support a model in which the λ procapsid shell assembles via cooperative interaction of monomeric capsid proteins, as observed in the herpesviruses and phages such as P22. The significance of the results with respect to capsid assembly, maturation, and stability is discussed.

  12. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release...... or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein...... precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown...

  13. Importin α1 is required for nuclear import of herpes simplex virus proteins and capsid assembly in fibroblasts and neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Fenja; Rother, Franziska; Rudolph, Kathrin; Prank, Ute; Binz, Anne; Hügel, Stefanie; Hartmann, Enno; Bader, Michael; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2018-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses which depend on many nuclear functions, and therefore on host transport factors to ensure specific nuclear import of viral and host components. While some import cargoes bind directly to certain transport factors, most recruit importin β1 via importin α. We identified importin α1 in a small targeted siRNA screen to be important for herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) gene expression. Production of infectious virions was delayed in the absence of importin α1, but not in cells lacking importin α3 or importin α4. While nuclear targeting of the incoming capsids, of the HSV-1 transcription activator VP16, and of the viral genomes were not affected, the nuclear import of the HSV-1 proteins ICP4 and ICP0, required for efficient viral transcription, and of ICP8 and pUL42, necessary for DNA replication, were reduced. Furthermore, quantitative electron microscopy showed that fibroblasts lacking importin α1 contained overall fewer nuclear capsids, but an increased proportion of mature nuclear capsids indicating that capsid formation and capsid egress into the cytoplasm were impaired. In neurons, importin α1 was also not required for nuclear targeting of incoming capsids, but for nuclear import of ICP4 and for the formation of nuclear capsid assembly compartments. Our data suggest that importin α1 is specifically required for the nuclear localization of several important HSV1 proteins, capsid assembly, and capsid egress into the cytoplasm, and may become rate limiting in situ upon infection at low multiplicity or in terminally differentiated cells such as neurons. PMID:29304174

  14. Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sami siraj

    2012-09-13

    Sep 13, 2012 ... 2Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Institute of Agricultural ... first report on the molecular characterization of full length PVX coat protein sequence infecting potato from Pakistan. ... sensitive and reliable detection methods (Salazar, 1994). Potato virus X ...

  15. Structural organization of pregenomic RNA and the carboxy-terminal domain of the capsid protein of hepatitis B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C-Y Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV double-stranded DNA genome is reverse transcribed from its RNA pregenome (pgRNA within the virus core (or capsid. Phosphorylation of the arginine-rich carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of the HBV capsid protein (Cp183 is essential for pgRNA encapsidation and reverse transcription. However, the structure of the CTD remains poorly defined. Here we report sub-nanometer resolution cryo-EM structures of in vitro assembled empty and pgRNA-filled Cp183 capsids in unphosphorylated and phosphorylation-mimic states. In empty capsids, we found unexpected evidence of surface accessible CTD density partially occluding pores in the capsid surface. We also observed that CTD organization changed substantively as a function of phosphorylation. In RNA-filled capsids, unphosphorylated CTDs favored thick ropes of RNA, while the phosphorylation-mimic favored a mesh of thin, high-density strands suggestive of single stranded RNA. These results demonstrate that the CTD can regulate nucleic acid structure, supporting the hypothesis that the HBV capsid has a functional role as a nucleic acid chaperone.

  16. Mechanisms regulating expression of the HPV 31 L1 and L2 capsid proteins and pseudovirion entry

    OpenAIRE

    Hindmarsh, Patrick L; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect stratified epithelia and restrict expression of late capsid genes to highly differentiated cells. In order to begin to understand the processes regulating HPV 31 infection we examined the synthesis of the HPV 31 capsid proteins, L1 and L2, using heterologous expression systems. Similar to studies in HPV 16, expression of wild type HPV 31 L1 and L2 from heterologous promoters resulted in very low levels of synthesis. In contrast, modification of the...

  17. A time-resolved immunoassay to measure serum antibodies to the rotavirus VP6 capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Owen; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Crawford, Sue E.; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    The rotavirus (RV) inner capsid protein VP6 is widely used to evaluate immune response during natural infection and in vaccine studies. Recombinant VP6 from the most prevalent circulating rotavirus strains in each subgroup (SG) identified in a birth cohort of children in southern India [SGII (G1P[8]) and SGI (G10P[11])] were produced. The purified proteins were used to measure VP6-specific antibodies in a Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorometric Immunoassay (DELFIA). The ability of the a...

  18. Identification of two functional nuclear localization signals in the capsid protein of duck circovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Qi-Wang; Zou, Jin-Feng; Wang, Xin [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Sun, Ya-Ni [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Shanxi, Yangling 712100 (China); Gao, Ji-Ming; Xie, Zhi-Jing [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Wang, Yu [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Taishan Medical College, Shandong, Taian 271000 (China); Zhu, Yan-Li [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Jiang, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjjiang@sdau.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong, Taian 271018 (China)

    2013-02-05

    The capsid protein (CP) of duck circovirus (DuCV) is the major immunogenic protein and has a high proportion of arginine residues concentrated at the N terminus of the protein, which inhibits efficient mRNA translation in prokaryotic expression systems. In this study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of DuCV CP expressed via recombinant baculoviruses in Sf9 cells and the DNA binding activities of the truncated recombinant DuCV CPs. The results showed that two independent bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs) situated at N-terminal 1-17 and 18-36 amino acid residue of the CP. Moreover, two expression level regulatory signals (ELRSs) and two DNA binding signals (DBSs) were also mapped to the N terminus of the protein and overlapped with the two NLSs. The ability of CP to bind DNA, coupled with the karyophilic nature of this protein, strongly suggests that it may be responsible for nuclear targeting of the viral genome.

  19. Novel chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles harboring serotype O VP1 protect guinea pigs against challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Li, Zhiyong; Xie, Yinli; Qin, Xiaodong; Qi, Xingcai; Sun, Peng; Bai, Xingwen; Ma, Youji; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious, acute viral disease of cloven-hoofed animal species causing severe economic losses worldwide. Among the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), serotype O is predominant, but its viral capsid is more acid sensitive than other serotypes, making it more difficult to produce empty serotype O VLPs in the low pH insect hemolymph. Therefore, a novel chimeric virus-like particle (VLP)-based candidate vaccine for serotype O FMDV was developed and characterized in the present study. The chimeric VLPs were composed of antigenic VP1 from serotype O and segments of viral capsid proteins from serotype Asia1. These VLPs elicited significantly higher FMDV-specific antibody levels in immunized mice than did the inactivated vaccine. Furthermore, the chimeric VLPs protected guinea pigs from FMDV challenge with an efficacy similar to that of the inactivated vaccine. These results suggest that chimeric VLPs have the potential for use in vaccines against serotype O FMDV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear localization signal regulates porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein nuclear export through phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qiang; Hou, Shaohua; Chen, Qing; Jia, Hong; Xin, Ting; Jiang, Yitong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Hongfei

    2018-02-15

    The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) encodes the major Capsid (Cap) protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particle (VLP) of similar morphology to the PCV2 virion and accumulates in the nucleus through the N-terminal arginine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, PCV2 Cap protein and its derivates were expressed via the baculovirus expression system, and the cellular localization of the recombinant proteins were investigated using anti-Cap mAb by imaging flow cytometry. Analysis of subcellular localization of Cap protein and its variants demonstrated that NLS mediated Cap protein nuclear export as well as nuclear import, and a phosphorylation site (S17) was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the NLS domain to regulate Cap protein nuclear export. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating the PCV2 Cap protein nuclear export was also demonstrated in PK15 cells by fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, the influence of Rep and Rep' protein on Cap protein subcellular localization was investigated in PK15 cells. Phosphorylation of NLS regulating Cap protein nuclear export provides more detailed knowledge of the PCV2 viral life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction between Bluetongue virus outer capsid protein VP2 and vimentin is necessary for virus egress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Polly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The VP2 outer capsid protein Bluetongue Virus (BTV is responsible for receptor binding, haemagglutination and eliciting host-specific immunity. However, the assembly of this outer capsid protein on the transcriptionally active viral core would block transcription of the virus. Thus assembly of the outer capsid on the core particle must be a tightly controlled process during virus maturation. Earlier studies have detected mature virus particles associated with intermediate filaments in virus infected cells but the viral determinant for this association and the effect of disrupting intermediate filaments on virus assembly and release are unknown. Results In this study it is demonstrated that BTV VP2 associates with vimentin in both virus infected cells and in the absence of other viral proteins. Further, the determinants of vimentin localisation are mapped to the N-terminus of the protein and deletions of aminio acids between residues 65 and 114 are shown to disrupt VP2-vimentin association. Site directed mutation also reveals that amino acid residues Gly 70 and Val 72 are important in the VP2-vimentin association. Mutation of these amino acids resulted in a soluble VP2 capable of forming trimeric structures similar to unmodified protein that no longer associated with vimentin. Furthermore, pharmacological disruption of intermediate filaments, either directly or indirectly through the disruption of the microtubule network, inhibited virus release from BTV infected cells. Conclusion The principal findings of the research are that the association of mature BTV particles with intermediate filaments are driven by the interaction of VP2 with vimentin and that this interaction contributes to virus egress. Furthermore, i the N-terminal 118 amino acids of VP2 are sufficient to confer vimentin interaction. ii Deletion of amino acids 65–114 or mutation of amino acids 70–72 to DVD abrogates vimentin association. iii Finally

  2. Cross-serotype immunity induced by immunization with a conserved rhinovirus capsid protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Glanville

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus (RV infections are the principle cause of common colds and precipitate asthma and COPD exacerbations. There is currently no RV vaccine, largely due to the existence of ∼150 strains. We aimed to define highly conserved areas of the RV proteome and test their usefulness as candidate antigens for a broadly cross-reactive vaccine, using a mouse infection model. Regions of the VP0 (VP4+VP2 capsid protein were identified as having high homology across RVs. Immunization with a recombinant VP0 combined with a Th1 promoting adjuvant induced systemic, antigen specific, cross-serotype, cellular and humoral immune responses. Similar cross-reactive responses were observed in the lungs of immunized mice after infection with heterologous RV strains. Immunization enhanced the generation of heterosubtypic neutralizing antibodies and lung memory T cells, and caused more rapid virus clearance. Conserved domains of the RV capsid therefore induce cross-reactive immune responses and represent candidates for a subunit RV vaccine.

  3. A novel method to produce Influenza A virus matrix protein M1 Capsid Like Particles (CLPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Vahid; Lal, Sunil K

    2014-09-01

    Avian influenza viruses represent a growing threat for an influenza pandemic. The currently licensed influenza vaccines have inherent drawbacks which has led many research groups to explore different approaches of vaccine development among which Virus Like particles (VLPs) seem like a promising alternative in the near future. Although it is known that the Matrix 1 protein (M1) of influenza plays an essential role in VLP formation and it is documented that M1 is able to form dimers, it is not clear if M1 is capable of forming higher order structures without the interference of other influenza proteins or cell derived envelope. Here, for the first time we have demonstrated that expression of M1 alone is enough to form a Capsid Like Particle (CLP) without the requirement of any other external factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A time-resolved immunoassay to measure serum antibodies to the rotavirus VP6 capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Owen; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Crawford, Sue E; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K

    2013-04-01

    The rotavirus (RV) inner capsid protein VP6 is widely used to evaluate immune response during natural infection and in vaccine studies. Recombinant VP6 from the most prevalent circulating rotavirus strains in each subgroup (SG) identified in a birth cohort of children in southern India [SGII (G1P[8]) and SGI (G10P[11])] were produced. The purified proteins were used to measure VP6-specific antibodies in a Dissociation-Enhanced Lanthanide Fluorometric Immunoassay (DELFIA). The ability of the assay to detect a ≥2 fold rise in IgG level in a panel of serum samples from a longitudinal study was compared to a gold standard virus-capture ELISA. A strong association was observed between the assays (pcorrelate of protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of neutralizing epitopes within the major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapp Martin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with papillomaviruses induce type-specific immune responses, mainly directed against the major capsid protein, L1. Based on the propensity of the L1 protein to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs, type-specific vaccines have already been developed. In order to generate vaccines that target a broader spectrum of HPV types, extended knowledge of neutralizing epitopes is required. Despite the association of human papillomavirus type 33 (HPV33 with cervical carcinomas, fine mapping of neutralizing conformational epitopes on HPV33 has not been reported yet. By loop swapping between HPV33 and HPV16 capsid proteins, we have identified amino acid sequences critical for the binding of conformation-dependent type-specific neutralizing antibodies to surface-exposed hyper variable loops of HPV33 capsid protein L1. Results Reactivities of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs H33.B6, H33.E12, H33.J3 and H16.56E with HPV16:33 and HPV33:16 hybrid L1 VLPs revealed the complex structures of their conformational epitopes as well as the major residues contributing to their binding sites. Whereas the epitope of mAb H33.J3 was determined by amino acids (aa 51–58 in the BC loop of HPV33 L1, sequences of at least two hyper variable loops, DE (aa 132–140 and FGb (aa 282–291, were found to be essential for binding of H33.B6. The epitope of H33.E12 was even more complex, requiring sequences of the FGa loop (aa 260–270, in addition to loops DE and FGb. Conclusion These data demonstrate that neutralizing epitopes in HPV33 L1 are mainly located on the tip of the capsomere and that several hyper variable loops contribute to form these conformational epitopes. Knowledge of the antigenic structure of HPV is crucial for designing hybrid particles as a basis for intertypic HPV vaccines.

  6. Modeling of the human rhinovirus C capsid suggests possible causes for antiviral drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Holly A; Ashraf, Shamaila; Sgro, Jean-Yves; Bochkov, Yury A; Gern, James E; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2014-01-05

    Human rhinoviruses of the RV-C species are recently discovered pathogens with greater clinical significance than isolates in the RV-A+B species. The RV-C cannot be propagated in typical culture systems; so much of the virology is necessarily derivative, relying on comparative genomics, relative to the better studied RV-A+B. We developed a bioinformatics-based structural model for a C15 isolate. The model showed the VP1-3 capsid proteins retain their fundamental cores relative to the RV-A+B, but conserved, internal RV-C residues affect the shape and charge of the VP1 hydrophobic pocket that confers antiviral drug susceptibility. When predictions of the model were tested in organ cultures or ALI systems with recombinant C15 virus, there was a resistance to capsid-binding drugs, including pleconaril, BTA-188, WIN56291, WIN52035 and WIN52084. Unique to all RV-C, the model predicts conserved amino acids within the pocket and capsid surface pore leading to the pocket may correlate with this activity. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Kinetics of the association of dengue virus capsid protein with the granular component of nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Ashish Kumar; Cecilia, D

    2017-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replicates in the cytoplasm but translocation of the capsid protein (C) to the nucleoli of infected cells has been shown to facilitate virus multiplication for DENV-2. This study demonstrates that the nucleolar localization of C occurs with all four serotypes of DENV. The interaction of C with the nucleolus was found to be dynamic with a mobile fraction of 66% by FRAP. That the C shuttled between the nucleus and cytoplasm was suggested by FLIP and translation inhibition experiments. Colocalization with B23 indicated that DENV C targeted the granular component (GC) of the nucleolus. Presence of DENV C in the nucleolus affected the recovery kinetics of B23 in infected and transfected cells. Sub-nucleolar localization of DENV C of all serotypes to the GC, its mobility in and out of the nucleolus and its affect on the dynamics of B23 is being shown for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of HIV-1 Maturation via Small-Molecule Targeting of the Amino-Terminal Domain in the Viral Capsid Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifeng; Zhou, Jing; Halambage, Upul D; Jurado, Kellie A; Jamin, Augusta V; Wang, Yujie; Engelman, Alan N; Aiken, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein is an attractive therapeutic target, owing to its multifunctionality in virus replication and the high fitness cost of amino acid substitutions in capsids to HIV-1 infectivity. To date, small-molecule inhibitors have been identified that inhibit HIV-1 capsid assembly and/or impair its function in target cells. Here, we describe the mechanism of action of the previously reported capsid-targeting HIV-1 inhibitor, Boehringer-Ingelheim compound 1 (C1). We show that C1 acts during HIV-1 maturation to prevent assembly of a mature viral capsid. However, unlike the maturation inhibitor bevirimat, C1 did not significantly affect the kinetics or fidelity of Gag processing. HIV-1 particles produced in the presence of C1 contained unstable capsids that lacked associated electron density and exhibited impairments in early postentry stages of infection, most notably reverse transcription. C1 inhibited assembly of recombinant HIV-1 CA in vitro and induced aberrant cross-links in mutant HIV-1 particles capable of spontaneous intersubunit disulfide bonds at the interhexamer interface in the capsid lattice. Resistance to C1 was conferred by a single amino acid substitution within the compound-binding site in the N-terminal domain of the CA protein. Our results demonstrate that the binding site for C1 represents a new pharmacological vulnerability in the capsid assembly stage of the HIV-1 life cycle.IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 capsid protein is an attractive but unexploited target for clinical drug development. Prior studies have identified HIV-1 capsid-targeting compounds that display different mechanisms of action, which in part reflects the requirement for capsid function at both the efferent and afferent phases of viral replication. Here, we show that one such compound, compound 1, interferes with assembly of the conical viral capsid during virion maturation and results in perturbations at a specific protein-protein

  9. Spurious polyadenylation of Norovirus Narita 104 capsid protein mRNA in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Lolita G; Maloney, Bryan; Takeda, Naokazu; Mason, Hugh S

    2011-02-01

    Noroviruses are members of the family Caliciviridae, and cause a highly communicable gastroenteritis in humans. We explored the potential to develop a plant-based vaccine against Narita 104 virus, a Genogroup II Norovirus. In stably transgenic potato, we obtained very poor expression of Narita 104 virus capsid protein (NaVCP) despite the use of a strong constitutive promoter (dual enhancer 35S) driving the native coding sequence. We identified potentially detrimental sequence motifs that could mediate aberrant mRNA processing via spurious polyadenylation signals. Northern blots and RT-PCR analysis of total RNA revealed truncated transcripts that suggested premature polyadenylation. Site-directed mutagenesis to remove one potential polyadenylation near-upstream element resulted in an increased expression of NaVCP when transiently expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Further, cloning of the truncated cDNAs from transgenic NaVCP potato plants and transiently transfected N. benthamiana allowed us to identify at least ten different truncated transcripts resulting from premature polyadenylation of full length NaVCP transcripts. Comparative studies using real time PCR analysis from cDNA samples revealed lower accumulation of full length transcripts of NaVCP as compared to those from a gene encoding Norwalk Virus capsid protein (a related Genogroup I Norovirus) in transiently transfected plants. These findings provide evidence for impaired expression of NaVCP in transgenic plants mediated by spurious polyadenylation signals, and demonstrate the need to scrupulously search for potential polyadenylation signals in order to improve transgene expression in plants.

  10. Specific interaction between hnRNP H and HPV16 L1 proteins: Implications for late gene auto-regulation enabling rapid viral capsid protein production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Min; Huang, Hui [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Miao, Ji, E-mail: jmiao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhao, Qinjian, E-mail: qinjian_zhao@xmu.edu.cn [National Institute of Diagnostics and Vaccine Development in Infectious Diseases, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► The RNA-binding hnRNP H regulates late viral gene expression. ► hnRNP H activity was inhibited by a late viral protein. ► Specific interaction between HPV L1 and hnRNP H was demonstrated. ► Co-localization of HPV L1 and hnRNP H inside cells was observed. ► Viral capsid protein production, enabling rapid capsid assembly, was implicated. -- Abstract: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), including hnRNP H, are RNA-binding proteins that function as splicing factors and are involved in downstream gene regulation. hnRNP H, which binds to G triplet regions in RNA, has been shown to play an important role in regulating the staged expression of late proteins in viral systems. Here, we report that the specific association between hnRNP H and a late viral capsid protein, human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 protein, leads to the suppressed function of hnRNP H in the presence of the L1 protein. The direct interaction between the L1 protein and hnRNP H was demonstrated by complex formation in solution and intracellularly using a variety of biochemical and immunochemical methods, including peptide mapping, specific co-immunoprecipitation and confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results support a working hypothesis that a late viral protein HPV16 L1, which is down regulated by hnRNP H early in the viral life cycle may provide an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop that allows the rapid production of HPV capsid proteins through suppression of the function of hnRNP H at the late stage of the viral life cycle. In this positive feedback loop, the late viral gene products that were down regulated earlier themselves disable their suppressors, and this feedback mechanism could facilitate the rapid production of capsid proteins, allowing staged and efficient viral capsid assembly.

  11. Proton-driven assembly of the Rous Sarcoma virus capsid protein results in the formation of icosahedral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Radjainia, Mazdak; Kingston, Richard L; Mitra, Alok K

    2010-05-14

    In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of CA forms pentameric turrets, which decorate the surface of the icosahedron, while the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA is positioned underneath, linking the pentamers. Biophysical analysis of the icosahedral particle preparation reveals that CA monomers and icosahedra are the only detectable species and that these exist in reversible equilibrium at pH 5. These same acidic conditions are known to promote formation of a RSV CA CTD dimer, present within the icosahedral particle, which facilitates capsid assembly. The results are consistent with a model in which RSV CA assembly is a nucleation-limited process driven by very weak protein-protein interactions.

  12. Proton-driven Assembly of the Rous Sarcoma Virus Capsid Protein Results in the Formation of Icosahedral Particles*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Radjainia, Mazdak; Kingston, Richard L.; Mitra, Alok K.

    2010-01-01

    In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of CA forms pentameric turrets, which decorate the surface of the icosahedron, while the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA is positioned underneath, linking the pentamers. Biophysical analysis of the icosahedral particle preparation reveals that CA monomers and icosahedra are the only detectable species and that these exist in reversible equilibrium at pH 5. These same acidic conditions are known to promote formation of a RSV CA CTD dimer, present within the icosahedral particle, which facilitates capsid assembly. The results are consistent with a model in which RSV CA assembly is a nucleation-limited process driven by very weak protein-protein interactions. PMID:20228062

  13. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  14. Structural Studies of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Capsid Transitions Associated with Endosomal Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun-Joo; Gurda, Brittney L.; McKenna, Robert; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry; Salganik, Maxim; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis (Florida)

    2012-09-17

    The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvoviruses enter host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and infection depends on processing in the early to late endosome as well as in the lysosome prior to nuclear entry for replication. However, the mechanisms of capsid endosomal processing, including the effects of low pH, are poorly understood. To gain insight into the structural transitions required for this essential step in infection, the crystal structures of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-packaged adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been determined at pH values of 6.0, 5.5, and 4.0 and then at pH 7.5 after incubation at pH 4.0, mimicking the conditions encountered during endocytic trafficking. While the capsid viral protein (VP) topologies of all the structures were similar, significant amino acid side chain conformational rearrangements were observed on (i) the interior surface of the capsid under the icosahedral 3-fold axis near ordered nucleic acid density that was lost concomitant with the conformational change as pH was reduced and (ii) the exterior capsid surface close to the icosahedral 2-fold depression. The 3-fold change is consistent with DNA release from an ordering interaction on the inside surface of the capsid at low pH values and suggests transitions that likely trigger the capsid for genome uncoating. The surface change results in disruption of VP-VP interface interactions and a decrease in buried surface area between VP monomers. This disruption points to capsid destabilization which may (i) release VP1 amino acids for its phospholipase A2 function for endosomal escape and nuclear localization signals for nuclear targeting and (ii) trigger genome uncoating.

  15. Multiple capsid-stabilizing interactions revealed in a high-resolution structure of an emerging picornavirus causing neonatal sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Shabih; Westerhuis, Brenda M.; Domanska, Ausra; Koning, Roman I.; Matadeen, Rishi; Koster, Abraham J.; Bakker, Arjen Q.; Beaumont, Tim; Wolthers, Katja C.; Butcher, Sarah J.

    2016-07-01

    The poorly studied picornavirus, human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3) causes neonatal sepsis with no therapies available. Our 4.3-Å resolution structure of HPeV3 on its own and at 15 Å resolution in complex with human monoclonal antibody Fabs demonstrates the expected picornavirus capsid structure with three distinct features. First, 25% of the HPeV3 RNA genome in 60 sites is highly ordered as confirmed by asymmetric reconstruction, and interacts with conserved regions of the capsid proteins VP1 and VP3. Second, the VP0 N terminus stabilizes the capsid inner surface, in contrast to other picornaviruses where on expulsion as VP4, it forms an RNA translocation channel. Last, VP1's hydrophobic pocket, the binding site for the antipicornaviral drug, pleconaril, is blocked and thus inappropriate for antiviral development. Together, these results suggest a direction for development of neutralizing antibodies, antiviral drugs based on targeting the RNA-protein interactions and dissection of virus assembly on the basis of RNA nucleation.

  16. Norovirus-like VP1 particles exhibit isolate dependent stability profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogan, Ronja; Schneider, Carola; Reimer, Rudolph; Hansman, Grant; Uetrecht, Charlotte

    2018-02-01

    Noroviruses are the main cause of viral gastroenteritis with new variants emerging frequently. There are three norovirus genogroups infecting humans. These genogroups are divided based on the sequence of their major capsid protein, which is able to form virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed recombinantly. VLPs of the prototypical GI.1 Norwalk virus are known to disassemble into specific capsid protein oligomers upon alkaline treatment. Here, native mass spectrometry and electron microscopy on variants of GI.1 and of GII.17 were performed, revealing differences in terms of stability between these groups. Beyond that, these experiments indicate differences even between variants within a genotype. The capsid stability was monitored in different ammonium acetate solutions varying both in ionic strength and pH. The investigated GI.1 West Chester isolate showed comparable disassembly profiles to the previously studied GI.1 Norwalk virus isolate. However, differences were observed with the West Chester being more sensitive to alkaline pH. In stark contrast to that, capsids of the variant belonging to the currently prevalent genogroup GII were stable in all tested conditions. Both variants formed smaller capsid particles already at neutral pH. Certain amino acid substitutions in the S domain of West Chester relative to the Norwalk virus potentially result in the formation of these T  =  1 capsids.

  17. Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Assembly-Activating Protein Is Not an Essential Requirement for Capsid Assembly of AAV Serotypes 4, 5, and 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Lauriel F; Powers, John M; Adachi, Kei; Baumgart, Joshua T; Meyer, Nancy L; Xie, Qing; Chapman, Michael S; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have made great progress in their use for gene therapy; however, fundamental aspects of AAV's capsid assembly remain poorly characterized. In this regard, the discovery of assembly-activating protein (AAP) sheds new light on this crucial part of AAV biology and vector production. Previous studies have shown that AAP is essential for assembly; however, how its mechanistic roles in assembly might differ among AAV serotypes remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that biological properties of AAPs and capsid assembly processes are surprisingly distinct among AAV serotypes 1 to 12. In the study, we investigated subcellular localizations and assembly-promoting functions of AAP1 to -12 (i.e., AAPs derived from AAV1 to -12, respectively) and examined the AAP dependence of capsid assembly processes of these 12 serotypes using combinatorial approaches that involved immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, barcode-Seq (i. e., a high-throughput quantitative method using DNA barcodes and a next-generation sequencing technology), and quantitative dot blot assays. This study revealed that AAP1 to -12 are all localized in the nucleus with serotype-specific differential patterns of nucleolar association; AAPs and assembled capsids do not necessarily colocalize; AAPs are promiscuous in promoting capsid assembly of other serotypes, with the exception of AAP4, -5, -11, and -12; assembled AAV5, -8, and -9 capsids are excluded from the nucleolus, in contrast to the nucleolar enrichment of assembled AAV2 capsids; and, surprisingly, AAV4, -5, and -11 capsids are not dependent on AAP for assembly. These observations highlight the serotype-dependent heterogeneity of the capsid assembly process and challenge current notions about the role of AAP and the nucleolus in capsid assembly. Assembly-activating protein (AAP) is a recently discovered adeno-associated virus (AAV) protein that promotes capsid assembly and provides new opportunities

  18. Human Papillomavirus E2 Regulates SRSF3 (SRp20) To Promote Capsid Protein Expression in Infected Differentiated Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymenko, T; Hernandez-Lopez, H; MacDonald, A I; Bodily, J M; Graham, S V

    2016-05-15

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is tightly linked to differentiation of the infected epithelial cell, suggesting a sophisticated interplay between host cell metabolism and virus replication. Previously, we demonstrated in differentiated keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo that HPV type 16 (HPV16) infection caused increased levels of the cellular SR splicing factors (SRSFs) SRSF1 (ASF/SF2), SRSF2 (SC35), and SRSF3 (SRp20). Moreover, the viral E2 transcription and replication factor that is expressed at high levels in differentiating keratinocytes could bind and control activity of the SRSF1 gene promoter. Here, we show that the E2 proteins of HPV16 and HPV31 control the expression of SRSFs 1, 2, and 3 in a differentiation-dependent manner. E2 has the greatest transactivation effect on expression of SRSF3. Small interfering RNA depletion experiments in two different models of the HPV16 life cycle (W12E and NIKS16) and one model of the HPV31 life cycle (CIN612-9E) revealed that only SRSF3 contributed significantly to regulation of late events in the virus life cycle. Increased levels of SRSF3 are required for L1 mRNA and capsid protein expression. Capsid protein expression was regulated specifically by SRSF3 and appeared independent of other SRSFs. Taken together, these data suggest a significant role of the HPV E2 protein in regulating late events in the HPV life cycle through transcriptional regulation of SRSF3 expression. Human papillomavirus replication is accomplished in concert with differentiation of the infected epithelium. Virus capsid protein expression is confined to the upper epithelial layers so as to avoid immune detection. In this study, we demonstrate that the viral E2 transcription factor activates the promoter of the cellular SRSF3 RNA processing factor. SRSF3 is required for expression of the E4(^)L1 mRNA and so controls expression of the HPV L1 capsid protein. Thus, we reveal a new dimension of virus-host interaction crucial for production

  19. Papillomavirus L1 major capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like particles that are highly immunogenic.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirnbauer, R.; Booy, F; Cheng, N.; Lowy, D R; Schiller, J T

    1992-01-01

    Infection by certain human papillomavirus types is regarded as the major risk factor in the development of cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers of women worldwide. Analysis of the immunogenic and structural features of papillomavirus virions has been hampered by the inability to efficiently propagate the viruses in cultured cells. For instance, it has not been established whether the major capsid protein L1 alone is sufficient for virus particle assembly. In addition, it is not kno...

  20. Mechanisms regulating expression of the HPV 31 L1 and L2 capsid proteins and pseudovirion entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindmarsh Patrick L

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human papillomaviruses (HPV infect stratified epithelia and restrict expression of late capsid genes to highly differentiated cells. In order to begin to understand the processes regulating HPV 31 infection we examined the synthesis of the HPV 31 capsid proteins, L1 and L2, using heterologous expression systems. Similar to studies in HPV 16, expression of wild type HPV 31 L1 and L2 from heterologous promoters resulted in very low levels of synthesis. In contrast, modification of the codons in the capsid genes to ones more commonly used in cellular genes resulted in high-level synthesis. Through the use of chimeric proteins that fused fragments of wild type L1 to Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP coding sequences, a short region was identified that was sufficient to inhibit high level synthesis and similar elements were detected in L2. One element was localized to the 3' end of the L1 gene while a series of elements were localized at the 3' end of the L2 coding sequences. These observations are most consistent with negative RNA regulatory elements controlling the levels of L1 and L2 synthesis that are distinct from those identified in HPV 16. Expression vectors for the codon modified HPV 31 capsid proteins were then transfected together with GFP reporter plasmids to generate HPV 31 pseudoviruses. Infection of cells with HPV 31 pseudoviruses in the presence of the inhibitors, chlorpromazine, nystatin or methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, demonstrated that HPV 31, like HPV 16, enters human and monkey cells through a clathrin-mediated pathway rather than through caveolae as previously reported. This suggests that high-risk HPV types may enter cells through common mechanisms.

  1. Detention of HPV L1 Capsid Protein and hTERC Gene in Screening of Cervical Cancer

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    Huang Bin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: To investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV L1 capsid protein, and human telomerase RNA component (hTERC in cervical cancer and the role of detection of both genes in screening of cervical cancer.   Materials and Methods: A total of 309 patients were recruited and cervical exfoliated cells were collected. Immunocytochemistry was employed to detect HPV L1 capsid protein, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was performed to detect the hTERC. Results: The expression of HPV L1 capsid protein reduced with the increase of the histological grade of cervical cells and was negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. However, the expression of hTERC increased with the increase of the histological grade and positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The proportion of patients with L1(-/hTERC(+ was higher in patients with histological grade of CIN2 or higher than that in those with histological grade of CIN1. The L1(+/hTERC(- and L1(-/hTERC(- were negatively related to the grade of cervical lesions. L1(-/hTERC(+ was positively associated with the grade of cervical lesions. The L1/hTERC ratio increased. The negative predictive value of both HPV L1 and hTERC was higher than that of HPV L1 or hTERC, but there was no marked difference in the screening efficacy of cervical cancer among HPV L1, hTERC and HPV L1+hTERC. Conclusion: HPV L1 capsid protein and hTERC gene may serve as markers for the early diagnosis and prediction of cervical lesions. The increase in L1/hTERC ratio reflects the progression of cervical lesions to a certain extent.

  2. Plum pox virus capsid protein suppresses plant pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie; Candresse, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by immune receptors launches defence mechanisms referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens must suppress PTI pathways via the action of effectors to efficiently colonize their hosts. So far, plant PTI has been reported to be active against most classes of pathogens, except viruses, although this defence layer has been hypothesized recently as an active part of antiviral immunity which needs to be suppressed by viruses for infection success. Here, we report that Arabidopsis PTI genes are regulated upon infection by viruses and contribute to plant resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV). Our experiments further show that PPV suppresses two early PTI responses, the oxidative burst and marker gene expression, during Arabidopsis infection. In planta expression of PPV capsid protein (CP) was found to strongly impair these responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis, revealing its PTI suppressor activity. In summary, we provide the first clear evidence that plant viruses acquired the ability to suppress PTI mechanisms via the action of effectors, highlighting a novel strategy employed by viruses to escape plant defences. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  3. Effects of two amino acid substitutions in the capsid proteins on the interaction of two cell-adapted PanAsia-1 strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O with heparan sulfate receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Some cell-adapted strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can utilize heparan sulfate (HS) as a receptor to facilitate viral infection in cultured cells. A number of independent sites on the capsid that might be involved in FMDV-HS interaction have been studied. However, the previously reported residues do not adequately explain HS-dependent infection of two cell-adapted PanAsia-1 strains (O/Tibet/CHA/6/99tc and O/Fujian/CHA/9/99tc) of FMDV serotype O. To identify the molecular determinant(s) for the interaction of O/Tibet/CHA/6/99tc and O/Fujian/CHA/9/99tc with HS receptor, several chimeric viruses and site-directed mutants were generated by using an infectious cDNA of a non-HS-utilizing rescued virus (Cathay topotype) as the genomic backbone. Phenotypic properties of these viruses were determined by plaque assays and virus adsorption and penetration assays in cultured cells. Results Only two of the rescued viruses encoding VP0 of O/Tibet/CHA/6/99tc or VP1 of O/Fujian/CHA/9/99tc formed plaques on wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (WT-CHO; HS+) cells, but not on HS-negative pgsD-677 cells. The formation of plaques by these two chimeric viruses on WT-CHO cells could be abolished by the introduction of single amino acid mutations Gln-2080 → Leu in VP2 of O/Tibet/CHA/6/99tc and Lys-1083 → Glu in VP1 of O/Fujian/CHA/9/99tc, respectively. Nonetheless, the introduced mutation Leu-2080 → Gln in VP2 of O/Fujian/CHA/9/99tc for the construction of expectant recombinant plasmid led to non-infectious progeny virus in baby hamster kidney 21 (BHK-21) cells, and the site-directed mutant encoding Glu-1083 → Lys in VP1 of O/Tibet/CHA/6/99tc did not acquire the ability to produce plaques on WT-CHO cells. Significant differences in the inhibition of the infectivity of four HS-utilizing viruses by heparin and RGD-containing peptide were observed in BHK-21 cells. Interestingly, the chimeric virus encoding VP0 of O/Fujian/CHA/9/99tc, and the site

  4. Mosaic vectors comprised of modified AAV1 capsid proteins for efficient vector purification and targeting to vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, M D; Bartlett, J S

    2006-06-01

    Vascular-targeted gene therapies have the potential to treat many of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. Unfortunately, these therapies have been ineffective due to poor vascular gene transfer. The use of alternative virus serotypes and the incorporation of vascular targeting ligands into vectors has resulted in only modest increases in vascular gene transfer. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) 1 has shown the most promise among the AAV vectors for the transduction of vascular endothelial cells. However, no straightforward small-scale purification strategy exists for AAV1 as it does for AAV2 making it difficult to quickly produce AAV1 vector for analysis. Here we have combined two AAV1 capsid protein modifications to enhance vascular gene transfer and allow easy purification of vector particles. Mosaic vector particles have been produced comprised of capsid proteins containing the well-characterized RGD4C modification to target integrins present on the vasculature, and capsid proteins containing a modification that permits metabolic biotinylation and efficient purification of mosaic particles by avidin affinity chromatography. We show that the RGD modification results in a 50-100-fold enhancement in endothelial cell gene transfer that is maintained in biotinylated mosaic AAV1 particles. These results suggest that mosaic virions hold significant promise for targeted gene delivery to the vasculature.

  5. Simulations of HIV capsid protein dimerization reveal the effect of chemistry and topography on the mechanism of hydrophobic protein association

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Naiyin

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has shown that the hydrophobic protein surfaces in aqueous solution sit near a drying transition. The tendency for these surfaces to expel water from their vicinity leads to self assembly of macromolecular complexes. In this article we show with a realistic model for a biologically pertinent system how this phenomenon appears at the molecular level. We focus on the association of the C-terminal domain (CA-C) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) capsid protein. By combining all-atom simulations with specialized sampling techniques we measure the water density distribution during the approach of two CA-C proteins as a function of separation and amino acid sequence in the interfacial region. The simulations demonstrate that CA-C protein-protein interactions sit at the edge of a dewetting transition and that this mesoscopic manifestation of the underlying liquid-vapor phase transition can be readily manipulated by biology or protein engineering to significantly affect association behavior. While ...

  6. The evolution of Vp1 gene in enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae, consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes. The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes. An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21, CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific 'signature' amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific 'signature' amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared.

  7. The C Terminus of the Herpes Simplex Virus UL25 Protein Is Required for Release of Viral Genomes from Capsids Bound to Nuclear Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jamie B; Daniel, Gina R; Falck-Pedersen, Erik; Huet, Alexis; Smith, Greg A; Conway, James F; Homa, Fred L

    2017-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) capsid is released into the cytoplasm after fusion of viral and host membranes, whereupon dynein-dependent trafficking along microtubules targets it to the nuclear envelope. Binding of the capsid to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by the capsid protein pUL25 and the capsid-tethered tegument protein pUL36. Temperature-sensitive mutants in both pUL25 and pUL36 dock at the NPC but fail to release DNA. The uncoating reaction has been difficult to study due to the rapid release of the genome once the capsid interacts with the nuclear pore. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a truncation mutant of pUL25. Live-cell imaging and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the mutant was not impaired in penetration of the host cell or in trafficking of the capsid to the nuclear membrane. However, expression of viral proteins was absent or significantly delayed in cells infected with the pUL25 mutant virus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed capsids accumulated at nuclear pores that retained the viral genome for at least 4 h postinfection. In addition, cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of virion capsids did not detect any obvious differences in the location or structural organization for the pUL25 or pUL36 proteins on the pUL25 mutant capsids. Further, in contrast to wild-type virus, the antiviral response mediated by the viral DNA-sensing cyclic guanine adenine synthase (cGAS) was severely compromised for the pUL25 mutant. These results demonstrate that the pUL25 capsid protein has a critical role in releasing viral DNA from NPC-bound capsids. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. Early steps in infection include release of the capsid into the cytoplasm, docking of the capsid at a nuclear pore, and release of the viral genome into the nucleus

  8. Biophysical and Structural Studies on the Capsid Protein of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: A New Drug Target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Neira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIDS affects 30 million people worldwide and is one of the deadliest epidemics in human history. It is caused by a retrovirus, HIV, whose mature capsid (enclosing the RNA with other proteins is formed by the assembly of several hundred copies of a protein, CA*. The C-terminal domain of such protein, CAC, is a driving force in virus assembly and the connections in the mature capsid lattice indicate that CAC joins through homodimerization of the CA hexamers. In the first part of this work, I shall review the biophysical studies carried out with the dimeric wild-type CAC protein and a mutant monomeric variant. The results open new venues for the development of drugs able to interact either with the dimeric species, hampering its assembly, or with the monomeric species, obstructing its folding. In the second part of this review, I shall describe the structures of complexes of CAC with small molecules able to weaken its dimerization. Furthermore, interactions with other proteins and lipids are also described. The whole set of results suggests that much of the surface of CAC does not accommodate binding per se, but rather binding sites in the protein are predefined, i.e., there are “hot” spots for binding in CAC (whatever be the molecule to bind. These “hot” residues involve most of the dimerization interface (an α-helix of the CAC wild-type protein, but also polypeptide patches at the other helices.

  9. Unprocessed foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor displays discontinuous epitopes involved in viral neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, J C; Cairó, J; Medina, M; Zuidema, D; Abrams, C; Belsham, G J; Domingo, E; Vlak, J M

    1994-07-01

    A foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) cDNA cassette containing sequences encoding the capsid precursor P1, peptide 2A and a truncated 2B (abbreviated P1-2A) of type C FMDV, has been modified to generate the authentic amino terminus and the myristoylation signal. This construct has been used to produce a recombinant baculovirus (AcMM53) which, upon infection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells, expressed a recombinant P1-2A precursor with a high yield. This polyprotein reacted with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that bind to continuous epitopes of the major antigenic site A (also termed site 1) of capsid protein VP1. Unexpectedly, it also reacted with neutralizing MAbs which define complex, discontinuous epitopes previously identified on FMDV particles. The reactivity of MAbs with P1-2A was quantitatively similar to their reactivity with intact virus and, in both cases, the reactivity with MAbs that recognized discontinuous epitopes was lost upon heat denaturation of the antigen. The finding that a capsid precursor may fold in such a way as to maintain discontinuous epitopes involved in virus neutralization present on the virion surface opens the possibility of using unprocessed capsid precursors as novel antiviral immunogens.

  10. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  11. Definition of linear antigenic regions of the HPV16 L1 capsid protein using synthetic virion-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Sun, X Y; Davies, H; Crawford, L; Park, D; Frazer, I H

    1992-08-01

    Mice of three haplotypes (H-2d, H-2b, and H-2d/b) were immunized with synthetic HPV16 virus-like particles (VLPs), produced using a vaccinia virus doubly recombinant for the L1 and L2 proteins of HPV16. The resultant anti-VLP antisera recognized HPV16 capsids by ELISA assay and baculovirus recombinant HPV16 L1 and L2 protein on immunoblot. Overlapping peptides corresponding to the HPV16 L1 amino acid sequence were used to define the immunoreactive regions of the L1 protein. The majority of the L1 peptides were reactive with IgG from the mice immunized with the synthetic HPV16 capsids. A computer algorithm predicted seven B epitopes in HPV16 L1, five of which lay within peptides strongly reactive with the murine antisera. The murine anti-VLP antisera failed to react with the two peptides recognized by anti-HPV16L1 monoclonal antibodies raised by others against recombinant L1 fusion protein. We conclude that the immunoreactive epitopes of HPV16 defined using virus-like particles differ significantly from those defined using recombinant HPV16 L1 fusion proteins, which implies that such fusion proteins may not be the antigens to look for HPV16L1 specific immune responses in HPV-infected patients.

  12. Nucleolin interacts with the dengue virus capsid protein and plays a role in formation of infectious virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinsky, Corey A; Schmeisser, Hana; Ganesan, Sundar; Singh, Kavita; Pierson, Theodore C; Zoon, Kathryn C

    2013-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease in humans and is considered a reemerging pathogen of significant importance to public health. The DENV capsid (C) protein functions as a structural component of the infectious virion; however, it may have additional functions in the virus replicative cycle. Here, we show that the DENV C protein interacts and colocalizes with the multifunctional host protein nucleolin (NCL). Furthermore, we demonstrate that this interaction can be disrupted by the addition of an NCL binding aptamer (AS1411). Knockdown of NCL with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or treatment of cells with AS1411 results in a significant reduction of viral titers after DENV infection. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed no differences in viral RNA or protein levels at early time points postinfection, suggesting a role for NCL in viral morphogenesis. We support this hypothesis by showing that treatment with AS1411 alters the migration characteristics of the viral capsid, as visualized by native electrophoresis. Here, we identify a critical interaction between DENV C protein and NCL that represents a potential new target for the development of antiviral therapeutics.

  13. Structure of the Triatoma virus capsid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, Gaëlle; Pous, Joan [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Agirre, Jon [Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia, Barrio Sarriena S/N, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (FBB) (Spain); Unidad de Biofísica (UBF, CSIC, UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rozas-Dennis, Gabriela S. [U.N.S., San Juan 670 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); U.N.S., Avenida Alem 1253 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Costabel, Marcelo D. [U.N.S., Avenida Alem 1253 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Marti, Gerardo A. [Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE-CCT, La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Calle 2 No. 584 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Navaza, Jorge; Bressanelli, Stéphane [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Guérin, Diego M. A., E-mail: diego.guerin@ehu.es [Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia, Barrio Sarriena S/N, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (FBB) (Spain); Unidad de Biofísica (UBF, CSIC, UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rey, Felix A., E-mail: diego.guerin@ehu.es [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2013-06-01

    The crystallographic structure of TrV shows specific morphological and functional features that clearly distinguish it from the type species of the Cripavirus genus, CrPV. The members of the Dicistroviridae family are non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses pathogenic to beneficial arthropods as well as insect pests of medical importance. Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, infects several species of triatomine insects (popularly named kissing bugs), which are vectors for human trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease. The potential use of dicistroviruses as biological control agents has drawn considerable attention in the past decade, and several viruses of this family have been identified, with their targets covering honey bees, aphids and field crickets, among others. Here, the crystal structure of the TrV capsid at 2.5 Å resolution is reported, showing that as expected it is very similar to that of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). Nevertheless, a number of distinguishing structural features support the introduction of a new genus (Triatovirus; type species TrV) under the Dicistroviridae family. The most striking differences are the absence of icosahedrally ordered VP4 within the infectious particle and the presence of prominent projections that surround the fivefold axis. Furthermore, the structure identifies a second putative autoproteolytic DDF motif in protein VP3, in addition to the conserved one in VP1 which is believed to be responsible for VP0 cleavage during capsid maturation. The potential meaning of these new findings is discussed.

  14. Molecular evolution of the VP1, VP2, and VP3 genes in human rhinovirus species C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Makoto; Niwa, Shoichi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Masaru; Ryo, Akihide; Sato, Hironori; Kiyota, Naoko; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Shirabe, Komei; Kusaka, Takashi; Shimojo, Naoki; Hasegawa, Shunji; Sugai, Kazuko; Obuchi, Masatsugu; Tashiro, Masato; Oishi, Kazunori; Ishii, Haruyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2015-02-02

    Human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) was recently discovered, and this virus has been associated with various acute respiratory illnesses (ARI). However, the molecular evolution of the major antigens of this virus, including VP1, VP2, and VP3, is unknown. Thus, we performed complete VP1, VP2, and VP3 gene analyses of 139 clinical HRV-C strains using RT-PCR with newly designed primer sets and next-generation sequencing. We assessed the time-scale evolution and evolutionary rate of these genes using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In addition, we calculated the pairwise distance and confirmed the positive/negative selection sites in these genes. The phylogenetic trees showed that the HRV-C strains analyzed using these genes could be dated back approximately 400 to 900 years, and these strains exhibited high evolutionary rates (1.35 to 3.74 × 10(-3) substitutions/site/year). Many genotypes (>40) were confirmed in the phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, no positively selected site was found in the VP1, VP2, and VP3 protein. Molecular modeling analysis combined with variation analysis suggested that the exterior surfaces of the VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins are rich in loops and are highly variable. These results suggested that HRV-C may have an old history and unique antigenicity as an agent of various ARI.

  15. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV L1 CAPSID PROTEIN IN CERVICAL SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balan Raluca

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the immunohistochemical pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs in correlation with L1 HPV capsid protein, in order to determine the relationship between EGFR expression and the infection status of human papillomavirus (HPV. The study included 40 cases, 24 LSIL (low grade SIL (CIN1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 16 HSIL (high grade SIL (6 cases of CIN2 and 10 cases of CIN3. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV protein was assessed on conventional cervico-vaginal smears and EGFR was immunohistochemically evaluated on the corresponding cervical biopsies. The HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 45.83% of LSIL and 25% of HSIL. EGFR was overexpressed in 62,4% of HSIL (58,4% CIN2 and 41,6% CIN3 and 37,6% LSIL. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV has clinical application in the progression assessment of the cervical precancerous lesions without a correlation to the grade of the cervical SIL. EGFR is expressed by all proliferating squamous epithelial cells, thus corresponding with the grade of SIL. The evaluation of EGFR status, correlated with L1 HPV protein expression, can provide useful data of progression risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions

  16. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF P16 PROTEIN AND OF L1 CAPSID PROTEIN OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CERVICAL SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to accomplish a comparative assessment between the immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical expression of p16 protein and of L1capsid protein respectively of HPV, high grade and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, in order to determine, by morph-clinical  correlations, their practical applicability in diagnosing and the subsequent monitoring of the patients. For the cases studied, HPV L1 capsid protein was present in 66.7% of LSIL, 17.6% of HSIL and 18.2% of ASCUS. From all cervical biopsies, p16 biomarker was positive for 54.8% of LSIL, 98% of HSIL and 45.5% of ASCUS. The biggest part of cervical cancer cases are caused by HPV virus infection. HPV vaccine protects against 4 HPV roots that cause about 70% of cervical cancer cases.

  17. siRNAs Targeting Viral Protein 5: The Major Capsid Protein of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether siRNA targeting viral protein 5 (VP5) can become a new treatment for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Methods: Flow cytometry was performed to determine the ratio of siRNA and lipo2000 to reach the highest transfection efficiency. Western blot and q-PCR were performed to determine ...

  18. Characterization of VP1 gene of coxsackievirus A16 prevalent among hand foot mouth disease suffered children in Taizhou, P. R. China, between 2010 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhilong; Zha, Jie

    2016-02-01

    A total of 453 strains of Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) were screened out of 1,509 hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) samples collected in Taizhou during the period from 2010 to 2013. And between first quarter of 2011 and first quarter of 2013, an outbreak of CV-A16 was found among the HFMD sufferers in Taizhou. Phylogenic analysis of VP1 sequences indicated a major CV-A16 sub-group in Taizhou, whose change pattern of effective population sizes was found to be similar to the pattern of the actual percentage changes of CV-A16 during the outbreak over the same period. More importantly, the sub-group all displayed a Leu (L) to Met (M) mutation at site-23 of capsid VP1 which might be correlated with the outbreak of CV-A16 in Taizhou. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of tobacco streak virus and a proteolytically modified form of the capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnke, P C; Johnson, J E

    1993-09-01

    Isolated tobacco streak virus strain mild (TSV-M) top nucleoprotein component (TV) was crystallized by vapor diffusion with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and methyl pentanediol. The morphology of the crystal suggested a hexagonal space group, however, the crystals were disordered as analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Capsid protein from TSV (strains M and white clover) was treated with trypsin to remove 87 amino terminal residues. The modified capsid protein was purified by ion exchange chromatography and crystallized in both hexagonal and triclinic forms. Hexagonal crystals grown by vapor diffusion in PEG diffract X rays to 4.5 A. The crystals, in the space group P6(2) or its enantiomorph, possess unit cell dimensions of a = 98.3 A, c = 108.7 A and probably contain 12 dimers/unit cell. Triclinic crystals grown by vapor diffusion in ammonium sulfate diffracted X rays to 2.4 A resolution when exposed to X-ray synchrotron radiation. The crystals have unit cell dimensions of a = 60.1 A, b = 77.5 A, c = 73.9 A with alpha = 67.8 degrees, beta = 130 degrees, and gamma = 106 degrees and probably contain 4 dimers/unit cell.

  20. The lectin from Musa paradisiaca binds with the capsid protein of tobacco mosaic virus and prevents viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yu; Li, Huan; Zhang, Wei

    2014-05-04

    It has been demonstrated that the lectin from Musa paradisiaca (BanLec-1) could inhibit the cellular entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to evaluate its effects on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the banlec-1 gene was cloned and transformed into Escherichia coli and tobacco, respectively. Recombinant BanLec-1 showed metal ions dependence, and higher thermal and pH stability. Overexpression of banlec-1 in tobacco resulted in decreased leaf size, and higher resistance to TMV infection, which includes reduced TMV cellular entry, more stable chlorophyll contents, and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. BanLec-1 was found to bind directly to the TMV capsid protein in vitro, and to inhibit TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to limited prevention in vivo, purified rBanLec-1 exhibited more significant effects on TMV infection in vitro. Taken together, our study indicated that BanLec-1 could prevent TMV infection in tobacco, probably through the interaction between BanLec-1 and TMV capsid protein.

  1. Bacterial surface-displayed GII.4 human norovirus capsid proteins bound to surface of Romaine lettuce through HBGA-like molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the main cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Contaminated produce is a main vehicle for dissemination of HuNoVs. In this study, we used an ice nucleation protein (INP) mediated surface display system to present the protruding domain of GII.4 HuNoV capsid protein (G...

  2. Specific Inhibitors of HIV Capsid Assembly Binding to the C-Terminal Domain of the Capsid Protein: Evaluation of 2-Arylquinazolines as Potential Antiviral Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machara, A.; Lux, V.; Kožíšek, Milan; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Štěpánek, O.; Kotora, M.; Parkan, Kamil; Pávová, Marcela; Glass, B.; Sehr, P.; Lewis, J.; Müller, B.; Kräusslich, H. G.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2016), s. 545-558 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19561S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 201095 - HIV ACE Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV -1 assembly * capsid * high-throughput screening * AlphaScreen assay Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016

  3. Electrophoretic mobility of the capsid protein of the Plum pox virus strain PPV-Rec indicates its partial phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subr, Z; Ryslava, H; Kollerova, E

    2007-01-01

    A double-band SDS-PAGE profile was found reproducible for capsid protein (CP) of Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates belonging to the strain PPV-Rec. The double-band was also present in the virus population multiplied in various plants. A single-lesion passage in a hypersensitive host Chenopodium foetidum showed that its presence was not a result of a mixed infection. We found that the two electrophoretic forms of CP shared identical N-terminus. Therefore, they did not originate from an alternative proteolytic processing, but were different in their posttranslational modification. The slower band of CP could be converted to the faster one by the phosphatase treatment. We assumed that CP protein was present in both phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms in the infected plants.

  4. A Bacterial Surface Display System Expressing Cleavable Capsid Proteins of Human Norovirus: A Novel System to Discover Candidate Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are the dominant cause of food-borne outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. However, fundamental researches on HuNoVs, such as identification of viral receptors have been limited by the currently immature system to culture HuNoVs and the lack of efficient small animal models. Previously, we demonstrated that the recombinant protruding domain (P domain of HuNoVs capsid proteins were successfully anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with a plasmid expressing HuNoVs P protein fused with bacterial transmembrane anchor protein. The cell-surface-displayed P proteins could specifically recognize and bind to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs, receptors of HuNoVs. In this study, an upgraded bacterial surface displayed system was developed as a new platform to discover candidate receptors of HuNoVs. A thrombin-susceptible “linker” sequence was added between the sequences of bacterial transmembrane anchor protein and P domain of HuNoV (GII.4 capsid protein in a plasmid that displays the functional P proteins on the surface of bacteria. In this new system, the surface-displayed HuNoV P proteins could be released by thrombin treatment. The released P proteins self-assembled into small particles, which were visualized by electron microscopy. The bacteria with the surface-displayed P proteins were incubated with pig stomach mucin which contained HBGAs. The bacteria-HuNoV P proteins-HBGAs complex could be collected by low speed centrifugation. The HuNoV P proteins-HBGAs complex was then separated from the recombinant bacterial surface by thrombin treatment. The released viral receptor was confirmed by using the monoclonal antibody against type A HBGA. It demonstrated that the new system was able to capture and easily isolate receptors of HuNoVs. This new strategy provides an alternative, easier approach for isolating unknown receptors/ligands of HuNoVs from different samples

  5. Antibodies against outer-capsid proteins of grass carp reovirus expressed in E. coli are capable of neutralizing viral infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiaoyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp reovirus (GCRV, which causes severe infectious outbreaks of hemorrhagic disease in aquatic animals, is a highly pathogenic agent in the Aquareovirus genus of family Reoviridae. The outer capsid shell of GCRV, composed of the VP5-VP7 protein complex, is believed to be involved in cell entry. The objective of this study was to produce a major neutralization antibody for mitigating GCRV infection. Results Recombinant plasmids of GCRV outer capsid proteins VP5 and VP7 were constructed and expressed in prokaryotic cells in our previous work. In this study, we prepared GCRV Antibody (Ab, VP5Ab and VP7Ab generated from purified native GCRV, recombinant VP5 and VP7 respectively. Immunoblotting analysis showed that the prepared antibodies were specific to its antigens. In addition, combined plaque and cytopathic effect (CPE-based TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose assays showed that both VP5Ab and VP7Ab were capable of neutralizing viral infectivity. Particularly, the neutralizing activity of VP7Ab was 3 times higher than that of VP5Ab, suggesting that VP7 might be a dominating epitope. Moreover, the combination of VP5Ab and VP7Ab appeared to enhance GCRV neutralizing capacity. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicated that VP7 protein was the major epitope of GCRV. Furthermore, VP5Ab and VP7Ab in combination presented an enhanced capacity to neutralize the GCRV particle, suggesting that the VP5 and VP7 proteins may cooperate with each other during virus cell entry. The data can be used not only to further define the surface epitope domain of GCRV but may also be applicable in the designing of vaccines.

  6. Mutants at the 2-Fold Interface of Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Structural Proteins Suggest a Role in Viral Transcription for AAV Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Fikret; Salganik, Maxim; Resztak, Justyna; Singh, Jasbir; Bennett, Antonette; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2016-08-15

    We previously reported that an amino acid substitution, Y704A, near the 2-fold interface of adeno-associated virus (AAV) was defective for transcription of the packaged genome (M. Salganik, F. Aydemir, H. J. Nam, R. McKenna, M. Agbandje-McKenna, and N. Muzyczka, J Virol 88:1071-1079, 2013, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02093-13). In this report, we have characterized the defect in 6 additional capsid mutants located in a region ∼30 Å in diameter on the surface of the AAV type 2 (AAV2) capsid near the 2-fold interface. These mutants, which are highly conserved among primate serotypes, displayed a severe defect (3 to 6 logs) in infectivity. All of the mutants accumulated significant levels of uncoated DNA in the nucleus, but none of the mutants were able to accumulate significant amounts of genomic mRNA postinfection. In addition, wild-type (wt) capsids that were bound to the conformational antibody A20, which is known to bind the capsid surface in the region of the mutants, were also defective for transcription. In all cases, the mutant virus particles, as well as the antibody-bound wild-type capsids, were able to enter the cell, travel to the nucleus, uncoat, and synthesize a second strand but were unable to transcribe their genomes. Taken together, the phenotype of these mutants provides compelling evidence that the AAV capsid plays a role in the transcription of its genome, and the mutants map this functional region on the surface of the capsid near the 2-fold interface. This appears to be the first example of a viral structural protein that is also involved in the transcription of the viral genome that it delivers to the nucleus. Many viruses package enzymes within their capsids that assist in expressing their genomes postinfection, e.g., retroviruses. A number of nonenveloped viruses, including AAV, carry proteases that are needed for capsid maturation or for capsid modification during infection. We describe here what appears to be the first example of

  7. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino

    2017-01-01

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid') built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging' is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein. PMID:28134243

  8. Portal protein functions akin to a DNA-sensor that couples genome-packaging to icosahedral capsid maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Sankhala, Rajeshwer S.; Roy, Ankoor; Afonine, Pavel V.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Parent, Kristin N.; Cingolani, Gino (Rutgers); (LBNL); (Connecticut); (TJU); (MSU)

    2017-01-30

    Tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses assemble infectious particles via an empty precursor capsid (or ‘procapsid’) built by multiple copies of coat and scaffolding protein and by one dodecameric portal protein. Genome packaging triggers rearrangement of the coat protein and release of scaffolding protein, resulting in dramatic procapsid lattice expansion. Here, we provide structural evidence that the portal protein of the bacteriophage P22 exists in two distinct dodecameric conformations: an asymmetric assembly in the procapsid (PC-portal) that is competent for high affinity binding to the large terminase packaging protein, and a symmetric ring in the mature virion (MV-portal) that has negligible affinity for the packaging motor. Modelling studies indicate the structure of PC-portal is incompatible with DNA coaxially spooled around the portal vertex, suggesting that newly packaged DNA triggers the switch from PC- to MV-conformation. Thus, we propose the signal for termination of ‘Headful Packaging’ is a DNA-dependent symmetrization of portal protein.

  9. Recognition of the Different Structural Forms of the Capsid Protein Determines the Outcome following Infection with Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trible, Benjamin R.; Suddith, Andrew W.; Kerrigan, Maureen A.; Cino-Ozuna, Ada G.; Hesse, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) capsid protein (CP) is the only protein necessary for the formation of the virion capsid, and recombinant CP spontaneously forms virus-like particles (VLPs). Located within a single CP subunit is an immunodominant epitope consisting of residues 169 to 180 [CP(169–180)], which is exposed on the surface of the subunit, but, in the structural context of the VLP, the epitope is buried and inaccessible to antibody. High levels of anti-CP(169–180) activity are associated with porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the immune response to monomer CP in the development of PCVAD. The approach was to immunize pigs with CP monomer, followed by challenge with PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). To maintain the CP immunogen as a stable monomer, CP(43–233) was fused to ubiquitin (Ub-CP). Size exclusion chromatography showed that Ub-CP was present as a single 33-kDa protein. Pigs immunized with Ub-CP developed a strong antibody response to PCV2, including antibodies against CP(169–180). However, only low levels of virus neutralizing activity were detected, and viremia levels were similar to those of nonimmunized pigs. As a positive control, immunization with baculovirus-expressed CP (Bac-CP) resulted in high levels of virus neutralizing activity, small amounts of anti-CP(169–180) activity, and the absence of viremia in pigs following virus challenge. The data support the role of CP(169–180) as an immunological decoy and illustrate the importance of the structural form of the CP immunogen in determining the outcome following infection. PMID:23035215

  10. Features of reovirus outer capsid protein mu1 revealed by electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction of the virion at 7.0 Angstrom resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Ji, Yongchang; Zhang, Lan; Harrison, Stephen C; Marinescu, Dan C; Nibert, Max L; Baker, Timothy S

    2005-10-01

    Reovirus is a useful model for addressing the molecular basis of membrane penetration by one of the larger nonenveloped animal viruses. We now report the structure of the reovirus virion at approximately 7.0 A resolution as obtained by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. Several features of the myristoylated outer capsid protein mu1, not seen in a previous X-ray crystal structure of the mu1-sigma3 heterohexamer, are evident in the virion. These features appear to be important for stabilizing the outer capsid, regulating the conformational changes in mu1 that accompany perforation of target membranes, and contributing directly to membrane penetration during cell entry.

  11. Structures of Adenovirus Incomplete Particles Clarify Capsid Architecture and Show Maturation Changes of Packaging Protein L1 52/55k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condezo, Gabriela N; Marabini, Roberto; Ayora, Silvia; Carazo, José M; Alba, Raúl; Chillón, Miguel; San Martín, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    Adenovirus is one of the most complex icosahedral, nonenveloped viruses. Even after its structure was solved at near-atomic resolution by both cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, the location of minor coat proteins is still a subject of debate. The elaborated capsid architecture is the product of a correspondingly complex assembly process, about which many aspects remain unknown. Genome encapsidation involves the concerted action of five virus proteins, and proteolytic processing by the virus protease is needed to prime the virion for sequential uncoating. Protein L1 52/55k is required for packaging, and multiple cleavages by the maturation protease facilitate its release from the nascent virion. Light-density particles are routinely produced in adenovirus infections and are thought to represent assembly intermediates. Here, we present the molecular and structural characterization of two different types of human adenovirus light particles produced by a mutant with delayed packaging. We show that these particles lack core polypeptide V but do not lack the density corresponding to this protein in the X-ray structure, thereby adding support to the adenovirus cryo-electron microscopy model. The two types of light particles present different degrees of proteolytic processing. Their structures provide the first glimpse of the organization of L1 52/55k protein inside the capsid shell and of how this organization changes upon partial maturation. Immature, full-length L1 52/55k is poised beneath the vertices to engage the virus genome. Upon proteolytic processing, L1 52/55k disengages from the capsid shell, facilitating genome release during uncoating. Adenoviruses have been extensively characterized as experimental systems in molecular biology, as human pathogens, and as therapeutic vectors. However, a clear picture of many aspects of their basic biology is still lacking. Two of these aspects are the location of minor coat proteins in the capsid and the

  12. Role of a nuclear localization signal on the minor capsid Proteins VP2 and VP3 in BKPyV nuclear entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Shauna M. [Cellular and Molecular Biology Program University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhao, Linbo [Doctoral Program in Cancer Biology Program University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bosard, Catherine [Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Imperiale, Michael J., E-mail: imperial@umich.edu [Cellular and Molecular Biology Program University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Doctoral Program in Cancer Biology Program University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Michigan 1150W Medical Center Dr 5724 Medical Science Bldg II Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a ubiquitous nonenveloped human virus that can cause severe disease in immunocompromised populations. After internalization into renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, BKPyV traffics through the ER and enters the cytosol. However, it is unclear how the virus enters the nucleus. In this study, we elucidate a role for the nuclear localization signal located on the minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 during infection. Site-directed mutagenesis of a single lysine in the basic region of the C-terminus of the minor capsid proteins abrogated their nuclear localization, and the analogous genomic mutation reduced infectivity. Additionally, through use of the inhibitor ivermectin and knockdown of importin β1, we found that the importin α/β pathway is involved during infection. Overall these data are the first to show the significance of the NLS of the BKPyV minor capsid proteins during infection in a natural host cell. - Highlights: • Polyomaviruses must deliver their genome to the nucleus to replicate. • The minor capsid proteins have a well-conserved nuclear localization signal. • Mutation of this NLS diminishes, but does not completely inhibit, infection.

  13. Prognostic relevance of human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein detection within mild and moderate dysplastic lesions of the cervix uteri in combination with p16 biomarker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilfrich, Ralf; Hariri, Jalil

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To proof the prognostic relevance of HPV L1 capsid protein detection on colposcopically-guided punch biopsies in combination with p16. STUDY DESIGN: Sections of colposcopically-guided punch biopsies from 191 consecutive cases with at least 5 years of follow-up were stained with HPV L1 ...

  14. SECRET AGENT, an Arabidopsis thaliana O-GlcNAc transferase, modifies the Plum pox virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Cheryl L; Hartweck, Lynn M; de Jesús Pérez, José; Chen, Dinghu; García, Juan Antonio; Olszewski, Neil E

    2006-10-30

    The capsid protein of Plum pox virus (PPV-CP) is modified with O-linked GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc). While Arabidopsis has two O-GlcNAc transferases, SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY), previous work suggests that SEC modifies PPV-CP and that the modification plays a role in the infection process. Here, we show that when co-expressed in Escherichia coli SEC modifies PPV-CP. Deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis identified three threonine and a serine located near the N-terminus of PPV-CP that are modified by SEC. Two of these threonines have recently been shown to be modified in virus from plants suggesting that SEC has the same specificity in plants and E. coli.

  15. Direct binding of retromer to human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 mediates endosome exit during viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking of human papillomaviruses to the Golgi apparatus during virus entry requires retromer, an endosomal coat protein complex that mediates the vesicular transport of cellular transmembrane proteins from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus or the plasma membrane. Here we show that the HPV16 L2 minor capsid protein is a retromer cargo, even though L2 is not a transmembrane protein. We show that direct binding of retromer to a conserved sequence in the carboxy-terminus of L2 is required for exit of L2 from the early endosome and delivery to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. This binding site is different from known retromer binding motifs and can be replaced by a sorting signal from a cellular retromer cargo. Thus, HPV16 is an unconventional particulate retromer cargo, and retromer binding initiates retrograde transport of viral components from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network during virus entry. We propose that the carboxy-terminal segment of L2 protein protrudes through the endosomal membrane and is accessed by retromer in the cytoplasm.

  16. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia; Paramasivam, Saravanan; Ren, Junyuan; Al-Khalil, Tara; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Belsham, Graham J; Curry, Stephen; Lomonossoff, George P; Parida, Satya; Paton, David; Li, Yanmin; Wilsden, Ginette; Ferris, Nigel; Owens, Ray; Kotecha, Abhay; Fry, Elizabeth; Stuart, David I; Charleston, Bryan; Jones, Ian M

    2013-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown to be efficient but linkage of the cognate 3C protease to the C-terminus reduces expression significantly. Inactivation of the 3C enzyme in a P1-2A-3C cassette allows expression and intermediate levels of 3C activity resulted in efficient processing of the P1-2A precursor into the structural proteins which assembled into empty capsids. Expression was independent of the insect host cell background and leads to capsids that are recognised as authentic by a range of anti-FMDV bovine sera suggesting their feasibility as an alternate vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of the invariable residue 51 mutations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein on in vitro CA assembly and infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höglund Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mature HIV-1 conical core formation proceeds through highly regulated protease cleavage of the Gag precursor, which ultimately leads to substantial rearrangements of the capsid (CAp24 molecule involving both inter- and intra-molecular contacts of the CAp24 molecules. In this aspect, Asp51 which is located in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CAp24 plays an important role by forming a salt-bridge with the free imino terminus Pro1 following proteolytic cleavage and liberation of the CAp24 protein from the Pr55Gag precursor. Thus, previous substitution mutation of Asp51 to alanine (D51A has shown to be lethal and that this invariable residue was found essential for tube formation in vitro, virus replication and virus capsid formation. Results We extended the above investigation by introducing three different D51 substitution mutations (D51N, D51E, and D51Q into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and studied their effects on in vitro capsid assembly and virus infectivity. Two substitution mutations (D51E and D51N had no substantial effect on in vitro capsid assembly, yet they impaired viral infectivity and particle production. In contrast, the D51Q mutant was defective both for in vitro capsid assembly and for virus replication in cell culture. Conclusion These results show that substitutions of D51 with glutamate, glutamine, or asparagine, three amino acid residues that are structurally related to aspartate, could partially rescue both in vitro capsid assembly and intra-cellular CAp24 production but not replication of the virus in cultured cells.

  18. Quantification and modification of the equilibrium dynamics and mechanics of a viral capsid lattice self-assembled as a protein nanocoating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbuena, Alejandro; Mateu, Mauricio G.

    2015-09-01

    Self-assembling, protein-based bidimensional lattices are being developed as functionalizable, highly ordered biocoatings for multiple applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Unfortunately, protein assemblies are soft materials that may be too sensitive to mechanical disruption, and their intrinsic conformational dynamism may also influence their applicability. Thus, it may be critically important to characterize, understand and manipulate the mechanical features and dynamic behavior of protein assemblies in order to improve their suitability as nanomaterials. In this study, the capsid protein of the human immunodeficiency virus was induced to self-assemble as a continuous, single layered, ordered nanocoating onto an inorganic substrate. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to quantify the mechanical behavior and the equilibrium dynamics (``breathing'') of this virus-based, self-assembled protein lattice in close to physiological conditions. The results uniquely provided: (i) evidence that AFM can be used to directly visualize in real time and quantify slow breathing motions leading to dynamic disorder in protein nanocoatings and viral capsid lattices; (ii) characterization of the dynamics and mechanics of a viral capsid lattice and protein-based nanocoating, including flexibility, mechanical strength and remarkable self-repair capacity after mechanical damage; (iii) proof of principle that chemical additives can modify the dynamics and mechanics of a viral capsid lattice or protein-based nanocoating, and improve their applied potential by increasing their mechanical strength and elasticity. We discuss the implications for the development of mechanically resistant and compliant biocoatings precisely organized at the nanoscale, and of novel antiviral agents acting on fundamental physical properties of viruses.Self-assembling, protein-based bidimensional lattices are being developed as functionalizable, highly ordered biocoatings for multiple applications

  19. Determinants of the VP1/2A junction cleavage by the 3C protease in foot-and-mouth disease virus infected cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thea; Normann, Preben; Gullberg, Maria

    2017-01-01

    . Interestingly, in contrast to the serotype O virus results, no second site mutations occurred within the VP1 coding region of serotype A viruses with the blocked VP1/2A cleavage site. However, some of these viruses acquired changes in the 2C protein that is involved in enterovirus morphogenesis. These results...... Generation Sequencing to determine sub-consensus level changes in the virus; this revealed other variants within the E83K mutant virus population that changed residue VP1 K210. The construction of serotype A viruses with a blocked VP1/2A cleavage site (containing K210E) has now been achieved. A collection...... of alternative amino acid substitutions were made at this site and the properties of the mutant viruses determined. Only the presence of a positively charged residue at position P2 in the cleavage site permitted efficient cleavage of the VP1/2A junction, consistent with analyses of diverse FMDV genome sequences...

  20. Role and mechanism of the maturation cleavage of VP0 in poliovirus assembly: structure of the empty capsid assembly intermediate at 2.9 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavappa, R.; Syed, R.; Flore, O.; Icenogle, J. P.; Filman, D. J.; Hogle, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The crystal structure of the P1/Mahoney poliovirus empty capsid has been determined at 2.9 A resolution. The empty capsids differ from mature virions in that they lack the viral RNA and have yet to undergo a stabilizing maturation cleavage of VP0 to yield the mature capsid proteins VP4 and VP2. The outer surface and the bulk of the protein shell are very similar to those of the mature virion. The major differences between the 2 structures are focused in a network formed by the N-terminal extensions of the capsid proteins on the inner surface of the shell. In the empty capsids, the entire N-terminal extension of VP1, as well as portions corresponding to VP4 and the N-terminal extension of VP2, are disordered, and many stabilizing interactions that are present in the mature virion are missing. In the empty capsid, the VP0 scissile bond is located some 20 A away from the positions in the mature virion of the termini generated by VP0 cleavage. The scissile bond is located on the rim of a trefoil-shaped depression in the inner surface of the shell that is highly reminiscent of an RNA binding site in bean pod mottle virus. The structure suggests plausible (and ultimately testable) models for the initiation of encapsidation, for the RNA-dependent autocatalytic cleavage of VP0, and for the role of the cleavage in establishing the ordered N-terminal network and in generating stable virions. PMID:7849583

  1. Purification of recombinant virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein using ion-exchange monolith chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveckas, Mindaugas; Snipaitis, Simas; Pesliakas, Henrikas; Nainys, Juozas; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2015-06-01

    Diseases associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection are having a severe economic impact on swine-producing countries. The PCV2 capsid (Cap) protein expressed in eukaryotic systems self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) which can serve as antigens for diagnostics or/and as vaccine candidates. In this work, conventional adsorbents as well as a monolithic support with large pore sizes were examined for the chromatographic purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs from clarified yeast lysate. Q Sepharose XL was used for the initial separation of VLPs from residual host nucleic acids and some host cell proteins. For the further purification of PCV2 Cap VLPs, SP Sepharose XL, Heparin Sepharose CL-6B and CIMmultus SO3 monolith were tested. VLPs were not retained on SP Sepharose XL. The purity of VLPs after chromatography on Heparin Sepharose CL-6B was only 4-7% and the recovery of VLPs was 5-7%. Using ion-exchange chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 monolith, PCV2 Cap VLPs with the purity of about 40% were obtained. The recovery of VLPs after chromatography on the CIMmultus SO3 monolith was 15-18%. The self-assembly of purified PCV2 Cap protein into VLPs was confirmed by electron microscopy. Two-step chromatographic purification procedure of PCV2 Cap VLPs from yeast lysate was developed using Q Sepharose XL and cation-exchange CIMmultus SO3 monolith. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping of two O-GlcNAc modification sites in the capsid protein of the potyvirus Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Pérez, José; Juárez, Silvia; Chen, Dinghu; Scott, Cheryl L; Hartweck, Lynn M; Olszewski, Neil E; García, Juan Antonio

    2006-10-30

    A large number of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residues have been mapped in vertebrate proteins, however targets of O-GlcNAcylation in plants still have not been characterized. We show here that O-GlcNAcylation of the N-terminal region of the capsid protein of Plum pox virus resembles that of animal proteins in introducing O-GlcNAc monomers. Thr-19 and Thr-24 were specifically O-GlcNAcylated. These residues are surrounded by amino acids typical of animal O-GlcNAc acceptor sites, suggesting that the specificity of O-GlcNAc transferases is conserved among plants and animals. In laboratory conditions, mutations preventing O-GlcNAcylation of Thr-19 and Thr-24 did not have noticeable effects on PPV competence to infect Prunus persicae or Nicotiana clevelandii. However, the fact that Thr-19 and Thr-24 are highly conserved among different PPV strains suggests that their O-GlcNAc modification could be relevant for efficient competitiveness in natural conditions.

  3. Diversity of environmental single-stranded DNA phages revealed by PCR amplification of the partial major capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Max; Kailasan, Shweta; Cohen, Allison; Roux, Simon; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Shevenell, Amelia; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Breitbart, Mya

    2014-10-01

    The small single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bacteriophages of the subfamily Gokushovirinae were traditionally perceived as narrowly targeted, niche-specific viruses infecting obligate parasitic bacteria, such as Chlamydia. The advent of metagenomics revealed gokushoviruses to be widespread in global environmental samples. This study expands knowledge of gokushovirus diversity in the environment by developing a degenerate PCR assay to amplify a portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of gokushoviruses. Over 500 amplicons were sequenced from 10 environmental samples (sediments, sewage, seawater and freshwater), revealing the ubiquity and high diversity of this understudied phage group. Residue-level conservation data generated from multiple alignments was combined with a predicted 3D structure, revealing a tendency for structurally internal residues to be more highly conserved than surface-presenting protein-protein or viral-host interaction domains. Aggregating this data set into a phylogenetic framework, many gokushovirus MCP clades contained samples from multiple environments, although distinct clades dominated the different samples. Antarctic sediment samples contained the most diverse gokushovirus communities, whereas freshwater springs from Florida were the least diverse. Whether the observed diversity is being driven by environmental factors or host-binding interactions remains an open question. The high environmental diversity of this previously overlooked ssDNA viral group necessitates further research elucidating their natural hosts and exploring their ecological roles.

  4. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Xuepeng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. The capsid (Cap protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli , because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO. The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection.

  5. Novel inhibitors targeting Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein identified using In Silico Structure-Based-Drug-Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Sharon; Thomas, David R; Lundberg, Lindsay; Pinkham, Chelsea; Lin, Shih-Chao; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Debono, Aaron; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Jans, David A

    2017-12-18

    Therapeutics are currently unavailable for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), which elicits flu-like symptoms and encephalitis in humans, with an estimated 14% of cases resulting in neurological disease. Here we identify anti-VEEV agents using in silico structure-based-drug-design (SBDD) for the first time, characterising inhibitors that block recognition of VEEV capsid protein (C) by the host importin (IMP) α/β1 nuclear transport proteins. From an initial screen of 1.5 million compounds, followed by in silico refinement and screening for biological activity in vitro, we identified 21 hit compounds which inhibited IMPα/β1:C binding with IC50s as low as 5 µM. Four compounds were found to inhibit nuclear import of C in transfected cells, with one able to reduce VEEV replication at µM concentration, concomitant with reduced C nuclear accumulation in infected cells. Further, this compound was inactive against a mutant VEEV that lacks high affinity IMPα/β1:C interaction, supporting the mode of its antiviral action to be through inhibiting C nuclear localization. This successful application of SBDD paves the way for lead optimization for VEEV antivirals, and is an exciting prospect to identify inhibitors for the many other viral pathogens of significance that require IMPα/β1 in their infectious cycle.

  6. Antigenic and Cryo-Electron Microscopy Structure Analysis of a Chimeric Sapovirus Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Taylor, David W; Hansman, Grant S; Murata, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-23

    The capsid protein (VP1) of all caliciviruses forms an icosahedral particle with two principal domains, shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, which are connected via a flexible hinge region. The S domain forms a scaffold surrounding the nucleic acid, while the P domains form a homodimer that interacts with receptors. The P domain is further subdivided into two subdomains, termed P1 and P2. The P2 subdomain is likely an insertion in the P1 subdomain; consequently, the P domain is divided into the P1-1, P2, and P1-2 subdomains. In order to investigate capsid antigenicity, N-terminal (N-term)/S/P1-1 and P2/P1-2 were switched between two sapovirus genotypes GI.1 and GI.5. The chimeric VP1 constructs were expressed in insect cells and were shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) morphologically similar to the parental VLPs. Interestingly, the chimeric VLPs had higher levels of cross-reactivities to heterogeneous antisera than the parental VLPs. In order to better understand the antigenicity from a structural perspective, we determined an intermediate-resolution (8.5-Å) cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a chimeric VLP and developed a VP1 homology model. The cryo-EM structure revealed that the P domain dimers were raised slightly (∼5 Å) above the S domain. The VP1 homology model allowed us predict the S domain (67-229) and P1-1 (229-280), P2 (281-447), and P1-2 (448-567) subdomains. Our results suggested that the raised P dimers might expose immunoreactive S/P1-1 subdomain epitopes. Consequently, the higher levels of cross-reactivities with the chimeric VLPs resulted from a combination of GI.1 and GI.5 epitopes. We developed sapovirus chimeric VP1 constructs and produced the chimeric VLPs in insect cells. We found that both chimeric VLPs had a higher level of cross-reactivity against heterogeneous VLP antisera than the parental VLPs. The cryo-EM structure of one chimeric VLP (Yokote/Mc114) was solved to 8.5-Å resolution. A homology model

  7. Structures of foot and mouth disease virus pentamers: Insight into capsid dissociation and unexpected pentamer reassociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayab Malik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV belongs to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae, a family of small, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. It is a highly infectious pathogen and is one of the biggest hindrances to the international trade of animals and animal products. FMDV capsids (which are unstable below pH6.5 release their genome into the host cell from an acidic compartment, such as that of an endosome, and in the process dissociate into pentamers. Whilst other members of the family (enteroviruses have been visualized to form an expanded intermediate capsid with holes from which inner capsid proteins (VP4, N-termini (VP1 and RNA can be released, there has been no visualization of any such state for an aphthovirus, instead the capsid appears to simply dissociate into pentamers. Here we present the 8-Å resolution structure of isolated dissociated pentamers of FMDV, lacking VP4. We also found these pentamers to re-associate into a rigid, icosahedrally symmetric assembly, which enabled their structure to be solved at higher resolution (5.2 Å. In this assembly, the pentamers unexpectedly associate 'inside out', but still with their exposed hydrophobic edges buried. Stabilizing interactions occur between the HI loop of VP2 and its symmetry related partners at the icosahedral 3-fold axes, and between the BC and EF loops of VP3 with the VP2 βB-strand and the CD loop at the 2-fold axes. A relatively extensive but subtle structural rearrangement towards the periphery of the dissociated pentamer compared to that in the mature virus provides insight into the mechanism of dissociation of FMDV and the marked difference in antigenicity.

  8. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  9. Serotype identification and VP1 coding sequence analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus from outbreaks in Eastern and Northern Uganda in 2008/9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasambula, L.; Belsham, Graham; Siegismund, H. R.

    2012-01-01

    identified. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis of the complete variable protein (VP)1 coding sequences revealed that they belonged to serotype O, topotype EA-2. The close similarity between the virus sequences suggested introduction from a single source. We therefore conclude that FMD in the northern...

  10. Vaccination of mice with plasmids expressing processed capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus - Importance of dominant and subdominant epitopes for antigenicity and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Tine; Barfoed, Annette Malene; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    example of a dominant and variable site. This variability is a problem when designing vaccines against this disease, because it necessitates a close match between vaccine strain and virus in an outbreak. We have introduced a series of mutations into viral capsid proteins with the aim of selectively...... as compared to mice vaccinated with wild type epitopes. Most of the modifications did not adversely affect the ability of the plasmids to induce complete protection of mice against homologous challenge....

  11. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignment of the N-terminal domainof Mason-Pfizer monkey virus capsid protein, CA 1-140

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macek, Pavel; Žídek, L.; Rumlová, Michaela; Pichová, Iva; Sklenář, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2008), s. 43-45 ISSN 1874-2718 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : nmr * assignment * capsid protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.015, year: 2008

  12. A Developmental Switch of Gene Expression in the Barley Seed Mediated by HvVP1 (Viviparous-1) and HvGAMYB Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Zamira; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Martínez, Manuel; Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Díaz, Isabel; Carbonero, Pilar; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of storage compounds in the starchy endosperm of developing cereal seeds is highly regulated at the transcriptional level. These compounds, mainly starch and proteins, are hydrolyzed upon germination to allow seedling growth. The transcription factor HvGAMYB is a master activator both in the maturation phase of seed development and upon germination, acting in combination with other transcription factors. However, the precise mechanism controlling the switch from maturation to germination programs remains unclear. We report here the identification and molecular characterization of Hordeum vulgare VIVIPAROUS1 (HvVP1), orthologous to ABA-INSENSITIVE3 from Arabidopsis thaliana HvVP1 transcripts accumulate in the endosperm and the embryo of developing seeds at early stages and in the embryo and aleurone of germinating seeds up to 24 h of imbibition. In transient expression assays, HvVP1 controls the activation of Hor2 and Amy6.4 promoters exerted by HvGAMYB. HvVP1 interacts with HvGAMYB in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the plant nuclei, hindering its interaction with other transcription factors involved in seed gene expression programs, like BPBF. Similarly, this interaction leads to a decrease in the DNA binding of HvGAMYB and the Barley Prolamine-Box binding Factor (BPBF) to their target sequences. Our results indicate that the HvVP1 expression pattern controls the full Hor2 expression activated by GAMYB and BPBF in the developing endosperm and the Amy6.4 activation in postgerminative reserve mobilization mediated by GAMYB. All these data demonstrate the participation of HvVP1 in antagonistic gene expression programs and support its central role as a gene expression switch during seed maturation and germination. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Capsid protein VP4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Panjwani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. During picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein VP4 is released from the virus, interacts with the cell membrane and is implicated in the delivery of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm to initiate replication. In this study, we have produced recombinant C-terminal histidine-tagged human rhinovirus VP4 and shown it can induce membrane permeability in liposome model membranes. Dextran size-exclusion studies, chemical crosslinking and electron microscopy demonstrated that VP4 forms a multimeric membrane pore, with a channel size consistent with transfer of the single-stranded RNA genome. The membrane permeability induced by recombinant VP4 was influenced by pH and was comparable to permeability induced by infectious virions. These findings present a molecular mechanism for the involvement of VP4 in cell entry and provide a model system which will facilitate exploration of VP4 as a novel antiviral target for the picornavirus family.

  14. High-Resolution X-Ray Structure and Functional Analysis of the Murine Norovirus 1 Capsid Protein Protruding Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taube, Stefan; Rubin, John R.; Katpally, Umesh; Smith, Thomas J.; Kendall, Ann; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Wobus, Christiane E. (Michigan); (Danforth)

    2010-07-23

    Murine noroviruses (MNV) are closely related to the human noroviruses (HuNoV), which cause the majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Unlike HuNoV, MNV grow in culture and in a small-animal model that represents a tractable model to study norovirus biology. To begin a detailed investigation of molecular events that occur during norovirus binding to cells, the crystallographic structure of the murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) capsid protein protruding (P) domain has been determined. Crystallization of the bacterially expressed protein yielded two different crystal forms (Protein Data Bank identifiers [PDB ID], 3LQ6 and 3LQE). Comparison of the structures indicated a large degree of structural mobility in loops on the surface of the P2 subdomain. Specifically, the A{prime}-B{prime} and E{prime}-F{prime} loops were found in open and closed conformations. These regions of high mobility include the known escape mutation site for the neutralizing antibody A6.2 and an attenuation mutation site, which arose after serial passaging in culture and led to a loss in lethality in STAT1{sup -/-} mice, respectively. Modeling of a Fab fragment and crystal structures of the P dimer into the cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction of the A6.2/MNV-1 complex indicated that the closed conformation is most likely bound to the Fab fragment and that the antibody contact is localized to the A{prime}-B{prime} and E{prime}-F{prime} loops. Therefore, we hypothesize that these loop regions and the flexibility of the P domains play important roles during MNV-1 binding to the cell surface.

  15. Solution scattering studies on a virus capsid protein as a building block for nanoscale assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comellas Aragones, M.; Comellas-Aragones, Marta; Sikkema, Friso D.; Delaittre, Guillaume; Terry, Ann E.; King, Stephen M.; Visser, Dirk; Heenan, Richard K.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Feiters, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled protein cages are versatile building blocks in the construction of biomolecular nanostructures. Because of the defined assembly behaviour the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) protein is often used for such applications. Here we report a detailed solution scattering study of the

  16. Features of Reovirus Outer Capsid Protein μ1 Revealed by Electron Cryomicroscopy and Image Reconstruction of the Virion at 7.0 Å Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Ji, Yongchang; Zhang, Lan; Harrison, Stephen C.; Marinescu, Dan C.; Nibert, Max L.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reovirus is a useful model for addressing the molecular basis of membrane penetration by one of the larger nonenveloped animal viruses. We now report the structure of the reovirus virion at 7.0 Å resolution as obtained by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. Several features of the myristoylated outer capsid protein μ1, not seen in a previous X-ray crystal structure of the μ1-σ3 heterohexamer, are evident in the virion. These features appear to be important for stabilizing the outer capsid, regulating the conformational changes in μ1 that accompany perforation of target membranes, and contributing directly to membrane penetration during cell entry. PMID:16216585

  17. Venezuelan equine Encephalitis virus capsid protein forms a tetrameric complex with CRM1 and importin alpha/beta that obstructs nuclear pore complex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasheva, Svetlana; Fish, Alexander; Fornerod, Maarten; Frolova, Elena I

    2010-05-01

    Development of the cellular antiviral response requires nuclear translocation of multiple transcription factors and activation of a wide variety of cellular genes. To counteract the antiviral response, several viruses have developed an efficient means of inhibiting nucleocytoplasmic traffic. In this study, we demonstrate that the pathogenic strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has developed a unique mechanism of nuclear import inhibition. Its capsid protein forms a tetrameric complex with the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the nuclear import receptor importin alpha/beta. This unusual complex accumulates in the center channel of the nuclear pores and blocks nuclear import mediated by different karyopherins. The inhibitory function of VEEV capsid protein is determined by a short 39-amino-acid-long peptide that contains both nuclear import and supraphysiological nuclear export signals. Mutations in these signals or in the linker peptide attenuate or completely abolish capsid-specific inhibition of nuclear traffic. The less pathogenic VEEV strains contain a wide variety of mutations in this peptide that affect its inhibitory function in nuclear import. Thus, these mutations appear to be the determinants of this attenuated phenotype. This novel mechanism of inhibiting nuclear transport also shows that the nuclear pore complex is vulnerable to unusual cargo receptor complexes and sheds light on the importance of finely adjusted karyopherin-nucleoporin interactions for efficient cargo translocation.

  18. Preclinical refinements of a broadly protective VLP-based HPV vaccine targeting the minor capsid protein, L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumban, Ebenezer; Muttil, Pavan; Escobar, Carolina Andrea A; Peabody, Julianne; Wafula, Denis; Peabody, David S; Chackerian, Bryce

    2015-06-26

    An ideal prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine would provide broadly protective and long-lasting immune responses against all high-risk HPV types, would be effective after a single dose, and would be formulated in such a manner to allow for long-term storage without the necessity for refrigeration. We have developed candidate HPV vaccines consisting of bacteriophage virus-like particles (VLPs) that display a broadly neutralizing epitope derived from the HPV16 minor capsid protein, L2. Immunization with 16L2 VLPs elicited high titer and broadly cross-reactive and cross-neutralizing antibodies against diverse HPV types. In this study we introduce two refinements for our candidate vaccines, with an eye towards enhancing efficacy and clinical applicability in the developing world. First, we assessed the role of antigen dose and boosting on immunogenicity. Mice immunized with 16L2-MS2 VLPs at doses ranging from 2 to 25 μg with or without alum were highly immunogenic at all doses; alum appeared to have an adjuvant effect at the lowest dose. Although boosting enhanced antibody titers, even a single immunization could elicit strong and long-lasting antibody responses. We also developed a method to enhance vaccine stability. Using a spray dry apparatus and a combination of sugars & an amino acid as protein stabilizers, we generated dry powder vaccine formulations of our L2 VLPs. Spray drying of our L2 VLPs did not affect the integrity or immunogenicity of VLPs upon reconstitution. Spray dried VLPs were stable at room temperature and at 37 °C for over one month and the VLPs were highly immunogenic. Taken together, these enhancements are designed to facilitate implementation of a next-generation VLP-based HPV vaccine which addresses U.S. and global disparities in vaccine affordability and access in rural/remote populations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Sample Stacking Provides Three Orders of Magnitude Sensitivity Enhancement in SDS Capillary Gel Electrophoresis of Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Xuan; Meagher, Michael M

    2017-03-21

    Size-based protein analysis utilizing only 25 ng of total proteins has been realized by sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary gel electrophoresis (SDS CGE) with head-column field-amplified sample stacking as an online sample preconcentration technique. This method has been used as a replacement of SDS-PAGE for purity analysis of adeno-associated virus (AAV) therapeutic products of different serotypes and transgenes. A limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL (3.3 pM) capsid proteins was achieved with convenient UV absorbance detection at 214 nm, equivalent to 20 pg of protein (330 attomole) loaded in the autosampler vial. For purity analysis, only 25 ng of total AAV capsid proteins (4.3 femtomole virus particles) were loaded to the autosampler vial. The sensitivity is comparable to silver-stained SDS-PAGE. The RSD of purity measurement was 0.0-0.8%, comparable to conventional SDS CGE utilizing 0.1-0.5 mg proteins. The new method provided 3 orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement as compared to conventional SDS CGE. It shares all the advantages of conventional SDS CGE (labor-saving, easy automation, and convenient quantitation) and also the high sensitivity of silver stained SDS-PAGE. The sample stacking SDS CGE technique can be adopted for size-based analysis of other types of proteins. It is especially useful when protein quantity or concentration is not sufficient for regular SDS CGE or SDS-PAGE assay.

  20. Absolute quantification of norovirus capsid protein in food, water, and soil using synthetic peptides with electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Erica M. [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Colquhoun, David R.; Schwab, Kellogg J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Halden, Rolf U., E-mail: halden@asu.edu [Center for Environmental Security and Security Defense Systems Initiative, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Mall, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry-based methods for norovirus quantification are developed. • Absolute quantification is achieved using internal heavy isotope-labeled standards. • A single labeled peptide serves in two distinct detection strategies. • These methods are validated for food, water, and soil analysis. • MS-based detection limits are lowered by two orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Norovirus infections are one of the most prominent public health problems of microbial origin in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. Surveillance is necessary to prevent secondary infection, confirm successful cleanup after outbreaks, and track the causative agent. Quantitative mass spectrometry, based on absolute quantitation with stable-isotope labeled peptides, is a promising tool for norovirus monitoring because of its speed, sensitivity, and robustness in the face of environmental inhibitors. In the current study, we present two new methods for the detection of the norovirus genogroup I capsid protein using electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The peptide TLDPIEVPLEDVR was used to quantify norovirus-like particles down to 500 attomoles with electrospray and 100 attomoles with MALDI. With MALDI, we also demonstrate a detection limit of 1 femtomole and a quantitative dynamic range of 5 orders of magnitude in the presence of an environmental matrix effect. Due to the rapid processing time and applicability to a wide range of environmental sample types (bacterial lysate, produce, milk, soil, and groundwater), mass spectrometry-based absolute quantitation has a strong potential for use in public health and environmental sciences.

  1. Induction of mucosal immunity by intranasal immunization with recombinant adenovirus expressing major epitopes of Porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-feng; Guo, Quan-hai; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Jun; Chang, Hong-tao; Wang, Xin-wei; Yang, Xia; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2013-07-15

    Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) is primarily transmitted through mucosa, thus the mucosal immunity may constitute an essential feature of vaccination strategies against PCV-2 infection. Mucosal immunity elicited by recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus expressing the major epitopes of PCV-2 capsid protein (rAd/Cap/518) via intranasal (i.n.), intramuscular (i.m.) or oral routes in mice were evaluated. Immunization with rAd/Cap/518 via i.n. route induced higher titers of IgA in saliva, bronchoalveolar and intestinal lavage fluid compared with those immunized via i.m. route. The proportions of CD3+, CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells were significantly increased in mice immunized with rAd/Cap/518 via i.n. route compared with the control group. Higher levels of IFN-γ were detected in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of mice immunized with rAd/Cap/518 via i.n. route compared with other groups, yet IL-4 was not detected in any group. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed viral DNA loads in the i.m. or i.n. immunization group was lower than that seen in the rAd immunization. These results indicate that i.n. administration of rAd/Cap/518 can elicit humoral and Th1-type cellular protective immunity in both systemic and mucosal immune compartments in mice, representing a promising mucosal vaccine candidate against PCV-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear export and import of human hepatitis B virus capsid protein and particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Li

    Full Text Available It remains unclear what determines the subcellular localization of hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein (HBc and particles. To address this fundamental issue, we have identified four distinct HBc localization signals in the arginine rich domain (ARD of HBc, using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and fractionation/Western blot analysis. ARD consists of four tight clustering arginine-rich subdomains. ARD-I and ARD-III are associated with two co-dependent nuclear localization signals (NLS, while ARD-II and ARD-IV behave like two independent nuclear export signals (NES. This conclusion is based on five independent lines of experimental evidence: i Using an HBV replication system in hepatoma cells, we demonstrated in a double-blind manner that only the HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV, among a total of 15 ARD mutants, can predominantly localize to the nucleus. ii These results were confirmed using a chimera reporter system by placing mutant or wild type HBc trafficking signals in the heterologous context of SV40 large T antigen (LT. iii By a heterokaryon or homokaryon analysis, the fusion protein of SV40 LT-HBc ARD appeared to transport from nuclei of transfected donor cells to nuclei of recipient cells, suggesting the existence of an NES in HBc ARD. This putative NES is leptomycin B resistant. iv We demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation that HBc ARD can physically interact with a cellular factor TAP/NXF1 (Tip-associated protein/nuclear export factor-1, which is known to be important for nuclear export of mRNA and proteins. Treatment with a TAP-specific siRNA strikingly shifted cytoplasmic HBc to nucleus, and led to a near 7-fold reduction of viral replication, and a near 10-fold reduction in HBsAg secretion. v HBc of mutant ARD-II+IV was accumulated predominantly in the nucleus in a mouse model by hydrodynamic delivery. In addition to the revised map of NLS, our results suggest that HBc could shuttle rapidly between nucleus and cytoplasm via a novel

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Revealed Splenic Targeting of Canine Parvovirus Capsid Protein VP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Wang, Haiming; Yan, Dan; Wei, Yanquan; Cao, Yuhua; Yi, Peiwei; Zhang, Hailu; Deng, Zongwu; Dai, Jianwu; Liu, Xiangtao; Luo, Jianxun; Zhang, Zhijun; Sun, Shiqi; Guo, Huichen

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious infectious virus, whose infectious mechanism remains unclear because of acute gastroenteritis and the lack of an efficient tool to visualize the virus in real time during virology research. In this study, we developed an iron oxide nanoparticle supported by graphene quantum dots (GQD), namely, FeGQD. In this composite material, GQD acts as a stabilizer; thus, vacancies are retained on the surface for further physical adsorption of the CPV VP2 protein. The FeGQD@VP2 nanocomposite product showed largely enhanced colloidal stability in comparison with bare FeGQD, as well as negligible toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. The composite displayed high uptake into transferrin receptor (TfR) positive cells, which are distinguishable from FeGQD or TfR negative cells. In addition, the composite developed a significant accumulation in spleen rather than in liver, where bare FeGQD or most iron oxide nanoparticles gather. As these evident targeting abilities of FeGQD@VP2 strongly suggested, the biological activity of CPV VP2 was retained in our study, and its biological functions might correspond to CPV when the rare splenic targeting ability is considered. This approach can be applied to numerous other biomedical studies that require a simple yet efficient approach to track proteins in vivo while retaining biological function and may facilitate virus-related research.

  4. Cell culture adaptation mutations in foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid proteins: implications for receptor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we describe the adaptive changes fixed on the capsid of several foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A strains during propagation in cell monolayers. Viruses passaged extensively in three cell lines (BHK-21, LFBK and IB-RS-2), consistently gained several positively charged amino acids...

  5. The chimeric protein domain III-capsid of dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2) successfully boosts neutralizing antibodies generated in monkeys upon infection with DEN-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Iris; Gil, Lázaro; Romero, Yaremis; Castro, Jorge; Puente, Pedro; Lazo, Laura; Marcos, Ernesto; Guzmán, María G; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2011-03-01

    Use of a heterologous prime-boost strategy based on a combination of nonreplicative immunogens and candidate attenuated virus vaccines against dengue virus in the same schedule is an attractive approach. These combinations may result in a condensed immunization regime for humans, thus reducing the number of doses with attenuated virus and the time spacing. The present work deals with the evaluation of the heterologous prime-boost strategy combining a novel chimeric protein (domain III-capsid) of dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2) and the infective homologous virus in the same immunization schedule in monkeys. Primed monkeys received one dose of infective DEN-2 and were then vaccinated with the recombinant protein. We found that animals developed a neutralizing antibody response after the infective dose and were notably boosted with a second dose of the chimeric protein 3 months later. The neutralizing antibodies induced were long lasting, and animals also showed the ability to induce a specific cellular response 6 months after the booster dose. As a conclusion, we can state that the domain III region, when it is properly presented as a fusion protein to the immune system, is able to recall the neutralizing antibody response elicited following homologous virus infection in monkeys. Further prime-boost approaches can be performed in a condensed regime combining the chimeric domain III-capsid protein and candidate live attenuated vaccines against DEN-2.

  6. Exploiting the yeast L-A viral capsid for the in vivo assembly of chimeric VLPs as platform in vaccine development and foreign protein expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Powilleit

    Full Text Available A novel expression system based on engineered variants of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae dsRNA virus L-A was developed allowing the in vivo assembly of chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs as a unique platform for a wide range of applications. We show that polypeptides fused to the viral capsid protein Gag self-assemble into isometric VLP chimeras carrying their cargo inside the capsid, thereby not only effectively preventing proteolytic degradation in the host cell cytosol, but also allowing the expression of a per se cytotoxic protein. Carboxyterminal extension of Gag by T cell epitopes from human cytomegalovirus pp65 resulted in the formation of hybrid VLPs that strongly activated antigen-specific CD8(+ memory T cells ex vivo. Besides being a carrier for polypeptides inducing antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, VLP chimeras were also shown to be effective in the expression and purification of (i a heterologous model protein (GFP, (ii a per se toxic protein (K28 alpha-subunit, and (iii a particle-associated and fully recyclable biotechnologically relevant enzyme (esterase A. Thus, yeast viral Gag represents a unique platform for the in vivo assembly of chimeric VLPs, equally attractive and useful in vaccine development and recombinant protein production.

  7. Amino acid substitutions in σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins are selected during mammalian reovirus adaptation to Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabre, Roland; Sandekian, Véronique; Lemay, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Establishment of viral persistence in cell culture has previously led to the selection of mammalian reovirus mutants, although very few of those have been characterized in details. In the present study, reovirus was adapted to Vero cells that, in contrast to classically-used L929 cells, are inefficient in supporting the early steps of reovirus uncoating and are also unable to produce interferon as an antiviral response once infection occurs. The Vero cell-adapted reovirus exhibits amino acids substitutions in both the σ1 and μ1 proteins. This contrasts with uncoating mutants from persistently infected L929 cells, and various other cell types, that generally harbor amino acids substitutions in the σ3 outer capsid protein. The Vero cell-adapted virus remained sensitive to an inhibitor of lysosomal proteases; furthermore, in the absence of selective pressure for its maintenance, the virus has partially lost its ability to resist interferon. The positions of the amino acids substitutions on the known protein structures suggest an effect on binding of the viral σ1 protein to the cell surface and on μ1 disassembly from the outer capsid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 3CD, but not 3C, cleaves the VP1/2A site efficiently during Aichi virus polyprotein processing through interaction with 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jun; Ishikawa, Kumiko; Taniguchi, Koki

    2012-02-01

    Picornavirus genomes are translated into a single large polyprotein, which is processed by virus-encoded proteases into individual functional proteins. 3C of all picornaviruses is a protease, and the leader (L) and 2A proteins of some picornaviruses are also involved in polyprotein processing. Aichi virus (AiV), which is associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans, is a member of the genus Kobuvirus of the family Picornaviridae. The AiV L and 2A proteins have already been shown to exhibit no protease activity. In this study, we investigated AiV polyprotein processing by 3C and 3CD using a cell-free translation system. 3C and 3CD were capable of processing the polyprotein in trans; 3C, however, cleaved the VP1/2A site inefficiently, while 3CD cleaved this site almost completely. Mammalian two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed an interaction between 2A and 3CD. Using a 3CD mutant and various 2A mutants of substrate proteins, we showed a clear correlation between the 2A-3CD interaction and the VP1/2A cleavage by 3CD. Thus, this study suggests that tight interaction of 3CD with the 2A region of a precursor protein is required for efficient cleavage at the VP1/2A site. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing mucosal immunity in mice by recombinant adenovirus expressing major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein delivered with cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hong-tao; He, Xiu-yuan; Liu, Yu-feng; Chen, Lu; Guo, Quan-hai; Yu, Qiu-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yang, Xia; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant replication-defective adenovirus expressing the major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) capsid protein (rAd/Cap/518) was previously constructed and shown to induce mucosal immunity in mice following intranasal delivery. In the present study, immune responses induced by intranasal immunization with a combination of rAd/Cap/518 and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) were evaluated in mice. The levels of PCV-2-specific IgG in serum and IgA in saliva...

  10. High yield production of pigeon circovirus capsid protein in the E. coli by evaluating the key parameters needed for protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yen-Chang; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chen, Hsi-Jien; Chang, Wen-Te; Tzen, Jason T C; Lee, Meng-Shiou

    2014-05-22

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is considered to be a viral agent central to the development of young pigeon disease syndrome (YPDS). The Cap protein, a structural protein encoded by the cap (or C1) gene of PiCV, has been shown to be responsible for not only capsid assembly, but also has been used as antigen for detecting antibody when the host is infected with PiCV. The antigenic characteristics of the Cap protein potentially may allow the development of a detection kit that could be applied to control PiCV infection. However, poor expression and poor protein solubility have hampered the production of recombinant Cap protein in the bacteria. This study was undertaken to develop the optimal expression of recombinant full-length Cap protein of PiCV using an E. coli expression system. The PiCV cap gene was cloned and fused with different fusion partners including a His-tag, a GST-tag (glutathioine-S-transferase tag) and a Trx-His-tag (thioredoxin-His tag). The resulting constructs were then expressed after transformation into a number of different E. coli strains; these then had their protein expression evaluated. The expression of the recombinant Cap protein in E. coli was significantly increased when Cap protein was fused with either a GST-tag or a Trx-His tag rather than a His-tag. After various rare amino acid codons presented in the Cap protein were optimized to give the sequence rCapopt, the expression level of the GST-rCapopt in E. coli BL21(DE3) was further increased to a significant degree. The highest protein expression level of GST-rCapopt obtained was 394.27 ± 26.1 mg/L per liter using the E. coli strain BL21(DE3)-pLysS. Moreover, approximately 74.5% of the expressed GST-rCapopt was in soluble form, which is higher than the soluble Trx-His-rCapopt expressed using the BL21(DE3)-pLysS strain. After purification using a GST affinity column combined with ion-exchange chromatography, the purified recombinant GST-rCapopt protein was found to have good antigenic

  11. Clinicopathological implications of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein immunoreactivity in HPV16-positive cervical cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Lee, Ah-Won; Kang, Chang-Suk; Park, Jong-Sup; Park, Dong-Choon; Ki, Eun-Young; Lee, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Joo-Hee; Hur, Soo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. We performed immunocytochemistry for HPV L1 in 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infections using the Cytoactiv(®) HPV L1 screening set. We investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology samples and compared it with the results of histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Of a total of 475 cases, 188 (39.6%) were immunocytochemically positive and 287 (60.4%) negative for HPV L1. The immunocytochemical expression rates of HPV L1 in atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cancer were 21.8%, 59.7%, 19.1%, and 0.0%, respectively. LSIL exhibited the highest rate of HPV L1 positivity. Of a total of 475 cases, the multiple-type HPV infection rate, including HPV16, in HPV L1-negative cytology samples was 27.5%, which was significantly higher than that in HPV L1-positive cytology samples (p = 0.037). The absence of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS and LSIL was significantly associated with high-grade (≥ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) than low-grade (≤ CIN1) histopathology diagnoses (p HPV16 single and multiple-type HPV infections (p > 0.05). On the other hand, among 188 HPV L1-positive cases, 30.6% of multiple-type HPV infections showed high-grade histopathology diagnoses (≥ CIN3), significantly higher than the percentage of HPV16 single infections (8.6%) (p = 0.0004) CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that the expression of HPV L1 is low in advanced dysplasia. Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is strongly associated with high-grade histopathology diagnoses. The multiplicity of HPV infections

  12. Essential role of the unordered VP2 n-terminal domain of the parvovirus MVM capsid in nuclear assembly and endosomal enlargement of the virion fivefold channel for cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Martinez, Cristina; Grueso, Esther [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Carroll, Miles [Health Protection Agency, Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 OJG, Wilts (United Kingdom); Rommelaere, Jean [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Division F010, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Almendral, Jose M., E-mail: jmalmendral@cbm.uam.es [Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-10

    The unordered N-termini of parvovirus capsid proteins (Nt) are translocated through a channel at the icosahedral five-fold axis to serve for virus traffick. Heterologous peptides were genetically inserted at the Nt of MVM to study their functional tolerance to manipulations. Insertion of a 5T4-single-chain antibody at VP2-Nt (2Nt) yielded chimeric capsid subunits failing to enter the nucleus. The VEGFR2-binding peptide (V1) inserted at both 2Nt and VP1-Nt efficiently assembled in virions, but V1 disrupted VP1 and VP2 entry functions. The VP2 defect correlated with restricted externalization of V1-2Nt out of the coat. The specific infectivity of MVM and wtVP-pseudotyped mosaic MVM-V1 virions, upon heating and/or partial 2Nt cleavage, demonstrated that some 2Nt domains become intracellularly translocated out of the virus shell and cleaved to initiate entry. The V1 insertion defines a VP2-driven endosomal enlargement of the channel as an essential structural rearrangement performed by the MVM virion to infect.

  13. An unexpected twist in viral capsid maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertsman, Ilya; Gan, Lu; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Duda, Robert L.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.; (Pitt); (Scripps); (UCSD)

    2009-04-14

    Lambda-like double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. Capsid shells are complex organizations of hundreds of protein subunits that assemble into intricate quaternary complexes that ultimately are able to withstand over 50 atm of pressure during genome packaging. The extensive integration between subunits in capsids requires the formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. Although various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsid structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage. Here we present a procapsid X-ray structure at 3.65 {angstrom} resolution, termed prohead II, of the lambda-like bacteriophage HK97, the mature capsid structure of which was previously solved to 3.44 {angstrom}. A comparison of the two largely different capsid forms has unveiled an unprecedented expansion mechanism that describes the transition. Crystallographic and hydrogen/deuterium exchange data presented here demonstrate that the subunit tertiary structures are significantly different between the two states, with twisting and bending motions occurring in both helical and -sheet regions. We also identified subunit interactions at each three-fold axis of the capsid that are maintained throughout maturation. The interactions sustain capsid integrity during subunit refolding and provide a fixed hinge from which subunits undergo rotational and translational motions during maturation. Previously published calorimetric data of a closely related bacteriophage, P22, showed that capsid maturation was an exothermic process that resulted in a release of 90 kJ mol{sup -1} of energy. We propose that the major tertiary changes presented in this study reveal a structural basis for an exothermic

  14. An Unexpected Twist in Viral Capsid Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsman, Ilya; Gan, Lu; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Duda, Robert L.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Lambda-like dsDNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. Capsid shells are complex organizations of hundreds of protein subunits that assemble into intricate quaternary complexes that ultimately are able to withstand over 50 atm. of pressure during genome packaging1. The extensive integration between subunits in capsids is unlikely to form in a single assembly step, therefore requiring formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. Though various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsid structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage that undergoes large scale conformational changes. We present a procapsid x-ray structure at 3.65Å resolution, termed Prohead II, of the lambda like bacteriophage HK97, whose mature capsid structure was previously solved to 3.44 Å2. A comparison of the two largely different capsid forms has unveiled an unprecedented expansion mechanism that describes the transition. Crystallographic and Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange data presented here demonstrates that the subunit tertiary structures are significantly different between the two states, with twisting and bending motions occurring in both helical and β-sheet regions. We have also discovered conserved subunit interactions at each 3-fold of the virus capsid, from which capsid subunits maintain their integrity during refolding, facilitating the rotational and translational motions of maturation. Calormetric data of a closely related bacteriophage, P22, showed that capsid maturation was an exothermic process that resulted in a release of 90KJ/mol of energy3. We propose the major tertiary changes presented in this study reveal a structural basis for an exothermic maturation process likely present in many ds

  15. The expression of a Vp1-like gene and seed dormancy in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, T; Bohnert, H J

    2000-08-01

    Seeds of the common ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) germinate in distinct sub-populations over a time period of more than 4 weeks following imbibition. Distinguishing early (E)- and late (L)-germinating seeds is the expression of a homologue of the transcriptional activator VP1. The deduced amino acid sequence of ice plant VP1 (MVP1) is 39% identical (50% similar) to the sequence of the Arabidopsis VP1 homologue, ABI3. The amount of Mvp1 mRNA, transcribed from a single gene, is different in E and L seeds after water uptake. The levels of the Mvp1 transcripts are very low in immature and mature seeds and they increased during 6 days of imbibition. This expression profile of Mvp1 is different from known Vp1/ABI3-like genes in other plants. Cycloheximide (at 35 microM) abolishes the increase of Mvp1, and L seeds are turned into E seeds, which develop normally when the inhibitor is applied for a short time during imbibition. E seeds treated for the same time period are developmentally impaired and show no radicle elongation. We suggest that the presence and late disappearance of Mvp1 in L seeds is responsible for dormancy and after-ripening of late-germinating ice plant seeds.

  16. Vesicular stomatitis virus replicon expressing the VP2 outer capsid protein of bluetongue virus serotype 8 induces complete protection of sheep against challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochinger, Stefanie; Renevey, Nathalie; Hofmann, Martin A; Zimmer, Gert

    2014-06-13

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that causes an often fatal, hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. Different BTV serotypes occur throughout many temperate and tropical regions of the world. In 2006, BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) emerged in Central and Northern Europe for the first time. Although this outbreak was eventually controlled using inactivated virus vaccines, the epidemic caused significant economic losses not only from the disease in livestock but also from trade restrictions. To date, BTV vaccines that allow simple serological discrimination of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) have not been approved for use in livestock. In this study, we generated recombinant RNA replicon particles based on single-cycle vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors. Immunization of sheep with infectious VSV replicon particles expressing the outer capsid VP2 protein of BTV-8 resulted in induction of BTV-8 serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies. After challenge with a virulent BTV-8 strain, the vaccinated animals neither developed signs of disease nor showed viremia. In contrast, immunization of sheep with recombinant VP5 - the second outer capsid protein of BTV - did not confer protection. Discrimination of infected from vaccinated animals was readily achieved using an ELISA for detection of antibodies against the VP7 antigen. These data indicate that VSV replicon particles potentially represent a safe and efficacious vaccine platform with which to control future outbreaks by BTV-8 or other serotypes, especially in previously non-endemic regions where discrimination between vaccinated and infected animals is crucial.

  17. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid.

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    Magdeleine Hung

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes. Mutations in the capsid sequence that alter the stability of the capsid core are deleterious to viral infectivity and replication. Recently, capsid assembly has become an attractive target for the development of a new generation of anti-retroviral agents. Drug screening efforts and subsequent structural and mechanistic studies require gram quantities of active, homogeneous and pure protein. Conventional means of laboratory purification of Escherichia coli expressed recombinant capsid protein rely on column chromatography steps that are not amenable to large-scale production. Here we present a function-based purification of wild-type and quadruple mutant capsid proteins, which relies on the inherent propensity of capsid protein to polymerize and depolymerize. This method does not require the packing of sizable chromatography columns and can generate double-digit gram quantities of functionally and biochemically well-behaved proteins with greater than 98% purity. We have used the purified capsid protein to characterize two known assembly inhibitors in our in-house developed polymerization assay and to measure their binding affinities. Our capsid purification procedure provides a robust method for purifying large quantities of a key protein in the HIV-1 life cycle, facilitating identification of the next generation anti-HIV agents.

  18. Characterization of the protease domain of Rice tungro bacilliform virus responsible for the processing of the capsid protein from the polyprotein

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    Beachy Roger N

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV is a pararetrovirus, and a member of the family Caulimoviridae in the genus Badnavirus. RTBV has a long open reading frame that encodes a large polyprotein (P3. Pararetroviruses show similarities with retroviruses in molecular organization and replication. P3 contains a putative movement protein (MP, the capsid protein (CP, the aspartate protease (PR and the reverse transcriptase (RT with a ribonuclease H activity. PR is a member of the cluster of retroviral proteases and serves to proteolytically process P3. Previous work established the N- and C-terminal amino acid sequences of CP and RT, processing of RT by PR, and estimated the molecular mass of PR by western blot assays. Results A molecular mass of a protein that was associated with virions was determined by in-line HPLC electrospray ionization mass spectral analysis. Comparison with retroviral proteases amino acid sequences allowed the characterization of a putative protease domain in this protein. Structural modelling revealed strong resemblance with retroviral proteases, with overall folds surrounding the active site being well conserved. Expression in E. coli of putative domain was affected by the presence or absence of the active site in the construct. Analysis of processing of CP by PR, using pulse chase labelling experiments, demonstrated that the 37 kDa capsid protein was dependent on the presence of the protease in the constructs. Conclusion The findings suggest the characterization of the RTBV protease domain. Sequence analysis, structural modelling, in vitro expression studies are evidence to consider the putative domain as being the protease domain. Analysis of expression of different peptides corresponding to various domains of P3 suggests a processing of CP by PR. This work clarifies the organization of the RTBV polyprotein, and its processing by the RTBV protease.

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of an oncolytic adenovirus containing RGD ligand in minor capsid protein IX and Fiber, Δ24DoubleRGD, in an ovarian cancer model

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    Anton V Borovjagin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecological disease death despite advances in medicine. Therefore, novel strategies are required for ovarian cancer therapy. Conditionally replicative adenoviruses (CRAds, genetically modified as anti-cancer therapeutics, are one of the most attractive candidate agents for cancer therapy. However, a paucity of coxsackie B virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR expression on the surface of ovarian cancer cells has impeded treatment of ovarian cancer using this approach.This study sought to engineer a CRAd with enhanced oncolytic ability in ovarian cancer cells, “Δ24DoubleRGD.” Δ24DoubleRGD carries an arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD motif incorporated into both fiber and capsid protein IX (pIX and its oncolytic efficacy was evaluated in ovarian cancer. In vitro analysis of cell viability showed that infection of ovarian cancer cells with Δ24DoubleRGD leads to increased cell killing relative to the control CRAds. Data from this study suggested that not only an increase in number of RGD motifs on the CRAd capsid, but also a change in the repertoir of targeted integrins could lead to enhanced oncolytic potency of Δ24DoubleRGD in ovarian cancer cells in vitro. In an intraperitoneal model of ovarian cancer, mice injected with Δ24DoubleRGD showed, however, a similar survival rate as mice treated with control CRAds.

  20. The conserved N-terminus of human rhinovirus capsid protein VP4 contains membrane pore-forming activity and is a target for neutralizing antibodies.

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    Panjwani, Anusha; Asfor, Amin S; Tuthill, Tobias J

    2016-12-01

    Human rhinovirus is the causative agent of the common cold and belongs to the non-enveloped picornavirus family. A trigger such as receptor binding or low pH initiates conformational changes in the capsid that allow the virus to attach to membranes and form a pore for the translocation of viral RNA into the cytoplasm. We previously showed that recombinant capsid protein VP4 was able to form membrane pores. In this study, we show the N-terminus but not C-terminus of VP4 formed pores with properties similar to full-length VP4 and consistent with the size required for transfer of RNA. Sera against the N-terminus but not C-terminus of VP4 were shown to neutralize virus infectivity. Together, this suggests that the N-terminus of VP4 is responsible for membrane activity. This study contributes to an improved understanding of the mechanisms for involvement of VP4 in entry and its potential as an antiviral target.

  1. Analysis of SAT type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Francois F; Blignaut, Belinda; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. Mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. In this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric SAT2 and SAT3 virus particles to various conditions including low pH, mild temperatures or high ionic strength, was compared. Our results demonstrated that while both the SAT2 and SAT3 infectious capsids displayed different sensitivities in a series of low pH buffers, their stability profiles were comparable at high temperatures or high ionic strength conditions. Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities. Four His residues at the inter-pentamer interface were identified that change protonation states at pH 6.0. Of these, the H145 of VP3 appears to be involved in interactions with A141 in VP3 and K63 in VP2, and may be involved in orientating H142 of VP3 for interaction at the inter-pentamer interfaces.

  2. Dual inhibitor of PDE7 and GSK-3-VP1.15 acts as antipsychotic and cognitive enhancer in C57BL/6J mice.

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    Lipina, Tatiana V; Palomo, Valle; Gil, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Roder, John C

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficit is a core of schizophrenia and it is not effectively treated by the available antipsychotic drugs, hence new and more effective therapy is needed. Schizophrenia is considered as a pathway disorder where Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) is important molecular player that regulates multiple cellular cascades. We recently reported synergistic action between phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) as DISC1 interacting proteins. In the current study we characterized behavioural effects of a newly developed compound, VP1.15 that inhibits both PDE7 and GSK-3 with main focus on its antipsychotic and cognitive capacities. VP1.15 reduced ambulation in C57BL/6J mice in a dose-dependent manner (7.5 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively) and, hence, lower dose was chosen for the further analysis. VP1.1.5 facilitated pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), reversed amphetamine- but not MK-801-induced PPI deficit. The drug was able to ameliorate the disrupted latent inhibition (LI) induced by the increased number of conditioning trials and reversed amphetamine-induced LI deficit, supporting further its antipsychotic effects. The drug also significantly improved episodic memory in the spatial object recognition test, facilitated working memory in Y-maze and enhanced cued fear memory, but had no effect on executive function in the Puzzle box and contextual fear conditioning. Taken together, VP1.15 elicited antipsychotic effects and also facilitated cognitive domains in mice, suggesting that multitarget drugs, affecting molecular substrates from the same pathway, perhaps could be antipsychotics of new-generation that open a new possibilities in drug discoveries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: Implications for replication and genome packaging

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    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A.L.N., E-mail: arao@ucr.edu

    2014-09-15

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein–protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase. Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. - Highlights: • YFP fusion proteins of BMV p1a and p2a are biologically active. • Self-interaction was observed for p1a, p2a and CP. • CP interacts with p2a but not p1a. • Majority of reconstituted YFP resulting from bona fide fusion protein partners localized on ER.

  4. Hepatitis Virus Capsid Polymorph Stability Depends on Encapsulated Cargo Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, L.; Porterfield, Z.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618; Zlotnick, A.; Dragnea, B.

    2013-01-01

    Protein cages providing a controlled environment to encapsulated cargo are a ubiquitous presence in any biological system. Well-known examples are capsids, the regular protein shells of viruses, which protect and deliver the viral genome. Since some virus capsids can be loaded with nongenomic

  5. Live cell imaging of interactions between replicase and capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation: implications for replication and genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A L N

    2014-09-01

    In Brome mosaic virus, it was hypothesized that a physical interaction between viral replicase and capsid protein (CP) is obligatory to confer genome packaging specificity. Here we tested this hypothesis by employing Bimolecular Fluorescent Complementation (BiFC) as a tool for evaluating protein-protein interactions in living cells. The efficacy of BiFC was validated by a known interaction between replicase protein 1a (p1a) and protein 2a (p2a) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) site of viral replication. Additionally, co-expression in planta of a bona fide pair of interacting protein partners of p1a and p2a had resulted in the assembly of a functional replicase. Subsequent BiFC assays in conjunction with mCherry labeled ER as a fluorescent cellular marker revealed that CP physically interacts with p2a, but not p1a, and this CP:p2a interaction occurs at the cytoplasmic phase of the ER. The significance of the CP:p2a interaction in BMV replication and genome packaging is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A single amino acid mutation alters the capsid protein electrophoretic double-band phenotype of the Plum pox virus strain PPV-Rec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subr, Z W; Kamencayová, M; Nováková, S; Nagyová, A; Nosek, J; Glasa, M

    2010-07-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates differ by their capsid protein (CP) mobility in SDS-PAGE. These electrophoretic phenotypes are likely to result from post-translational modifications of the CP. We demonstrated that the CP mobility was solely determined by the CP N-terminal region. Sequence comparison pinpointed a possible role of mutations at position 66 in determining the CP phenotype of PPV-Rec isolates. Site-directed mutagenesis of a chimeric clone demonstrated that Gly(66) in the CP resulted in the double-band phenotype, while Arg(66) led to a single-band CP pattern, possibly by preventing the phosphorylation of a nearby Ser residue by steric hindrance.

  7. O-GlcNAcylation of the Plum pox virus capsid protein catalyzed by SECRET AGENT: characterization of O-GlcNAc sites by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Cheon; Udeshi, Namrata D; Balsbaugh, Jeremy L; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E

    2011-03-01

    The capsid protein of Plum pox virus (PPV-CP) is modified with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). In Arabidopsis thaliana this modification is made by an O-GlcNAc transferase named SECRET AGENT (SEC). Modification of PPV-CP by SEC is hypothesized to have a direct role in the infection process, because virus titer and rate of spread are reduced in SEC mutants. Previous studies used deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis to identify four O-GlcNAc sites on the capsid protein that are modified by Escherichia coli-expressed SEC. The infection process was not affected when two of these sites were mutated suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation of these sites does not have a significant role in the infection process or that a subset of the modifications is sufficient. Since it is possible that the mutational mapping approach missed or incorrectly identified O-GlcNAc sites, the modifications produced by E. coli-expressed SEC were characterized using mass spectrometry. O-GlcNAcylated peptides were enzymatically tagged with galactose, the products were enriched on immobilized Ricinus communis agglutinin I and sequenced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. Five O-GlcNAc sites on PPV-CP were identified. Two of these sites were not identified in by the previous mutational mapping. In addition, one site previously predicted by mutation mapping was not detected, but modification of this site was not supported when the mutation mapping was repeated. This study suggests that mapping modification sites by ETD mass spectrometry is more comprehensive and accurate than mutational mapping.

  8. A pan-HPV vaccine based on bacteriophage PP7 VLPs displaying broadly cross-neutralizing epitopes from the HPV minor capsid protein, L2.

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    Ebenezer Tumban

    Full Text Available Current human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines that are based on virus-like particles (VLPs of the major capsid protein L1 largely elicit HPV type-specific antibody responses. In contrast, immunization with the HPV minor capsid protein L2 elicits antibodies that are broadly cross-neutralizing, suggesting that a vaccine targeting L2 could provide more comprehensive protection against infection by diverse HPV types. However, L2-based immunogens typically elicit much lower neutralizing antibody titers than L1 VLPs. We previously showed that a conserved broadly neutralizing epitope near the N-terminus of L2 is highly immunogenic when displayed on the surface of VLPs derived from the bacteriophage PP7. Here, we report the development of a panel of PP7 VLP-based vaccines targeting L2 that protect mice from infection with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic HPV types that infect the genital tract and skin.L2 peptides from eight different HPV types were displayed on the surface of PP7 bacteriophage VLPs. These recombinant L2 VLPs, both individually and in combination, elicited high-titer anti-L2 IgG serum antibodies. Immunized mice were protected from high dose infection with HPV pseudovirus (PsV encapsidating a luciferase reporter. Mice immunized with 16L2 PP7 VLPs or 18L2 PP7 VLPs were nearly completely protected from both PsV16 and PsV18 challenge. Mice immunized with the mixture of eight L2 VLPs were strongly protected from genital challenge with PsVs representing eight diverse HPV types and cutaneous challenge with HPV5 PsV.VLP-display of a cross-neutralizing HPV L2 epitope is an effective approach for inducing high-titer protective neutralizing antibodies and is capable of offering protection from a spectrum of HPVs associated with cervical cancer as well as genital and cutaneous warts.

  9. Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV

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    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada. As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua forma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88 do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas.SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved. The capsid proteins, in their native form, were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were

  10. Structure of the HIV-1 Full-Length Capsid Protein in a Conformationally Trapped Unassembled State Induced by Small-Molecule Binding

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    Du, Shoucheng; Betts, Laurie; Yang, Ruifeng; Shi, Haibin; Concel, Jason; Ahn, Jinwoo; Aiken, Christopher; Zhang, Peijun; Yeh, Joanne I. (Pitt); (Vanderbilt); (UNC)

    2012-11-26

    The capsid (CA) protein plays crucial roles in HIV infection and replication, essential to viral maturation. The absence of high-resolution structural data on unassembled CA hinders the development of antivirals effective in inhibiting assembly. Unlike enzymes that have targetable, functional substrate-binding sites, the CA does not have a known site that affects catalytic or other innate activity, which can be more readily targeted in drug development efforts. We report the crystal structure of the HIV-1 CA, revealing the domain organization in the context of the wild-type full-length (FL) unassembled CA. The FL CA adopts an antiparallel dimer configuration, exhibiting a domain organization sterically incompatible with capsid assembly. A small compound, generated in situ during crystallization, is bound tightly at a hinge site ('H site'), indicating that binding at this interdomain region stabilizes the ADP conformation. Electron microscopy studies on nascent crystals reveal both dimeric and hexameric lattices coexisting within a single condition, in agreement with the interconvertibility of oligomeric forms and supporting the feasibility of promoting assembly-incompetent dimeric states. Solution characterization in the presence of the H-site ligand shows predominantly unassembled dimeric CA, even under conditions that promote assembly. Our structure elucidation of the HIV-1 FL CA and characterization of a potential allosteric binding site provides three-dimensional views of an assembly-defective conformation, a state targeted in, and thus directly relevant to, inhibitor development. Based on our findings, we propose an unprecedented means of preventing CA assembly, by 'conformationally trapping' CA in assembly-incompetent conformational states induced by H-site binding.

  11. Development of an IP-Free Biotechnology Platform for Constitutive Production of HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein Using the Pichia pastoris PGK1 Promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, F C; Coimbra, E C; Jesus, A L S; Nascimento, L M; Torres, F A G; Freitas, A C

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein, which forms the basis of the currently available vaccines against cervical cancer, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed heterologously. We report the development of a biotechnology platform for HPV16 L1 protein expression based on the constitutive PGK1 promoter (PPGK1) from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The L1 gene was cloned under regulation of PPGK1 into pPGKΔ3 expression vector to achieve intracellular expression. In parallel, secretion of the L1 protein was obtained through the use of an alternative vector called pPGKΔ3α, in which a codon optimized α-factor signal sequence was inserted. We devised a work-flow based on the detection of the L1 protein by dot blot, colony blot, and western blot to classify the positive clones. Finally, intracellular HPV VLPs assembly was demonstrated for the first time in yeast cells. This study opens up perspectives for the establishment of an innovative platform for the production of HPV VLPs or other viral antigens for vaccination purposes, based on constitutive expression in P. pastoris.

  12. Development of an IP-Free Biotechnology Platform for Constitutive Production of HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein Using the Pichia pastoris PGK1 Promoter

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    F. C. Mariz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV L1 major capsid protein, which forms the basis of the currently available vaccines against cervical cancer, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs when expressed heterologously. We report the development of a biotechnology platform for HPV16 L1 protein expression based on the constitutive PGK1 promoter (PPGK1 from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The L1 gene was cloned under regulation of PPGK1 into pPGKΔ3 expression vector to achieve intracellular expression. In parallel, secretion of the L1 protein was obtained through the use of an alternative vector called pPGKΔ3α, in which a codon optimized α-factor signal sequence was inserted. We devised a work-flow based on the detection of the L1 protein by dot blot, colony blot, and western blot to classify the positive clones. Finally, intracellular HPV VLPs assembly was demonstrated for the first time in yeast cells. This study opens up perspectives for the establishment of an innovative platform for the production of HPV VLPs or other viral antigens for vaccination purposes, based on constitutive expression in P. pastoris.

  13. Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Completion Occurs through Error Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Corinne A; Lyktey, Nicholas A; Zhao, Zhongchao; Pierson, Elizabeth E; Zlotnick, Adam; Jarrold, Martin F

    2017-11-22

    Understanding capsid assembly is important because of its role in virus lifecycles and in applications to drug discovery and nanomaterial development. Many virus capsids are icosahedral, and assembly is thought to occur by the sequential addition of capsid protein subunits to a nucleus, with the final step completing the icosahedron. Almost nothing is known about the final (completion) step because the techniques usually used to study capsid assembly lack the resolution. In this work, charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) has been used to track the assembly of the T = 4 hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid in real time. The initial assembly reaction occurs rapidly, on the time scale expected from low resolution measurements. However, CDMS shows that many of the particles generated in this process are defective and overgrown, containing more than the 120 capsid protein dimers needed to form a perfect T = 4 icosahedron. The defective and overgrown capsids self-correct over time to the mass expected for a perfect T = 4 capsid. Thus, completion is a distinct phase in the assembly reaction. Capsid completion does not necessarily occur by inserting the last building block into an incomplete, but otherwise perfect icosahedron. The initial assembly reaction can be predominently imperfect, and completion involves the slow correction of the accumulated errors.

  14. Adaption of FMDV Asia-1 to Suspension Culture: Cell Resistance Is Overcome by Virus Capsid Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Veronika; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease with catastrophic economic impact for affected countries. BHK21 suspension cells are preferred for the industrial production of FMDV vaccine antigen, but not all virus strains can be successfully propagated in these cells. Serotype Asia-1 is often affected by this phenomenon. In this study, the Asia-1 strain Shamir was used to examine viral, cellular and environmental factors that contribute to resistance to cell culture infection. Cell media composition, pH and ammonium chloride concentration did not affect Asia-1 differently than other serotypes. Virus replication after transfection of viral genome was not impaired, but the adhesion to the cells was markedly reduced for Asia-1 in comparison to serotype A. The Asia-1 Shamir virus was successfully adapted to grow in the resistant cells by using a closely related but susceptible cell line. Sequence analysis of the adapted virus revealed two distinct mutations in the capsid protein VP1 that might mediate cell attachment and entry. PMID:28820470

  15. Reverse Transcription Mechanically Initiates HIV-1 Capsid Disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankovic, Sanela; Varadarajan, Janani; Ramalho, Ruben; Aiken, Christopher; Rousso, Itay

    2017-06-15

    The HIV-1 core consists of the viral genomic RNA and several viral proteins encased within a conical capsid. After cell entry, the core disassembles in a process termed uncoating. Although HIV-1 uncoating has been linked to reverse transcription of the viral genome in target cells, the mechanism by which uncoating is initiated is unknown. Using time-lapse atomic force microscopy, we analyzed the morphology and physical properties of isolated HIV-1 cores during the course of reverse transcription in vitro We found that, during an early stage of reverse transcription the pressure inside the capsid increases, reaching a maximum after 7 h. High-resolution mechanical mapping reveals the formation of a stiff coiled filamentous structure underneath the capsid surface. Subsequently, this coiled structure disappears, the stiffness of the capsid drops precipitously to a value below that of a pre-reverse transcription core, and the capsid undergoes partial or complete rupture near the narrow end of the conical structure. We propose that the transcription of the relatively flexible single-stranded RNA into a more rigid filamentous structure elevates the pressure within the core, which triggers the initiation of capsid disassembly.IMPORTANCE For successful infection, the HIV-1 genome, which is in the form of a single-stranded RNA enclosed inside a capsid shell, must be reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA and released from the capsid (in a process known as uncoating) before it can be integrated into the target cell genome. The mechanism that triggers uncoating is a pivotal question of long standing. By using atomic force microscopy, we found that during reverse transcription the pressure inside the capsid increases until the internal stress exceeds the strength of the capsid structure and the capsid breaks open. The application of AFM technologies to study purified HIV-1 cores represents a new experimental platform for elucidating additional aspects of capsid

  16. Amino acids substitutions in σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins of a Vero cell-adapted mammalian orthoreovirus are required for optimal virus binding and disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandekian, Véronique; Lemay, Guy

    2015-01-22

    In a recent study, the serotype 3 Dearing strain of mammalian orthoreovirus was adapted to Vero cells; cells that exhibit a limited ability to support the early steps of reovirus uncoating and are unable to produce interferon as an antiviral response upon infection. The Vero cell-adapted virus (VeroAV) exhibits amino acids substitutions in both the σ1 and μ1 outer capsid proteins but no changes in the σ3 protein. Accordingly, the virus was shown not to behave as a classical uncoating mutant. In the present study, an increased ability of the virus to bind at the Vero cell surface was observed and is likely associated with an increased ability to bind onto cell-surface sialic acid residues. In addition, the kinetics of μ1 disassembly from the virions appears to be altered. The plasmid-based reverse genetics approach confirmed the importance of σ1 amino acids substitutions in VeroAV's ability to efficiently infect Vero cells, although μ1 co-adaptation appears necessary to optimize viral infection. This approach of combining in vitro selection of reoviruses with reverse genetics to identify pertinent amino acids substitutions appears promising in the context of eventual reovirus modification to increase its potential as an oncolytic virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway of a vector insect is activated by virus capsid protein and promotes viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Wan; Li, Jing; Luo, Lan; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2017-01-01

    No evidence has shown whether insect-borne viruses manipulate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway of vector insects. Using a system comprising the plant virus Rice stripe virus (RSV) and its vector insect, the small brown planthopper, we have studied the response of the vector insect’s JNK pathway to plant virus infection. We found that RSV increased the level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and decreased the level of G protein Pathway Suppressor 2 (GPS2) in the insect vector. The virus capsid protein competitively bound GPS2 to release it from inhibiting the JNK activation machinery. We confirmed that JNK activation promoted RSV replication in the vector, whereas JNK inhibition caused a significant reduction in virus production and thus delayed the disease incidence of plants. These findings suggest that inhibition of insect vector JNK may be a useful strategy for controling the transmission of plant viruses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26591.001 PMID:28716183

  18. Cleavage of the HPV16 Minor Capsid Protein L2 during Virion Morphogenesis Ablates the Requirement for Cellular Furin during De Novo Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Cruz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Infections by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV are the causative agents for the development of cervical cancer. As with other non-enveloped viruses, HPVs are taken up by the cell through endocytosis following primary attachment to the host cell. Through studies using recombinant pseudovirus particles (PsV, many host cellular proteins have been implicated in the process. The proprotein convertase furin has been demonstrated to cleave the minor capsid protein, L2, post-attachment to host cells and is required for infectious entry by HPV16 PsV. In contrast, using biochemical inhibition by a furin inhibitor and furin-negative cells, we show that tissue-derived HPV16 native virus (NV initiates infection independent of cellular furin. We show that HPV16 L2 is cleaved during virion morphogenesis in differentiated tissue. In addition, HPV45 is also not dependent on cellular furin, but two other alpha papillomaviruses, HPV18 and HPV31, are dependent on the activity of cellular furin for infection.

  19. Whole-Chain Tick Saliva Proteins Presented on Hepatitis B Virus Capsid-Like Particles Induce High-Titered Antibodies with Neutralizing Potential.

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    Philipp Kolb

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF, and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC. Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc derived capsid-like particles (CLPs to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission.

  20. A PCR-Based Assay Targeting the Major Capsid Protein Gene of a Dinorna-Like ssRNA Virus That Infects Coral Photosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Proaño, Jose; Buerger, Patrick; Weynberg, Karen D; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2017-01-01

    The coral-Symbiodinium association is a critical component of coral reefs as it is the main primary producer and builds the reef's 3-dimensional structure. A breakdown of this endosymbiosis causes a loss of the dinoflagellate photosymbiont, Symbiodinium, and/or its photosynthetic pigments from the coral tissues (i.e., coral bleaching), and can lead to coral mortality. Coral bleaching has mostly been attributed to environmental stressors, and in some cases to bacterial infection. Viral lysis of Symbiodinium has been proposed as another possible cause of some instances of coral bleaching, but this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this study, we used coral virome data to develop a novel PCR-based assay for examining the presence and diversity of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus by targeting its major capsid protein (MCP) gene. Illumina sequence analysis of amplicons obtained with novel primers showed 99.8% of the reads had the closest taxonomic affinity with the MCP gene of the virus, Heterocapsa circularisquama RNA virus (HcRNAV) known to infect dinoflagellates, indicating that dinorna-like viruses are commonly associated with corals on the Great Barrier Reef. A phylogenetic analysis of MCP gene sequences revealed strong coral species specificity of viral operational taxon units (OTUs). This assay allows a relatively easy and rapid evaluation of the presence and diversity of this particular viral group and will assist in enhancing our understanding of the role of viral lysis in coral bleaching.

  1. Computational studies on the interaction of ABO-active saccharides with the norovirus VA387 capsid protein can explain experimental binding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppisetty, Chaitanya A. K.; Nasir, Waqas; Strino, Francesco; Rydell, Gustaf E.; Larson, Göran; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2010-05-01

    Norovirus strains are known to cause recurring epidemics of winter vomiting disease. The crystal structure of the capsid protein of VA387, a representative of the clinically important GII.4 genocluster, was recently solved in complex with histo-blood group A- and B-trisaccharides. However, the VA387 strain is known to bind also to other natural carbohydrates for which detailed structural information of the complexes is not available. In this study we have computationally explored the fit of the VA387 with a set of naturally occurring carbohydrate ligands containing a terminal α1,2-linked fucose. MD simulations both with explicit and implicit solvent models indicate that type 1 and 3 extensions of the ABO-determinant including ALeb and BLeb pentasaccharides can be well accommodated in the site. Scoring with Glide XP indicates that the downstream extensions of the ABO-determinants give an increase in binding strength, although the α1,2-linked fucose is the single strongest interacting residue. An error was discovered in the geometry of the GalNAc-Gal moiety of the published crystal structure of the A-trisaccharide/VA387 complex. The present modeling of the complexes with histo-blood group A-active structures shows some contacts which provide insight into mutational data, explaining the involvement of I389 and Q331. Our results can be applicable in structure-based design of adhesion inhibitors of noroviruses.

  2. A PCR-Based Assay Targeting the Major Capsid Protein Gene of a Dinorna-Like ssRNA Virus That Infects Coral Photosymbionts

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    Jose Montalvo-Proaño

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The coral-Symbiodinium association is a critical component of coral reefs as it is the main primary producer and builds the reef's 3-dimensional structure. A breakdown of this endosymbiosis causes a loss of the dinoflagellate photosymbiont, Symbiodinium, and/or its photosynthetic pigments from the coral tissues (i.e., coral bleaching, and can lead to coral mortality. Coral bleaching has mostly been attributed to environmental stressors, and in some cases to bacterial infection. Viral lysis of Symbiodinium has been proposed as another possible cause of some instances of coral bleaching, but this hypothesis has not yet been experimentally confirmed. In this study, we used coral virome data to develop a novel PCR-based assay for examining the presence and diversity of a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA virus by targeting its major capsid protein (MCP gene. Illumina sequence analysis of amplicons obtained with novel primers showed 99.8% of the reads had the closest taxonomic affinity with the MCP gene of the virus, Heterocapsa circularisquama RNA virus (HcRNAV known to infect dinoflagellates, indicating that dinorna-like viruses are commonly associated with corals on the Great Barrier Reef. A phylogenetic analysis of MCP gene sequences revealed strong coral species specificity of viral operational taxon units (OTUs. This assay allows a relatively easy and rapid evaluation of the presence and diversity of this particular viral group and will assist in enhancing our understanding of the role of viral lysis in coral bleaching.

  3. Mutations in the capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus affecting encapsidation eliminate vesicle induction in planta: implications for virus cell-to-cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamunusinghe, Devinka; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Rao, A L N

    2013-08-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses are known to rearrange the endomembrane network to make it more conducive for replication, maturation, or egress. Our previous transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that ectopic expression of wild-type (wt) capsid protein (CP) of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) has an intrinsic property of modifying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce vesicles similar to those present in wt BMV infection. In this study, we evaluated the functional significance of CP-mediated vesicle induction to the BMV infection cycle in planta. Consequently, the cytopathologic changes induced by wt CP or its mutants defective in virion assembly due to mutations engineered in either N- or C-proximal domains were comparatively analyzed by TEM in two susceptible (Nicotiana benthamiana and Chenopodium quinoa) and one nonhost (N. clevelandii) plant species. The results showed that in susceptible hosts, CP-mediated ER-derived vesicle induction is contingent on the expression of encapsidation-competent CP. In contrast, unlike in N. benthamiana and C. quinoa, transient expression of wt CP in nonhost N. clevelandii plants eliminated vesicle induction. Additionally, comparative source-to-sink analysis of virus spread in leaves of N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii coexpressing wt BMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) showed that despite trans-encapsidation, CMV failed to complement the defective cell-to-cell movement of BMV. The significance and relation of CP-mediated vesicle induction to virus cell-to-cell movement are discussed.

  4. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA

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    Purcell, Maureen K.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Winton, James R.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  5. Lentiviral Gag assembly analyzed through the functional characterization of chimeric simian immunodeficiency viruses expressing different domains of the feline immunodeficiency virus capsid protein.

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    María J Esteva

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the functional relationship between the capsid (CA domains of the Gag polyproteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively, we constructed chimeric SIVs in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by the equivalent region of the FIV CA. The phenotypic characterization of the chimeras allowed us to group them into three categories: the chimeric viruses that, while being assembly-competent, exhibit a virion-associated unstable FIV CA; a second group represented only by the chimeric SIV carrying the N-terminal domain (NTD of the FIV CA which proved to be assembly-defective; and a third group constituted by the chimeric viruses that produce virions exhibiting a mature and stable FIV CA protein, and which incorporate the envelope glycoprotein and contain wild-type levels of viral genome RNA and reverse transcriptase. Further analysis of the latter group of chimeric SIVs demonstrated that they are non-infectious due to a post-entry impairment, such as uncoating of the viral core, reverse transcription or nuclear import of the preintegration complex. Furthermore, we show here that the carboxyl-terminus domain (CTD of the FIV CA has an intrinsic ability to dimerize in vitro and form high-molecular-weight oligomers, which, together with our finding that the FIV CA-CTD is sufficient to confer assembly competence to the resulting chimeric SIV Gag polyprotein, provides evidence that the CA-CTD exhibits more functional plasticity than the CA-NTD. Taken together, our results provide relevant information on the biological relationship between the CA proteins of primate and nonprimate lentiviruses.

  6. Physical properties of the HIV-1 capsid from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilla, Juan R.; Schulten, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly dependent on its capsid. The capsid is a large container, made of ~1,300 proteins with altogether 4 million atoms. Although the capsid proteins are all identical, they nevertheless arrange themselves into a largely asymmetric structure made of hexamers and pentamers. The large number of degrees of freedom and lack of symmetry pose a challenge to studying the chemical details of the HIV capsid. Simulations of over 64 million atoms for over 1 μs allow us to conduct a comprehensive study of the chemical-physical properties of an empty HIV-1 capsid, including its electrostatics, vibrational and acoustic properties, and the effects of solvent (ions and water) on the capsid. The simulations reveal critical details about the capsid with implications to biological function.

  7. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

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    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Okazaki, S., E-mail: okazaki@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Nakagawa, A. [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nomoto, A. [Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10{sup 6} all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it.

  8. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Bøtner, Anette

    2015-01-01

    -scale culling of infected, and potentially infected, animals there has been significant effort to develop new vaccines against this disease which avoid some, or all, of the deficiencies of current vaccines. A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self....... The development and use of such improved vaccines should assist in the global efforts to control this important disease...

  9. Capsid, membrane and NS3 are the major viral proteins involved in autophagy induced by Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujin; Hou, Lei; Du, Jige; Zhou, Lei; Ge, Xinna; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun

    2015-08-05

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important zoonotic pathogen causing viral encephalitis in human and reproductive failure in pigs. In the present study, we first examined the autophagy induced by JEV infection in host cells, and then analyzed the JEV proteins involving in autophagy induction, and further investigated the relationship between viral protein and immunity-related GTPases M (IRGM). Our results showed that JEV infection could induce autophagy in host cells and autophagy promoted the replication of JEV in vitro; the cells transfected with individual plasmid that was expressing C, M and NS3 had a significantly higher conversion of LC3-I/II, and enhanced LC3 signals with the fluorescence punctuates accumulation which was completely co-localized with LC3 and increased number of autophagosomes-like vesicles, suggesting that C, M and NS3 are the major viral proteins involving in autophagy induction upon JEV infection; the virus titer in the cells treated by the siRNA specific for IRGM had a significant decrease, and the NS3 signals in the cells transfected with the plasmid that was expressing NS3 were completely co-localized with the IRGM signals, suggesting that the NS3 of JEV could target IRGM which may play a role in the replication of JEV. Our findings help to understand the role of autophagy in JEV and other flaviviruses infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A central region in the minor capsid protein of papillomaviruses facilitates viral genome tethering and membrane penetration for mitotic nuclear entry.

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    Inci Aydin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Incoming papillomaviruses (PVs depend on mitotic nuclear envelope breakdown to gain initial access to the nucleus for viral transcription and replication. In our previous work, we hypothesized that the minor capsid protein L2 of PVs tethers the incoming vDNA to mitotic chromosomes to direct them into the nascent nuclei. To re-evaluate how dynamic L2 recruitment to cellular chromosomes occurs specifically during prometaphase, we developed a quantitative, microscopy-based assay for measuring the degree of chromosome recruitment of L2-EGFP. Analyzing various HPV16 L2 truncation-mutants revealed a central chromosome-binding region (CBR of 147 amino acids that confers binding to mitotic chromosomes. Specific mutations of conserved motifs (IVAL286AAAA, RR302/5AA, and RTR313EEE within the CBR interfered with chromosomal binding. Moreover, assembly-competent HPV16 containing the chromosome-binding deficient L2(RTR313EEE or L2(IVAL286AAAA were inhibited for infection despite their ability to be transported to intracellular compartments. Since vDNA and L2 were not associated with mitotic chromosomes either, the infectivity was likely impaired by a defect in tethering of the vDNA to mitotic chromosomes. However, L2 mutations that abrogated chromatin association also compromised translocation of L2 across membranes of intracellular organelles. Thus, chromatin recruitment of L2 may in itself be a requirement for successful penetration of the limiting membrane thereby linking both processes mechanistically. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the association of L2 with mitotic chromosomes is conserved among the alpha, beta, gamma, and iota genera of Papillomaviridae. However, different binding patterns point to a certain variance amongst the different genera. Overall, our data suggest a common strategy among various PVs, in which a central region of L2 mediates tethering of vDNA to mitotic chromosomes during cell division thereby coordinating membrane

  11. Substitutions at residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein serve as the minimal determinant of attenuation for canine parvovirus vaccine strain 9985-46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehata, Go; Sato, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Morimasa; Takahashi, Takuo; Kainuma, Risa; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Oshima, Sho; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    Identifying molecular determinants of virulence attenuation in live attenuated canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccines is important for assuring their safety. To this end, we identified mutations in the attenuated CPV 9985-46 vaccine strain that arose during serial passage in Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells by comparison with the wild-type counterpart, as well as minimal determinants of the loss of virulence. Four amino acid substitutions (N93K, G300V, T389N and V562L) in VP2 of strain 9985-46 significantly restricted infection in canine A72 cells. Using an infectious molecular clone system, we constructed isogenic CPVs of the parental virulent 9985 strain carrying single or double mutations. We observed that only a single amino acid substitution in VP2, G300V or T389N, attenuated the virulent parental virus. Combinations of these mutations further attenuated CPV to a level comparable to that of 9985-46. Strains with G300V/T389N substitutions did not induce clinical symptoms in experimentally infected pups, and their ability to infect canine cells was highly restricted. We found that another G300V/V562L double mutation decreased affinity of the virus for canine cells, although its pathogenicity to dogs was maintained. These results indicate that mutation of residue 300, which plays a critical role in host tropism, is not sufficient for viral attenuation in vivo, and that attenuation of 9985-46 strain is defined by at least two mutations in residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein. This finding is relevant for quality control of the vaccine and provides insight into the rational design of second-generation live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  12. Enhancing mucosal immunity in mice by recombinant adenovirus expressing major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein delivered with cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Tao; He, Xiu-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Chen, Lu; Guo, Quan-Hai; Yu, Qiu-Ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Yang, Xia; Wang, Chuan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant replication-defective adenovirus expressing the major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) capsid protein (rAd/Cap/518) was previously constructed and shown to induce mucosal immunity in mice following intranasal delivery. In the present study, immune responses induced by intranasal immunization with a combination of rAd/Cap/518 and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) were evaluated in mice. The levels of PCV-2-specific IgG in serum and IgA in saliva, lung, and intestinal fluids were significantly higher in the group immunized with rAd/Cap/518 and CpG ODN than animals immunized with rAd/Cap/518 alone. The frequencies of IL-2-secreting CD4⁺ T cells and IFN-γ-producing CD8⁺ T cells were significantly higher in the combined immunization group than mice immunized with rAd/Cap/518 alone. The frequencies of CD3⁺, CD3⁺CD4⁺CD8⁻, and CD3⁺CD4⁻CD8⁺ T cells in the combined immunization group were similar to that treated with CpG ODN alone, but significantly higher than mice that did not receive CpG ODN. PCV-2 load after challenge in the combined immunization group was significantly lower than that in the phosphate-buffered saline placebo group and approximately 7-fold lower in the group treated with CpG ODN alone. These results indicate that rAd/Cap/518 combined with CpG ODN can enhance systemic and local mucosal immunity in mice, and represent a promising synergetic mucosal vaccine against PCV-2.

  13. Destruction of the Capsid and Genome of GII.4 Human Norovirus Occurs during Exposure to Metal Alloys Containing Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, C S; Moore, M D; Jaykus, L A

    2015-08-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) represents a significant public health burden worldwide and can be environmentally transmitted. Copper surfaces have been shown to inactivate the cultivable surrogate murine norovirus, but no such data exist for HuNoV. The purpose of this study was to characterize the destruction of GII.4 HuNoV and virus-like particles (VLPs) during exposure to copper alloy surfaces. Fecal suspensions positive for a GII.4 HuNoV outbreak strain or GII.4 VLPs were exposed to copper alloys or stainless steel for 0 to 240 min and recovered by elution. HuNoV genome integrity was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) (without RNase treatment), and capsid integrity was assessed by RT-qPCR (with RNase treatment), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, and a histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding assay. Exposure of fecal suspensions to pure copper for 60 min reduced the GII.4 HuNoV RNA copy number by ∼3 log10 units when analyzed by RT-qPCR without RNase treatment and by 4 log10 units when a prior RNase treatment was used. The rate of reduction of the HuNoV RNA copy number was approximately proportional to the percentage of copper in each alloy. Exposure of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs to pure-copper surfaces resulted in noticeable aggregation and destruction within 240 min, an 80% reduction in the VP1 major capsid protein band intensity in 15 min, and a near-complete loss of HBGA receptor binding within 8 min. In all experiments, HuNoV remained stable on stainless steel. These results suggest that copper surfaces destroy HuNoV and may be useful in preventing environmental transmission of the virus in at-risk settings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Oral Vaccination with the Porcine Rotavirus VP4 Outer Capsid Protein Expressed by Lactococcus lactis Induces Specific Antibody Production

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    Yi-jing Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study to design a delivery system resistant to the gastrointestinal environment for oral vaccine against porcine rotavirus. Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 was transformed with segments of vP4 of the porcine rotavirus inserted into the pNZ8112 surface-expression vector, and a recombinant L. lactis expressing VP4 protein was constructed. An approximately 27 kDa VP4 protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE , Western blot and immunostaining analysis. BALB/c mice were immunized orally with VP4-expression recombinant L. lactis and cellular, mucosal and systemic humoral immune responses were examined. Specific anti-VP4 secretory IgA and IgG were found in feces, ophthalmic and vaginal washes and in serum. The induced antibodies demonstrated neutralizing effects on porcine rotavirus infection on MA104 cells. Our findings suggest that oral immunization with VP4-expressing L. lactis induced both specific local and systemic humoral and cellular immune responses in mice.

  15. Rhinovirus-induced VP1-specific Antibodies are Group-specific and Associated With Severity of Respiratory Symptoms

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    Katarzyna Niespodziana

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: Our results demonstrate that increases of antibodies towards the VP1 N-terminus are group-specific and associated with severity of respiratory symptoms and suggest that it may be possible to develop serological tests for identifying causative RV groups.

  16. Kinetics versus Thermodynamics in Virus Capsid Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, Pepijn; van der Schoot, Paul; Kegel, Willem

    2016-07-07

    Virus coat proteins spontaneously self-assemble into empty shells in aqueous solution under the appropriate physicochemical conditions, driven by an interaction free energy per bond on the order of 2-5 times the thermal energy kBT. For this seemingly modest interaction strength, each protein building block nonetheless gains a very large binding free energy, between 10 and 20 kBT. Because of this, there is debate about whether the assembly process is reversible or irreversible. Here we discuss capsid polymorphism observed in in vitro experiments from the perspective of nucleation theory and of the thermodynamics of mass action. We specifically consider the potential contribution of a curvature free energy term to the effective interaction potential between the proteins. From these models, we propose experiments that may conclusively reveal whether virus capsid assembly into a mixture of polymorphs is a reversible or an irreversible process.

  17. Evaluation of adenovirus capsid labeling versus transgene expression

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    Curiel David T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adenoviral vectors have been utilized for a variety of gene therapy applications. Our group has incorporated bioluminescent, fluorographic reporters, and/or suicide genes within the adenovirus genome for analytical and/or therapeutic purposes. These molecules have also been incorporated as capsid components. Recognizing that incorporations at either locale yield potential advantages and disadvantages, our report evaluates the benefits of transgene incorporation versus capsid incorporation. To this end, we have genetically incorporated firefly luciferase within the early region 3 or at minor capsid protein IX and compared vector functionality by means of reporter readout.

  18. A single amino acid substitution of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein affects viral sensitivity to TRIM5α

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    Shioda Tatsuo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not Old World monkeys, such as rhesus and cynomolgus (CM monkeys. To establish a monkey model of HIV-1/AIDS, several HIV-1 derivatives have been constructed. We previously reported that efficient replication of HIV-1 in CM cells was achieved after we replaced the loop between α-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 of the capsid protein (CA with that of SIVmac239 in addition to the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5 and vif. This virus (NL-4/5S6/7SvifS was supposed to escape from host restriction factors cyclophilin A, CM TRIM5α, and APOBEC3G. However, the replicative capability of NL-4/5S6/7SvifS in human cells was severely impaired. Results By long-term cultivation of human CEMss cells infected with NL-4/5S6/7SvifS, we succeeded in rescuing the impaired replicative capability of the virus in human cells. Sequence analysis of the CA region of the adapted virus revealed a G-to-E substitution at the 116th position of the CA (G116E. Introduction of this substitution into the molecular DNA clone of NL-4/5S6/7SvifS indeed improved the virus' replicative capability in human cells. Although the G116E substitution occurred during long-term cultivation of human cells infected with NL-4/5S6/7SvifS, the viruses with G116E unexpectedly became resistant to CM, but not human TRIM5α-mediated restriction. The 3-D model showed that position 116 is located in the 6th helix near L4/5 and L6/7 and is apparently exposed to the protein surface. The amino acid substitution at the 116th position caused a change in the structure of the protein surface because of the replacement of G (which has no side chain with E (which has a long negatively charged side chain. Conclusions We succeeded in rescuing the impaired replicative capability of NL-4/5S6/7SvifS and report a mutation that improved the replicative capability of the virus. Unexpectedly, HIV-1 with this

  19. Genetic Diversity in the Major Capsid L1 Protein of HPV-16 and HPV-18 in the Netherlands.

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    Audrey J King

    Full Text Available Intratypic molecular variants of human papillomavirus (HPV type-16 and -18 exist. In the Netherlands, a bivalent vaccine, composed of recombinant L1 proteins from HPV-16 and -18, is used to prevent cervical cancer since 2009. Long-term vaccination could lead to changes in HPV-16 and -18 virus population, thereby hampering vaccination strategies. We determined the genetic diversity of the L1 gene in HPV-16 and -18 viral strains circulating in the Netherlands at the start of vaccination in order to understand the baseline genetic diversity in the Dutch population.DNA sequences of the L1 gene were determined in HPV-16 (n = 241 and HPV-18 (n = 108 positive anogenital samples collected in 2009 and 2011 among Dutch 16- to 24-year old female and male attendees of the sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and sequences were compared to reference sequences HPV-16 (AF536179 and HPV-18 (X05015 using BioNumerics 7.1.For HPV-16, ninety-five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs were identified, twenty-seven (28% were non-synonymous variations. For HPV-18, seventy-one SNPs were identified, twenty-nine (41% were non-synonymous. The majority of the non-silent variations were located in sequences encoding alpha helix, beta sheet or surface loops, in particular in the immunodominant FG loop, and may influence the protein secondary structure and immune recognition.This study provides unique pre-vaccination/baseline data on the genetic L1 diversity of HPV-16 and -18 viruses circulating in the Netherlands among adolescents and young adults.

  20. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O,A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutral...

  1. Use of recombinant capsid proteins in the development of a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsham GJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Graham J Belsham, Anette Bøtner National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kalvehave, Denmark Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease remains one of the world's most economically important diseases of livestock. It is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family. The virus replicates very rapidly and can be efficiently transmitted between hosts by a variety of routes. The disease has been effectively controlled in some parts of the world but remains endemic in many others, thus there is a constant risk of introduction of the disease into areas that are normally free of foot-and-mouth disease with potentially huge economic consequences. To reduce the need for large-scale culling of infected, and potentially infected, animals there has been significant effort to develop new vaccines against this disease which avoid some, or all, of the deficiencies of current vaccines. A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate “empty capsid” particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. Such particles can be “designed” to improve their stability or modify their antigenicity and can be produced without “high containment” facilities. The development and use of such improved vaccines should assist in the global efforts to control this important disease. Keywords: picornavirus, diagnostic assays, virus structure, infection, immune responses

  2. Construction and characterization of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strain, O/IND/R2/75

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    Ramesh Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Generation of recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expressing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV capsid protein genes along with full-length 2B, 3B and 3Cpro and its characterization. Materials and Methods: FMD viral RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis, and polymerase chain reaction were performed to synthesize expression cassettes (P1-2AB3BCwt and P1-2AB3BCm followed by cloning in pShuttle-CMV vector. Chemically competent BJ5183-AD-1 cells were transformed with the recombinant pShuttle-CMV to produce recombinant adenoviral plasmids. HEK-293 cells were transfected with the recombinant adenoviral plasmids to generate recombinant adenoviruses (hAd5/P1-2AB3BCwt and hAd5/P1-2AB3BCm. Expression of the target proteins was analyzed by sandwich ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The recombinant adenoviruses were purified and concentrated by CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation. Growth kinetics and thermostability of the recombinant adenoviruses were compared with that of non-recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (dAd5. Results: The recombinant adenoviruses containing capsid protein genes of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were generated and amplified in HEK-293 cells. The titer of the recombinant adenoviruses was approximately 108, 109.5 and 1011 TCID50/ml in supernatant media, cell lysate and CsCl purified preparation, respectively. Expression of the FMDV capsid protein was detectable in sandwich ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. Growth kinetics of the recombinant adenoviruses did not reveal a significant difference when compared with that of dAd5. A decrement of up to 10-fold at 4°C and 21-fold at 37°C was recorded in the virus titers during 60 h incubation period and found to be statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion: Recombinant adenoviruses expressing capsid proteins of the FMDV O/IND/R2/75 were constructed and produced in high titers. In vitro expression of the target proteins in the adenovirus vector system was

  3. Natural Type 3/Type 2 Intertypic Vaccine-Related Poliovirus Recombinants with the First Crossover Sites within the VP1 Capsid Coding Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Shuangli; Yan, Dongmei

    2010-01-01

    Ten uncommon natural type 3/type 2 intertypic poliovirus recombinants were isolated from stool specimens from nine acute flaccid paralysis case patients and one healthy vaccinee in China from 2001 to 2008....

  4. Native hepatitis B virions and capsids visualized by electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Kelly A; Wieland, Stefan F; Whitten-Bauer, Christina; Gerin, John L; Chisari, Francis V; Yeager, Mark

    2006-06-23

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects more than 350 million people, of which one million will die every year. The infectious virion is an enveloped capsid containing the viral polymerase and double-stranded DNA genome. The structure of the capsid assembled in vitro from expressed core protein has been studied intensively. However, little is known about the structure and assembly of native capsids present in infected cells, and even less is known about the structure of mature virions. We used electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) and image analysis to examine HBV virions (Dane particles) isolated from patient serum and capsids positive and negative for HBV DNA isolated from the livers of transgenic mice. Both types of capsids assembled as icosahedral particles indistinguishable from previous image reconstructions of capsids. Likewise, the virions contained capsids with either T = 3 or T = 4 icosahedral symmetry. Projections extending from the lipid envelope were attributed to surface glycoproteins. Their packing was unexpectedly nonicosahedral but conformed to an ordered lattice. These structural features distinguish HBV from other enveloped viruses.

  5. Periodic table of virus capsids: implications for natural selection and design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan V Mannige

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies.This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs (or those capsids with the lowest "hexamer complexity", C(h are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties (rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc. that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus.Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work (especially the periodic table provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

  6. Periodic table of virus capsids: implications for natural selection and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannige, Ranjan V; Brooks, Charles L

    2010-03-04

    For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies. This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs (or those capsids with the lowest "hexamer complexity", C(h)) are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties (rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc.) that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus. Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work (especially the periodic table) provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

  7. RECOVIR: An application package to automatically identify some single stranded RNA viruses using capsid protein residues that uniquely distinguish among these viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox George E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most single stranded RNA (ssRNA viruses mutate rapidly to generate large number of strains having highly divergent capsid sequences. Accurate strain recognition in uncharacterized target capsid sequences is essential for epidemiology, diagnostics, and vaccine development. Strain recognition based on similarity scores between target sequences and sequences of homology matched reference strains is often time consuming and ambiguous. This is especially true if only partial target sequences are available or if different ssRNA virus families are jointly analyzed. In such cases, knowledge of residues that uniquely distinguish among known reference strains is critical for rapid and unambiguous strain identification. Conventional sequence comparisons are unable to identify such capsid residues due to high sequence divergence among the ssRNA virus reference strains. Consequently, automated general methods to reliably identify strains using strain distinguishing residues are not currently available. Results We present here RECOVIR ("recognize viruses", a software tool to automatically detect strains of caliciviruses and picornaviruses by comparing their capsid residues with built-in databases of residues that uniquely distinguish among known reference strains of these viruses. The databases were created by constructing partitioned phylogenetic trees of complete capsid sequences of these viruses. Strains were correctly identified for more than 300 complete and partial target sequences by comparing the database residues with the aligned residues of these sequences. It required about 5 seconds of real time to process each sequence. A Java-based user interface coupled with Perl-coded computational modules ensures high portability of the software. RECOVIR currently runs on Windows XP and Linux platforms. The software generalizes a manual method briefly outlined earlier for human caliciviruses. Conclusion This study shows implementation of

  8. Alix regulates egress of hepatitis B virus naked capsid particles in an ESCRT-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardens, Andreas; Döring, Tatjana; Stieler, Jens; Prange, Reinhild

    2011-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus that exploits the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway for budding. In addition to infectious particles, HBV-replicating cells release non-enveloped (nucleo)capsids, but their functional implication and pathways of release are unclear. Here, we focused on the molecular mechanisms and found that the sole expression of the HBV core protein is sufficient for capsid release. Unexpectedly, released capsids are devoid of a detectable membrane bilayer, implicating a non-vesicular exocytosis process. Unlike virions, naked capsid budding does not require the ESCRT machinery. Rather, we identified Alix, a multifunctional protein with key roles in membrane biology, as a regulator of capsid budding. Ectopic overexpression of Alix enhanced capsid egress, while its depletion inhibited capsid release. Notably, the loss of Alix did not impair HBV production, furthermore indicating that virions and capsids use diverse export routes. By mapping of Alix domains responsible for its capsid release-mediating activity, its Bro1 domain was found to be required and sufficient. Alix binds to core via its Bro1 domain and retained its activity even if its ESCRT-III binding site is disrupted. Together, the boomerang-shaped Bro1 domain of Alix appears to escort capsids without ESCRT. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. [Analysis on VP1 gene variation of Coxsackie virus B5 for aseptic meningitis isolated from Zhejiang Province in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qiong; Yan, Ju-Ying; Gong, Li-Ming

    2010-02-01

    Study meningoencephalitis virus isolated from the Coxsackie B5 virus(CVB5 virus) VP1 gene characteristics of Zhejiang Province in 2008 and compare with other countries CVB5 prototype isolates, and to explore the relationship of variation of the Virus VP1 areas and epidemic viral meningoencephalitis Hep-2 and RD cells in cerebrospinal fluid and stool specimens for virus isolation, positive isolates combination with intestinal type of serum. On the separation of virus extracted RNA, and then RT-PCR amplified VP, gene CVB5 virus fragments, and purification of sequencing products, using DNAMAN and Bioedit analytical processing software. The VP1 gene of CVB5 isolated from Zhejiang province meningoencephalitis viral in 2008 was 735bp. There were no missing and insertion of nucleotide . Strains isolated from ZJ/12/02 with the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the highest phylogenetic tree showed that they were not the same branch. The mutation caused by viral meningoencephalitis virus CVB5 Zhejiang province in 2008 was smaller. Viral meningoencephalitis distributed in some areas in the province had no significant prevalence.

  10. Nucleoporin 153 arrests the nuclear import of hepatitis B virus capsids in the nuclear basket.

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    André Schmitz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all DNA viruses including hepatitis B viruses (HBV replicate their genome inside the nucleus. In non-dividing cells, the genome has to pass through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs by the aid of nuclear transport receptors as e.g. importin beta (karyopherin. Most viruses release their genome in the cytoplasm or at the cytosolic face of the NPC, as the diameter of their capsids exceeds the size of the NPC. The DNA genome of HBV is derived from reverse transcription of an RNA pregenome. Genome maturation occurs in cytosolic capsids and progeny capsids can deliver the genome into the nucleus causing nuclear genome amplification. The karyophilic capsids are small enough to pass the NPC, but nuclear entry of capsids with an immature genome is halted in the nuclear basket on the nuclear side of the NPC, and the genome remains encapsidated. In contrast, capsids with a mature genome enter the basket and consequently liberate the genome. Investigating the difference between immature and mature capsids, we found that mature capsids had to disintegrate in order to leave the nuclear basket. The arrest of a karyophilic cargo at the nuclear pore is a rare phenomenon, which has been described for only very few cellular proteins participating in nuclear entry. We analyzed the interactions causing HBV capsid retention. By pull-down assays and partial siRNA depletion, we showed that HBV capsids directly interact with nucleoporin 153 (Nup153, an essential protein of the nuclear basket which participates in nuclear transport via importin beta. The binding sites of importin beta and capsids were shown to overlap but capsid binding was 150-fold stronger. In cellulo experiments using digitonin-permeabilized cells confirmed the interference between capsid binding and nuclear import by importin beta. Collectively, our findings describe a unique nuclear import strategy not only for viruses but for all karyophilic cargos.

  11. Integrated Nanosystems Templated by Self-assembled Virus Capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas

    This dissertation presents the synthesis and modeling of multicomponent nanosystems templated by self-assembled virus capsids. The design principles, synthesis, analysis, and future directions for these capsid-based materials are presented. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the literature on the application of virus capsids in constructing nanomaterials. The uses of capsids in three main areas are considered: (1) as templates for inorganic materials or nanoparticles; (2) as vehicles for biological applications like medical imaging and treatment; and (3) as scaffolds for catalytic materials. In light of this introduction, an overview of the material in this dissertation is described. Chapters 2-4 all describe integrated nanosystems templated by bacteriophage MS2, a spherical icosahedral virus capsid. MS2 possesses an interior and exterior surface that can be modified orthogonally using bioconjugation chemistry to create multivalent, multicomponent constructs with precise localization of components attached to the capsid proteins. Chapter 2 describes the use of MS2 to synthesize a photocatalytic construct by modifying the internal surface with sensitizing chromophores and the external surface with a photocatalytic porphyrin. The chromophores absorbed energy that the porphyrin could not, and transferred it to the porphyrin via FRET through the protein shell. The porphyrin was then able to utilize the energy to carry out photocatalysis at new wavelengths. In Chapter 3, porphyrins were installed on the interior surface of MS2 and DNA aptamers specific for Jurkat leukemia T cells on the exterior surface. The dual-modified capsids were able to bind to Jurkat cells, and upon illumination the porphyrins generated singlet oxygen to kill them selectively over non-targeted cells. Chapter 4 explores integrating MS2 with DNA origami in order to arrange the capsids at larger length scales. Capsids modified with fluorescent dyes inside and single-stranded DNA outside were able to

  12. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  13. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs......Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...

  14. The use of low-resolution phasing followed by phase extension from 7.6 to 2.5 Å resolution with noncrystallographic symmetry to solve the structure of a bacteriophage capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrescia, Nicola G A; Grimes, Jonathan M; Oksanen, Hanna M; Bamford, Jaana K H; Bamford, Dennis H; Stuart, David I

    2011-03-01

    P2, the major capsid protein of bacteriophage PM2, adopts the double β-barrel fold characteristic of the PRD1-adenoviral lineage. The 2.5 Å resolution X-ray data obtained by analysis of the two major lattices of a multiple crystal of P2 were phased by molecular replacement, using as a search model structure factors to 7.6 Å resolution obtained from electron density cut from the map of the entire PM2 virion. Phase extension to 2.5 Å resolution used solely sixfold cycling averaging and solvent flattening. This represents an atypical example of an oligomeric protein for which the structure has been determined at high resolution by bootstrapping from low-resolution initial phases.

  15. Varicella-zoster virus induces the formation of dynamic nuclear capsid aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Marielle [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Thelen, Nicolas; Thiry, Marc [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Neurosciences, Laboratory of Cellular and Tissular Biology, Liege (Belgium); Riva, Laura; Ote, Isabelle; Condé, Claude; Vandevenne, Patricia [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Di Valentin, Emmanuel [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Viral Vectors Platform, Liege (Belgium); Bontems, Sébastien [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine, E-mail: csadzot@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-04-15

    The first step of herpesviruses virion assembly occurs in the nucleus. However, the exact site where nucleocapsids are assembled, where the genome and the inner tegument are acquired, remains controversial. We created a recombinant VZV expressing ORF23 (homologous to HSV-1 VP26) fused to the eGFP and dually fluorescent viruses with a tegument protein additionally fused to a red tag (ORF9, ORF21 and ORF22 corresponding to HSV-1 UL49, UL37 and UL36). We identified nuclear dense structures containing the major capsid protein, the scaffold protein and maturing protease, as well as ORF21 and ORF22. Correlative microscopy demonstrated that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates and time-lapse video imaging showed that they appear prior to the accumulation of cytoplasmic capsids, presumably undergoing the secondary egress, and are highly dynamic. Our observations suggest that these structures might represent a nuclear area important for capsid assembly and/or maturation before the budding at the inner nuclear membrane. - Highlights: • We created a recombinant VZV expressing the small capsid protein fused to the eGFP. • We identified nuclear dense structures containing capsid and procapsid proteins. • Correlative microscopy showed that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates. • Procapsids and partial capsids are found within the aggregates of WT and eGFP-23 VZV. • FRAP and FLIP experiments demonstrated that they are dynamic structures.

  16. H+-pyrophosphatase IbVP1 promotes efficient iron use in sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weijuan; Wang, Hongxia; Wu, Yinliang; Yang, Nan; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Peng

    2017-06-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies limiting crop production globally, especially in arid regions because of decreased availability of iron in alkaline soils. Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] grows well in arid regions and is tolerant to Fe deficiency. Here, we report that the transcription of type I H + -pyrophosphatase (H + -PPase) gene IbVP1 in sweet potato plants was strongly induced by Fe deficiency and auxin in hydroponics, improving Fe acquisition via increased rhizosphere acidification and auxin regulation. When overexpressed, transgenic plants show higher pyrophosphate hydrolysis and plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity compared with the wild type, leading to increased rhizosphere acidification. The IbVP1-overexpressing plants showed better growth, including enlarged root systems, under Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient conditions. Increased ferric precipitation and ferric chelate reductase activity in the roots of transgenic lines indicate improved iron uptake, which is also confirmed by increased Fe content and up-regulation of Fe uptake genes, e.g. FRO2, IRT1 and FIT. Carbohydrate metabolism is significantly affected in the transgenic lines, showing increased sugar and starch content associated with the increased expression of AGPase and SUT1 genes and the decrease in β-amylase gene expression. Improved antioxidant capacities were also detected in the transgenic plants, which showed reduced H 2 O 2 accumulation associated with up-regulated ROS-scavenging activity. Therefore, H + -PPase plays a key role in the response to Fe deficiency by sweet potato and effectively improves the Fe acquisition by overexpressing IbVP1 in crops cultivated in micronutrient-deficient soils. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Guinea Pigs via Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Expressing VP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wang

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccination is an effective strategy for generating antigen-specific immune responses against mucosal infections of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum strains NC8 and WCFS1 were used as oral delivery vehicles containing a pSIP411-VP1 recombinant plasmid to initiate mucosal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were orally vaccinated (three doses with NC8-pSIP411, NC8-pSIP411-VP1, WCFS1-pSIP411, WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 or milk. Animals immunized with NC8-pSIP411-VP1 and WCFS1-pSIP411-VP1 developed high levels of antigen-specific serum IgG, IgA, IgM, mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA and neutralizing antibodies, and revealed stronger cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced protection against FMDV challenge compared with control groups. The recombinant pSIP411-VP1 effectively improved immunoprotection against FMDV in guinea pigs.

  18. Genetic variability of the VP1 gene of BK and JC polyomaviruses in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karalić Danijela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human polyomaviruses, BK virus (BKV and JC virus (JCV, are world widely distributed in human population. After primary infection, BKV and JCV establish latency in kidneys and upper part of urinary tract. In seropositive healthy individuals asymptomatic reactivation of both viruses occurs in in 0.5-20%. On the other hand, reactivation of these viruses in imunosuppressed patients, primarily in patients with T cell immunodeficiency, can lead to development of polyomavirus-associated diseases. Some of these diseases such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML, polyomavirus-induced nephropathy (PVN, hemorrhagic cystitis (HC are life-threatening diseases with high mortality and morbidity rate. However, they do not affect all immunosuppressed patients, suggesting that other factors, such as genetic variability of BKV and JCV, can contribute to their occurrence. Immunosuppression leads to increased levels of replication of both viruses. Increased levels of replication are associated with higher incidence of mutations in the VP1 gene. Mutations, especially those located in outer loops, may lead to changed tropism and generation of more aggressive variants of BKV and JCV. This review is focused on clinical significance of BK and JC virus infection in immunosuppressed patients, especially in HIV-infected, and sequence changes in the VP1 gene that can contribute to selection of more virulent variants of BKV and JCV via adaptive evolution.

  19. Role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiber, Antonio; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    We examine the role of electrostatic interactions in the assembly of empty spherical viral capsids. The charges on the protein subunits that make the viral capsid mutually interact and are expected to yield electrostatic repulsion acting against the assembly of capsids. Thus, attractive protein-protein interactions of nonelectrostatic origin must act to enable the capsid formation. We investigate whether the interplay of repulsive electrostatic and attractive interactions between the protein subunits can result in the formation of spherical viral capsids of a preferred radius. For this to be the case, we find that the attractive interactions must depend on the angle between the neighboring protein subunits (i.e., on the mean curvature of the viral capsid) so that a particular angle(s) is (are) preferred energywise. Our results for the electrostatic contributions to energetics of viral capsids nicely correlate with recent experimental determinations of the energetics of protein-protein contacts in the hepatitis B virus [P. Ceres A. Zlotnick, Biochemistry 41, 11525 (2002)].

  20. Dissecting human cytomegalovirus gene function and capsid maturation by ribozyme targeting and electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuekui; Trang, Phong; Shah, Sanket; Atanasov, Ivo; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Bai, Yong; Zhou, Z Hong; Liu, Fenyong

    2005-05-17

    Human CMV (HCMV) is the leading viral cause of birth defects and causes one of the most common opportunistic infections among transplant recipients and AIDS patients. Cleavage of internal scaffolding proteins by the viral protease (Pr) occurs during HCMV capsid assembly. To gain insight into the mechanism of HCMV capsid maturation and the roles of the Pr in viral replication, an RNase P ribozyme was engineered to target the Pr mRNA and down-regulate its expression by >99%, generating premature Pr-minus capsids. Furthermore, scaffolding protein processing and DNA encapsidation were inhibited by 99%, and viral growth was reduced by 10,000-fold. 3D structural comparison of the Pr-minus and wild-type B capsids by electron cryomicroscopy, at an unprecedented 12.5-angstroms resolution, unexpectedly revealed that the structures are identical in their overall shape and organization. However, the Pr-minus capsid contains tenuous connections between the scaffold and the capsid shell, whereas the wild-type B capsid has extra densities in its core that may represent the viral Pr. Our findings indicate that cleavage of the scaffolding protein is not associated with the morphological changes that occur during capsid maturation. Instead, the protease appears to be required for DNA encapsidation and the subsequent maturation steps leading to infectious progeny. These results therefore provide key insights into an essential step of HCMV infection using an RNase P ribozyme-based inhibition strategy.

  1. SCHEMA computational design of virus capsid chimeras: calibrating how genome packaging, protection, and transduction correlate with calculated structural disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle L; Adler, Benjamin A; Torre, Michael L; Silberg, Jonathan J; Suh, Junghae

    2013-12-20

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) recombination can result in chimeric capsid protein subunits whose ability to assemble into an oligomeric capsid, package a genome, and transduce cells depends on the inheritance of sequence from different AAV parents. To develop quantitative design principles for guiding site-directed recombination of AAV capsids, we have examined how capsid structural perturbations predicted by the SCHEMA algorithm correlate with experimental measurements of disruption in seventeen chimeric capsid proteins. In our small chimera population, created by recombining AAV serotypes 2 and 4, we found that protection of viral genomes and cellular transduction were inversely related to calculated disruption of the capsid structure. Interestingly, however, we did not observe a correlation between genome packaging and calculated structural disruption; a majority of the chimeric capsid proteins formed at least partially assembled capsids and more than half packaged genomes, including those with the highest SCHEMA disruption. These results suggest that the sequence space accessed by recombination of divergent AAV serotypes is rich in capsid chimeras that assemble into 60-mer capsids and package viral genomes. Overall, the SCHEMA algorithm may be useful for delineating quantitative design principles to guide the creation of libraries enriched in genome-protecting virus nanoparticles that can effectively transduce cells. Such improvements to the virus design process may help advance not only gene therapy applications but also other bionanotechnologies dependent upon the development of viruses with new sequences and functions.

  2. In-depth proteomic analysis of Varroa destructor: Detection of DWV-complex, ABPV, VdMLV and honeybee proteins in the mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Tomas; Harant, Karel; Hubalek, Martin; Vitamvas, Pavel; Kamler, Martin; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Tyl, Jan; Markovic, Martin; Titera, Dalibor

    2015-09-11

    We investigated pathogens in the parasitic honeybee mite Varroa destructor using nanoLC-MS/MS (TripleTOF) and 2D-E-MS/MS proteomics approaches supplemented with affinity-chromatography to concentrate trace target proteins. Peptides were detected from the currently uncharacterized Varroa destructor Macula-like virus (VdMLV), the deformed wing virus (DWV)-complex and the acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV). Peptide alignments revealed detection of complete structural DWV-complex block VP2-VP1-VP3, VDV-1 helicase and single-amino-acid substitution A/K/Q in VP1, the ABPV structural block VP1-VP4-VP2-VP3 including uncleaved VP4/VP2, and VdMLV coat protein. Isoforms of viral structural proteins of highest abundance were localized via 2D-E. The presence of all types of capsid/coat proteins of a particular virus suggested the presence of virions in Varroa. Also, matches between the MWs of viral structural proteins on 2D-E and their theoretical MWs indicated that viruses were not digested. The absence/scarce detection of non-structural proteins compared with high-abundance structural proteins suggest that the viruses did not replicate in the mite; hence, virions accumulate in the Varroa gut via hemolymph feeding. Hemolymph feeding also resulted in the detection of a variety of honeybee proteins. The advantages of MS-based proteomics for pathogen detection, false-positive pathogen detection, virus replication, posttranslational modifications, and the presence of honeybee proteins in Varroa are discussed.

  3. A Simple Model for Immature Retrovirus Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquay, Stefan; van der Schoot, Paul; Dragnea, Bogdan

    In this talk I will present simulations of a simple model for capsomeres in immature virus capsids, consisting of only point particles with a tunable range of attraction constrained to a spherical surface. We find that, at sufficiently low density, a short interaction range is sufficient for the suppression of five-fold defects in the packing and causes instead larger tears and scars in the capsid. These findings agree both qualitatively and quantitatively with experiments on immature retrovirus capsids, implying that the structure of the retroviral protein lattice can, for a large part, be explained simply by the effective interaction between the capsomeres. We thank the HFSP for funding under Grant RGP0017/2012.

  4. Immunological evaluation of mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles based foot and mouth disease virus DNA vaccine, pVAC FMDV VP1-OmpA in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Raj Kishore; Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Edao, Bedaso Mammo; Ramya, Kalaivanan; Rajangam, Mageswary; Chandra Sekar, Shanmugam; Ganesh, Kondabattula; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Kishore, Subodh

    2014-05-01

    A DNA vaccine for foot and mouth disease (FMD) based on mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles was evaluated in guinea pigs. The DNA construct was comprised of FMD virus full length-VP1 gene and outer membrane protein A (Omp A) gene of Salmonella typhimurium as a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-ligand in pVAC vector. Groups of guinea pigs immunized either intramuscularly or intra-nasally were evaluated for induction of virus neutralizing antibodies, Th1(IgG2) and Th2 (IgG1) responses, lymphocyte proliferation, reactive nitrogen intermediate production, secretory IgA for naso-mucosal immune response and protection upon homotypic type O virulent FMD virus challenge. The results indicate the synergistic effect of OmpA on the immunogenic potential of FMD DNA vaccine construct delivered using mannosylated chitosan nano-particles by different routes of administration. These observations suggest the substantial improvement in all the immunological parameters with enhanced protection in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2014 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality in T1 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 from Zygophyllum xanthoxylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinization, desertification, and soil nutrient deprivation are threatening the production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in northern China. We have previously generated T0 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes with enhanced salt and drought tolerance. To further develop this excellent breeding material into the new forage cultivar, stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality of T1 transgenic alfalfa (GM were assessed in this study. The GM inherited the traits of salt and drought tolerance from T0 generation. Most importantly, co-overexpression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 enhanced the tolerance to Pi deficiency in GM, which was associated with more Pi accumulation in plants. Meanwhile, T1 transgenic alfalfa developed a larger root system with increased root size, root dry weight and root/shoot ratio, which may be one important reason for the improvement of phosphorus nutrition and high biomass accumulation in GM under various conditions. GM also accumulated more crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, and crude ash than wild-type (WT plants, especially under stress conditions and in the field. More interestingly, the crude fat contents sharply dropped in WT (by 66%-74%, whereas showed no change or decreased less in GM, when subjected to salinity, drought or low-Pi. Our results indicate that T1 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 shows stronger stress tolerance, higher productivity and better forage quality. This study provides a solid foundation for creating the alfalfa cultivars with high yield, good quality and wide adaptability on saline, dry and nutrient-deprived marginal lands of northern China.

  6. The Mammalian Cell Cycle Regulates Parvovirus Nuclear Capsid Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolobos, Laura; Domínguez, Carlos; Kann, Michael; Almendral, José M.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown whether the mammalian cell cycle could impact the assembly of viruses maturing in the nucleus. We addressed this question using MVM, a reference member of the icosahedral ssDNA nuclear parvoviruses, which requires cell proliferation to infect by mechanisms partly understood. Constitutively expressed MVM capsid subunits (VPs) accumulated in the cytoplasm of mouse and human fibroblasts synchronized at G0, G1, and G1/S transition. Upon arrest release, VPs translocated to the nucleus as cells entered S phase, at efficiencies relying on cell origin and arrest method, and immediately assembled into capsids. In synchronously infected cells, the consecutive virus life cycle steps (gene expression, proteins nuclear translocation, capsid assembly, genome replication and encapsidation) proceeded tightly coupled to cell cycle progression from G0/G1 through S into G2 phase. However, a DNA synthesis stress caused by thymidine irreversibly disrupted virus life cycle, as VPs became increasingly retained in the cytoplasm hours post-stress, forming empty capsids in mouse fibroblasts, thereby impairing encapsidation of the nuclear viral DNA replicative intermediates. Synchronously infected cells subjected to density-arrest signals while traversing early S phase also blocked VPs transport, resulting in a similar misplaced cytoplasmic capsid assembly in mouse fibroblasts. In contrast, thymidine and density arrest signals deregulating virus assembly neither perturbed nuclear translocation of the NS1 protein nor viral genome replication occurring under S/G2 cycle arrest. An underlying mechanism of cell cycle control was identified in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated VPs trimeric assembly intermediates, which accessed a non-conserved route distinct from the importin α2/β1 and transportin pathways. The exquisite cell cycle-dependence of parvovirus nuclear capsid assembly conforms a novel paradigm of time and functional coupling between cellular and virus life

  7. Second-site suppressors of HIV-1 capsid mutations: restoration of intracellular activities without correction of intrinsic capsid stability defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ruifeng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disassembly of the viral capsid following penetration into the cytoplasm, or uncoating, is a poorly understood stage of retrovirus infection. Based on previous studies of HIV-1 CA mutants exhibiting altered capsid stability, we concluded that formation of a capsid of optimal intrinsic stability is crucial for HIV-1 infection. Results To further examine the connection between HIV-1 capsid stability and infectivity, we isolated second-site suppressors of HIV-1 mutants exhibiting unstable (P38A or hyperstable (E45A capsids. We identified the respective suppressor mutations, T216I and R132T, which restored virus replication in a human T cell line and markedly enhanced the fitness of the original mutants as revealed in single-cycle infection assays. Analysis of the corresponding purified N-terminal domain CA proteins by NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the E45A and R132T mutations induced structural changes that are localized to the regions of the mutations, while the P38A mutation resulted in changes extending to neighboring regions in space. Unexpectedly, neither suppressor mutation corrected the intrinsic viral capsid stability defect associated with the respective original mutation. Nonetheless, the R132T mutation rescued the selective infectivity impairment exhibited by the E45A mutant in aphidicolin-arrested cells, and the double mutant regained sensitivity to the small molecule inhibitor PF74. The T216I mutation rescued the impaired ability of the P38A mutant virus to abrogate restriction by TRIMCyp and TRIM5α. Conclusions The second-site suppressor mutations in CA that we have identified rescue virus infection without correcting the intrinsic capsid stability defects associated with the P38A and E45A mutations. The suppressors also restored wild type virus function in several cell-based assays. We propose that while proper HIV-1 uncoating in target cells is dependent on the intrinsic stability of the viral capsid, the

  8. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasa, B P; Mohapatra, J K; Pauszek, S J; Koster, M; Dhanya, V C; Tamil Selvan, R P; Hosamani, M; Saravanan, P; Basagoudanavar, Suresh H; de Los Santos, T; Venkataramanan, R; Rodriguez, L L; Grubman, M J

    2017-05-01

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O, A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (Bos indicus). Purified Ad5-FMD viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×109 pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×109 pfu/animal per serotype) vaccines. Animals vaccinated with monovalent Ad5-FMD vaccines were boosted 63days later with the same dose. After primary immunization, virus neutralization tests (VNT) showed seroconversion in 83, 67 and 33% of animals vaccinated with Ad5-FMD O, A and Asia 1, respectively. Booster immunization elicited seroconversion in all of the animals (100%) in the monovalent groups. When used in a trivalent form, the Ad5-FMD vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in only 33, 50 and 16% of animals against serotypes O, A and Asia 1, respectively on primo-vaccination, and titers were significantly lower than when the same vectors were used in monovalent form. Neutralizing antibody titers differed by serotype for both Ad5-FMD monovalent and trivalent vaccines, with Asia 1 serotype inducing the lowest titers. Antibody response to Ad5 vector in immunized cattle was also assessed by VNT. It appeared that the vector immunity did not impact the recall responses to expressed FMDV antigens on booster immunization. In summary, the study suggested that the recombinant Ad5-FMD vaccine has a potential use in monovalent form, while its application in multivalent form is not currently encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tuning Viral Capsid Nanoparticle Stability with Symmetrical Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Schwarz, Benjamin; Koliyatt, Ranjit; de Pablo, Pedro J; Douglas, Trevor

    2016-09-27

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) provide engineering platforms for the design and implementation of protein-based nanostructures. These capsids are comprised of protein subunits whose precise arrangement and mutual interactions determine their stability, responsiveness to destabilizing environments, and ability to undergo morphological transitions. The precise interplay between subunit contacts and the overall stability of the bulk capsid population remains poorly resolved. Approaching this relationship requires a combination of techniques capable of accessing nanoscale properties, such as the mechanics of individual capsids, and bulk biochemical procedures capable of interrogating the stability of the VLP ensemble. To establish such connection, a VLP system is required where the subunit interactions can be manipulated in a controlled fashion. The P22 VLP is a promising platform for the design of nanomaterials and understanding how nanomanipulation of the particle affects bulk behavior. By contrasting single-particle atomic force microscopy and bulk chemical perturbations, we have related symmetry-specific anisotropic mechanical properties to the bulk ensemble behavior of the VLPs. Our results show that the expulsion of pentons at the vertices of the VLP induces a concomitant chemical and mechanical destabilization of the capsid and implicates the capsid edges as the points of mechanical fracture. Subsequent binding of a decoration protein at these critical edge regions restores both chemical and mechanical stability. The agreement between our single molecule and bulk techniques suggests that the same structural determinants govern both destabilizing and restorative mechanisms, unveiling a phenomenological coupling between the chemical and mechanical behavior of self-assembled cages and laying a framework for the analysis and manipulation of other VLPs and symmetric self-assembled structures.

  10. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hespenheide, B M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Jacobs, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Thorpe, M F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2004-11-10

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  11. Flexible Connectors between Capsomer Subunits that Regulate Capsid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasek, Mary L; Maurer, Joshua B; Hendrix, Roger W; Duda, Robert L

    2017-08-04

    Viruses build icosahedral capsids of specific size and shape by regulating the spatial arrangement of the hexameric and pentameric protein capsomers in the growing shell during assembly. In the T=7 capsids of Escherichia coli bacteriophage HK97 and other phages, 60 capsomers are hexons, while the rest are pentons that are correctly positioned during assembly. Assembly of the HK97 capsid to the correct size and shape has been shown to depend on specific ionic contacts between capsomers. We now describe additional ionic interactions within capsomers that also regulate assembly. Each is between the long hairpin, the "E-loop," that extends from one subunit to the adjacent subunit within the same capsomer. Glutamate E153 on the E-loop and arginine R210 on the adjacent subunit's backbone alpha-helix form salt bridges in hexamers and pentamers. Mutations that disrupt these salt bridges were lethal for virus production, because the mutant proteins assembled into tubes or sheets instead of capsids. X-ray structures show that the E153-R210 links are flexible and maintained during maturation despite radical changes in capsomer shape. The E153-R210 links appear to form early in assembly to enable capsomers to make programmed changes in their shape during assembly. The links also prevent flattening of capsomers and premature maturation. Mutant phenotypes and modeling support an assembly model in which flexible E153-R210 links mediate capsomer shape changes that control where pentons are placed to create normal-sized capsids. The E-loop may be conserved in other systems in order to play similar roles in regulating assembly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Wang, Junwei, E-mail: jwwang@neau.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. {yields} All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. {yields} The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  13. Detection, differentiation, and VP1 sequencing of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 and type 3 by a 1-step duplex reverse-transcription PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X J; Cheng, A C; Wang, M S; Jia, R Y; Zhu, D K; Chen, S; Liu, M F; Liu, F; Chen, X Y

    2014-09-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is an infectious pathogen causing fatal duck viral hepatitis in ducklings. Although both the inactivated vaccines and live attenuated vaccines have been used to protect ducklings, DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 still cause significant serious damage to the duck industry in China and South Korea. For rapid detection, differentiation, and epidemic investigation of DHAV in China, a genotype-specific 1-step duplex reverse-transcription (RT) PCR assay was established in this study. The sensitivity and specificity of the developed RT-PCR assay was evaluated with nucleic acids extracted from 2 DHAV reference strains, and 9 other infectious viruses and bacteria. The genotype-specific primers amplified different size DNA fragments encompassing the complete VP1 gene of the DHAV-1 or DHAV-3. The assay detected the liver samples collected from experimentally infected ducklings and dead ducklings collected from different regions of China. Sequence analysis of these DNA fragments indicated that VP1 sequences of DHAV-1 can be used to distinguish wild type and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences indicated that the developed RT-PCR assay can be used for epidemic investigation of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3. The developed RT-PCR assay can be used as a specific molecular tool for simultaneous detection, differentiation, and sequencing the VP1 gene of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, which can be used for understanding the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Characteristics of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion in experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, Veronica; Bashiruddin, John B.; Belsham, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in cattle illustrated the protective efficacy and negative marker potential of a A serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine prepared from a virus lacking a significant portion of the VP1 G-H loop (termed A(−)). Since this deletion also includes the arginine-glycine-aspar...

  15. Human polyoma JC virus minor capsid proteins, VP2 and VP3, enhance large T antigen binding to the origin of viral DNA replication: evidence for their involvement in regulation of the viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saribas, A Sami; Mun, Sarah; Johnson, Jaslyn; El-Hajmoussa, Mohammad; White, Martyn K; Safak, Mahmut

    2014-01-20

    JC virus (JCV) lytically infects the oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system in a subset of immunocompromized patients and causes the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV replicates and assembles into infectious virions in the nucleus. However, understanding the molecular mechanisms of its virion biogenesis remains elusive. In this report, we have attempted to shed more light on this process by investigating molecular interactions between large T antigen (LT-Ag), Hsp70 and minor capsid proteins, VP2/VP3. We demonstrated that Hsp70 interacts with VP2/VP3 and LT-Ag; and accumulates heavily in the nucleus of the infected cells. We also showed that VP2/VP3 associates with LT-Ag through their DNA binding domains resulting in enhancement in LT-Ag DNA binding to Ori and induction in viral DNA replication. Altogether, our results suggest that VP2/VP3 and Hsp70 actively participate in JCV DNA replication and may play critical roles in coupling of viral DNA replication to virion encapsidation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Y. H. Goh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  17. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucas Y. H.; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Prow, Natalie A.; Baker, Kelly; Piyasena, Thisun B. H.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Rana, Ashok; Hastie, Marcus L.; Gorman, Jeff J.; Hall, Roy A.

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP. PMID:26061335

  18. The diverse functions of the hepatitis B core/capsid protein (HBc) in the viral life cycle: Implications for the development of HBc-targeting antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Ahmed; Foca, Adrien; Zoulim, Fabien; Durantel, David; Andrisani, Ourania

    2018-01-01

    Virally encoded proteins have evolved to perform multiple functions, and the core protein (HBc) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a perfect example. While HBc is the structural component of the viral nucleocapsid, additional novel functions for the nucleus-localized HBc have recently been described. These results extend for HBc, beyond its structural role, a regulatory function in the viral life cycle and potentially a role in pathogenesis. In this article, we review the diverse roles of HBc in HBV replication and pathogenesis, emphasizing how the unique structure of this protein is key to its various functions. We focus in particular on recent advances in understanding the significance of HBc phosphorylations, its interaction with host proteins and the role of HBc in regulating the transcription of host genes. We also briefly allude to the emerging niche for new direct-acting antivirals targeting HBc, known as Core (protein) Allosteric Modulators (CAMs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Dual-Modality Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccine for Preventing Genital Herpes by Using Glycoprotein C and D Subunit Antigens To Induce Potent Antibody Responses and Adenovirus Vectors Containing Capsid and Tegument Proteins as T Cell Immunogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Mahairas, Gregory G; Shaw, Carolyn E; Huang, Meei-Li; Koelle, David M; Posavad, Christine; Corey, Lawrence; Friedman, Harvey M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a genital herpes prophylactic vaccine containing herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) to stimulate humoral immunity and UL19 (capsid protein VP5) and UL47 (tegument protein VP13/14) as T cell immunogens. The HSV-2 gC2 and gD2 proteins were expressed in baculovirus, while the UL19 and UL47 genes were expressed from replication-defective adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors containing UL19 and UL47 stimulated human and murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Guinea pigs were either (i) mock immunized; (ii) immunized with gC2/gD2, with CpG and alum as adjuvants; (iii) immunized with the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors; or (iv) immunized with the combination of gC2/gD2-CpG/alum and the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors. Immunization with gC2/gD2 produced potent neutralizing antibodies, while UL19 and UL47 also stimulated antibody responses. After intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, the mock and UL19/UL47 adenovirus groups developed severe acute disease, while 2/8 animals in the gC2/gD2-only group and none in the combined group developed acute disease. No animals in the gC2/gD2 or combined group developed recurrent disease; however, 5/8 animals in each group had subclinical shedding of HSV-2 DNA, on 15/168 days for the gC2/gD2 group and 13/168 days for the combined group. Lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia were positive for HSV-2 DNA and latency-associated transcripts for 5/8 animals in the gC2/gD2 group and 2/8 animals in the combined group. None of the differences comparing the gC2/gD2-only group and the combined group were statistically significant. Therefore, adding the T cell immunogens UL19 and UL47 to the gC2/gD2 vaccine did not significantly reduce genital disease and vaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding compared with the excellent protection provided by gC2/gD2 in the guinea pig model. HSV-2 infection is a common cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. Genital herpes increases the risk of transmission and

  20. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2011-05-27

    Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assembly of recombinant Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyuan Ren

    Full Text Available The dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV has been implicated in the worldwide decline of honey bees. Studies of IAPV and many other bee viruses in pure culture are restricted by available isolates and permissive cell culture. Here we show that coupling the IAPV major structural precursor protein ORF2 to its cognate 3C-like processing enzyme results in processing of the precursor to the individual structural proteins in a number of insect cell lines following expression by a recombinant baculovirus. The efficiency of expression is influenced by the level of IAPV 3C protein and moderation of its activity is required for optimal expression. The mature IAPV structural proteins assembled into empty capsids that migrated as particles on sucrose velocity gradients and showed typical dicistrovirus like morphology when examined by electron microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies raised to recombinant capsids were configured into a diagnostic test specific for the presence of IAPV. Recombinant capsids for each of the many bee viruses within the picornavirus family may provide virus specific reagents for the on-going investigation of the causes of honeybee loss.

  2. Evidence for pH-Dependent Protease Activity in the Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Maxim; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bennett, Antonette; Lins, Bridget; Yarbrough, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    Incubation of highly purified adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids in vitro at pH 5.5 induced significant autocleavage of capsid proteins at several amino acid positions. No autocleavage was seen at pH 7.5. Examination of other AAV serotypes showed at least two different pH-induced cleavage patterns, suggesting that different serotypes have evolved alternative protease cleavage sites. In contrast, incubation of AAV serotypes with an external protease substrate showed that purified AAV capsid preparations have robust protease activity at neutral pH but not at pH 5.5, opposite to what is seen with capsid protein autocleavage. Several lines of evidence suggested that protease activity is inherent in AAV capsids and is not due to contaminating proteins. Control virus preparations showed no protease activity on external substrates, and filtrates of AAV virus preparations also showed no protease activity contaminating the capsids. Further, N-terminal Edman sequencing identified unique autocleavage sites in AAV1 and AAV9, and mutagenesis of amino acids adjacent to these sites eliminated cleavage. Finally, mutation of an amino acid in AAV2 (E563A) that is in a conserved pH-sensitive structural region eliminated protease activity on an external substrate but did not seem to affect autocleavage. Taken together, our data suggested that AAV capsids have one or more protease active sites that are sensitive to pH induction. Further, it appears that acidic pHs comparable to those seen in late endosomes induce a structural change in the capsid that induces autolytic protease activity. The pH-dependent protease activity may have a role in viral infection. PMID:22915820

  3. Evidence for pH-dependent protease activity in the adeno-associated virus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Maxim; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Bennett, Antonette; Lins, Bridget; Yarbrough, Joseph; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; McKenna, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Incubation of highly purified adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids in vitro at pH 5.5 induced significant autocleavage of capsid proteins at several amino acid positions. No autocleavage was seen at pH 7.5. Examination of other AAV serotypes showed at least two different pH-induced cleavage patterns, suggesting that different serotypes have evolved alternative protease cleavage sites. In contrast, incubation of AAV serotypes with an external protease substrate showed that purified AAV capsid preparations have robust protease activity at neutral pH but not at pH 5.5, opposite to what is seen with capsid protein autocleavage. Several lines of evidence suggested that protease activity is inherent in AAV capsids and is not due to contaminating proteins. Control virus preparations showed no protease activity on external substrates, and filtrates of AAV virus preparations also showed no protease activity contaminating the capsids. Further, N-terminal Edman sequencing identified unique autocleavage sites in AAV1 and AAV9, and mutagenesis of amino acids adjacent to these sites eliminated cleavage. Finally, mutation of an amino acid in AAV2 (E563A) that is in a conserved pH-sensitive structural region eliminated protease activity on an external substrate but did not seem to affect autocleavage. Taken together, our data suggested that AAV capsids have one or more protease active sites that are sensitive to pH induction. Further, it appears that acidic pHs comparable to those seen in late endosomes induce a structural change in the capsid that induces autolytic protease activity. The pH-dependent protease activity may have a role in viral infection.

  4. Diagnostic value of p16INK4A, Ki-67, and human papillomavirus L1 capsid protein immunochemical staining on cell blocks from residual liquid-based gynecologic cytology specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Wang, Liantang; Zhong, Juemin; Chen, Shangwu

    2010-02-25

    This study was conducted to evaluate the reliability and role of cell block preparations in the diagnosis of neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions of the cervix and to improve the value of cell block preparations in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis of cervical lesions through immunostaining of p16INK4A (p16), Ki-67, and human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid protein (HPV L1). In total, 138 specimens were diagnosed on liquid-based cytology (LBC) and cell block preparations, and 63 specimens were subjected subsequently to tissue follow-up and immunostaining for p16, Ki-67, and HPV L1 on cell block sections. In 42 specimens that were diagnosed as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on cell blocks, 38 specimens (90.5%) were confirmed by histopathologic reports, and there was slightly better than 81.6% agreement between LBC and tissue follow-up. Immunointensity and cells that were positive for p16 were enhanced according to increased pathologic grade and differed statistically between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN-1) and CIN-2/CIN-3 as well as SCC. The positive rates of HPV L1 decreased gradually according to the severity of cervical neoplasia, and HPV L1/p16 expression patterns were related to the severity of cervical lesions. The cell block preparation technique was complementary to LBC, and the authors concluded that the application of LBC combined with cell block preparations may improve the diagnostic accuracy of cytology. Immunostaining for p16 and Ki-67 on cell block preparations can help to improve the diagnostic accuracy of HSIL and SCC. A combined expression pattern of p16 and HPV L1 may serve as a valuable index for predicting prognosis and follow-up of cervical dysplastic lesions. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  5. Environmental surveillance of enterovirus in Northern India using an integrated shell vial culture with a semi-nested RT PCR and partial sequencing of the VP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Deepti; Kumar, Arvind; Srivastava, Shalini; Idris, Mohammad Z; Dhole, Tapan N

    2013-03-01

    Enteroviruses have been reported in epidemic form during last 10 years in northern India. Environmental surveillance of sewage is the method of choice in limited resources countries for detection of enterovirus serotypes circulating in the community. Twenty-four sewage samples collected between January, 2009 and December, 2010 were tested for enterovirus by using a new modified integrated shell vial culture (ISVC) with a semi-nested RT-PCR of a partial VP1 gene and virus isolation integrated with semi-nested RT-PCR of a partial VP1 gene. Twenty-one (87.5%) out of 24 samples were positive for enterovirus by the conventional method and all samples (100%) by the ISVC-RT-PCR. The additional positive samples detected by ISVC-RT-PCR was typed as six different enterovirus serotypes (Sabin poliovirus 3, Coxsackievirus B3, Coxsackievirus A13, Coxsackievirus A17, Echovirus 33, and Enterovirus 75). Phylogenetic analysis of a partial VP1 gene of Echovirus 19 showed that one genetic lineage clustered with isolates from Georgia suggesting their importation into northern India. Detection of wild poliovirus in the absence of clinical cases with 16 different co-circulating enterovirus serotypes supports the need of increased molecular surveillance of sewage. Rapid identification and characterization of enterovirus serotypes is necessary to study their transmission and evolution in different geographical regions to prevent future outbreak. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nanobodies targeting norovirus capsid reveal functional epitopes and potential mechanisms of neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koromyslova, Anna D; Hansman, Grant S

    2017-11-01

    Norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Despite recent developments in norovirus propagation in cell culture, these viruses are still challenging to grow routinely. Moreover, little is known on how norovirus infects the host cells, except that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are important binding factors for infection and cell entry. Antibodies that bind at the HBGA pocket and block attachment to HBGAs are believed to neutralize the virus. However, additional neutralization epitopes elsewhere on the capsid likely exist and impeding the intrinsic structural dynamics of the capsid could be equally important. In the current study, we investigated a panel of Nanobodies in order to probe functional epitopes that could trigger capsid rearrangement and/ or interfere with HBGA binding interactions. The precise binding sites of six Nanobodies (Nano-4, Nano-14, Nano-26, Nano-27, Nano-32, and Nano-42) were identified using X-ray crystallography. We showed that these Nanobodies bound on the top, side, and bottom of the norovirus protruding domain. The impact of Nanobody binding on norovirus capsid morphology was analyzed using electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. We discovered that distinct Nanobody epitopes were associated with varied changes in particle structural integrity and assembly. Interestingly, certain Nanobody-induced capsid morphological changes lead to the capsid protein degradation and viral RNA exposure. Moreover, Nanobodies employed multiple inhibition mechanisms to prevent norovirus attachment to HBGAs, which included steric obstruction (Nano-14), allosteric interference (Nano-32), and violation of normal capsid morphology (Nano-26 and Nano-85). Finally, we showed that two Nanobodies (Nano-26 and Nano-85) not only compromised capsid integrity and inhibited VLPs attachment to HBGAs, but also recognized a broad panel of norovirus genotypes with high affinities. Consequently, Nano-26 and Nano-85 have a great potential to

  7. Dynamics of polymer ejection from capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, R. P.; Moisio, J. E.; Suhonen, P. M.; Kaski, K.

    2014-05-01

    Polymer ejection from a capsid through a nanoscale pore is an important biological process with relevance to modern biotechnology. Here, we study generic capsid ejection using Langevin dynamics. We show that even when the ejection takes place within the drift-dominated region there is a very high probability for the ejection process not to be completed. Introducing a small aligning force at the pore entrance enhances ejection dramatically. Such a pore asymmetry is a candidate for a mechanism by which viral ejection is completed. By detailed high-resolution simulations we show that such capsid ejection is an out-of-equilibrium process that shares many common features with the much studied driven polymer translocation through a pore in a wall or a membrane. We find that the ejection times scale with polymer length, τ ˜Nα. We show that for the pore without the asymmetry the previous predictions corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations do not hold. For the pore with the asymmetry the scaling exponent varies with the initial monomer density (monomers per capsid volume) ρ inside the capsid. For very low densities ρ ≤0.002 the polymer is only weakly confined by the capsid, and we measure α =1.33, which is close to α =1.4 obtained for polymer translocation. At intermediate densities the scaling exponents α =1.25 and 1.21 for ρ =0.01 and 0.02, respectively. These scalings are in accord with a crude derivation for the lower limit α =1.2. For the asymmetrical pore precise scaling breaks down, when the density exceeds the value for complete confinement by the capsid, ρ ⪆0.25. The high-resolution data show that the capsid ejection for both pores, analogously to polymer translocation, can be characterized as a multiplicative stochastic process that is dominated by small-scale transitions.

  8. Exploring the Balance between DNA Pressure and Capsid Stability in Herpesviruses and Phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D W; Li, D; Huffman, J; Homa, F L; Wilson, K; Leavitt, J C; Casjens, S R; Baines, J; Evilevitch, A

    2015-09-01

    We have recently shown in both herpesviruses and phages that packaged viral DNA creates a pressure of tens of atmospheres pushing against the interior capsid wall. For the first time, using differential scanning microcalorimetry, we directly measured the energy powering the release of pressurized DNA from the capsid. Furthermore, using a new calorimetric assay to accurately determine the temperature inducing DNA release, we found a direct influence of internal DNA pressure on the stability of the viral particle. We show that the balance of forces between the DNA pressure and capsid strength, required for DNA retention between rounds of infection, is conserved between evolutionarily diverse bacterial viruses (phages λ and P22), as well as a eukaryotic virus, human herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1). Our data also suggest that the portal vertex in these viruses is the weakest point in the overall capsid structure and presents the Achilles heel of the virus's stability. Comparison between these viral systems shows that viruses with higher DNA packing density (resulting in higher capsid pressure) have inherently stronger capsid structures, preventing spontaneous genome release prior to infection. This force balance is of key importance for viral survival and replication. Investigating the ways to disrupt this balance can lead to development of new mutation-resistant antivirals. A virus can generally be described as a nucleic acid genome contained within a protective protein shell, called the capsid. For many double-stranded DNA viruses, confinement of the large DNA molecule within the small protein capsid results in an energetically stressed DNA state exerting tens of atmospheres of pressures on the inner capsid wall. We show that stability of viral particles (which directly relates to infectivity) is strongly influenced by the state of the packaged genome. Using scanning calorimetry on a bacterial virus (phage λ) as an experimental model system, we investigated the

  9. A novelSulfolobusvirus with an exceptional capsid architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haina; Guo, Zhenqian; Feng, Hongli; Chen, Yufei; Chen, Xiuqiang; Li, Zhimeng; Hernández-Ascencio, Walter; Dai, Xin; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Zheng, Xiaowei; Mora-López, Marielos; Fu, Yu; Zhang, Chuanlun; Zhu, Ping; Huang, Li

    2017-12-06

    A novel archaeal virus, denoted Sulfolobus ellipsoid virus 1 (SEV1), was isolated from an acidic hot spring in Costa Rica. The morphologically unique virion of SEV1 contains a protein capsid with 16 regularly spaced striations and an 11-nm-thick envelope. The capsid exhibits an unusual architecture in which the viral DNA, probably in the form of a nucleoprotein filament, wraps around the longitudinal axis of the virion in a plane to form a multilayered disk-like structure with a central hole, and 16 of these structures are stacked to generate a spool-like capsid. SEV1 harbors a linear double-stranded DNA genome of ∼23 kb, which encodes 38 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Among the few ORFs with a putative function is a gene encoding a protein-primed DNA polymerase. Six-fold symmetrical virus-associated pyramids (VAPs) appear on the surface of the SEV1-infected cells, which are ruptured to allow the formation of a hexagonal opening and subsequent release of the progeny virus particles. Notably, the SEV1 virions acquire the lipid membrane in the cytoplasm of the host cell. The lipid composition of the viral envelope correlates with that of the cell membrane. These results suggest the use of a unique mechanism by SEV1 in membrane biogenesis. IMPORTANCE Investigation of archaeal viruses has greatly expanded our knowledge of the virosphere and its role in the evolution of life. Here we show that Sulfolobus ellipsoid virus 1 (SEV1), an archaeal virus isolated from a hot spring in Costa Rica, exhibits a novel viral shape and an unusual capsid architecture. The SEV1 DNA wraps multiple times in a plane around the longitudinal axis of the virion to form a disk-like structure, and 16 of these structures are stacked to generate a spool-like capsid. The virus acquires its envelope intracellularly and exits the host cell by creating a hexagonal hole on the host cell surface. These results shed significant light on the diversity of viral morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017

  10. Dual-color Herpesvirus Capsids Discriminate Inoculum from Progeny and Reveal Axonal Transport Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Julian; Yaffe, Zachary A; Vershinin, Michael; Enquist, Lynn W

    2016-08-31

    Alpha herpesviruses, such as herpes simplex virus and pseudorabies virus (PRV), are neuroinvasive dsDNA viruses that establish life-long latency in peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons of their native hosts. Following reactivation, the infection can spread back to the initial mucosal site of infection or, in rare cases, to the central nervous system with usually serious outcomes. During entry and egress, viral capsids depend on microtubule-based molecular motors for efficient and fast transport. In axons of PNS neurons, cytoplasmic dynein provides force for retrograde movements towards the soma, and kinesins move cargo in the opposite, anterograde direction. The dynamic properties of virus particles in cells can be imaged by fluorescent protein fusions to the small capsid protein VP26, which are incorporated into capsids. However, single-color fluorescent protein tags fail to distinguish virus inoculum from progeny. Therefore, we established a dual-color system by growing a recombinant PRV expressing a red fluorescent VP26 fusion (PRV180) on a stable cell line expressing a green VP26 fusion (PK15-mNG-VP26). The resulting dual-color virus preparation (PRV180G) contains capsids tagged with both red and green fluorescent proteins, and 97% of particles contain detectable levels of mNG-VP26. After replication in neuronal cells, all PRV180G progeny exclusively contain mRFP-VP26 tagged capsids. We used PRV180G for an analysis of axonal capsid transport dynamics in PNS neurons. Fast dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, single particle tracking and motility analyses reveal robust, bidirectional capsid motility mediated by cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin during entry, whereas egressing progeny particles are exclusively transported by kinesins. Alpha herpesviruses are neuroinvasive viruses that infect the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of infected hosts as an integral part of their life cycle. Establishment of a quiescent or latent infection

  11. An approach to a FMD vaccine based on genetic engineered attenuated pseudorabies virus: one experiment using VP1 gene alone generates an antibody responds on FMD and pseudorabies in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ping; Li, Xiang-Min; Jin, Mei-Lin; Peng, Gui-Qing; Chen, Huan-Chun

    2004-06-02

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and pseudorabies (PR) are two important infectious diseases in swine. An attenuated pseudorabies virus (PRV) has been successfully used as a gene delivery vector for the development of live-viral vaccines. In this study, a recombinant PRV-VP1 virus was constructed by fusioning the VP1 gene of FMD virus in frame to the N-terminal sequence of the gG gene of PRV. To test the protective immunity, 15 FMDV sero-negative white swine were divided into three groups and immunized with the recombinant PRV-VP1 virus, commercial FMD vaccine and vector virus (TK(-)/gG(-)/LacZ(+)), respectively, and challenged intramuscularly with 20 minimal infecting doses (MID) of virulent type O FMDV 4 weeks after booster immunization. Swine vaccinated with PRV-VP1 acquired antibodies against both FMDV and PRV, however, anti-FMDV antibodies were much lower than those vaccinated with the commercial FMD vaccine. Our results suggested that the recombinant PRV-VP1 virus, which only expressed FMDV VP1 gene controlled by PRV gG promoter, could not protect swine from the challenge of 20 MID type O FMDV, but could delay and reduce the clinical symptoms of FMD.

  12. Stochastic modeling of virus capsid assembly pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Virus capsids have become a key model system for understanding self-assembly due to their high complexity, robust and efficient assembly processes, and experimental tractability. Our ability to directly examine and manipulate capsid assembly kinetics in detail nonetheless remains limited, creating a need for computer models that can infer experimentally inaccessible features of the assembly process and explore the effects of hypothetical manipulations on assembly trajectories. We have developed novel algorithms for stochastic simulation of capsid assembly [1,2] that allow us to model capsid assembly over broad parameter spaces [3]. We apply these methods to study the nature of assembly pathway control in virus capsids as well as their sensitivity to assembly conditions and possible experimental interventions. [4pt] [1] F. Jamalyaria, R. Rohlfs, and R. Schwartz. J Comp Phys 204, 100 (2005). [0pt] [2] N. Misra and R. Schwartz. J Chem Phys 129, in press (2008). [0pt] [3] B. Sweeney, T. Zhang, and R. Schwartz. Biophys J 94, 772 (2008).

  13. Structure of a Human Astrovirus Capsid-Antibody Complex and Mechanistic Insights into Virus Neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Campos, Jocelyn; Perez, Edmundo I.; Yin, Lu; Alexander, David L.; DuBois, Rebecca M. (UCSC)

    2016-11-02

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a leading cause of viral diarrhea in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies against HAstV disease. Several lines of evidence point to the presence of protective antibodies in healthy adults as a mechanism governing protection against reinfection by HAstV. However, development of anti-HAstV therapies is hampered by the gap in knowledge of protective antibody epitopes on the HAstV capsid surface. Here, we report the structure of the HAstV capsid spike domain bound to the neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2. The antibody uses all six complementarity-determining regions to bind to a quaternary epitope on each side of the dimeric capsid spike. We provide evidence that the HAstV capsid spike is a receptor-binding domain and that the antibody neutralizes HAstV by blocking virus attachment to cells. We identify patches of conserved amino acids that overlap the antibody epitope and may comprise a receptor-binding site. Our studies provide a foundation for the development of therapies to prevent and treat HAstV diarrheal disease.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Despite the prevalence of this virus, little is known about how antibodies in healthy adults protect them against reinfection. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a complex of the HAstV capsid protein and a virus-neutralizing antibody. We show that the antibody binds to the outermost spike domain of the capsid, and we provide evidence that the antibody blocks virus attachment to human cells. Importantly, our findings suggest that a subunit-based vaccine focusing the immune system on the HAstV capsid spike domain could be effective in protecting children against HAstV disease.

  14. Induction of Antiviral Immune Response through Recognition of the Repeating Subunit Pattern of Viral Capsids Is Toll-Like Receptor 2 Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Shepardson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although viruses and viral capsids induce rapid immune responses, little is known about viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs that are exhibited on their surface. Here, we demonstrate that the repeating protein subunit pattern common to most virus capsids is a molecular pattern that induces a Toll-like-receptor-2 (TLR2-dependent antiviral immune response. This early antiviral immune response regulates the clearance of subsequent bacterial superinfections, which are a primary cause of morbidities associated with influenza virus infections. Utilizing this altered susceptibility to subsequent bacterial challenge as an outcome, we determined that multiple unrelated, empty, and replication-deficient capsids initiated early TLR2-dependent immune responses, similar to intact influenza virus or murine pneumovirus. These TLR2-mediated responses driven by the capsid were not dependent upon the capsid’s shape, size, origin, or amino acid sequence. However, they were dependent upon the multisubunit arrangement of the capsid proteins, because unlike intact capsids, individual capsid subunits did not enhance bacterial clearance. Further, we demonstrated that even a linear microfilament protein built from repeating protein subunits (F-actin, but not its monomer (G-actin, induced similar kinetics of subsequent bacterial clearance as did virus capsid. However, although capsids and F-actin induced similar bacterial clearance, in macrophages they required distinct TLR2 heterodimers for this response (TLR2/6 or TLR2/1, respectively and different phagocyte populations were involved in the execution of these responses in vivo. Our results demonstrate that TLR2 responds to invading viral particles that are composed of repeating protein subunits, indicating that this common architecture of virus capsids is a previously unrecognized molecular pattern.

  15. Blueprints for viral capsids in the family of polyomaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keef, T; Twarock, R; Elsawy, K M

    2008-08-21

    In a seminal paper, Caspar and Klug [1962. Physical principles in the construction of regular viruses. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27, 1-24] derived a family of surface lattices as blueprints for the structural organisation of the protein shells, called viral capsids, which encapsulate and hence protect the viral genome. These lattices schematically encode, and hence predict, the locations of the proteins in the viral capsids. Despite the huge success and numerous applications of this theory in virology, experimental results have provided evidence for the fact that it is too restrictive to describe all known viruses [Casjens, S., 1985. Virus Structure and Assembly. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA]. Especially, the family of Polyomaviridae, which contains cancer-causing viruses, falls out of the scope of this theory. In [Twarock, R., 2004. A tiling approach to virus capsid assembly explaining a structural puzzle in virology. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477], we have shown that a member of the family of Polyomaviridae can be described via an icosahedrally symmetric tiling. We show here that all viruses in this family can be described by tilings with vertices corresponding to subsets of a quasi-lattice that is constructed based on an affine extended Coxeter group, and we use this methodology to derive their coordinates explicitly. Since the particles appear as different subsets of the same quasi-lattice, their relative sizes are predicted by this approach, and there hence exists only one scaling factor that relates the sizes of all particles collectively to their biological counterparts. It is the first mathematical result that provides a common organisational principle for different types of viral particles in the family of Polyomaviridae, and paves the way for modelling Polyomaviridae polymorphism.

  16. Dynamic pathways for viral capsid assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Michael F.; Chandler, David

    2006-02-09

    We develop a class of models with which we simulate the assembly of particles into T1 capsid-like objects using Newtonian dynamics. By simulating assembly for many different values of system parameters, we vary the forces that drive assembly. For some ranges of parameters, assembly is facile, while for others, assembly is dynamically frustrated by kinetic traps corresponding to malformed or incompletely formed capsids. Our simulations sample many independent trajectories at various capsomer concentrations, allowing for statistically meaningful conclusions. Depending on subunit (i.e., capsomer) geometries, successful assembly proceeds by several mechanisms involving binding of intermediates of various sizes. We discuss the relationship between these mechanisms and experimental evaluations of capsid assembly processes.

  17. Intra- and inter-subunit disulfide bond formation is nonessential in adeno-associated viral capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Pulicherla

    Full Text Available The capsid proteins of adeno-associated viruses (AAV have five conserved cysteine residues. Structural analysis of AAV serotype 2 reveals that Cys289 and Cys361 are located adjacent to each other within each monomer, while Cys230 and Cys394 are located on opposite edges of each subunit and juxtaposed at the pentamer interface. The Cys482 residue is located at the base of a surface loop within the trimer region. Although plausible based on molecular dynamics simulations, intra- or inter-subunit disulfides have not been observed in structural studies. In the current study, we generated a panel of Cys-to-Ser mutants to interrogate the potential for disulfide bond formation in AAV capsids. The C289S, C361S and C482S mutants were similar to wild type AAV with regard to titer and transduction efficiency. However, AAV capsid protein subunits with C230S or C394S mutations were prone to proteasomal degradation within the host cells. Proteasomal inhibition partially blocked degradation of mutant capsid proteins, but failed to rescue infectious virions. While these results suggest that the Cys230/394 pair is critical, a C394V mutant was found viable, but not the corresponding C230V mutant. Although the exact nature of the structural contribution(s of Cys230 and Cys394 residues to AAV capsid formation remains to be determined, these results support the notion that disulfide bond formation within the Cys289/361 or Cys230/394 pair appears to be nonessential. These studies represent an important step towards understanding the role of inter-subunit interactions that drive AAV capsid assembly.

  18. A molecular thermodynamic model for the stability of hepatitis B capsids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jwu@engr.ucr.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    Self-assembly of capsid proteins and genome encapsidation are two critical steps in the life cycle of most plant and animal viruses. A theoretical description of such processes from a physiochemical perspective may help better understand viral replication and morphogenesis thus provide fresh insights into the experimental studies of antiviral strategies. In this work, we propose a molecular thermodynamic model for predicting the stability of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids either with or without loading nucleic materials. With the key components represented by coarse-grained thermodynamic models, the theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the formation free energies of empty T4 capsids over a broad range of temperature and ion concentrations. The theoretical model predicts T3/T4 dimorphism also in good agreement with the capsid formation at in vivo and in vitro conditions. In addition, we have studied the stability of the viral particles in response to physiological cellular conditions with the explicit consideration of the hydrophobic association of capsid subunits, electrostatic interactions, molecular excluded volume effects, entropy of mixing, and conformational changes of the biomolecular species. The course-grained model captures the essential features of the HBV nucleocapsid stability revealed by recent experiments.

  19. A molecular thermodynamic model for the stability of hepatitis B capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong

    2014-06-01

    Self-assembly of capsid proteins and genome encapsidation are two critical steps in the life cycle of most plant and animal viruses. A theoretical description of such processes from a physiochemical perspective may help better understand viral replication and morphogenesis thus provide fresh insights into the experimental studies of antiviral strategies. In this work, we propose a molecular thermodynamic model for predicting the stability of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids either with or without loading nucleic materials. With the key components represented by coarse-grained thermodynamic models, the theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the formation free energies of empty T4 capsids over a broad range of temperature and ion concentrations. The theoretical model predicts T3/T4 dimorphism also in good agreement with the capsid formation at in vivo and in vitro conditions. In addition, we have studied the stability of the viral particles in response to physiological cellular conditions with the explicit consideration of the hydrophobic association of capsid subunits, electrostatic interactions, molecular excluded volume effects, entropy of mixing, and conformational changes of the biomolecular species. The course-grained model captures the essential features of the HBV nucleocapsid stability revealed by recent experiments.

  20. Viral capsids: Mechanical characteristics, genome packaging and delivery mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, W.H.; Ivanovska, I.L.; Evilevitch, A.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The main functions of viral capsids are to protect, transport and deliver their genome. The mechanical properties of capsids are supposed to be adapted to these tasks. Bacteriophage capsids also need to withstand the high pressures the DNA is exerting onto it as a result of the DNA packaging and its

  1. Simultaneous Visualization of Parental and Progeny Viruses by a Capsid-Specific HaloTag Labeling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An-An; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Sun, En-Ze; Zheng, Zhenhua; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2016-01-26

    Real-time, long-term, single-particle tracking (SPT) provides us an opportunity to explore the fate of individual viruses toward understanding the mechanisms underlying virus infection, which in turn could lead to the development of therapeutics against viral diseases. However, the research focusing on the virus assembly and egress by SPT remains a challenge because established labeling strategies could neither specifically label progeny viruses nor make them distinguishable from the parental viruses. Herein, we have established a temporally controllable capsid-specific HaloTag labeling strategy based on reverse genetic technology. VP26, the smallest pseudorabies virus (PrV) capsid protein, was fused with HaloTag protein and labeled with the HaloTag ligand during virus replication. The labeled replication-competent recombinant PrV harvested from medium can be applied directly in SPT experiments without further modification. Thus, virus infectivity, which is critical for the visualization and analysis of viral motion, is retained to the largest extent. Moreover, progeny viruses can be distinguished from parental viruses using diverse HaloTag ligands. Consequently, the entire course of virus infection and replication can be visualized continuously, including virus attachment and capsid entry, transportation of capsids to the nucleus along microtubules, docking of capsids on the nucleus, endonuclear assembly of progeny capsids, and the egress of progeny viruses. In combination with SPT, the established strategy represents a versatile means to reveal the mechanisms and dynamic global picture of the life cycle of a virus.

  2. Mapping and modeling of a strain-specific epitope in the Norwalk virus capsid inner shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gabriel I; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Abente, Eugenio J; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Bok, Karin; Dolan, Michael A; Green, Kim Y

    2016-05-01

    Noroviruses are diverse positive-strand RNA viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. Cross-reactive epitopes have been mapped primarily to conserved sequences in the capsid VP1 Shell (S) domain, and strain-specific epitopes to the highly variable Protruding (P) domain. In this work, we investigated a strain-specific linear epitope defined by MAb NV10 that was raised against prototype (Genogroup I.1) strain Norwalk virus (NV). Using peptide scanning and mutagenesis, the epitope was mapped to amino acids 21-32 (LVPEVNASDPLA) of the NV S domain, and its specificity was verified by epitope transfer and reactivity with a recombinant MAb NV10 single-chain variable fragment (scFv). Comparative structural modeling of the NV10 strain-specific and the broadly cross-reactive TV20 epitopes identified two internal non-overlapping sites in the NV shell, corresponding to variable and conserved amino acid sequences among strains, respectively. The S domain, like the P domain, contains strain-specific epitopes that contribute to the antigenic diversity among the noroviruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Discovery and Mechanistic Study of Benzamide Derivatives That Modulate Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuo; Zhao, Qiong; Zhang, Pinghu; Kulp, John; Hu, Lydia; Hwang, Nicky; Zhang, Jiming; Block, Timothy M; Xu, Xiaodong; Du, Yanming; Chang, Jinhong; Guo, Ju-Tao

    2017-08-15

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. Although the currently approved medications can reliably reduce the viral load and prevent the progression of liver diseases, they fail to cure the viral infection. In an effort toward discovery of novel antiviral agents against HBV, a group of benzamide (BA) derivatives that significantly reduced the amount of cytoplasmic HBV DNA were discovered. The initial lead optimization efforts identified two BA derivatives with improved antiviral activity for further mechanistic studies. Interestingly, similar to our previously reported sulfamoylbenzamides (SBAs), the BAs promote the formation of empty capsids through specific interaction with HBV core protein but not other viral and host cellular components. Genetic evidence suggested that both SBAs and BAs inhibited HBV nucleocapsid assembly by binding to the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine (HAP) pocket between core protein dimer-dimer interfaces. However, unlike SBAs, BA compounds uniquely induced the formation of empty capsids that migrated more slowly in native agarose gel electrophoresis from A36V mutant than from the wild-type core protein. Moreover, we showed that the assembly of chimeric capsids from wild-type and drug-resistant core proteins was susceptible to multiple capsid assembly modulators. Hence, HBV core protein is a dominant antiviral target that may suppress the selection of drug-resistant viruses during core protein-targeting antiviral therapy. Our studies thus indicate that BAs are a chemically and mechanistically unique type of HBV capsid assembly modulators and warranted for further development as antiviral agents against HBV.IMPORTANCE HBV core protein plays essential roles in many steps of the viral replication cycle. In addition to packaging viral pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and DNA polymerase complex into nucleocapsids for reverse transcriptional DNA replication to take place, the core protein dimers, existing in several

  4. Microglia-specific targeting by novel capsid-modified AAV6 vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awilda M Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV have been widely used in gene therapy applications for central nervous system diseases. Though rAAV can efficiently target neurons and astrocytes in mouse brains, microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are refractile to rAAV. To identify AAV capsids with microglia-specific transduction properties, we initially screened the most commonly used serotypes, AAV1–9 and rh10, on primary mouse microglia cultures. While these capsids were not permissive, we then tested the microglial targeting properties of a newly characterized set of modified rAAV6 capsid variants with high tropism for monocytes. Indeed, these newly characterized rAAV6 capsid variants, specially a triply mutated Y731F/Y705F/T492V form, carrying a self-complementary genome and microglia-specific promoters (F4/80 or CD68 could efficiently and selectively transduce microglia in vitro. Delivery of these constructs in mice brains resulted in microglia-specific expression of green fluorescent protein, albeit at modest levels. We further show that CD68 promoter–driven expression of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, using this capsid variant leads to increased astrogliosis in the brains of wild-type mice. Our study describes the first instance of AAV-targeted microglial gene expression leading to functional modulation of the innate immune system in mice brains. This provides the rationale for utilizing these unique capsid/promoter combinations for microglia-specific gene targeting for modeling or functional studies.

  5. Microglia-specific targeting by novel capsid-modified AAV6 vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Awilda M; Cruz, Pedro E; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Strickland, Michael R; Siemienski, Zoe; Pardo, Meghan; Schob, Keri-Lyn; Li, Andrew; Aslanidi, George V; Srivastava, Arun; Golde, Todd E; Chakrabarty, Paramita

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) have been widely used in gene therapy applications for central nervous system diseases. Though rAAV can efficiently target neurons and astrocytes in mouse brains, microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are refractile to rAAV. To identify AAV capsids with microglia-specific transduction properties, we initially screened the most commonly used serotypes, AAV1-9 and rh10, on primary mouse microglia cultures. While these capsids were not permissive, we then tested the microglial targeting properties of a newly characterized set of modified rAAV6 capsid variants with high tropism for monocytes. Indeed, these newly characterized rAAV6 capsid variants, specially a triply mutated Y731F/Y705F/T492V form, carrying a self-complementary genome and microglia-specific promoters (F4/80 or CD68) could efficiently and selectively transduce microglia in vitro. Delivery of these constructs in mice brains resulted in microglia-specific expression of green fluorescent protein, albeit at modest levels. We further show that CD68 promoter-driven expression of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, using this capsid variant leads to increased astrogliosis in the brains of wild-type mice. Our study describes the first instance of AAV-targeted microglial gene expression leading to functional modulation of the innate immune system in mice brains. This provides the rationale for utilizing these unique capsid/promoter combinations for microglia-specific gene targeting for modeling or functional studies.

  6. Screening for the Location of RNA using the Chloride Ion Distribution in Simulations of Virus Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Daniel S D; van der Spoel, David

    2012-07-10

    The complete structure of the genomic material inside a virus capsid remains elusive, although a limited amount of symmetric nucleic acid can be resolved in the crystal structure of 17 icosahedral viruses. The negatively charged sugar-phosphate backbone of RNA and DNA as well as the large positive charge of the interior surface of the virus capsids suggest that electrostatic complementarity is an important factor in the packaging of the genomes in these viruses. To test how much packing information is encoded by the electrostatic and steric envelope of the capsid interior, we performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of virus capsids with explicit water molecules and solvent ions. The model systems were two small plant viruses in which significant amounts of RNA has been observed by X-ray crystallography: satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV, 62% RNA visible) and satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV, 34% RNA visible). Simulations of half-capsids of these viruses with no RNA present revealed that the binding sites of RNA correlated well with regions populated by chloride ions, suggesting that it is possible to screen for the binding sites of nucleic acids by determining the equilibrium distribution of negative ions. By including the crystallographically resolved RNA in addition to ions, we predicted the localization of the unresolved RNA in the viruses. Both viruses showed a hot-spot for RNA binding at the 5-fold symmetry axis. The MD simulations were compared to predictions of the chloride density based on nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) calculations with mobile ions. Although the predictions are superficially similar, the PBE calculations overestimate the ion concentration close to the capsid surface and underestimate it far away, mainly because protein dynamics is not taken into account. Density maps from chloride screening can be used to aid in building atomic models of packaged virus genomes. Knowledge of the principles of

  7. Atomic Force Microscopy of virus capsids uncover the interplay between mechanics, structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo, Pedro J.

    The basic architecture of a virus consists of the capsid, a shell made up of repeating protein subunits, which packs, shuttles and delivers their genome at the right place and moment. Viral particles are endorsed with specific physicochemical properties which confer to their structures certain meta-stability whose modulation permits fulfilling each task of the viral cycle. These natural designed capabilities have impelled using viral capsids as protein containers of artificial cargoes (drugs, polymers, enzymes, minerals) with applications in biomedical and materials sciences. Both natural and artificial protein cages have to protect their cargo against a variety of physicochemical aggressive environments, including molecular impacts of highly crowded media, thermal and chemical stresses, and osmotic shocks. Viral cages stability under these ambiences depend not only on the ultimate structure of the external capsid, which rely on the interactions between protein subunits, but also on the nature of the cargo. During the last decade our lab has focused on the study of protein cages with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) (figure 1). We are interested in stablishing links of their mechanical properties with their structure and function. In particular, mechanics provide information about the cargo storage strategies of both natural and virus-derived protein cages. Mechanical fatigue has revealed as a nanosurgery tool to unveil the strength of the capisd subunit bonds. We also interrogated the electrostatics of individual protein shells. Our AFM-fluorescence combination provided information about DNA diffusing out cracked-open protein cages in real time.

  8. Detection of late intermediates in virus capsid assembly by charge detection mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Elizabeth E; Keifer, David Z; Selzer, Lisa; Lee, Lye Siang; Contino, Nathan C; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Zlotnick, Adam; Jarrold, Martin F

    2014-03-05

    The assembly of hundreds of identical proteins into an icosahedral virus capsid is a remarkable feat of molecular engineering. How this occurs is poorly understood. Key intermediates have been anticipated at the end of the assembly reaction, but it has not been possible to detect them. In this work we have used charge detection mass spectrometry to identify trapped intermediates from late in the assembly of the hepatitis B virus T = 4 capsid, a complex of 120 protein dimers. Prominent intermediates are found with 104/105, 110/111, and 117/118 dimers. Cryo-EM observations indicate the intermediates are incomplete capsids and, hence, on the assembly pathway. On the basis of their stability and kinetic accessibility we have proposed plausible structures. The prominent trapped intermediate with 104 dimers is attributed to an icosahedron missing two neighboring facets, the 111-dimer species is assigned to an icosahedron missing a single facet, and the intermediate with 117 dimers is assigned to a capsid missing a ring of three dimers in the center of a facet.

  9. Modeling of the human rhinovirus C capsid suggests a novel topography with insights on receptor preference and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Holly A; Sgro, Jean-Yves; Palmenberg, Ann C

    2014-01-05

    Features of human rhinovirus (RV)-C virions that allow them to use novel cell receptors and evade immune responses are unknown. Unlike the RV-A+B, these isolates cannot be propagated in typical culture systems or grown for structure studies. Comparative sequencing, I-TASSER, MODELLER, ROBETTA, and refined alignment techniques led to a structural approximation for C15 virions, based on the extensive, resolved RV-A+B datasets. The model predicts that all RV-C VP1 proteins are shorter by 21 residues relative to the RV-A, and 35 residues relative to the RV-B, effectively shaving the RV 5-fold plateau from the particle. There are major alterations in VP1 neutralizing epitopes and the structural determinants for ICAM-1 and LDLR receptors. The VP2 and VP3 elements are similar among all RV, but the loss of sequence "words" contributing Nim1ab has increased the apparent selective pressure among the RV-C to fix mutations elsewhere in the VP1, creating a possible compensatory epitope. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An investigation into the use of human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles as a delivery vector system for foreign proteins: N- and C-terminal fusion of GFP to the L1 and L2 capsid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windram, Oliver P; Weber, Brandon; Jaffer, Mohamed A; Rybicki, Edward P; Shepherd, Dionne N; Varsani, Arvind

    2008-01-01

    Development of vaccine strategies against human papillomavirus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer, is a priority. We investigated the use of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the most prevalent type, HPV-16, as carriers of foreign proteins. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to the N or C terminus of both L1 and L2, with L2 chimeras being co-expressed with native L1. Purified chimaeric VLPs were comparable in size ( approximately 55 nm) to native HPV VLPs. Conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) bound to the VLPs, thereby indicating that they possibly retain their antigenicity. In addition, all of the VLPs encapsidated DNA in the range of 6-8 kb.

  11. Random Insertion of mCherry Into VP3 Domain of Adeno-associated Virus Yields Fluorescent Capsids With no Loss of Infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Judd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-derived vectors are promising gene delivery systems, and a number of design strategies have been pursued to improve their performance. For example, genetic insertion of proteins into the capsid may be used to achieve vector retargeting, reduced immunogenicity, or to track vector transport. Unfortunately, rational approaches to genetic insertion have experienced limited success due to the unpredictable context-dependent nature of protein folding and the complexity of the capsid's macroassembly. We report the construction and use of a frame-enriched DNase-based random insertion library based on AAV2 cap, called pAAV2_RaPID (Random Peptide Insertion by DNase. The fluorescent mCherry protein was inserted randomly throughout the AAV2 capsid and the library was selected for fluorescent and infectious variants. A capsid site was identified in VP3 that can tolerate the large protein insertion. In contrast to previous efforts to incorporate fluorescent proteins into the AAV2 capsid, the isolated mCherry mutant maintains native infectivity while displaying robust fluorescence. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the pAAV2_RaPID platform library can be used to create fully infectious AAV vectors carrying large functional protein domains on the capsid.

  12. Venture from the Interior-Herpesvirus pUL31 Escorts Capsids from Nucleoplasmic Replication Compartments to Sites of Primary Envelopment at the Inner Nuclear Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer, Susanne M.

    2017-11-25

    Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a membrane-mediated budding process, composed of primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane. Once in the cytoplasm, the capsids receive their secondary envelope for maturation into infectious virions. Two viral proteins conserved throughout the herpesvirus family, the integral membrane protein pUL34 and the phosphoprotein pUL31, form the nuclear egress complex required for capsid transport from the infected nucleus to the cytoplasm. Formation of the nuclear egress complex results in budding of membrane vesicles revealing its function as minimal virus-encoded membrane budding and scission machinery. The recent structural analysis unraveled details of the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex and the hexagonal coat it forms at the inside of budding vesicles to drive primary envelopment. With this review, I would like to present the capsid-escort-model where pUL31 associates with capsids in nucleoplasmic replication compartments for escort to sites of primary envelopment thereby coupling capsid maturation and nuclear egress.

  13. Genetic diversity of the VP1/VP2 gene of canine parvovirus type 2b amplified from clinical specimens in Brazil Diversidade genética no gene VP1/VP2 do parvovirus canino tipo 2b amplificado de material clínico no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. D. Pereira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the genetic diversity in the VP1/VP2 gene of CPV type 2b isolates from symptomatic dogs in Brazil. A total of 21 isolates collected from 1990 through 1995 previously typed as CPV2b by PCR assay were studied. Overall we found a high degree of similarity among sequences from different CPV clinical isolates collected. Genetic analysis of this selected region gave no indication of a specific Brazilian parvovirus lineage.Neste estudo foi avaliada a diversidade genética no gene VP1/VP2 do parvovírus canino tipo 2b a partir de amostras isoladas de cães sintomáticos no Brasil. Foram estudadas 21 amostras coletadas no período de 1990 à 1995, previamente caracterizadas como CPV 2b pela técnica de PCR. Observou-se alto grau de similaridade entre as seqüências estudadas e a análise genética da região selecionada não indicou a presença de uma linhagem brasileira específica.

  14. Peptide affinity reagents for AAV capsid recognition and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulicherla, N; Asokan, A

    2011-10-01

    We report the discovery of AAV capsid-binding peptides identified through phage panning. The heptapeptide motif GYVSRHP selectively recognized AAV serotype 8 capsids and blocked transduction in vitro. Recombinant AAV8 vectors were purified directly from crude cell lysate and supernatant through sequential application of peptide affinity and anion exchange chromatography. Peptide affinity reagents may serve as useful alternatives to monoclonal antibodies in AAV capsid recognition, and offer readily scalable solutions for purification of clinical grade AAV vectors.

  15. Peptide affinity reagents for AAV capsid recognition and purification

    OpenAIRE

    Pulicherla, N; Asokan, A

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of AAV capsid-binding peptides identified through phage panning. The heptapeptide motif GYVSRHP selectively recognized AAV serotype 8 capsids and blocked transduction in vitro. Recombinant AAV8 vectors were purified directly from crude cell lysate and supernatant through sequential application of peptide affinity and anion exchange chromatography. Peptide affinity reagents may serve as useful alternatives to monoclonal antibodies in AAV capsid recognition, and offer re...

  16. Classification and Evolutionary Trends of Icosahedral Viral Capsids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kerner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A classification of icosahedral viral capsids is proposed. We show how the self-organization of capsids during their formation implies a definite composition of their elementary building blocks. The exact number of hexamers with three different admissible symmetries is related to capsids' sizes, labelled by their T-numbers. Simple rules determining these numbers for each value of T are deduced and certain consequences concerning the probabilities of mutations and evolution of viruses are discussed.

  17. Backbone structure of the infectious epsilon15 virus capsid revealed by electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Baker, Matthew L; Jakana, Joanita; Weigele, Peter R; King, Jonathan; Chiu, Wah

    2008-02-28

    A half-century after the determination of the first three-dimensional crystal structure of a protein, more than 40,000 structures ranging from single polypeptides to large assemblies have been reported. The challenge for crystallographers, however, remains the growing of a diffracting crystal. Here we report the 4.5-A resolution structure of a 22-MDa macromolecular assembly, the capsid of the infectious epsilon15 (epsilon15) particle, by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. From this density map we constructed a complete backbone trace of its major capsid protein, gene product 7 (gp7). The structure reveals a similar protein architecture to that of other tailed double-stranded DNA viruses, even in the absence of detectable sequence similarity. However, the connectivity of the secondary structure elements (topology) in gp7 is unique. Protruding densities are observed around the two-fold axes that cannot be accounted for by gp7. A subsequent proteomic analysis of the whole virus identifies these densities as gp10, a 12-kDa protein. Its structure, location and high binding affinity to the capsid indicate that the gp10 dimer functions as a molecular staple between neighbouring capsomeres to ensure the particle's stability. Beyond epsilon15, this method potentially offers a new approach for modelling the backbone conformations of the protein subunits in other macromolecular assemblies at near-native solution states.

  18. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fan Chou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV, we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1-147 containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1-147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex.

  19. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Fan; Tsai, Ming-Lin; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Chang, Ya-Shu; Shih, Chiaho

    2015-01-01

    The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV), we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1–147) containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD) failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1–147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex. PMID

  20. Synthesis of empty capsid-like particles of Asia I foot-and-mouth disease virus in insect cells and their immunogenicity in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Sun, Jiachuan; Bai, Xingwen; Sun, Pu; Bao, Huifang; Chen, Yingli; Guo, Jianhong; Li, Dong; Liu, Xiangtao; Liu, Zaixin

    2009-05-28

    The assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) requires the cleavage of the P12A polyprotein into individual structural proteins by protease 3C. In this study, we constructed a recombinant baculovirus that simultaneously expressed the genes for the P12A and 3C proteins of Asia I FMDV from individual promoters. The capsid proteins expressed in High Five insect cells were processed by viral 3C protease, as shown by Western blotting, and were antigenic, as revealed by their reactivity in an indirect sandwich-ELISA, and by immunofluorescent assay. The empty capsid-like particles were similar to authentic 75S empty capsids from FMDV in terms of their shape, size and sedimentation velocity, as demonstrated by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Both empty capsid-like particles and some small-sized particles (about 10nm in diameter) were also observed using immunoelectron microscopy. Furthermore, the empty capsid-like particles or intermediates induced high levels of FMDV-specific antibodies in guinea pigs following immunization, and neutralizing antibodies were induced in the second week after vaccination. These recombinant, non-infectious, FMDV empty capsids are potentially useful for the development of new diagnostic techniques and vaccines.

  1. Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Eunüs S.; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Carr, Jillian M.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and...

  2. Studies towards the sex pheromone of the green capsid bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on

  3. Structure of a Spumaretrovirus Gag Central Domain Reveals an Ancient Retroviral Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Neil J; Nicastro, Giuseppe; Dutta, Moumita; Pollard, Dominic J; Goldstone, David C; Sanz-Ramos, Marta; Ramos, Andres; Müllers, Erik; Stirnnagel, Kristin; Stanke, Nicole; Lindemann, Dirk; Stoye, Jonathan P; Taylor, William R; Rosenthal, Peter B; Taylor, Ian A

    2016-11-01

    The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. However, there is a paucity of structural information for FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. To probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag we have determined the structure of a central region of Gag from the Prototype FV (PFV). The structure comprises two all α-helical domains NtDCEN and CtDCEN that although they have no sequence similarity, we show they share the same core fold as the N- (NtDCA) and C-terminal domains (CtDCA) of archetypal orthoretroviral capsid protein (CA). Moreover, structural comparisons with orthoretroviral CA align PFV NtDCEN and CtDCEN with NtDCA and CtDCA respectively. Further in vitro and functional virological assays reveal that residues making inter-domain NtDCEN-CtDCEN interactions are required for PFV capsid assembly and that intact capsid is required for PFV reverse transcription. These data provide the first information that relates the Gag proteins of Spuma and Orthoretrovirinae and suggests a common ancestor for both lineages containing an ancient CA fold.

  4. Structure of a Spumaretrovirus Gag Central Domain Reveals an Ancient Retroviral Capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J Ball

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamy viruses (FVs are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. However, there is a paucity of structural information for FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. To probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag we have determined the structure of a central region of Gag from the Prototype FV (PFV. The structure comprises two all α-helical domains NtDCEN and CtDCEN that although they have no sequence similarity, we show they share the same core fold as the N- (NtDCA and C-terminal domains (CtDCA of archetypal orthoretroviral capsid protein (CA. Moreover, structural comparisons with orthoretroviral CA align PFV NtDCEN and CtDCEN with NtDCA and CtDCA respectively. Further in vitro and functional virological assays reveal that residues making inter-domain NtDCEN-CtDCEN interactions are required for PFV capsid assembly and that intact capsid is required for PFV reverse transcription. These data provide the first information that relates the Gag proteins of Spuma and Orthoretrovirinae and suggests a common ancestor for both lineages containing an ancient CA fold.

  5. Solubility as a limiting factor for expression of hepatitis A virus proteins in insect cell-baculovirus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Cid da Silva Junior

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative model to inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV. The present study aimed to express the VP1 protein of HAV in baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS. The VP1 was expressed intracellularly with molecular mass of 35 kDa. The VP1 was detected both in the soluble fraction and in the insoluble fraction of the lysate. The extracellular expression of VP1 was also attempted, but the protein remained inside the cell. To verify if hydrophobic characteristics would also be present in the HAV structural polyprotein, the expression of P1-2A protein was evaluated. The P1-2A polyprotein remained insoluble in the cellular extract, even in the early infection stages. These results suggest that HAV structural proteins are prone to form insoluble aggregates. The low solubility represents a drawback for production of large amounts of HAV proteins in BEVS.

  6. Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 angstrom resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schur, F. K. M.; Hagen, W. J. H.; Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, T.; Müller, B.; Kräusslich, H. G.; Briggs, J. A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 517, č. 7535 (2015), s. 505-508 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15326S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : retrovirus * HIV * M-PMV * capsid protein * CA * assembly * immature particles Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 38.138, year: 2015

  7. Protease cleavage leads to formation of mature trimer interface in HIV-1 capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Meng

    Full Text Available During retrovirus particle maturation, the assembled Gag polyprotein is cleaved by the viral protease into matrix (MA, capsid (CA, and nucleocapsid (NC proteins. To form the mature viral capsid, CA rearranges, resulting in a lattice composed of hexameric and pentameric CA units. Recent structural studies of assembled HIV-1 CA revealed several inter-subunit interfaces in the capsid lattice, including a three-fold interhexamer interface that is critical for proper capsid stability. Although a general architecture of immature particles has been provided by cryo-electron tomographic studies, the structural details of the immature particle and the maturation pathway remain unknown. Here, we used cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM to determine the structure of tubular assemblies of the HIV-1 CA-SP1-NC protein. Relative to the mature assembled CA structure, we observed a marked conformational difference in the position of the CA-CTD relative to the NTD in the CA-SP1-NC assembly, involving the flexible hinge connecting the two domains. This difference was verified via engineered disulfide crosslinking, revealing that inter-hexamer contacts, in particular those at the pseudo three-fold axis, are altered in the CA-SP1-NC assemblies compared to the CA assemblies. Results from crosslinking analyses of mature and immature HIV-1 particles containing the same Cys substitutions in the Gag protein are consistent with these findings. We further show that cleavage of preassembled CA-SP1-NC by HIV-1 protease in vitro leads to release of SP1 and NC without disassembly of the lattice. Collectively, our results indicate that the proteolytic cleavage of Gag leads to a structural reorganization of the polypeptide and creates the three-fold interhexamer interface, important for the formation of infectious HIV-1 particles.

  8. Anti-HERV-K (HML-2) capsid antibody responses in HIV elite controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mulder, Miguel; SenGupta, Devi; Deeks, Steven G; Martin, Jeffrey N; Pilcher, Christopher D; Hecht, Frederick M; Sacha, Jonah B; Nixon, Douglas F; Michaud, Henri-Alexandre

    2017-08-22

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) comprise approximately 8% of the human genome and while the majority are transcriptionally silent, the most recently integrated HERV, HERV-K (HML-2), remains active. During HIV infection, HERV-K (HML-2) specific mRNA transcripts and viral proteins can be detected. In this study, we aimed to understand the antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag in the context of HIV-1 infection. We developed an ELISA assay using either recombinant protein or 164 redundant "15mer" HERV-K (HML-2) Gag peptides to test sera for antibody reactivity. We identified a total of eight potential HERV-K (HML-2) Gag immunogenic domains: two on the matrix (peptides 16 and 31), one on p15 (peptide 85), three on the capsid (peptides 81, 97 and 117), one on the nucleocapsid (peptide 137) and one on the QP1 protein (peptide 157). Four epitopes (peptides 16, 31, 85 and 137) were highly immunogenic. No significant differences in antibody responses were found between HIV infected participants (n = 40) and uninfected donors (n = 40) for 6 out of the 8 epitopes tested. The antibody response against nucleocapsid (peptide 137) was significantly lower (p K (HML-2) capsid recombinant peptide in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme immunospot (Elispot) assays. We found that the HERV-K (HML-2) Gag antibody and T cell response by Elispot were significantly correlated. HIV elite controllers had a strong cellular and antibody response against HERV-K (HML-2) Gag directed mainly against the Capsid region. Collectively, these data suggest that anti-HERV-K (HML-2) antibodies targeting capsid could have an immunoprotective effect in HIV infection.

  9. Active protein aggregates induced by terminally attached self-assembling peptide ELK16 in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bihong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, it has been gradually realized that bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs could be biologically active. In particular, several proteins including green fluorescent protein, β-galactosidase, β-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, D-amino acid oxidase, polyphosphate kinase 3, maltodextrin phosphorylase, and sialic acid aldolase have been successfully produced as active IBs when fused to an appropriate partner such as the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein VP1, or the human β-amyloid peptide Aβ42(F19D. As active IBs may have many attractive advantages in enzyme production and industrial applications, it is of considerable interest to explore them further. Results In this paper, we report that an ionic self-assembling peptide ELK16 (LELELKLK2 was able to effectively induce the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli (E. coli when attached to the carboxyl termini of four model proteins including lipase A, amadoriase II, β-xylosidase, and green fluorescent protein. These aggregates had a general appearance similar to the usually reported cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs under transmission electron microscopy or fluorescence confocal microscopy. Except for lipase A-ELK16 fusion, the three other fusion protein aggregates retained comparable specific activities with the native counterparts. Conformational analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of newly formed antiparallel beta-sheet structures in these ELK16 peptide-induced inclusion bodies, which is consistent with the reported assembly of the ELK16 peptide. Conclusions This has been the first report where a terminally attached self-assembling β peptide ELK16 can promote the formation of active inclusion bodies or active protein aggregates in E. coli. It has the potential to render E. coli and other recombinant hosts more efficient as microbial cell factories for protein production. Our observation might

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Yang, Shun-Li; Wei, Yan-Quan; Sun, De-Hui; Yin, Shuang-Hui; Ma, Jun-Wu; Liu, Zai-Xin; Guo, Jian-Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Yin, Hong; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2013-07-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV.

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV. PMID:23826638

  12. The rolling circle . capsid complex as an intermediate in phi X DNA replication and viral assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koths, K; Dressler, D

    1980-05-10

    Late in the life cycle of the single-stranded DNA phage phi X, the synthesis of positive strand DNA is coupled to the maturation of progeny virions. DNA synthesis and packaging take place in a replication-assembly complex, which we have purified to homogeneity and characterized. The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. The DNA component of the replication-assembly complex is a rolling circle with a single-stranded DNA tail which is less than or equal to genome length. 2. The major protein component of the replication-assembly complex is an intact viral capsid, as shown by gel analysis of 35S-labeled complexes. As replication proceeds at the DNA growing point, the positive strand tail of the rolling circle is displaced directly into the capsid. In addition to the capsid, the complex contains at least 1 molecule of the phi X gene A nicking protein, which appears to be covalently linked to the DNA. 3. The rolling circle . capsid complex can be purified to homogeneity by taking advantage of its uniform sedimentation velocity (35 S) and its uniform density upon equilibrium centrifugation in CsCl (1.50 g/cc). 4. The replication-assembly complex can be visualized in the electron microscope. An electron-dense particle, which has the dimensions of a viral capsid, is observed attached to a rolling circle at the DNA growing point. 5. Hybridization of specific phi X restriction fragments to the deproteinized, single-stranded tails of intact rolling circles has allowed the use of these replicating intermediates to determine both the origin/terminus and the direction of phi X positive strand DNA synthesis. The ends of the rolling circle tails map in the Hae III restriction Fragment Z6b, at the position on the phi X genome at which the gene A endonuclease is known to cut. This result indicates that this endonuclease participates in the "termination" of each round of synthesis by cutting off unit-length viral genomes. 6. Rolling circle . capsid complexes were also isolated from

  13. In vitro protease cleavage and computer simulations reveal the HIV-1 capsid maturation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jiying; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Yufenyuy, Ernest L.; Wagner, Jef; Himes, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Gongpu; Aiken, Christopher; Zandi, Roya; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 virions assemble as immature particles containing Gag polyproteins that are processed by the viral protease into individual components, resulting in the formation of mature infectious particles. There are two competing models for the process of forming the mature HIV-1 core: the disassembly and de novo reassembly model and the non-diffusional displacive model. To study the maturation pathway, we simulate HIV-1 maturation in vitro by digesting immature particles and assembled virus-like particles with recombinant HIV-1 protease and monitor the process with biochemical assays and cryoEM structural analysis in parallel. Processing of Gag in vitro is accurate and efficient and results in both soluble capsid protein and conical or tubular capsid assemblies, seemingly converted from immature Gag particles. Computer simulations further reveal probable assembly pathways of HIV-1 capsid formation. Combining the experimental data and computer simulations, our results suggest a sequential combination of both displacive and disassembly/reassembly processes for HIV-1 maturation.

  14. Contribution of MxB oligomerization to HIV-1 capsid binding and restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffone, Cindy; Schulte, Bianca; Opp, Silvana; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The alpha interferon (IFN-α)-inducible restriction factor myxovirus B (MxB) blocks HIV-1 infection after reverse transcription but prior to integration. MxB binds to the HIV-1 core, which is composed of capsid protein, and this interaction leads to inhibition of the uncoating process of HIV-1. Previous studies suggested that HIV-1 restriction by MxB requires binding to capsid. This work tests the hypothesis that MxB oligomerization is important for the ability of MxB to bind to the HIV-1 core. For this purpose, we modeled the structure of MxB using the published tertiary structure of MxA. The modeled structure of MxB guided our mutagenic studies and led to the discovery of several MxB variants that lose the capacity to oligomerize. In agreement with our hypothesis, MxB variants that lost the oligomerization capacity also lost the ability to bind to the HIV-1 core. MxB variants deficient for oligomerization were not able to block HIV-1 infection. Overall, our work showed that oligomerization is required for the ability of MxB to bind to the HIV-1 core and block HIV-1 infection. MxB is a novel restriction factor that blocks infection of HIV-1. MxB is inducible by IFN-α, particularly in T cells. The current work studies the oligomerization determinants of MxB and carefully explores the contribution of oligomerization to capsid binding and restriction. This work takes advantage of the current structure of MxA and models the structure of MxB, which is used to guide structure-function studies. This work leads to the conclusion that MxB oligomerization is important for HIV-1 capsid binding and restriction. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. original article the sero-prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    determined that the parvovirus is an icosahedral virus with a polypeptide fold of 2 to 3 major capsid proteins, namely VP1, VP2 and VP3 (1,3). The genomic particle consists of 60copies of capsid protein containing single stranded. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Parvovirus genome contains 5596 nucleotides, of this 4830 ...

  16. α-Defensin HD5 Inhibits Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection via Capsid Stabilization and Redirection to the Lysosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayim E. Wiens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Defensins are an important class of abundant innate immune effectors that are potently antiviral against a number of nonenveloped viral pathogens; however, a common mechanism to explain their ability to block infection by these unrelated viruses is lacking. We previously found that human defensin 5 (HD5 blocks a critical host-mediated proteolytic processing step required for human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Here, we show that bypassing the requirement for this cleavage failed to abrogate HD5 inhibition. Instead, HD5 altered HPV trafficking in the cell. In the presence of an inhibitory concentration of HD5, HPV was internalized and reached the early endosome. The internalized capsid became permeable to antibodies and proteases; however, HD5 prevented dissociation of the viral capsid from the genome, reduced viral trafficking to the trans-Golgi network, redirected the incoming viral particle to the lysosome, and accelerated the degradation of internalized capsid proteins. This mechanism is equivalent to the mechanism by which HD5 inhibits human adenovirus. Thus, our data support capsid stabilization and redirection to the lysosome during infection as a general antiviral mechanism of α-defensins against nonenveloped viruses.

  17. Generation of West Nile virus infectious clones containing amino acid insertions between capsid and capsid anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergaast, Rianna; Hoover, Lisa I; Zheng, Kang; Fredericksen, Brenda L

    2014-04-09

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense RNA arbovirus responsible for recent outbreaks of severe neurological disease within the US and Europe. Large-scale analyses of antiviral compounds that inhibit virus replication have been limited due to the lack of an adequate WN reporter virus. Previous attempts to insert a reporter into the 3' untranslated region of WNV generated unstable viruses, suggesting that this region does not accommodate additional nucleotides. Here, we engineered two WNV infectious clones containing insertions at the Capsid (C)/Capsid Anchor (CA) junction of the viral polyprotein. Recombinant viruses containing a TAT(1-67) or Gaussia Luciferase (GLuc) gene at this location were successfully recovered. However, rapid loss of most, if not all, of the reporter sequence occurred for both viruses, indicating that the reporter viruses were not stable. While the GLuc viruses predominantly reverted back to wild-type WNV length, the TAT viruses retained up to 75 additional nucleotides of the reporter sequence. These additional nucleotides were stable over at least five passages and did not significantly alter WNV fitness. Thus, the C/CA junction of WNV can tolerate additional nucleotides, though insertions are subject to certain constraints.

  18. Modeling capsid kinetics assembly from the steady state distribution of multi-sizes aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozé, Nathanaël; Holcman, David

    2014-01-24

    The kinetics of aggregation for particles of various sizes depends on their diffusive arrival and fusion at a specific nucleation site. We present here a mean-field approximation and a stochastic jump model for aggregates at equilibrium. This approach is an alternative to the classical Smoluchowski equations that do not have a close form and are not solvable in general. We analyze these mean-field equations and obtain the kinetics of a cluster formation. Our approach provides a simplified theoretical framework to study the kinetics of viral capsid formation, such as HIV from the self-assembly of the structural proteins Gag.

  19. Rigidity-induced scale invariance in polymer ejection from capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, R. P.; Suhonen, P. M.; Piili, J.

    2017-11-01

    While the dynamics of a fully flexible polymer ejecting a capsid through a nanopore has been extensively studied, the ejection dynamics of semiflexible polymers has not been properly characterized. Here we report results from simulations of ejection dynamics of semiflexible polymers ejecting from spherical capsids. Ejections start from strongly confined polymer conformations of constant initial monomer density. We find that, unlike for fully flexible polymers, for semiflexible polymers the force measured at the pore does not show a direct relation to the instantaneous ejection velocity. The cumulative waiting time t (s ) , that is, the time at which a monomer s exits the capsid the last time, shows a clear change when increasing the polymer rigidity κ . The major part of an ejecting polymer is driven out of the capsid by internal pressure. At the final stage the polymer escapes the capsid by diffusion. For the driven part there is a crossover from essentially exponential growth of t with s of the fully flexible polymers to a scale-invariant form. In addition, a clear dependence of t on polymer length N0 was found. These findings combined give the dependence t (s ) ∝N00.55s1.33 for the strongly rigid polymers. This crossover in dynamics where κ acts as a control parameter is reminiscent of a phase transition. This analogy is further enhanced by our finding a perfect data collapse of t for polymers of different N0 and any constant κ .

  20. Modelling the self-assembly of virus capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Iain G.; Louis, Ard A.; Doye, Jonathan P. K.

    2010-03-01

    We use computer simulations to study a model, first proposed by Wales (2005 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363 357), for the reversible and monodisperse self-assembly of simple icosahedral virus capsid structures. The success and efficiency of assembly as a function of thermodynamic and geometric factors can be qualitatively related to the potential energy landscape structure of the assembling system. Even though the model is strongly coarse-grained, it exhibits a number of features also observed in experiments, such as sigmoidal assembly dynamics, hysteresis in capsid formation and numerous kinetic traps. We also investigate the effect of macromolecular crowding on the assembly dynamics. Crowding agents generally reduce capsid yields at optimal conditions for non-crowded assembly, but may increase yields for parameter regimes away from the optimum. Finally, we generalize the model to a larger triangulation number T = 3, and observe assembly dynamics more complex than that seen for the original T = 1 model.

  1. Capsid expansion mechanism of bacteriophage T7 revealed by multistate atomic models derived from cryo-EM reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Liu, Zheng; Fang, Ping-An; Zhang, Qinfen; Wright, Elena T; Wu, Weimin; Zhang, Ci; Vago, Frank; Ren, Yue; Jakana, Joanita; Chiu, Wah; Serwer, Philip; Jiang, Wen

    2014-10-28

    Many dsDNA viruses first assemble a DNA-free procapsid, using a scaffolding protein-dependent process. The procapsid, then, undergoes dramatic conformational maturation while packaging DNA. For bacteriophage T7 we report the following four single-particle cryo-EM 3D reconstructions and the derived atomic models: procapsid (4.6-Å resolution), an early-stage DNA packaging intermediate (3.5 Å), a later-stage packaging intermediate (6.6 Å), and the final infectious phage (3.6 Å). In the procapsid, the N terminus of the major capsid protein, gp10, has a six-turn helix at the inner surface of the shell, where each skewed hexamer of gp10 interacts with two scaffolding proteins. With the exit of scaffolding proteins during maturation the gp10 N-terminal helix unfolds and swings through the capsid shell to the outer surface. The refolded N-terminal region has a hairpin that forms a novel noncovalent, joint-like, intercapsomeric interaction with a pocket formed during shell expansion. These large conformational changes also result in a new noncovalent, intracapsomeric topological linking. Both interactions further stabilize the capsids by interlocking all pentameric and hexameric capsomeres in both DNA packaging intermediate and phage. Although the final phage shell has nearly identical structure to the shell of the DNA-free intermediate, surprisingly we found that the icosahedral faces of the phage are slightly (∼4 Å) contracted relative to the faces of the intermediate, despite the internal pressure from the densely packaged DNA genome. These structures provide a basis for understanding the capsid maturation process during DNA packaging that is essential for large numbers of dsDNA viruses.

  2. Evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A capsid coding (P1) region on a timescale of three decades in an endemic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswajit; Mohapatra, Jajati K; Pande, Veena; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Sanyal, Aniket

    2016-07-01

    Three decades-long (1977-2013) evolutionary trend of the capsid coding (P1) region of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A isolated in India was analysed. The exclusive presence of genotype 18 since 2001 and the dominance of the VP3(59)-deletion group of genotype 18 was evident in the recent years. Clade 18c was found to be currently the only active one among the three clades (18a, 18b and 18c) identified in the deletion group. The rate of evolution of the Indian isolates at the capsid region was found to be 4.96×10(-3)substitutions/site/year. The timescale analysis predicted the most recent common ancestor to have existed during 1962 for Indian FMDV serotype A and around 1998 for the deletion group. The evolutionary pattern of serotype A in India appears to be homogeneous as no spatial or temporal structure was observed. Bayesian skyline plots indicate a sharp decline in the effective number of infections after 2008, which might be a result of mass vaccination or inherent loss of virus fitness. Analyses of variability at 38 known antigenically critical positions in a countrywide longitudinal data set suggested that the substitutions neither followed any specific trend nor remained fixed for a long period since frequent reversions and convergence was noticed. A maximum of 6 different amino acid residues was seen in the gene pool at any antigenically critical site over the decades, suggesting a limited combination of residues being responsible for the observed antigenic variation. Evidence of positive selection at some of the antigenically critical residues and the structurally proximal positions suggest a possible role of pre-existing immunity in the host population in driving evolution. The VP1 C-terminus neither revealed variability nor positive selection, suggesting the possibility that this stretch does not contribute to the antigenic variation and adaptation under immune selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the expression of chicken anemia virus proteins in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacorte, C.C.; Lohuis, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important pathogen of chicken worldwide, causing severe anemia and immunodeficiency. Its small single-stranded DNA genome (2.3 kb) encodes three proteins: VP1, the only structural protein, VP2, a protein phosphatase, and VP3, also known as apoptin, which induces

  4. Phosphorylation of the Brome Mosaic Virus Capsid Regulates the Timing of Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Haley S; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Middleton, Stefani; Ni, Peng; Zlotnick, Adam; Vaughan, Robert C; Kao, C Cheng

    2016-09-01

    The four brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNAs (RNA1 to RNA4) are encapsidated in three distinct virions that have different disassembly rates in infection. The mechanism for the differential release of BMV RNAs from virions is unknown, since 180 copies of the same coat protein (CP) encapsidate each of the BMV genomic RNAs. Using mass spectrometry, we found that the BMV CP contains a complex pattern of posttranslational modifications. Treatment with phosphatase was found to not significantly affect the stability of the virions containing RNA1 but significantly impacted the stability of the virions that encapsidated BMV RNA2 and RNA3/4. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction revealed dramatic structural changes in the capsid and the encapsidated RNA. A phosphomimetic mutation in the flexible N-terminal arm of the CP increased BMV RNA replication and virion production. The degree of phosphorylation modulated the interaction of CP with the encapsidated RNA and the release of three of the BMV RNAs. UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation methods coupled to high-throughput sequencing experiments showed that phosphorylation of the BMV CP can impact binding to RNAs in the virions, including sequences that contain regulatory motifs for BMV RNA gene expression and replication. Phosphatase-treated virions affected the timing of CP expression and viral RNA replication in plants. The degree of phosphorylation decreased when the plant hosts were grown at an elevated temperature. These results show that phosphorylation of the capsid modulates BMV infection. How icosahedral viruses regulate the release of viral RNA into the host is not well understood. The selective release of viral RNA can regulate the timing of replication and gene expression. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is an RNA virus, and its three genomic RNAs are encapsidated in separate virions. Through proteomic, structural, and biochemical analyses, this work shows that posttranslational modifications, specifically

  5. Modification of a loop sequence between α-helices 6 and 7 of virus capsid (CA protein in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 derivative that has simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239 vif and CA α-helices 4 and 5 loop improves replication in cynomolgus monkey cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Akio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not cynomolgus or rhesus monkeys while simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac readily establishes infection in those monkeys. Several HIV-1 and SIVmac chimeric viruses have been constructed in order to develop an animal model for HIV-1 infection. Construction of an HIV-1 derivative which contains sequences of a SIVmac239 loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5 of capsid protein (CA and the entire SIVmac239 vif gene was previously reported. Although this chimeric virus could grow in cynomolgus monkey cells, it did so much more slowly than did SIVmac. It was also reported that intrinsic TRIM5α restricts the post-entry step of HIV-1 replication in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cells, and we previously demonstrated that a single amino acid in a loop between α-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 of HIV type 2 (HIV-2 CA determines the susceptibility of HIV-2 to cynomolgus monkey TRIM5α. Results In the study presented here, we replaced L6/7 of HIV-1 CA in addition to L4/5 and vif with the corresponding segments of SIVmac. The resultant HIV-1 derivatives showed enhanced replication capability in established T cell lines as well as in CD8+ cell-depleted primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cynomolgus monkey. Compared with the wild type HIV-1 particles, the viral particles produced from a chimeric HIV-1 genome with those two SIVmac loops were less able to saturate the intrinsic restriction in rhesus monkey cells. Conclusion We have succeeded in making the replication of simian-tropic HIV-1 in cynomolgus monkey cells more efficient by introducing into HIV-1 the L6/7 CA loop from SIVmac. It would be of interest to determine whether HIV-1 derivatives with SIVmac CA L4/5 and L6/7 can establish infection of cynomolgus monkeys in vivo.

  6. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Edward I. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Dombrovski, Andrew K. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Swarbrick, Crystall M.D. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Raidal, Shane R. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Forwood, Jade K., E-mail: jforwood@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface.

  7. Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Eliminate Only Vector-Transduced Cells Coexpressing the AAV2 Capsid In Vivo▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chengwen; Hirsch, Matthew; Asokan, Aravind; Zeithaml, Brian; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal; Samulski, R. Jude

    2007-01-01

    A recent clinical trial has suggested that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector transduction in humans induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the AAV2 capsid. To directly address the ability of AAV capsid-specific CTLs to eliminate rAAV-transduced cells in vitro and in vivo in mice, we first demonstrated that AAV2 capsid-specific CTLs could be induced by dendritic cells with endogenous AAV2 capsid expression or pulsed with AAV2 vectors. These CTLs were able to kil...

  8. Targeting photoreceptors via intravitreal delivery using novel, capsid-mutated AAV vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Kay

    Full Text Available Development of viral vectors capable of transducing photoreceptors by less invasive methods than subretinal injection would provide a major advancement in retinal gene therapy. We sought to develop novel AAV vectors optimized for photoreceptor transduction following intravitreal delivery and to develop methodology for quantifying this transduction in vivo. Surface exposed tyrosine (Y and threonine (T residues on the capsids of AAV2, AAV5 and AAV8 were changed to phenylalanine (F and valine (V, respectively. Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro using a cone photoreceptor cell line. Capsid mutants exhibiting the highest transduction efficiencies relative to unmodified vectors were then injected intravitreally into transgenic mice constitutively expressing a Rhodopsin-GFP fusion protein in rod photoreceptors (Rho-GFP mice. Photoreceptor transduction was quantified by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS by counting cells positive for both GFP and mCherry. To explore the utility of the capsid mutants, standard, (non-self-complementary AAV vectors containing the human rhodopsin kinase promoter (hGRK1 were made. Vectors were intravitreally injected in wildtype mice to assess whether efficient expression exclusive to photoreceptors was achievable. To restrict off-target expression in cells of the inner and middle retina, subsequent vectors incorporated multiple target sequences for miR181, an miRNA endogenously expressed in the inner and middle retina. Results showed that AAV2 containing four Y to F mutations combined with a single T to V mutation (quadY-F+T-V transduced photoreceptors most efficiently. Robust photoreceptor expression was mediated by AAV2(quadY-F+T-V -hGRK1-GFP. Observed off-target expression was reduced by incorporating target sequence for a miRNA highly expressed in inner/middle retina, miR181c. Thus

  9. Targeting photoreceptors via intravitreal delivery using novel, capsid-mutated AAV vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Christine N; Ryals, Renee C; Aslanidi, George V; Min, Seok Hong; Ruan, Qing; Sun, Jingfen; Dyka, Frank M; Kasuga, Daniel; Ayala, Andrea E; Van Vliet, Kim; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Sanford L; Boye, Shannon E

    2013-01-01

    Development of viral vectors capable of transducing photoreceptors by less invasive methods than subretinal injection would provide a major advancement in retinal gene therapy. We sought to develop novel AAV vectors optimized for photoreceptor transduction following intravitreal delivery and to develop methodology for quantifying this transduction in vivo. Surface exposed tyrosine (Y) and threonine (T) residues on the capsids of AAV2, AAV5 and AAV8 were changed to phenylalanine (F) and valine (V), respectively. Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro using a cone photoreceptor cell line. Capsid mutants exhibiting the highest transduction efficiencies relative to unmodified vectors were then injected intravitreally into transgenic mice constitutively expressing a Rhodopsin-GFP fusion protein in rod photoreceptors (Rho-GFP mice). Photoreceptor transduction was quantified by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) by counting cells positive for both GFP and mCherry. To explore the utility of the capsid mutants, standard, (non-self-complementary) AAV vectors containing the human rhodopsin kinase promoter (hGRK1) were made. Vectors were intravitreally injected in wildtype mice to assess whether efficient expression exclusive to photoreceptors was achievable. To restrict off-target expression in cells of the inner and middle retina, subsequent vectors incorporated multiple target sequences for miR181, an miRNA endogenously expressed in the inner and middle retina. Results showed that AAV2 containing four Y to F mutations combined with a single T to V mutation (quadY-F+T-V) transduced photoreceptors most efficiently. Robust photoreceptor expression was mediated by AAV2(quadY-F+T-V) -hGRK1-GFP. Observed off-target expression was reduced by incorporating target sequence for a miRNA highly expressed in inner/middle retina, miR181c. Thus we have

  10. Structure of Fusarium poae virus 1 shows conserved and variable elements of partitivirus capsids and evolutionary relationships to picobirnavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinghua; Ochoa, Wendy F; Li, Hua; Havens, Wendy M; Nibert, Max L; Ghabrial, Said A; Baker, Timothy S

    2010-12-01

    Filamentous fungus Fusarium poae is a worldwide cause of the economically important disease Fusarium head blight of cereal grains. The fungus is itself commonly infected with a bisegmented dsRNA virus from the family Partitiviridae. For this study, we determined the structure of partitivirus Fusarium poae virus 1 (FpV1) to a resolution of 5.6Å or better by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. The main structural features of FpV1 are consistent with those of two other fungal partitiviruses for which high-resolution structures have been recently reported. These shared features include a 120-subunit T=1 capsid comprising 60 quasisymmetrical capsid protein dimers with both shell and protruding domains. Distinguishing features are evident throughout the FpV1 capsid, however, consistent with its more massive subunits and its greater phylogenetic divergence relative to the other two structurally characterized partitiviruses. These results broaden our understanding of conserved and variable elements of fungal partitivirus structure, as well as that of vertebrate picobirnavirus, and support the suggestion that a phylogenetic subcluster of partitiviruses closely related to FpV1 should constitute a separate taxonomic genus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transduction of pancreatic islets with pseudotyped adeno-associated virus: effect of viral capsid and genome conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Clément, Nathalie; Chen, Dongmei; Fu, Shuang; Zhang, Haojiang; Rebollo, Patricia; Linden, R Michael; Bromberg, Jonathan S

    2005-09-15

    Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors currently show promise for islet gene therapy. In the presence of complementing AAV2 Rep proteins, AAV2 genomes can be packaged with other serotype capsids to assemble infectious virions. During transduction, the ssDNA to dsDNA conversion is one of the major rate-limiting steps that contribute to the slow onset of transgene expression. Using pseudotyping strategy, we produced double-stranded (dsAAV) and single-stranded (ssAAV) rAAV2 genomes carrying the GFP reporter gene packaged into AAV1, AAV2, and AAV5 capsids. The ability of cross-packaged AAV1, AAV2, and AAV5 at the same genome containing particle (gcp) concentration to transduce murine and human pancreatic islets was evaluated by GFP positive cell percentage. Transgenic expression was also determined by transplant transduced human islet into SCID mice. Pseudotyped rAAV2/1 based vectors transduced murine islets at greater efficiency than either rAAV2/2 or rAAV2/5 vectors. For human islets transduction, the rAAV2/2 vector was more efficient than rAAV2/1 or rAAV2/5 vectors. rAAV2/2 transduced human islets more efficiently than murine islets, while rAAV2/1 transducted murine islets more efficiently than human islets. dsAAV, which do not require second strand synthesis and thus are potentially more efficient, evidenced 5 fold higher transduction ability than ssAAV vectors. Pseudotyped rAAV transduced islet grafts maintained normal function, expressed transgenic product persistently in vivo, and reversed diabetes. The transduction efficiency of rAAV vectors was dependent on the cross-packaged capsid. The vector capsids permit species-specific transduction. For human islets, dsAAV2/2 vectors may be the most efficient vector for clinical development.

  12. Entrapment of Viral Capsids in Nuclear PML Cages Is an Intrinsic Antiviral Host Defense against Varicella-Zoster Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Mike; Wang, Li; Sommer, Marvin; Perrino, John; Nour, Adel M.; Sen, Nandini; Baiker, Armin; Zerboni, Leigh; Arvin, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    The herpesviruses, like most other DNA viruses, replicate in the host cell nucleus. Subnuclear domains known as promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), or ND10 bodies, have been implicated in restricting early herpesviral gene expression. These viruses have evolved countermeasures to disperse PML-NBs, as shown in cells infected in vitro, but information about the fate of PML-NBs and their functions in herpesvirus infected cells in vivo is limited. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus with tropism for skin, lymphocytes and sensory ganglia, where it establishes latency. Here, we identify large PML-NBs that sequester newly assembled nucleocapsids (NC) in neurons and satellite cells of human dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and skin cells infected with VZV in vivo. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopy revealed that these distinctive nuclear bodies consisted of PML fibers forming spherical cages that enclosed mature and immature VZV NCs. Of six PML isoforms, only PML IV promoted the sequestration of NCs. PML IV significantly inhibited viral infection and interacted with the ORF23 capsid surface protein, which was identified as a target for PML-mediated NC sequestration. The unique PML IV C-terminal domain was required for both capsid entrapment and antiviral activity. Similar large PML-NBs, termed clastosomes, sequester aberrant polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins, such as Huntingtin (Htt), in several neurodegenerative disorders. We found that PML IV cages co-sequester HttQ72 and ORF23 protein in VZV infected cells. Our data show that PML cages contribute to the intrinsic antiviral defense by sensing and entrapping VZV nucleocapsids, thereby preventing their nuclear egress and inhibiting formation of infectious virus particles. The efficient sequestration of virion capsids in PML cages appears to be the outcome of a basic cytoprotective function of this distinctive category of PML-NBs in sensing and safely containing nuclear aggregates of aberrant

  13. Regulatory and Exhausted T Cell Responses to AAV Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernoux, Gwladys; Wilson, James M; Mueller, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are quickly becoming the preferred viral vector for viral gene delivery for the treatment of a wide variety of genetic disorders. However, since their use in a clinical trial targeting hemophilia B patients 10 years ago, immune responses to the AAV capsid appear to have hampered some of the early clinical gene transfer efficacy. Indeed, AAV-based gene transfer has been shown to reactivate capsid-specific memory T cells, which have correlated with a decline in AAV-transduced tissue in some patients. Importantly, clinical trials have also shown that this reactivation can be quelled by administering time-course taper of glucocorticoid steroids before or after dosing. More recently, two clinical studies have shown that AAV gene transfer is not only able to induce a deleterious immune response, but also can result in the initiation of a tolerance to the AAV capsid mediated by regulatory T cells and exhausted T cells. This article reviews clinical trials describing immune responses to AAV, as well as the mechanisms responsible for immune tolerance in chronic infections and how it could apply to AAV-based gene transfer. A better understanding of both cytotoxic and tolerogenic immune responses to recombinant AAV will lead to safer gene transfer protocols in patients.

  14. Cryo-Electron Microscopy Reconstruction Shows Poliovirus 135S Particles Poised for Membrane Interaction and RNA Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butan, Carmen; Filman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    During infection, binding of mature poliovirus to cell surface receptors induces an irreversible expansion of the capsid, to form an infectious cell-entry intermediate particle that sediments at 135S. In these expanded virions, the major capsid proteins (VP1 to VP3) adopt an altered icosahedral arrangement to open holes in the capsid at 2-fold and quasi-3-fold axes, and internal polypeptides VP4 and the N terminus of VP1, which can bind membranes, become externalized. Cryo-electron microscopy images for 117,330 particles were collected using Leginon and reconstructed using FREALIGN. Improved rigid-body positioning of major capsid proteins established reliably which polypeptide segments become disordered or rearranged. The virus-to-135S transition includes expansion of 4%, rearrangements of the GH loops of VP3 and VP1, and disordering of C-terminal extensions of VP1 and VP2. The N terminus of VP1 rearranges to become externalized near its quasi-3-fold exit, binds to rearranged GH loops of VP3 and VP1, and attaches to the top surface of VP2. These details improve our understanding of subsequent stages of infection, including endocytosis and RNA transfer into the cytoplasm. PMID:24257617

  15. Norovirus drug candidates that inhibit viral capsid attachment to human histo-blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eunüs S; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Carr, Jillian M; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-09-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading causative agents of epidemic and sporadic viral gastroenteritis and childhood diarrhoea worldwide. Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) serve as receptors for norovirus capsid protein attachment and play a critical role in infection. This makes HBGA-norovirus binding a promising target for drug development. Recently solved crystal structures of norovirus bound to HBGA have provided a structural basis for identification of potential anti-norovirus drugs and subsequently performed in silico and in vitro drug screens have identified compounds that block norovirus binding and may thereby serve as structural templates for design of therapeutic norovirus inhibitors. This review explores norovirus therapeutic options based on the strategy of blocking norovirus-HBGA binding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  17. Production, purification, and capsid stability of rhinovirus C types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Theodor F; Bochkov, Yury A; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Palmenberg, Ann C; Gern, James E

    2015-06-01

    The rhinovirus C (RV-C) were discovered in 2006 and these agents are an important cause of respiratory morbidity. Little is known about their biology. RV-C15 (C15) can be produced by transfection of recombinant viral RNA into cells and subsequent purification over a 30% sucrose cushion, even though yields and infectivity of other RV-C genotypes with this protocol are low. The goal of this study was to determine whether poor RV-C yields were due to capsid instability, and moreover, to develop a robust protocol suitable for the purification of many RV-C types. Capsid stability assays indicated that virions of RV-C41 (refractory to purification) have similar tolerance for osmotic and temperature stress as RV-A16 (purified readily), although C41 is more sensitive to low pH. Modification to the purification protocol by removing detergent increased the yield of RV-C. Addition of nonfat dry milk to the sucrose cushion increased the virus yield but sacrificed purity of the viral suspension. Analysis of virus distribution following centrifugation indicated that the majority of detectable viral RNA (vRNA) was found in pellets refractory to resuspension. Reduction of the centrifugal force with commiserate increase in spin-time improved the recovery of RV-C for both C41 and C2. Transfection of primary lung fibroblasts (WisL cells) followed by the modified purification protocol further improved yields of infectious C41 and C2. Described herein is a higher yield purification protocol suitable for RV-C types refractory to the standard purification procedure. The findings suggest that aggregation-adhesion problems rather than capsid instability influence RV-C yield during purification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tyrosine Mutation in AAV9 Capsid Improves Gene Transfer to the Mouse Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina V. Martini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors are being increasingly used as the vector of choice for in vivo gene delivery and gene therapy for many pulmonary diseases. Recently, it was shown that phosphorylation of surface-exposed tyrosine residues from AAV capsid targets the viral particles for ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation, and mutations of these tyrosine residues lead to highly efficient vector transduction in vitro and in vivo in different organs. In this study, we evaluated the pulmonary transgene expression efficacy of AAV9 vectors containing point mutations in surface-exposed capsid tyrosine residues. Methods: Eighteen C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into three groups: (1 a control group (CTRL animals underwent intratracheal (i.t. instillation of saline, (2 the wild-type AAV9 group (WT-AAV9, 1010 vg, and (3 the tyrosine-mutant Y731F AAV9 group (M-AAV9, 1010 vg, which received (i.t. self-complementary AAV9 vectors containing the DNA sequence of enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP. Four weeks after instillation, lung mechanics, morphometry, tissue cellularity, gene expression, inflammatory cytokines, and growth factor expression were analyzed. Results: No significant differences were observed in lung mechanics and morphometry among the experimental groups. However, the number of polymorphonuclear cells was higher in the WT-AAV9 group than in the CTRL and M-AAV9 groups, suggesting that the administration of tyrosine-mutant AAV9 vectors was better tolerated. Tyrosine-mutant AAV9 vectors significantly improved transgene delivery to the lung (30% compared with their wild-type counterparts, without eliciting an inflammatory response. Conclusion: Our results provide the impetus for further studies to exploit the use of AAV9 vectors as a tool for pulmonary gene therapy.

  19. A Prime-Boost Vaccination Strategy in Cattle to Prevent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Using a "Single-Cycle" Alphavirus Vector and Empty Capsid Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gullberg

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro using a "single cycle" packaged alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV. When the FMDV P1-2A was expressed with 3Cpro then processing of the FMDV capsid precursor protein is observed within cells and the proteins assemble into empty capsid particles. The products interact with anti-FMDV antibodies in an ELISA and bind to the integrin αvβ6 (a cellular receptor for FMDV. In cattle vaccinated with these rSFV-FMDV vectors alone, anti-FMDV antibodies were elicited but the immune response was insufficient to give protection against FMDV challenge. However, the prior vaccination with these vectors resulted in a much stronger immune response against FMDV post-challenge and the viremia observed was decreased in level and duration. In subsequent experiments, cattle were sequentially vaccinated with a rSFV-FMDV followed by recombinant FMDV empty capsid particles, or vice versa, prior to challenge. Animals given a primary vaccination with the rSFV-FMDV vector and then boosted with FMDV empty capsids showed a strong anti-FMDV antibody response prior to challenge, they were protected against disease and no FMDV RNA was detected in their sera post-challenge. Initial inoculation with empty capsids followed by the rSFV-FMDV was much less effective at combating the FMDV challenge and a large post-challenge boost to the level of anti-FMDV antibodies was observed. This prime-boost system, using reagents that can be generated outside of high

  20. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Uetrecht, C.; Rose, R.J.; Sanchez-Eugenia, R.; Marti, G.A.; Agirre, J.; Guérin, D.M.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Heck, A.J.R.; Roos, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating. Tuning cargo–capsid interactions is also essential for successful design and cargo delivery in engineered viral systems. Here we investigate the interplay

  1. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Uetrecht, C.; Rose, R. J.; Sanchez-Eugenia, R.; Marti, G. A.; Agirre, J.; Guerin, D. M. A.; Wuite, G. J. L.; Heck, A. J. R.; Roos, W. H.

    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating. Tuning cargo-capsid interactions is also essential for successful design and cargo delivery in engineered viral systems. Here we investigate the interplay

  2. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Uetrecht, C.; Rose, R.J.; Sanchez-Eugenia, R.; Marti, G.A.; Agirre, J.; Guérin, D.M.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Heck, A.J.R.; Roos, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating. Tuning cargo-capsid interactions is also essential for successful design and cargo delivery in engineered viral systems. Here we investigate the interplay

  3. Evolutionary analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2002–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Three different serotypes of the virus, namely O, A and Asia-1, are responsible for the outbreaks of this disease in these countries. In the present study, the nucleotide-coding sequences for the VP1 capsid protein (69 samples......) or for all four capsid proteins (P1, seven representative samples) of the serotype A FMD viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1-coding sequences from these countries collected between 2002 and 2009 revealed...

  4. Novel caprine adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid (AAV-Go.1) is closely related to the primate AAV-5 and has unique tropism and neutralization properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbetman, Alejandra E; Lochrie, Michael; Zhou, Shangzhen; Wellman, Jennifer; Scallan, Ciaran; Doroudchi, Mohammad M; Randlev, Britta; Patarroyo-White, Susannah; Liu, Tongyao; Smith, Peter; Lehmkuhl, Howard; Hobbs, Lea Ann; Pierce, Glenn F; Colosi, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Preexisting humoral immunity to adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors may limit their clinical utility in gene delivery. We describe a novel caprine AAV (AAV-Go.1) capsid with unique biological properties. AAV-Go.1 capsid was cloned from goat-derived adenovirus preparations. Surprisingly, AAV-Go.1 capsid was 94% identical to the human AAV-5, with differences predicted to be largely on the surface and on or under the spike-like protrusions. In an in vitro neutralization assay using human immunoglobulin G (IgG) (intravenous immune globulin [IVIG]), AAV-Go.1 had higher resistance than AAV-5 (100-fold) and resistance similar to that of AAV-4 or AAV-8. In an in vivo model, SCID mice were pretreated with IVIG to generate normal human IgG plasma levels prior to the administration of AAV human factor IX vectors. Protein expression after intramuscular administration of AAV-Go.1 was unaffected in IVIG-pretreated mice, while it was reduced 5- and 10-fold after administration of AAV-1 and AAV-8, respectively. In contrast, protein expression after intravenous administration of AAV-Go.1 was reduced 7.1-fold, similar to the 3.8-fold reduction observed after AAV-8 administration in IVIG-pretreated mice, and protein expression was essentially extinguished after AAV-2 administration in mice pretreated with much less IVIG (15-fold). AAV-Go.1 vectors also demonstrated a marked tropism for lung when administered intravenously in SCID mice. The pulmonary tropism and high neutralization resistance to human preexisting antibodies suggest novel therapeutic uses for AAV-Go.1 vectors, including targeting diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Nonprimate sources of AAVs may be useful to identify additional capsids with distinct tropisms and high resistance to neutralization by human preexisting antibodies.

  5. Detection of Aichi virus with antibody targeting of conserved viral protein 1 epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Bao-Chen; Lin, You-Sheng; Chang, Jenn-Tzong; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chen, Jih-Jung; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2013-10-01

    Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging single-stranded, positive-sense, non-enveloped RNA virus in the Picornaviridae that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The first case of AiV infection in Taiwan was diagnosed in a human neonate with enterovirus-associated symptoms; the virus was successfully isolated and propagated. To establish a method to detect AiV, we analyzed the antigen epitope and generated a polyclonal antibody against AiV viral protein 1 (VP1). This peptide-purified anti-AiV VP1 antibody showed high specificity against AiV VP1 without cross-reaction to nine other tested strains of Picornaviruses. The anti-AiV VP1 antibody was used in immunofluorescence analysis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to elucidate the cell tropism and replication kinetics of AiV. Use of the anti-AiV VP1 antibody also revealed AiV infection restriction with interferon type I and polyI/C antiviral treatment. The AiV infection and detection system may provide an in vitro platform for AiV virology study.

  6. Capsid-binding retrovirus restriction factors: discovery, restriction specificity and implications for the development of novel therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Ramos, Marta; Stoye, Jonathan P

    2013-12-01

    The development of drugs against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection has been highly successful, and numerous combinational treatments are currently available. However, the risk of the emergence of resistance and the toxic effects associated with prolonged use of antiretroviral therapies have emphasized the need to consider alternative approaches. One possible area of investigation is provided by the properties of restriction factors, cellular proteins that protect organisms against retroviral infection. Many show potent viral inhibition. Here, we describe the discovery, properties and possible therapeutic uses of the group of restriction factors known to interact with the capsid core of incoming retroviruses. This group comprises Fv1, TRIM5α and TRIMCypA: proteins that all act shortly after virus entry into the target cell and block virus replication at different stages prior to integration of viral DNA into the host chromosome. They have different origins and specificities, but share general structural features required for restriction, with an N-terminal multimerization domain and a C-terminal capsid-binding domain. Their overall efficacy makes it reasonable to ask whether they might provide a framework for developing novel antiretroviral strategies.

  7. The highly polymorphic cyclophilin A-binding loop in HIV-1 capsid modulates viral resistance to MxB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenlong; Pan, Qinghua; Liang, Zhibin; Qiao, Wentao; Cen, Shan; Liang, Chen

    2015-01-09

    The human myxovirus-resistance protein B (MxB, also called Mx2) was recently reported to inhibit HIV-1 infection by impeding the nuclear import and integration of viral DNA. However, it is currently unknown whether there exist MxB-resistant HIV-1 strains in the infected individuals. Answer to this question should address whether MxB exerts an inhibitory pressure on HIV-1 in vivo and whether HIV-1 has evolved to evade MxB inhibition. We have examined ten transmitted founder (T/F) HIV-1 strains for their sensitivity to MxB inhibition by infecting CD4+ T cell lines SupT1 and PM1 that were stably transduced to express MxB. Two T/F stains, CH040.c and RHPA.c, were found resistant and this resistance phenotype was mapped to the amino acid positions 87 and 208 in viral capsid. The H87Q mutation is located in the cyclophilin A (CypA) binding loop and has a prevalence of 21% in HIV-1 sequences registered in HIV database. This finding prompted us to test other frequent amino acid variants in the CypA-binding region and the results revealed MxB-resistant mutations at amino acid positions 86, 87, 88 and 92 in capsid. All these mutations diminished the interaction of HIV-1 capsid with CypA. Our results demonstrate the existence of MxB-resistant T/F HIV-1 strains. The high prevalence of MxB-resistant mutations in the CypA-binding loop indicates the significant selective pressure of MxB on HIV-1 replication in vivo especially given that this viral resistance mechanism operates at expense of losing CypA.

  8. The human cytomegalovirus nuclear egress complex unites multiple functions: Recruitment of effectors, nuclear envelope rearrangement, and docking to nuclear capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Manfred; Muller, Yves A; Diewald, Benedikt; Sticht, Heinrich; Milbradt, Jens

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear replication represents a common hallmark of herpesviruses achieved by a number of sequentially unrolled regulatory processes. A rate-limiting step is provided by nucleo-cytoplasmic capsid export, for which a defined multiregulatory protein complex, namely, the nuclear egress complex (NEC), is assembled comprising both viral and cellular components. The NEC regulates at least 3 aspects of herpesviral nuclear replication: (1) multimeric recruitment of NEC-associated effector proteins, (2) reorganization of the nuclear lamina and membranes, and (3) the docking to nuclear capsids. Here, we review published data and own experimental work that characterizes the NEC of HCMV and other herpesviruses. A systematic review of information on nuclear egress of HCMV compared to selected alpha-, beta-, and gamma-herpesviruses: proteomics-based approaches, high-resolution imaging techniques, and functional investigations. A large number of reports on herpesviral NECs have been published during the last two decades, focusing on protein-protein interactions, nuclear localization, regulatory phosphorylation, and functional validation. The emerging picture provides an illustrated example of well-balanced and sophisticated protein networking in virus-host interaction. Current evidence refined the view about herpesviral NECs. Datasets published for HCMV, murine CMV, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus illustrate the marked functional consistency in the way herpesviruses achieve nuclear egress. However, this compares with only limited sequence conservation of core NEC proteins and a structural conservation restricted to individual domains. The translational use of this information might help to define a novel antiviral strategy on the basis of NEC-directed small molecules. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An Immune-Competent Murine Model to Study Elimination of AAV-Transduced Hepatocytes by Capsid-Specific CD8+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaschak, Brett; Marsic, Damien; Herzog, Roland W; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Markusic, David M

    2017-06-16

    Multiple independent adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy clinical trials for hemophilia B, utilizing different AAV serotypes, have reported a vector dose-dependent loss of circulating factor IX (FIX) protein associated with capsid-specific CD8+ T cell (Cap-CD8) elimination of transduced hepatocytes. Hemophilia B patients who develop transient transaminitis and loss of FIX protein may be stabilized with the immune-suppressive (IS) drug prednisolone, but do not all recover lost FIX expression, whereas some patients fail to respond to IS. We developed the first animal model demonstrating Cap-CD8 infiltration and elimination of AAV-transduced hepatocytes of immune-deficient mice. Here, we extend this model to an immune-competent host where Cap-CD8 transfer to AAV2-F9-treated mice significantly reduced circulating and hepatocyte FIX expression. Further, we studied two high-expressing liver tropic AAV2 variants, AAV2-LiA and AAV2-LiC, obtained from a rationally designed capsid library. Unlike AAV2, Cap-CD8 did not initially reduce circulating FIX levels for either variant. However, FIX levels were significantly reduced in AAV2-LiC-F9-treated, but not AAV2-LiA-F9-treated, mice at the study endpoint. Going forward, the immune-competent model may provide an opportunity to induce immunological memory directed against a surrogate AAV capsid antigen and study recall responses following AAV gene transfer.

  10. An Immune-Competent Murine Model to Study Elimination of AAV-Transduced Hepatocytes by Capsid-Specific CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Palaschak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple independent adeno-associated virus (AAV gene therapy clinical trials for hemophilia B, utilizing different AAV serotypes, have reported a vector dose-dependent loss of circulating factor IX (FIX protein associated with capsid-specific CD8+ T cell (Cap-CD8 elimination of transduced hepatocytes. Hemophilia B patients who develop transient transaminitis and loss of FIX protein may be stabilized with the immune-suppressive (IS drug prednisolone, but do not all recover lost FIX expression, whereas some patients fail to respond to IS. We developed the first animal model demonstrating Cap-CD8 infiltration and elimination of AAV-transduced hepatocytes of immune-deficient mice. Here, we extend this model to an immune-competent host where Cap-CD8 transfer to AAV2-F9-treated mice significantly reduced circulating and hepatocyte FIX expression. Further, we studied two high-expressing liver tropic AAV2 variants, AAV2-LiA and AAV2-LiC, obtained from a rationally designed capsid library. Unlike AAV2, Cap-CD8 did not initially reduce circulating FIX levels for either variant. However, FIX levels were significantly reduced in AAV2-LiC-F9-treated, but not AAV2-LiA-F9-treated, mice at the study endpoint. Going forward, the immune-competent model may provide an opportunity to induce immunological memory directed against a surrogate AAV capsid antigen and study recall responses following AAV gene transfer.

  11. Construction of a novel coarse grain model for simulations of HIV capsid assembly to capture the backbone structure and inter-domain motions in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We show the construction of a novel coarse grain model for simulations of HIV capsid assembly based on four structural models of HIV capsid proteins: isolated hexamer 3H47.pdb, tubular assembly 3J34.pdb, isolated pentamer 3P05.pdb and C-terminus dimer 2KOD.pdb. The data demonstrates the derivation of inter-domain motions from all atom Molecular Dynamics simulations and comparison with the motions derived from the analysis of solution NMR results defined in 2M8L.pdb. Snapshots from a representative Monte Carlo simulation with 128 dimeric subunit proteins based on 3J34.pdb are shown in addition to the quantitative analysis of its assembly pathway. Movies of the assembly process are compiled with snapshots of representative simulations of four structural models. The methods and data in this article were utilized in Qiao et al. (in press [1] to probe the mechanism of polymorphism and curvature control of HIV capsid assembly.

  12. Controlling AAV Tropism in the Nervous System with Natural and Engineered Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Michael J; Turunen, Heikki T; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wolfe, John H

    2016-01-01

    More than one hundred naturally occurring variants of adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been identified, and this library has been further expanded by an array of techniques for modification of the viral capsid. AAV capsid variants possess unique antigenic profiles and demonstrate distinct cellular tropisms driven by differences in receptor binding. AAV capsids can be chemically modified to alter tropism, can be produced as hybrid vectors that combine the properties of multiple serotypes, and can carry peptide insertions that introduce novel receptor-binding activity. Furthermore, directed evolution of shuffled genome libraries can identify engineered variants with unique properties, and rational modification of the viral capsid can alter tropism, reduce blockage by neutralizing antibodies, or enhance transduction efficiency. This large number of AAV variants and engineered capsids provides a varied toolkit for gene delivery to the CNS and retina, with specialized vectors available for many applications, but selecting a capsid variant from the array of available vectors can be difficult. This chapter describes the unique properties of a range of AAV variants and engineered capsids, and provides a guide for selecting the appropriate vector for specific applications in the CNS and retina.

  13. Rationally Engineered AAV Capsids Improve Transduction and Volumetric Spread in the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Sellnow, Rhyomi C; Boye, Sanford L; Coberly, Ben; Bennett, Antonette; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Sortwell, Caryl E; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Shannon E; Manfredsson, Fredric P

    2017-09-15

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the most common vector for clinical gene therapy of the CNS. This popularity originates from a high safety record and the longevity of transgene expression in neurons. Nevertheless, clinical efficacy for CNS indications is lacking, and one reason for this is the relatively limited spread and transduction efficacy in large regions of the human brain. Using rationally designed modifications of the capsid, novel AAV capsids have been generated that improve intracellular processing and result in increased transgene expression. Here, we sought to improve AAV-mediated neuronal transduction to minimize the existing limitations of CNS gene therapy. We investigated the efficacy of CNS transduction using a variety of tyrosine and threonine capsid mutants based on AAV2, AAV5, and AAV8 capsids, as well as AAV2 mutants incapable of binding heparan sulfate (HS). We found that mutating several tyrosine residues on the AAV2 capsid significantly enhanced neuronal transduction in the striatum and hippocampus, and the ablation of HS binding also increased the volumetric spread of the vector. Interestingly, the analogous tyrosine substitutions on AAV5 and AAV8 capsids did not improve the efficacy of these serotypes. Our results demonstrate that the efficacy of CNS gene transfer can be significantly improved with minor changes to the AAV capsid and that the effect is serotype specific. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immobilization and One-Dimensional Arrangement of Virus Capsids with Nanoscale Precision Using DNA Origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Minghui [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Tong, Gary J [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Zhe [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Liu, Yan [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Yan, Hao [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Francis, Matthew B [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-06-24

    DNA origami was used as a scaffold to arrange spherical virus capsids into one-dimensional arrays with precise nanoscale positioning. To do this, we first modified the interior surface of bacteriophage MS2 capsids with fluorescent dyes as a model cargo. An unnatural amino acid on the external surface was then coupled to DNA strands that were complementary to those extending from origami tiles. Two different geometries of DNA tiles (rectangular and triangular) were used. The capsids associated with tiles of both geometries with virtually 100% efficiency under mild annealing conditions, and the location of capsid immobilization on the tile could be controlled by the position of the probe strands. The rectangular tiles and capsids could then be arranged into one-dimensional arrays by adding DNA strands linking the corners of the tiles. The resulting structures consisted of multiple capsids with even spacing (~100 nm). We also used a second set of tiles that had probe strands at both ends, resulting in a one-dimensional array of alternating capsids and tiles. This hierarchical self-assembly allows us to position the virus particles with unprecedented control and allows the future construction of integrated multicomponent systems from biological scaffolds using the power of rationally engineered DNA nanostructures.

  15. On the geometry of regular icosahedral capsids containing disymmetrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Kai-Siang

    2016-01-01

    Icosahedral virus capsids are composed of symmetrons, organized arrangements of capsomers. There are three types of symmetrons: disymmetrons, trisymmetrons, and pentasymmetrons, which have different shapes and are centered on the icosahedral 2-fold, 3-fold and 5-fold axes of symmetry, respectively. In 2010 [Sinkovits & Baker] gave a classification of all possible ways of building an icosahedral structure solely from trisymmetrons and pentasymmetrons, which requires the triangulation number T to be odd. In the present paper we incorporate disymmetrons to obtain a geometric classification of icosahedral viruses formed by regular penta-, tri-, and disymmetrons. For every class of solutions, we further provide formulas for symmetron sizes and parity restrictions on h, k, and T numbers. We also present several methods in which invariants may be used to classify a given configuration.

  16. Role of the disaggregase ClpB in processing of proteins aggregated as inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zblewska, Kamila; Krajewska, Joanna; Zolkiewski, Michal; Kędzierska-Mieszkowska, Sabina

    2014-08-01

    Overproduction of heterologous proteins in bacterial systems often results in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs), which is a major impediment in biochemical research and biotechnology. In principle, the activity of molecular chaperones could be employed to gain control over the IB formation and to improve the recombinant protein yields, but the potential of each of the major bacterial chaperones (DnaK/J, GroEL/ES, and ClpB) to process IBs has not been fully established yet. We investigated the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) of two aggregation-prone proteins, VP1LAC and VP1GFP, overproduced in Escherichiacoli in the presence and absence of the chaperone ClpB. We found that both ClpB isoforms, ClpB95 and ClpB80 accumulated in E. coli cells during the production of IBs. The amount of IB proteins increased in the absence of ClpB. ClpB supported the resolubilization and reactivation of the aggregated VP1LAC and VP1GFP in E. coli cells. The IB disaggregation was optimal in the presence of both ClpB95 and ClpB80. Our results indicate an essential role of ClpB in controlling protein aggregation and inclusion body formation in bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antigen capsid-display on human adenovirus 35 via pIX fusion is a potent vaccine platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, Esmeralda; Spek, Dirk; Vorthoren, Lars; Serroyen, Jan; Kuipers, Harmjan; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Zahn, Roland; Custers, Jerome; Vellinga, Jort

    2017-01-01

    Durable protection against complex pathogens is likely to require immunity that comprises both humoral and cellular responses. While heterologous prime-boost regimens based on recombinant, replication-incompetent Adenoviral vectors (AdV) and adjuvanted protein have been able to induce high levels of concomitant humoral and cellular responses, complex manufacturing and handling in the field may limit their success. To combine the benefits of genetic and protein-based vaccination within one vaccine construct and to facilitate their use, we generated Human Adenovirus 35 (HAdV35) vectors genetically encoding a model antigen based on the Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) circumsporozoite (CS) protein and displaying a truncated version of the same antigen (CSshort) via protein IX on the capsid, with or without a flexible glycine-linker and/or a 45Å-spacer. The four tested pIX-antigen display variants were efficiently incorporated and presented on the HAdV35 capsid irrespective of whether a transgene was encoded or not. Transgene-expression and producibility of the display-/expression vectors were not impeded by the pIX-display. In mice, the pIX-modified vectors induced strong humoral antigen-specific immunity that increased with the inclusion of the linker-/spacer molecules, exceeded the responses induced by the genetic, transgene-expressing HAdV35 vector, and surpassed recombinant protein in potency. In addition, the pIX- display/expression vectors elicited high antigen-specific cellular immune responses that matched those of the genetic HAdV35 vector expressing CS. pIX-modified display-/expression HAdV vectors may therefore be a valuable technology for the development of vaccines against complex pathogens, especially in resource-limited settings. PMID:28362809

  18. Sequence analysis of the capsid gene of Aichi viruses detected from Japan, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Trinh, Quang Duy; Khamrin, Pattara; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Dey, Shuvra Kanti; Phan, Tung Gia; Hoang, Le Phuc; Maneekarn, Niwat; Okitsu, Shoko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    Sequence analysis of the capsid gene of Aichi viruses was performed on 12 strains detected in Japan, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Vietnam during 2002-2005. The phylogenetic tree constructed from 17 nucleotide sequences of the capsid gene of the strains studied and reference strains demonstrated that Aichi virus strains clustered into two branches. A classification of Aichi viruses based on the capsid gene was proposed, in which lineage I consists of the Aichi virus strains detected from Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, and Germany, and lineage II includes Bangladeshi strains and a Brazilian strain.

  19. AAV8 capsid variable regions at the two-fold symmetry axis contribute to high liver transduction by mediating nuclear entry and capsid uncoating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenney, Rebeca M.; Bell, Christie L.; Wilson, James M., E-mail: wilsonjm@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-04-15

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) is a promising vector for liver-directed gene therapy. Although efficient uncoating of viral capsids has been implicated in AAV8's robust liver transduction, much about the biology of AAV8 hepatotropism remains unclear. Our study investigated the structural basis of AAV8 liver transduction efficiency by constructing chimeric vector capsids containing sequences derived from AAV8 and AAV2 – a highly homologous yet poorly hepatotropic serotype. Engineered vectors containing capsid variable regions (VR) VII and IX from AAV8 in an AAV2 backbone mediated near AAV8-like transduction in mouse liver, with higher numbers of chimeric genomes detected in whole liver cells and isolated nuclei. Interestingly, chimeric capsids within liver nuclei also uncoated similarly to AAV8 by 6 weeks after administration, in contrast with AAV2, of which a significantly smaller proportion were uncoated. This study links specific AAV capsid regions to the transduction ability of a clinically relevant AAV serotype. - Highlights: • We construct chimeric vectors to identify determinants of AAV8 liver transduction. • An AAV2-based vector with 17 AAV8 residues exhibited high liver transduction in mice. • This vector also surpassed AAV2 in cell entry, nuclear entry and onset of expression. • Most chimeric vector particles were uncoated at 6 weeks, like AAV8 and unlike AAV2. • Chimera retained heparin binding and was antigenically distinct from AAV2 and AAV8.

  20. Insights into Bacteriophage T5 Structure from Analysis of Its Morphogenesis Genes and Protein Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Yvan; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Ponchon, Luc; Lurz, Rudi; Chami, Mohamed; Flayhan, Ali; Renouard, Madalena; Huet, Alexis; Decottignies, Paulette; Davidson, Alan R.; Breyton, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage T5 represents a large family of lytic Siphoviridae infecting Gram-negative bacteria. The low-resolution structure of T5 showed the T=13 geometry of the capsid and the unusual trimeric organization of the tail tube, and the assembly pathway of the capsid was established. Although major structural proteins of T5 have been identified in these studies, most of the genes encoding the morphogenesis proteins remained to be identified. Here, we combine a proteomic analysis of T5 particles with a bioinformatic study and electron microscopic immunolocalization to assign function to the genes encoding the structural proteins, the packaging proteins, and other nonstructural components required for T5 assembly. A head maturation protease that likely accounts for the cleavage of the different capsid proteins is identified. Two other proteins involved in capsid maturation add originality to the T5 capsid assembly mechanism: the single head-to-tail joining protein, which closes the T5 capsid after DNA packaging, and the nicking endonuclease responsible for the single-strand interruptions in the T5 genome. We localize most of the tail proteins that were hitherto uncharacterized and provide a detailed description of the tail tip composition. Our findings highlight novel variations of viral assembly strategies and of virion particle architecture. They further recommend T5 for exploring phage structure and assembly and for deciphering conformational rearrangements that accompany DNA transfer from the capsid to the host cytoplasm. PMID:24198424

  1. Expression, processing, and assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid structures in heterologous systems: induction of a neutralizing antibody response in guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, S. A.; Morgan, D O; Grubman, M J

    1991-01-01

    Plasmids containing the foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein precursor (P1) and 3C protease genes or the P1 gene alone were expressed in Escherichia coli. A recombinant baculovirus containing the P1 gene was also generated and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Expression of the P1 and 3C genes in E. coli resulted in efficient synthesis and processing of the structural protein precursor and assembly into 70S empty capsids. This material reacted with neutralizing monoclonal a...

  2. Identification of a major intermediate along the self-assembly pathway of an icosahedral viral capsid by using an analytical model of a spherical patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law-Hine, Didier; Zeghal, Mehdi; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Constantin, Doru; Tresset, Guillaume

    2016-08-10

    Viruses are astonishing edifices in which hundreds of molecular building blocks fit into the final structure with pinpoint accuracy. We established a robust kinetic model accounting for the in vitro self-assembly of a capsid shell derived from an icosahedral plant virus by using time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (TR-SAXS) data at high spatiotemporal resolution. By implementing an analytical model of a spherical patch into a global fitting algorithm, we managed to identify a major intermediate species along the self-assembly pathway. With a series of data collected at different protein concentrations, we showed that free dimers self-assembled into a capsid through an intermediate resembling a half-capsid. The typical lifetime of the intermediate was a few seconds and yet the presence of so large an oligomer was not reported before. The progress in instrumental detection along with the development of powerful algorithms for data processing contribute to shedding light on nonequilibrium processes in highly complex systems such as viruses.

  3. Targeting Photoreceptors via Intravitreal Delivery Using Novel, Capsid-Mutated AAV Vectors: e62097

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christine N Kay; Renee C Ryals; George V Aslanidi; Seok Hong Min; Qing Ruan; Jingfen Sun; Frank M Dyka; Daniel Kasuga; Andrea E Ayala; Kim Van Vliet; Mavis Agbandje-McKenna; William W Hauswirth; Sanford L Boye; Shannon E Boye

    2013-01-01

    .... Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro using a cone photoreceptor cell line...

  4. Remodeling nuclear architecture allows efficient transport of herpesvirus capsids by diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jens B; Hogue, Ian B; Feric, Marina; Thiberge, Stephan Y; Sodeik, Beate; Brangwynne, Clifford P; Enquist, Lynn W

    2015-10-20

    The nuclear chromatin structure confines the movement of large macromolecular complexes to interchromatin corrals. Herpesvirus capsids of approximately 125 nm assemble in the nucleoplasm and must reach the nuclear membranes for egress. Previous studies concluded that nuclear herpesvirus capsid motility is active, directed, and based on nuclear filamentous actin, suggesting that large nuclear complexes need metabolic energy to escape nuclear entrapment. However, this hypothesis has recently been challenged. Commonly used microscopy techniques do not allow the imaging of rapid nuclear particle motility with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we use a rotating, oblique light sheet, which we dubbed a ring-sheet, to image and track viral capsids with high temporal and spatial resolution. We do not find any evidence for directed transport. Instead, infection with different herpesviruses induced an enlargement of interchromatin domains and allowed particles to diffuse unrestricted over longer distances, thereby facilitating nuclear egress for a larger fraction of capsids.

  5. Influence of Internal Capsid Pressure on Viral Infection by Phage λ

    OpenAIRE

    Köster, Sarah; Evilevitch, Alex; Jeembaeva, Meerim; Weitz, David A

    2009-01-01

    Ejection of the genome from the virus, phage λ, is the initial step in the infection of its host bacterium. In vitro, the ejection depends sensitively on internal pressure within the virus capsid; however, the in vivo effect of internal pressure on infection of bacteria is unknown. Here, we use microfluidics to monitor individual cells and determine the temporal distribution of lysis due to infection as the capsid pressure is varied. The lysis probability decreases markedly with decreased cap...

  6. High Relaxivity Gadolinium Hydroxypyridonate-Viral Capsid Conjugates: Nano-sized MRI Contrast Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meux, Susan C.; Datta, Ankona; Hooker, Jacob M.; Botta, Mauro; Francis, Matthew B.; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-08-29

    High relaxivity macromolecular contrast agents based on the conjugation of gadolinium chelates to the interior and exterior surfaces of MS2 viral capsids are assessed. The proton nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles of the conjugates show up to a five-fold increase in relaxivity, leading to a peak relaxivity (per Gd{sup 3+} ion) of 41.6 mM{sup -1}s{sup -1} at 30 MHz for the internally modified capsids. Modification of the exterior was achieved through conjugation to flexible lysines, while internal modification was accomplished by conjugation to relatively rigid tyrosines. Higher relaxivities were obtained for the internally modified capsids, showing that (1) there is facile diffusion of water to the interior of capsids and (2) the rigidity of the linker attaching the complex to the macromolecule is important for obtaining high relaxivity enhancements. The viral capsid conjugated gadolinium hydroxypyridonate complexes appear to possess two inner-sphere water molecules (q = 2) and the NMRD fittings highlight the differences in the local motion for the internal ({tau}{sub RI} = 440 ps) and external ({tau}{sub RI} = 310 ps) conjugates. These results indicate that there are significant advantages of using the internal surface of the capsids for contrast agent attachment, leaving the exterior surface available for the installation of tissue targeting groups.

  7. Self-assembly of nanoparticles into biomimetic capsid-like nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Chan, Henry; Zhao, Gongpu; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Zhang, Peijun; Král, Petr; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-03-01

    Nanoscale compartments are one of the foundational elements of living systems. Capsids, carboxysomes, exosomes, vacuoles and other nanoshells easily self-assemble from biomolecules such as lipids or proteins, but not from inorganic nanomaterials because of difficulties with the replication of spherical tiling. Here we show that stabilizer-free polydispersed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously organize into porous nanoshells. The association of water-soluble CdS NPs into self-limited spherical capsules is the result of scale-modified electrostatic, dispersion and other colloidal forces. They cannot be accurately described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Vervey-Overbeek theory, whereas molecular-dynamics simulations with combined atomistic and coarse-grained description of NPs reveal the emergence of nanoshells and some of their stabilization mechanisms. Morphology of the simulated assemblies formed under different conditions matched nearly perfectly the transmission electron microscopy tomography data. This study bridges the gap between biological and inorganic self-assembling nanosystems and conceptualizes a new pathway to spontaneous compartmentalization for a wide range of inorganic NPs including those existing on prebiotic Earth.

  8. Mechanical and assembly units of viral capsids identified via quasi-rigid domain decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Polles

    Full Text Available Key steps in a viral life-cycle, such as self-assembly of a protective protein container or in some cases also subsequent maturation events, are governed by the interplay of physico-chemical mechanisms involving various spatial and temporal scales. These salient aspects of a viral life cycle are hence well described and rationalised from a mesoscopic perspective. Accordingly, various experimental and computational efforts have been directed towards identifying the fundamental building blocks that are instrumental for the mechanical response, or constitute the assembly units, of a few specific viral shells. Motivated by these earlier studies we introduce and apply a general and efficient computational scheme for identifying the stable domains of a given viral capsid. The method is based on elastic network models and quasi-rigid domain decomposition. It is first applied to a heterogeneous set of well-characterized viruses (CCMV, MS2, STNV, STMV for which the known mechanical or assembly domains are correctly identified. The validated method is next applied to other viral particles such as L-A, Pariacoto and polyoma viruses, whose fundamental functional domains are still unknown or debated and for which we formulate verifiable predictions. The numerical code implementing the domain decomposition strategy is made freely available.

  9. Structure-based engineering of papillomavirus major capsid L1: controlling particle assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Jhimli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The outer shell of the papillomavirus particle is comprised of 72 pentamers of the major capsid L1 protein arranged on a T = 7 icosahedral lattice. The recombinant L1 can form T = 7 virus-like particles in vitro. The crystal structure of a T = 7 papilloma virion has not yet been determined; however, the crystal structure of a T = 1 particle containing 12 pentamers is known. The T = 1 structure reveals that helix-helix interactions, through three helices–h2, h3, and h4–near the C-terminus of L1, mediate the inter-pentameric bonding that is responsible for T = 1 assembly. Based on the T = 1 crystal structure, we have generated a set of internal deletions to test the role of the three C-terminal helices in T = 7 assembly. We have demonstrated that the h2, h3, and h4 near the C-terminal end of L1 are important for the L1 structure and particle assembly. In particular, we found that h2 and h3 are essential for L1 folding and pentamer formation, whereas h4 is indispensable for the assembly of not only T1, but also of the T7 virus-like particle.

  10. HIV Capsid is a Tractable Target for Small Molecule Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Stephen L.; Brown, David G.; Anderson, Marie; Bazin, Richard; Cao, Joan; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Isaacson, Jason; Jackson, Lynn; Hunt, Rachael; Kjerrstrom, Anne; Nieman, James A.; Patick, Amy K.; Perros, Manos; Scott, Andrew D.; Whitby, Kevin; Wu, Hua; Butler, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a high current standard of care in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, multidrug-resistant strains continue to emerge, underscoring the need for additional novel mechanism inhibitors that will offer expanded therapeutic options in the clinic. We report a new class of small molecule antiretroviral compounds that directly target HIV-1 capsid (CA) via a novel mechanism of action. The compounds exhibit potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and HIV-2, and inhibit both early and late events in the viral replication cycle. We present mechanistic studies indicating that these early and late activities result from the compound affecting viral uncoating and assembly, respectively. We show that amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA are sufficient to confer resistance to this class of compounds, identifying CA as the target in infected cells. A high-resolution co-crystal structure of the compound bound to HIV-1 CA reveals a novel binding pocket in the N-terminal domain of the protein. Our data demonstrate that broad-spectrum antiviral activity can be achieved by targeting this new binding site and reveal HIV CA as a tractable drug target for HIV therapy. PMID:21170360

  11. Characterization of a Putative Ancestor of Coxsackievirus B5 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Jonsson, Nina; Mulders, Mick N.; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Van Ranst, Marc; Lemey, Philippe; Hafenstein, Susan; Lindberg, A. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Like other RNA viruses, coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) exists as circulating heterogeneous populations of genetic variants. In this study, we present the reconstruction and characterization of a probable ancestral virion of CVB5. Phylogenetic analyses based on capsid protein-encoding regions (the VP1 gene of 41 clinical isolates and the entire P1 region of eight clinical isolates) of CVB5 revealed two major cocirculating lineages. Ancestral capsid sequences were inferred from sequences of these con...

  12. Enhanced mucosal immune responses induced by a combined candidate mucosal vaccine based on Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus structural proteins linked to tuftsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Su, Qiudong; Yi, Yao; Jia, Zhiyuan; Wang, Hao; Lu, Xuexin; Qiu, Feng; Bi, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are the most common causes of infectious hepatitis. These viruses are spread largely by the fecal-oral route and lead to clinically important disease in developing countries. To evaluate the potential of targeting hepatitis A and E infection simultaneously, a combined mucosal candidate vaccine was developed with the partial open reading frame 2 (ORF2) sequence (aa 368-607) of HEV (HE-ORF2) and partial virus protein 1 (VP1) sequence (aa 1-198) of HAV (HA-VP1), which included the viral neutralization epitopes. Tuftsin is an immunostimulatory peptide which can enhance the immunogenicity of a protein by targeting it to macrophages and dendritic cells. Here, we developed a novel combined protein vaccine by conjugating tuftsin to HE-ORF2 and HA-VP1 and used synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) as the adjuvant. Subsequent experiments in BALB/c mice demonstrated that tuftsin enhanced the serum-specific IgG and IgA antibodies against HEV and HAV at the intestinal, vaginal and pulmonary interface when delivered intranasally. Moreover, mice from the intranasally immunized tuftsin group (HE-ORF2-tuftsin + HA-VP1-tuftsin + CpG) showed higher levels of IFN-γ-secreting splenocytes (Th1 response) and ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells than those of the no-tuftsin group (HE-ORF2 + HA-VP1 + CpG). Thus, the tuftsin group generated stronger humoral and cellular immune responses compared with the no-tuftsin group. Moreover, enhanced responses to the combined protein vaccine were obtained by intranasal immunization compared with intramuscular injection. By integrating HE-ORF2, HA-VP1 and tuftsin in a vaccine, this study validated an important concept for further development of a combined mucosal vaccine against hepatitis A and E infection.

  13. A unique spumavirus Gag N-terminal domain with functional properties of orthoretroviral matrix and capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Goldstone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamyviruses (FVs are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Although FV infection is apparently benign, trans-species zoonosis is commonplace and has resulted in the isolation of the Prototypic Foamy Virus (PFV from human sources and the potential for germ-line transmission. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. In addition, PFV Gag interacts with the FV Envelope (Env protein to facilitate budding of infectious particles. Presently, there is a paucity of structural information with regards FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. Therefore, in order to probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag and learn more about FV egress and replication we have undertaken a structural, biophysical and virological study of PFV-Gag. We present the crystal structure of a dimeric amino terminal domain from PFV, Gag-NtD, both free and in complex with the leader peptide of PFV Env. The structure comprises a head domain together with a coiled coil that forms the dimer interface and despite the shared function it is entirely unrelated to either the capsid or matrix of Gag from other retroviruses. Furthermore, we present structural, biochemical and virological data that reveal the molecular details of the essential Gag-Env interaction and in addition we also examine the specificity of Trim5α restriction of PFV. These data provide the first information with regards to FV structural proteins and suggest a model for convergent evolution of gag genes where structurally unrelated molecules have become functionally equivalent.

  14. A unique spumavirus Gag N-terminal domain with functional properties of orthoretroviral matrix and capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, David C; Flower, Thomas G; Ball, Neil J; Sanz-Ramos, Marta; Yap, Melvyn W; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W; Stanke, Nicole; Reh, Juliane; Lindemann, Dirk; Stoye, Jonathan P; Taylor, Ian A

    2013-05-01

    The Spumaretrovirinae, or foamyviruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that infect many species of monkey and ape. Although FV infection is apparently benign, trans-species zoonosis is commonplace and has resulted in the isolation of the Prototypic Foamy Virus (PFV) from human sources and the potential for germ-line transmission. Despite little sequence homology, FV and orthoretroviral Gag proteins perform equivalent functions, including genome packaging, virion assembly, trafficking and membrane targeting. In addition, PFV Gag interacts with the FV Envelope (Env) protein to facilitate budding of infectious particles. Presently, there is a paucity of structural information with regards FVs and it is unclear how disparate FV and orthoretroviral Gag molecules share the same function. Therefore, in order to probe the functional overlap of FV and orthoretroviral Gag and learn more about FV egress and replication we have undertaken a structural, biophysical and virological study of PFV-Gag. We present the crystal structure of a dimeric amino terminal domain from PFV, Gag-NtD, both free and in complex with the leader peptide of PFV Env. The structure comprises a head domain together with a coiled coil that forms the dimer interface and despite the shared function it is entirely unrelated to either the capsid or matrix of Gag from other retroviruses. Furthermore, we present structural, biochemical and virological data that reveal the molecular details of the essential Gag-Env interaction and in addition we also examine the specificity of Trim5α restriction of PFV. These data provide the first information with regards to FV structural proteins and suggest a model for convergent evolution of gag genes where structurally unrelated molecules have become functionally equivalent.

  15. Quantifying transduction efficiencies of unmodified and tyrosine capsid mutant AAV vectors in vitro using two ocular cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Renee C; Boye, Sanford L; Dinculescu, Astra; Hauswirth, William W; Boye, Shannon E

    2011-04-29

    With the increasing number of retinal gene-based therapies and therapeutic constructs, in vitro bioassays characterizing vector transduction efficiency and quality are becoming increasingly important. Currently, in vitro assays quantifying vector transduction efficiency are performed predominantly for non-ocular tissues. A human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE19) and a mouse cone photoreceptor cell line, 661W, have been well characterized and are used for many retinal metabolism and biologic pathway studies. The purpose of this study is to quantify transduction efficiencies of a variety of self-complementary (sc) adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors in these biologically relevant ocular cell lines using high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. ARPE19 and 661W cells were infected with sc-smCBA-mCherry packaged in unmodified AAV capsids or capsids containing single/multiple tyrosine-phenylalanine (Y-F) mutations at multiplicity of infections (MOIs) ranging from 100 to 10,000. Three days post infection fluorescent images verified mCherry expression. Following microscopy, FACS analysis was performed to quantify the number of positive cells and the mean intensity of mCherry fluorescence, the product of which is reported as transduction efficiency for each vector. The scAAV vectors containing cone-specific (sc-mCARpro-green fluorescent protein [GFP]), rod-specific (sc-MOPS500-eGFP), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific (sc-VMD2-GFP), or ubiquitous (sc-smCBA-GFP) promoters were used to infect both cell lines at an MOI of 10,000. Three days post infection, cells were immunostained with an antibody raised against GFP and imaged. Finally, based on our in vitro results, we tested a prediction of transduction efficiency in vivo. Expression from unmodified scAAV1, scAAV2, scAAV5, and scAAV8 vectors was detectable by FACS in both ARPE19 and 661W cells, with scAAV1 and scAAV2 being the most efficient in both cell lines. scAAV5 showed

  16. Dicty_cDB: AFH810 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hromosome Y, complete sequence. 34 0.093 8 AY355260 |AY355260.1 Human rhinovirus 79 VP1 capsid protein gene,... partial cds. 48 0.100 2 AY450541 |AY450541.1 Human rhinovirus 79 polyprotein mRNA, partial cds. 48 0.15 2 A

  17. Analysis of the functional compatibility of SIV capsid sequences in the context of the FIV gag precursor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A Ovejero

    Full Text Available The formation of immature lentiviral particles is dependent on the multimerization of the Gag polyprotein at the plasma membrane of the infected cells. One key player in the virus assembly process is the capsid (CA domain of Gag, which establishes the protein-protein interactions that give rise to the hexagonal lattice of Gag molecules in the immature virion. To gain a better understanding of the functional equivalence between the CA proteins of simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively, we generated a series of chimeric FIV Gag proteins in which the CA-coding region was partially or totally replaced by its SIV counterpart. All the FIV Gag chimeras were found to be assembly-defective; however, all of them are able to interact with wild-type SIV Gag and be recruited into extracellular virus-like particles, regardless of the SIV CA sequences present in the chimeric FIV Gag. The results presented here markedly contrast with our previous findings showing that chimeric SIVs carrying FIV CA-derived sequences are assembly-competent. Overall, our data support the notion that although the SIV and FIV CA proteins share 51% amino acid sequence similarity and exhibit a similar organization, i.e., an N-terminal domain joined by a flexible linker to a C-terminal domain, their functional exchange between these different lentiviruses is strictly dependent on the context of the recipient Gag precursor.

  18. Cyclophilin A potentiates TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import without promoting TRIM5α binding to the viral capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallori Burse

    Full Text Available The host immunophilin cyclophilin A (CypA binds to the capsid protein (CA of HIV-1 and regulates its infectivity. Depending on the target cell type, CypA can either promote or inhibit HIV-1 infection. The ability of CypA to promote HIV-1 infection has been extensively studied and linked to several steps in early replication including uncoating, reverse transcription and nuclear import. By contrast, the mechanism by which CypA inhibits infection is less well understood. We investigated the mechanism by which CypA potentiates restriction of HIV-1 by the tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5α. Depletion of TRIM5α in the African green monkey cell line Vero, resulted in a loss of inhibition of infection by CypA, demonstrating that inhibition by CypA is mediated by TRIM5α. Complementary genetic and biochemical assays failed to demonstrate an ability of CypA to promote binding of TRIM5α to the viral capsid. TRIM5α inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription in a proteasome-dependent manner; however, we observed that inhibition of proteasome activity did not reduce the ability of CypA to inhibit infection, suggesting that CypA acts at a step after reverse transcription. Accordingly, we observed a CypA-dependent reduction in the accumulation of nuclear HIV-1 DNA, indicating that CypA specifically promotes TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import. We also observed that the ability of CypA to inhibit HIV-1 infection is abolished by amino acid substitutions within the conserved CPSF6-binding surface in CA. Our results indicate that CypA inhibits HIV-1 infection in Vero cells not by promoting TRIM5α binding to the capsid but by blocking nuclear import of the HIV-1 preintegration complex.

  19. Cyclophilin A potentiates TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import without promoting TRIM5α binding to the viral capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burse, Mallori; Shi, Jiong; Aiken, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The host immunophilin cyclophilin A (CypA) binds to the capsid protein (CA) of HIV-1 and regulates its infectivity. Depending on the target cell type, CypA can either promote or inhibit HIV-1 infection. The ability of CypA to promote HIV-1 infection has been extensively studied and linked to several steps in early replication including uncoating, reverse transcription and nuclear import. By contrast, the mechanism by which CypA inhibits infection is less well understood. We investigated the mechanism by which CypA potentiates restriction of HIV-1 by the tripartite motif-containing protein 5 (TRIM5α). Depletion of TRIM5α in the African green monkey cell line Vero, resulted in a loss of inhibition of infection by CypA, demonstrating that inhibition by CypA is mediated by TRIM5α. Complementary genetic and biochemical assays failed to demonstrate an ability of CypA to promote binding of TRIM5α to the viral capsid. TRIM5α inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription in a proteasome-dependent manner; however, we observed that inhibition of proteasome activity did not reduce the ability of CypA to inhibit infection, suggesting that CypA acts at a step after reverse transcription. Accordingly, we observed a CypA-dependent reduction in the accumulation of nuclear HIV-1 DNA, indicating that CypA specifically promotes TRIM5α inhibition of HIV-1 nuclear import. We also observed that the ability of CypA to inhibit HIV-1 infection is abolished by amino acid substitutions within the conserved CPSF6-binding surface in CA. Our results indicate that CypA inhibits HIV-1 infection in Vero cells not by promoting TRIM5α binding to the capsid but by blocking nuclear import of the HIV-1 preintegration complex.

  20. Structural Transitions and Energy Landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Capsid Mechanics from Nanomanipulation in Vitro and in Silico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kononova, O.; Snijder, S.; Brasch, M.; Cornelissen, J.; Dima, R.I.; Marx, K.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Roos, W.H.; Barsegov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of

  1. Structural transitions and energy landscape for cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid mechanics from nanoindentation in vitro and in silico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kononova, O.; Snijder, J.; Brasch, M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Dima, R.I.; Marx, K.A.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Wuite, G.J.L.; Roos, W.H.; Barsegova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on subsecond timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of

  2. Characterization of tissue tropism determinants of adeno-associated virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Bernd; Xiao, Weidong

    2003-02-01

    Muscle is an attractive target for gene delivery because of its mass and because vectors can be delivered in a noninvasive fashion. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been shown to be effective for muscle-targeted gene transfer. Recent progress in characterization of AAV serotype 1 (AAV1) and AAV6 demonstrated that these two AAV serotypes are far more efficient in transducing muscle than is the traditionally used AAV2. Since all cis elements are identical in these vectors, the potential determinants for their differences in transducing muscle appear to be located within the AAV capsid proteins. In the present study, a series of AAV capsid mutants were generated to identify the major regions affecting AAV transduction efficiency in muscle. Replacement of amino acids 350 to 736 of AAV2 VP1 with the corresponding amino acids from VP1 of AAV1 resulted in a hybrid vector that behaved very similarly to AAV1 in vitro and in vivo in muscle. Characterization of additional mutants carrying smaller regions of the AAV1 VP1 amino acid sequence in the AAV2 capsid protein suggested that amino acids 350 to 430 of VP1 function as a major tissue tropism determinant. Further analysis showed that the heparin binding domain and the major antigenic determinants in the AAV capsid region were not necessary for the efficiency of AAV1 transduction of muscle.

  3. Protruding knob-like proteins violate local symmetries in an icosahedral marine virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Preeti; Baker, Matthew L.; Raytcheva, Desislava; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; Piret, Jacqueline; King, Jonathan A.; Chiu, Wah

    2014-07-01

    Marine viruses play crucial roles in shaping the dynamics of oceanic microbial communities and in the carbon cycle on Earth. Here we report a 4.7-Å structure of a cyanobacterial virus, Syn5, by electron cryo-microscopy and modelling. A Cα backbone trace of the major capsid protein (gp39) reveals a classic phage protein fold. In addition, two knob-like proteins protruding from the capsid surface are also observed. Using bioinformatics and structure analysis tools, these proteins are identified to correspond to gp55 and gp58 (each with two copies per asymmetric unit). The non 1:1 stoichiometric distribution of gp55/58 to gp39 breaks all expected local symmetries and leads to non-quasi-equivalence of the capsid subunits, suggesting a role in capsid stabilization. Such a structural arrangement has not yet been observed in any known virus structures.

  4. Evolutionary Conserved Protein Features From Analysis of Virus Shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Bozic, Anze Losdorfer; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    From the shape and size analysis of approximately 130 small icosahedral viruses we conclude that there is a typical structural capsid protein, having a mean diameter of 5 nm and a mean thickness of 3 nm, with more than two thirds of the analyzed capsid proteins having thicknesses between 2 nm and 4 nm. To investigate whether, in addition to the conserved geometry, capsid proteins show similarities in the way they interact with one another, we examined the shapes of the capsids in detail. We classified them numerically according to their similarity to sphere and icosahedron and a set of shapes in between, all obtained from the theory of elasticity of shells. In order to make a unique and straightforward connection between an idealized, numerically calculated shape of an elastic shell and a capsid, we devised a special shape fitting procedure, the outcome of which is the idealized elastic shape fitting the capsid best. Using such a procedure we performed statistical analysis of a series of virus shapes and we f...

  5. Analysis of the complete genome sequence and capsid region of black queen cell viruses from infected honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Noh, Jin Hyeong; Choe, Se Eun; Kweon, Chang Hee; Yoo, Mi Sun; Doan, Huong Thi Thanh; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Yoon, Byoung-Su; Nguyen, Lien Thi Kim; Nguyen, Thuy Thi Dieu; Quyen, Dong Van; Jung, Suk-Chan; Chang, Ki-Yoon; Kang, Seung Won

    2013-08-01

    Black queen cell virus (BQCV) infection is one of the most common viral infections in honeybees (Apis mellifera). A phylogenetic tree was constructed for 19 partial nucleotide sequences for the capsid region of South Korean BQCV, which were also compared with 10 previously reported BQCV sequences derived from different countries. The Korean BQCV genomes were highly conserved and showed 97-100% identity. They also showed 92-99% similarity with other country genotypes and showed no significant clustering in the phylogenetic tree. In order to investigate this phenomenon in more detail, the complete genome sequence of the Korean BQCV strain was determined and aligned with those from a South African reference strain and European genotypes, Poland4-6 and Hungary10. A phylogenetic tree was then constructed. The Korean BQCV strain showed a high level of similarity (92%) with Hungary10, but low similarity (86%) with the South African reference genotype. Comparison of the Korean and other sequences across different genome regions revealed that the 5'-UTR, the intergenic region, and the capsid regions of the BQCV genome were highly conserved. ORF1 (a non-structural protein coding region) was more variable than ORF2 (a structural protein coding region). The 5'-proximal third of ORF1 was particularly variable and contained several insertions/deletions. This phenomenon may be explained by intra-molecular recombination between the Korean and other BQCV genotypes; this appeared to have happened more with the South African reference strain than with the European genotypes.

  6. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette

    2012-01-01

    B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region. Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected...

  7. Nanofluidic Devices with Two Pores in Series for Resistive-Pulse Sensing of Single Virus Capsids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Zachary D.; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André

    2011-01-01

    We report fabrication and characterization of nanochannel devices with two nanopores in series for resistive-pulse sensing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids. The nanochannel and two pores are patterned by electron beam lithography between two microchannels and etched by reactive ion etching...

  8. Facilitating the use of alternative capsid control methods towards sustainable production of organic cocoa in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayenor, G.K.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.; Padi, B.; Röling, N.G.

    2007-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important foreign exchange earner for Ghana. However, production is constrained by a high incidence of pests and diseases. Based on farmers' needs, this study focused on the control of capsids, mainly Sahlbergella singularis Haglund and Distantiella theobroma

  9. Effects of salts on internal DNA pressure and mechanical properties of phage capsids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evilevitch, Alex; Roos, Wouter H.; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Jeembaeva, Meerim; Jönsson, Bengt; Wuite, Gijs J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on atomic force microscopy nanoindentation measurements of phage λ, we previously proposed a minimal model describing the effect of water hydrating DNA that strengthens viral capsids against external deformation at wild-type DNA packing density. Here, we report proof of this model by testing

  10. The Structure and Host Entry of an Invertebrate Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Geng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Plevka, Pavel; Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The 3.5-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of mature cricket parvovirus (Acheta domesticus densovirus [AdDNV]) has been determined. Structural comparisons show that vertebrate and invertebrate parvoviruses have evolved independently, although there are common structural features among all parvovirus capsid proteins. It was shown that raising the temperature of the AdDNV particles caused a loss of their genomes. The structure of these emptied particles was determined by cryo-electron microscopy to 5.5-Å resolution, and the capsid structure was found to be the same as that for the full, mature virus except for the absence of the three ordered nucleotides observed in the crystal structure. The viral protein 1 (VP1) amino termini could be externalized without significant damage to the capsid. In vitro, this externalization of the VP1 amino termini is accompanied by the release of the viral genome. PMID:24027306

  11. Recombination and population mosaic of a multifunctional viral gene, adeno-associated virus cap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a dominant force in evolution and results in genetic mosaics. To detect evidence of recombination events and assess the biological significance of genetic mosaics, genome sequences for various viral populations of reasonably large size are now available in the GenBank. We studied a multi-functional viral gene, the adeno-associated virus (AAV cap gene, which codes for three capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. VP1-3 share a common C-terminal domain corresponding to VP3, which forms the viral core structure, while the VP1 unique N-terminal part contains an enzymatic domain with phospholipase A2 activity. Our recombinant detection program (RecI revealed five novel recombination events, four of which have their cross-over points in the N-terminal, VP1 and VP2 unique region. Comparison of phylogenetic trees for different cap gene regions confirmed discordant phylogenies for the recombinant sequences. Furthermore, differences in the phylogenetic tree structures for the VP1 unique (VP1u region and the rest of cap highlighted the mosaic nature of cap gene in the AAV population: two dominant forms of VP1u sequences were identified and these forms are linked to diverse sequences in the rest of cap gene. This observation together with the finding of frequent recombination in the VP1 and 2 unique regions suggests that this region is a recombination hot spot. Recombination events in this region preserve protein blocks of distinctive functions and contribute to convergence in VP1u and divergence of the rest of cap. Additionally the possible biological significance of two dominant VP1u forms is inferred.

  12. Poliovirus RNA Is Released from the Capsid near a Twofold Symmetry Axis ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostina, Mihnea; Levy, Hazel; Filman, David J.; Hogle, James M.

    2011-01-01

    After recognizing and binding to its host cell, poliovirus (like other nonenveloped viruses) faces the challenge of translocating its genome across a cellular membrane and into the cytoplasm. To avoid entanglement with the capsid, the RNA must exit via a single site on the virion surface. However, the mechanism by which a single site is selected (from among 60 equivalents) is unknown; and until now, even its location on the virion surface has been controversial. To help to elucidate the mechanism of infection, we have used single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and tomography to reconstruct conformationally altered intermediates that are formed by the poliovirion at various stages of the poliovirus infection process. Recently, we reported icosahedrally symmetric structures for two forms of the end-state 80S empty capsid particle. Surprisingly, RNA was frequently visible near the capsid; and in a subset of the virions, RNA was seen on both the inside and outside of the capsid, caught in the act of exiting. To visualize RNA exiting, we have now determined asymmetric reconstructions from that subset, using both single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomographic methods, producing independent reconstructions at ∼50-Å resolution. Contrary to predictions in the literature, the footprint of RNA on the capsid surface is located close to a viral 2-fold axis, covering a slot-shaped area of reduced density that is present in both of the symmetrized 80S reconstructions and which extends by about 20 Å away from the 2-fold axis toward each neighboring 5-fold axis. PMID:20980499

  13. Critical Salt Bridges Guide Capsid Assembly, Stability, and Maturation Behavior in Bacteriophage HK97*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsman, Ilya; Fu, Chi-Yu; Huang, Rick; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, John E.

    2010-01-01

    HK97 is a double-stranded DNA bacteriophage that undergoes dramatic conformational changes during viral capsid maturation and for which x-ray structures, at near atomic resolution, of multiple intermediate and mature capsid states are available. Both amide H/2H exchange and crystallographic comparisons between the pre-expanded Prohead II particles and the expanded Head II of bacteriophage HK97 revealed quaternary interactions that remain fixed throughout maturation and appear to maintain intercapsomer integrity at all quasi- and icosahedral 3-fold axes. These 3-fold staples are formed from Arg and Glu residues and a metal binding site. Mutations of either Arg-347 or Arg-194 or a double mutation of E344Q and E363A resulted in purification of the phage in capsomer form (hexamers and pentamers). Mutants that did assemble had both decreased thermal stability and decreased in vitro expansion rates. Amide H/2H exchange mass spectrometry showed that in the wild type capsid some subunits had a bent “spine” helix (highly exchanging), whereas others were straight (less exchanging). Similar analysis of the never assembled mutant capsomers showed uniform amide exchange in all of these that was higher than that of the straight spine helices (characterized in more mature intermediates), suggesting that the spine helix is somewhat bent prior to capsid assembly. The result further supports a previously proposed mechanism for capsid expansion in which the delta domains of each subunit induce a high energy intermediate conformation, which now appears to include a bent helix during capsomer assembly. PMID:20332083

  14. Fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the driving force of codon usage bias in the hepatitis A virus capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Aragonès

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV, the prototype of genus Hepatovirus, has several unique biological characteristics that distinguish it from other members of the Picornaviridae family. Among these, the need for an intact eIF4G factor for the initiation of translation results in an inability to shut down host protein synthesis by a mechanism similar to that of other picornaviruses. Consequently, HAV must inefficiently compete for the cellular translational machinery and this may explain its poor growth in cell culture. In this context of virus/cell competition, HAV has strategically adopted a naturally highly deoptimized codon usage with respect to that of its cellular host. With the aim to optimize its codon usage the virus was adapted to propagate in cells with impaired protein synthesis, in order to make tRNA pools more available for the virus. A significant loss of fitness was the immediate response to the adaptation process that was, however, later on recovered and more associated to a re-deoptimization rather than to an optimization of the codon usage specifically in the capsid coding region. These results exclude translation selection and instead suggest fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the underlying mechanism of the codon usage bias in this specific genome region. Additionally, the results provide clear evidence of the Red Queen dynamics of evolution since the virus has very much evolved to re-adapt its codon usage to the environmental cellular changing conditions in order to recover the original fitness.

  15. DNA-modified artificial viral capsids self-assembled from DNA-conjugated β-annulus peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoko; Yamada, Saki; Nishikawa, Shoko; Matsuura, Kazunori

    2017-07-01

    β-Annulus peptides from tomato bushy stunt virus conjugated with DNAs (dA20 and dT20 ) at the C-terminal were synthesized. The DNA-modified β-annulus peptides self-assembled into artificial viral capsids with sizes of 45-160 nm. ζ-Potential measurements revealed that the DNAs were coated on the surface of artificial viral capsids. Fluorescence assays indicated that the DNAs on the artificial viral capsids were partially hybridized with the complementary DNAs. Moreover, the DNA-modified artificial viral capsids formed aggregates by adding complementary polynucleotides. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Chronic hepatitis B infection and HBV DNA-containing capsids: Modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Kalyan; Chakrabarty, Siddhartha P.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics of chronic HBV infection taking into account both uninfected and infected hepatocytes along with the intracellular HBV DNA-containing capsids and the virions. While previous HBV models have included either the uninfected hepatocytes or the intracellular HBV DNA-containing capsids, our model accounts for both these two populations. We prove the conditions for local and global stability of both the uninfected and infected steady states in terms of the basic reproduction number. Further, we incorporate a time lag in the model to encompass the intracellular delay in the production of the infected hepatocytes and find that this delay does not affect the overall dynamics of the system. The results for the model and the delay model are finally numerically illustrated.

  17. Engineered AAV vector minimizes in vivo targeting of transduced hepatocytes by capsid-specific CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Ashley T; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Markusic, David M; Finn, Jonathan D; Hinderer, Christian; Zhou, Shangzhen; Ostrov, David A; Srivastava, Arun; Ertl, Hildegund C J; Terhorst, Cox; High, Katherine A; Mingozzi, Federico; Herzog, Roland W

    2013-03-21

    Recent clinical trials have shown that evasion of CD8(+) T-cell responses against viral capsid is critical for successful liver-directed gene therapy with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for hemophilia. Preclinical models to test whether use of alternate serotypes or capsid variants could avoid this deleterious response have been lacking. Here, the ability of CD8(+) T cells ("cap-CD8," specific for a capsid epitope presented by human B*0702 or murine H2-L(d) molecules) to target AAV-infected hepatocytes was investigated. In a murine model based on adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded cap-CD8, AAV2-transduced livers showed CD8(+) T-cell infiltrates, transaminitis, significant reduction in factor IX transgene expression, and loss of transduced hepatocytes. AAV8 gene transfer resulted in prolonged susceptibility to cap-CD8, consistent with recent clinical findings. In contrast, using an AAV2(Y-F) mutant capsid, which is known to be less degraded by proteasomes, preserved transgene expression and largely avoided hepatotoxicity. In vitro assays confirmed reduced major histocompatibility complex class I presentation of this capsid and killing of human or murine hepatocytes compared with AAV2. In conclusion, AAV capsids can be engineered to substantially reduce the risk of destruction by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, whereas use of alternative serotypes per se does not circumvent this obstacle.

  18. Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico

    CERN Document Server

    Kononova, Olga; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of pr...

  19. Capsid Antibodies to Different Adeno-Associated Virus Serotypes Bind Common Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurda, Brittney L.; DiMattia, Michael A.; Miller, Edward B.; Bennett, Antonette; McKenna, Robert; Weichert, Wendy S.; Nelson, Christian D.; Chen, Wei-jun; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Olson, Norman H.; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Chiorini, John A.; Zolotutkhin, Sergei; Kozyreva, Olga G.; Samulski, R. Jude; Baker, Timothy S.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between viruses and the host antibody immune response are critical in the development and control of disease, and antibodies are also known to interfere with the efficacy of viral vector-based gene delivery. The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) being developed as vectors for corrective human gene delivery have shown promise in clinical trials, but preexisting antibodies are detrimental to successful outcomes. However, the antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids remain poorly characterized. Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction were used to define the locations of epitopes to which monoclonal fragment antibodies (Fabs) against AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV6 bind. Pseudoatomic modeling showed that, in each serotype, Fabs bound to a limited number of sites near the protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes of the T=1 icosahedral capsids. For the closely related AAV1 and AAV6, a common Fab exhibited substoichiometric binding, with one Fab bound, on average, between two of the three protrusions as a consequence of steric crowding. The other AAV Fabs saturated the capsid and bound to the walls of all 60 protrusions, with the footprint for the AAV5 antibody extending toward the 5-fold axis. The angle of incidence for each bound Fab on the AAVs varied and resulted in significant differences in how much of each viral capsid surface was occluded beyond the Fab footprints. The AAV-antibody interactions showed a common set of footprints that overlapped some known receptor-binding sites and transduction determinants, thus suggesting potential mechanisms for virus neutralization by the antibodies. PMID:23760240

  20. Evolution and Cryo-electron Microscopy Capsid Structure of a North American Bat Adenovirus and Its Relationship to Other Mastadenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbrack, Nicole; Rogers, Matthew B; Ashley, Robert E; Keel, M Kevin; Kubiski, Steven V; Bryan, John A; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C; Hafenstein, Susan L; Allison, Andrew B

    2017-01-15

    Since the first description of adenoviruses in bats in 2006, a number of micro- and megabat species in Europe, Africa, and Asia have been shown to carry a wide diversity of adenoviruses. Here, we report on the evolutionary, biological, and structural characterization of a novel bat adenovirus (BtAdV) recovered from a Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) in Kentucky, USA, which is the first adenovirus isolated from North American bats. This virus (BtAdV 250-A) exhibits a close phylogenetic relationship with Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A), as previously observed with other BtAdVs. To further investigate the relationships between BtAdVs and CAdVs, we conducted mass spectrometric analysis and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the BtAdV 250-A capsid and also analyzed the in vitro host ranges of both viruses. Our results demonstrate that BtAdV 250-A represents a new mastadenovirus species that, in contrast to CAdV, has a unique capsid morphology that contains more prominent extensions of protein IX and can replicate efficiently in a phylogenetically diverse range of species. These findings, in addition to the recognition that both the genetic diversity of BtAdVs and the number of different bat species from disparate geographic regions infected with BtAdVs appears to be extensive, tentatively suggest that bats may have served as a potential reservoir for the cross-species transfer of adenoviruses to other hosts, as theorized for CAdV. Although many adenoviruses are host specific and likely codiverged with their hosts over millions of years, other adenoviruses appear to have emerged through successful cross-species transmission events on more recent time scales. The wide geographic distribution and genetic diversity of adenoviruses in bats and their close phylogenetic relationship to Canine mastadenovirus A (CAdV A) has raised important questions about how CAdV A, and possibly other mammalian adenoviruses, may have emerged

  1. Enhancing the clinical potential of AAV vectors by capsid engineering to evade pre-existing immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eBartel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Vectors based on adeno-associated viruses have shown considerable promise in both preclinical models and increasingly in clinical trials. However, one formidable challenge is pre-existing immunity due to widespread exposure to numerous AAV variants and serotypes within the human population, which affect efficacy of clinical trials due to the accompanying high levels of anti-capsid neutralizing antibodies. Transient immunosuppression has promise in mitigating cellular and humoral responses induced by vector application in naïve hosts, but cannot overcome the problem that pre-existing neutralizing antibodies pose towards the goal of safe and efficient gene delivery. Shielding of AAV from antibodies, however, may be possible by covalent attachment of polymers to the viral capsid or by encapsulation of vectors inside biomaterials. In addition, there has been considerable progress in using rational mutagenesis, combinatorial libraries, and directed evolution approaches to engineer capsid variants that are not recognized by anti-AAV antibodies generally present in the human population. While additional progress must be made, such strategies, alone or in combination with immunosuppression to avoid de novo induction of antibodies, have strong potential to significantly enhance the clinical efficacy of AAV vectors.

  2. Mapping the AAV capsid host antibody response towards the development of second generation gene delivery vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan eTseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant Adeno-associated virus (rAAV gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2. Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from monoclonal antibodies, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed.

  3. Mapping the AAV Capsid Host Antibody Response toward the Development of Second Generation Gene Delivery Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Shan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2). Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion, or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from MAbs, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed.

  4. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Daniel J; Edmonson, Shyrie C; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Pien, Gary C; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M; Ertl, Hildegund; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings. PMID:26445723

  5. Comparative Study of Liver Gene Transfer With AAV Vectors Based on Natural and Engineered AAV Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Bell, Peter; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Wang, Qiang; He, Zhenning; Yu, Hongwei; McMenamin, Deirdre; Goode, Tamara; Calcedo, Roberto; Wilson, James M

    2015-12-01

    Vectors based on the clade E family member adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8 have shown promise in patients with hemophilia B and have emerged as best in class for human liver gene therapies. We conducted a thorough evaluation of liver-directed gene therapy using vectors based on several natural and engineered capsids including the clade E AAVrh10 and the largely uncharacterized and phylogenically distinct AAV3B. Included in this study was a putatively superior hepatotropic capsid, AAVLK03, which is very similar to AAV3B. Vectors based on these capsids were benchmarked against AAV8 and AAV2 in a number of in vitro and in vivo model systems including C57BL/6 mice, immune-deficient mice that are partially repopulated with human hepatocytes, and nonhuman primates. Our studies in nonhuman primates and human hepatocytes demonstrated high level transduction of the clade E-derived vectors and equally high transduction with vectors based on AAV3B. In contrast to previous reports, AAVLK03 vectors are not superior to either AAV3B or AAV8. Vectors based on AAV3B should be considered for liver-directed gene therapy when administered following, or before, treatment with the serologically distinct clade E vectors.

  6. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hui

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings.

  7. AAV capsid CD8+ T-cell epitopes are highly conserved across AAV serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Daniel J; Edmonson, Shyrie C; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Pien, Gary C; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M; Ertl, Hildegund; Mingozzi, Federico; High, Katherine A; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has become one of the most promising vectors in gene transfer in the last 10 years with successful translation to clinical trials in humans and even market approval for a first gene therapy product in Europe. Administration to humans, however, revealed that adaptive immune responses against the vector capsid can present an obstacle to sustained transgene expression due to the activation and expansion of capsid-specific T cells. The limited number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from samples within clinical trials allows for little more than monitoring of T-cell responses. We were able to identify immunodominant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes for common human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types by using spleens isolated from subjects undergoing splenectomy for non-malignant indications as a source of large numbers of lymphocytes and restimulating them with single AAV capsid peptides in vitro. Further experiments confirmed that these epitopes are naturally processed and functionally relevant. The design of more effective and less immunogenic AAV vectors, and precise immune monitoring of vector-infused subjects, are facilitated by these findings.

  8. Hierarchical Assembly of Plasmonic Nanostructures using Virus Capsid Scaffolds on DNA Origami Tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Debin; Capehart, Stacy L.; Pal, Suchetan; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Lei; Schuck, P. J.; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao; Francis, Matthew B.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2014-07-07

    Plasmonic nanoarchitectures using biological scaffolds have shown the potential to attain controllable plasmonic fluorescence via precise spatial arrangement of fluorophores and plasmonic antennae. However, previous studies report a predominance of fluorescence quenching for small metal nanoparticles (less than ~60 nm) due to their small scattering cross-sections. In this work, we report the design and performance of fluorescent plasmonic structures composed of fluorophore-modified virus capsids and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assembled on DNA origami tiles. The virus capsid creates a scaffold for control over the three dimensional arrangement of the fluorophores, whereas the DNA origami tile provides precise control over the distance between the capsid and the AuNP. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations and multimodal single-particle imaging measurements, we show that the judicial design of these structures places the dye molecules near the hot spot of the AuNP. This effectively increases the fluorescence intensity in the quenching regime of the AuNP, with an enhancement factor that increases with increasing AuNP size. This strategy of using biological scaffolds to control fluorescence paves the way for exploring the parameters that determine plasmonic fluorescence. It may lead to a better understanding of the antenna effects of photon absorption and emission, enabling the construction of multicomponent plasmonic systems.

  9. Perspective on Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Modification for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Michael E; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a X-linked, progressive childhood myopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, one of the largest genes in the genome. It is characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and dysfunction leading to cardiac and/or respiratory failure. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a highly promising gene therapy vector. AAV gene therapy has resulted in unprecedented clinical success for treating several inherited diseases. However, AAV gene therapy for DMD remains a significant challenge. Hurdles for AAV-mediated DMD gene therapy include the difficulty to package the full-length dystrophin coding sequence in an AAV vector, the necessity for whole-body gene delivery, the immune response to dystrophin and AAV capsid, and the species-specific barriers to translate from animal models to human patients. Capsid engineering aims at improving viral vector properties by rational design and/or forced evolution. In this review, we discuss how to use the state-of-the-art AAV capsid engineering technologies to overcome hurdles in AAV-based DMD gene therapy.

  10. Solid-to-fluid DNA transition inside HSV-1 capsid close to the temperature of infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sae-Ueng, Udom; Li, Dong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Huffman, Jamie B.; Homa, Fred L.; Rau, Donald; Evilevitch, Alex

    2014-10-01

    DNA in the human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid is packaged to a tight density. This leads to tens of atmospheres of internal pressure responsible for the delivery of the herpes genome into the cell nucleus. In this study we show that, despite its liquid crystalline state inside the capsid, the DNA is fluid-like, which facilitates its ejection into the cell nucleus during infection. We found that the sliding friction between closely packaged DNA strands, caused by interstrand repulsive interactions, is reduced by the ionic environment of epithelial cells and neurons susceptible to herpes infection. However, variations in the ionic conditions corresponding to neuronal activity can restrict DNA mobility in the capsid, making it more solid-like. This can inhibit intranuclear DNA release and interfere with viral replication. In addition, the temperature of the human host (37 °C) induces a disordering transition of the encapsidated herpes genome, which reduces interstrand interactions and provides genome mobility required for infection.

  11. Targeted gene delivery to the enteric nervous system using AAV: a comparison across serotypes and capsid mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benskey, Matthew J; Kuhn, Nathan C; Galligan, James J; Garcia, Joanna; Boye, Shannon E; Hauswirth, William W; Mueller, Christian; Boye, Sanford L; Manfredsson, Fredric P

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are one of the most widely used gene transfer systems in research and clinical trials. AAV can transduce a wide range of biological tissues, however to date, there has been no investigation on targeted AAV transduction of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Here, we examined the efficiency, tropism, spread, and immunogenicity of AAV transduction in the ENS. Rats received direct injections of various AAV serotypes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the descending colon. AAV serotypes tested included; AAV 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, or 9 and the AAV2 and AAV8 capsid mutants, AAV2-Y444F, AAV2-tripleY-F, AAV2-tripleY-F+T-V, AAV8-Y733F, and AAV8-doubeY-F+T-V. Transduction, as determined by GFP-positive cells, occurred in neurons and enteric glia within the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the ENS. AAV6 and AAV9 showed the highest levels of transduction within the ENS. Transduction efficiency scaled with titer and time, was translated to the murine ENS, and produced no vector-related immune response. A single injection of AAV into the colon covered an area of ~47 mm(2). AAV9 primarily transduced neurons, while AAV6 transduced enteric glia and neurons. This is the first report on targeted AAV transduction of neurons and glia in the ENS.

  12. Production of FMDV virus-like particles by a SUMO fusion protein approach in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shu-Mei

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virus-like particles (VLPs are formed by the self-assembly of envelope and/or capsid proteins from many viruses. Some VLPs have been proven successful as vaccines, and others have recently found applications as carriers for foreign antigens or as scaffolds in nanoparticle biotechnology. However, production of VLP was usually impeded due to low water-solubility of recombinant virus capsid proteins. Previous studies revealed that virus capsid and envelope proteins were often posttranslationally modified by SUMO in vivo, leading into a hypothesis that SUMO modification might be a common mechanism for virus proteins to retain water-solubility or prevent improper self-aggregation before virus assembly. We then propose a simple approach to produce VLPs of viruses, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. An improved SUMO fusion protein system we developed recently was applied to the simultaneous expression of three capsid proteins of FMDV in E. coli. The three SUMO fusion proteins formed a stable heterotrimeric complex. Proteolytic removal of SUMO moieties from the ternary complexes resulted in VLPs with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. The method described here can also apply to produce capsid/envelope protein complexes or VLPs of other disease-causing viruses.

  13. The Structure of the Poliovirus 135S Cell Entry Intermediate at 10-Angstrom Resolution Reveals the Location of an Externalized Polypeptide That Binds to Membranes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, Doryen; Filman, David J.; Cheng, Naiqian; Steven, Alasdair C.; Hogle, James M.; Belnap, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Poliovirus provides a well-characterized system for understanding how nonenveloped viruses enter and infect cells. Upon binding its receptor, poliovirus undergoes an irreversible conformational change to the 135S cell entry intermediate. This transition involves shifts of the capsid protein β barrels, accompanied by the externalization of VP4 and the N terminus of VP1. Both polypeptides associate with membranes and are postulated to facilitate entry by forming a translocation pore for the viral RNA. We have calculated cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of 135S particles that permit accurate placement of the β barrels, loops, and terminal extensions of the capsid proteins. The reconstructions and resulting models indicate that each N terminus of VP1 exits the capsid though an opening in the interface between VP1 and VP3 at the base of the canyon that surrounds the fivefold axis. Comparison with reconstructions of 135S particles in which the first 31 residues of VP1 were proteolytically removed revealed that the externalized N terminus is located near the tips of propeller-like features surrounding the threefold axes rather than at the fivefold axes, as had been proposed in previous models. These observations have forced a reexamination of current models for the role of the 135S particle in transmembrane pore formation and suggest testable alternatives. PMID:15919927

  14. Interactions of Prototype Foamy Virus Capsids with Host Cell Polo-Like Kinases Are Important for Efficient Viral DNA Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurnic, Irena; Hütter, Sylvia; Rzeha, Ute; Stanke, Nicole; Reh, Juliane; Müllers, Erik; Hamann, Martin V; Kern, Tobias; Gerresheim, Gesche K; Lindel, Fabian; Serrao, Erik; Lesbats, Paul; Engelman, Alan N; Cherepanov, Peter; Lindemann, Dirk

    2016-08-01

    Unlike for other retroviruses, only a few host cell factors that aid the replication of foamy viruses (FVs) via interaction with viral structural components are known. Using a yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) screen with prototype FV (PFV) Gag protein as bait we identified human polo-like kinase 2 (hPLK2), a member of cell cycle regulatory kinases, as a new interactor of PFV capsids. Further Y2H studies confirmed interaction of PFV Gag with several PLKs of both human and rat origin. A consensus Ser-Thr/Ser-Pro (S-T/S-P) motif in Gag, which is conserved among primate FVs and phosphorylated in PFV virions, was essential for recognition by PLKs. In the case of rat PLK2, functional kinase and polo-box domains were required for interaction with PFV Gag. Fluorescently-tagged PFV Gag, through its chromatin tethering function, selectively relocalized ectopically expressed eGFP-tagged PLK proteins to mitotic chromosomes in a Gag STP motif-dependent manner, confirming a specific and dominant nature of the Gag-PLK interaction in mammalian cells. The functional relevance of the Gag-PLK interaction was examined in the context of replication-competent FVs and single-round PFV vectors. Although STP motif mutated viruses displayed wild type (wt) particle release, RNA packaging and intra-particle reverse transcription, their replication capacity was decreased 3-fold in single-cycle infections, and up to 20-fold in spreading infections over an extended time period. Strikingly similar defects were observed when cells infected with single-round wt Gag PFV vectors were treated with a pan PLK inhibitor. Analysis of entry kinetics of the mutant viruses indicated a post-fusion defect resulting in delayed and reduced integration, which was accompanied with an enhanced preference to integrate into heterochromatin. We conclude that interaction between PFV Gag and cellular PLK proteins is important for early replication steps of PFV within host cells.

  15. Mechanism of Action and Capsid-Stabilizing Properties of VHHs with an In Vitro Antipolioviral Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, Lise; Strauss, Mike; Thys, Bert; Halewyck, Hadewych; Filman, David J.; Bostina, Mihnea; Rombaut, Bart

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previously, we reported on the in vitro antiviral activity of single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) directed against poliovirus type 1. Five VHHs were found to neutralize poliovirus type 1 in an in vitro setting and showed 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) in the nanomolar range. In the present study, we further investigated the mechanism of action of these VHHs. All five VHHs interfere at multiple levels of the viral replication cycle, as they interfere both with attachment of the virus to cells and with viral uncoating. The latter effect is consistent with their ability to stabilize the poliovirus capsid, as observed in a ThermoFluor thermal shift assay, in which the virus is gradually heated and the temperature causing 50% of the RNA to be released from the capsid is determined, either in the presence or in the absence of the VHHs. The VHH-capsid interactions were also seen to induce aggregation of the virus-VHH complexes. However, this observation cannot yet be linked to their mechanism of action. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of two VHHs in complex with poliovirus type 1 show no conformational changes of the capsid to explain this aggregation. On the other hand, these reconstructions do show that the binding sites of VHHs PVSP6A and PVSP29F overlap the binding site for the poliovirus receptor (CD155/PVR) and span interfaces that are altered during receptor-induced conformational changes associated with cell entry. This may explain the interference at the level of cell attachment of the virus as well as their effect on uncoating. IMPORTANCE The study describes the mechanism of neutralization and the capsid-stabilizing activity of five single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that have an in vitro neutralizing activity against poliovirus type 1. The results show that the VHHs interfere at multiple levels of the viral replication cycle (cell attachment and viral uncoating). These mechanisms are possibly shared by some

  16. Antigenic Diversity of Human Sapoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Hansman, Grant S.; Oka, Tomoichiro; Sakon, Naomi; Takeda, Naokazu

    2007-01-01

    Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of gastroenteritis. On the basis of capsid protein (VP1) nucleotide sequences, SaV can be divided into 5 genogroups (GI?GV), of which the GI, GII, GIV, and GV strains infect humans. SaV is uncultivable, but expression of recombinant VP1 in insect cells results in formation of viruslike particles (VLPs) that are antigenically similar to native SaV. In this study, we newly expressed SaV GII and GIV VLPs to compare genetic and antigenic relationships among al...

  17. Structural and functional analysis of coxsackievirus A9 integrin αvβ6 binding and uncoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Shabih; Seitsonen, Jani J T; Kajander, Tommi; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Hyypiä, Timo; Susi, Petri; Butcher, Sarah J

    2013-04-01

    Coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9) is an important pathogen of the Picornaviridae family. It utilizes cellular receptors from the integrin αv family for binding to its host cells prior to entry and genome release. Among the integrins tested, it has the highest affinity for αvβ6, which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) loop present on the C terminus of viral capsid protein, VP1. As the atomic model of CVA9 lacks the RGD loop, we used surface plasmon resonance, electron cryo-microscopy, and image reconstruction to characterize the capsid-integrin interactions and the conformational changes on genome release. We show that the integrin binds to the capsid with nanomolar affinity and that the binding of integrin to the virion does not induce uncoating, thereby implying that further steps are required for release of the genome. Electron cryo-tomography and single-particle image reconstruction revealed variation in the number and conformation of the integrins bound to the capsid, with the integrin footprint mapping close to the predicted site for the exposed RGD loop on VP1. Comparison of empty and RNA-filled capsid reconstructions showed that the capsid undergoes conformational changes when the genome is released, so that the RNA-capsid interactions in the N termini of VP1 and VP4 are lost, VP4 is removed, and the capsid becomes more porous, as has been reported for poliovirus 1, human rhinovirus 2, enterovirus 71, and coxsackievirus A7. These results are important for understanding the structural basis of integrin binding to CVA9 and the molecular events leading to CVA9 cell entry and uncoating.

  18. QA prime-boost vaccination strategy in prevent serotype O FMDV infection using a "single-cycle" alphavirus vector and empty capsid particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette

    Introduction Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can help to control this disease, however, current vaccines based on chemically inactivated FMDV, are imperfect and there is a need for new, safe...... and effective vaccines to control FMD. There is no cross protection between the 7 serotypes but serotype O is the most abundant globally. Material and methods The FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa has been expressed with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro) using a “single cycle” packaged....... Discussion This prime-boost system, using reagents that can be generated outside of high-containment facilities, offers significant advantages to achieve control of FMD by vaccination....

  19. Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor EB2 is essential for intranuclear capsid assembly and production of gp350.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisse, Julien; Manet, Evelyne; Middeldorp, Jaap; Sergeant, Alain; Gruffat, Henri

    2005-11-01

    Most human herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), express a protein which functions primarily as an mRNA export factor. Previously, we deleted the gene for the Epstein-Barr virus mRNA export factor EB2 from the EBV genome and then introduced the mutated genome into 293 cells. Using a transcomplementation assay in which ectopic expression of the transcription factor EB1/ZEBRA was sufficient to induce the EBV productive cycle, we showed that Ori-Lyt-dependent replication of the EBV DNA occurs in the absence of EB2, indicating that EB2 is not essential for the expression and export of early mRNAs. However, in the absence of EB2, no infectious viral particles are produced (H. Gruffat, J. Batisse, D. Pich, B. Neuhierl, E. Manet, W. Hammerschmidt, and A. Sergeant, J. Virol. 76:9635-9644, 2002). In this report, we now show that EB2 is essential for the nuclear export of most, but not all, late mRNAs produced from intronless genes that translate into proteins involved in intranuclear capsid assembly and maturation. As a consequence, we show that EB2 is essential for the proper assembly of intranuclear capsids. Interestingly, the late BLLF1 gene contains an intron, and both unspliced and spliced mRNAs must be exported to the cytoplasm to be translated into gp350 and gp220, respectively (M. Hummel, D. A. Thorley-Lawson, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 49:413-417, 1984). Our results also demonstrate that although BLLF1 spliced mRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm independently of EB2, EB2 is essential for the nuclear export of unspliced BLLF1 mRNA. In the same assay, herpes simplex virus 1 ICP27 completely inhibited the nuclear export of BLLF1 spliced mRNAs whereas unspliced BLLF1 mRNAs were exported, confirming that in a physiological assay, ICP27 inhibits splicing.

  20. Conformational Changes in the Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Are Consistent with a Role for Allostery in Virus Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packianathan, Charles; Katen, Sarah P.; Dann, III, Charles E.; Zlotnick, Adam (Indiana)

    2010-01-12

    In infected cells, virus components must be organized at the right place and time to ensure assembly of infectious virions. From a different perspective, assembly must be prevented until all components are available. Hypothetically, this can be achieved by allosterically controlling assembly. Consistent with this hypothesis, here we show that the structure of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein dimer, which can spontaneously self-assemble, is incompatible with capsid assembly. Systematic differences between core protein dimer and capsid conformations demonstrate linkage between the intradimer interface and interdimer contact surface. These structures also provide explanations for the capsid-dimer selectivity of some antibodies and the activities of assembly effectors. Solution studies suggest that the assembly-inactive state is more accurately an ensemble of conformations. Simulations show that allostery supports controlled assembly and results in capsids that are resistant to dissociation. We propose that allostery, as demonstrated in HBV, is common to most self-assembling viruses.

  1. The Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus contains the capsid-associated p24 protein gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Slavicek; Nancy Hayes-Plazolles

    2003-01-01

    During the course of investigations on a wild-type strain of Lymantria dispar multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV), a region of the viral genome was analyzed and found to contain 697 bp that is lacking in the sequenced strain (5-6) of LdMNPV (Kuzio et al., Virology 253, 17-34, 1999). The sequenced strain of LdMNPV contains a mutation in...

  2. Lessons learned from successful human vaccines: Delineating key epitopes by dissecting the capsid proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Xin, Lu; Li, Shaowei; Fang, Mujin; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao; Zhao, Qinjian

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant VLP-based vaccines have been successfully used against 3 diseases caused by viral infections: Hepatitis B, cervical cancer and hepatitis E. The VLP approach is attracting increasing attention in vaccine design and development for human and veterinary use. This review summarizes the clinically relevant epitopes on the VLP antigens in successful human vaccines. These virion-like epitopes, which can be delineated with molecular biology, cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallographic methods, are the prerequisites for these efficacious vaccines to elicit functional antibodies. The critical epitopes and key factors influencing these epitopes are discussed for the HEV, HPV and HBV vaccines. A pentamer (for HPV) or a dimer (for HEV and HBV), rather than a monomer, is the basic building block harboring critical epitopes for the assembly of VLP antigen. The processing and formulation of VLP-based vaccines need to be developed to promote the formation and stabilization of these epitopes in the recombinant antigens. Delineating the critical epitopes is essential for antigen design in the early phase of vaccine development and for critical quality attribute analysis in the commercial phase of vaccine manufacturing. PMID:25751641

  3. Genetic diversity and evolution of two capsid protein genes of citrus tristeza virus isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan-Wei; Tang, Min; Wang, Guo-Ping; Jin, Feng-Yin; Yang, Zuo-Kun; Cheng, Li-Jing; Hong, Ni

    2015-03-01

    The genetic diversity and population structure of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates from China were investigated based on partial sequences spanning the C-terminal end of p61 and the complete sequences of the CPm and CP genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed five known groups (RB, T30, T36, HA and VT) and one new group (VI) consisting of only Chinese CTV isolates. Incongruent phylogenetic trees coupled with recombination analysis suggested several recombination events in the CPm gene. Positive selection was detected at codon 9 of CPm and codons 31, 41 and 68 of CP. The widespread CTV subpopulation AT-1 found in China has a unique amino acid insertion at the C-terminus of p61, which could increase CTV population complexity with implications for the evolutionary history of the virus. Our results suggest relevant roles for gene flow, purifying selection and recombination in shaping the CTV population in China.

  4. Functional and applied studies on the adenovirus minor capsid protein IX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, Jort

    2006-01-01

    The adenoviral vector is one of the most used viral vectors for gene therapy applications. The specificity towards its primary receptor is a limitation of the use of HAdV as therapeutical vector, as not all cells have these primary receptors on their surface. To overcome this problem scientists have

  5. Complex assembly behavior during the encapsulation of green fluorescent protein analogs in virus derived protein capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes encapsulated in nanocontainers are a better model of the conditions inside a living cell than free enzymes in solution. In a first step toward the encapsulation of multiple enzymes inside the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was attached

  6. Single amino acid modification of adeno-associated virus capsid changes transduction and humoral immune profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengwen; Diprimio, Nina; Bowles, Dawn E; Hirsch, Matthew L; Monahan, Paul E; Asokan, Aravind; Rabinowitz, Joseph; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Samulski, R Jude

    2012-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have the potential to promote long-term gene expression. Unfortunately, humoral immunity restricts patient treatment and in addition provides an obstacle to the potential option of vector readministration. In this study, we describe a comprehensive characterization of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to AAV type 1 (AAV1) through AAV5 both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that NAbs generated from one AAV type are unable to neutralize the transduction of other types. We extended this observation by demonstrating that a rationally engineered, muscle-tropic AAV2 mutant containing 5 amino acid substitutions from AAV1 displayed a NAb profile different from those of parental AAV2 and AAV1. Here we found that a single insertion of Thr from AAV1 into AAV2 capsid at residue 265 preserved high muscle transduction, while also changing the immune profile. To better understand the role of Thr insertion at position 265, we replaced all 20 amino acids and evaluated both muscle transduction and the NAb response. Of these variants, 8 mutants induced higher muscle transduction than AAV2. Additionally, three classes of capsid NAb immune profile were defined based on the ability to inhibit transduction from AAV2 or mutants. While no relations