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Sample records for voxel-based morphometric study

  1. Neuroanatomical circuitry associated with exploratory eye movement in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Linlin Qiu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients present abnormalities in a variety of eye movement tasks. Exploratory eye movement (EEM dysfunction appears to be particularly specific to schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of EEM dysfunction in schizophrenia are not clearly understood. To assess the potential neuroanatomical substrates of EEM, we recorded EEM performance and conducted a voxel-based morphometric analysis of gray matter in 33 schizophrenic patients and 29 well matched healthy controls. In schizophrenic patients, decreased responsive search score (RSS and widespread gray matter density (GMD reductions were observed. Moreover, the RSS was positively correlated with GMD in distributed brain regions in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, in schizophrenic patients, some brain regions with neuroanatomical deficits overlapped with some ones associated with RSS. These brain regions constituted an occipito-tempro-frontal circuitry involved in visual information processing and eye movement control, including the left calcarine cortex [Brodmann area (BA 17], the left cuneus (BA 18, the left superior occipital cortex (BA 18/19, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6, the left cerebellum, the right lingual cortex (BA 17/18, the right middle occipital cortex (BA19, the right inferior temporal cortex (BA 37, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46 and bilateral precentral gyri (BA 6 extending to the frontal eye fields (FEF, BA 8. To our knowledge, we firstly reported empirical evidence that gray matter loss in the occipito-tempro-frontal neuroanatomical circuitry of visual processing system was associated with EEM performance in schizophrenia, which may be helpful for the future effort to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms for EEM disturbances in schizophrenia.

  2. Mechanisms underlying fatigue: a voxel-based morphometric study of chronic fatigue syndrome

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    Watanabe Yasuyoshi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a crucial sensation that triggers rest, yet its underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unclear. Intense long-term fatigue is a symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome, which is used as a model to study the mechanisms underlying fatigue. Methods Using magnetic resonance imaging, we conducted voxel-based morphometry of 16 patients and 49 age-matched healthy control subjects. Results We found that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome had reduced gray-matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal cortex. Within these areas, the volume reduction in the right prefrontal cortex paralleled the severity of the fatigue of the subjects. Conclusion These results are consistent with previous reports of an abnormal distribution of acetyl-L-carnitine uptake, which is one of the biochemical markers of chronic fatigue syndrome, in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, the prefrontal cortex might be an important element of the neural system that regulates sensations of fatigue.

  3. The Neuroanatomical Basis of Panic Disorder and Social Phobia in Schizophrenia: A Voxel Based Morphometric Study

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    Picado, Marisol; Carmona, Susanna; Hoekzema, Elseline; Pailhez, Guillem; Bergé, Daniel; Mané, Anna; Fauquet, Jordi; Hilferty, Joseph; Moreno, Ana; Cortizo, Romina; Vilarroya, Oscar; Bulbena, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia. Methods Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure between-group differences, comparing magnetic resonance images of 20 anxious patients, 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 schizophrenic patients with comorbid anxiety, and 20 healthy control subjects. Results Compared to the schizophrenic patients, we observed smaller grey-matter volume (GMV) decreases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus in the schizophrenic-anxiety group. Additionally, the schizophrenic group showed significantly reduced GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal gyrus and angular/inferior parietal gyrus when compared to the control group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia might be characterized by specific neuroanatomical and clinical alterations that may be related to maladaptive emotion regulation related to anxiety. Even thought our findings need to be replicated, our study suggests that the identification of neural abnormalities involved in anxiety, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-anxiety may lead to an improved diagnosis and management of these conditions. PMID:25774979

  4. The neuroanatomical basis of panic disorder and social phobia in schizophrenia: a voxel based morphometric study.

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    Marisol Picado

    Full Text Available It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia.Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure between-group differences, comparing magnetic resonance images of 20 anxious patients, 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 schizophrenic patients with comorbid anxiety, and 20 healthy control subjects.Compared to the schizophrenic patients, we observed smaller grey-matter volume (GMV decreases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus in the schizophrenic-anxiety group. Additionally, the schizophrenic group showed significantly reduced GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal gyrus and angular/inferior parietal gyrus when compared to the control group.Our findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia might be characterized by specific neuroanatomical and clinical alterations that may be related to maladaptive emotion regulation related to anxiety. Even thought our findings need to be replicated, our study suggests that the identification of neural abnormalities involved in anxiety, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-anxiety may lead to an improved diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  5. Voxel-Based Morphometric Study on Chinese Blind Men's Brain Structure

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    YANG Chun-lan; PAN Wen-ju; ZHENG Lian

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown the functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind men.In order to study the changes of their brain structure,voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods are used.The regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) concentrations of magnetic resonance (MR) images from 11 blind people and 9 sighted control subjects are compared using standard VBM.Optimized VBM is also discussed to measure the absolute local volume of GM or WM.Consistent results are achieved by statistical analysis with these methods.There are distinct differences not only in visual cortex but also the sensory area,auditory area and motor area.GM concentrations in blind men significantly decreased in Brodmann 7 and 22.While in Brodmann 18 and 19,GM concentration increased.GM volumes decreased in Brodmann 3,4,6,9 and 45.On the other hand,both WM concentration and volume increased in Brodmann 7.These results suggest that early visual deprivation can lead to changes in the brain structural anatomy which is consistent with the cortical cross-modal reorganization found by functional imaging.It may help to discover the relationship between the brain structural anatomy and the brain functional data of blind men at a macroscopic level from neuroimaging perspective.

  6. A Voxel-Based Morphometric MRI Study in Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder.

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    Xinhu Jin

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has documented subtle changes in brain morphology and function in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, results of magnetic resonance imaging volumetry in patients with BPD are inconsistent. In addition, few researchers using voxel-based morphometry (VBM have focused on attachment and childhood trauma in BPD. This preliminary study was performed to investigate structural brain changes and their relationships to attachment and childhood trauma in a homogenous sample of young adults with BPD.We examined 34 young adults with BPD and 34 healthy controls (HCs to assess regionally specific differences in gray matter volume (GMV and gray matter concentration (GMC. Multiple regressions between brain volumes measured by VBM and attachment style questionnaire (ASQ and childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ scores were performed.Compared with HCs, subjects with BPD showed significant bilateral increases in GMV in the middle cingulate cortex (MCC/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC/precuneus. GMC did not differ significantly between groups. In multiple regression models, ASQ insecure attachment scores were correlated negatively with GMV in the precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus in HCs, HCs with more severe insecure attachment showed smaller volumes in precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus, whereas no negative correlations between insecure attachment and GMV in any region were found in BPD group. In addition, CTQ total scores were not correlated with GMV in any region in the two groups respectively.Our findings fit with those of previous reports of larger precuneus GMV in patients with BPD, and suggest that GMV in the precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus is associated inversely with insecure attachment style in HCs. Our finding of increased GMV in the MCC and PCC in patients with BPD compared with HCs has not been reported in previous VBM studies.

  7. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Lu, Fengmei; Huo, Yajun; Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Zhang, Jiang; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Huafu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM) approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV). The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  8. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Fengmei Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  9. Brain structure differences among male schizophrenic patients with history of serious violent acts: an MRI voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Kuroki, Noriomi; Kashiwagi, Hiroko; Ota, Miho; Ishikawa, Masanori; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Sato, Noriko; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Ota, Toshio

    2017-03-21

    The biological underpinnings of serious violent behaviors in patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of brain morphometry in patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts, who were being treated under relatively new legislation for offenders with mental illness in Japan where their relevant action should be strongly associated with their mental illness. We also investigated whether morphometric changes would depend on types of serious violent actions or not. Thirty-four male patients with schizophrenia who were hospitalized after committing serious violent acts were compared with 23 male outpatients or inpatients with schizophrenia and no history of violent acts. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry was used to assess gray matter volume. Additionally, patients with violent acts were divided based on whether their relevant actions were premeditated or not. The regional volumes of these two groups were compared to those of the control patient group. Patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts showed significantly smaller regional volumes of the right inferior temporal area expanded to the middle temporal gyrus and the temporal pole, and the right insular area compared to patients without a history of violence. Patients with premeditated violent acts showed significantly smaller regional volumes of the right inferior temporal area, the right insular area, the left planum polare area including the insula, and the bilateral precuneus area including the posterior cingulate gyrus than those without a history of violence, whereas patients with impulsive violent acts showed significantly smaller volumes of only the right inferior temporal area compared to those without a history of violence. Patients with schizophrenia and a history of serious violent acts showed structural differences in some brain regions compared to those with

  10. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

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    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland); Niskanen, Eini [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Haenninen, Tuomo [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  11. Cerebral gray matter volume variation in female-to-male transsexuals: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-12-16

    Several studies seem to support the hypothesis that brain anatomy is associated with transsexualism. However, these studies were still limited because few neuroanatomical findings have been obtained from female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. This study compared the cerebral regional volumes of gray matter (GM) between FtM transsexuals and female controls using a voxel-based morphometry. Twelve FtM transsexuals who had undergone sex-reassignment surgery and 15 female controls participated in this study. Both groups were age matched and right-handed, with no history of neurological illness. Fifteen female controls were recruited to determine whether GM volumes in FtM transsexuals more closely resembled individuals who shared their biological sex. MRI data were processed using SPM 8 with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). FtM transsexuals showed significantly larger volumes of the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, gyrus rectus, head of caudate nucleus, precentral gyrus, and subcallosal area compared with the female controls. However, the female controls showed a significantly larger volume in the superior temporal gyrus including Heschl's gyrus and Rolandic operculum. These findings confirm that the volume difference in brain substructures in FtM transsexuals is likely to be associated with transsexualism and that transsexualism is probably associated with distinct cerebral structures, determining gender identity.

  12. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

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    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  13. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Brooks, Samantha J; Barker, Gareth J; O'Daly, Owen G; Brammer, Michael; Williams, Steven C R; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B; Treasure, Janet; Campbell, Iain C

    2011-11-17

    Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN) have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Voxel based morphometry (VBM), corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN) and 21 women (HC) was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  14. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: a voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL.

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    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Singh, Namita; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Khushu, Subash

    2012-10-01

    To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: A voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL

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    Modi, Shilpi, E-mail: modi_shilpi@yahoo.co.in [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, Manisha, E-mail: manishab10@gmail.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Singh, Namita, E-mail: namita23m@gmail.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad, E-mail: director@inmas.drdo.in [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. Materials and methods: High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. Results: VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Conclusion: Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness.

  16. Late-life obesity is associated with smaller global and regional gray matter volumes: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Brooks, S J; Benedict, C; Burgos, J; Kempton, M J; Kullberg, J; Nordenskjöld, R; Kilander, L; Nylander, R; Larsson, E-M; Johansson, L; Ahlström, H; Lind, L; Schiöth, H B

    2013-02-01

    Obesity adversely affects frontal lobe brain structure and function. Here we sought to show that people who are obese versus those who are of normal weight over a 5-year period have differential global and regional brain volumes. Using voxel-based morphometry, contrasts were done between those who were recorded as being either obese or of normal weight over two time points in the 5 years prior to the brain scan. In a post-hoc preliminary analysis, we compared scores for obese and normal weight people who completed the trail-making task. A total of 292 subjects were examined following exclusions (for example, owing to dementia, stroke and cortical infarcts) from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort with a body mass index of normal weight (obese (30 kg m(-2)). People who were obese had significantly smaller total brain volumes and specifically, significantly reduced total gray matter (GM) volume (GMV) (with no difference in white matter or cerebrospinal fluid). Initial exploratory whole brain uncorrected analysis revealed that people who were obese had significantly smaller GMV in the bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left inferior frontal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus. Secondary more stringent corrected analyses revealed a surviving cluster of GMV difference in the left DLPFC. Finally, post-hoc contrasts of scores on the trail-making task, which is linked to DLPFC function, revealed that obese people were significantly slower than those of normal weight. These findings suggest that in comparison with normal weight, people who are obese have smaller GMV, particularly in the left DLPFC. Our results may provide evidence for a potential working memory mechanism for the cognitive suppression of appetite that may lower the risk of developing obesity in later life.

  17. The polymorphism of YWHAE, a gene encoding 14-3-3epsilon, and brain morphology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Mikio Kido

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: YWHAE is a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia that encodes 14-3-3epsilon, a Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1-interacting molecule, but the effect of variation in its genotype on brain morphology remains largely unknown. METHODS: In this voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study, we conducted whole-brain analyses regarding the effects of YWHAE single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs28365859, rs11655548, and rs9393 and DISC1 SNP (rs821616 on gray matter volume in a Japanese sample of 72 schizophrenia patients and 86 healthy controls. On the basis of a previous animal study, we also examined the effect of rs28365859 genotype specifically on hippocampal volume. RESULTS: Whole-brain analyses showed no significant genotype effect of these SNPs on gray matter volume in all subjects, but we found significant genotype-by-diagnosis interaction for rs28365859 in the left insula and right putamen. The protective C allele carriers of rs28365859 had a significantly larger left insula than the G homozygotes only for schizophrenia patients, while the controls with G allele homozygosity had a significantly larger right putamen than the C allele carriers. The C allele carriers had a larger right hippocampus than the G allele homozygotes in schizophrenia patients, but not in healthy controls. No significant interaction was found between rs28365859 and DISC1 SNP on gray matter volume. CONCLUSIONS: These different effects of the YWHAE (rs28365859 genotype on brain morphology in schizophrenia and healthy controls suggest that variation in its genotype might be, at least partly, related to the abnormal neurodevelopment, including in the limbic regions, reported in schizophrenia. Our results also suggest its specific role among YWHAE SNPs in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  18. Anatomic Correlation of the Mini-Mental State Examination: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study in Older Adults

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    Dinomais, Mickael; Celle, Sebastien; Duval, Guillaume T.; Roche, Frederic; Henni, Samir; Bartha, Robert; Beauchet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The clinical utility of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its shorter version (SMMSE) is still debated. There is a need to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of these cognitive tests. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether lower MMSE and SMMSE scores correlated with focal brain volume reduction in older adults. Participants from the GAIT study (n = 207; mean, 70.9±5.9 years; 57% female; mean MMSE 26.2±3.9; mean SMMSE 5.1±1.1) were evaluated using the MMSE and SMMSE and received a 1.5-Tesla MRI scan of the brain. Cortical gray and white matter subvolumes were automatically segmented using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Age, gender, education level, and total intracranial volume were included as potential confounders. We found correlations between the MMSE score and specific cortical regions of the limbic system including the hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, independently of the diagnostic category (i.e., mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease or controls). Regarding correlations with the SMMSE score, only one cluster in the left hippocampus was identified, which overlapped with the cluster that was positively correlated with the MMSE score. There were no correlations with the volume of white matter. In conclusion, worse MMSE and SMMSE scores were associated with gray matter atrophy mainly in the limbic system. This finding highlights that atrophy of specific brain regions are related to performance on the MMSE and the SMMSE tests, and provides new insights into the cognitive function probed by these tests. PMID:27741236

  19. Brain structural changes and their correlation with vascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients:a voxel-based morphometric study

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    Chunxia Wang; Kailiang Fu; Huaijun Liu; Fei Xing; Songyun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry has been used in the study of alterations in brain structure in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. These changes are associated with clinical indices. The age at onset, pathogenesis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus are different from those for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus may have different impacts on brain structure. Only a few studies of the alterations in brain structure in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients using voxel-based morphometry have been conducted, with inconsistent results. We detected subtle changes in the brain structure of 23 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and demonstrated that there was no signiifcant difference between the total volume of gray and white matter of the brain of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and that in controls. Regional atrophy of gray matter mainly occurred in the right temporal and left occipital cortex, while regional atrophy of white matter involved the right temporal lobe and the right cerebellar hemisphere. The ankle-brachial index in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus strongly correlated with the volume of brain regions in the default mode network. The ankle-brachial index, followed by the level of glycosylated hemoglobin, most strongly correlated with the volume of gray matter in the right temporal lobe. These data suggest that voxel-based morphometry could detect small structural changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Early macrovascular atherosclerosis may play a crucial role in subtle brain atro-phy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, with chronic hyperglycemia playing a lesser role.

  20. Comparison of grey matter and metabolic reductions in frontotemporal dementia using FDG-PET and voxel-based morphometric MR studies

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    Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki; Kono, Atsushi K. [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Neuroimaging Research, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regional differences between the morphologic and functional changes in the same patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) using statistical parametric mapping and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirteen FTD patients (mean age, 64.9 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.7), 20 sex-matched Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (mean age, 65.0 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.5), and 20 normal volunteers (mean age, 65.2 years old; mean MMSE score, 29.0) underwent both [{sup 18}F]FDG positron emission tomography and three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo MRI. Statistical parametric mapping was used to conduct a VBM analysis of the morphologic data, which were compared voxel by voxel with the results of a similar analysis of glucose metabolic data. FTD patients showed decreased grey matter volume and decreased glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe and anterior temporal lobe. In addition, there was a clear asymmetry in grey matter volume in FTD patients by the VBM analysis while the glucose metabolic data showed little asymmetry. In AD patients, glucose metabolic reduction occurred in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and parietal lobules while grey matter density decreased the least in the same patients. In FTD, metabolic and morphologic changes occur in the bilateral frontal lobe and temporal lobe with a limited asymmetry whereas there was considerable discordance in the AD group. (orig.)

  1. Relationship between Clinical Parameters and Brain Structure in Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients According to Onset Type: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Mony; Wang, Xiuyuan; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Yeon-Ha; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing, phenotypically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly the motor neuron system. The present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study investigated whether patterns of brain atrophy differ among sporadic ALS subtypes. Material and methods Sporadic ALS patients (n = 62) with normal cognition and age-matched healthy controls (n = 57) were included in the study. ALS patients were divided into limb- and bulbar-onset groups according to clinical manifestations at symptom onset (n = 48 and 14, respectively). Clinical measures were ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) score, disease duration, and forced vital capacity (FVC). Patterns of brain atrophy between ALS subgroups were compared by VBM. Results In limb-onset ALS patients, atrophy was largely confined to the motor cortex and adjacent pre- and postcentral regions. However, in the bulbar-onset group, affected regions were more widespread and included these same areas but also extended to the bilateral frontotemporal and left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri, and multiple regression analysis revealed that their ALSFRS-R scores were associated with extensive loss of gray matter while FVC was related to atrophy in subcortical regions of the left superior temporal gyrus. In limb-onset ALS patients, disease duration was related to the degree of atrophy in the motor and adjacent areas. Conclusion Sporadic ALS subtypes show different patterns of brain atrophy. Neural networks related to limb and bulbar motor functions in each ALS subtype may underlie their distinct patterns of cerebral atrophy. That is, more extensive cortical and subcortical atrophy is correlated with greater ALSFRS-R severity and shorter disease duration in the bulbar-onset subtype and may explain the poor prognosis of these patients. PMID:28095425

  2. Morphometric changes of whole brain in patients with alcohol addiction: a voxel-based morphometry study%酒精成瘾者的体素全脑形态测量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金锋; 陈志晔; 马林

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用基于体素的形态测量学( VBM)方法分析酒精成瘾患者脑结构的变化。方法 采用3.0T超导MR系统,对15例酒精成瘾者(患者组)和15例年龄和性别与之相匹配的正常成年志愿者(对照组)行MR脑结构像扫描,并应用VBM方法对图像进行分析,全脑体积的比较采用成组t检验。结果 酒精成瘾者局部灰质体积明显萎缩脑区为左侧额中回、额上回、楔前回、直回及右侧额上回内侧、眶回。白质萎缩的区域为双侧额上回白质。全脑体积分析显示患者组脑白质体积[ (675.14±70.62) ml]及脑实质体积[(1578.8l±199.05) ml]较对照组脑白质体积[(841.33±177.35) ml]及脑实质体积[(1722.13±117.62) ml]明显减小(t值分别为11.37、5.764,P值均<0.05),患者组全脑灰质体积[(903.67±139.87) ml]较对照组[(880.79±157.10) ml]未见减小(t =0.177,P>0.05)。结论 酒精成瘾者脑部早期变化可表现为局部脑灰质、白质结构的萎缩,额叶灰质及白质是酒精性脑损伤相对特异的脑区。VBM对于评估酒精性成瘾者脑萎缩有一定的价值。%Objective To evaluate morphometric changes of brain in patients with alcohol addiction by voxel-based morphometry. Methods Fifteen patients with alcohol addiction and 15 health controls were recruited and underwent fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and 3D fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) T1 -weighted sequences on a 3.0 T MRI system. 3D FSPGR T1 structure images were normalized,segmented and smoothed, and then underwent voxel-based morphometry. An ANCOVA was applied with age,body mass index ( BMI ), and education years as covariates because of exact sex match. A statistical threshold of P < 0. 01 (uncorrected) and more than continuous 50 voxels were determined as significant.Results Regional results showed there was a significant reduction of gray matter volume in left middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus

  3. Remote Cortical Reorganization following Sub-Cortical Infarction:A Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Study%皮层下梗死远隔皮层重塑VBM初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建新; 冀旗玲; 那旭; 李坤成

    2014-01-01

    目的 利用基于体素的形态学测量(VBM)方法,探讨皮层下梗死患者远隔部位的脑灰质结构重塑及其与运动预后的关系.方法 对11例皮层下梗死患者分别于发病5天内、3个月后行高分辨率MRI全脑容积扫描,并进行美国国立卫生院卒中量表(NIHSS)和运动力指数(MI)评估,应用VBM方法计算患者急性期、陈旧期全脑灰质体积的差异,并分析其与康复指标的相关性.结果 陈旧期时患侧中央前回、中扣带回及健侧小脑Ⅵ区、Crus1灰质体积明显减少,而健侧中央前回、眶额回、腹侧前额叶及患侧小脑Crus1灰质体积增加,且双侧中央前回、健侧小脑Ⅵ区、眶额回灰质体积与康复评分(NIHSS和MI)相关.结论 皮层下脑梗死后存在广泛的远隔皮层重塑,可能与患者预后相关,进一步的研究对揭示梗死后神经功能恢复机制具有重要意义.%Objective To investigate the reorganization in remote cerebral areas after sub-cortical infarction by using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV) analysis.Methods Eleven patients with ischemic stroke that involved sub-cortical regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 5 days and three months after the onset of the infarction.The patients were evaluated using National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Motricity Index (MI).Using VBM method the GMV of the acute stage and chronic stage was calculated and the results were compared between the two stages.The correlation between GMV and rehabilitation indexes (NIHSS and MI) was analyzed.Results Compared with the acute stage,significant decrease in GMV was found in the ipsi-lateral precentral gyrus (PreCG),midcingulate cortex and contralesional cerebellar lobule Ⅵ (CBVI),cerebellar lobule Crus 1 in the chronic stage,while significant increase in GMV was seen in the contra-lateral precentral gyrus,orbitofrontal cortex (OFC),ventral prefrontal cortex,and ipsi

  4. A voxel-based morphometric study on change of gray matter structures in cerebral palsy%基于体素形态测量学检测脑性瘫痪患儿脑灰质结构改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 王海宝; 余永强; 徐丽艳; 陈玉萍; 吴德

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure gray matter volume of whole brain with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method and to study brain structures associated with gross motor function.Method Forty children with cerebral palsy were recruited in the authors' hospital from Oct.2012 to Dec.2013 (26 male,14 female cases,average age (3.6 ± 2.0) years).Gross motor function classification system (GMFCS) for children was used to obtain their motor function.The whole-brain three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 3.0 T MRI scanner.The data were segmented by VBM 5,and the whole brain volumes of gray matter,white matter and cerebospinal fluid were produced.Correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation of GMFCS with whole brain volumes using SPM 5 in Matalab 7.1.Result The volume in left meditemporal gyrus (Z =3.57) and inferior temporal gyrus (Z =3.40),right thalamus and pallidum (Z =3.36),left thalamus and pallidum (Z =2.76),left supramarginal gyrus (Z =3.14),left precuneus gyrus (Z =3.00),right dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus (Z =3.08),right superior and medial occipital gyrus (Z =2.84) significantly increased as aggravation of gross motor dysfunction.The volume of the left medial orbitofrontal lobe and anterior cingulate (Z =3.28,3.02),left medial superior frontal gyrus (Z =3.19),left caudate (Z =3.04,2.94,2.92),left cerebellum (Z =2.94),right cerebellum (Z =2.97),left parahippocampal (Z =3.94),right parahippocampal (Z =3.43,3.00),left insula (Z =3.50),right insula (Z =3.41,3.80),left lingual (Z =3.37),right lingual (Z =3.30),left post cingulum (Z =2.73),left midioccipital gyrus (Z =2.92) and right miditemporal gyrus (Z =3.05) significantly reduced as the aggravation of gross motor dysfunction (P all < 0.005).Conclusion GMFCS in children with cerebral palsy is related to abnormalities of brain gray matter structure for motor,emotion,memory and default model network when examined with VBM method.%目的 应用基于体素形态测量学(VBM)技术

  5. Voxel-based morphometric analysis in hypothyroidism using diffeomorphic anatomic registration via an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Modi, S; Bagga, D; Kaur, P; Shankar, L R; Khushu, S

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether brain morphological differences exist between adult hypothyroid subjects and age-matched controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with diffeomorphic anatomic registration via an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were taken in ten healthy controls and ten hypothyroid subjects. The analysis was conducted using statistical parametric mapping. The VBM study revealed a reduction in grey matter volume in the left postcentral gyrus and cerebellum of hypothyroid subjects compared to controls. A significant reduction in white matter volume was also found in the cerebellum, right inferior and middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right inferior occipital gyrus and right temporal gyrus of hypothyroid patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, no meaningful cluster for greater grey or white matter volume was obtained in hypothyroid subjects compared to controls. Our study is the first VBM study of hypothyroidism in an adult population and suggests that, compared to controls, this disorder is associated with differences in brain morphology in areas corresponding to known functional deficits in attention, language, motor speed, visuospatial processing and memory in hypothyroidism. © 2012 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  6. Neural Correlates of Communication Skill and Symptom Severity in Autism: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Lauren K.; Hill, Dina E.; Thoma, Robert J.; Euler, Matthew J.; Lewine, Jeffrey D.; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have compared the brains of normal controls and individuals with autism, especially older, higher-functioning individuals with autism, little is known of the neural correlates of the vast clinical heterogeneity characteristic of the disorder. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine gray matter…

  7. Brain structure in diving players on MR imaging studied with voxel-based morphometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxia Wei; Jing Luo; Youfa Li

    2009-01-01

    We adopted professional diving players as a typical subject pool to explore whether structural brain differences relative to motor skill acquisition exist between highly skilled athletes and non-athletes. Based on the voxel-based morphometric (VBM) technique, structural MRIs of the brains of 12 elite diving players with professional training were analyzed and compared with those of control subjects with-out any professional physical training. Diving players showed significantly increased gray matter density in the thalamus and left pre-central gyrus than control subjects. However, future researches are needed to prove the contribution of preposition and practice. It also suggests that athletes as the subject pool could form a new subject pool to explore plastic change induced by motor skill acquisition.

  8. 运用基于体素的脑形态测量学法检测缺陷型及非缺陷型精神分裂症患者脑灰质结构异常%Gray matter volume differences in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia:a voxel-based morphometric study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓晟; 王湘; 颜莉蓉; 谭长连; 司徒卫军; 李亚军; 姚树桥

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the differences in the structure of brain white matter among deficit schizophrenia, nondeficit schizophrenia and healthy controls by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods Ten deficit schizophrenic patients, eleven nondeficit patients and fifteen healthy comparison subjects participated in the study. All the subjects were scanned by GE Twin Speed 1.5T MRI system. Whole brain, voxel-wise analyses of regional white matter volume were conducted by the VBM toolbox on the Matlab7.6 and SPM5. t -test was then used for the comparison between groups. Results Compared to the healthy controls, nondeficit schizophrenic patients significantly decreased the density of gray matter in the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobe and basal ganglia , while the deficit patients showed the characteristically broad and significant decreasion in the frontal lobe, including left medial frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and left orbital gyrus (Cluster ≥ 30 mm3, P<0.01). Moreover, deficit patients showed the decreasion in the temporal cortex and the limbic lobe (right insula). Relative to the nondeficit schizophrenic patients, deficit patients had significant regional gray matter decreases in the left medial frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right superior temporal gyrus (Cluster ≥ 30 mm3, P<0.01). Conclusion Structural heterogeneity in schizophrenia may relate to specific patterns of gray matter density reductions in deficit and nondeficit patient. However the two subtype of schizophremia patients share a common prefrontal-temperal pattern of structural brain alterations.%目的 应用基于体素的脑形态测量学(Voxel-based Morphometric,VBM)法,比较缺陷型与非缺陷型精神分裂症患者大脑灰质结构损害的差异.方法 采用GE Signa TwinSpeed 1.5T超导型MRI成像系统,对缺陷型精神分裂症(N=10)、非缺陷型精神分裂症(n=11)

  9. Differences in brain structure in patients with distinct sites of chronic pain A voxel-based morphometric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Mao; Longxiao Wei; Qiuli Zhang; Xia Liao; Xiaoli Yang; Ming Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A reduction in gray matter volume is common in patients with chronic back pain, and different types of pain are associated with gray matter abnormalities in distinct brain regions. To examine ences in brain morphology in patients with low back pain or neck and upper back pain, we gated changes in gray matter volume in chronic back pain patients having different sites of pain using voxel-based morphometry. A reduction in cortical gray matter volume was found primarily in the left postcentral gyrus and in the left precuneus and bilateral cuneal cortex of patients with low back pain. In these patients, there was an increase in subcortical gray matter volume in the bilateral putamen and accumbens, right pal idum, right caudate nucleus, and left amygdala. In upper back pain patients, reduced cortical gray matter volume was found in the left precentral and left tral cortices. Our findings suggest that regional gray matter volume abnormalities in low back pain patients are more extensive than in upper back pain patients. Subcortical gray matter volume in-creases are found only in patients with low back pain.

  10. Voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study of patients with early onset schizophrenia

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    Suzuki Katsuaki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation into the whole brain morphology of early onset schizophrenia (EOS to date has been sparse. We studied the regional brain volumes in EOS patients, and the correlations between regional volume measures and symptom severity. Methods A total of 18 EOS patients (onset under 16 years and 18 controls matched for age, gender, parental socioeconomic status, and height were examined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis using the Brain Analysis Morphological Mapping (BAMM software package was employed to explore alterations of the regional grey (GM and white matter (WM volumes in EOS patients. Symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results EOS patients had significantly reduced GM volume in the left parahippocampal, inferior frontal, and superior temporal gyri, compared with the controls. They also had less WM volume in the left posterior limb of the internal capsule and the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The positive symptom score of PANSS (higher values corresponding to more severe symptoms was negatively related to GM volume in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus. The negative symptom score was positively correlated with GM volume in the right thalamus. As for the association with WM volume, the positive symptom score of PANSS was positively related to cerebellar WM (vermis region, and negatively correlated with WM in the brain stem (pons and in the bilateral cerebellum (hemisphere region. Conclusion Our findings of regional volume alterations of GM and WM in EOS patients coincide with those of previous studies of adult onset schizophrenia patients. However, in brain regions that had no overall structural differences between EOS patients and controls (that is, the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, the right thalamus, the cerebellum, and the pons, within-subject analysis of EOS patients alone revealed that there were significant associations of the volume in these areas

  11. Neuroanatomy of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia : A quantitative meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Costafreda, Sergi G.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, Andre; Allen, Paul

    Introduction: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies demonstrate grey matter volume (GMV) deficits in schizophrenia. This method is also applied for detecting associations between specific psychotic symptoms and brain structure, such as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). However, due to differing

  12. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: a Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

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    Camila Callegari Piccinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia. Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in craniocervical dystonia but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry to identify patterns of gray matter changes in craniocervical dystonia.Methods: We compared 27 patients with craniocervical dystonia matched in age and gender to 54 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes. We created a two-sample t-test corrected for subjects’ age and we tested with a level of significance of p<0.001 and false discovery rate correction (p<0.05. Results: Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated significant reductions of gray matter using p<0.001 in the cerebellar vermis IV/V, bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, lingual gyrus and calcarine fissure; in the left hemisphere in the supplemementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, rolandic operculum , hippocampus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellar lobules IV/V, superior and middle temporal gyri; in the right hemisphere, the middle cingulate and precentral gyrus. Our study did not report any significant result using the false discovery rate correction. We also detected correlations between gray matter volume and age, disease duration, duration of botulinum toxin treatment and the Marsden-Fahn dystonia scale scores.Conclusions: We detected large clusters of gray matter changes chiefly in structures primarily involved in sensorimotor integration, motor planning, visuospatial function and emotional processing.

  13. Neural correlates of anxiety in healthy volunteers: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Maria Vittoria; Wood, Jacqueline N; De Simone, Veronica; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that the amygdala, temporal, and prefrontal cortices play a key role in the expression of anxiety. The correlation between gray matter volume of these structures and behavioral anxiety measures was not previously investigated in healthy volunteers. The authors used voxel-based morphometry to assess the relationship between brain regional volume and anxiety. The authors found an inverse correlation between anxiety measures and cortical volume in regions of the limbic system and prefrontal cortex implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. The authors suggest that volumetric variability of these regions may have a correlation with the development of an anxious personality trait.

  14. Structural covariance in the hallucinating brain: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modinos, Gemma; Vercammen, Ans; Mechelli, Andrea; Knegtering, Henderikus; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, André

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies have indicated that a number of cortical regions express altered patterns of structural covariance in schizophrenia. The relation between these alterations and specific psychotic symptoms is yet to be investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry to examine regional grey matter volumes and structural covariance associated with severity of auditory verbal hallucinations. Methods We applied optimized voxel-based morphometry to volumetric magnetic resonance imaging data from 26 patients with medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs); statistical inferences were made at p < 0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Results Grey matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus was positively correlated with severity of AVHs. Hallucination severity influenced the pattern of structural covariance between this region and the left superior/middle temporal gyri, the right inferior frontal gyrus and hippocampus, and the insula bilaterally. Limitations The results are based on self-reported severity of auditory hallucinations. Complementing with a clinician-based instrument could have made the findings more compelling. Future studies would benefit from including a measure to control for other symptoms that may covary with AVHs and for the effects of antipsychotic medication. Conclusion The results revealed that overall severity of AVHs modulated cortical intercorrelations between frontotemporal regions involved in language production and verbal monitoring, supporting the critical role of this network in the pathophysiology of hallucinations. PMID:19949723

  15. Neuroanatomical correlates of attitudes toward suicide in a large healthy sample: A voxel-based morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijuan; Wang, Yongchao; Liu, Wei; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Du, Xue; Tian, Xue; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that permissive attitudes toward suicide are positively associated with mental illness (e.g., depression and loneliness). Evidence suggests that there are abnormalities in the cognitive and brain functioning of suicidal patients. Nevertheless, there has been no evidence of the correlation between attitudes toward suicide and abnormal brain structure variations in healthy people. Therefore, in this study, we seek to investigate the neuroanatomical differences in healthy participants with regard to attitudes toward suicide. The results show that permissive attitudes toward suicide were significantly correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum in the large sample (n=405), which may be related to inefficient inhibitory control of negative emotion. Then, in a subset of healthy individuals with permissive attitudes (n=113), we also observed that stronger permissive attitudes toward suicide were positively related to the larger GMV in the left DLPFC and the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), which may be associated with sensitivity of emotional feeling. Furthermore, loneliness had a mediating effect on the relation between the DLPFC volume and attitudes toward suicide. Taken together, neuroanatomical differences in healthy participants with permissive attitudes toward suicide may provide a better understanding of permissive attitudes toward suicide as a likely risk factor for suicidal behavior.

  16. A Voxel-based Morphometric Analysis of Cerebral Gray Matter in Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia Patients and Normal Aged Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanming Li, Hanjian Du, Jian Zheng, Jian Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study was designed to detect the abnormalities of the cerebral grey-matter density in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patients by FSL-VBM method to promote the early diagnosis of it.METHODS: Nine subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patients and nine age-matched normal controls underwent MRI brain structure scanning that was performed on a SIEMENS AVANTO 1.5 Tesla scanner and standard T1-weighted high-resolution anatomic scans of MPRAGE sequence were obtained. The 3-demensional MPRAGE images were processed with FSL-VBM package and the cerebral gray matter density was compared between the subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patients and normal controls.RESULTS: Compared with the normal control group, the cerebral gray matter density of subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patients was found significantly decreasing, including brain regions of thalamus, parietal lobe, frontal lobe and temporal lobe (P<0.05.CONCLUSIONS: The cerebral gray matter density alterations have closed correlation with cognitive dysfunction in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia patient and can be detected by MRI. MRI has some potential value in the diagnosis of them.

  17. Gray matter abnormalities in Internet addiction: A voxel-based morphometry study

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    Zhou Yan, E-mail: clare1475@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lin Fuchun, E-mail: fclin@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Du Yasong, E-mail: yasongdu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Qin Lingdi, E-mail: flyingfool838@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Zhao Zhimin, E-mail: zmzsky@163.com [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xu Jianrong, E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lei Hao, E-mail: leihao@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Background: This study aims to investigate brain gray matter density (GMD) changes in adolescents with Internet addiction (IA) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis on high-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images. Methods: Eighteen IA adolescents and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls took part in this study. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on the two groups. VBM analysis was used to compare the GMD between the two groups. Results: Compared with healthy controls, IA adolescents had lower GMD in the left anterior cingulate cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and left lingual gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that brain structural changes were present in IA adolescents, and this finding may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of IA.

  18. Do manual and voxel-based morphometry measure the same? – A proof of concept study

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    Niels K. Focke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based morphometry (VBM is a commonly used method to study volumetric variations on a whole brain basis. However it is often criticised for potential confounds, mainly based on imperfect spatial registration. We therefore aimed to evaluate if VBM and gold-standard manual volumetry are measuring the same effects with respect to subcortical grey matter volumes. Manual regions-of-interest (ROIs were drawn in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, putamen, pallidum and caudate nucleus bilaterally. Resulting volumes were used for a whole brain VBM correlation analysis with SPM8. The hippocampus, amygdala, putamen and caudate nucleus were correctly identified by SPM using the contemporary high-dimensional normalization (DARTEL toolbox. This strongly suggests that VBM and manual volumetry both are indeed measuring the same effects with regard to subcortical brain structures.

  19. Brain Gray Matter Atrophy after Spinal Cord Injury: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

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    Nan Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore possible changes in whole brain gray matter volume (GMV after spinal cord injury (SCI using voxel-based morphometry (VBM, and to study their associations with the injury duration, severity, and clinical variables. In total, 21 patients with SCI (10 with complete and 11 with incomplete SCI and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs were recruited. The 3D high-resolution T1-weighted structural images of all subjects were obtained using a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. Disease duration and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA Scale scores were also obtained from each patient. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was carried out to investigate the differences in GMV between patients with SCI and HCs, and between the SCI sub-groups. Associations between GMV and clinical variables were also analyzed. Compared with HCs, patients with SCI showed significant GMV decrease in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral anterior insular cortex, bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC, and right superior temporal gyrus. No significant difference in GMV in these areas was found either between the complete and incomplete SCI sub-groups, or between the sub-acute (duration <1 year and chronic (duration >1 year sub-groups. Finally, the GMV of the right OFC was correlated with the clinical motor scores of left extremities in not only all SCI patients, but especially the CSCI subgroup. In the sub-acute subgroup, we found a significant positive correlation between the dACC GMV and the total clinical motor scores, and a significant negative correlation between right OFC GMV and the injury duration. These findings indicate that SCI can cause remote atrophy of brain gray matter, especially in the salient network. In general, the duration and severity of SCI may be not associated with the degree of brain atrophy in total SCI patients, but there may be associations between them in subgroups.

  20. Altered anatomical asymmetry in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot optimized voxel-based morphometric study%注意缺陷多动障碍儿童全脑灰质非对称性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庆久; 王珏; 孙黎; 王鹏; 吴赵敏; 王玉凤

    2014-01-01

    目的 采用优化的基于体素的形态学测量(OVBM)的方法初步探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)儿童全脑灰质结构左右非对称性异常.方法 2005年1月至2006年12月在北京大学第六医院门诊、符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)中ADHD诊断标准的25例男孩(ADHD组)及27名年龄、性别、利手相匹配的正常对照(对照组),使用定式临床诊断性会谈量表(CDIS)进行临床诊断及分型,采集结构磁共振成像(MRI)数据,使用OVBM的方法,计算出全脑灰质每个体素的非对称性指数(AI),对AI进行组间比较.结果 两组被试全脑灰质的非对称模式相似,组间比较发现ADHD患者额上回(MNI坐标:17,49,26)及额中回(MNI坐标:33,-5,63)的非对称性与正常对照的左>右的模式相反(经过整体错误率进行多重比较校正至P <0.05).结论 ADHD儿童存在前额叶灰质左右非对称性的异常,非对称性异常可能是ADHD的神经病理机制之一.%Objective Mounting evidence suggests that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related with abnormal anatomical asymmetry in some brain regions,such as basal ganglia.However,few cross-sectional studies have examined the abnormalities of anatomical asymmetry in whole brain of ADHD.Thus this cross-sectional study was to explore the anatomical asymmetry in whole brain of ADHD with optimized voxel-based morphometry (OVBM).Methods Twenty-five boys with ADHD and 27 age and gender-matched controls were recruited.All participants were right-handed.The grey matter concentration of each voxel was calculated with OVBM.A statistical evaluation of grey matter asymmetry was then conducted on normalized grey matter images and their flipped counterparts.Results One-sample t-test revealed that the whole-brain anatomical asymmetry pattern was similar in two groups.Through group comparisons,ADHD showed reversed left-greater-than-right asymmetry in superior and middle frontal gyri versus

  1. Gray Matter Volume Decreases in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Caroline; Schuller, Anne Marie; Paulos, Carlos; Namer, Izzie; Pull, Charles; Danion, Jean Marie; Foucher, Jack René

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aged patients (>50 years old) with residual schizophrenic symptoms differ from young patients. They represent a subpopulation with a more unfavorable Kraepelinian course and have an increased risk (up to 30%) for dementia of unknown origin. However, our current understanding of age-related brain changes in schizophrenia is derived from studies that included less than 17% of patients who were older than 50 years of age. This study investigated the anatomical distribution of gray matter (GM) brain deficits in aged patients with ongoing schizophrenia. Methods: Voxel-based morphometry was applied to 3D-T1 magnetic resonance images obtained from 27 aged patients with schizophrenia (mean age of 60 years) and 40 age-matched normal controls. Results: Older patients with schizophrenia showed a bilateral reduction of GM volume in the thalamus, the prefrontal cortex, and in a large posterior region centered on the occipito-temporo-parietal junction. Only the latter region showed accelerated GM volume loss with increasing age. None of these results could be accounted for by institutionalization, antipsychotic medication, or cognitive scores. Conclusions: This study replicated most common findings in patients with schizophrenia with regard to thalamic and frontal GM deficits. However, it uncovered an unexpected large region of GM atrophy in the posterior tertiary cortices. The latter observation may be specific to this aged and chronically symptomatic subpopulation, as atrophy in this region is rarely reported in younger patients and is accelerated with age. PMID:21205677

  2. Neurostructural correlates of two subtypes of specific phobia: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Kevin; Evens, Ricarda; Maslowski, Nina Isabel; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lueken, Ulrike

    2015-02-28

    The animal and blood-injection-injury (BII) subtypes of specific phobia are both characterized by subjective fear but distinct autonomic reactions to threat. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have related these characteristic responses to shared and non-shared neural underpinnings. However, no comparative structural data are available. This study aims to fill this gap by comparing the two subtypes and also comparing them with a non-phobic control group. Gray and white matter data of 33 snake phobia subjects (SP), 26 dental phobia subjects (DP), and 37 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. Especially DP differed from HC and SP by showing significantly increased grey matter volumes in widespread areas including the right subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left orbitofrontal and left prefrontal (PFC) cortices. In addition, white matter volume was significantly increased in the left PFC in DP compared with SP. These results are in line with functional changes observed in dental phobia and point toward those brain circuits associated with emotional processing and regulation. Future studies should aim to further delineate functional and structural connectivity alterations in specific phobia.

  3. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  4. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients:a voxel-based morphometry study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wu; Lin Chen; Lin Bai; Juan Nie; San Zhang; Yan Xiong; Yu Bai; Can-xin Yin; Fan-rong Liang; Yu-mei Zhou; Fang Zeng; Zheng-jie Li; Lu Luo; Yong-xin Li; Wei Fan; Li-hua Qiu; Wei Qin

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed signiifcantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clin-ical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = –0.609,P = 0.047) and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deifciency scale (r = –0.737,P = 0.010). Our ifndings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  5. The brain structure correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H; Song, Y; Xu, M; Wang, X; Li, X; Liu, J

    2014-07-11

    Mindfulness is the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present, which is beneficial for reducing stress-related symptoms and improving mental and physical health. Previous studies have demonstrated that meditation practice can improve individuals' mindfulness through modifying functions and structures of multiple brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, fronto-limbic network, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and temporal-parietal junction. However, little is known about the neuroanatomical correlates of trait mindfulness. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the neural correlates of individual differences in trait mindfulness by correlating the gray matter (GM) volume of each voxel across the whole brain with trait mindfulness measured by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in a large sample of young adults (N=247). We found that individuals who were more mindful of the present had greater GM volume in the right hippocampus/amygdala and bilateral ACC, but less GM volume in bilateral PCC and the left orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that trait mindfulness is associated with brain regions involved in executive attention, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing, through which mindfulness may exert its beneficial effects on psychological and physical well-being.

  6. Different brain structures associated with artistic and scientific creativity: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baoguo; Cao, Xiaoqing; Chen, Qunlin; Zhuang, Kaixiang; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is the ability to produce original and valuable ideas or behaviors. In real life, artistic and scientific creativity promoted the development of human civilization; however, to date, no studies have systematically investigated differences in the brain structures responsible for artistic and scientific creativity in a large sample. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study identified differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV) across the brain between artistic and scientific creativity (assessed by the Creative Achievement Questionnaire) in 356 young, healthy subjects. The results showed that artistic creativity was significantly negatively associated with the regional GMV of the supplementary motor area (SMA) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, scientific creativity was significantly positively correlated with the regional GMV of the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG). Overall, artistic creativity was associated with the salience network (SN), whereas scientific creativity was associated with the executive attention network and semantic processing. These results may provide an effective marker that can be used to predict and evaluate individuals’ creative performance in the fields of science and art. PMID:28220826

  7. Creativity and borderline personality disorder: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutgeb, Verena; Ille, Rottraut; Wabnegger, Albert; Schienle, Anne; Schöggl, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Fink, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the history, various examples of eminent creative people suffering from mental disorders along with some empirical research reports strengthened the idea of a potential link between creativity and psychopathology. This study investigated different facets of psychometrically determined creativity in 20 females diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) relative to 19 healthy female controls. In addition, group differences in grey matter (GM) were examined. Behavioural findings revealed no significant differences between the BPD group and healthy controls with respect to verbal and figural-graphic creative task performance and creativity-related personality characteristics. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a distinct pattern of GM reductions in the BPD group (relative to controls) in a network of brain regions closely associated with various cognitive and emotional functions (including the bilateral orbital inferior frontal gyri and the left superior temporal gyrus), partly overlapping with creativity-related brain regions. Correlation analyses moreover revealed that in the BPD group GM reductions in the orbital parts of the inferior and middle frontal gyri were associated with lower levels of creativity. This study provides no indications in favour of the putative link between creativity and psychopathology, as sometimes reported in the literature.

  8. Brain correlates of pro-social personality traits: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Joana F; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Miguel; Soares, José M; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2013-09-01

    Of the five personality dimensions described by the Big Five Personality Model (Costa and McCrae 1992), Extraversion and Agreeableness are the traits most commonly associated with a pro-social orientation. In this study we tested whether a pro-social orientation, as expressed in terms of Extraversion and Agreeableness, is associated with a specific grey matter phenotype. Fifty-two healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), a self-report measure of the Big Five personality traits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate the correlation between brain structure and the personality traits of Agreeableness and Extraversion. We found that Extraversion was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the middle frontal and orbitofrontal gyri while Agreeableness was negatively correlated with grey matter density in the inferior parietal, middle occipital and posterior cingulate gyri. No positive correlations were found. These results suggest that pro-social personality traits seem to be associated with decreases in grey matter density in more frontal regions for Extraversion, and more posterior regions for Agreeableness.

  9. Grey matter abnormalities in untreated hyperthyroidism: A voxel-based morphometry study using the DARTEL approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: will.zhang.1111@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Leshan 614000 (China); Song, Lingheng, E-mail: songlh1023@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, No. 324 Hospital of PLA, Chongqing 400020 (China); Yin, Xuntao, E-mail: xuntaoyin@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhang, Jiuquan, E-mail: jiuquanzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Chen, E-mail: cqliuchen@foxmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: wangjian_811@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Daiquan, E-mail: zhoudq77@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chen, Bing, E-mail: chenbing3@medmail.com.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Lii, Haitao, E-mail: haitaolii023@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with pronounced neuropsychiatric symptoms such as impulsiveness, irritability, poor concentration, and memory impairments. Functional neuroimaging has revealed changes in cerebral metabolism in hyperthyroidism, but regional changes in cortical morphology associated with specific neurological deficits have not been studied so far. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroid-associated neural dysfunction, we compared grey matter volume (GMV) between adult hyperthyroid patients and matched healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Materials and methods: High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired by 3T MRI from 51 hyperthyroid patients and 51 controls. VBM analysis was performed using SPM8. Correlations between regional GMV and both serum free thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and disease duration were assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Compared to controls, GM volumes in the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, calcarine, lingual gyrus, and left temporal pole were lower and bilateral supplementary motor area GMV higher in hyperthyroid patients. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentration was negatively correlated with the normalized regional volume (NRV) of the left parahippocampal gyrus and serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus and right parahippocampal gyrus. Disease duration was negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and left temporal pole. Conclusion: Hyperthyroid patients exhibited reduced GMV in regions associated with memory, attention, emotion, vision, and motor planning. Negative correlations between GMV and both free TH and disease duration suggest that chronic TH elevation induces abnormalities in the adult cortex.

  10. Different traits of gray matter volume in general anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder:A voxel-based morphometric study%广泛性焦虑障碍和强迫障碍的基于体素的大脑灰质体积研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎浩; 黄悦勤; 刘肇瑞; 韩鸿宾; 张岱

    2015-01-01

    structural MRI scan.The severity of anxiety and OCD symptoms were rated in all patients with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA)and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).The gray matter volume (GMV)was compared between all groups by using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM)a- nalysis.The correlation analysis between GMV and total scores of HAMA and Y-BOCS was performed in GAD and OCD.Results:The GMV was increased in regions including left anterior cingulate cortex in GAD (P =0.016,small volume correction),while only decreased GMV was observed in OCD in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)(P <0.001,uncorrected).GAD had larger GMV than OCD in several regions including bilateral OFC (P <0.001,un-corrected).The higher total score of HAMA was associated with increased GMV of right temporal cortex in GAD, and with the GMV of OFC in OCD (P <0.001,uncorrected).Conclusion:No sharing of GMV abnormalities in GAD and OCD was observed in the current study.The traits of brain structure and the potential neural substrate of anxiety symptom in GAD and OCD may be significantly different.

  11. Brain volumetric abnormalities in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-09-30

    Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroanatomical phenotype of Klinefelter syndrome in childhood: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Daniel M; Hoeft, Fumiko; Lai, Song; Lackey, John; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith; Reiss, Allan L

    2011-05-04

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic disorder characterized by a supernumerary X chromosome. As such, KS offers a naturally occurring human model for the study of both X-chromosome gene expression and androgen on brain development. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed neuroanatomical variations associated with KS, but have differed widely with respect to subject inclusion criteria, including mosaicism, pubertal status, and history of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), all factors likely to influence neurodevelopment. We conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of regional gray and white matter (GM and WM, respectively) volumes in 31 KS males (mean age, 9.69 ± 1.70 years) and 36 typically developing (TD) male controls (10.99 ± 1.72 years). None of the participants with KS had received TRT, and all were prepubertal and had nonmosaic 47,XXY karyotypes. After controlling for age, males with KS showed trends (0.05 < p < 0.10) for significantly reduced total gray matter volume (TGMV) and total white matter volume (TWMV), relative to TD males. After controlling for TGMV and age, the KS group had significantly increased sensorimotor and parietal-occipital GM and significantly reduced amygdalar, hippocampal, insular, temporal, and inferior frontal GM relative to TD controls. After controlling for TWMV and age, the KS group had significantly increased left parietal WM as well as significantly reduced frontal and temporal WM. These findings are indicative of a characteristic prepubertal neuroanatomical phenotype that may be associated with cognitive-behavioral features of KS. This work offers new insight into the relationships among X-chromosome gene expression, neuroanatomy, and cognitive-behavioral functions impaired in KS, including language and attention.

  13. Theory of mind and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miyata, Jun; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Yamada, Makiko; Namiki, Chihiro; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2008-10-01

    Impaired ability to infer the mental states of others (theory of mind; ToM) is considered to be a key contributor to the poor social functioning of patients with schizophrenia. Although neuroimaging and lesion studies have provided empirical evidence for the neural basis of ToM ability, including the involvement of several prefrontal and temporal structures, the association between pathology of these structures and ToM impairment in schizophrenia patients is less well understood. To address this issue, we investigated structural brain abnormalities and ToM impairment in patients with schizophrenia, and examined the relationship between them. Twenty schizophrenia patients and 20 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were examined for ToM ability based on the revised version of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (or Eyes) test [Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Hill, J., Raste, Y., Plumb, I., 2001. The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test revised version: A study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 42, 241-251]. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to investigate regional brain alterations. Relative to normal controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited gray matter reductions in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right insula. The patients performed poorly on the Eyes test. Importantly, poor performance on the Eyes test was found to be associated with gray matter reduction in the left VLPFC in the patient group. These results suggest that prefrontal cortical reduction, especially in the left VLPFC, is a key pathology underlying the difficulties faced by schizophrenia patients in inferring the mental states of others.

  14. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Simon

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17 and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females. We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri. These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  15. Sensitivity study of voxel-based PET image comparison to image registration algorithms

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    Yip, Stephen, E-mail: syip@lroc.harvard.edu; Chen, Aileen B.; Berbeco, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Aerts, Hugo J. W. L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Accurate deformable registration is essential for voxel-based comparison of sequential positron emission tomography (PET) images for proper adaptation of treatment plan and treatment response assessment. The comparison may be sensitive to the method of deformable registration as the optimal algorithm is unknown. This study investigated the impact of registration algorithm choice on therapy response evaluation. Methods: Sixteen patients with 20 lung tumors underwent a pre- and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) and 4D FDG-PET scans before and after chemoradiotherapy. All CT images were coregistered using a rigid and ten deformable registration algorithms. The resulting transformations were then applied to the respective PET images. Moreover, the tumor region defined by a physician on the registered PET images was classified into progressor, stable-disease, and responder subvolumes. Particularly, voxels with standardized uptake value (SUV) decreases >30% were classified as responder, while voxels with SUV increases >30% were progressor. All other voxels were considered stable-disease. The agreement of the subvolumes resulting from difference registration algorithms was assessed by Dice similarity index (DSI). Coefficient of variation (CV) was computed to assess variability of DSI between individual tumors. Root mean square difference (RMS{sub rigid}) of the rigidly registered CT images was used to measure the degree of tumor deformation. RMS{sub rigid} and DSI were correlated by Spearman correlation coefficient (R) to investigate the effect of tumor deformation on DSI. Results: Median DSI{sub rigid} was found to be 72%, 66%, and 80%, for progressor, stable-disease, and responder, respectively. Median DSI{sub deformable} was 63%–84%, 65%–81%, and 82%–89%. Variability of DSI was substantial and similar for both rigid and deformable algorithms with CV > 10% for all subvolumes. Tumor deformation had moderate to significant impact on DSI for progressor

  16. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise.

  17. Voxel Based Analysis of Surgical Revascularization for Moyamoya Disease: Pre- and Postoperative SPECT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Fushimi

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease (MMD is a chronic, progressive, cerebrovascular occlusive disease that causes abnormal enlargement of collateral pathways (moyamoya vessels in the region of the basal ganglia and thalamus. Cerebral revascularization procedures remain the preferred treatment for patients with MMD, improving the compromised cerebral blood flow (CBF. However, voxel based analysis (VBA of revascularization surgery for MMD based on data from pre- and postoperative data has not been established. The latest algorithm called as Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL has been introduced for VBA as the function of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8, and improved registration has been achieved by SPM8 with DARTEL. In this study, VBA was conducted to evaluate pre- and postoperative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images for MMD by SPM8 with DARTEL algorithm, and the results were compared with those from SPM8 without DARTEL (a conventional method. Thirty-two patients with MMD who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA bypass surgery as the first surgery were included and all patients underwent pre- and postoperative 3D T1-weighted imaging and SPECT. Pre- and postoperative SPECT images were registered to 3D T1-weighted images, then VBA was conducted. Postoperative SPECT showed more statistically increased CBF areas in the bypassed side cerebral hemisphere by using SPM8 with DARTEL (58,989 voxels; P<0.001, and increased ratio of CBF after operation was less than 15%. Meanwhile, postoperative SPECT showed less CBF increased areas by SPM8 without DARTEL. In conclusion, VBA was conducted for patients with MMD, and SPM8 with DARTEL revealed that postoperative SPECT showed statistically significant CBF increases over a relatively large area and with at most 15% increase ratio.

  18. Brain glucose metabolism is associated with hormone level in Cushing's disease: A voxel-based study using FDG-PET

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Liu; Yinyan Wang; Kaibin Xu; Fan Ping; Renzhi Wang; Fang Li; Xin Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the...

  19. 轻度认知损害和阿尔茨海默病的大脑灰质体积及其与记忆功能的关系%Relationship between the brain gray matter volume and memory performance in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer' s disease: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毅; 王华丽; 苏敏莹; 袁慧书; 李涛; 张美燕; 于欣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the gray matter loss measured with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and memory performance in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Eighty-six subjects were recruited, including 56 patients with mild AD, 14 subjects with MCI, and 16 healthy controls. All subjects were administered the comprehensive memory tests, All 3D T1 images were analyzed by using the procedures of optimized VBM analysis. Results Compared to control group, memory performance were significantly worse in AD and MCI groups, in a pattern of AD < MCI < control. Gray matter loss was detected extensively in the temporal, frontal and parietal lobes in AD group. There was More severe atrophy in frontal and parietal lobes in AD compared to MCI group. In AD group, the 3D statistical maps showed extensive cortical areas in the temporal, frontal and parietal lobes were linked to immediate object memory performance. Score of 30-min delayed recall of objects was correlated strongly with the gray matter density in the bilateral superior frontal gyri, thalamus, right anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyri, middle temporal gyri, and paracentral lobule (P < 0.01). Composite memory score was closely correlated with the gray matter density in the left parahippocampal gyrus, middle temporal gyri, precuneus, superior frontal gyri, middle frontal gyri, cingulate gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus, medial frontal gyri, and inferior frontal gyri (P < 0.01). In MCI and NC groups, suprathreshold clusters were not correlated with the memory scores. Conclusion Memory impairment is strongly correlated with extensive cerebral atrophy in AD. Brain volume in MCI individuals are not significantly correlated with memory performance, suggesting that memory impairment, an early sign of MCI, may not be directly attributable to brain atrophy. Further investigations on microstructural or functional connectivity are warranted.%目的

  20. Structural differences in gray matter between glider pilots and non-pilots. A voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosif eAhamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full body rotations. In the present study we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction and oculomotor control.

  1. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Born, A Peter; Nagy, Zoltan;

    2008-01-01

    stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants have suggested developmental delays, the results of this study are more consistent with accelerated white matter development, possibly as a result of increased sensorimotor stimulation in the extrauterine environment. These results are the first......Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal...

  2. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A; Robertson, Diana C

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  3. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Prehn

    Full Text Available Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema, whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2 which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  4. MRI Correlates of Parkinson’s Disease Progression: A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Fioravanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated structural brain differences between a group of early-mild PD patients at different phases of the disease and healthy subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. 20 mild PD patients compared to 15 healthy at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. VBM is a fully automated technique, which allows the identification of regional differences in the gray matter enabling an objective analysis of the whole brain between groups of subjects. With respect to controls, PD patients exhibited decreased GM volumes in right putamen and right parietal cortex. After 2 years of disease, the same patients confirmed GM loss in the putamen and parietal cortex; a significant difference was also observed in the area of pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN and in the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR. PD is associated with brain morphological changes in cortical and subcortical structures. The first regions to be affected in PD seem to be the parietal cortex and the putamen. A third structure that undergoes atrophy is the part of the inferior-posterior midbrain, attributable to the PPN and MLR. Our findings provide new insight into the brain involvement in PD and could contribute to a better understanding of the sequence of events occurring in these patients.

  5. Neuroanatomical abnormalities before onset of delusions in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakaaki S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shutaro Nakaaki,1 Junko Sato,2 Katsuyoshi Torii,2 Mizuki Oka,1 Atsushi Negi,2 Takashi Nakamae,3 Jin Narumoto,3 Jun Miyata,4 Toshi A Furukawa,5 Masaru Mimura11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 3Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 5Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior (Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto, JapanBackground: Structural brain abnormalities associated with delusions in Alzheimer’s disease are poorly understood. In addition, whether the neural substrate underlying the delusions develops before the onset of the delusions is unclear. In this study, we used a voxel-based morphometry approach to examine the existence of regional structural abnormalities at baseline in patients with Alzheimer’s disease who did and who did not develop delusions.Methods: Using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, we identified patients with Alzheimer’s disease who exhibited delusions during a 2-year period. All the patients had undergone a magnetic resonance imaging examination at the start of the study period (baseline. We conducted a voxel-based morphometry analysis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM5 software and compared the results of patients with Alzheimer’s disease who did and did not develop delusions.Results: Compared with the patients who did not develop delusions (n = 35, the patients who did develop delusions (n = 18 had significantly smaller gray matter volumes on both sides of the parahippocampal gyrus, the right posterior cingulate gyrus, the right orbitofrontal cortex, both sides of the inferior frontal cortex, the right

  6. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  7. Gray Matter Atrophy within the Default Mode Network of Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, studies have demonstrated morphological changes in the brain of fibromyalgia (FMS. We aimed to conduct a coordinate-based meta-analytic research through systemic review on voxel-based morphometry (VBM imaging results to identify consistent gray matter (GM difference between FMS patients and healthy subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search in PubMed (January 2000–December 2015 and included six VBM publication on FMS. Stereotactic data were extracted from 180 patients of FMS and 123 healthy controls. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE technique, regional GM reduction in left medial prefrontal cortex and right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex was identified. Both regions are within the default mode network. In conclusion, the gray matter deficit is related to the both affective and nonaffective components of pain processing. This result also provided the neuroanatomical correlates for emotional and cognitive symptoms in FMS.

  8. Assessment of memory/attention impairment in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Bing, E-mail: yubing@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Kong, Fanxing, E-mail: kongfx@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Peng, Miao, E-mail: pengm@sj-hospital.org [Psychological Outpatient Service, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Ma, Hongwei, E-mail: mahongwei1960@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna.916@163.com [Department of Radiology, the People' s Hospital of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Guo, Qiyong, E-mail: guoqy@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Assessment of memory/attention impairment and related exploration of the gray matter differential MR density variations between children with and without primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology is the aim of the present study. Methods: A total of 75 right-handed PNE children (M/F = 39:36, average age 10.4 ± 1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls (M/F = 40:32, 10.0 ± 1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in both PNE and control children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and memory/caution (M/C) factor were measured. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed using high resolution 3 Tesla T1-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5 in the PNE and control children. Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U test were performed to analyze the difference in the gray matter density (GMD) between the PNE and control children. Results: The FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group, though the M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group. Compared with normal controls, PNE children exhibited lower GMD in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Impairment in memory/attention was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right DLPFC and left cerebellum are likely to be implicated in these deficits.

  9. Neuronal injury in the motor cortex after chronic stroke and lower limb motor impairment:a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandria M. Reynolds; Denise M. Peters; Jennifer M. C. Vendemia; Lenwood P. Smith; Raymond C. Sweet; Gordon C. Baylis; Debra Krotish; Stacy L Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined motor impairments using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping, but few are reported regarding the corresponding relationship between cerebral cortex injury and lower limb motor impairment analyzed using this technique. This study correlated neuro-nal injury in the cerebral cortex of 16 patients with chronic stroke based on a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping analysis. Neuronal injury in the corona radiata, caudate nucleus and putamen of patients with chronic stroke could predict walking speed. The behavioral measure scores were consistent with motor deifcits expected after damage to the cortical motor system due to stroke. These ifndings suggest that voxel-based lesion symptom mapping may provide a more accurate prognosis of motor recovery from chronic stroke according to neuronal injury in cerebral motor cortex.

  10. A voxel-based approach to gray matter asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, E; Gaser, C; Jancke, L; Schlaug, G

    2004-06-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze gray matter (GM) asymmetries in a large sample (n = 60) of male and female professional musicians with and without absolute pitch (AP). We chose to examine these particular groups because previous studies using traditional region-of-interest (ROI) analyses have shown differences in hemispheric asymmetry related to AP and gender. Voxel-based methods may have advantages over traditional ROI-based methods since the analysis can be performed across the whole brain with minimal user bias. After determining that the VBM method was sufficiently sensitive for the detection of differences in GM asymmetries between groups, we found that male AP musicians were more leftward lateralized in the anterior region of the planum temporale (PT) than male non-AP musicians. This confirmed the results of previous studies using ROI-based methods that showed an association between PT asymmetry and the AP phenotype. We further observed that male non-AP musicians revealed an increased leftward GM asymmetry in the postcentral gyrus compared to female non-AP musicians, again corroborating results of a previously published study using ROI-based methods. By analyzing hemispheric GM differences across our entire sample, we were able to partially confirm findings of previous studies using traditional morphometric techniques, as well as more recent, voxel-based analyses. In addition, we found some unusually pronounced GM asymmetries in our musician sample not previously detected in subjects unselected for musical training. Since we were able to validate gender- and AP-related brain asymmetries previously described using traditional ROI-based morphometric techniques, the results of our analyses support the use of VBM for examinations of GM asymmetries.

  11. The Gray Matter Volume of the Amygdala Is Correlated with the Perception of Melodic Intervals: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Beuckelaer, A. De; Guo, J.; Ma, F.; Xu, M.; Liu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the abi

  12. Structural brain correlates of interpersonal violence: Systematic review and voxel-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsma, Jelle; Mackay, Clare; Fazel, Seena

    2017-09-30

    Owing to inconsistent nomenclature and results, we have undertaken a label-based review and anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of studies measuring the quantitative association between regional grey matter (GM) volume and interpersonal violence. Following PRISMA guidelines, we identified studies by searching 3 online databases (Embase, Medline, PsycInfo) and reference lists. Thirty-five studies were included in the label-based review, providing information for 1288 participants and 86 brain regions. Per region, 0-57% of the results indicated significant reductions in GM volume, while 0-23% indicated significant increases. The only region for which more than half of all results indicated significant reductions was the parietal lobe. However, these results were dispersed across subregions. The ALE meta-analysis, which included 6 whole-brain voxel-based morphometry studies totaling 278 participants and reporting 144 foci, showed no significant clusters of reduced GM volume. No material differences were observed when excluding experiments using reactive violence as outcome or subjects diagnosed with psychopathy. Possible explanations for these findings are phenomenological and etiological heterogeneity, and insufficient power in the label-based review and ALE meta-analysis to detect small effects. We recommend that future studies distinguish between subtypes of interpersonal violence, and investigate mediation by underlying emotional and cognitive processes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, A; Yücel, M; Patti, J; Wood, S J; Pantelis, C

    2009-03-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a popular tool for mapping neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia patients. Several recent meta-analyses have identified the brain regions in which patients most consistently show grey matter reductions, although they have not examined whether such changes reflect differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) or grey matter volume (GMV). These measures assess different aspects of grey matter integrity, and may therefore reflect different pathological processes. In this study, we used the Anatomical Likelihood Estimation procedure to analyse significant differences reported in 37 VBM studies of schizophrenia patients, incorporating data from 1646 patients and 1690 controls, and compared the findings of studies using either GMC or GMV to index grey matter differences. Analysis of all studies combined indicated that grey matter reductions in a network of frontal, temporal, thalamic and striatal regions are among the most frequently reported in literature. GMC reductions were generally larger and more consistent than GMV reductions, and were more frequent in the insula, medial prefrontal, medial temporal and striatal regions. GMV reductions were more frequent in dorso-medial frontal cortex, and lateral and orbital frontal areas. These findings support the primacy of frontal, limbic, and subcortical dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and suggest that the grey matter changes observed with MRI may not necessarily result from a unitary pathological process.

  14. Grey matter density decreases as well as increases in patients with classic galactosemia: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; van der Korput, Lisanne D; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2016-10-01

    Brain impairments have been observed in patients with classic galactosemia, an inherited metabolic disorder resulting in a particular neuro-cognitive profile. Neuroimaging studies showed abnormalities such as diffuse white mater (WM) abnormalities and grey matter (GM) atrophy. Our current study analysed grey matter density using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared the brains of eight adolescent patients with classic galactosemia with eight healthy gender- and aged-matched controls. GM density differences were found in several regions. Decreased GM density was found in the patients in the bilateral putamen and bilateral occipital cortex. Increased GM density in the patients, on the other hand, was found in the bilateral inferior frontal and medial prefrontal cortex. The anatomical profile of the abnormalities is in line with the neuro-cognitive profile of patients with classic galactosemia, including motor dysfunction, speech and language difficulties and higher order cognitive problems. Less favourable GM densities in patients (either increased or decreased compared to controls) correlated with younger age, a worse visual working memory performance, and an older age at initiation of the galactose-restricted diet. To conclude, this explorative study is the first to analyse the GM using VBM in this population, and demonstrates a mixed profile of both increased and decreased GM density in these patients.

  15. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. Methods We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (< 30 yr), genetic loading and subclinical psychotic symptoms to examine whether this would lead to different results. Results We included 89 siblings and 69 controls in our study. The results showed that siblings and controls did not differ significantly on grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. Limitations The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. Conclusion These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:25768029

  16. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME, music hobby (MH, and nonmusic (NM group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44, left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18, and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.

  17. A voxel-based morphometry study of gray matter correlates of facial emotion recognition in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Maila de Castro L; Albuquerque, Maicon Rodrigues; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Silva Neves, Fernando; de Souza-Duran, Fábio Luis; Busatto, Geraldo; Corrêa, Humberto

    2015-08-30

    Facial emotion recognition (FER) is one of the many cognitive deficits reported in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate neuroanatomical correlates of FER impairments in BD type I (BD-I). Participants comprised 21 euthymic BD-I patients without Axis I DSM IV-TR comorbidities and 21 healthy controls who were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and the Penn Emotion Recognition Test (ER40). Preprocessing of images used DARTEL (diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra) for optimized voxel-based morphometry in SPM8. Compared with healthy subjects, BD-I patients performed poorly in on the ER40 and had reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in the left orbitofrontal cortex, superior portion of the temporal pole and insula. In the BD-I group, the statistical maps indicated a direct correlation between FER on the ER40 and right middle cingulate gyrus GMV. Our findings are consistent with the previous studies regarding the overlap of multiple brain networks of social cognition and BD neurobiology, particularly components of the anterior-limbic neural network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kanako; Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME), music hobby (MH), and nonmusic (NM) group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44), left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.

  19. Relating inter-individual differences in verbal creative thinking to cerebral structures: an optimal voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zhu

    Full Text Available Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs and white matter volumes (WMVs. In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control.

  20. Relating inter-individual differences in verbal creative thinking to cerebral structures: an optimal voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control.

  1. Contralesional cortical structural reorganization contributes to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke: A longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Cai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although changes in brain gray matter after stroke have been identified in some neuroimaging studies, lesion heterogeneity and individual variability make the detection of potential neuronal reorganization difficult. This study attempted to investigate the potential structural cortical reorganization after sub-cortical stroke using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV analysis. Eleven right-handed patients with first -onset, subcortical, ischemic infarctions involving the basal ganglia regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging in addition to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Motricity Index assessments in the acute (< 5 days and chronic stages (1 year later. The GMVs were calculated and compared between the two stages using nonparametric permutation paired t tests. Moreover, the Spearman correlations between the GMV changes and clinical recoveries were analyzed. Compared with the acute stage, significant decreases in GMV were observed in the ipsilesional precentral gyrus (PreCG, paracentral gyrus, and contralesional cerebellar lobule VII in the chronic stage. Additionally, significant increases in GMV were found in the contralesional orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and middle (MFG and inferior (IFG frontal gyri. Furthermore, severe GMV atrophy in the ipsilesional PreCG predicted poorer clinical recovery, and greater GMV increases in the contralesional OFG and MFG predicted better clinical recovery. Our findings suggest that structural reorganization of the contralesional ‘cognitive’ cortices might contribute to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke.

  2. Visceral sensitivity correlates with decreased regional gray matter volume in healthy volunteers: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schmid, Julia; Kullmann, Jennifer S; Kattoor, Joswin; Theysohn, Nina; Forsting, Michael; Kotsis, Vassilios

    2014-02-01

    Regional changes in brain structure have been reported in patients with altered visceral sensitivity and chronic abdominal pain, such as in irritable bowel syndrome. It remains unknown whether structural brain changes are associated with visceral sensitivity. Therefore, we present the first study in healthy individuals to address whether interindividual variations in gray matter volume (GMV) in pain-relevant regions correlate with visceral sensitivity. In 92 healthy young adults (52 female), we assessed rectal sensory and pain thresholds and performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to compute linear regression models with visceral sensory and pain thresholds, respectively, as independent variable and GMV in a priori-defined regions of interest (ROIs) as dependent variable. All results were familywise error (FWE) corrected at a level of PFWEpain, without evidence of sex differences. Lower rectal sensory threshold (ie, increased sensitivity) correlated significantly with reduced GMV in the thalamus, insula, posterior cingulate cortex, ventrolateral and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortices, amygdala, and basal ganglia (all PFWEpain threshold was associated with reduced GMV in the right thalamus (PFWE=.051). These are the first data supporting that increased visceral sensitivity correlates with decreased gray matter volume in pain-relevant brain regions. These findings support that alterations in brain morphology not only occur in clinical pain conditions but also occur according to normal interindividual variations in visceral sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Froeliger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas, breathing exercises (pranayama, and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP and a matched control group (CG. The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

  4. Small gray matter volume in orbitofrontal cortex in Prader-Willi syndrome: a voxel-based MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Kaeko; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Abe, Nobuhito; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Shinohara, Mayumi; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2011-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with behavioral symptoms including hyperphagia, disinhibition, and compulsive behavior. The behavioral problems in individuals with PWS are strikingly similar to those in patients with frontal pathologies, particularly those affecting the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, neuroanatomical abnormalities in the frontal lobe have not been established in PWS. The aim of this study was to look, using volumetric analysis, for morphological changes in the frontal lobe, especially the OFC, of the brains of individuals with PWS. Twelve adults with PWS and 13 age- and gender-matched control subjects participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The whole-brain images were segmented and normalized to a standard stereotactic space. Regional gray matter volumes were compared between the PWS group and the control group using voxel-based morphometry. The PWS subjects showed small gray-matter volume in several regions, including the OFC, caudate nucleus, inferior temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, postcentral gyrus, and cerebellum. The small gray-matter volume in the OFC remained significant in a separate analysis that included total gray matter volume as a covariate. These preliminary findings suggest that the neurobehavioral symptoms in individuals with PWS are related to structural brain abnormalities in these areas.

  5. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Hernández

    Full Text Available To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators.The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  6. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Suero, José; Barros, Alfonso; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry. Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators. The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  7. The association between the brain and mind pops: a voxel-based morphometry study in 256 Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Wenjing; Yang, Ning; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-06-01

    Mind pops or involuntary semantic memories refer to words, phrases, images, or melodies that suddenly pop into one's mind without any deliberate attempt to recall them. Despite their prevalence in everyday life, research on mind pops has started only recently. Notably, mind pops are very similar to clinical involuntary phenomena such as hallucinations in schizophrenia, suggesting their potential role in pathology. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between mind pops and the brain morphometry measured in 302 healthy young adults; after exclusions, 256 participants were included in our analyses. Specifically, the Mind Popping Questionnaire (MPQ) was employed to measure the degree of individual mind pops, whereas the Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to compute the volumes of both gray and white matter tissues. Multiple regression analyses on MPQ and VBM metrics indicated that high-frequency mind pops were significantly associated with smaller gray matter volume in the left middle temporal gyrus as well as with larger gray and white matter volume in the right medial prefrontal cortex. This increase in mind pops is also linked to higher creativity and the personality trait of 'openness'. These data not only suggest a key role of the two regions in generating self-related thoughts, but also open a possible link between brain and creativity or personality.

  8. Differences in regional brain volume related to the extraversion-introversion dimension--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Lea J; de Manzano, Orjan; Karabanov, Anke; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Extraverted individuals are sociable, behaviorally active, and happy. We report data from a voxel based morphometry study investigating, for the first time, if regional volume in gray and white matter brain regions is related to extraversion. For both gray and white matter, all correlations between extraversion and regional brain volume were negative, i.e. the regions were larger in introverts. Gray matter correlations were found in regions that included the right prefrontal cortex and the cortex around the right temporo-parietal junction--regions that are known to be involved in behavioral inhibition, introspection, and social-emotional processing, e.g. evaluation of social stimuli and reasoning about the mental states of others. White matter correlations extended from the brainstem to widespread cortical regions, and were largely due to global effects, i.e. a larger total white matter volume in introverts. We speculate that these white matter findings may reflect differences in ascending modulatory projections affecting cortical regions involved in behavioral regulation.

  9. A voxel-based morphometry study of regional gray and white matter correlate of self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShanShan; Wei, DongTao; Li, WenFu; Li, HaiJiang; Wang, KangCheng; Xue, Song; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Self-disclosure is an important performance in human social communication. Generally, an individual is likely to have a good physical and mental health if he is prone to self-disclosure under stressful life events. However, as for now, little is known about the neural structure associated with self-disclosure. Therefore, in this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to explore regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and white matter volume (rWMV) associated with self-disclosure measured by the Jourard Self-disclosure Questionnaire in a large sample of college students. Results showed that individual self-disclosure was significantly and positively associated with rGMV of the left postcentral gyrus, which might be related to strengthen individual's ability of body feeling; while self-disclosure was significantly and negatively associated with rGMV of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which might be involved in increased positive emotion experience seeking (intrinsically rewarding). In addition, individual self-disclosure was also associated with smaller rWMV in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL). These findings suggested a biological basis for individual self-disclosure, distributed across different gray and white matter areas of the brain.

  10. Is Relational Reasoning Dependent on Language? A Voxel-Based Lesion Symptom Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Juliana V.; Bunge, Silvia A.; Wilson, Stephen M.; Dronkers, Nina F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies with brain-injured patients have suggested that language abilities are necessary for complex problem-solving, even when tasks are non-verbal. In the current study, we tested this notion by analyzing behavioral and neuroimaging data from a large group of left-hemisphere stroke patients (n = 107) suffering from a range of language…

  11. Brain correlates of pro-social personality traits: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho,Joana; Sampaio, Adriana; Ferreira, Miguel; Soares, José Miguel; Gonçalves, Óscar F.

    2013-01-01

    Of the five personality dimensions described by the Big Five Personality Model (Costa and McCrae 1992), Extraversion and Agreeableness are the traits most commonly associated with a pro-social orientation. In this study we tested whether a pro-social orientation, as expressed in terms of Extraversion and Agreeableness, is associated with a specific grey matter phenotype. Fifty-two healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-...

  12. Brain-volume changes in young and middle-aged smokers: a DARTEL-based voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Jiang, Tao; Chu, Shuilian; Wang, Shuangkun; Xiao, Dan

    2015-09-25

    Many studies have reported brain volume changes in smokers. However, the volume differences of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in young and middle-aged male smokers with different lifetime tobacco consumption (pack-years) remain uncertain. To examine the brain volume change, especially whether more pack-years smoking would be associated with smaller gray matter and white matter volume in young and middle-aged male smokers. We used a 3T MR scanner and performed Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL)-based voxel-based morphometry on 53 long-term male smokers (30.72 ± 4.19 years) and 53 male healthy non-smokers (30.83 ± 5.18 years). We separated smokers to light and heavy smokers by pack-years and compared brain volume between different smoker groups and non-smokers. And then we did analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) between smokers and non-smokers by setting pack-years as covariates. Light and heavy smokers all displayed smaller GM and WM volume than non-smokers and more obviously in heavy smokers. The main smaller areas in light and heavy smokers were superior temporal gyrus, insula, middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate, precuneus in GM and posterior cingulate, thalamus and midbrain in WM, in addition, we also observed more pack-years smoking was associated with some certain smaller GM and WM volumes by ANCOVA. Young and middle-aged male smokers had many smaller brain areas than non-smokers. Some of these areas' volume had negative correlation with pack-years, while some had not. These may due to different pathophysiological role of smokings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  14. Studying developmental variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Christine; Metscher, Brian D; Müller, Gerd B; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional embryonic images. Well-differentiated structures are described in terms of their shape, whereas structures with diffuse boundaries, such as emerging cell condensations or molecular gradients, are described as spatial patterns of intensities. We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout. Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period.

  15. A voxel-based morphometry study of grey matter loss in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Javan, Alireza K; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Rivera, Susan M

    2011-03-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older male premutation carriers of the fragile X mental retardation gene. Although its core symptoms are mainly characterized by motor problems such as intention tremor and gait ataxia, cognitive decline and psychiatric problems are also commonly observed. Past radiological and histological approaches have focused on prominent neurodegenerative changes in specific brain structures including the cerebellum and limbic areas. However, quantitative investigations of the regional structural abnormalities have not been performed over the whole brain. In this study, we adopted the voxel-based morphometry method together with regions of interest analysis for the cerebellum to examine the pattern of regional grey matter change in the male premutation carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. In a comparison with healthy controls, we found striking grey matter loss of the patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome in multiple regions over the cortical and subcortical structures. In the cerebellum, the anterior lobe and the superior posterior lobe were profoundly reduced in both vermis and hemispheres. In the cerebral cortex, clusters of highly significant grey matter reduction were found in the extended areas in the medial surface of the brain, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. The other prominent grey matter loss was found in the lateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and insula. Although the voxel-wise comparison between the asymptomatic premutation group and healthy controls did not reach significant difference, a regions of interest analysis revealed significant grey matter reduction in anterior subregions of the cerebellar vermis and hemisphere in the asymptomatic premutation group. Correlation analyses using behavioural scales of the premutation groups showed

  16. A voxel-based morphometric analysis of brain gray matter in online game addicts%网络游戏成瘾患者基于体素的脑灰质结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁传波; 钱若兵; 傅先明; 林彬; 季学兵; 牛朝诗; 汪业汉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the possible brain mechanism of online game addiction(OGA)in terms of brain morphology through voxel-based morphometric(VBM)analysis.Methods Seventeen subjects with OGA and 17 age-and gender-matched healthy controls(HC group)were recruited from Department of Psychology at our hospital during February-December 2011.The internet addiction scale (IAS)was used to measure the degree of OGA tendency.Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)scans were performed to acquire 3-demensional T1-weighted images.And FSL 4.1 software was employed to confirm regional gray matter volume changes.For the regions where OGA subjects showed significantly different gray matter volumes from the controls,the gray matter volumes of these areas were extracted,averaged and regressed against the scores of IAS.Results The OGA group had lower gray matter volume in left orbitofrontal cortex(OFC),left medial prefrontal cortex(mPFC),bilateral insula(INS),left posterior cingnlate cortex(PCC)and left supplementary motor area(SMA).Gray matter volumes of left OFC and bilateral INS showed a negative correlation with the scores of IAS(r =-0.65,r =-0.78,P <0.05).Conclusion Gray matter volume changes are present in online game addicts and they may be correlated with the occurrence and maintenance of OGA.%目的 采用基于体素脑形态学测量法探索网络游戏成瘾(OGA)患者脑灰质结构特点,从脑形态学角度解释网络游戏成瘾的可能神经机制.方法 选择安徽医科大学附属省立医院心理科2011年2至12月门诊就诊的网络游戏成瘾者(OGA组)和年龄性别相匹配的健康对照者(HC组)各17例,利用网络成瘾自评量表测评被试网络游戏成瘾程度;静息状态下采集被试磁共振数据,应用FSL软件进行基于体素脑形态学分析,确定OGA组灰质结构异常脑区的位置,并将异常脑区灰质容积率与网络成瘾自评量表得分进行相关性分析.结果 OGA组左侧眶额叶(OFC-L)、双侧岛叶(INS-L&R)

  17. The Gray Matter Volume of the Amygdala Is Correlated with the Perception of Melodic Intervals: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xueting Li; Alain De Beuckelaer; Jiahui Guo; Feilong Ma; Miao Xu; Jia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception) in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264). Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was corre...

  18. Strategies for improving the Voxel-based statistical analysis for animal PET studies: assessment of cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Kang, Hye Jin; Im, Ki Chun; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lim, Sang Moo; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In imaging studies of the human brain, voxel-based statistical analysis method was widely used, since these methods were originally developed for the analysis of the human brain data, they are not optimal for the animal brain data. The aim of this study is to optimize the procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of cat FDG PET brain images. A microPET Focus 120 scanner was used. Eight cats underwent FDG PET scans twice before and after inducing the deafness. Only the brain and adjacent regions were extracted from each data set by manual masking. Individual PET image at normal and deaf state was realigned to each other to remove the confounding effects by the different spatial normalization parameters on the results of statistical analyses. Distance between the sampling points on the reference image and kernel size of Gaussian filter applied to the images before estimating the realignment parameters were adjusted to 0.5 mm and 2 mm. Both data was then spatial normalized onto study-specific cat brain template. Spatially normalized PET data were smoothed and voxel-based paired t-test was performed. Cerebral glucose metabolism decreased significantly after the loss of hearing capability in parietal lobes, postcentral gyri, STG, MTG, lTG, and IC at both hemisphere and left SC (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). Cerebral glucose metabolism in deaf cats was found to be significantly higher than in controls in the right cingulate (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). The ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same areas as in the SPM analysis, except for some regions (P < 0.05). Method for the voxel-based analysis of cat brain PET data was optimized for analysis of cat brain PET. This result was also confirmed by ROI analysis. The results obtained demonstrated the high localization accuracy and specificity of the developed method, and were found to be useful for examining cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  19. Grey matter changes associated with deficit awareness in mild cognitive impairment: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew H; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Flicker, Leon; Garrido, Griselda J; Greenop, Kathryn R; Foster, Jonathan K; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2014-01-01

    Reduced awareness of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with poorer outcomes although little is known about the anatomical correlates of this. We examined the association of insight and grey matter volume using a voxel-based morphometry approach in 65 volunteers with MCI and 55 healthy age-matched controls. Participants with MCI had multiple areas of subtle grey matter volume loss compared with controls, although these did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. These were predominantly in the temporal and anterior portions of the brain. Individuals with MCI did not differ from each other on a number of demographic and cognitive variables according to level of insight. Reduced awareness of cognitive deficits was associated with few differences in grey matter volume apart from a subtle loss of grey matter in the medial frontal gyri. Given the modest nature of these findings, the routine assessment of insight in non-clinical populations of individuals with MCI is therefore not supported. Prospective data in larger samples, however, would be helpful to clarify this further and determine if impaired insight predicts brain atrophy and cognitive decline.

  20. Surface errors without semantic impairment in acquired dyslexia: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R; Pillay, Sara B; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Graves, William W; Book, Diane S

    2016-05-01

    Patients with surface dyslexia have disproportionate difficulty pronouncing irregularly spelled words (e.g. pint), suggesting impaired use of lexical-semantic information to mediate phonological retrieval. Patients with this deficit also make characteristic 'regularization' errors, in which an irregularly spelled word is mispronounced by incorrect application of regular spelling-sound correspondences (e.g. reading plaid as 'played'), indicating over-reliance on sublexical grapheme-phoneme correspondences. We examined the neuroanatomical correlates of this specific error type in 45 patients with left hemisphere chronic stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed a strong positive relationship between the rate of regularization errors and damage to the posterior half of the left middle temporal gyrus. Semantic deficits on tests of single-word comprehension were generally mild, and these deficits were not correlated with the rate of regularization errors. Furthermore, the deep occipital-temporal white matter locus associated with these mild semantic deficits was distinct from the lesion site associated with regularization errors. Thus, in contrast to patients with surface dyslexia and semantic impairment from anterior temporal lobe degeneration, surface errors in our patients were not related to a semantic deficit. We propose that these patients have an inability to link intact semantic representations with phonological representations. The data provide novel evidence for a post-semantic mechanism mediating the production of surface errors, and suggest that the posterior middle temporal gyrus may compute an intermediate representation linking semantics with phonology.

  1. Brain involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zikou, Anastasia K.; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kosmidou, Maria; Tsianos, Epameinondas [University of Ioannina, 1st Department of Internal Medicine (Hepato-Gastroenterology Unit), Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate structural brain changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 IBD patients (aged 45.16 ± 14.71 years) and 20 aged-matched control subjects. The imaging protocol consisted of a sagittal-FLAIR, a T1-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and a multisession spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences between patients and controls in brain volume and diffusion indices were evaluated using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods, respectively. The presence of white-matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) was evaluated on FLAIR images. VBM revealed decreased grey matter (GM) volume in patients in the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyrus bilaterally, the right precentral gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus (p < 0.05). TBSS showed decreased axial diffusivity (AD) in the right corticospinal tract and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus in patients compared with controls. A larger number of WMHIs was observed in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with IBD show an increase in WMHIs and GM atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis and ischaemia. Decreased AD in major white matter tracts could be a secondary phenomenon, representing Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  2. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  3. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Bomba,1,* Anna Riva,1,* Sabrina Morzenti,2 Marco Grimaldi,3 Francesca Neri,1 Renata Nacinovich1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Medical Physics Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, adolescent, gray matter, insula, voxel-based morphometry study

  4. Structural brain abnormalities correlate with clinical features in patients with drug-naïve OCD: A DARTEL-enhanced voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Tang, Wanjie; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Bin; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei; Xu, Jiuping; Yang, Yanchun; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-11-01

    Abnormal brain structure has been reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but findings from these reports have been inconsistent. This study aimed to gain more detailed insights into gray matter structure and correlate this structure with clinical features in patients with drug-naïve OCD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Voxel-based morphometry and tools of Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) were used to investigate structural differences in gray matter volume between 26 drug-naïve OCD patients and 32 healthy controls. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze associations of gray matter abnormalities with Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores and illness duration. Compared to healthy controls, drug-naïve OCD patients showed significantly smaller gray matter volume in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left superior temporal gyrus, left precuneus and right precentral gyrus, as well as significantly greater gray matter volume in the left anterior insula and right parahippocampal gyrus (psuperior temporal gyrus and connected limbic structures such as the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior insula. Longitudinal studies are needed that integrate anatomical, functional and diffusion MRI data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Empirical comparison of maximal voxel and non-isotropic adjusted cluster extent results in a voxel-based morphometry study of comorbid learning disability with schizophrenia.

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    Moorhead, T William J; Job, Dominic E; Spencer, Michael D; Whalley, Heather C; Johnstone, Eve C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2005-11-15

    We present an empirical comparison of cluster extent and maximal voxel results in a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study of brain structure. The cluster extents are adjusted for underlying deviation from uniform smoothness. We implement this comparison on a four-group cohort that has previously shown evidence of a neuro-developmental component in schizophrenia (Moorhead, T.W.J., Job, D.E., Whalley, H.C., Sanderson, T.L., Johnstone, E.C. and Lawrie, S.M. 2004. Voxel-based morphometry of comorbid schizophrenia and learning disability: analyses in normalized and native spaces using parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. NeuroImage 22: 188-202.). We find that adjusted cluster extent results provide information on the nature of deficits that occur in the schizophrenia affected groups, and these important structural differences are not all shown in maximal voxel results. The maximal voxel and cluster extent results are corrected for multiple comparisons using Random Fields (RF) methods. In order to apply the cluster extent measures, we propose a post-hoc method for determining the primary threshold in the analysis. Unadjusted cluster extent results are reported, for these, no allowance is made for non-isotropic smoothness, and comparison with the adjusted extent results shows that the unadjusted results can be either conservative or anti-conservative depending upon the underlying tissue distributions.

  6. Neural substrates underlying balanced time perspective: A combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

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    Guo, Yiqun; Chen, Zhiyi; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-08-14

    Balanced time perspective (BTP), which is defined as a mental ability to switch flexibly among different time perspectives Zimbardo and Boyd (1999), has been suggested to be a central component of positive psychology Boniwell and Zimbardo (2004). BTP reflects individual's cognitive flexibility towards different time frames, which leads to many positive outcomes, including positive mood, subjective wellbeing, emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and executive control. However, the neural basis of BTP is still unclear. To address this question, we quantified individual's deviation from the BTP (DBTP), and investigated the neural substrates of DBTP using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods VBM analysis found that DBTP scores were positively correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) in the ventral precuneus. We further found that DBTP scores were negatively associated with RSFCs between the ventral precuneus seed region and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), parahippocampa gyrus (PHG), and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). These brain regions found in both VBM and RSFC analyses are commonly considered as core nodes of the default mode network (DMN) that is known to be involved in many functions, including episodic and autobiographical memory, self-related processing, theory of mind, and imagining the future. These functions of the DMN are also essential to individuals with BTP. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural and functional neural basis of BTP, and highlight the crucial role of the DMN in cultivating an individual's BTP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The relation of object naming and other visual speech production tasks:A large scale voxel-based morphometric study

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    Johnny King L. Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a lesion–symptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280 of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (<120 days post-stroke. Performance on object naming was evaluated alongside three other tests of visual speech production, namely sentence production to a picture, sentence reading and nonword reading. A principal component analysis was performed on all these tests' scores and revealed a ‘shared’ component that loaded across all the visual speech production tasks and a ‘unique’ component that isolated object naming from the other three tasks. Regions for the shared component were observed in the left fronto-temporal cortices, fusiform gyrus and bilateral visual cortices. Lesions in these regions linked to both poor object naming and impairment in general visual–speech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing.

  8. Density abnormalities in normal-appearing gray matter in the middle-aged brain with white matter hyperintense lesions: a DARTEL-enhanced voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Y

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan Peng,1,* Shenhong Li,2,* Ying Zhuang,3,* Xiaojia Liu,4 Lin Wu,2 Honghan Gong,2 Dewu Liu,1 Fuqing Zhou2 1Burn Center, 2Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, 3Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital of Nanchang, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, 4Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and purpose: Little is known about the structural alterations within gray matter (GM in middle-aged subjects with white matter hyperintense (WMH lesions. Here, we aimed to examine the anatomical changes within the GM and their relationship to WMH lesion loads in middle-aged subjects. Participants and methods: Twenty-three middle-aged subjects with WMH lesions (WMH group and 23 demographically matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. A Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Liealgebra-enhanced voxel-based morphometry was used to measure the GM density, and the correlations between WMH lesion volume and extracted GM values in abnormal regions were identified by voxel-based morphometry analysis. Results: Compared with the healthy control subjects, the WMH group had a significantly decreased GM density in the left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left and right premotor cortex, and left and right middle cingulate cortex and an increased GM density in the bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right temporoparietal junction, left and right prefrontal cortex (PFC, and left inferior parietal lobule. A relationship was observed between the normalized WMH lesion volume and the decreased GM density, including the left middle frontal gyrus (ρ=-0.629, P=0.002, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ρ=-0.507, P=0.019, right middle cingulate cortex (ρ=-0.484, P=0.026, and

  9. Supersize my brain: A cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry study on the association between self-reported dietary restraint and regional grey matter volumes.

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    van der Laan, Laura N; Charbonnier, Lisette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Kroese, Floor M; van Rijn, Inge; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-05-01

    Restrained eaters do not eat less than their unrestrained counterparts. Proposed underlying mechanisms are that restrained eaters are more reward sensitive and that they have worse inhibitory control. Although fMRI studies assessed these mechanisms, it is unknown how brain anatomy relates to dietary restraint. Voxel-based morphometry was performed on anatomical scans from 155 normal-weight females to investigate how regional grey matter volume correlates with restraint. A positive correlation was found in several areas, including the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, striatum and the amygdala (bilaterally, pgrey matter volume in reward-related areas and lower grey matter volume in regions involved in inhibition, provides a neuroanatomical underpinning of theories relating restraint to increased reward sensitivity and reduced inhibitory capacity.

  10. Voxel based statistical analysis method for microPET studies to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model: comparison to ROI based method

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    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Lee, Jong Jin; Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Jung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging research on the brain of sensory-deprived cats using small animal PET scanner has gained interest since the abundant information about the sensory system of ths animal is available and close examination of the brain is possible due to larger size of its brain than mouse or rat. In this study, we have established the procedures for 3D voxel-based statistical analysis (SPM) of FDG PET image of cat brain, and confirmed using ROI based-method. FDG PET scans of 4 normal and 4 deaf cats were acquired for 30 minutes using microPET R4 scanner. Only the brain cortices were extracted using a masking and threshold method to facilitate spatial normalization. After spatial normalization and smoothing, 3D voxel-wise and ROI based t-test were performed to identify the regions with significant different FDG uptake between the normal and deaf cats. In ROI analysis, 26 ROIs were drawn on both hemispheres, and regional mean pixel value in each ROI was normalized to the global mean of the brain. Cat brains were spatially normalized well onto the target brain due to the removal of background activity. When cerebral glucose metabolism of deaf cats were compared to the normal controls after removing the effects of the global count, the glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex, head of caudate nucleus, and thalamus in both hemispheres of the deaf cats was significantly lower than that of the controls (P<0.01). No area showed a significantly increased metabolism in the deaf cats even in higher significance level (P<0.05). ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same region. This study established and confirmed a method for voxel-based analysis of animal PET data of cat brain, which showed high localization accuracy and specificity and was useful for examining the cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  11. Studying developmental variation with Geometric Morphometric Image Analysis (GMIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mayer

    Full Text Available The ways in which embryo development can vary across individuals of a population determine how genetic variation translates into adult phenotypic variation. The study of developmental variation has been hampered by the lack of quantitative methods for the joint analysis of embryo shape and the spatial distribution of cellular activity within the developing embryo geometry. By drawing from the strength of geometric morphometrics and pixel/voxel-based image analysis, we present a new approach for the biometric analysis of two-dimensional and three-dimensional embryonic images. Well-differentiated structures are described in terms of their shape, whereas structures with diffuse boundaries, such as emerging cell condensations or molecular gradients, are described as spatial patterns of intensities. We applied this approach to microscopic images of the tail fins of larval and juvenile rainbow trout. Inter-individual variation of shape and cell density was found highly spatially structured across the tail fin and temporally dynamic throughout the investigated period.

  12. Patients with Poor Response to Antipsychotics Have a More Severe Pattern of Frontal Atrophy: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of Treatment Resistance in Schizophrenia

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    Mario Quarantelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients do not respond adequately to the therapy. Previous MRI studies have suggested that drug treatment resistance is associated with brain morphological abnormalities, although region-of-interest analysis of MR studies from nonresponder and responder patients failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between these two schizophrenia subgroups. We have used a voxel-based analysis of segmented MR studies to assess structural cerebral differences in 20 nonresponder and 15 responder patients and 16 age-matched normal volunteers. Differences between the three groups emerged bilaterally mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri, primarily due to reduced grey matter volumes in nonresponders, as compared to both normal volunteers and responder patients. Post hoc direct comparison between the two schizophrenia subgroups demonstrated significantly reduced grey matter volumes in middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, in the dorsolateral aspects of left superior frontal gyrus extending into postcentral gyrus and in the right medial temporal cortex. Our results extend and integrate previous findings suggesting a more severe atrophy in nonresponder schizophrenia patients, compared to responder patients, mainly at the level of the superior and middle frontal gyri. Longitudinal studies in drug-naïve patients are needed to assess the role of these associations.

  13. Cerebellar Gray Matter Density in Females with ADHD Combined Type: A Cross-Sectional Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

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    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; De la Torre, Lazaro Barajas; Prado Alcantara, Hugo; Martinez Garcia, Reyna Beatriz; Avila Acosta, David; Fernandez Bouzas, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background: MRI studies have shown a decreased cerebellum volume in individuals with ADHD. However, most of these studies were conducted with male children, many of whom were medicated with stimulants. As such, unmedicated, non-White girls are underrepresented in such MRI studies. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the density…

  14. Grey matter volume abnormalities in patients with bipolar I depressive disorder and unipolar depressive disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Cai, Yi; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Li; Liao, Mei; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Lifeng; Peng, Hongjun; He, Zhong; Li, Zexuan; Li, Weihui; Lu, Shaojia; Ding, Yuqiang; Li, Lingjiang

    2015-02-01

    Bipolar disorder and unipolar depressive disorder (UD) may be different in brain structure. In the present study, we performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify the grey matter volumes in 23 patients with bipolar I depressive disorder (BP1) and 23 patients with UD, and 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) using magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the HC and UD groups, the BP1 group showed reduced grey matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus and middle cingulate gyrus, while the UD group showed reduced volume in the right inferior frontal gyrus compared to HCs. In addition, correlation analyses revealed that the grey matter volumes of these regions were negatively correlated with the Hamilton depression rating scores. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that decreased grey matter volume of the right inferior frontal gyrus is a common abnormality in BP1 and UD, and decreased grey matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus may be specific to BP1.

  15. The gray matter volume of the amygdala is correlated with the perception of melodic intervals: a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Li, Xueting; De Beuckelaer, Alain; Guo, Jiahui; Ma, Feilong; Xu, Miao; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception) in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264). Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses.

  16. The gray matter volume of the amygdala is correlated with the perception of melodic intervals: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueting Li

    Full Text Available Music is not simply a series of organized pitches, rhythms, and timbres, it is capable of evoking emotions. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to explore the neural basis that may link music to emotion. To do this, we identified the neuroanatomical correlates of the ability to extract pitch interval size in a music segment (i.e., interval perception in a large population of healthy young adults (N = 264. Behaviorally, we found that interval perception was correlated with daily emotional experiences, indicating the intrinsic link between music and emotion. Neurally, and as expected, we found that interval perception was positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV of the bilateral temporal cortex. More important, a larger GMV of the bilateral amygdala was associated with better interval perception, suggesting that the amygdala, which is the neural substrate of emotional processing, is also involved in music processing. In sum, our study provides one of first neuroanatomical evidence on the association between the amygdala and music, which contributes to our understanding of exactly how music evokes emotional responses.

  17. Females and males rely on different cortical regions in Raven's Matrices reasoning capacity: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Wenjing Yang

    Full Text Available Raven's Matrices test (RMT is a non-verbal test designed to assess individuals' ability to reason and solve new problems without relying extensively on declarative knowledge derived from schooling or previous experience. Despite a large number of behavioral studies that demonstrated gender differences in Raven's Matrices reasoning ability, no neural evidence supported this difference. In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used in an attempt to uncover the gender-specific neural basis of Raven's Matrices reasoning ability as measured by the combined Raven's Matrices test (CRT in 370 healthy young adults. The behavioral results showed no difference between males and females. However, the VBM results showed that the relationship between reasoning ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV differed between sexes. The association between CRT scores and rGMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (associated with visuospatial ability was significantly greater in males than in females, whereas the reverse was true for the inferior frontal cortex (relating to verbal reasoning ability and the medial frontal cortex (engaged in information binding where the association was greater in females. These findings suggest that males and females use differently structured brains in different ways to achieve similar levels of overall Raven's Matrices reasoning ability.

  18. Individual differences in local gray and white matter volumes reflect differences in temperament and character: a voxel-based morphometry study in healthy young females.

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    Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi; De Mey, Johan; Luypaert, Rob

    2011-01-31

    The psychobiological personality model of Cloninger distinguishes four heritable temperament traits (harm avoidance (HA), novelty seeking (NS), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (P)) and three character traits (self-directedness (SD), cooperativeness (CO) and self-transcendence (ST)) which develop during lifetime. Prior research already showed that individual differences in temperament are reflected in structural variances in specific brain areas. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to correlate the different temperament and character traits with local gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) in young healthy female volunteers. We found correlations between the temperament traits and GMV and WMV in the frontal, temporal and limbic regions involved in controlling and generating the corresponding behavior as proposed in Cloninger's theory: anxious for HA, impulsive for NS, reward-directed for RD and goal-directed for P. The character traits correlated with GMV and WMV in the frontal, temporal and limbic regions involved in the corresponding cognitive tasks: self-reflection for SD, mentalizing and empathizing with others for CO and religious belief for ST. This study shows that individual variations in brain morphology can be related to the temperament and character dimensions, and lends support to the hypothesis of a neurobiological basis of personality traits.

  19. Brainstem dysfunction in patients with late-onset Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study

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    Kang Min Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been a few reports of patients who developed Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS in the second decades of their life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate electroclinical presentation in patients with late-onset LGS. In addition, we evaluated structural abnormalities of the brain, which may give some clue about the common pathogenic pathway in LGS. Materials and Methods: We enrolled the patients with late-onset LGS. We collected electroclinical characteristics of the patients and evaluated structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis. Results: The three subjects were diagnosed with late-onset LGS. The patients have no mental retardation and normal background activities on electroencephalography (EEG, and they had generalized paroxysmal fast activities on EEG, especially during sleep. The TBSS analysis revealed that fractional anisotropy values in the patients were significantly reduced in the white matter of brainstem compared with normal controls. However, VBM analysis did not show any significant difference between the patients and normal controls. Conclusions: Patients with late-onset LGS have different clinical and EEG characteristics from those with early-onset LGS. In addition, we demonstrated that brainstem dysfunction might contribute to the pathogenesis of late-onset LGS.

  20. Grey matter density decreases as well as increases in patients with classic galactosemia : a voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Inge; van der Korput, Lisanne D; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2016-01-01

    Brain impairments have been observed in patients with classic galactosemia, an inherited metabolic disorder resulting in a particular neuro-cognitive profile. Neuroimaging studies showed abnormalities such as diffuse white mater (WM) abnormalities and grey matter (GM) atrophy. Our current study anal

  1. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsi

  2. Word and Number Reading in the Brain: Evidence from a Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping Study

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    Piras, Fabrizio; Marangolo, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of number transcoding deficits in aphasic subjects suggests there is a strong similarity between language and number domains. However, recent single case studies of subjects who showed a dissociation between word and number word transcoding led us to hypothesize that the two types of stimuli are represented independently in the…

  3. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphology Studies

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    Zeng, Hongwu; He, Xiaoming; Li, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Bingsheng

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to identify the consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), and to study the difference of GMV abnormalities among IGE subsyndromes by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Methods A systematic review of VBM studies on GMV of patients with absence epilepsy (AE), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), IGE and controls indexed in PubMed and ScienceDirect from January 1999 to June 2016 was conducted. A total of 12 IGE studies, including 7 JME and 3 AE studies, were selected. Meta-analysis was performed on these studies by using the pooled and within-subtypes analysis (www.brainmap.org). Based on the above results, between-subtypes contrast analysis was carried out to detect the abnormal GMV regions common in and unique to each subtype as well. Results IGE demonstrated significant GMV increase in right ventral lateral nucleus (VL) and right medial frontal gyrus, and significant GMV decrease in bilateral pulvinar. For JME, significant GMV increase was seen in right medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while significant GMV decrease was found in right pulvinar. In AE, the most significant GMV increase was found in right VL, and slight GMV reduction was seen in right medial dorsal nucleus, right subcallosal gyrus, left caudate and left precuneus. No overlapped and unique regions with significant GMV abnormalities were found between JME and AE. Significance This meta-analysis demonstrated that thalamo-frontal network was a structure with significant GMV abnormality in IGE, and the IGE subsyndromes showed different GMV abnormal regions. These observations may provide instructions on the clinical diagnosis of IGE. PMID:28060866

  4. Brain reserve capacity in frontotemporal dementia: a voxel-based {sup 18}F-FDG PET study

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    Perneczky, Robert; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Kurz, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Muenchen (Germany); Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The association of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose utilisation (rCMRglc) and years of schooling has been extensively studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results suggest that brain reserve capacity (BRC) allows patients with more years of schooling to cope better with AD pathology. The objective of this study was to provide initial evidence for BRC in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Twenty-nine patients with FTD and 16 healthy age- and education-matched controls underwent PET imaging of the brain with {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose. A group comparison of rCMRglc was conducted between patients and controls and the output was saved as region of interest (ROI). A linear regression analysis with education as the independent and rCMRglc as the dependent variable, adjusted for age, gender and total score on the CERAD neuropsychological battery, was conducted in SPM2 over the pre-assigned ROI. Patients showed a reduced rCMRglc in almost the entire prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex as compared with controls (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). The regression analysis revealed a significant negative association between years of schooling and rCMRglc in the bilateral inferior frontal cortex (p < 0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), which was independent of demographic variables and cognitive performance level. There was a strong negative correlation of rCMRglc and education (r = -0.45). The study provides initial evidence for BRC in FTD. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in educational level affect BRC by partially mediating the relationship between neurodegeneration and the clinical manifestation of FTD. (orig.)

  5. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations associated With Ambient Fine Particles in older women

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    Ramon Casanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5µm has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure.Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1,365 women (aged 71-89 in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space. Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM and white matter (WM maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked WM decreased volumes to PM2.5 air pollution, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  6. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations Associated with Ambient Fine Particles in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Ramon; Wang, Xinhui; Reyes, Jeanette; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Vizuete, William; Chui, Helena C.; Driscoll, Ira; Resnick, Susan M.; Espeland, Mark A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Goodwin, Mimi; DeNise, Richard; Lipton, Michael; Hannigan, James; Carpini, Anthony; Noble, David; Guzman, Wilton; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Goveas, Joseph; Kerwin, Diana; Ulmer, John; Censky, Steve; Flinton, Troy; Matusewic, Tracy; Prost, Robert; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Swope, Sue; Sawyer-Glover, Anne Marie; Hartley, Susan; Jackson, Rebecca; Hallarn, Rose; Kennedy, Bonnie; Bolognone, Jill; Casimir, Lindsay; Kochis, Amanda; Robbins, John; Zaragoza, Sophia; Carter, Cameron; Ryan, John; Macias, Denise; Sonico, Jerry; Nathan, Lauren; Voigt, Barbara; Villablanca, Pablo; Nyborg, Glen; Godinez, Sergio; Perrymann, Adele; Limacher, Marian; Anderson, Sheila; Toombs, Mary Ellen; Bennett, Jeffrey; Jones, Kevin; Brum, Sandy; Chatfield, Shane; Vantrees, Kevin; Robinson, Jennifer; Wilson, Candy; Koch, Kevin; Hart, Suzette; Carroll, Jennifer; Cherrico, Mary; Ockene, Judith; Churchill, Linda; Fellows, Douglas; Serio, Anthony; Jackson, Sharon; Spavich, Deidre; Margolis, Karen; Bjerk, Cindy; Truwitt, Chip; Peitso, Margaret; Camcrena, Alexa; Grim, Richard; Levin, Julie; Perron, Mary; Brunner, Robert; Golding, Ross; Pansky, Leslie; Arguello, Sandie; Hammons, Jane; Peterson, Nikki; Murphy, Carol; Morgan, Maggie; Castillo, Mauricio; Beckman, Thomas; Huang, Benjamin; Kuller, Lewis; McHugh, Pat; Meltzer, Carolyn; Davis, Denise; Davis, Joyce; Kost, Piera; Lucas, Kim; Potter, Tom; Tarr, Lee; Shumaker, Sally; Espeland, Mark; Coker, Laura; Williamson, Jeff; Felton, Debbie; Gleiser, LeeAnn; Rapp, Steve; Legault, Claudine; Dailey, Maggie; Casanova, Ramon; Robertson, Julia; Hogan, Patricia; Gaussoin, Sarah; Nance, Pam; Summerville, Cheryl; Peral, Ricardo; Tan, Josh; Bryan, Nick; Davatzikos, Christos; Desiderio, Lisa; Buckholtz, Neil; Molchan, Susan; Resnick, Susan; Rossouw, Jacques; Pottern, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure. Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1365 women (aged 71–89) in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space). Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average) exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked smaller WM volumes to PM2.5, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  7. Topographic deformation patterns of knee cartilage after exercises with high knee flexion: an in vivo 3D MRI study using voxel-based analysis at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie; Stockinger, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Raya, J.G. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Pietschmann, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hoehne-Hueckstaedt, U.; Glitsch, U.; Ellegast, R. [Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Miner' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dortmund (Germany); Glaser, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); RZM Zentrum, Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To implement a novel voxel-based technique to identify statistically significant local cartilage deformation and analyze in-vivo topographic knee cartilage deformation patterns using a voxel-based thickness map approach for high-flexion postures. Sagittal 3T 3D-T1w-FLASH-WE-sequences of 10 healthy knees were acquired before and immediately after loading (kneeling/squatting/heel sitting/knee bends). After cartilage segmentation, 3D-reconstruction and 3D-registration, colour-coded deformation maps were generated by voxel-based subtraction of loaded from unloaded datasets to visualize cartilage thickness changes in all knee compartments. Compression areas were found bifocal at the peripheral medial/caudolateral patella, both posterior femoral condyles and both anterior/central tibiae. Local cartilage thickening were found adjacent to the compression areas. Significant local strain ranged from +13 to -15 %. Changes were most pronounced after squatting, least after knee bends. Shape and location of deformation areas varied slightly with the loading paradigm, but followed a similar pattern consistent between different individuals. Voxel-based deformation maps identify individual in-vivo load-specific and posture-associated strain distribution in the articular cartilage. The data facilitate understanding individual knee loading properties and contribute to improve biomechanical 3 models. They lay a base to investigate the relationship between cartilage degeneration patterns in common osteoarthritis and areas at risk of cartilage wear due to mechanical loading in work-related activities. (orig.)

  8. Early Gray-Matter and White-Matter Concentration in Infancy Predict Later Language Skills: A Whole Brain Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months.…

  9. Early Gray-Matter and White-Matter Concentration in Infancy Predict Later Language Skills: A Whole Brain Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months.…

  10. Including anatomical and functional information in MC simulation of PET and SPECT brain studies. Brain-VISET: a voxel-based iterative method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Fuster, Berta; Esteban, Oscar; Thielemans, Kris; Setoain, Xavier; Santos, Andres; Ros, Domenec; Pavia, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation provides a flexible and robust framework to efficiently evaluate and optimize image processing methods in emission tomography. In this work we present Brain-VISET (Voxel-based Iterative Simulation for Emission Tomography), a method that aims to simulate realistic [ (99m) Tc]-SPECT and [ (18) F]-PET brain databases by including anatomical and functional information. To this end, activity and attenuation maps generated using high-resolution anatomical images from patients were used as input maps in a MC projector to simulate SPECT or PET sinograms. The reconstructed images were compared with the corresponding real SPECT or PET studies in an iterative process where the activity inputs maps were being modified at each iteration. Datasets of 30 refractory epileptic patients were used to assess the new method. Each set consisted of structural images (MRI and CT) and functional studies (SPECT and PET), thereby allowing the inclusion of anatomical and functional variability in the simulation input models. SPECT and PET sinograms were obtained using the SimSET package and were reconstructed with the same protocols as those employed for the clinical studies. The convergence of Brain-VISET was evaluated by studying the behavior throughout iterations of the correlation coefficient, the quotient image histogram and a ROI analysis comparing simulated with real studies. The realism of generated maps was also evaluated. Our findings show that Brain-VISET is able to generate realistic SPECT and PET studies and that four iterations is a suitable number of iterations to guarantee a good agreement between simulated and real studies.

  11. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppo eSärkämö

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis utilizing cost-function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural MRI data of the patients (n = 49 who either listened to their favourite music (music group, n = 16 or verbal material (audio book group, n = 18 or did not receive any listening material (control group, n = 15 during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant grey matter volume (GMV increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral / subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC and right ventral striatum (VS] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the music group than in the audio book and control groups. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioural recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  12. Structural Changes Induced by Daily Music Listening in the Recovering Brain after Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain. PMID:24860466

  13. Cerebral morphology and dopamine D2/D3 receptor distribution in humans: a combined [18F]fallypride and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Neil D; Zald, David H; Ding, Zhaohua; Riccardi, Patrizia; Ansari, M Sib; Baldwin, Ronald M; Cowan, Ronald L; Li, Rui; Kessler, Robert M

    2009-05-15

    The relationship between cerebral morphology and the expression of dopamine receptors has not been extensively studied in humans. Elucidation of such relationships may have important methodological implications for clinical studies of dopamine receptor ligand binding differences between control and patient groups. The association between cerebral morphology and dopamine receptor distribution was examined in 45 healthy subjects who completed T1-weighted structural MRI and PET scanning with the D(2)/D(3) ligand [(18)F]fallypride. Optimized voxel-based morphometry was used to create grey matter volume and density images. Grey matter volume and density images were correlated with binding potential (BP(ND)) images on a voxel-by-voxel basis using the Biological Parametric Mapping toolbox. Associations between cerebral morphology and BP(ND) were also examined for selected regions-of-interest (ROIs) after spatial normalization. Voxel-wise analyses indicated that grey matter volume and density positively correlated with BP(ND) throughout the midbrain, including the substantia nigra. Positive correlations were observed in medial cortical areas, including anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, and circumscribed regions of the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes. ROI analyses revealed significant positive correlations between BP(ND) and cerebral morphology in the caudate, thalamus, and amygdala. Few negative correlations between morphology and BP(ND) were observed. Overall, grey matter density appeared more strongly correlated with BP(ND) than grey matter volume. Cerebral morphology, particularly grey matter density, correlates with [(18)F]fallypride BP(ND) in a regionally specific manner. Clinical studies comparing dopamine receptor availability between clinical and control groups may benefit by accounting for potential differences in cerebral morphology that exist even after spatial normalization.

  14. Morphometric study of Euchiton (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken to survey taxa in the genus Euchiton Cass., distributed across Australia, New Zealand and South-east Asia. Phenetic analyses of herbarium specimens showed several taxa to be well delimited, including E. brassii (Mattf.) Anderb., E. breviscapus (Mattf.) Anderb., E.

  15. Morphometric study of Euchiton (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken to survey taxa in the genus Euchiton Cass., distributed across Australia, New Zealand and South-east Asia. Phenetic analyses of herbarium specimens showed several taxa to be well delimited, including E. brassii (Mattf.) Anderb., E. breviscapus (Mattf.) Anderb., E.

  16. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, panic disorder (PD with and without agoraphobia (GA, and specific phobia (SP are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5 represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. METHODS: A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD, age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA, drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and

  17. Brain Tissue Volumes and Perfusion Change with the Number of Optic Neuritis Attacks in Relapsing Neuromyelitis Optica: A Voxel-Based Correlation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV and grey matter volumes (GMV and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON attacks, myelitis attacks and/or total attacks on the other side. For this purpose, high resolution T1-weighted MRI and perfusion SPECT imaging were obtained in 15 RNMO patients. The results showed negative regional correlations of WMV, GMV and perfusion with the number of ON attacks, involving important components of the visual system, which could be relevant for the comprehension of incremental visual disability in RNMO. We also found positive regional correlation of perfusion with the number of ON attacks, mostly overlapping the brain area where the WMV showed negative correlation. This provides evidence that brain microvasculature is an early disease target and suggests that perfusion alteration could be important in the development of brain structural abnormalities in RNMO.

  18. Brain Tissue Volumes and Perfusion Change with the Number of Optic Neuritis Attacks in Relapsing Neuromyelitis Optica: A Voxel-Based Correlation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Catasús, Carlos A; Cabrera-Gomez, José; Almaguer Melián, William; Giroud Benítez, José Luis; Rodríguez Rojas, Rafael; Bayard, Jorge Bosch; Galán, Lídice; Sánchez, Reinaldo Galvizu; Fuentes, Nancy Pavón; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO) is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV) and grey matter volumes (GMV) and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON) attacks, myelitis attacks and/or total attacks on the other side. For this purpose, high resolution T1-weighted MRI and perfusion SPECT imaging were obtained in 15 RNMO patients. The results showed negative regional correlations of WMV, GMV and perfusion with the number of ON attacks, involving important components of the visual system, which could be relevant for the comprehension of incremental visual disability in RNMO. We also found positive regional correlation of perfusion with the number of ON attacks, mostly overlapping the brain area where the WMV showed negative correlation. This provides evidence that brain microvasculature is an early disease target and suggests that perfusion alteration could be important in the development of brain structural abnormalities in RNMO.

  19. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Ming-Yuan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p < 0.001, uncorrected, cluster size >100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  20. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Fu, Yuchuan; Ren, Zhengjia; Zhang, Tao; Du, Mingying; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia (GA), and specific phobia (SP) are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5) represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM) meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs) were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA), drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and fear, and the importance of the ventral anterior

  1. Association of creative achievement with cognitive flexibility by a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Haijiang; Lei, Qiao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-11-15

    Although researchers generally concur that creativity involves the production of novel and useful products, the neural basis of creativity remains elusive due to the complexity of the cognitive processes involved. Recent studies have shown that highly creative individuals displayed more cognitive flexibility. However, direct evidence supporting the relationship between creativity and cognitive flexibility has rarely been investigated using both structural and functional neuroimaging techniques. We used a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis to investigate the relationship between individual creativity ability assessed by the creative achievement questionnaire (CAQ), and regional gray matter volume (GMV), as well as intrinsic functional connectivity. Results showed that CAQ scores negatively correlated with GMV in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral dorsal ACC (dACC) extending to supplementary motor area, but positively correlated with GMV in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Further functional connectivity analysis revealed that higher creative achievement was inversely associated with the strength of rsFC between the dACC and medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), right middle frontal gyrus, and left orbito-frontal insula. Moreover, the association between the dACC-mSFG connectivity and CAQ scores was mediated by cognitive flexibility, assessed by a task-switching paradigm. These findings indicate that individual differences in creative achievement are associated with both brain structure and corresponding intrinsic functional connectivity involved in cognitive flexibility and deliberate creative processing. Furthermore, dACC-mSFG connectivity may affect creative achievement through its impact on cognitive flexibility.

  2. Brain and behaviour in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a volumetric and voxel-based morphometry MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda E; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G M; Murphy, Kieran C

    2006-05-01

    In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorders in childhood, and schizophrenia in adolescence or adult life. However, the neurobiology of 22qDS, and the relationship between abnormalities in brain anatomy and behaviour, is poorly understood. Thus, we studied the neuroanatomy of 22qDS children using fully automated voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and manually traced single region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Also, we investigated whether those brain regions that differed significantly between groups were related to behavioural differences within children with 22qDS. We compared the brain morphometry of 39 children and adolescents with 22qDS (mean age: 11 years, SD +/-3, IQ = 67, SD +/-10) and 26 sibling controls (mean age: 11 years, SD +/-3, IQ = 102, SD +/-12). Using VBM, we found, after correction for IQ, that individuals with 22qDS compared with controls had a significant reduction in cerebellar grey matter, and white matter reductions in the frontal lobe, cerebellum and internal capsule. Using single ROI analysis, we found that people with 22qDS had a significant (P social behavioural difficulties and grey matter in frontostriatal regions. Thus, subjects with 22qDS have widespread changes in brain anatomy, particularly affecting white matter, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Also, within 22qDS, regionally specific differences in brain development may partially underpin behavioural differences. We suggest that there is preliminary evidence for specific vulnerability of the frontostriatal and cerebellar-cortical networks in 22qDS.

  3. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Carina; Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions.

  4. Impact of brain tumour location on emotion and personality: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study on mentalization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Fabio; Shallice, Tim; Ius, Tamara; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2014-09-01

    Patients affected by brain tumours may show behavioural and emotional regulation deficits, sometimes showing flattened affect and sometimes experiencing a true 'change' in personality. However, little evidence is available to the surgeon as to what changes are likely to occur with damage at specific sites, as previous studies have either relied on single cases or provided only limited anatomical specificity, mostly reporting associations rather than dissociations of symptoms. We investigated these aspects in patients undergoing surgery for the removal of cerebral tumours. We argued that many of the problems described can be ascribed to the onset of difficulties in one or more of the different levels of the process of mentalizing (i.e. abstracting and reflecting upon) emotion and intentions, which impacts on everyday behaviour. These were investigated in terms of (i) emotion recognition; (ii) Theory of Mind; (iii) alexithymia; and (iv) self-maturity (personality disorder). We hypothesized that temporo/limbic areas would be critical for processing emotion and intentions at a more perceptual level, while frontal lobe structures would be more critical when higher levels of mentalization/abstraction are required. We administered four different tasks, Task 1: emotion recognition of Ekman faces; Task 2: the Eyes Test (Theory of Mind); Task 3: Toronto Alexithymia Scale; and Task 4: Temperament and Character Inventory (a personality inventory), both immediately before and few days after the operation for the removal of brain tumours in a series of 71 patients (age range: 18-75 years; 33 female) with lesions located in the left or right frontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Lobe-based and voxel-based analysis confirmed that tasks requiring interpretation of emotions and intentions at more basic (less mentalized) levels (Tasks 1 and 2) were more affected by temporo/insular lesions, with emotion recognition (Task 1) being maximally impaired by anterior temporal and amygdala

  5. ODVBA: optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianhao; Davatzikos, Christos

    2011-08-01

    Gaussian smoothing of images prior to applying voxel-based statistics is an important step in voxel-based analysis and statistical parametric mapping (VBA-SPM) and is used to account for registration errors, to Gaussianize the data and to integrate imaging signals from a region around each voxel. However, it has also become a limitation of VBA-SPM based methods, since it is often chosen empirically and lacks spatial adaptivity to the shape and spatial extent of the region of interest, such as a region of atrophy or functional activity. In this paper, we propose a new framework, named optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis (ODVBA), for determining the optimal spatially adaptive smoothing of images, followed by applying voxel-based group analysis. In ODVBA, nonnegative discriminative projection is applied regionally to get the direction that best discriminates between two groups, e.g., patients and controls; this direction is equivalent to local filtering by an optimal kernel whose coefficients define the optimally discriminative direction. By considering all the neighborhoods that contain a given voxel, we then compose this information to produce the statistic for each voxel. Finally, permutation tests are used to obtain a statistical parametric map of group differences. ODVBA has been evaluated using simulated data in which the ground truth is known and with data from an Alzheimer's disease (AD) study. The experimental results have shown that the proposed ODVBA can precisely describe the shape and location of structural abnormality.

  6. STUDY OF MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES OF FOETAL STOMACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aneesur Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Interest in human development is very widespread largely because of the curiosity about our beginnings and desire to improve the quality of life. Understanding of the processes involved in the formation of various organs and systems has unrevealed most cryptic secrets of the nature. Human development begins at fertilisation when a male gamete or sperm unites with a female gamete or oocyte to form a single cell, a zygote. With the formation of zygote (single-celled stage, foetal development begins. The aim of the study is to- 1 Study the morphometric parameters of foetal stomach at various gestational ages. 2 Compare these observations with the previous studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present work was the cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Anatomy in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at SRTRGMC and Hospital, Ambajogai Dist., Beed, Maharashtra. For this, approval of Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. 30 aborted human foetuses of different age groups ranging from 12 to 36 weeks of fertilisation were taken from the Department of OB-GYN. Foetuses were preserved by using 10% formalin. Age of foetuses were determined by crown-rump length and history given by mother. Foetuses were dissected after preservation for 15 days and morphometric studies were done on stomach. RESULTS Various quantitative parameters like weight of foetus, crown-rump length, total length of stomach, weight of stomach, length of greater curvature, lesser curvature, width of cardia and width of pylorus were used. For the purpose of study and comparison with other researchers, the foetuses were divided into 3 groups. Morphometric changes were observed in different groups and compared with previous studies. CONCLUSION With the increase in the body weight, crown-rump length and gestational age of the foetus, there is gradual increase on various parameters of stomach.

  7. Numerical transcoding proficiency in 10-year-old schoolchildren is associated with grey-matter interindividual differences: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eLubin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  8. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Shan Baoci, E-mail: shanbc@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  9. White matter neuroplastic changes in long-term trained players of the game of "Baduk" (GO): a voxel-based diffusion-tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boreom; Park, Ji-Young; Jung, Wi Hoon; Kim, Hee Sun; Oh, Jungsu S; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kang, Do-Hyung; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-08-01

    Currently, one of the most challenging issues in modern neuroscience is learning-induced neural plasticity. Many researchers have identified activation-dependent structural brain plasticity in gray and white matter. The game of Baduk is known to require many cognitive processes, and long-term training in such processes would be expected to cause structural changes in related brain areas. We conducted voxel-based analyses of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) data and found that, compared to inexperienced controls, long-term trained Baduk players developed larger regions of white matter with increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the frontal, cingulum, and striato-thalamic areas that are related to attentional control, working memory, executive regulation, and problem-solving. In addition, inferior temporal regions with increased FA indicate that Baduk experts tend to develop a task-specific template for the game, as compared to controls. In contrast, decreased FA found in dorsolateral premotor and parietal areas indicate that Baduk experts were less likely than were controls to use structures related to load-dependent memory capacity. Right-side dominance in Baduk experts suggests that the tasks involved are mainly spatial processes. Altogether, long-term Baduk training appears to cause structural brain changes associated with many of the cognitive aspects necessary for game play, and investigation of the mechanism underpinning such changes might be helpful for improving higher-order cognitive capacities, such as learning, abstract reasoning, and self-control, which can facilitate education and cognitive therapies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing voxel-based iterative sensitivity and voxel-based morphometry to detect abnormalities in T2-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-de-Grenu, Lara Z; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Williams, Guy B; Nestor, Peter J

    2014-10-15

    This study aimed to test the superiority proposed by Abbott et al. (2011) of their Voxel based iterative sensitivity (VBIS) method over Voxel Based Morphometry using T2-weighted images (T2-VBM), in detecting intensity changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A comparison was made first in simulated intensity lesions and then in AD patients. Intensity changes were evaluated in the whole-brain with VBIS and with a simple intensity-based approach and in specific tissue classes with the conventional VBM method of using tissue probability segments. Results showed that VBIS performed well in the simulated environment though it showed no superiority in detecting the lesion compared to the much simpler VBM approach. The VBIS method, however, failed to detect any meaningful signal intensity reduction in AD patient data. Moreover, its whole brain approach was contaminated by the excess cerebrospinal fluid signal (very bright on T2-weighted scans) in areas of maximal measurable atrophy (mesial temporal lobes); this gave rise to spurious signal intensity increases in these regions in AD. The same artefact was observed for both intensity-based methods but not with the conventional VBM approach of performing statistics on grey matter segments. In conclusion, no evidence was found to indicate that VBIS offers benefits over T2-VBM in AD, nor in simulation intensity lesions. The study highlights the necessity of empirically testing voxel-based analysis techniques rather than merely claiming superiority of one method over another on theoretical grounds.

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging of nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease: A region-of-interest and voxel-based study at 3 T and systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan T; Abaei, Maryam; Gontu, Vamsi; Morgan, Paul S; Bajaj, Nin; Auer, Dorothee P

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in developing a reliable, affordable and accessible disease biomarker of Parkinson's disease (PD) to facilitate disease modifying PD-trials. Imaging biomarkers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can describe parameters such as fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). These parameters, when measured in the substantia nigra (SN), have not only shown promising but also varying and controversial results. To clarify the potential diagnostic value of nigral DTI in PD and its dependency on selection of region-of-interest, we undertook a high resolution DTI study at 3 T. 59 subjects (32 PD patients, 27 age and sex matched healthy controls) were analysed using manual outlining of SN and substructures, and voxel-based analysis (VBA). We also performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to estimate the effect size (DES) of disease related nigral DTI changes. We found a regional increase in nigral mean diffusivity in PD (mean ± SD, PD 0.80 ± 0.10 vs. controls 0.73 ± 0.06 · 10(- 3) mm(2)/s, p = 0.002), but no difference using a voxel based approach. No significant disease effect was seen using meta-analysis of nigral MD changes (10 studies, DES = + 0.26, p = 0.17, I(2) = 30%). None of the nigral regional or voxel based analyses of this study showed altered fractional anisotropy. Meta-analysis of 11 studies on nigral FA changes revealed a significant PD induced FA decrease. There was, however, a very large variation in results (I(2) = 86%) comparing all studies. After exclusion of five studies with unusual high values of nigral FA in the control group, an acceptable heterogeneity was reached, but there was non-significant disease effect (DES = - 0.5, p = 0.22, I(2) = 28%). The small PD related nigral MD changes in conjunction with the negative findings on VBA and meta-analysis limit the usefulness of nigral MD

  12. Voxel-Based LIDAR Analysis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Shea T.

    One of the greatest recent changes in the field of remote sensing is the addition of high-quality Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments. In particular, the past few decades have been greatly beneficial to these systems because of increases in data collection speed and accuracy, as well as a reduction in the costs of components. These improvements allow modern airborne instruments to resolve sub-meter details, making them ideal for a wide variety of applications. Because LIDAR uses active illumination to capture 3D information, its output is fundamentally different from other modalities. Despite this difference, LIDAR datasets are often processed using methods appropriate for 2D images and that do not take advantage of its primary virtue of 3-dimensional data. It is this problem we explore by using volumetric voxel modeling. Voxel-based analysis has been used in many applications, especially medical imaging, but rarely in traditional remote sensing. In part this is because the memory requirements are substantial when handling large areas, but with modern computing and storage this is no longer a significant impediment. Our reason for using voxels to model scenes from LIDAR data is that there are several advantages over standard triangle-based models, including better handling of overlapping surfaces and complex shapes. We show how incorporating system position information from early in the LIDAR point cloud generation process allows radiometrically-correct transmission and other novel voxel properties to be recovered. This voxelization technique is validated on simulated data using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software, a first-principles based ray-tracer developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Voxel-based modeling of LIDAR can be useful on its own, but we believe its primary advantage is when applied to problems where simpler surface-based 3D models conflict with the requirement of realistic geometry. To

  13. Voxel-based morphometry MRI study of gray matter change in patients with Parkinson's disease%帕金森病患者脑灰质变化的VBM-MRI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭黎; 史长征; 胡艳; 彭子文; 杨柳; 徐安定

    2012-01-01

    Objective To delineate the gray matter changes of Parkinson's disease(PD) patients applied by voxel-based morphometry method (VBM) of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods of the regional gray matter volume was studied using voxel-based morphometry in 28 PD patients including 14 early stage PD (EPD) and 14 late stage PD (LPD) and 32 age- and education-matched controls. Results Compared with normal controls, PD patients had significant reductions of the gray matter volume in the frontal lobe (bilateral superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus), bilateral temporal lobes (superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus), right cingulated gyrus, right thalamus, bilateral caudate nucleus, and left inferior parietal lobe . Compared with EPD, LPD had significant reductions of gray matter volume in the frontal lobe(bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, right orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral medial anterior frontal lobe), temporal lobe (right superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyms),right parahippocampal gyrus, right caudate nucleus and right hypothalamus. Conclusions PD patients have significant reductions of the gray matter volume mainly in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, right cingulate gyrus and subcor-tical gray matter. With the progression of PD, the reductions of gray matter volume increase in these regions and expend to the limbic system.%目的 应用核磁共振的基于体素形态学(voxel-based morphometry method of magnetic resonance imaging.VBM-MRI)技术,研究帕金森病(Parkinson disease,PD)患者大脑灰质变化的状况.方法 28例PD组与年龄、受教育年限相匹配32例健康对照组的VBM-MRI图像数据进行比较,PD组中,早期PD组(early Parkinson disease.EPD,n=14)与晚期PD组((late Parkinson disease.LPD,n=14)的VBM-MRI图像数据进行比较.结果 与健康对照组比较.VBM-MRI显示PD组患者存在下列脑区灰质体积减少:额叶(双侧额上回、左额下回)、双

  14. Chronic spatial working memory deficit associated with the superior longitudinal fasciculus: a study using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and intraoperative direct stimulation in right prefrontal glioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masashi; Nakajima, Riho; Shinohara, Harumichi; Miyashita, Katsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shingo; Okita, Hirokazu; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Although the right prefrontal region is regarded as a silent area, chronic deficits of the executive function, including working memory (WM), could occur after resection of a right prefrontal glioma. This may be overlooked by postoperative standard examinations, and the disabilities could affect the patient's professional life. The right prefrontal region is a part of the frontoparietal network and is subserved by the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF); however, the role of the SLF in spatial WM is unclear. This study investigated a persistent spatial WM deficit in patients who underwent right prefrontal glioma resection, and evaluated the relationship between the spatial WM deficit and the SLF. METHODS Spatial WM was examined in 24 patients who underwent prefrontal glioma resection (right, n = 14; left, n = 10) and in 14 healthy volunteers using a spatial 2-back task during the long-term postoperative period. The neural correlates of spatial WM were evaluated using lesion mapping and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. In addition, the spatial 2-back task was performed during surgery under direct subcortical electrical stimulation in 2 patients with right prefrontal gliomas. RESULTS Patients with a right prefrontal lesion had a significant chronic spatial WM deficit. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis revealed a significant correlation between spatial WM deficit and the region that overlapped the first and second segments of the SLF (SLF I and SLF II). Two patients underwent awake surgery and had difficulties providing the correct responses in the spatial 2-back task with direct subcortical electrical stimulation on the SLF I, which was preserved and confirmed by postoperative diffusion tensor imaging tractography. These patients exhibited no spatial WM deficits during the postoperative immediate and long-term periods. CONCLUSIONS Spatial WM deficits may persist in patients who undergo resection of the tumor located in the right prefrontal

  15. Supersize my brain : A cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry study on the association between self-reported dietary restraint and regional grey matter volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Charbonnier, Lisette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Kroese, Floor M.; van Rijn, Inge; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    Restrained eaters do not eat less than their unrestrained counterparts. Proposed underlying mechanisms are that restrained eaters are more reward sensitive and that they have worse inhibitory control. Although fMRI studies assessed these mechanisms, it is unknown how brain anatomy relates to dietary

  16. Strategic Role of Frontal White Matter Tracts in Vascular Cognitive Impairment: A Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping Study in CADASIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duering, Marco; Zieren, Nikola; Herve, Dominique; Jouvent, Eric; Reyes, Sonia; Peters, Nils; Pachai, Chahin; Opherk, Christian; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment. It typically manifests with lacunar infarcts and ischaemic white matter lesions. However, little is known about how these lesions relate to the cognitive symptoms. Previous studies have found a poor correlation between the burden of ischaemic lesions and…

  17. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Structural and functional changes in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment: a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Yi

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate changes in structural gray matter (GM volume and functional amplitude of spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFO and functional connectivity density in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI. Structural MRI and resting-sate functional MRI data were collected from 26 svMCI patients and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Structurally, widespread GM atrophy was found in the svMCI patients that resided primarily in frontal (e.g., the superior and middle frontal gyri and medial prefrontal cortex and temporal (the superior and inferior temporal gyri brain regions as well as several subcortical brain sites (e.g., the thalamus and the caudate. Functionally, svMCI-related changes were predominantly found in the default mode network (DMN. Compared with the healthy controls, the svMCI patients exhibited decreased LFO amplitudes in the anterior part of the DMN (e.g., the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas increased LFO amplitudes in the posterior part of the DMN (e.g., the posterior cingulate/precuneus. As for functional connectivity density, the DMN regions (e.g., the posterior cingulate/precuneus, the medial prefrontal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus consistently exhibited decreased functional connectivity. Finally, the overall patterns of functional alterations in LFO amplitudes and functional connectivity density remained little changed after controlling for structural GM volume losses, which suggests that functional abnormalities can be only partly explained by morphological GM volume changes. Together, our results indicate that svMCI patients exhibit widespread abnormalities in both structural GM volume and functional intrinsic brain activity, which have important implications in understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of svMCI.

  19. Whole-brain gray matter volume abnormalities in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2014-02-12

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experience psychological distress because of excessive and uncontrollable anxiety in everyday life. Only a few morphological studies have so far focused on specific brain regions of interest as well as the gray matter volume changes in GAD patients. This study evaluated gray matter volume alterations in whole-brain areas between GAD patients and healthy controls, and sex differences between the specific brain areas with significant volume changes in GAD patients using voxel-based morphometry. Twenty-two patients with GAD (13 men and nine women), who were diagnosed using the DSM-IV-TR, and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 men and nine women) participated in this study. The high-resolution MRI data were processed using voxel-based morphometry analysis on the basis of diffeomorphic anatomical registration through an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8. There was no significant difference in the total intracranial volume between GAD patients and controls, but a significant difference was observed between sexes (Psuperior temporal gyrus compared with the controls. As for the sex comparison, female patients showed a significant increase in the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to male patients. Also, the volume of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in female patients was correlated positively with the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale score (γ=0.68, P=0.04). The specific morphological variations in patient with GAD will be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with a symptom of GAD. Furthermore, the findings would be valuable for the diagnostic accuracy of GAD using morphometric MRI analysis.

  20. Morphometric studies on a part of Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.

    Morphometric and slope angle studies carried out on a part of Indian Ocean Basin have shown that gentle slope angle ranges dominate, 92% of the area represented by 0-3 degrees slopes. Young's hypothesis of log-normal distribution of slope angle...

  1. Morphometric study of Euchiton traversii complex (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.; Breitwieser, I.; Ward, J.M.; Walsh, N.G.; Ladiges, P.Y.

    2008-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken into alpine and subalpine species of Euchiton Cass. (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae) in the Euchiton traversii species complex in south-eastern Australia and New Zealand. Phenetic analysis of both field-collected and herbarium specimens resolved the following six taxa in

  2. Voxel-based morphometry analyses of in-vivo MRI in the aging mouse lemur primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Sawiak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral atrophy is one of the most widely brain alterations associated to aging. A clear relationship has been established between age-associated cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate used as a model of age-related neurodegenerative processes. It is the first nonhuman primate in which cerebral atrophy has been correlated with cognitive deficits. Previous studies of cerebral atrophy in this model were based on time consuming manual delineation or measurement of selected brain regions from magnetic resonance images (MRI. These measures could not be used to analyse regions that cannot be easily outlined such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert or the subiculum. In humans, morphometric assessment of structural changes with age is generally performed with automated procedures such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The objective of our work was to perform user-independent assessment of age-related morphological changes in the whole brain of large mouse lemur populations thanks to VBM. The study was based on the SPMMouse toolbox of SPM 8 and involved thirty mouse lemurs aged from 1.9 to 11.3 years. The automatic method revealed for the first time atrophy in regions where manual delineation is prohibitive (nucleus basalis of Meynert, subiculum, prepiriform cortex, Brodmann areas 13-16, hypothalamus, putamen, thalamus, corpus callosum. Some of these regions are described as particularly sensitive to age-associated alterations in humans. The method revealed also age-associated atrophy in cortical regions (cingulate, occipital, parietal, nucleus septalis, and the caudate. Manual measures performed in some of these regions were in good agreement with results from automatic measures. The templates generated in this study as well as the toolbox for SPM8 can be downloaded. These tools will be valuable for future evaluation of various treatments that are tested to modulate cerebral aging in lemurs.

  3. Physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation for ultra-fast IMRT planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Niklas; Bangert, Mark; Kamerling, Cornelis P; Ziegenhein, Peter; Bol, Gijsbert H; Raaymakers, Bas W; Oelfke, Uwe

    2016-07-08

    Conventional treatment planning in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a trial-and-error process that usually involves tedious tweaking of optimization parameters. Here, we present an algorithm that automates part of this process, in particular the adaptation of voxel-based penalties within normal tissue. Thereby, the proposed algorithm explicitly considers a priori known physical limitations of photon irradiation. The efficacy of the developed algorithm is assessed during treatment planning studies comprising 16 prostate and 5 head and neck cases. We study the eradication of hot spots in the normal tissue, effects on target coverage and target conformity, as well as selected dose volume points for organs at risk. The potential of the proposed method to generate class solutions for the two indications is investigated. Run-times of the algorithms are reported. Physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation is an adequate means to automatically detect and eradicate hot-spots during IMRT planning while maintaining target coverage and conformity. Negative effects on organs at risk are comparably small and restricted to lower doses. Using physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation, it was possible to improve the generation of class solutions for both indications. Considering the reported run-times of less than 20 s, physically constrained voxel-based penalty adaptation has the potential to reduce the clinical workload during planning and automated treatment plan generation in the long run, facilitating adaptive radiation treatments.

  4. Anatomical specificity of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in glioblastomas: a voxel-based mapping analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xing [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Yinyan [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Neuropathology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai; Ma, Jun; Li, Shaowu [Capital Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Shuai [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Departments of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Yong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Beijing Academy of Critical Illness in Brain, Department of Clinical Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-01-15

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a common genetic alteration in malignant gliomas and contributes to the angiogenesis of tumors. This study aimed to investigate the anatomical specificity of VEGF expression levels in glioblastomas using voxel-based neuroimaging analysis. Clinical information, MR scans, and immunohistochemistry stains of 209 patients with glioblastomas were reviewed. All tumor lesions were segmented manually and subsequently registered to standard brain space. Voxel-based regression analysis was performed to correlate the brain regions of tumor involvement with the level of VEGF expression. Brain regions identified as significantly associated with high or low VEGF expression were preserved following permutation correction. High VEGF expression was detected in 123 (58.9 %) of the 209 patients. Voxel-based statistical analysis demonstrated that high VEGF expression was more likely in tumors located in the left frontal lobe and the right caudate and low VEGF expression was more likely in tumors that occurred in the posterior region of the right lateral ventricle. Voxel-based neuroimaging analysis revealed the anatomic specificity of VEGF expression in glioblastoma, which may further our understanding of genetic heterogeneity during tumor origination. This finding provides primary theoretical support for potential future application of customized antiangiogenic therapy. (orig.)

  5. Voxel-based morphometric analysis on the density of brain in children with autistic disorder%基于体素的形态测量法分析高功能孤独性障碍患儿的脑组织密度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯晓燕; 洪珊珊; 邹冰; 汤天宇; 李惠国; 周振宇; 杭跃跃; 阮宗才; 陆祖宏

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析学龄孤独性障碍患儿脑组织密度.方法 对17例智能正常的孤独性障碍患儿(病例组)以及15名年龄、性别、智商与之相匹配的健康儿童(对照组)进行T1加权三维磁共振成像扫描,应用基于体素的形态测量法(VBM)比较两组脑灰质及脑白质密度的差异.结果 与对照组相比,孤独性障碍患儿右侧小脑前叶的脑灰质密度低.右前扣带回、右额中回区域的脑白质密度低,双侧顶下小叶、右缘上回、右中央后回、右颞上回、右小脑后叶、左楔前叶、左楔叶的脑灰质密度高(P<0.001).结论 智力正常的学龄孤独性障碍患儿脑组织密度异常明显,且部位广泛.%Objective To assess the density difference in the cerebral grey and white matter in children with autistic disorder. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM) in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping was applied to the structural magnetic resonance images of 17 autistic disorder children and 15 normal controls. Results Compared with the controls, the grey matter density in autistic disorder children had significant decrease in the fight anterior lobe of cerebellum and increase in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right supramarginsl gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right posterior lobe of cerebellum, right superior temporal gyms, left precunens and left cuneus (P<0.001). Significant dusters of reduced white matter density were found in the region of right anterior cingulated and right medial frontal gyms (P< 0.001) in autistic disorder children in comparison with controls. Conclusion The findings indicate structural grey and whim matter are significantly abnormal in children with autistic disorder and the deficits are widespread in brain regions.

  6. MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON FORAMEN OVALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magi Murugan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Back Ground: Foramen ovalee is an important foramen of the middle cranial fossa. Foramen ovalee is situated in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, posterior to the foramen rotundum and lateral to the lingula and posterior end of the carotid groove. Through the foramen ovale the mandibular nerve, accessory meningeal artery and lesser petrossal nerve are passing through it. The shape of foramen ovale is ovale in shape as compare to other foramina of the skull, its shape and size is quite variable. Meterials and Methods: A total 250 skulls were used for this study. The skulls were collected with I MBBS student from different medical colleges in south India. Skulls in poor conditions or skulls with partly damaged surroundings of the foramen ovalee were not considered. Maximum length and width of foramen ovalee was measured. Variation in right and left side and sex difference in length and width were calculated, the variations in shape also recorded. Results: The mean value of length of left foramen ovale is 8.5+1.32mm and right was 8.9+1.67mm. In female it was 8.7+1.67mm and male was 8.4+1.71mm. The mean value of width of left foramen ovale is 3.7+1.03mm and right was 3.9+0.98mm. In female it was 3.8+0.92mm and male was 3.7+1.02mm.The shape of foramen ovale was ovale in 69% of skulls, almond in 29% of skulls and round was 2% of skulls. Conclusion: The present study conclude that there is significant difference between sizes of right and left side foramen ovale and found that between male and female foramen ovale sizes also not shown any significance difference. Foramen ovale has practical significance to both neurosurgical and functional cranial neuroanatomy as it provides transcutaneous approaches to the skull base especially in cases of trigeminal neuralgia, as the Gasserion ganglion can be approached through it.

  7. [Principles of voxel-based morphometry and availability of integrated software BAAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    BAAD is integrated software for investigation of brain morphological change using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The basic part of the software is voxel-based morphometry (VBM) that has been developed by Drs. Ashburner and Friston. Pathological changes with neuronal loss results in brain atrophy, which can be detected by MRI. VBM provides an automated and unbiased assessment of such morphometric change throughout the brain. Recently, VBM has been drastically improved by introducing the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) registration method that implements a high dimensional warping process. BAAD supports the full-length steps for VBM analysis and makes it easy for everyone. BAAD is a free software and works on 64bit Windows machine without MATLAB installation.

  8. Voxel-based morphometry in autopsy proven PSP and CBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Dickson, Dennis W; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Parisi, Joseph E; Jack, Clifford R

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of grey and white matter atrophy on MRI in autopsy confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and to determine whether the patterns vary depending on the clinical syndrome. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare patterns of atrophy in 13 PSP and 11 CBD subjects and 24 controls. PSP and CBD subjects were also subdivided into those with a dominant dementia or extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects showed brainstem atrophy with involvement of the cortex and underlying white matter. Frontoparietal grey and subcortical grey matter atrophy occurred in CBD. When subdivided, PSP subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome had more brainstem atrophy and less cortical atrophy than CBD subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects with a dementia syndrome had more subcortical white matter atrophy than CBD subjects with a dementia syndrome. These results show regional differences between PSP and CBD that are useful in predicting the underlying pathology, and help to shed light on the in vivo distribution of regional atrophy in PSP and CBD.

  9. Voxel-based texture analysis of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Yang, Yee Hong; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel voxel-based method for texture analysis of brain images. Texture analysis is a powerful quantitative approach for analyzing voxel intensities and their interrelationships, but has been thus far limited to analyzing regions of interest. The proposed method provides a 3D statistical map comparing texture features on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The validity of the method was examined on artificially generated effects as well as on real MRI data in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The artificially generated effects included hyperintense and hypointense signals added to T1-weighted brain MRIs from 30 healthy subjects. The AD dataset included 30 patients with AD and 30 age/sex matched healthy control subjects. The proposed method detected artificial effects with high accuracy and revealed statistically significant differences between the AD and control groups. This paper extends the usage of texture analysis beyond the current region of interest analysis to voxel-by-voxel 3D statistical mapping and provides a hypothesis-free analysis tool to study cerebral pathology in neurological diseases.

  10. A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE SELLA TURCICA; GENDER EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohamed Elsayed Ali SAKRAN *1, Mohammad Afzal KHAN 2, Faris Mohammed Nour ALTAF 3, Hassan Elsiddig Hassan FARAGALLA 4, Amal Yousif Ahmed Elhaj MUSTAFA 5, Muhammad Mazhar HIJAZI 6, Rayan Abdulshakur NIYAZI 7, Abrar Jamal TAWAKUL 8, Abeer Zubair MALEBARI 9, Amal AbdulAziz SALEM 10.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Precise anatomical knowledge of the sella turcica is important for neurologists and surgeons operating in the region of cavernous sinus or the surrounding structures. The current study was undertaken to record normal morphometric parameters for future reference and to determine if there is any significance difference in the sella turcica morphometry regarding the gender. Methodology: A Morphometric analysis of the Sella Turcica and structures in vicinity were done in thirty six adults’ formalin fixed cadaver's skulls (22 male and 14 female. Results: The pituitary stalk positions were middle in majority of male cases (72.7%, the remaining 27.3% were posterior. Among female; 57.1% were middle and the remaining 42.9% were posterior, no anterior position was detected among both genders with no different between male and female (p = 0.494 Normal Optic chiasma position was detected in all female cases and in 63.6% of male cases with no significant differences regarding gender (p= 0.070. No significant different in diaphragma sella shape and opening regarding gender (p.value = 0.170 and 0.914 respectively No significant difference between males and females concerning linear dimensions of sella turcica (length, depth and Anteroposterior diameters. Concerning diaphragma sella opening; no significant different regarding gender in transverse diameter (p.value= 0.316 while significant different was detected in anteroposterior diameter (p.value= 0.046 For interclinoid (anterior, posterior diameters, which represented statistically significant different regarding gender in both right and left sides (p.value = 0.004 and 0.001 respectively. Conclusion: The current study will provide normal morphometric data for future reference and further studies.

  11. 基于体素的形态测量学观察两种亚型血管性认知障碍患者脑灰质萎缩的差异%Volume differences in regional gray matter between patients with two subtypes of vascular cognitive impairment:A voxel-based morphometric observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋雨; 沈智威; 杨忠现; 肖叶玉; 吴仁华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate volume differences in regional gray matter between patients suffered from mild cognitive impairment associated with periventricular white matter hyperintensities (PWMH) and strategic single-infarct (SSI)by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method.Methods Participants were neuropsychologically tested to characterize cognitive function,and then 24 cases of cerebral infarction in patients with mild cognitive impairment were collected and underwent MR scan.According to the results,the patients were divided into PWMH group (n=14) and SSI group (n=10).Meanwhile,16 healthy controls (control group) in the same period were included,whose neuropsychological testing were normal and no obvious infarct was found on MRI.Whole brain regional differences in gray matter volume among 3 groups were examined with VBM.Results Compared with SSI group,the volume of bilateral temporal lobe and bilateral frontal gray matter obviously reduced in PWMH group,especially in bilateral temporal lobes.The lobe atrophy volume difference of left temporal was 4086 voxels,of the right temporal lobe was 4154 voxels,of the left and right frontal lobe was 1718 voxels and 1141 voxels,respectively.Conclusion The volume of regional gray matter between patients with SSI and PWMH shows significant difference.The characteristics of gray matter atrophy in PWMH are similar to degenerative disease,prompting that merger or secondary neurodegenerative changes in this vascular cognitive impairment subtypes can not be ruled out.%目的 利用基于体素的形态测量学(VBM)方法观察由皮质下微血管病变导致的脑室周围白质脱髓鞘(PWMH)后轻度认知障碍的患者与关键部位单发梗死(SSI)后轻度认知障碍的患者灰质萎缩的差异.方法 根据神经心理学测试结果收集24例具有轻度认知障碍的脑梗死患者,根据MRI结果将其分为PWMH组(n=14)和SSI组(n=10);另选同期16名神经心理学测试结果正常、脑实质内未见明

  12. Morphometric analysis of the foramen magnum: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Loukas, Marios; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2010-02-01

    To further elucidate the importance of anatomic variations in morphology of the foramen magnum and associated clinical implications, we conducted a morphometric study. Seventy-two dry skulls were used for this study. Digital images were obtained of the foramen magnum from an inferior view. These images were studied using a computer-assisted image analysis system. Next, an image processor was used to calculate pixel differences between 2 selected points, which allowed accurate translation of pixel differences into metric measurements. We found that the mean surface area of the foramen magnum was 558 mm, the mean anteroposterior diameter was 3.1 cm, and the mean horizontal diameter was 2.7 cm. For comparison, surface areas were classified into 3 types based on size. Type I foramina were identified in 20.8% of the dry skulls (15 skulls) and exhibited a surface area of less than 500 mm2. Type II (66.6%, 48 skulls) was applied to foramina of an intermediate size with surface areas ranging between 500 to 600 mm2. Type III (12.5%, 9 skulls) was applied to large foramina with surface areas of more than 600 mm2. These data may be of use as a morphometric database for description of "normal" variants of foramen magnum morphology.

  13. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THYROID CARTILAGES IN WESTERN INDIA

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    Mohini M.Joshi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morphometrical evaluation of the larynx has always been interesting for both morphologists and the physicians. A good understanding of the anatomy and the knowledge of variations in the laryngeal cartilages is important Objective: Objective of the present study was to collect exact and reliable morphometric data of thyroid cartilage in adult human larynx of regional population. Methods: The totals of 50 thyroid cartilage specimens were studied. The cartilages were preserved in 5% formalin. The measurements were taken with the help of Digital Vernier Caliper. The cartilages were weighed on Single pan electronic balance. For each of the parameters, the mean, standard deviation (S.D. and range was calculated. Results: Mean depth of superior thyroid notch was 9.7± 3.36 mm. Asymmetry between the length of superior horn of thyroid cartilages in left and right sides can be seen, but difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. It is observed that inner thyroid angle varies from 55 to 1040 and outer thyroid angle varies from 53 to 990. In present study mean weight of thyroid cartilage was 6.70±1.55 grams. Conclusions: A fair amount of intersubject variability in the dimensions was observed. Bilateral asymmetry, though present in majority of specimens, was insignificant. Various dimensions of thyroid cartilages are smaller as compared to the western population.

  14. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  15. Clinical application of apparent diffusion coefficient mapping in voxel-based morphometry in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Ishii, K; Kashiwagi, N; Watanabe, Y; Tanaka, H; Murakami, T; Tomiyama, N

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping compared with voxel-based morphometry and to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of ADC mapping in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study population comprised 31 patients with AD (group A) and 24 patients without dementia (group B) who underwent three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted imaging (WI) and two-dimensional (2D) echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T. The volume and ADC of the regional grey matter (GM) in the bilateral hippocampi, precunei, and the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri were calculated using a voxel-based method for automatic segmentation of brain structures. The significance of intergroup differences in each volume and ADC of all regional GM was tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction. Intergroup regional GM differences in each volume and ADC were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). In group A, the volumes of the precunei (mean value: group A/B=18.93/21.48 cm(3)) and the anterior cingulate gyri (mean value: group A/B=6.1/7.81 cm(3)) were significantly less than in group B (p<0.05). The ADC in group A was significantly larger than that in group B in the bilateral hippocampi (mean value: group A/B=right 1020.79×10(-6)/877.23×10(-6) mm(2)/s; left 1072.89×10(-6)/900.2×10(-6) mm(2)/s) and posterior cingulate gyri (mean value: group A/B=1006.77×10(-6)/876.88×10(-6) mm(2)/s; p<0.05). SPM showed that the areas of increased ADC were more extensive than the areas of decreased volume in the bilateral hippocampi, precunei, and posterior cingulate gyri in group A, compared with those in group B (p<0.001). Evaluation of ADC mapping can quantify changes in brain water diffusivity and may improve the performance of automatic morphometric diagnosis of AD. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Micromechanical analysis of nanocomposites using 3D voxel based material model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2012-01-01

    A computational study on the effect of nanocomposite structures on the elastic properties is carried out with the use of the 3D voxel based model of materials and the combined Voigt–Reuss method. A hierarchical voxel based model of a material reinforced by an array of exfoliated and intercalated...... nanoclay platelets surrounded by interphase layers is developed. With this model, the elastic properties of the interphase layer are estimated using the inverse analysis. The effects of aspect ratio, intercalation and orientation of nanoparticles on the elastic properties of the nanocomposites are analyzed....... For modeling the damage in nanocomposites with intercalated structures, “four phase” model is suggested, in which the strength of “intrastack interphase” is lower than that of “outer” interphase around the nanoplatelets. Analyzing the effect of nanoreinforcement in the matrix on the failure probability...

  17. Morphometric Study on Male Specimens of Hyalomma anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae in West of Iran

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    A Hosseini

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Morphometric variation in Hyalomma spp is poorly studied. The variation in range and quantity of the mor­phometric parameters of H.anatolicum ‎underlies that the correct recognition and key construction for Hyalomma spe­cies dependes ‎on a complement morphometric study on the other species.

  18. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach.

  19. Postmortem acinar autolysis in rat sublingual gland: a morphometric study

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    Leticia Rodrigues Nery

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to quantify morphological acinar postmortem changes in rat sublingual glands (SLG. MATERIAL AND METHODSs: Fifty rats were divided into two groups of 25 animals each. Group I was used for morphological and morphometric evaluations and group II for the determination of gland density and processed gland volume. Acinar autolytic changes were studied at 0 (control group, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h postmortem periods. The morphometric analysis of the volume density (Vv and total volume (Vt of intact (ia and autolyzed (aa acini was performed under light microscopy using a Zeiss II integration grid with 100 symmetrically distributed points. RESULTS: Morphologically, temporal progressive nuclear alterations and gradual loss of the structural architecture of acinar cells were found. Regarding quantitative results, both the Vvaa and the Vvia showed statistically significant differences among all postmortem periods (p0.05, respectively. Vtaa increased from 0.18 mm³ at 0 h to 38.17 mm³ at 12 h, while Vtia showed a decrease from 33.47 mm³ to 0 mm³ between 3-24 h postmortem. Data concerning Vtaa were adjusted by two-variable linear regression, obtaining the equation: y=-3.54 + 3.38x (r²=0.90. The Vtaa growth rate calculated by this equation was 3.38 mm³/h between 0-12 h. CONCLUSION: Acinar autolysis on rat SLG demonstrated the most significant signs during the first 6 h postmortem and was widely spread through the gland at 12 h.

  20. Evaluation of absorbed doses in voxel-based and simplified models for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Kinase, Sakae; Saito, Kimiaki

    2012-07-01

    Internal dosimetry in non-human biota is desirable from the viewpoint of radiation protection of the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) proposed Reference Animals and Plants using simplified models, such as ellipsoids and spheres and calculated absorbed fractions (AFs) for whole bodies. In this study, photon and electron AFs in whole bodies of voxel-based rat and frog models have been calculated and compared with AFs in the reference models. It was found that the voxel-based and the reference frog (or rat) models can be consistent for the whole-body AFs within a discrepancy of 25%, as the source was uniformly distributed in the whole body. The specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and S values were also evaluated in whole bodies and all organs of the voxel-based frog and rat models as the source was distributed in the whole body or skeleton. The results demonstrated that the whole-body SAFs reflect SAFs of all individual organs as the source was uniformly distributed per mass within the whole body by about 30% uncertainties with exceptions for body contour (up to -40%) for both electrons and photons due to enhanced radiation leakages, and for the skeleton for photons only (up to +185%) due to differences in the mass attenuation coefficients. For nuclides such as (90)Y and (90)Sr, which were concentrated in the skeleton, there were large differences between S values in the whole body and those in individual organs, however the whole-body S values for the reference models with the whole body as the source were remarkably similar to those for the voxel-based models with the skeleton as the source, within about 4 and 0.3%, respectively. It can be stated that whole-body SAFs or S values in simplified models without internal organs are not sufficient for accurate internal dosimetry because they do not reflect SAFs or S values of all individual organs as the source was not distributed uniformly in whole body. Thus, voxel-based models

  1. 海洛因依赖者脑灰质体积的VBM研究%Voxel Based Morphometry Study of Cerebral Gray Matter Volume in Patients With Heroin Dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱佳; 王亚蓉; 李强; 李玮; 杨伟川; 吴宁; 常海峰; 王玮

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨海洛因依赖对大脑灰质结构的作用,分析吸食海洛因总时间、吸食海洛因总量、每日吸食海洛因量等因素对脑灰质体积产生的影响.资料与方法 采用MRI对17例海洛因依赖者和15名健康受试者行3D 结构像扫描,所得数据用基于体素的形态学分析(voxel based morphometry,VBM)方法分析脑灰质体积,并比较两组之间的体积差异;分析脑灰质体积与吸食海洛因总时间、吸食海洛因总量、每日吸食海洛因量之间的相关关系.结果 与健康被试者相比,海洛因依赖者右侧眶额回、中央前回、左侧岛叶、扣带回、枕叶舌回灰质体积减少(P<0.005);控制年龄、受教育程度、每日吸烟量后,脑灰质体积变化与使用海洛因总时间、海洛因总量、每日吸食海洛因量之间无显著相关关系.结论 长期吸食海洛因导致脑灰质结构损害,主要涉及认知控制、情感、视觉控制等相关脑区.%Objective To investigate the effect of heroin on cerebral gray structure in patients with heroin dependence. Materials and Methods Seventeen heroin dependent patients and 15 normal volunteers performed 3D structural MR examination. The cerebral grey matter volume was measured by voxel based morphometry (VBM). The differences of cerebral grey matter volume between two groups were compared by two sample t-test. Partial correlation analysis was to measure the relativity between grey matter volume and the duration of heroin use, the total dose of heroin use as well as the everyday dose of heroin. Results Compared with the control group, the cerebral gray matter volume in heroin dependent group had a significant decrease (P <0. 005) in the right orbital frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left insular, left cingulate gyrus and left lingual gyrus. Partial correlation analysis, which controlled for age, education and nicotine use factors, showed that the duration of heroin use, the total dose of

  2. A STUDY ON MORPHOMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF VOLUME OF ACETABULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Khobragade,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hip joint represents an unique functional unit and has complex biomechanical construction. In today’s era where total hip replacement surgeries have made their way it has become imperative for the anatomists to know the variations in acetabular dimensions. Reconstruction of acetabulum in patients with significant acetabular bone deficiency remains a challenge. Hence the present study was carried out with the aim to study the morphometric measurement of volume of acetabulum in both the sexes. Materials and Methods: Material of the study consisted of 110 human hip bones (60 males and 50 females. Volume of Acetabulum (VA was measured on these hip bones on both the sides. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 11 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: The mean volume of acetabulum in male was 23.13 ml and female was 17.88 ml. The mean volume of acetabulum on right side was 20.55 ml and left side was 20.91 ml. Volume of the acetabulum was greater in males as compared to females and the differences were statistically significant. Volume was greater on the left side as compared to the right side but the difference was statistically non significant. Discussion: Analysing the differences on human acetabulum is helpful in understanding not only morphological but also medicolegal aspects. Conclusion: Volume of the acetabulum was greater in males as compared to females.

  3. Posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions: topographic anatomy and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Gali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide anatomical and morphometric basis of the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertions in order to assist the creation of anatomical tibial tunnels, in the ligament surgical reconstruction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The topographic anatomy and morphometry of the posterior cruciate ligament's anterolateral and posteromedial bundles' tibial insertions were analyzed in 24 anatomical knee pieces. The pieces were photographed by a digital camera and the images obtained were studied by the software ImageJ, where the bundles' insertion areas were measured in square millimeters, and the length of structures and the distances between significant points were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: In 54.2% of the knees the insertion' shape was concave; in most pieces (41.6% the form of insertion was oval. The average posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertion total area was 88.33 ± 21.66 mm2; the average anterolateral bundle's tibial insertion area was 46.79 ± 14.10 mm2 and it was 41.54 ± 9.75 mm2 for the posteromedial bundle. CONCLUSIONS: The anterolateral bundle has a tibial insertion area larger than the posteromedial bundle; the insertion areas of those bundles in our study, were smaller than the ones found in the literature. The variations in the posterior cruciate ligament's tibial insertion area suggest that there should be an indication for anatomical reconstructions of this ligament using single or double tibial tunnels according to individual characteristics.

  4. Achilles tendinosis: a morphometrical study in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael Duarte; Glazebrook, Mark Anthony; Campos, Vinicius Castro; Vasconcelos, Anilton Cesar

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the morphopathogenesis of Achilles tendinosis, using a rat model and presenting quantitative analysis of time-dependent histological changes. Thirty Wistar rats were used, randomly split in experimental and control groups. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to a treadmill running scheme. Five animals of each group were euthanized at four, eight and sixteen weeks. Achilles tendons were collected and processed routinely for histopath sections. Slides were stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin, Picrosirius Red, Alcian Blue, AgNOR, TUNEL and evaluated morphometrically. Cellular density decreased slightly along the time and was higher in the experimental group than in controls at fourth, eighth and sixteenth weeks. Fiber microtearing, percentual of reticular fibers and glycosaminoglycans content increased along the time and were higher in experimental group than in controls at all-time intervals. AgNOR labeling here interpreted as a marker of transcription activity was higher in the experimental groups than in controls at all-time intervals. Apoptotic cells were more frequent and diffusely distributed in tendinosis samples than in control groups. These results suggest that as mechanical overload is becoming chronic, cellular turnover and matrix deposition increases leading to tendinosis. The combination of staining techniques and morphometry used here to describe the evolution of lesions occurring in a rat model system has proved to be suited for the study of induced Achilles tendinosis.

  5. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamboer, P.; Scholte, H.S.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in

  6. Dyslexia and Voxel-Based Morphometry: Correlations between Five Behavioural Measures of Dyslexia and Gray and White Matter Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H. Steven; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics…

  7. A cephalometric morphometric study of the sella turcica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andredaki, M; Koumantanou, A; Dorotheou, D; Halazonetis, D J

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to use quantitative methods to measure the size and shape of the sella turcica and thus establish normative reference standards that could assist in a more objective evaluation and detection of pathological conditions. Standardized lateral cephalograms of 184 healthy Greeks (91 males and 93 females) were used. The age range was between 6 and 17 years. Conventional measurements included three different heights of the sella turcica (anterior, posterior, median), its length, and width, measured in relation to the Frankfort reference line. In addition, the area of sella turcica was calculated. Morphometric methods were used to assess shape. The tracings were superimposed using the Procrustes method, and the average shape was computed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess shape variability. The data were correlated with centroid size, age, and gender. Unpaired t-tests were used to determine gender differences. Sella height anteriorly was the only variable found to be significantly different between the genders, being larger in females by 0.5 mm. Linear and area measurements were found to be significantly correlated with age, but all correlations were low (r(2) below 8 per cent). Sella turcica shape, as described by PCA, was different between males and females, mainly at the posterior aspect of the sella outline. However, although there was an extensive overlap between the genders, and differences were minimal. Age was not found to be correlated with the shape coefficients, although, in the female group, the first principal component of shape was marginally not significant. Allometry was observed in both genders, the sella showing a tendency towards a flatter and wider shape with increase in size. The results of this study constitute quantitative reference data that could be used for objective evaluation of sella shape.

  8. 基于体素的孤独症谱系障碍儿童脑灰质体积研究%A typical gray matter volume in children with autism spectrum disorder: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛丽薇; 王佳; 陈恒; 陈磊; 吴琼; 张碧珊; 孙彩虹; 夏薇; 陈华富

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较孤独症谱系障碍(ASD)儿童和正常对照儿童的大脑灰质体积,探索ASD大脑结构异常的神经影像学证据.方法 采集21例ASD儿童及9名正常儿童的全脑T1结构MRI图像,采用基于体素的形态学测量(VBM)方法计算两组被试大脑各区域的灰质体积,并采用双样本t检验结合Alphasim多重检验矫正寻找差异脑区,采用多元回归分析与相关分析探究ASD组异常脑区的灰质体积与临床表型和年龄的关系.结果 与对照组相比,ASD组中灰质体积增大的区域位于楔前叶、距状皮层、舌回和左侧扣带回后部以及左侧缘上回、左侧颞上回、左侧顶下小叶、左侧中央后回、左侧罗兰迪克岛盖和左侧颞中回(校正后P值均<0.05).异常的左侧缘上回和左侧顶下小叶灰质体积与孤独症诊断访谈量表社会互动障碍(r=-0.64,P=0.002)和孤独症诊断观察量表相互性社会互动(r=-0.58,P=0.006)得分均呈负相关.ASD组中存在差异的脑区灰质体积随着年龄增大呈减小的趋势(r=-0.52,P=0.017),而对照组中未见该趋势(r=-0.15,P=0.69).结论 ASD儿童灰质体积改变见于多个脑区,ASD儿童大脑结构存在明显异常.%Objective To compare the gray matter volume (GMV) of ASD children with healthy control and to explore the neuroimaging evidence associated with ASD brain structure.Methods Whole-brain T1 MRI scans were collected both from 21 ASD children and 9 normal children,VBM analysis was performed to calculate the GMV of each brain regions.A two-sample t test combining Alphasim multiple test correction was utilized to explore the regions with atypical GMV,then a multi-regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the GMV of atypical regions and symptoms of ASD,and the development course of two groups.Results Compared with HC group,ASD exhibited increased GMV in precuneus,calcarine,lingual gyrus,left posterior cingulated,left supramarginal gyrus,left superior temporal gyrus,left inferior parietal lobule,left postcentral gyrus,left rolandic operculum and left middle temporal gyrus(P<0.05 after correction).Moreover the GMV of left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule(r =-0.64,P =0.002) were negative correlated with ADI-R SOCIAL and ADOS SOCIAL scores in ASD(r =-0.52,P=0.017).Investigation of age-related effects demonstrated that the GMV of atypical regions decreased with age in individuals with ASD(r=-0.52,P=0.002),but not in the HC group(r=-0.15,P=0.69).Conclusion The changes of GMV in ASD children located in several brain regions,and the brain structure of children with ASD was significantly abnormal.

  9. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  10. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS OF ANKLE

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    Neelu Prasad

    2016-06-01

    is very poorly understood. The ligament in case of tear or injury has to be repaired which is impossible to do so if a proper morphometric knowledge is not known. So a sincere effort has been put in the study to find the morphometry of the deltoid ligament. METHODS  One hundred specimens were dissected. In this, fifty belonged to the right and fifty belonged to the left side.  The study was done in the Department of Anatomy, Nalanda Medical College, Patna.  The study was done from June 2015 to April 2016.  The morphometry was seen and the comparisons were done.  The dissection was done to expose the deltoid ligament. The anterior, middle and posterior length was taken. Then, the superior, middle and inferior width was taken. Then, the thickness was measured.  Then, the presence or absence of the deep part was noted. RESULTS Irrespective of the side and sex to which the ligaments belong, the mean value of the length of the deltoid ligaments in the anterior, middle and posterior parts are 24.40 mm, 21.53 mm and 17.20 mm. The widths in the superior, middle and inferior parts are 19.94 mm, 22.59 mm and 27.45 mm. The thickness mean measurement is 6.94 mm. Deep Part was found in 100% of cases. The superficial part trapezoid in shape wide anteriorly and narrow posteriorly, also is narrow superiorly where it arises and broad inferiorly where it gets inserted. CONCLUSION The ligaments of the talocrural joint are one of the most difficult ligaments to study. A sincere effort has been put in this study to find the morphometry of ligaments of ankle joint. The same has been studied and reported successfully to help the surgeons to understand and help the needful in a better way.

  11. A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF ATLAS & AXIS VERTEBRAE IN RAJASTHAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the dimensions of the vertebral elements is very important for the development of instrumentation related to cervical spine. Ethnic variations have been reported in these dimensions. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the metrical details of first and second cervical vertebrae to correct the instability of atlantoaxial joint, and to analyze the morphological features to understand the ergonomics of the craniovertebral joints. This study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy S. M. S. Medical college jaipur. Total 150 (75 atlas and 75 axis cervical vertebrae were evaluated. All the measurements were taken in bilateral manner using Digital Vernier Calipers with .01 precision. Calculated mean value for width of atlas in our study was 69.03 mm. In present study the observed mean value for anterioposterior diameter of vertebral canal of atlas was 25.52 mm. and transverse diameter was observed as 21.98 mm. Mean value for height of anterior arch of atlas was 7.42 mm and for posterior arch height was calculated 5.3 mm. The mean value of Anterioposterior diameter of Rt. and Lt. Superior articular facet was calculated 17.99 and18.29 mm and transverse diameter was observed as 7.81±1.28 and 8.33±1.54 mm. In our present study anterioposterior diameter of inferior articular facet of atlas was calculated as 13.35±1.50mm and 13.38±1.65 respectively for right and left side and transverse diameter was observed as 6.86±1.32 mm and 6.92±1.44 mm for right and left side. Calculated mean value for width of dens was observed 6.64±0.992mm and mean value of dens length was 12.95 mm. Calculated mean value for A-P diameter of vertebral canal was observed 16.48±1.12 mm and transverse diameter of vertebral canal was calculated as 19.81±1.18 mm. Calculated A-P diameter of Rt. Superior articular facet of axis was 14.65±1.44 mm and for Lt. It was calculated 14.65±1.44 mm and transverse diameter was calculated as 13.38 ±1.65. For inferior articular

  12. 氯胺酮依赖者的额叶灰质体积研究——基于体素的形态学研究( VBM)%Volumetric abnormalities of gray matter in ketamine dependent patients: a voxel based morphometry study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖艳辉; 詹劲松; 王绪轶; 谌红献; 向小军; 刘铁桥; 陈晓岗; 郝伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective Using three - dimensional magnetic resonance imaging to assess volumetric abnormalities of grey matter in chronic ketamine dependent subjects. Methods We used voxel based morphometry in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping on the structural magnetic resonance images of ketamine - dependent (n =41) and drug -naive control individuals (n = 44) to assess differences between the two groups in gray matter volume. Results We found a decrease in gray matter volume in bilateral frontal (left superior frontal and right middle frontal) cortex of ketamine patients in comparison to controls ( P < 0. 05 corrected for multiple comparisons at cluster - level) . Also, we found that the duration (months) of ketamine use was negatively correlated with gray matter volume in bilateral frontal cortex while the estimated total lifetime ketamine consumption was only negatively correlated with gray matter volume in left superior frontal cortex. Conclusions This is the first voxel - based morphometry study showing reduction of frontal gray matter volume in patients with ketamine dependence and showing the correlation of duration of ketamine use and cumulative doses of ketamine with decrease of frontal gray matter volume. Brain structural study of the affected areas in patients with ketamine dependence might better guide future research into the poorly understood condition of ketamine addiction and its correlates of schizophrenia.%目的 研究慢性氯胺酮依赖者脑灰质改变情况.方法 采用基本体素的形态学分析方法 对41名氯胺酮依赖者和44名未使用任何成瘾物质的健康志愿者进行两组之间的脑灰质体积比较.结果 与对照组相比,氯胺酮依赖组的双侧额叶区(左额上回和右额中回)灰质体积下降(P <0.05,纠正后,cluster水平);氯胺酮使用的时间(月)与双侧额叶灰质体积呈负相关,而估计的氯胺酮使用总量只和左额上回的灰质体积呈负相关.结论 本研究首次

  13. A new computerized morphometric analysis for peripheral nerve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Chase A; Wang, Ziyi; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Agresti, Michael; Grewal, Prabhjot; Matloub, Hani S; Yan, Ji-Geng

    2014-02-01

    The commonly used methods to quantify axon numbers and mean area include manual and semiautomated procedures. The authors introduce a new fully automated method of morphometric analysis using ImageJ and Paint.net software to improve efficiency and accuracy. A total of six rat sciatic nerves were examined for their axon numbers and mean axon area by comparing the manual method or semiautomated MetaVue method with the new ImageJ method. It was observed that the number of axons for manual counting and ImageJ were 4,630 ± 403 and 4,779 ± 352, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.5, t-test). The mean axon area measured was 13.44 ± 2.62 µm2 for MetaVue and 8.87 ± 0.78 µm2 for ImageJ, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p ImageJ were 0.32 and 0.087. The authors conclude that their new approach demonstrates improved convenience, time efficiency, accuracy, and less operator error or bias.

  14. Morphometrics and the role of the phenotype in studies of the evolution of developmental mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2002-04-03

    Developmental mechanisms are usually assumed to evolve by natural selection of the morphological traits they produce. Therefore, information on phenotypic traits is an important component of comparative studies of development. Morphometrics permits the rigorous quantitative analysis of variation in organismal size and shape, and is increasingly being used in developmental contexts. The new methods of morphometrics combine a geometric concept of shape with the procedures of multivariate statistics, and constitute a powerful and flexible set of tools for analyzing morphological variation. This paper briefly reviews these methods and provides examples of their application in studies of genetic variation and developmental modularity. The results of morphometric analyses can be readily interpreted in relation to the geometry and anatomical structure of the parts under study. Genetic studies of shape in the mouse mandible found two recurrent patterns in environmental and genetic variation from different origins, suggesting that the development system 'channels' the phenotypic expression of variation in similar ways. Moreover, by analyzing the correlations of left-right asymmetries of morphometric traits, it is possible to delimit the spatial extent of developmental modules. These methods complement the experimental approaches of developmental biology and genetics, and can be expected to be especially fruitful in combination with them.

  15. The structure of the amygdala associates with human sexual permissiveness: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nouchi, Rui; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-02-01

    Sexual behavior is a critical function of human procreation. Despite previous studies that investigated the neural mechanisms of basic human physiological sexual functions, the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in human sexual permissiveness remain unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry and a questionnaire (scale for sexual attitudes) to measure sexual permissiveness to investigate the gray matter and white matter structural correlates of sexual permissiveness. Sexual permissiveness was negatively correlated with regional gray matter density of the structures involving the right amygdala and surrounding areas, and positively correlated with regional white matter density of the white matter area that spread around the left amygdala to the hypothalamus area. There were no gender-specific relationships in the neural correlates of our findings. These findings suggest that structural variations in regions that play key roles in the basic physiological aspects of human sexuality underlie individual complex sexual attitudes in social life. © 2014 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Voxel-based analysis of grey and white matter degeneration in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabher, Patrick; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Trachsler, Aaron; Friedl, Susanne; David, Gergely; Sutter, Reto; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Thompson, Alan J; Curt, Armin; Freund, Patrick

    2016-04-20

    In this prospective study, we made an unbiased voxel-based analysis to investigate above-stenosis spinal degeneration and its relation to impairment in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Twenty patients and 18 controls were assessed with high-resolution MRI protocols above the level of stenosis. Cross-sectional areas of grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), and posterior columns (PC) were measured to determine atrophy. Diffusion indices assessed tract-specific integrity of PC and lateral corticospinal tracts (CST). Regression analysis was used to reveal relationships between MRI measures and clinical impairment. Patients showed mainly sensory impairment. Atrophy was prominent within the cervical WM (13.9%, p = 0.004), GM (7.2%, p = 0.043), and PC (16.1%, p = 0.005). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was reduced in the PC (-11.98%, p = 0.006) and lateral CST (-12.96%, p = 0.014). In addition, radial (+28.47%, p = 0.014), axial (+14.72%, p = 0.005), and mean (+16.50%, p = 0.001) diffusivities were increased in the PC. Light-touch score was associated with atrophy (R(2) = 0.3559, p = 0.020) and FA (z score 3.74, p = 0.003) in the PC, as was functional independence and FA in the lateral CST (z score 3.68, p = 0.020). This study demonstrates voxel-based degeneration far above the stenosis at a level not directly affected by the compression and provides unbiased readouts of tract-specific changes that relate to impairment.

  17. Morphometric study of cricoid cartilages in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini Joshi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is important to determine the size and proportion of thelarynx as such information is useful in procedures such asintubation, endoscopy and surgical manipulations. Recentinterest in the cases of subglottic stenosis and postintubationalstenosis of the lower respiratory tract has ledto renewed interest in ascertaining the measurements ofthe various laryngeal cartilages. The aim of the presentstudy was to collect morphometric data of cricoid cartilagefrom a regional population.MethodFifty laryngeal preparations from adult cadavers of WesternIndia were assessed. Sections were prepared via dissectionand the removed cricoid cartilages then measured andweighed.ResultsThe mean antero-posterior diameter (19.29±2.47 of thecricoid cartilage was greater than the average transversediameter (18.33±2.26. The height of arch of cricoidcartilage was 6.54±1.23mm and height of lamina was21.45±1.97mm. Mean weight of cricoid cartilage was4.53±1.27grams. The shape of the cricoid cartilage wasovoid in 46% of cases, oval in 38%, pear shaped in 12% andnarrow-oblong in 4% of cases.ConclusionInter-subject variability in the dimensions of cricoidcartilages was observed. The large difference in almost allsizes and shapes of the cricoid cartilage makes it difficult tostandardise the rigid stents used in these organs.Endotracheal tubes of the appropriate size should thereforebe based on the measurements of individual patients.Clinicians should therefore be aware of morphologicalvariations as they are of fundamental clinical importance.Key WordsCricoid cartilage, larynx, morphometry

  18. Schizotypy and brain structure: a voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, G.; Mechelli, A.; Ormel, J.; Groenewold, N.A.; Aleman, A.; McGuire, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Schizotypy is conceptualized as a subclinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Individuals with psychometric schizotypy (PS) experience subthreshold psychotic signs and can be psychometrica

  19. Schizotypy and brain structure : a voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, G.; Mechelli, A.; Ormel, J.; Groenewold, N. A.; Aleman, A.; McGuire, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Schizotypy is conceptualized as a subclinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Individuals with psychometric schizotypy (PS) experience subthreshold psychotic signs and can be psychometrica

  20. Voxel Based Morphometry Alterations in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome.

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    Yoon-Hee Cha

    Full Text Available Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS is a disorder of chronic self-motion perception that occurs though entrainment to rhythmic background motion, such as from sea voyage, and involves the perception of low-frequency rocking that can last for months or years. The neural basis of this persistent sensory perception abnormality is not well understood.We investigated grey matter volume differences underlying persistent MdDS by performing voxel-based morphometry on whole brain and pre-specified ROIs in 28 individuals with MdDS and comparing them to 18 age, sex, and handedness matched controls.MdDS participants exhibited greater grey matter volume in the left inferior parietal lobule, right inferior occipital gyrus (area V3v, right temporal pole, bilateral cerebellar hemispheric lobules VIII/IX and left lobule VIIa/VIIb. Grey matter volumes were lower in bilateral inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC and left superior medial gyri (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr. In ROI analyses, there were no volume differences in the middle occipital gyrus (region of V5/MT or parietal operculum 2 (region of the parietoinsular vestibular cortex. Illness duration was positively related to grey matter volume in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI, right posterior insula, superior parietal lobule, left middle occipital gyrus (V5/MT, bilateral postcentral gyrus, anterior cerebellum, and left cerebellar hemisphere and vermian lobule IX. In contrast, illness duration was negatively related to volume in pgACC, posterior middle cingulate gyrus (MCC, left middle frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-DLPFC, and right cerebellar hemispheric lobule VIIIb (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr. The most significant differences were decreased volume in the pgACC and increased volume in the left IFG/AI with longer illness duration (qFDRcorr <0.05. Concurrent medication use did not correlate with these findings or have a relationship with

  1. THE DIFFERENCES OF GRAY MATTER BETWEEN CHRONIC CIGARETTE SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS:A VOXEL BASED MORPHOMETRY(VBM)STUDY%吸烟者与不吸烟者灰质体积的差异-基于体素的形态学研究(VBM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖艳辉; 唐劲松; 刘铁桥; 陈晓岗; 郝伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Assessing volumetric abnormalities of grey matter in chronic cigarette smokers. Methods:We used three -dimensional structural magnetic resonance images and voxel -based morphometry method in 44 smokers and 44 non - smoking control individuals to assess gray matter volume differences between the two groups. Results: We found a decrease in gray matter volume in left thalamus,medial frontal cortex and anterior eingulate of smokers in comparison to controls (P <0.001 uncorrected for multiple comparisons at voxel- level). Conclusion:This study showed the reduction of regional (left thalamus, medial frontal cortex and anterior cingulated) gray matter volume in smokers. Those results might better guide future research into the pathogenesis of chronic smoking.%目的:了解慢性吸烟者是否存在脑灰质改变.方法:采用磁共振三维成像技术对44名吸烟者和44名相匹配的不吸烟者脑结构扫描,利用基于体素的形态学分析方法进行吸烟与非吸烟者两组之间的脑灰质体积比较.结果:与不吸烟者组相比,吸烟者组的左侧丘脑、额中回区和扣带回灰质体积下降(P<0.001,未纠正).结论:本研究发现了慢性吸烟者的脑灰质改变(丘脑、额中回区和扣带回灰质体积下降),此结果将有助于进一步研究慢性吸烟的大脑作用机制.

  2. 原发性遗尿症患儿智力结构分析及基于体素的磁共振形态学研究%Assessment of intelligence structure in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the working memory impairment and explore the differential of gray matter MR density alterations in children with primary nocturnal enuresis(PNE) using voxel-based morphometry(VBM)method.Methods 75 right-handed PNE children(M/F=39=36,average age 10.4±1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls(M/F=40:32,10.0±1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in PNE children and controls. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ) .verbal IQ(VIQ) .performance IQ (PIQ) and memory/caution(M/C)factor were measured.Voxel-based morphom-etry(VBM)of a high-resolution 3 Tesla, Tl-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5, was performed in the PNE children and controls. Student I test was performed to test the differences of the gray matter density (GMD) of the PNE children and controls.Results The FIQ, VIQ and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group.The M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group.Compared with normal controls, PNE children showed lower GMD in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex(dLPFC)and left cerebellum(P<0.001). Conclusion Impairment in working memory was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right dLPFC and left cerebellum might involved in their deficits.%目的 分析原发性遗尿症(PNE)患儿智力结构,探讨单纯PNE患儿灰质形态学改变状况.方法 2006年10月至2011年8月解放军第463医院儿科就诊的75例右利手PNE患儿(PNE组)及72名正常儿童(对照组),采用中国韦氏儿童智力量表( C-WISC)进行智力测试,计算言语智商(VIQ)、操作智商(PIQ)、总智商(FIQ)、记忆或不分心(M/C)因子等指标;而后进行高分辨率T1WI磁共振成像(MRI)扫描,采用VBM5工具包,对所有被试T1WI图像进行基于体素的形态学分析(VBM),采用t检验进行组间分

  3. A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analysis of asymptomatic Parkinson's disease-related G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, A.; Artzi, M.; Mirelman, A.; Jacob, Y.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Nuenen, B.F.L. van; Gurevich, T.; Orr-Urtreger, A.; Marder, K.; Bressman, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Hendler, T.; Giladi, N.; Bashat, D. Ben

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease have reduced gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy in both cortical and sub-cortical structures, yet changes in the pre-motor phase of the disease are unknown. METHODS: A comprehensive imaging study using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tens

  4. OPTIMUM PARAMETER SELECTION FOR THE MORPHOMETRIC DESCRIPTION OF WATERSHEDS: A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Olakunle Bilewu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological models are very useful for predictions in many ungauged basins across the world. There are many hydrological models available for discharge data generation with different complexities and varied input parameter requirements. Studies have shown that models with many input parameters do not necessarily perform better than those with few input parameters. Basin morphometric parameters play significant roles in the conversion of rainfall to runoff and obtaining good estimates of these parameters for use in runoff models is sometime challenging as Inaccurate input into models can propagate errors and make the models to perform poorly. This study employs the method of principal component analysis to reduce the number of morphometric parameters required to run a runoff model without losing any major information. Parameters for five selected study basins in central Nigeria were measured and analysed. The result shows that three morphometric parameters (Fitness Ratio, Ruggedness Number and Watershed Eccentricity can adequately represent other parameters as an input into a runoff model for the basins. This reduces significantly the time and effort needed to compute all the parameters which in actual fact may not improve the quality or efficiency of the runoff model.

  5. A morphometric and molecular study of Anastrepha pickeli Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, Z V; Lima, K M; Silva, J G; Costa, M A; Zucchi, Robert A

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the level of morphometric and genetic variability among populations of Anastrepha pickeli Lima from several localities in Brazil, one locality in Bolivia and one in Paraguay. Traditional and geometric morphometric analyses were used, as well as sequencing of a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). Six variables were measured from the aculeus for traditional morphometric analysis and 14 landmarks from the right wing were used for geometric analysis, using 10 specimes/population. The aculeus tip length, aculeus width at the end of the cloaca opening, and the serrate part length contributed with 62.7% for grouping. According to the results from traditional morphometry, there was no significant difference, but the multivariate tests showed that the canonical variables were statistically significant, indicating a difference in the wing conformation among populations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the populations clustered into three clades and revealed a high level of genetic variation within A. pickeli populations from various geographic regions. Anastrepha pickeli populations differed among them according to the methods used in this study, showing incongruence among the methods used.

  6. Sexual dimorphism and asymmetry in human cerebellum: an MRI-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lingzhong; Tang, Yuchun; Sun, Bo; Gong, Gaolang; Chen, Zhang J; Lin, Xiangtao; Yu, Taifei; Li, Zhenping; Evans, Alan C; Liu, Shuwei

    2010-09-24

    Structural sexual dimorphism and asymmetry in human cerebellum have been described in previous research, but results remain inconclusive or even conflicting. In this study, gender differences and hemispheric asymmetries in global and regional human cerebellum gray matter (GM) were estimated in an age-matched sample (n=112) of young Chinese adults. An optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in spatial unbiased infratentorial template (SUIT) space together with an automated atlas-based volumetric approach were performed for mapping regional gray matter (GM) gender-related differences across the entire cerebellum. The two methods provided consistent findings on gender differences. The cerebellar GM volume was significantly larger in the anterior and middle posterior lobes of male group. In addition, a trend of greater GM volume in lateral posterior lobe of female group was observed. With the created symmetric cerebellar template, the asymmetric properties of cerebellar hemisphere were also assessed by VBM analysis, showing rightward asymmetry distributed in most cerebellar lobules and leftwards asymmetry distributed in the lobules around the medial posterior lobe. Gender differences in males showed higher leftward asymmetry sparsely within a few lobules and lower rightward asymmetry mainly within lobule Crus II, as compared with females. The acquired detailed morphologic knowledge of normal human cerebellum could establish a baseline for comparison with pathologic changes in the cerebellum. Moreover, our results might help to address controversies in thestudy of sexual dimorphisms and asymmetric patterns in human cerebellum.

  7. A voxel-based multiscale model to simulate the radiation response of hypoxic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, I., E-mail: iespinoza@fis.puc.cl [Institute of Physics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile and Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Peschke, P. [Clinical Cooperation Unit Molecular Radiooncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Karger, C. P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    model, tumor shrinkage was found to be significantly more important for reoxygenation than angiogenesis or decreased oxygen consumption due to an increased fraction of dead cells. In the studied HNSSC-case, the TCD{sub 50} values (dose at 50% TCP) decreased from 71.0 Gy under hypoxic to 53.6 Gy under the oxic condition. Conclusions: The results obtained with the developed multiscale model are in accordance with expectations based on radiobiological principles and clinical experience. As the model is voxel-based, radiological imaging methods may help to provide the required 3D-characterization of the tumor prior to irradiation. For clinical application, the model has to be further validated with experimental and clinical data. If this is achieved, the model may be used to optimize fractionation schedules and dose distributions for the treatment of hypoxic tumors.

  8. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: correlates with cognitive and motor deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook Hui; Park, Jun Sung; Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Sang Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sung Tae; Han, Seol-Heui; Na, Duk L

    2011-10-01

    Patients with small vessel disease show high-signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images that represent ischemic cell damage. However, despite a similar degree of ischemic change, the amount and the severity of clinical presentations may vary. We investigated the clinical correlations of ischemic changes using voxel-based morphometric analyses of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-seven MCI and 34 dementia patients were included who all had significant small vessel disease on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In all patients, neuropsychological tests, a rating on the Pyramidal and Extrapyramidal scale (PEPS) for motor deficits, and 3-Tesla MRI including DTI scans were performed. Voxel-based analysis of the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were computed. Cognitive scores correlated with the DTI abnormalities in supratentorial areas with regional specificity according to each cognitive test. Unexpectedly, cognitive deficits in most neuropsychological tests, even in some frontal tasks, were associated with disruption of posterior white matter integrities. Motor deficits correlated with both supra- and infratentorial lesions. Our findings suggest that in patients with small vessel disease who show cognitive and motor impairments, a specific distribution of fiber tract damage is more related with clinical deficits than is the severity of the total ischemia. © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  9. Characterization of tumor dose heterogeneity for 90Y microsphere therapies using voxel- based dosimetry

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    Justin Mikell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dosimetry for 90Y microsphere therapies (YMT with Standard (SM and Partition (PM models provide only uniform dose estimates to tumor and liver. Our objective is to calculate tumor dose heterogeneity, known to effect response, using voxel-based dosimetry and investigate the limitations of SM and PM.Methods: Voxel-based dosimetry was performed on 17 YMT patients using Monte Carlo DOSXYZnrc. 90Y activity and tissue/density distributions were based on quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Tumors (n=31, liver, and treatment lobe/segments were segmented on diagnostic CT or MR. Dose volume histograms (DVH were created for tumors and normal liver. Bland-Altman analysis compared voxel-based mean absorbed doses to tumor and liver with SM and PM. Tumor and normal liver absorbed dose heterogeneity were investigated through metrics: integral uniformity (IU, D10/D90, COV. Correlations of heterogeneity with voxel-based mean doses and volumes were evaluated.Results: Heterogeneity metrics (mean ± 1σ for tumor dose were COV = 0.48 ± 0.28, D10/D90 = 4.7 ± 3.9, and IU = 0.8 ± 0.18. Heterogeneity metrics correlated with tumor volume (r > 0.58 but not tumor mean doses (r < 0.20. Voxel-based tumor mean doses correlated with PM (r = 0.84 but not SM (r = 0.08. Both yielded poor limits of agreement with of 83 ± 174 and -28 ± 181 Gy, respectively. Normal liver heterogeneity metrics (mean ± 1σ were COV = 0.83 ± 0.29, D10/D90 = 12 ± 15, and IU = 0.97 ± 0.03. Only D10/D90 (r = 0.49 correlated with mean normal liver absorbed dose. Voxel-based normal liver/lobe mean doses correlated with PM (r = 0.96, but had poor limits of agreement (26 ± 29 Gy.Conclusion: Tumor doses have high levels of heterogeneity that increase with volume but are independent of dose. Voxel-based DVH and dose heterogeneity metrics will promote accurate characterization of tumor response following YMT.--------------------------------------Cite this article as: Mikell J, Mourtada F

  10. Neural correlates of transitive and intransitive action imitation: An investigation using voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bonivento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reproduce visually presented actions has been studied through neuropsychological observations of patients with ideomotor apraxia. These studies include attempts to understand the neural basis of action reproduction based on lesion–symptom mapping in different patient groups. While there is a convergence of evidence that areas in the parietal and frontal lobes within the left hemisphere are involved in the imitation of a variety of actions, questions remain about whether the results generalize beyond the imitation of tool use and whether the presence of a strong grasp component of the action is critical. Here we used voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping to assess the neural substrates of imitating meaningful (familiar, MF and meaningless (unfamiliar, ML tool-related (transitive and non-tool related (intransitive actions. The analysis showed that the left parietal cortex was involved in the imitation of transitive gestures, regardless of whether they were meaningful or not. In addition there was poor reproduction of meaningless actions (both transitive and intransitive following damage of the right frontal cortex. These findings suggest a role of right frontal regions in processing of unfamiliar actions.

  11. Neural correlates of transitive and intransitive action imitation: an investigation using voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonivento, Carolina; Rothstein, Pia; Humphreys, Glyn; Chechlacz, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reproduce visually presented actions has been studied through neuropsychological observations of patients with ideomotor apraxia. These studies include attempts to understand the neural basis of action reproduction based on lesion-symptom mapping in different patient groups. While there is a convergence of evidence that areas in the parietal and frontal lobes within the left hemisphere are involved in the imitation of a variety of actions, questions remain about whether the results generalize beyond the imitation of tool use and whether the presence of a strong grasp component of the action is critical. Here we used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to assess the neural substrates of imitating meaningful (familiar, MF) and meaningless (unfamiliar, ML) tool-related (transitive) and non-tool related (intransitive) actions. The analysis showed that the left parietal cortex was involved in the imitation of transitive gestures, regardless of whether they were meaningful or not. In addition there was poor reproduction of meaningless actions (both transitive and intransitive) following damage of the right frontal cortex. These findings suggest a role of right frontal regions in processing of unfamiliar actions.

  12. An automatic framework for quantitative validation of voxel based morphometry measures of anatomical brain asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Antonietta; Dinov, Ivo; Tohka, Jussi

    2014-10-15

    The study of anatomical brain asymmetries has been a topic of great interest in the neuroimaging community in the past decades. However, the accuracy of brain asymmetry measurements has been rarely investigated. In this study, we propose a fully automatic methodology for the quantitative validation of brain tissue asymmetries as measured by Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) from structural magnetic resonance (MR) images. Starting from a real MR image, the methodology generates simulated 3D MR images with a known and realistic pattern of inter-hemispheric asymmetry that models the left-occipital right-frontal petalia of a normal brain and the related rightward bending of the inter-hemispheric fissure. As an example, we generated a dataset of 64 simulated MR images and applied this dataset for the quantitative validation of optimized VBM measures of asymmetries in brain tissue composition. Our results suggested that VBM analysis strongly depended on the spatial normalization of the individual brain images, the selected template space, and the amount of spatial smoothing applied. The most accurate asymmetry detections were achieved by 9-degrees of freedom registration to the symmetrical template space with 4 to 8mm spatial smoothing.

  13. VIDA: a voxel-based dosimetry method for targeted radionuclide therapy using Geant4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Susan D; Dewaraja, Yuni K; Abramson, Richard G; Stabin, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    We have developed the Voxel-Based Internal Dosimetry Application (VIDA) to provide patient-specific dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport with the Geant4 toolkit. The code generates voxel-level dose rate maps using anatomical and physiological data taken from individual patients. Voxel level dose rate curves are then fit and integrated to yield a spatial map of radiation absorbed dose. In this article, we present validation studies using established dosimetry results, including self-dose factors (DFs) from the OLINDA/EXM program for uniform activity in unit density spheres and organ self- and cross-organ DFs in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) reference adult phantom. The comparison with reference data demonstrated agreement within 5% for self-DFs to spheres and reference phantom source organs for four common radionuclides used in targeted therapy ((131)I, (90)Y, (111)In, (177)Lu). Agreement within 9% was achieved for cross-organ DFs. We also present dose estimates to normal tissues and tumors from studies of two non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients treated by (131)I radioimmunotherapy, with comparison to results generated independently with another dosimetry code. A relative difference of 12% or less was found between methods for mean absorbed tumor doses accounting for tumor regression.

  14. Voxel-based morphometry to detect brain atrophy in progressive mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anne; Tervo, Susanna; Grau-Olivares, Marta; Niskanen, Eini; Pennanen, Corina; Huuskonen, Jari; Kivipelto, Miia; Hänninen, Tuomo; Tapiola, Mia; Vanhanen, Matti; Hallikainen, Merja; Helkala, Eeva-Liisa; Nissinen, Aulikki; Vanninen, Ritva; Soininen, Hilkka

    2007-10-01

    Recent research has shown an increased rate of conversion to dementia in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to controls. However, there are no specific methods to predict who will later develop dementia. In the present study, 22 controls and 56 MCI subjects were followed on average for 37 months (max. 60 months) and studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline to assess changes in brain structure associated to later progression to dementia. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter atrophy. During the follow-up, 13 subjects progressed to dementia. At baseline, no differences were detected in age or education between the control and MCI subjects, but they differed by several neuropsychological tests. The stable and progressive MCI subjects differed only by CDR sum of boxes scores and delayed verbal recall, which were also significant predictors of conversion to dementia. At the baseline imaging, the MCI subjects showed reduced gray matter density in medial temporal, temporoparietal as well as in frontal cortical areas compared to controls. Interestingly, the progressive MCI subjects showed atrophy in the left temporoparietal and posterior cingulate cortices and in the precuneus bilaterally, and a trend for hippocampal atrophy when compared to the stable MCI subjects. We conclude that widespread cortical atrophy is present already two and a half years before a clinical diagnosis of dementia can be set.

  15. Morphometric study of some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae species in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the morphological studies in some Salvia L. (Lamiaceae species in Iran. In order to elucidate the taxonomic status and morphological studies, 53 accessions of 12 Salvia species were collected from their natural habitats in Iran. A total of 17 quantitative and 13 qualitative morphological characters were selected as diagnostic characters in Salvia species through the use of numerical methods. The statistical analysis consisted of cluster analysis with Euclidean distance coefficient, factor analysis, descriptive analysis and variance analysis using SPSS V.20.0 software. The clustering results of quantitative and qualitative morphological characters showed five groups. Despite the high morphological similarity between S. nemorosa L. and S. virgata Jaq., these species were separated using qualitative and quantitative characters and factor analysis. Regarding cluster and factor analyses, S. spinosa L. and S. atropatana Bunge accessions displayed high morphological diversity. Based on these findings, morphological characteristics such as the features of the leaf, calyx, corolla, bract, stamen and style were considered to be the appropriate diagnostic characters in the taxonomy of the Salvia species studied.  

  16. Morphometric Study of the Atlas Vertebra using Manual Method

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    Shilpa N Gosavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The atlas (first cervical vertebra has undergone many structural modifications. It is critically located and close to the ‘life centres’. For this study, one hundred dried intact human atlas vertebrae from the Indian population were measured using a digital Vernier calliper that provides accurate resolution up to 0.01 mm. The distance between the tips of the transverse process, the outer and the inner distance between the foramen transversaria and various diameters of vertebral foramen were measured. The mean width of the measured atlases was 69.37 mm. The mean distance between the lateral margins of foramen transversaria was 55.66 mm and the inner distance was 45.93 mm. The mean thickness of vertebral artery grooves was 3.72 + 1.06 mm. The observations made in the present study may help in improving understanding of various bony dimensions while operating close to important structures like nerve roots and the vertebral artery.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF TIBIAL NUTRIENT FORAMEN

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    Narinder

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College Jammu. Material for the study comprised of seventy adult dry Tibiae, of unknown sex, available in the Department of Anatomy .Bones were labelled from 1 to 70.The number and direction of nutrient foramina on the posterior surface of the shaft was noted and counted. The situation of nutrient foramina in relation to the length of tibiae and in relation to vertical line on posterior surface was observed. The distance of nutrient foramen from the upper and lower end of tibia was measured . It was observed that in most of the bones there was a single nutrient foramen, directed downwards, which was present on the upper half of Tibia. It was present lateral to the vertical line on posterior surface of tibia. The mean distance of nutrient foramina from the upper end of tibia and from the lower end of tibia was more on the right side. The present study gains clinical significance as consistent position of the nutrient foramen is of importance in fractures involving upper third of Tibia through nutrient canal, which disrupts the blood supply to the shaft. This invariably results in delayed union.

  18. Parallel Solutions for Voxel-Based Simulations of Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele D’Agostino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness of the pivotal role of noise in biochemical processes and of the effect of molecular crowding on the dynamics of biochemical systems. This necessity has given rise to a strong need for suitable and sophisticated algorithms for the simulation of biological phenomena taking into account both spatial effects and noise. However, the high computational effort characterizing simulation approaches, coupled with the necessity to simulate the models several times to achieve statistically relevant information on the model behaviours, makes such kind of algorithms very time-consuming for studying real systems. So far, different parallelization approaches have been deployed to reduce the computational time required to simulate the temporal dynamics of biochemical systems using stochastic algorithms. In this work we discuss these aspects for the spatial TAU-leaping in crowded compartments (STAUCC simulator, a voxel-based method for the stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion processes which relies on the Sτ-DPP algorithm. In particular we present how the characteristics of the algorithm can be exploited for an effective parallelization on the present heterogeneous HPC architectures.

  19. Regional gray matter density associated with emotional intelligence: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions and the ability to use the gathered information to guide one's thinking and action. EI is thought to be important for social life making it a popular subject of research. However, despite the existence of previous functional imaging studies on EI, the relationship between regional gray matter morphology and EI has never been investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and a questionnaire (Emotional Intelligence Scale) to measure EI to identify the gray matter correlates of each factor of individual EI (Intrapersonal factor, Interpersonal factor, Situation Management factor). We found significant negative relationships between the Intrapersonal factor and regional gray matter density (rGMD) (1-a) in an anatomical cluster that included the right anterior insula, (1-b) in the right cerebellum, (1-c) in an anatomical cluster that extends from the cuneus to the precuneus, (1-d) and in an anatomical cluster that extends from the medial prefrontal cortex to the left lateral fronto-polar cortex. We also found significant positive correlations between the Interpersonal factor and rGMD in the right superior temporal sulcus, and significant negative correlations between the Situation Management factor and rGMD in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that each factor of EI in healthy young people is related to the specific brain regions known to be involved in the networks of social cognition and self-related recognition, and in the somatic marker circuitry.

  20. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

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    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  1. Parallel solutions for voxel-based simulations of reaction-diffusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Daniele; Pasquale, Giulia; Clematis, Andrea; Maj, Carlo; Mosca, Ettore; Milanesi, Luciano; Merelli, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the pivotal role of noise in biochemical processes and of the effect of molecular crowding on the dynamics of biochemical systems. This necessity has given rise to a strong need for suitable and sophisticated algorithms for the simulation of biological phenomena taking into account both spatial effects and noise. However, the high computational effort characterizing simulation approaches, coupled with the necessity to simulate the models several times to achieve statistically relevant information on the model behaviours, makes such kind of algorithms very time-consuming for studying real systems. So far, different parallelization approaches have been deployed to reduce the computational time required to simulate the temporal dynamics of biochemical systems using stochastic algorithms. In this work we discuss these aspects for the spatial TAU-leaping in crowded compartments (STAUCC) simulator, a voxel-based method for the stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion processes which relies on the Sτ-DPP algorithm. In particular we present how the characteristics of the algorithm can be exploited for an effective parallelization on the present heterogeneous HPC architectures.

  2. Parallel Solutions for Voxel-Based Simulations of Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Daniele; Pasquale, Giulia; Clematis, Andrea; Maj, Carlo; Mosca, Ettore; Milanesi, Luciano; Merelli, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the pivotal role of noise in biochemical processes and of the effect of molecular crowding on the dynamics of biochemical systems. This necessity has given rise to a strong need for suitable and sophisticated algorithms for the simulation of biological phenomena taking into account both spatial effects and noise. However, the high computational effort characterizing simulation approaches, coupled with the necessity to simulate the models several times to achieve statistically relevant information on the model behaviours, makes such kind of algorithms very time-consuming for studying real systems. So far, different parallelization approaches have been deployed to reduce the computational time required to simulate the temporal dynamics of biochemical systems using stochastic algorithms. In this work we discuss these aspects for the spatial TAU-leaping in crowded compartments (STAUCC) simulator, a voxel-based method for the stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion processes which relies on the Sτ-DPP algorithm. In particular we present how the characteristics of the algorithm can be exploited for an effective parallelization on the present heterogeneous HPC architectures. PMID:25045716

  3. Voxel-based morphometry evaluation of patients with photosensitive juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Katia; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Carrete, Henrique; de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Silva, Henrique Hattori; Guaranha, Mirian Salvadori Bittar; Guilhoto, Laura Maria Figueiredo Ferreira; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2009-10-01

    We aim to investigate structural brain abnormalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients with photosensitivity (PS). Sixty JME patients, 19 (32%) of whom were photosensitive, were submitted to 1.5T magnetic resonance voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The control group (CTL) consisted of 30 sex-matched healthy volunteers. JME patients with (JME-PS) and without (JME-NPS) PS did not differ in their duration of disease, treatment or seizure control. VBM revealed significantly reduced bilateral gray matter volume (GMV) in thalami, insula cortices and cerebellar hemispheres; while significantly increased GMV was observed in the right superior frontal, orbitofrontal and medial frontal gyri of the JME group compared to CTL. JME-PS had reduced bilateral GMV of visual cortices when compared with CTL; while it was not seen among JME-NPS patients. Reduced left hippocampus and left inferior frontal gyrus volume was observed among JME-PS compared with JME-NPS. This study demonstrates structural abnormalities beyond the limits of the frontal lobes and provides evidence for the role of the occipital cortex in human PS, reinforcing the existence of functional-anatomic ictogenic networks in JME and the concept of 'system epilepsies'.

  4. Regional White Matter Decreases in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuyu Li; Fang Pu; Feng Shi; Sheng Xie; Yinhua Wang; Tianzi Jiang (Dept. of Bioengineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China))

    2008-02-15

    Background: Most studies that attempt to clarify structural abnormalities related to functional disconnection in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on exploring pathological changes in cortical gray matter. However, white matter fibers connecting these cerebral areas may also be abnormal. Purpose: To investigate the regional changes of white matter volume in patients with AD compared to healthy subjects. Material and Methods: White matter volume changes in whole-brain magnetic resonance images acquired from 19 patients with AD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were observed using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. In addition, the corpus callosum (CC) of AD patients and the control group was investigated further by outlining manually the boundary of the CC on a midsagittal slice. Each area of the CC was then corrected by dividing each subject's intracranial area in the midsagittal plane. Results: Compared with the control group, AD patients showed significantly reduced white matter volumes in the posterior part of the CC and the temporal lobe in the left and right hemispheres. Moreover, the voxel showing peak statistical difference in the posterior of the CC was left sided. The five subdivisions of the CC were also significantly smaller among the AD patients relative to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these abnormalities in white matter regions may contribute to the functional disconnections in AD

  5. Regional White Matter Decreases in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuyu Li; Fang Pu; Feng Shi; Sheng Xie; Yinhua Wang; Tianzi Jiang [Dept. of Bioengineering, Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China)

    2008-02-15

    Background: Most studies that attempt to clarify structural abnormalities related to functional disconnection in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on exploring pathological changes in cortical gray matter. However, white matter fibers connecting these cerebral areas may also be abnormal. Purpose: To investigate the regional changes of white matter volume in patients with AD compared to healthy subjects. Material and Methods: White matter volume changes in whole-brain magnetic resonance images acquired from 19 patients with AD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were observed using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. In addition, the corpus callosum (CC) of AD patients and the control group was investigated further by outlining manually the boundary of the CC on a midsagittal slice. Each area of the CC was then corrected by dividing each subject's intracranial area in the midsagittal plane. Results: Compared with the control group, AD patients showed significantly reduced white matter volumes in the posterior part of the CC and the temporal lobe in the left and right hemispheres. Moreover, the voxel showing peak statistical difference in the posterior of the CC was left sided. The five subdivisions of the CC were also significantly smaller among the AD patients relative to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these abnormalities in white matter regions may contribute to the functional disconnections in AD.

  6. Morphometric study of dentate nucleus of cerebellum in Bangladeshi cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M A; Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Uddin, M M; Hossain, M; Ara, A; Choudhury, S; Shammi, N J

    2015-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done by using nonprobability sampling technique and performed by examining 63 (sixty three) cerebellum. Out of them 40 postmortem human cerebellum collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of both sexes (male 25 and female 15) age ranging from 5 to 60 years and 23 cerebellums from caesarian section of intrauterine death cases of both sexes (male 14 and female 9) age ranging from 34 to 41 weeks of gestation. Specimens were collected from dead bodies autopsied on different dates from April' 2009 to September' 2009 at the autopsy laboratory of department of Forensic Medicine and prenatal cases from Gynaecology and Obstetrics Department of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. The collected specimens were grouped into three age groups like Group A (28 to 42 weeks of gestation), Group B (5 to 30 years) and Group C (31 to 60 years) and, two sex groups (male and female) and two sides (right and left). A transverse section was made at the level of horizontal fissure, and length and breadth of dentate nucleus were measured by divider and scale. The mean (±SD) length and breadth of dentate nucleus was 8.619±2.995mm and 14.770±3.604mm respectively and it was observed that length and breadth of dentate nucleus increased with age upto certain level then slightly decreased in the late age Group C. In this study, differences of the mean length of dentate nucleus on both right and left sides were statistically moderately significant between age Groups A&B. The differences of mean breadth of dentate nucleus on both right and left side were statistically highly significant between age Groups A&B and moderately significant between age Groups A&C on right side and only significant on left side. The differences between male & female were statistically insignificant in length and breadth of dentate nucleus.

  7. Quantitative morphometric study of the subaxial cervical vertebrae end plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hang; Fang, Xiangyi; Huang, Dageng; Yu, Chengcheng; Zhao, Songchuan; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-02-01

    Cervical disc arthroplasty has been gradually adopted as an alternative for the treatment of cervical degenerative disease. However, there is a large discrepancy between footprints of currently available cervical disc prostheses and anatomic dimensions of cervical end plates. This study aimed to accurately and comprehensively quantify the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic morphology of the cervical vertebral end plate and provide a theoretical basis for designing appropriate disc prostheses. Moreover, we introduced a novel geometric and mechanical model for 3D reconstruction techniques of the cervical end plate. A descriptive study of the geometry of the middle and lower cervical vertebral end plates in cadaveric spines was carried out. A total of 138 cervical vertebral end plates were digitized using an optical 3D range scanning system, and then each end plate was reconstructed using the digitized image. For each end plate, the morphologic characteristics of six surface curves and the end plate concavity depth were symmetrically chosen and depicted. The cranial end plates (relative to the disc) were concave and the caudal end plates were relatively flat at all disc levels, with mean concavity depths of 2.04 and 0.69 mm, respectively. For the caudal end plates, the end plate concavity apex was most often (81.42%) located in the posterior portion, whereas in the cranial end plates, the distribution was relatively even. For the sagittal curves, the foremost point and the rearmost point on the middle curve had a more forward position than those in the left curve and the right curve. Regarding the frontal plane curves, the length of the middle curve was longer than that of the anterior curve and posterior curve. For the cranial end plate, the maximal mean depth was the middle curve, whereas for the caudal end plate, the maximum depth was the posterior curve. There is marked morphologic asymmetry, in that the cranial end plate is more concave than the corresponding

  8. Sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum: Digital morphometric study

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    Spasojević Goran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Changes in the morphology and the size of the corpus callosum, are related to various pathological conditions. An analysis of these changes requires data about sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum, which we tried to obtain in our study. We also investigated the method of digital morphometry and compared the obtained results with the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance imaging or by planimetry. Methods. A morphological research included 34 human brains (cadavers of both sexes − 19 female and 15 male aged 26−72 years. By digital morphometry using an AutoCAD software we performed measurements in the corpus callosum: the length (L, width in the half of its length (WW’, length of its cortical margin (LCM, area and perimeter of the anterior and posterior callosal segments, as well as the area and perimeter of the corpus callosum section area. The investigated parameters were analyzed and compared between the females and males. Results. There was not a statistically significant difference between the males and females in the investigated parameters of the corpus callosum (t test; p > 0.05, including the mean values of the two most important parameters, the surface of its midsagittal section area (males 654.11 mm2; females 677.40 mm2 and of its perimeter (males 19.61 cm; females 19.72 cm. The results obtained by digital morphometry were in the range of the results of other authors obtained by magnetic resonance and by planimetry. However, the value of Pearson coefficient of linear correlation between the section surface area and perimeter of the corpus callosum in the males was highly significant (rxy = 0.6943, p < 0.01, while in the females this value was statistically insignificant. Conclusion. Digital morphometry is accurate method in encephalometric investigations. Our results suggest that the problem of sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum is very complex, because the identical variables (section

  9. Morphometric Study on Male Specimens of Hyalomma Anatolicum (Acari: Ixodidae in West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abdigoudarzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyalomma anatolicum is the well-known hard tick, which is one of the most important livestock and hu­man pathogens vector, wide range in host and distributed in all over the Hyalomma geographic fauna as well as in Iran. Taxonomy of the Hyalomma ssp. is debatable whereas their identification is a problematic work. The reasons for this claim is time consuming Delpy’s researches in Iran also Schulze School, Feldman-Muhsam and the Russian tick workers. We would like to understand morphometric variation in the field collected H. anatolicum in Iran also validat­ing some morphologic quantitative and qualitative characters.Methods: A total 247 field-collected tick specimens from different geographical regions in west of Iran includes Khuzestan and Lorestan Provinces were studied. The morphologic characters of the ticks were measured by the cali­brated stereomicroscope ‎armed scaled lens. The measurements were analyzed using SPSS ‎for windows, version 16 on an IBM PC, ‎so varied shapes of species in different geographic ‎regions were drawn by the ‎aid of a drawing tube con­nected to a light stereomicroscope.‎Results: One way ANOVA test revealed significant differences among the quantitative parameters in five zones (P<‎‎ 0.‎‎00‎‎1‎ also each zone to other zone by Post Hoc Tests e.g. LSD. No significant differences in the lateral grooves length/conscutum length ratio parameter were found.Conclusion: Morphometric variation in Hyalomma spp is poorly studied. The variation in range and quantity of the mor­phometric parameters of H.anatolicum ‎underlies that the correct recognition and key construction for Hyalomma spe­cies dependes ‎on a complement morphometric study on the other species.

  10. Evaluation of voxel-based rendering of high resolution surface descriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    resolution scans of the room surfaces as basis for the room models. In the present work this approach is evaluated with a voxel-based method (described in earlier publications), and compared to measured impulse responses. The results are compared objectively by visual inspection of the impulse responses...

  11. Structural brain abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations: a comparative voxel-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Romulo Lopes; Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; Távora, Daniel Gurgel Fernandes; Duran, Fábio L S; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    The objective is to evaluate clinical characteristics and cerebral alterations in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with diurnal visual hallucinations (VHs). Assessment was performed using magnetic resonance image (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirty-nine patients with PD (53.8%) and ten controls were studied. Voxel based morphology analysis was performed. Eleven patients presented diurnal VHs and among these, six had cognitive dysfunction. Patients with VHs performed worse in the mentation-related UPDRS I (p=0.005) and motor-related UPDRS III (p=0.02). Patients with VHs showed significant clusters of reduced grey matter volume compared to controls in the left opercula frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. PD without hallucinations demonstrated reduced grey matter volume in the left superior frontal gyrus compared to controls. Comparisons between patients with VHs regarding the presence of cognitive dysfunction showed that cases with cognitive dysfunction as compared to those without cognitive dysfunction showed significant clusters of reduced grey matter volume in the left opercular frontal gyrus. Cases without cognitive dysfunction had reduced grey matter substance in the left insula and left trigonal frontal gyrus. Judging from our findings, an abnormal frontal cortex, particularly left sided insula, frontal opercular, trigonal frontal gyrus and orbital frontal would make PD patients vulnerable to hallucinations. Compromise of the left operculum distinguished cases with VHs and cognitive dysfunction. Our findings reinforce the theoretical concept of a top-down visual processing in the genesis of VHs in PD.

  12. Precuneus atrophy in early-onset Alzheimer's disease: a morphometric structural MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karas, Giorgos [Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Scheltens, Philip; Jones, Bethany [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Clinical Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rombouts, Serge [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics and Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schijndel, Ronald van [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Image Analysis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics and Informatics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Klein, Martin [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Medical Psychology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje van der [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrenken, Hugo [Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Image Analysis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barkhof, Frederik [Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Image Analysis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) usually first presents in elderly patients, but may also develop at an earlier age. Patients with an early age at onset tend to present with complaints other than memory impairment, such as visuospatial problems or apraxia, which may reflect a different distribution of cortical involvement. In this study we set out to investigate whether age at onset in patients with AD determines the pattern of atrophy on cerebral MRI scans. We examined 55 patients with AD over a wide age range and analyzed their 3-D T1-weighted structural MRI scans in standard space using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Regression analysis was performed to estimate loss of grey matter as a function of age, corrected for mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores and sex. The VBM analyses identified multiple areas (including the temporal and parietal lobes), showing more atrophy with advancing age. By contrast, a younger age at onset was found to be associated with lower grey matter density in the precuneus. Regionalized volumetric analysis of this region confirmed the existence of disproportionate atrophy in the precuneus in patients with early-onset AD. Application of a multivariate model with precuneus grey matter density as input, showed that precuneal and hippocampal atrophy are independent from each other. Additionally, we found that a smaller precuneus is associated with impaired visuospatial functioning. Our findings support the notion that age at onset modulates the distribution of cortical involvement, and that disproportionate precuneus atrophy is more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset. (orig.)

  13. Geometric morphometrics as a tool for improving the comparative study of behavioural postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fureix, Carole; Hausberger, Martine; Seneque, Emilie; Morisset, Stéphane; Baylac, Michel; Cornette, Raphaël; Biquand, Véronique; Deleporte, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Describing postures has always been a central concern when studying behaviour. However, attempts to compare postures objectively at phylogenetical, populational, inter- or intra-individual levels generally either rely upon a few key elements or remain highly subjective. Here, we propose a novel approach, based on well-established geometric morphometrics, to describe and to analyse postures globally (i.e. considering the animal's body posture in its entirety rather than focusing only on a few salient elements, such as head or tail position). Geometric morphometrics is concerned with describing and comparing variation and changes in the form (size and shape) of organisms using the coordinates of a series of homologous landmarks (i.e. positioned in relation to skeletal or muscular cues that are the same for different species for every variety of form and function and that have derived from a common ancestor, i.e. they have a common evolutionary ancestry, e.g. neck, wings, flipper/hand). We applied this approach to horses, using global postures (1) to characterise behaviours that correspond to different arousal levels, (2) to test potential impact of environmental changes on postures. Our application of geometric morphometrics to horse postures showed that this method can be used to characterise behavioural categories, to evaluate the impact of environmental factors (here human actions) and to compare individuals and groups. Beyond its application to horses, this promising approach could be applied to all questions involving the analysis of postures (evolution of displays, expression of emotions, stress and welfare, behavioural repertoires…) and could lead to a whole new line of research.

  14. Morpho-anatomical and morphometric studies of the floral structures of the distylous Oldenlandia salzmannii (Rubiaceae

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    Mariela Nuñez Florentin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genus Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae has a conflicting generic delimitation, with representatives that show different floral syndromes. Oldenlandia salzmannii is a marshy herb that is widespread in South America. It is heterostylous, specifically distylous, and self-compatible. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies found that this species forms a clade that is isolated from the remaining described taxa of Oldenlandia. Information about the floral anatomy and reproductive biology of genera in the Spermacoceae tribe, particularly Oldenlandia, is insufficient, especially among the neotropical species. Accordingly, the present study aimed at contributing information on the reproductive biology of Oldenlandia salzmannii by analyzing its floral morpho-anatomy, morphometrics and phenology of both floral morphs. These analyses were conducted with natural, cultivated and fixed material using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Morphologically, the species is typically heterostylous with two floral morphs, long-styled and short-styled, the main difference being the indument of the corolla. The short-styled flowers have larger anthers and pollen grains. Morphometrics show a high degree of herkogamic reciprocity. The mature ovules have a hemitropous position, which is the first record of this position for the Spermacoceae tribe. This study represents the first comprehensive morphological study of Oldenlandia salzmannii.

  15. Morphometric study of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from undernourished infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla A Oliveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Some unfavourable effects of malnutrition of the host on Schistosoma mansoni worm biology and structure have been reported based upon brigthfield microscopy. This paper aims to study by morphometric techniques, some morphological parameters in male and female adult worms recovered from undernourished albino mice in comparison with parasites recovered from well-fed infected mice. Undernourished animals were fed a multideficient and essentially low protein diet (RBD diet and compared to well-fed control mice fed with the commercial diet NUVILAB. Seventy-five days post-infection with 80 cercarie (BL strain animals were sacrificed. All adult worms were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine chloride. One hundred male and 60 female specimens from each group (undernourished and control were examined using an image system analysis Leica Quantimet 500C and the Sigma Scan Measurement System. The following morphometrical parameters were studied: body length and width, oral and ventral suckers, number and area of testicular lobes, length and width of ovary and uterine egg. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test for unpaired samples was applied. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were detected in body length and width, in parameters of suckers, uterine egg width, ovary length and area of testicular lobes, with lower values for specimens from undernourished mice. The nutritional status of the host has negative influence on S. mansoni adult worms, probably through unavailability of essential nutrients to the parasites.

  16. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand.

  17. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S.; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand. PMID:26900565

  18. Metabolic patterns in prion diseases: an FDG PET voxel-based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Jesus Ribelles, Maria; Arbizu, Javier [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Riverol, Mario; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Rosario Luquin, Maria; Castro, Purificacion de [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Neurology Department, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Clinical diagnosis of human prion diseases can be challenging since symptoms are common to other disorders associated with rapidly progressive dementia. In this context, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a useful complementary tool. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic pattern in human prion diseases, particularly sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We retrospectively studied 17 patients with a definitive, probable or possible prion disease who underwent FDG PET in our institution. Of these patients, 12 were diagnosed as sCJD (9 definitive, 2 probable and 1 possible), 1 was diagnosed as definitive vCJD and 4 were diagnosed as definitive FFI. The hypometabolic pattern of each individual and comparisons across the groups of subjects (control subjects, sCJD and FFI) were evaluated using a voxel-based analysis. The sCJD group exhibited a pattern of hypometabolism that affected both subcortical (bilateral caudate, thalamus) and cortical (frontal cortex) structures, while the FFI group only presented a slight hypometabolism in the thalamus. Individual analysis demonstrated a considerable variability of metabolic patterns among patients, with the thalamus and basal ganglia the most frequently affected areas, combined in some cases with frontal and temporal hypometabolism. Patients with a prion disease exhibit a characteristic pattern of brain metabolism presentation in FDG PET imaging. Consequently, in patients with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, the detection of these patterns in the FDG PET study could orient the diagnosis to a prion disease. (orig.)

  19. Morphometric MRI analysis improves detection of focal cortical dysplasia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jan; Weber, Bernd; Urbach, Horst; Elger, Christian E; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias type II (FCD II) are highly epileptogenic lesions frequently causing pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Detection of these lesions on MRI is still challenging as FCDs may be very subtle in appearance and might escape conventional visual analysis. Morphometric MRI analysis is a voxel-based post-processing method based on algorithms of the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM5). It creates three dimensional feature maps highlighting brain areas with blurred grey-white matter junction and abnormal gyration, and thereby may help to detect FCD. In this study, we evaluated the potential diagnostic value of morphometric analysis as implemented in a morphometric analysis programme, compared with conventional visual analysis by an experienced neuroradiologist in 91 patients with histologically proven FCD II operated on at the University Hospital of Bonn between 2000 and 2010 (FCD IIa, n = 17; IIb, n = 74). All preoperative MRI scans were evaluated independently (i) based on conventional visual analysis by an experienced neuroradiologist and (ii) using morphometric analysis. Both evaluators had the same clinical information (electroencephalography and semiology), but were blinded to each other's results. The detection rate of FCD using morphometric analysis was superior to conventional visual analysis in the FCD IIa subgroup (82% versus 65%), while no difference was found in the FCD IIb subgroup (92% versus 91%). However, the combination of conventional visual analysis and morphometric analysis provided complementary information and detected 89 out of all 91 FCDs (98%). The combination was significantly superior to conventional visual analysis alone in both subgroups resulting in a higher diagnostic sensitivity (94% versus 65%, P = 0.031 for FCD IIa; 99% versus 91%, P = 0.016 for FCD IIb). In conclusion, the additional application of morphometric MRI analysis increases the diagnostic sensitivity for FCD II in comparison with conventional visual

  20. Morphometric analysis in basaltic Terrain of Central India using GIS techniques: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Nisha; Obi Reddy, G. P.; Kumar, Nirmal; Nagaraju, M. S. S.; Srivastava, Rajeev; Singh, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    Morphometric analysis is significant for investigation and management of the watershed. This study depicts the morphometric analysis of Miniwada Watershed in Nagpur district, Maharashtra, Central India using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, which has been carried out through measurement of various aspects like linear, aerial and relief aspects of watershed. The drainage network of the watershed was generated from Cartosat-I DEM (10 m) using ESRI Software ArcGIS (ver.10.2). The analysis reveals that drainage pattern is dendritic and the stream order in the watershed varies from 1 to 4. The total number of stream segments of all orders counted as 37, out of which the majority of orders (70.27 %) was covered by 1st order streams and 4th order stream segments covers only 2.70 %. The bifurcation ratio reflects the geological and tectonic characteristics of the watershed and estimated as 3.08. The drainage density of the watershed is 3.63 km/sq km and it indicates the closeness of spacing of channels. The systematic analysis of various parameters in GIS helps in better understanding the soil resources distribution, watersheds prioritization, planning and management.

  1. First comparative phenetic studies of Argentinean species of Acacia (Fabaceae), using morphometric, isozymal, and RAPD approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiva, Paola V; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C; Cialdella, Ana M

    2002-05-01

    Morphological and genetic diversity among Acacia aroma, A. macracantha, A. caven, and A. furcatispina were studied with morphometric, isozymal, and RAPD approaches. The analysis of seven isozyme systems revealed 21 loci, and RAPD analysis showed 34 loci. Most of these loci allowed us to differentiate the species, with the exception of A. aroma and A. macracantha, the two most similar species. The levels of genetic variability estimated by isozymes were higher than those obtained from RAPD analyses. Morphometric characters showed highly significant differences among the species, although A. aroma and A. macracantha are differentiated only by thorn length. The phenogram obtained from isozyme data is consistent with morphological data. The RAPD phenogram based on allelic frequencies showed agreement with morphological and isozymal approaches only at the intraspecific levels, while the RAPD phenogram based on Nei and Li's similarity measures agreed with the phenograms constructed from isozyme and morphological data. High similarities and high indirect gene flow were found between A. aroma and A. macracantha, results that call the relationship between them into question.

  2. Comparison of three staining techniques for the morphometric study of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, V M; Dietrich, G J; Wojtczak, M; Słowińska, M; de Monserrat, J; Ciereszko, A

    2008-05-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance of the kits Diff-Quick, Hemacolor and Spermac for staining the spermatozoa of rainbow trout. Automated sperm morphology analysis (ASMA) was performed using two image analysis programs to determine the sperm measurements: head size (length, width, area and perimeter), shape (ellipticity, rugosity, elongation and regularity) and tail length. Diff-Quick was found to be the best procedure for staining the trout spermatozoa. The use of this method rendered the highest number of cells correctly analyzed, and provided good colour intensity and contrast of the sperm head. No differences among the methods were detected in terms of tail length measurements. Mean values established using Diff-Quick for the main morphometric variables were: head length 2.93+/-0.13 microm; head width 2.33+/-0.15 microm and tail length 34.16+/-1.66 microm. Based on these findings, we recommend the Diff-Quick staining kit for its accurate and reproducible morphometric results. Notwithstanding, when analyzing the sperm tail of the rainbow trout, the Spermac method offers improved contrast.

  3. Morphometric analysis in basaltic Terrain of Central India using GIS techniques: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Nisha; Obi Reddy, G. P.; Kumar, Nirmal; Nagaraju, M. S. S.; Srivastava, Rajeev; Singh, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    Morphometric analysis is significant for investigation and management of the watershed. This study depicts the morphometric analysis of Miniwada Watershed in Nagpur district, Maharashtra, Central India using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, which has been carried out through measurement of various aspects like linear, aerial and relief aspects of watershed. The drainage network of the watershed was generated from Cartosat-I DEM (10 m) using ESRI Software ArcGIS (ver.10.2). The analysis reveals that drainage pattern is dendritic and the stream order in the watershed varies from 1 to 4. The total number of stream segments of all orders counted as 37, out of which the majority of orders (70.27 %) was covered by 1st order streams and 4th order stream segments covers only 2.70 %. The bifurcation ratio reflects the geological and tectonic characteristics of the watershed and estimated as 3.08. The drainage density of the watershed is 3.63 km/sq km and it indicates the closeness of spacing of channels. The systematic analysis of various parameters in GIS helps in better understanding the soil resources distribution, watersheds prioritization, planning and management.

  4. Microencephaly in children congenitally infected with human immunodeficiency virus--a gross-anatomical morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, P B; Brudkowska, J; Kraszpulski, M; Sersen, E A; Wrzolek, M A; Anzil, A P; Rao, C; Wisniewski, H M

    1997-02-01

    A quantitative technique involving serial sectioning and semiautomatic morphometric analysis was used to assess the severity of the reduction in size of the major brain structures in cerebral hemispheres of children congenitally infected with HIV-1. Cerebral hemispheres from 12 children (18-48 months of age) who died of AIDS were sectioned into 5-mm-thick serial slabs and photographed. The cross-sectional areas of grossly recognizable brain structures were digitized, and the volumes were calculated according to Cavalieri's principle. The results were compared with those of an identically processed group of control brains from non-AIDS children. Analysis of the brain weight showed that there was a significant reduction in supratentorial and infratentorial weight in the AIDS group. The results of the morphometric study revealed that the loss in brain mass was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the total volume of both hemispheres, the entire cortex, white matter, and basal ganglia. Detailed analysis of individual brain structures also showed a significant reduction in volume of all cortical regions and most of the subcortical gray matter (e.g., caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, claustrum, and thalamus). It appears that in the microencephaly observed as a frequent sequel in pediatric AIDS, the loss of brain tissue is global and includes an almost proportional loss of cortex, subcortical gray matter and white matter.

  5. Voxel-based moprhometry in the differential diagnosis of posttraumatic cognitive impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Odinak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain injury (BI is a major cause of cognitive impairments (CI in young people. However, many aspects of their development remain unstudied. In particular, the role of neurodegenerative and vascular processes in the occurrence of posttraumatic disorders of higher cortical functions is still unclear. Voxel-based morphometry is one of the current neuroimaging techniques. Objective: to comprehensively study a change in the volume indicators of a number of brain structures in patients with posttraumatic, vascular, and amnestic CI.Patients and methods. The investigation enrolled 123 patients who were divided into 5 groups: 1 20 examinees without CI (a control group; 2 22 patients with mild and moderate CI and a history of mild recurrent CI; 3 19 patients with moderate posttraumatic CI after severe brain contusion; 4 41 patients with moderate vascular CI; 5 21 patients with moderate amnestic CI. Before divided into the groups, all the patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing, which enabled different aspects of cognitive performance to be assessed.Results. Atrophic changes were ascertained to be uncharacteristic for the patients who had sustained mild recurrent BI. At the same time, the patients with severe consequences of BI showed a significant decrease in the volume of brain regions, primarily in that of frontal and temporal lobes. A combined comprehensive assessment of the results obtained in the group analysis using SPM8 and calculating absolute volume values using MRICroN allowed one to more accurately understand the nature of neurodegenerative changes. Comparative assessment of the data obtained in the posttraumatic, vascular, and amnestic CI groups identified a number of differences in both the distribution of atrophic changes and their level, which can be of great importance for the differential diagnosis of these conditions.

  6. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder A voxel-based morphometry analysis**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liwen Tan; Li Zhang; Rongfeng Qi; Guangming Lu; Lingjiang Li; Jun Liu; Weihui Li

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, us-ing the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, fol owed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occip-ital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  7. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-09-15

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  8. Postprocessing of Voxel-Based Topologies for Additive Manufacturing Using the Computational Geometry Algorithms Library (CGAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    surfaces such as Catmull-Clark or Doo-Sabin. 2.1 Topology Optimization Topology optimization applied to structural problems using a voxel/pixel geometry...O. Topology optimization: Theory, methods and appli - cations. Springer; 2003. (Engineering Online Library). 2. Brackett D, Ashcroft I, Hague R. 22nd...ARL-MR-0892• JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Postprocessing of Voxel-Based Topologies forAdditive Manufacturing Using the Compu-tational

  9. Simplified voxel based and automatic VOl analysis of C-11 PIB uptake using a ligand and subject specific PET templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, S. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Oh, S. J. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    We developed simplified analysing method of C-11 PIB PET using a ligand and subject specific PET templates and evaluated the usefulness of this method by comparing standard MR-based methods in Alzheimer disease (AD). We studied 7 patients with AD (71.5{+-}11.5, M/F=3/4) and 5 normal controls (68.4{+-}8.9, M/F=1/4) with C-11 PIB PET and T1 MRI. 90-min dynamic PET scan was performed after injection of C-11 PIB (370 MBq). Region to cerebellar ratio image (ratio image) was obtained from 60-90 min image and distribution volume ratio image (DVR image) was obtained from 90-min dynamic image using a Logan graphical analysis. Ligand and subject specific PET templates were created by spatial normalization of MR coregistered ratio images of AD and normal group to T1 MR MNI template using SPM2. We compared the outcome of voxel based and automatic VOl analysis employing 3 parametric images: MR template based spatially normalized MR coregistered DVR image (MR-DVR image), MR template based normalized MR coregistered ratio image (MR-ratio image), AD and normal group specific PET template based normalized ratio image (PET-ratio image) in all subjects. Voxel based analyses using 3 parametric images revealed significantly increased PIB retention in several brain regions such as both orbitofrontal and temporoparietal cortices and posterior cingulated gyri of AD compared to normal (FDR<0.05), however, the z-values of these regions were more higher in PET- and MR-ratio images than in MR-DVR image. Automatic VOl analyses using 3 parametric images also revealed significantly increased PIB retention values in same regions of AD (p<0.05). PIB retention values in PET-ratio images were significantly correlated with those in MR-ratio images (R=0.96, slope=0.99, p<0.001) and also MR-DVR images (R=0.95, slope = 1.8, p<0.001). Voxel based and automatic VOl analysis can be simply and accurately performed in a single static C-11 PIB PET image using a ligand and subject specific PET templates

  10. Comparison of the accuracy of voxel based registration and surface based registration for 3D assessment of surgical change following orthognathic surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Almukhtar

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Superimposition of two dimensional preoperative and postoperative facial images, including radiographs and photographs, are used to evaluate the surgical changes after orthognathic surgery. Recently, three dimensional (3D imaging has been introduced allowing more accurate analysis of surgical changes. Surface based registration and voxel based registration are commonly used methods for 3D superimposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the two methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-operative and 6 months post-operative cone beam CT scan (CBCT images of 31 patients were randomly selected from the orthognathic patient database at the Dental Hospital and School, University of Glasgow, UK. Voxel based registration was performed on the DICOM images (Digital Imaging Communication in Medicine using Maxilim software (Medicim-Medical Image Computing, Belgium. Surface based registration was performed on the soft and hard tissue 3D models using VRMesh (VirtualGrid, Bellevue City, WA. The accuracy of the superimposition was evaluated by measuring the mean value of the absolute distance between the two 3D image surfaces. The results were statistically analysed using a paired Student t-test, ANOVA with post-hoc Duncan test, a one sample t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test. RESULTS: The results showed no significant statistical difference between the two superimposition methods (p<0.05. However surface based registration showed a high variability in the mean distances between the corresponding surfaces compared to voxel based registration, especially for soft tissue. Within each method there was a significant difference between superimposition of the soft and hard tissue models. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant statistical differences between the two registration methods and it was unlikely to have any clinical significance. Voxel based registration was associated with less variability. Registering on

  11. Further morphometric studies of the ulna from the Omo Basin, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldesman, M R

    1979-09-01

    A reanalysis of the L40-19 fossil ulna from the Omo Basin, Ethiopia is presented. Using covariance adjustment rather than ratios to correct metric data for variations due to body size, a comparative sample reflecting 21 contemporary Anthropoid taxa, and both distribution-free and multivariate statistical procedures, this study indicates that the earlier conclusion drawn by McHenry et al. ('76), viz., that the fossil is "unique" among Hominoids, is essentially correct. This study also concludes, however, that although the fossil is projected closer to Pan and Homo than to Pongo, the distances are considerably greater than found between behaviorally similar modern forms. Consequently, aside from assigning the fossil on morphometric grounds to the Hominoidea, little else can be said about its possible locomotor habits or its ancestry.

  12. Morphometric Study of the Mare Oviductal Mucosa at Different Reproductive Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouguelar, Horacio; Díaz, Tomás; Borghi, Damiana; Quinteros, Rolando; Bonino, Facundo; Apichela, Silvana Andrea; Aguilar, José Javier

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this work were to describe some morphometric characteristics and to establish quantitative parameters of different regions of the equine oviductal mucosa from the isthmus, ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ), and ampulla. Twenty-one mixed-bred mares were used for this study. Mares were selected in the following reproductive phases: anestrus, estrus, and diestrus. The left oviducts were examined with light microscopy, and rights ones were studied through the intraoviductal molds. The isthmus showed the smallest luminal area, mucosal area, epithelial perimeter, and luminal diameter. On the molds surfaces, some grooves extended as longitudinal canals, reducing their depth as they approached to the AIJ. Several small height projections, some obliquely positioned towards utero-tubal junction, were observed in all reproductive phases. These formations may represent pockets or cul-de-sacs in the basal areas of the epithelial folds. The AIJ mucosa gradually changed from the smooth isthmic region toward highly folded ampulla. The number and complexity of epithelial folds showed moderate increase in the same way that many of the morphometric parameters. Multiple curves were observed on the molds of the AIJ, creating a zigzag path in the oviductal lumen. In the ampulla, the high branched epithelial folds occupied most of the lumen, leaving a small luminal area free. A linear relationship between epithelial perimeter and mucosal area was found. The presence of glandular-like structures was observed in all the reproductive stages studied. The equine endosalpinx reveals a highly complex tridimensional arrangement where each region shows very particular and specific designs.

  13. Active infection and morphometric study of Trypanosoma evansi among horses in Peninsula Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, E I; Sani, R A; Hassan, L; Sharma, R; Bashir, A; Abubakar, I A

    2013-09-01

    Apart from occasional reports of clinical disease affecting horses, there is no information about Trypanosoma evansi in horses in Peninsula Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was conducted in eight states in Peninsula Malaysia to determine the active presence of T. evansi in horses. A total of 527 blood samples were obtained and examined by haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT), Giemsa-stained thin blood smear (GSS), morphometric measurements, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloning of PCR products. The results showed an overall parasitological prevalence of 0.57% (3/527, CI: 1.6-0.19%) with both HCT and GSS. Morphometric study revealed the mean total length of the trypanosomes including the free flagellum was 27.94 ± 2.63 μm. PCR successfully amplified a trypanosome specific 257 bp in 1.14% of samples (6/527, CI: 2.4-0.52%) and was confirmed by nucleotide sequences. The mean packed cell volume (PCV) for the positive cases detected by HCT was lower (23% ± 7.00) compared to the positive cases detected by PCR alone in the state of Terengganu (35% ± 4.73). In conclusion, this study showed T. evansi infection occurred in low frequency in horses in Peninsula Malaysia, and anaemia coincided with parasitaemic animals. PCR is considered as a sensitive diagnostic tool when parasitaemia is undetectable. The slight lengthier mean of parasite and anaemia may indicate a virulent strain of T. evansi circulating throughout the country. Thus, it's highly recommended to shed light on host-parasite relationship for better epidemiological understanding.

  14. Morphometric study of sacrum in sex determination in Telengana region people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantha Maddikunta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of sex of the bone comes under the Canopy of Forensic Anthropology, which has it’s main roots in anatomy. Hence sound knowledge of anatomy particularly morphometric data is essential for identification of sex, race and region. Bones of pelvic girdle play key role for determination of sex. In addition to hip bones, sacrum also has it’s own importance in determination of sex. Hence in this study we have taken various parameters (maximum length of sacrum, maximum breadth of sacrum, Curved length of sacrum, transverse diameter of S1 and different indices (sacral index, curvature index, corpobasal index. From the above parameters and indices we have extracted demarcating points for each, which have statistical significant role in determining the male and female sex, which were discussed in detail in this publication. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 164-174

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia: a morphometric study; Ressonancia magnetica na esquizofrenia: um estudo morfometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Claudio Campi de [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao (InCor). Secao de Ressonancia Magnetica]. E-mail: campi@uol.com.br

    2001-06-01

    Thirty-three patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 normal subjects were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging studies using a 1.5 T scanner. Axial and coronal T 2-weighted images were obtained. The volumes of the brain, intracranial, supratentorial, infratentorial and the total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometric methods. The volumes of the amygdala-hippocampus complex, para hippocampal gyrus cortex, putamen, globus pallidus, temporal lobe, gray and white matter of temporal lobe were also measured. These volumes were normalized using the intracranial volume as reference. The most relevant findings observed were reduced brain volume and increased total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes in patients with schizophrenia when compared to the controls. Patients with schizophrenia had also smaller amygdala-hippocampus complexes, temporal lobes and temporal lobe white matter than the controls, as well as increased putamen volumes. (author)

  16. Fully Automated Treatment Planning for Head and Neck Radiotherapy using a Voxel-Based Dose Prediction and Dose Mimicking Method

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Chris; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A; Purdie, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Recent works in automated radiotherapy treatment planning have used machine learning based on historical treatment plans to infer the spatial dose distribution for a novel patient directly from the planning image. We present an atlas-based approach which learns a dose prediction model for each patient (atlas) in a training database, and then learns to match novel patients to the most relevant atlases. The method creates a spatial dose objective, which specifies the desired dose-per-voxel, and therefore replaces any requirement for specifying dose-volume objectives for conveying the goals of treatment planning. A probabilistic dose distribution is inferred from the most relevant atlases, and is scalarized using a conditional random field to determine the most likely spatial distribution of dose to yield a specific dose prior (histogram) for relevant regions of interest. Voxel-based dose mimicking then converts the predicted dose distribution to a deliverable treatment plan dose distribution. In this study, we ...

  17. Morphological changes of carotid bodies in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a morphometric study in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhaes E.N.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid bodies are chemoreceptors sensitive to a fall of partial oxygen pressure in blood (hypoxia. The morphological alterations of these organs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in people living at high altitude are well known. However, it is not known whether the histological profile of human carotid bodies is changed in acute clinical conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. The objective of the present study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the histology of carotid bodies collected from patients who died of ARDS. A morphometric study of carotid bodies collected during routine autopsies was carried out on three groups: patients that died of non-respiratory diseases (controls, N = 8, patients that presented COPD and died of its complications or associated diseases (N = 7, and patients that died of ARDS (N = 7. Morphometric measurements of the volume fraction of clusters of chief cells were performed in five fields on each slide at 40X magnification. The numerical proportion of the four main histological cell types (light, dark, progenitor and sustentacular cells was determined analyzing 10 fields on each slide at 400X magnification. The proportion of dark cells was 0.22 in ARDS patients, 0.12 in controls (P<0.001, and 0.08 in the COPD group. The proportion of light cells was 0.33 (ARDS, 0.44 (controls (P<0.001, and 0.36 (COPD. These findings suggest that chronic and acute hypoxia have different effects on the histology of glomic tissue.

  18. Comparative morphometric study of the australopithecine vertebral series Stw-H8/H41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, W J

    1998-03-01

    Lower spinal structure correlates well with positional behavior among mammals. Nonetheless, the functional morphology of the axial post-crania of australopithecines has received less attention than their appendicular skeletons. This paper presents a detailed description and comparative morphometric analysis of the australopithecine thoracolumbar vertebral series Stw-H8/H41, and examines spinal mechanics in early hominids. Stw-H8/H41 is an important specimen, as the australopithecine vertebral sample is small, and vertebral series are more useful than isolated elements for the interpretation of spinal function. Results of the study support the interpretation that australopithecine species are highly sexually dimorphic. The study also reveals a considerable amount of morphometric variation other than size among australopithecine vertebrae, though the sample is too small and incomplete to ascertain whether this indicates significant interspecific differences in spinal function. Most importantly, structural and metric observations confirm that the morphology of the lower spine in australopithecines has no modern analogue in its entirety. Aspects of zygapophyseal structure, numerical composition of the lumbar region, and centrum wedging suggest that the australopithecine vertebral column was adapted to human-like intrinsic lumbar lordosis and stable balance of the trunk over the pelvis in sustained bipedal locomotion. However, relative centrum size in australopithecines indicates that either they had a different mechanism for channeling vertical forces through the vertebral column than humans, or differed behaviorally from humans in ways that produced smaller increments of compression across their centra. These findings have important implications for hypotheses of australopithecine positional behavior, and demonstrate that larger samples and more complete vertebral series are needed to improve our understanding of australopithecine spinal function.

  19. Phenotypic characterization of Schistosoma mansoni adult wormsrecovered from undernourished mice: a morphometric study focusing on the reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A morphometric study focusing on some features of the reproductive system of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms was performed, aiming to complete previously reported data concerning the effects of undernourishment of the host on the parasites. Male worms were significantly affected (p<0.05 regarding the testicular lobes.

  20. Traditional and Modern Morphometrics: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan OCAKOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics, a branch of morphology, is the study of the size and shape components of biological forms and their variation in the population. In biological and medical sciences, there is a long history of attempts to quantitatively express the diversity of the size and shape of biological forms. On the basis of historical developments in morphometry, we address several questions related to the shape of organs or organisms that are considered in biological and medical studies. In the field of morphometrics, multivariate statistical analysis is used to rigorously address such questions. Historically, these methods have involved the analysis of collections of distances or angles, but recent theoretical, computational, and other advances have shifted the focus of morphometric procedures to the Cartesian coordinates of anatomical points. In recent years, in biology and medicine, the traditional morphometric studies that aim to analyze shape variation have been replaced by modern morphometric studies. In the biological and medical sciences, morphometric methods are frequently preferred for examining the morphologic structures of organs or organisms with regard to diseases or environmental factors. These methods are also preferred for evaluating and classifying the variation of organs or organisms with respect to growth or allometry time dependently. Geometric morphometric methods are more valid than traditional morphometric methods in protecting more morphological information and in permitting analysis of this information.

  1. Heritability of face shape in twins: a preliminary study using 3D stereophotogrammetry and geometric morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth M. Weinberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous research suggests that aspects of facial surface morphology are heritable.  Traditionally, heritability studies have used a limited set of linear distances to quantify facial morphology and often employ statistical methods poorly designed to deal with biological shape.  In this preliminary report, we use a combination of 3D photogrammetry and landmark-based morphometrics to explore which aspects of face shape show the strongest evidence of heritability in a sample of twins. Methods: 3D surface images were obtained from 21 twin pairs (10 monozygotic, 11 same-sex dizygotic.  Thirteen 3D landmarks were collected from each facial surface and their coordinates subjected to geometric morphometric analysis.  This involved superimposing the individual landmark configurations and then subjecting the resulting shape coordinates to a principal components analysis.  The resulting PC scores were then used to calculate rough narrow-sense heritability estimates. Results: Three principal components displayed evidence of moderate to high heritability and were associated with variation in the breadth of orbital and nasal structures, upper lip height and projection, and the vertical and forward projection of the root of the nose due to variation in the position of nasion. Conclusions: Aspects of facial shape, primarily related to variation in length and breadth of central midfacial structures, were shown to demonstrate evidence of strong heritability. An improved understanding of which facial features are under strong genetic control is an important step in the identification of specific genes that underlie normal facial variation.

  2. Assessing age-related grey matter decline with Voxel-Based Morphometry depends significantly on segmentation and normalisation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothée V Callaert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy ageing coincides with a progressive decline of brain grey matter (GM ultimately affecting the entire brain. For a long time, manual delineation-based volumetry within predefined regions of interest (ROI has been the gold standard for assessing such degeneration. Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM offers an automated alternative approach that, however, relies critically on the segmentation and spatial normalization of a large collection of images from different subjects. This can be achieved via different algorithms, with SPM5/SPM8, DARTEL of SPM8 and FSL tools (FAST, FNIRT being three of the most frequently used. We complemented these voxel based measurements with a ROI based approach, whereby the ROIs are defined by transforms of an atlas (containing different tissue probability maps as well as predefined anatomic labels to the individual subject images in order to obtain volumetric information at the level of the whole brain or within separate ROIs. Comparing GM decline between 21 young subjects (mean age 23 and 18 elderly (mean age 66 revealed that volumetric measurements differed significantly between methods. The unified segmentation/normalisation of SPM5/SPM8 revealed the largest age-related differences and DARTEL the smallest, with FSL being more similar to the DARTEL approach. Method specific differences were substantial after segmentation and most pronounced for the cortical structures in close vicinity to major sulci and fissures. Our findings suggest that algorithms that provide only limited degrees of freedom for local deformations (such as the unified segmentation and normalisation of SPM5/SPM8 tend to overestimate between-group differences in VBM results when compared to methods providing more flexible warping. This difference seems to be most pronounced if the anatomy of one of the groups deviates from custom templates, a finding that is of particular importance when results are compared across studies using different VBM

  3. The brain structures related to emotional memory in the elderly: a voxel-based morphometry study%老年人情绪记忆相关脑结构改变基于体素形态学测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文; 王海宝; 徐丽艳; 潘豪; 刘福军; 余永强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore morphological characters of brain regions related to the enhancement effect of emotional memory,brain volume of old adult and behavioral performance of emotional memory were measured, combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and behavior. Methods 47 healthy elderly samples, the experimental processes included MRI and behavioral performance of emotional memory which have two phases, encoding and retrieval phase. Behavioral performance was recorded and whole-brain 3D MRI data were acquired via 3.0T MRI. 3D MRI data were segmented by VBM5 and whole-brain volume of gray matter, white matter and CSF were produced. SPM5 and SPSS13.0 were used for statistical analysis of 3D MRI data and behavioral data, respectively. Results In old adult, retrieval accuracy of emotional pictures were higher than that of neutral pictures ( t=2.08, P=0.04). Retrieval accuracy of the two pictures has a significant negative correlation with age (neutral: r=0.58, P=0.00; emotion: r=0.30, P=0.04 ), but the emotional memory enhancement effect is a significant positive correlation with age (r=0.37, P=0.01 ). Brain regions related to emotion enhancement effect included left dorsal-lateral prefrontal lobe and right occipital lobe. Conclusion This study confirms that old people behavior scores gradually decline with aging, but emotional memory enhancement effect remained, and from brain morphology level we confirmed the dorsal-lateral prefrontal and occipital lobe brain regions are the important brain structure keeping enhanced effect of emotional memory, thus further expanded related functional imaging studies results.%目的 采用基于体素形态学测量(VBM)和行为学相结合的方法,检测老年人全脑容积及情绪记忆成绩,以探讨老年人情绪记忆增强效应相关脑区形态学特点.方法 47名健康老年人参加实验.实验过程包括情绪记忆行为学检测和MRI两个阶段,其中行为学检测包括记忆编码和再认,

  4. Voxel-based morphometry study of brain volume changes in patients with maintaining hemodialysis%采用基于体素的形态测量学方法评价维持性血液透析患者脑体积的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孟杰; 龙淼淼; 柴超; 褚志强; 闫铄; 夏爽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To detect the volume changes of cerebral gray and white matter in patients with maintaining hemodialysis using voxel-based morphometry(VBM) and to correlate these changes with cognitive function. Methods Forty-two patients with maintaining hemodialysis and 41 age and sex matched normal subjects were recruited in this study. MMSE was obtained to evaluate their neuropsychiatric conditions. Whole brain high-resolution T1WI was performed on 3.0 T MR scanner in both patients and normal controls. The data were analyzed by VBM based on SPM8, using analysis of functional neuroimages (AFNI) software package with the Monte Carlo simulation method(AlphaSim method) for multiple cluster level comparisons correction. Independent sample t test analysis was used to compare the volume of gray and white matter between the patients and normal controls. In addition, Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the correlation between the voxel value of cerebral volume changes area and dialysis duration and clinical laboratory examination, and Spearman correlation analysis was used for the correlation between the left insula voxel values and neuropsychological test scores. Results Compared with normal controls, patients showed significantly decreased volume in the grey matter of the right putamen, the left putamen, the left insula (numbers of voxel in clusters were 455, 561, 162, t=-9.5681,-5.9516,-5.7185,P<0.001, AlphaSim-corrected). There was negative correlation between decreased grey matter volume of the right putamen[(0.53 ± 0.12)mm3]and the left putamen[(0.48 ± 0.12)mm3] and dialysis duration [19.0(1.5-114.0)months] (r=-0.330,-0.307,P<0.05). MMSE score of patients[29(21-30)score] was significantly lower than normal controls[30(28-30)score] (Z=-30.58,P<0.01). Decreased grey matter volume of the left insula [(0.39 ± 0.12) mm3] was positively correlated with MMSE(r=0.320, P<0.05). Conclusions The patients with maintaining hemodialysis show grey

  5. Local Application of Growth Hormone to Enhance Osseointegration in Osteoporotic Bones: A Morphometric and Densitometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Monge, Elena; Tresguerres, Isabel F; Clemente, Celia; Tresguerres, Jesús Af

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local application of growth hormone on osseointegration of dental implants inserted in osteoporotic bones. Twenty female New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Ten were ovariectomized and fed a low-calcium diet for 6 weeks, and the others remained intact. A titanium implant was inserted into each tibia, in both groups. In half of the rabbits, 2 IU of growth hormone was placed into the ostectomy prior to the implant insertion. Two weeks after implant surgery, all animals were sacrificed. Tibiae were dissected from soft tissues, and included in methacrylate to be studied under light microscopy. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by morphometric and densitometric analysis, respectively. Multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical evaluation. P < .05 was considered to be significant. Ovariectomy induced less BIC and BMD in regions closer to the implant compared with the control group. Local application of growth hormone was able to increase the BIC in the ovariectomized group, with statistically significant differences with respect to the control group (P < .01). Regarding the BMD, no statistically significant differences were found. Within the limitations of this experimental study, local application of 2 IU of recombinant human growth hormone at the moment of titanium implant insertion in rabbit tibiae significantly enhanced the BIC around titanium implants 15 days after the implantation in this experimental osteoporotic animal model, without affecting the BMD.

  6. Morphometric study of sacral hiatus in adult human Egyptian sacra: Their significance in caudal epidural anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reliability and success of caudal epidural anesthesia depends on anatomic variations of sacral hiatus (SH as observed by various authors. SH is an important landmark during caudal epidural block (CEB.The purpose of the present study was to clarify the morphometric characteristics of the SH in human Egyptian dry sacra and pelvic radiographs and identification of nearest ony landmarks to permit correct and uncomplicated caudal epidural accesses. Methods: The present study was done on 46 human adult Egyptian dry sacra. The maximum height, midventral curved length, and maximum breadth of each sacrum were measured and sacral and curvature indices were calculated. According to sacral indices, sacra were divided into 2 groups (22 male and 24 female sacra. SH was evaluated in each sacrum according to its shape, level of its apex, and base according to sacral and coccygeal vertebrae, length, anteroposterior (AP diameter at its apex, and transverse width at its base. Linear distances were measured between the apex of SH and second sacral foramina, right and left superolateral sacral crests. The distance between the 2 superolateral sacral crests also was measured. Results: The most common types of SH were the inverted U and inverted V (in male and inverted V and dumbbell shaped (in female. Absent SH was observed in male group only. The most common location of SH apex was at the level of S4 in all groups of dry sacra and S3 in all groups of lumbosacral spine radiographs, whereas S5 was the common level of its base. The mean SH length, transverse width of its base, and AP diameter of its apex were 2.1±0.80, 1.7±0.26, and 0.48±0.19 cm. Female sacra showed narrower SH apex than male. The distance between the S2 foramen and the apex of the SH was 4.1±1.14, 3.67±1.21, and 4.48±1.01 cm in total, female and male sacra, respectively. Conclusion: Sacrum and SH showed morphometric variations in adult Egyptians. The equilateral triangle is an

  7. A morphometric study of the intestinal mucosa of rats submitted to omentoenteropexy

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    Pedro Muñoz Fernandez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The omentoenteropexy technique was developed as an alternative method for intestinal neovascularization, due to the angiogenic properties of factors from the omentum. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in intestinal villi heights and crypts depths due to surgical techniques: seromiotomy with and without omentoenteropexy. METHOD: Thirty rats were operated on, after being divided into three groups, namely GI, GII and GIII with 10 rats each. In the GI rats were submitted to omentoenteropexy; rats in GII were submitted only to a seromiotomy, and in the GIII only laparotomy. Sixty days after the first surgery, the animals were sacrificed and a segment of intestine was removed for histology using Masson's trichrome technique and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa. RESULTS: The histological findings showed that seromiotomy with or without omentoenteropexy increased the length of intestinal villi when compared with GIII (only laparotomy (analysis of variance: P = 0.0068; GI 38.88 ± 4.17; GII 39.41± 6.33; GIII 31.85 ± 5.56; GI = GII P>0.05; GII>GIII PGIII P<0.001. CONCLUSION: No differences were demonstrated in relation to crypt depths between the groups (P = 0.60. Ongoing studies are being set forth by our group to add more data on the role of omentopexy as a tool to promote neovascularization and intestinal mucosal growth.

  8. A morphometric study of the human mandible in the Indian population for sex determination

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    Maneesha Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination from bones is important in forensic investigations for establishing identity in cases of mutilated bodies. Many morphometric criteria have been laid down for various bones for sex determination in previous studies. The present study aimed at setting up some parameters of the mandible as indicators of sex in the Indian population. The length of body of the mandible, angle of the mandible and minimum ramus breadth were considered as chief parameters for sex determination from dried bones obtained from the Departments of Anatomy in two medical colleges of Punjab and Chandigarh. There was a statistically significant difference found in the diagonal length, horizontal length and minimum ramus breadth with their mean values 79.77 ± 4.68 mm, 71.99 ± 4.54 mm and 30.93 ± 2.56 mm in adult males, respectively and 73.83 ± 4.84 mm, 68.62 ± 4.78 mm and 29.57 ± 2.86 mm in adult females, respectively, whereas no significant difference was found in the mandibular angle of males and females. The parameters used for the present study gave an overall 60% accuracy in determining the sex of the mandible.

  9. A Voxel-based Method for Forest Change Detection after Fire Using LiDAR Data

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    Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A Voxel-based Method for Forest Change Detection after Fire Using LiDAR DataZewei Xu and Jonathan A. Greenberg Traditional methods of forest fire modeling focus on the patterns of burning in two-dimensions at relatively coarse resolutions. However, fires spread in complex, three-dimensional patterns related to the horizontal and vertical distributions of woody fuel as well as the prevailing climate conditions, and the micro-scale patterns of fuel distributions over scales of only meters can determine the path that fire can take through a complex landscape. One challenge in understanding the full three-dimensional (3D) path that a fire takes through a landscape is a lack of data at landscape scales of these burns. Remote sensing approaches, while operating at landscape scales, typically focus on two-dimensional analyses using standard image-based change detection techniques. In this research, we develop a 3D voxel-based change detection method applied to multitemporal LiDAR data collected before and after forest fires in California to quantify the full 3D pattern of vegetation loss. By changing the size of the voxel, forest loss at different spatial scales is revealed. The 3D tunnel of fuel loss created by the fire was used to examine ground-to-crown transitions, firebreaks, and other three-dimensional aspects of a forest fire.

  10. Voxel-based MRI intensitometry reveals extent of cerebral white matter pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Viktor Hartung

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging have shown great potential in capturing a common white matter pathology. However the sensitivity is variable and diffusion tensor imaging is not yet applicable to the routine clinical environment. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM has revealed grey matter changes in ALS, but the bias-reducing algorithms inherent to traditional VBM are not optimized for the assessment of the white matter changes. We have developed a novel approach to white matter analysis, namely voxel-based intensitometry (VBI. High resolution T1-weighted MRI was acquired at 1.5 Tesla in 30 ALS patients and 37 age-matched healthy controls. VBI analysis at the group level revealed widespread white matter intensity increases in the corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum, sub-central, frontal and occipital white matter tracts and cerebellum. VBI results correlated with disease severity (ALSFRS-R and patterns of cerebral involvement differed between bulbar- and limb-onset. VBI would be easily translatable to the routine clinical environment, and once optimized for individual analysis offers significant biomarker potential in ALS.

  11. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal F-18-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerner, Gerald S. M. A.; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel J. B.; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image

  12. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal F-18-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerner, Gerald S. M. A.; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel J. B.; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image regis

  13. Morphometric evaluation of the foramen magnum for sex determination: A study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadin, Mohammed; Menezes, Ritesh G; Al Saif, Hind S; Abu Alola, Hossain; Al Muhanna, Afnan; Gullenpet, Abid H; Nagesh, K R; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Al Dhafery, Bander

    2017-02-01

    The present study provides a database of various morphometric dimensions of the foramen magnum region in the Saudi population. The objective of this study was to evaluate various measurements of the foramen magnum region for sex determination in the Saudi population by using computed tomography (CT) images. The various radiological measurements of the foramen magnum region were measured in a total of 200 adult subjects of Saudi origin including 100 males and 100 females. Sexual dimorphism was observed in five parameters related to the foramen magnum, namely length of the right occipital condyle (LROC), length of the left occipital condyle (LLOC), width of the foramen magnum (WFM), area of the foramen magnum (AFM) and length of the foramen magnum (LFM). The accuracy to discriminate sex ranged from 65.5% to 62.5% when LROC, LLOC, WFM, AFM, and LFM were considered as individual parameters. When multiple parameters were combined to discriminate sex, the highest accuracy of 71% was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphometric Development of Sphincter of Oddi in Human Fetuses During Fetal Period: Microscopic Study

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    E. Hilal Evcil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, morphometric developments of the sphincter of Oddi in human fetuses were observed. Material and Methods: We observed 113 human fetuses consisting of 67 male and 46 female subjects, whose ages varied between 14 to 40 weeks who showed no signs of any pathology or anomaly externally. The common external measurements of fetuses were carried out, followed by abdominal dissection to determine where the sphincters of Oddi were localized within the duodenum and pancreas. Histological specimens of tissue samples were gathered from the inner wall of the duodenum where it was assumed that the sphincters of Oddi had been localized. The parameters of total external diameters, lumen diameters, wall thickness, diameters of ductus choledochus and ductus pancreaticus, and the distance between these two structures, which are also known as the origins of the sphincter of Oddi, were measured by using a light microscope. The standard deviations of the measurements were calculated for each gestational week and trimester. Results: The calculations suggested that there were statistically significant correlations between gestational age and all of the other parameters with the exception of the ductus choledochus (p0.05.Conclusion: The data we collected in our study were considered as useful for the evaluation of the development of the sphincter of Oddi area and fetal stage.

  15. When is posterolateral orbitotomy useful in a pterional craniotomy? A morphometric study.

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    Brown, Benjamin; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Wadhwa, Rishi; Nourbakhsh, Ali; Caldito, Gloria; Nanda, Anil; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2011-05-01

    Adding posterolateral orbitotomy to pterional craniotomy allows greater exposure of the anterolateral skull base. However, there is a paucity of literature quantifying the relative benefit of adding posterolateral orbitotomy for various surgical targets. Our study is a step to address this issue. We performed dissections of five cadaveric heads (10 sides). The anterior communicating artery (A-Com) complex, posterior chiasm (anterior third ventricular region), ipsilateral optic canal, and ipsilateral supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation were chosen as targets. A pterional craniotomy was performed and the targets were morphometrically analyzed. Subsequently, posterolateral orbitotomy was done and analysis repeated. The field of view and measurements quantifying the angle of attack were compared. Addition of orbitotomy to pterional craniotomy increased the angle of exposure to ICA bifurcation, anterior third ventricular region, and A-Com complex by average of 15%, 29%, and 50%, respectively. Our study shows the addition of a posterolateral orbitotomy to the pterional craniotomy improves the angle of attack to the anterior third ventricular region and the A-Com complex, thus supporting the use of orbitopterional craniotomy for suprasellar lesions extending into anteroinferior third ventricle and A-Com aneurysms that point superiorly/posteriorly.

  16. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTROCERA DORSALIS COMPLEX (DIPTERA : TEPHRITIDAE USING WING IMAGE ANALYSIS

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    A. ADSAVAKULCHAI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera: Tephritidae used in this study included B. dorsalis, B. arecae, B. propinqua, B. pyrifoliae, B. verbascifoliae, and three new species complexes are species E, species K and species P. Bactrocera tau was used as an out-group. A total of 424 adults, which emerged from pupae collected from natural populations in Thai land, were prepared for wing measurements. Morphometric analysis was performed on measurements of wing vein characters. Wing images were captured in digital format and taken through digital image processing to calculate the Euclidean distance between wing vein junctions. Discriminant and cluster analyses were used for dichotomy of classification processes. All 424 wing specimens were classified to species in terms of the percentage of "grouped" cases which yielded about 89.6% accurate identificati on compared with the formal description of these species. After clustering, the percentage of "grouped"cases yielded 100.0%, 98.9%, 98.1%, 95.2% and 84.6% accurate identification between the B. dorsalis complex and B. tau; B. arecae and Species E; B. dorsalis and B. verbascifoliae; B. propinqua and B. pyrifoliae; and species K and species P, respectively. This method of numerical taxonomy may be useful for practical identification of other groups of agricultural pests.

  17. Morphometric and radiological assessments of dimensions of Axis in dry vertebrae: A study in Indian population

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    Raman Mohan Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Material and Methods: 38 dry axis vertebrae from adult South Indian population were subjected to morphometric measurement and CT scan analysis. Height of posterior arch, midlaminar width(bilateral in upper 1/3rd, middle 1/3rd and lower 1/3rd were measured using high precision Vernier Calipers. Each vertebra was subjected to a spiral CT scan (Philips brilliance 16 slice thin 0.5 mm slices were taken and reconstruction was done in coronal and sagittal plane. Analysis was done on a CT work station. Using axial slices, sagittal cuts were reconstructed in plane perpendicular to the lamina at the mid laminar point and upper-middle and lower 1/3rd width of the lamina measured. Height of the posterior arch was measured in the sagittal plane. Intralaminar angle was measured bilaterally. Results: Middle 1/3rd lamina was the thickest portion (mean 5.17 mm +/− 1.42 mm. A total of 32 (84.2% specimen were having midlaminar width in both lamina greater than 4 mm, however only 27 (71% out of them had spinous process more than 9 mm. CT scan measurement in middle and lower 1/3rd lamina was found to be strongly correlated with the direct measurement. Conclusion: There is high variability in the thickness of the C2 lamina. As compared to western population, the axis bones used in the present study had smaller profiles. Hence the safety margin for translaminar screw insertion is low.

  18. Effects of maternal subtotal nephrectomy on the development of the fetal kidney: A morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tomohiro; Kitano-Amahori, Yoko; Nagai, Hiroaki; Mino, Masaki; Takeshita, Ai; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Okada, Toshiya

    2015-11-01

    The present study was designed to explore if maternal subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy affects the development of fetal rat kidneys using morphometric methods and examining whether there are any apoptotic changes in the fetal kidney. To generate 5/6 nephrectomized model rats, animals underwent 2/3 left nephrectomy on gestation day (GD) 5 and total right nephrectomy on GD 12. The fetal kidneys were examined on GDs 16 and 22. A significant decrease in fetal body weight resulting from maternal 5/6 nephrectomy was observed on GD 16, and a significant decrease in fetal renal weight and fetal body weight caused by maternal nephrectomy was observed on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy induced a significant increase in glomerular number, proximal tubular length, and total proximal tubular volume of fetuses on GD 22. Maternal 5/6 nephrectomy resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the metanephric mesenchyme of the kidney on GD 16, and in the collecting tubules on GD 22. These findings suggest that maternal 5/6 nephrectomy stimulates the development of the fetal kidney while suppressing fetal growth.

  19. Rat interscapular brown adipose tissue at different ages: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarbati, A; Morroni, M; Zancanaro, C; Cinti, S

    1991-09-01

    Interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) was studied in newborn and 1, 3, 5, 7, 13, 26, 52, 78 and 104-week-old rats maintained under standard laboratory conditions in order to define its morphological modifications and assess previous statements on an involution phase of IBAT after the first weeks of extrauterine life. Serial sections were analysed morphometrically to quantify the multilocular, the monolocular and the connective-vascular components of IBAT. Morphometry shows that the IBAT weight and volume progressively increase up to the twenty-sixth week of age, these figures remaining almost constant thereafter. The volume of the unilocular and connective components increased with age. The volume of the multilocular component increases up to the sixth month of age, and slightly reduces thereafter. The number of the multilocular adipocytes is almost constant from the third week up to the second year of life. Our results suggest that, in IBAT of adult animals, despite a slight prevalence of unilocular adipocytes, the number of multilocular cells is not reduced with respect to younger animals.

  20. The salivary glands of Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae, Lacertilia). A morphological, morphometric and histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R A; Costa, J R; Piccolo, A M; Petenusci, S O

    1982-01-01

    The authors studied morphological, morphometric, and histochemically the mucosubstances and proteins in the salivary glands of the lizard Ameiva. Based on the results, the authors concluded: 1. The labial salivary gland is formed by small mucous and mucoserous glands; the sublingual gland by mucoserous cells. 2. Mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid. Mucoserous cells of the labial gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid, hyaluronic acid and protein radicals. Mucoserous cells of the sublingual gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals. 3. The average values for acinar area were: 1,198.11 microns 2 for mucoserous acini and 2,105.95 microns 2 for mucous acini of the labial salivary gland. The average values for nucleus volume were: 47.41 microns 3 for mucoserous cells and 38.97 microns 4 for mucous cells. 4. The average values for acinar area and nuclear volume of the mucoserous cells of the subingual gland were respectively: 1,474.62 microns 2 and 67.77 microns 3.

  1. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

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    Hashimoto N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  2. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency

  3. Functional histopathological and morphometric study of the use of gangliosides in nerve regeneration in rats after axonotmesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Neto, J C; Vasconcelos, B C do Egito; Silva-Júnior, V A; Beder-Ribeiro, C M

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the present functional, histopathological and morphometric study was to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the function of gangliosides (GM1, GD1a, GD1b e GT1b) in peripheral nerve regeneration. An experimental model was used with 96 male albino Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, Muridae). After the sciatic nerves of young adults had been crushed for 2 min using haemostatic tweezers, the rats were divided into experimental and control groups. The 48 animals in the experimental group received subcutaneous dorsal injections of gangliosides for 15 days after the surgical action, while the 48 control animals were injected with a saline solution. A functional, histopathological and morphometric evaluation of the sciatic function index (SFI) was made on 12 rats from both groups at 8, 15, 30 and 60 days. As a result of the methodology employed and the functional, histopathology and morphometric analyses, it was concluded that the administration of exogenous gangliosides seems to enhance nerve regeneration, because it stimulated the proliferation of Schwann cells and perhaps reduced the presence of inflammatory ones, seeming to promote nerve regeneration after axonotmesis.

  4. Anatomical study and morphometric analyses on the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament

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    Julio Cesar Gali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To provide an anatomical and morphometric basis for the femoral insertions of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL in order to aid in the creation of anatomical femoral tunnels in ligament surgical reconstruction. Study design: laboratory controlled study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The macroscopic details of the femoral insertions of the PCL's anterolateral (AL and posteromedial (PM bundles were analyzed in 24 cadaver knees. The specimens were photographed with a digital camera and the images obtained were studied using the software ImageJ. The bundles' insertion areas were measured in square millimeters, and the length of the structures and the distances between significant points were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The PCL's femoral insertion average total area was 87.29 ± 31.42 mm².The mean insertion's areas of the AL and PM bundles were, respectively, 47.13 ± 19.14 and 40.67 ± 16.19 mm². In 95.8% of the examined knees was verified the presence of the medial intercondylar ridge and in 83.3% of the knees was noted the medial bifurcated ridge. The average length of the medial intercondylar ridge was 20.54 ± 2.26 mm and the medial bifurcated ridge's average length was 7.62 ± 2.35 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The AL had a femoral insertion area larger than the PM bundle; these bundles' insertion areas were lower than those previously described in the literature. There were important individual variations related to the area of the bundles in the samples, suggesting that there should be an individual recommendation for anatomical reconstructions of the PCL with single or double femoral tunnels.

  5. Accuracy and reproducibility of voxel based superimposition of cone beam computed tomography models on the anterior cranial base and the zygomatic arches.

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    Rania M Nada

    Full Text Available Superimposition of serial Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scans has become a valuable tool for three dimensional (3D assessment of treatment effects and stability. Voxel based image registration is a newly developed semi-automated technique for superimposition and comparison of two CBCT scans. The accuracy and reproducibility of CBCT superimposition on the anterior cranial base or the zygomatic arches using voxel based image registration was tested in this study. 16 pairs of 3D CBCT models were constructed from pre and post treatment CBCT scans of 16 adult dysgnathic patients. Each pair was registered on the anterior cranial base three times and on the left zygomatic arch twice. Following each superimposition, the mean absolute distances between the 2 models were calculated at 4 regions: anterior cranial base, forehead, left and right zygomatic arches. The mean distances between the models ranged from 0.2 to 0.37 mm (SD 0.08-0.16 for the anterior cranial base registration and from 0.2 to 0.45 mm (SD 0.09-0.27 for the zygomatic arch registration. The mean differences between the two registration zones ranged between 0.12 to 0.19 mm at the 4 regions. Voxel based image registration on both zones could be considered as an accurate and a reproducible method for CBCT superimposition. The left zygomatic arch could be used as a stable structure for the superimposition of smaller field of view CBCT scans where the anterior cranial base is not visible.

  6. GIS based quantitative morphometric analysis and its consequences: a case study from Shanur River Basin, Maharashtra India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Chaitanya B.; Moharir, Kanak

    2017-05-01

    A morphometric analysis of Shanur basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. These techniques are found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. Hence, from the study, it is concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM data of 30 m resolution) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool used in morphometric analysis and evaluation of linear, slope, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The combined outcomes have established the topographical and even recent developmental situations in basin. It will also change the setup of the region. It therefore needs to analyze high level parameters of drainage and environment for suitable planning and management of water resource developmental plan and land resource development plan. The Shanur drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 281.33 km2. The slope of the basin varies from 1 to 10 %, and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The main stream length ratio of the basin is 14.92 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The morphometric parameters of the stream have been analyzed and calculated by applying standard methods and techniques viz. Horton (Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361, 1945), Miller (A quantitative geomorphologic study of drainage basin characteristics in the clinch mountain area, Virginia and Tennessee Columbia University, Department of Geology, Technical Report, No. 3, Contract N6 ONR 271-300, 1953), and Strahler (Handbook of applied hydrology, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1964). GIS based on analysis of all morphometric parameters and the erosional development of the area by the streams has been progressed well beyond maturity and lithology is

  7. GIS based quantitative morphometric analysis and its consequences: a case study from Shanur River Basin, Maharashtra India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Chaitanya B.; Moharir, Kanak

    2015-06-01

    A morphometric analysis of Shanur basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. These techniques are found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler's system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. Hence, from the study, it is concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM-DEM data of 30 m resolution) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool used in morphometric analysis and evaluation of linear, slope, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The combined outcomes have established the topographical and even recent developmental situations in basin. It will also change the setup of the region. It therefore needs to analyze high level parameters of drainage and environment for suitable planning and management of water resource developmental plan and land resource development plan. The Shanur drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 281.33 km2. The slope of the basin varies from 1 to 10 %, and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The main stream length ratio of the basin is 14.92 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The morphometric parameters of the stream have been analyzed and calculated by applying standard methods and techniques viz. Horton (Trans Am Geophys Union 13:350-361, 1945), Miller (A quantitative geomorphologic study of drainage basin characteristics in the clinch mountain area, Virginia and Tennessee Columbia University, Department of Geology, Technical Report, No. 3, Contract N6 ONR 271-300, 1953), and Strahler (Handbook of applied hydrology, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1964). GIS based on analysis of all morphometric parameters and the erosional development of the area by the streams has been progressed well beyond maturity and lithology is

  8. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE AREOLAR SPACE BETWEEN THE GREAT VESSELS AND THE LUMBAR SPINE

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    Luis Marchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This work aims to study the areolar space anterior to the lumbar spine, and also the positioning of the large vessels focusing a lateral approach. Methods :This is a morphometric study of 108 cases based on T2 weighted-MRI images in the supine position. The following measurements were performed: lumbar and segmental lordosis; anteroposterior disc diameter; space between the disc/vertebral body and the vessels; bifurcation between the abdominal aorta and the common iliac veins confluence in relation to the lumbar level. Results :The areolar space with respect to the iliac veins, and with the vena cava increased cranially (p<0.001, starting from average 0.6mm at L4-L5 and reaching 8.4mm at L2, while the abdominal aorta showed no increase or decrease pattern across the different levels (p=0.135 ranging from 1.8 to 4.6mm. The diameter of the discs increased distally (p<0.01 as well as the lordosis (p<0.001. The disc diameter was 11% larger when compared to the adjacent vertebral bodies (p<0.001 and that resulted in a smaller distance of the vessels in the disc level than in the level of the adjacent vertebral bodies (p<0.001. The aortic bifurcation was generally ahead of L4 (52% and less frequently at L3-L4 (28% and L4-L5 (18%. The confluence of the veins was usually at the L4-L5 level (38% and at L5 (37%, and less frequently at L4 (26%. Conclusions : There is an identifiable plane between the great vessels and the lumbar spine which is particularly narrow in its distal portion. It is theoretically feasible to reach this plan, handle the anterior complex disc/ALL and protect the great vessels by lateral approach, however, it is challenging.

  9. A morphometric study of the lumbar spinous process in the Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to analyze the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spine spinous process for an interspinous stabilization device designed for the Chinese population and to offer an anatomical basis for its clinical application. The posterior lumbar spines (T12-S1 of 52 adult cadavers were used for measuring the following: distance between two adjacent spinous processes (DB, distance across two adjacent spinous processes (DA, thickness of the central spinous processes (TC, thickness of the superior margin of the spinous processes (TS, thickness of the inferior margin of the spinous processes (TI, and height of the spinous processes (H. Variance and correlation analyses were conducted for these data, and the data met the normal distribution and homogeneity of variance. DB decreased gradually from L1-2 to L5-S1. DA increased from T12-L1 to L2-3 and then decreased from L2-3 to L4-5. The largest H in males was noted at L3 (25.45±5.96 mm, whereas for females the largest H was noted at L4 (18.71±4.50 mm. Usually, TS of the adjacent spinous process was lower than TI. Based on the anatomical parameters of the lumbar spinous processes obtained in this study, an “H”-shaped coronal plane (posterior view was proposed as an interspinous stabilization device for the Chinese population. This study reports morphometric data of the lumbar spinous processes in the Chinese population, which provides an anatomical basis for future clinical applications.

  10. Morphometrical Study of the Temporal Bone and Auditory Ossicles in Guinea Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadali Mohammadpour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, anatomical descriptions of the structure of the temporal bone and auditory ossicles have been performed based on dissection of ten guinea pigs. The results showed that, in guinea pig temporal bone was similar to other animals and had three parts; squamous, tympanic and petrous .The tympanic part was much better developed and consisted of oval shaped tympanic bulla with many recesses in tympanic cavity. The auditory ossicles of guinea pig concluded of three small bones; malleus, incus and stapes but the head of the malleus and the body of incus were fused and forming a malleoincudal complex. The average of morphometric parameters showed that the malleus was 3.53 ± 0.22 mm in total length. In addition to head and handle, the malleus had two distinct process; lateral and muscular. The incus had a total length 1.23 ± 0.02mm. It had long and short crus although the long crus was developed better than short crus. The lenticular bone was a round bone that articulated with the long crus of incus. The stapes had a total length 1.38 ± 0.04mm. The anterior crus(0.86 ± 0.08mm was larger than posterior crus (0.76 ± 0.08mm. It is concluded that, in the guinea pig, the malleus and the incus are fused, forming a junction called incus-malleus, while in the other animals these are separate bones. The stapes is larger and has a triangular shape and the anterior and posterior crus are thicker than other rodents. Therefore, for otological studies, the guinea pig is a good lab animal.

  11. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  12. Voxel-based morphometry in opera singers: Increased gray-matter volume in right somatosensory and auditory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Boris; Veit, Ralf; Moll, Christina Valérie; Gaser, Christian; Birbaumer, Niels; Lotze, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to instrumental musicians, professional singers do not train on a specific instrument but perfect a motor system that has already been extensively trained during speech motor development. Previous functional imaging studies suggest that experience with singing is associated with enhanced somatosensory-based vocal motor control. However, experience-dependent structural plasticity in vocal musicians has rarely been studied. We investigated voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 27 professional classical singers and compared gray matter volume in regions of the "singing-network" to an age-matched group of 28 healthy volunteers with no special singing experience. We found right hemispheric volume increases in professional singers in ventral primary somatosensory cortex (larynx S1) and adjacent rostral supramarginal gyrus (BA40), as well as in secondary somatosensory (S2) and primary auditory cortices (A1). Moreover, we found that earlier commencement with vocal training correlated with increased gray-matter volume in S1. However, in contrast to studies with instrumental musicians, this correlation only emerged in singers who began their formal training after the age of 14years, when speech motor development has reached its first plateau. Structural data thus confirm and extend previous functional reports suggesting a pivotal role of somatosensation in vocal motor control with increased experience in singing. Results furthermore indicate a sensitive period for developing additional vocal skills after speech motor coordination has matured.

  13. A Large Scale (N=400) Investigation of Gray Matter Differences in Schizophrenia Using Optimized Voxel-based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Giuliani, Nicole R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Schretlen, David J.; Pulver, Anne; Cascella, Nicola; Keshavan, Matcheri; Kates, Wendy; Buchanan, Robert; Sharma, Tonmoy; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of MRI images as an automated method of investigating cortical gray matter differences in schizophrenia. However, results from these studies vary widely, likely due to different methodological or statistical approaches. Objective To use VBM to investigate gray matter differences in schizophrenia in a sample significantly larger than any published to date, and to increase statistical power sufficiently to reveal differences missed in smaller analyses. Methods Magnetic resonance whole brain images were acquired from four geographic sites, all using the same model 1.5T scanner and software version, and combined to form a sample of 200 patients with both first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 200 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and scanner location. Gray matter concentration was assessed and compared using optimized VBM. Results Compared to the healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less gray matter concentration in multiple cortical and subcortical regions, some previously unreported. Overall, we found lower concentrations of gray matter in regions identified in prior studies, most of which reported only subsets of the affected areas. Conclusions Gray matter differences in schizophrenia are most comprehensively elucidated using a large, diverse and representative sample. PMID:18378428

  14. Morphometric Study of the Irradiation Effect on the Cartilage Formation in the Rat Mandibular Condyle

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    Kim, Jeong Hwa; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    This study was undertaken to quantitatively estimate the degree of the damage and recovery of the irradiated rat condylar cartilage using the Image Analyzer. Experimental animals were 16 male rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain at the age of 20 day irradiated with the dose of 10 Gy in their head and neck region. Four rats were sacrificed at the each of the following time intervals - 1, 4, 7 and 14 days, respectively. The same number of control group animals were sacrificed at the each age of 21, 24, 27 and 34 days, respectively. The specimens were stained with 0.5% toluidine blue and examined with light microscope. The condylar cartilage was divided into 4 zones; fibrous zone, proliferating zone, upper hypertrophic zone, and lower hypertrophic zone. And then, the proliferating zone was subdivided into 2 layers - upper and lower layer, and upper and lower hypertrophic zone were subdivided into three layers, respectively - upper, middle and lower layer. With the aid of Image Analyzer, morphometric analysis was performed. The thickness, the numerical density of cells, the cell area density, the extracellular matrix area density, the mean area of single cell, the mean area of extracellular matrix per single cell were measured and analysed. In the experimental group, the thickness of the fibrous zone was slightly increased and that of the proliferating zone and the upper and the lower hypertrophic zone was markedly decreased. With time, the thickness of the fibrous zone was gradually increased and that of the proliferating zone and the upper and the lower hypertrophic zone was steadily in the decreased state. The numerical density of cells of the proliferating zone was increased on post-irradiated 1 day, but decreased after post-irradiated 4 day, and that of the upper hypertrophic zone was decreased. The numerical density of cells of the lower hypertrophic zone was decreased in the early stage and then was decreased or not significantly different from that of the control

  15. A CROSS SECTIONAL MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF HYPERTENSIVE WITH NORMAL PLACENTAE AND ITS CORRELATION WITH FETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Placenta “the vital organ” for maintaining healthy pregnancy is unique in its development, being derived from both mother and fetus. Thus hypertensive disorder affecting mother has a deleterious impact on placenta which may lead to poor fetal outcome. Aim: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken to analyze and assess the morphological changes in hypertensive placentae and to clinically correlate it with fetal and maternal parameters. Materials and Methods: 50 placentae were freshly collected from pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH cases (study group and 50 from normal pregnancy (control group. Study group was divided into three categories depending upon severity of the disease. Observations and Results: 70% in study group were primigravida and were from rural area.46% were in age group of 15 – 20yrs.50% under low socio-economic status and 60% were without any regular antenatal checkup. Preterm, IUGR, still birth and neonatal death accounted to 10%, 12%, 18% and 10% respectively in study group. The average diameter, thickness, volume and number of cotyledons in study group were 15.91±2.11cm, 2.39±.54cm, 297.64±67.90ml and 10.02±4.13respectively. Mean placental weight was 376.41±17.198gm (mild PIH, 330.72±2.90gm (severe PIH, 329.73±3.19gm (eclampsia and mean birth weight was 2680.29±198.46gm (mild PIH, 2212.06±36.41gm (severe PIH and 2073.60±9.47gm (eclampsia respectively in study group. Various pathological changes like retro placental hematoma, infarction and calcification had been noticed. Conclusion: Placental morphometric parameters were significantly reduced (<.001 in study group as compared to control group. Decreased placental weight was associated with reduced birth weight and feto-placental ratio with increase in severity of hypertension significantly (<.001. A significant increase (<.05 in incidence of preterm, IUGR, still birth and neonatal death were found in study group. Assessment of

  16. On the construction of a ground truth framework for evaluating voxel-based diffusion tensor MRI analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Sijbers, Jan; De Backer, Steve; Poot, Dirk; Parizel, Paul M; Leemans, Alexander

    2009-07-01

    Although many studies are starting to use voxel-based analysis (VBA) methods to compare diffusion tensor images between healthy and diseased subjects, it has been demonstrated that VBA results depend heavily on parameter settings and implementation strategies, such as the applied coregistration technique, smoothing kernel width, statistical analysis, etc. In order to investigate the effect of different parameter settings and implementations on the accuracy and precision of the VBA results quantitatively, ground truth knowledge regarding the underlying microstructural alterations is required. To address the lack of such a gold standard, simulated diffusion tensor data sets are developed, which can model an array of anomalies in the diffusion properties of a predefined location. These data sets can be employed to evaluate the numerous parameters that characterize the pipeline of a VBA algorithm and to compare the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of different post-processing approaches quantitatively. We are convinced that the use of these simulated data sets can improve the understanding of how different diffusion tensor image post-processing techniques affect the outcome of VBA. In turn, this may possibly lead to a more standardized and reliable evaluation of diffusion tensor data sets of large study groups with a wide range of white matter altering pathologies. The simulated DTI data sets will be made available online (http://www.dti.ua.ac.be).

  17. 首发未服药精神分裂症患者脑弥散张量成像的基于体素分析%A voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging study of first-episode medication-free patients with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏钦令; 郑俩荣; 胡冰; 康庄; 国效锋; 胡茂荣; 韩自力

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of white matter integrity in first-episode medication-flee patients with schizophrenia. Methods Diffusion tensor images (DTI) of whole brains of 40 first-episode medication-flee patients with schizophrenia and 68 healthy controls were acquired with a single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence aligned to the straight axial plane. Two-sample t-test by with voxel-based analysis in SPM5 software was performed on the fractional anisotropy (FA)images of the 2 groups after being preprocessed with DTI-studio and SPM5 software.Results Subjects of schizophrenia showed reduced white matter FA in these regions: the right amygdale (MNI:24, 2, -14; cluster=347 voxels), bilateral anterior cingulate (MNI: 6, 42, 2; cluster=586 voxels), right orbitofrontal (MNI: 20, 18, -10; cluster=166 voxels) as compared with healthy controls. Conclusion Abnormal white matter in the corticolimbic system circuit exists in patients with schizophrenia, which maybe involve in the neural mechanism of schizophrenia.%目的分析首发未服药精神分裂症患者脑白质完整性的变化。 方法对40例首发未服药精神分裂症患者和68例健康对照者进行脑弥散张量磁共振成像检查,以DTI-studio软件和统计参数图(SPM)软件对所得图像进行预处理,得到的各向异性分数(FA)图像在SPM软件中进行两样本t检验,获得两组患者FA值差异统计参数图。 结果在P值小于0.001(未校正)水平下,首发未服药精神分裂症患者右侧杏仁核区(MNI:24,2,-14,cluster=347 voxels)、双侧前扣带区(MNI:6,42,2,cluster=586 voxels)、右侧前额叶眶上回区域(MNI:20,18,-10,cluster= 166 voxels)白质FA值较健康对照者下降,且未发现前者有脑区白质FA值较后者增高。 结论精神分裂症患者皮层一边缘系统环路存在结构连接障碍,这可能是精神分裂症的神经机制。

  18. 基于体素的形态测量学方法研究屈光参差性弱视患儿的相关区域脑结构%An optimized voxel-based morphometry study in the evaluation of brain structural abnormalities in anisometropic amblyopia patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘圣源; 张敬; 张权; 伊慧明; 张丽红; 李威; 张云亭

    2012-01-01

    目的 利用基于体素的形态测量学(VBM)分析屈光参差性弱视患者全脑灰、白质体积变化.方法 采用1.5 TMR扫描仪对12例屈光参差性弱视患儿和年龄、性别相匹配的12名正常志愿者行3D快速扰相梯度回波(FSPGR)序列的全脑扫描.原始数据用统计参数图(SPM)5软件进行处理.结果 与正常对照组相比,弱视组脑灰质体积减少的脑区包括右侧楔叶、双侧枕中下回、右侧额中回、左侧颞中回、右侧颞上回、右侧楔前叶、右侧中扣带回(差异脑区体素> 10个).弱视组脑灰质体积增多的脑区包括右侧小脑半球、右侧海马旁回、左侧中央前回、左侧额上回(差异脑区体素> 10个).与对照组比较,弱视组脑白质体积减少的脑区包括双侧视放射区、双侧内囊,以右侧为著(差异脑区体素>10).未见弱视组脑白质体积增多的脑区.结论 运用VBM方法可分析屈光参差性弱视患者全脑灰、白质体积变化,有助于从形态学的角度阐述屈光参差性弱视的可能神经机制.%Objective To investigate possible neural mechanism of anisometropic amblyopia by analysing the whole brain volume changes both in grey matter and white matter using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM).Methods Twelve anisometropic amblyopia patients and 12 age,gender and handedness matched healthy volunteers underwent 3-dimensional (3D) fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR)sequence scanning on 1.5 Tesla MR system.Raw data was processed and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM)5.Results Compared to healthy controls,the grey matter exhibiting significantly decreased volume in patients included right cuneus,bilateral occipital gyrus,right middle frontal gyrus,left middle temporal gyrus,right superior temporal gyrus,right precuneus,and middle part of right cingulate gyrus ( clusters > 10).The grey matter showing increased volume in patients included right cerebellum,right parahippocampal gyrus

  19. A voxel-based morphometry study of brain volume changes in patients with neuromyelitis optica%应用基于体素的形态测量学方法分析视神经脊髓炎患者的脑体积变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段云云; 刘亚欧; 梁佩鹏; 黄靖; 任卓琼; 叶静; 董会卿; 陈海; 李坤成

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用基于体素的形态测量学方法(VBM)比较视神经脊髓炎(NMO)患者和正常志愿者局部脑灰质和白质的体积差异,并分析脑体积变化与临床指标的相关性.方法 对20例NMO患者和20例性别、年龄匹配的健康志愿者进行常规MRI和三维结构像扫描,采用统计参数图(SPM)5的VBM工具对NMO组及对照组数据进行分析,比较两组之间脑灰质和白质体积的差异.利用Pearson相关分析脑灰、白质异常的区域与患者病程和临床评分的相关性.结果 与对照组相比,NMO患者右侧额下回(体素数514)、左侧颞上回(282)、右侧颞中回(229)及右侧岛叶(211)等多个灰质脑区体积减小(t值为3.58~5.11,P值均<0.05);NMO患者右侧中央前回、后回(体素数457、110)、左侧额中回(285)及右侧顶下小叶(231)等多个皮层下白质脑区体积减小(t值为2.90~4.25,P值均<0.05).NMO脑灰、白质体积异常的区域与临床病程及残疾状态评分均无明显相关性.结论 应用VBM方法能发现NMO患者灰、白质局部脑区的萎缩,为NMO脑结构异常提供影像证据.%Objective To detect changes of regional grey matter and white matter volume in patients of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM),and investigate its relationship with clinical variables.Methods Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and structural threedimensional MRI were obtained from 20 NMO and 20 sex-and age-matched healthy volunteers.The comparison of grey matter and white matter volume between the two groups was analyzed by VBM tools of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 5.Pearson correlational analysis was used to assess correlations between regional volume decrease and disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores in NMO patients.Results Compared with normal controls,NMO patients had grey matter atrophy in several cortical regions,such as right inferior frontal gyrus (cluster size 514),left

  20. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor indices in the brain in patients with Parkinson's disease

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    Zhang Kaiyuan, E-mail: kaiyuanzhang@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China); Yu Chunshui, E-mail: chunshuiyu826@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China); Zhang Yujin, E-mail: zyjinjin@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neurosciences and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wu Xiaoli, E-mail: wendy2006315@126.com [Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China) and Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhu Chaozhe, E-mail: czzhu@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neurosciences and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chan Piu, E-mail: pbchan@bjsap.org [Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China); Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Capital Medical University, Ministry of Education (China)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the abnormal diffusion in cerebral white matter and its relationship with the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) through diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and methods: Diffusion tensor imaging of the cerebrum was performed in 25 patients with Parkinson's disease and 25 control subjects matched for age and sex. Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between these two groups were studied by voxel-based analysis of the DTI data. Correlations between diffusion indices and the olfactory function in PD patients were evaluated using the multiple regression model after controlling for the duration of the disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Sale (UPDRS), and age. Results: The damaged white and gray matter showed decreased FA or increased MD, localized bilaterally in the cerebellar and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, in PD patients there was a positive correlation between FA values in the white matter of the left cerebellum and the thresholds of olfactory identification (TOI) and a negative correlation between MD values in the white matter of right cerebellum and the TOI. Conclusion: In patients with PD, there was disruption in the cerebellar white matter which may play an important role in the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  1. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H Steven; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-10-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics and 57 non-dyslexics) with two analyses: group differences in local GM and total GM and WM volume and correlations between GM and WM volumes and five behavioural measures. We found no significant group differences after corrections for multiple comparisons although total WM volume was lower in the group of dyslexics when age was partialled out. We presented an overview of uncorrected clusters of voxels (p  200) with reduced or increased GM volume. We found four significant correlations between factors of dyslexia representing various behavioural measures and the clusters found in the first analysis. In the whole sample, a factor related to performances in spelling correlated negatively with GM volume in the left posterior cerebellum. Within the group of dyslexics, a factor related to performances in Dutch-English rhyme words correlated positively with GM volume in the left and right caudate nucleus and negatively with increased total WM volume. Most of our findings were in accordance with previous reports. A relatively new finding was the involvement of the caudate nucleus. We confirmed the multiple cognitive nature of dyslexia and suggested that experience greatly influences anatomical alterations depending on various subtypes of dyslexia, especially in a student sample.

  2. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changyong; Wu, Suqin; Wang, Xiaoming; Hu, Andong; Wang, Qianxin; Zhang, Kefei

    2017-06-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV). In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm) is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models - GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTmN - using different data sources in 2014 - the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  3. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  4. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  5. Determination of physical height from crown dimensions of deciduous tooth: A dental morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ramanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental morphometrics is a subject of great significance in forensic odontology in identification of an individual. Use of teeth to represent a physical profile is valuable for identification of an individual. Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to assess the clinical crown length (CL of erupted deciduous teeth and height of the child. A correlation of these parameters was attempted to arrive at a mathematical equation which would formulate a ratio of tooth CL to individual height that would support in estimating the probable height of the child. Materials and Methods: About 60 children (30 males and 30 females of age ranged from 3–6 years were included in this study. Clinical vertical CLs of the deciduous dentition (tooth numbers 51, 52, 53, 54, and 55 were calculated using digital Vernier calipers (Aerospace Ltd., Bengaluru, Karnataka, India on the cast models. Child height was measured using a standard measuring tape. Ratios of deciduous CL to height of the child were recorded. Linear stepwise forward regression analysis was applied to predict the probability of CL of a tooth most likely to support in prediction of physical height of the child. Results: Tabulated results showed a probable correlation between tooth CL and height of the child. Tooth CLs of deciduous upper right second molar (55 among the males, lateral incisor (52 among females, and canine (53 using the combined male and female data were statistically significant, and they approximately predicted the child height with minimal variations. Mathematically derived equations based on linear stepwise forward regression analysis using sixty children data are height prediction (derived from combined data of male and female children = 400.558 + 90.264 (53 CL, male child height prediction (derived from data of male children = 660.290 + 72.970 (55 CL, and female child height prediction (derived from data of female children = −187.942 + 194.818 (52 CL. Conclusion: In

  6. The Neural Basis of Reversible Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Voxel-Based Lesion Symptom Mapping in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    We explored the neural basis of reversible sentence comprehension in a large group of aphasic patients (n = 79). Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping revealed a significant association between damage in temporo-parietal cortex and impaired sentence comprehension. This association remained after we controlled for phonological working memory. We…

  7. Voxel-based model construction from colored tomographic images; Construcao de simuladores baseados em elementos de volume a partir de imagens tomograficas coloridas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Eduardo Cesar de Miranda

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a new approach in the construction of voxel-based phantoms that was implemented to simplify the segmentation process of organs and tissues reducing the time used in this procedure. The segmentation process is performed by painting tomographic images and attributing a different color for each organ or tissue. A voxel-based head and neck phantom was built using this new approach. The way as the data are stored allows an increasing in the performance of the radiation transport code. The program that calculates the radiation transport also works with image files. This capability allows image reconstruction showing isodose areas, under several points of view, increasing the information to the user. Virtual X-ray photographs can also be obtained allowing that studies could be accomplished looking for the radiographic techniques optimization assessing, at the same time, the doses in organs and tissues. The accuracy of the program here presented, called MCvoxEL, that implements this new approach, was tested by comparison to results from two modern and well-supported Monte Carlo codes. Dose conversion factors for parallel X-ray exposure were also calculated. (author)

  8. 应用体素的形态学研究复发缓解型多发性硬化患者的全脑灰质萎缩特点%Feature of grey matter atrophy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis:a voxel-based morphometry Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段云云; 李坤成; 刘亚欧; 梁佩鹏; 贾秀琴; 于春水; 秦文; 叶静; 孙慧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feature of regional grey matter volume changes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients by voxel-based morphometry ( VBM) and presume the possible pathophysiological basis.Methods Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T1-weighted three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 32 RRMS and 32 sex- and age-matched normal controls.The comparison of grey matter volume between the two groups was analyzed by statistical analysis software SPM5 and VBM.A Pearson correlational analysis was used to assess correlation between gre matter loss and disease duration,expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and visible brain lesion volume.Results Compared with normal controls,RRMS patients had extensive bilateral grey matter atrophy in thalami (left 2031 and right 1711),caudate (left 815 and right 1031) and parahippocampal gyrus (left 313 and right 467),as well as several cortical regions in frontal,temporal,parietal,and occipital lobes (t value were between 8.853 and 11.163,all P < 0.01).Regional grey matter loss in bilateral thalami ( r value were - 0.596 on left and were - 0.694 on right) and right caudate ( r = - 0.409 ) were strongly negatively correlated with visible brain lesion volume in RRMS (all P < 0.05 ).Conclusions By means of VBM,extensive grey matter atrophy are found in RRMS patients,especially in deep grey matter.Axonal degeneration secondary to visible brain lesions may be a key pathogenesis of grey matter atrophy in RRMS.%目的 利用基于体素的形态学研究方法比较复发缓解型多发性硬化(relapsingremitting multiple selerosis,RRMS)患者和健康志愿者局部脑灰质的体积差异,推断灰质体积变化可能的病理生理机制.方法 对32例RRMS患者和32名性别、年龄匹配的健康志愿者进行常规MRI和三维T1WI扫描,采用参数统计软件包SPM5进行图像后处理,对RRMS组及对照组数据进行基于体素的统计学比较.利用相

  9. Morphometric study of third-instar larvae from five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Nelson A; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Salas, Juan O Tigrero; Selivon, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of cryptic species among economically important fruit flies strongly affects the development of management tactics for these pests. Tools for studying cryptic species not only facilitate evolutionary and systematic studies, but they also provide support for fruit fly management and quarantine activities. Previous studies have shown that the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus, is a complex of cryptic species, but few studies have been performed on the morphology of its immature stages. An analysis of mandible shape and linear morphometric variability was applied to third-instar larvae of five morphotypes of the Anastrepha fraterculus complex: Mexican, Andean, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Brazilian-1. Outline geometric morphometry was used to study the mouth hook shape and linear morphometry analysis was performed using 24 linear measurements of the body, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, mouth hook and hypopharyngeal sclerite. Different morphotypes were grouped accurately using canonical discriminant analyses of both the geometric and linear morphometry. The shape of the mandible differed among the morphotypes, and the anterior spiracle length, number of tubules of the anterior spiracle, length and height of the mouth hook and length of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were the most significant variables in the linear morphometric analysis. Third-instar larvae provide useful characters for studies of cryptic species in the Anastrepha fraterculus complex.

  10. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Li, Lin; Sun, Jie; Ma, Lin

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P<0.05). This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Geriatric Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun, Jie [Department of Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  12. Morphometric study of newly emerged unmated queens of honey bee Apis mellifera L. in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kamel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, morphometric analysis is being a very good tool for identification of honey bee races and characterization of genetic materials. This fact has motivated the present work to investigate the effects of two grafting methods, three types of artificial queen wax cups and four periods of queen rearing on some morphological characters of newly emerged queens. The developed technique used in the present study depends on the integration between Scanner unit and Photoshop program, called Scan Photo Method (SPM. The measurements of 23 morphological characteristics of reared queens were estimated by using SPM. Results indicated significant differences between periods in the measurements of the studied characteristics on forewing such as cubital index, distance C, distance D, radial field, inner wing length, inner wing width, dumb bell index, distance I, II, III and IV, except cubital A and cubital B. Regarding the effects of cup types and grafting methods, data also revealed significant differences in all measurements of studied characteristics, except tibial length, hind wing length, cubital B, radial field and distance IV. Further works in this area were recommended to find out a relation between some morphometric characters and important of some quantitative characters.

  13. Analysis of voxel-based rCBF in patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy of multiple system atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy (OPCA) is one phenotype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and is characterized neuropathologically by neuronal degeneration in the inferior olives, pons and cerebellar cortex. The diagnosis of OPCA requires clinical evaluation to exclude other diseases. And it's usually supported by atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem visualized on CT or MRI. But there are some reports that the disease can occur without demonstrable atrophy in these anatomic studies. There are only a few reports about perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with OPCA. The aim of this study was to describe voxel-based rCBF of OPCA in comparison of healthy volunteers. We studied 5 patients with OPCA (1 men, 4 women: age 50.4{+-}9.6y) and age matched 13 healthy volunteers (4 men, 9 women: age 54.9{+-}6.6y). All subjects injected 20mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO and scanning was initiated 20 min after injection. Images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. On visual analysis, in 3 patients with OPCA, SPECT image showed significant hypoperfusion in the cerebellum. In another 2 patients, diffuse hypoperfusion was found in the both cerebro-cerebellar hemispheres, untypical perfusion pattern in OPCA. So there is existed limitation to diagnosis by only visual analysis. On SPM analysis, in OPCA patients significantly decreased perfusion was present in culmen, tonsil, tuber in Lt. cerebellum and declive, tonsil, pyramid and inf. Semi-lunar lobule in Rt. cerebellum, Rt. inf. frontal gyrus and Rt. temporal lobe (p<0.001, uncorrected). We also performed individual analysis with SPM. Two of 5 patients have additional hypoperfusion brain lesions. In one patient, decreased perfusion found in Lt. temporal, both occipital lobe, Lt. parahippocampal gyrus. In another patient, decreased perfusion found in both frontal and parietal lobe. This study is one of a few trials analysis with SPM for OPCA. We defined the specific location of decreased perfusion in patients with OPCA.

  14. Morphometric study of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in procyonid (mammalia: carnivora) endocasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Heather E

    2014-12-01

    Endocasts provide a proxy for brain morphology but are rarely incorporated in phylogenetic analyses despite the potential for new suites of characters. The phylogeny of Procyonidae, a carnivoran family with relatively limited taxonomic diversity, is not well resolved because morphological and molecular data yield conflicting topologies. The presence of phylogenetic and ecologic signals in the endocasts of procyonids will be determined using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Endocasts of seven ingroup species and four outgroup species were digitally rendered and 21 landmarks were collected from the endocast surface. Two phylogenetic hypotheses of Procyonidae will be examined using methods testing for phylogenetic signal in morphometric data. In analyses of all taxa, there is significant phylogenetic signal in brain shape for both the morphological and molecular topologies. However, the analyses of ingroup taxa recover a significant phylogenetic signal for the morphological topology only. These results indicate support for the molecular outgroup topology, but not the ingroup topology given the brain shape data. Further examination of brain shape using principal components analysis and wireframe comparisons suggests procyonids possess more developed areas of the brain associated with motor control, spatial perception, and balance relative to the basal musteloid condition. Within Procyonidae, similar patterns of variation are present, and may be associated with increased arboreality in certain taxa. Thus, brain shape derived from endocasts may be used to test for phylogenetic signal and preliminary analyses suggest an association with behavior and ecology.

  15. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wook Kim; Hyoung Seop Kim; Young-Sil An; Sang Hee Im

    2010-01-01

    Background Permanent vegetative state is defined as the impaired level of consciousness longer than 12 months after traumatic causes and 3 months after non-traumatic causes of brain injury. Although many studies assessed the cerebral metabolism in patients with acute and persistent vegetative state after brain injury, few studies investigated the cerebral metabolism in patients with permanent vegetative state. In this study, we performed the voxel-based analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism and investigated the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the severity of impaired consciousness in patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury.Methods We compared the regional cerebral glucose metabolism as demonstrated by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography from 12 patients with permanent vegetative state after acquired brain injury with those from 12 control subjects. Additionally, covariance analysis was performed to identify regions where decreased changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism significantly correlated with a decrease of level of consciousness measured by JFK-coma recovery scare. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping.Results Compared with controls, patients with permanent vegetative state demonstrated decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the left precuneus, both posterior cingulate cortices, the left superior parietal lobule (Pcorrected <0.001), and increased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both cerebellum and the right supramarginal cortices (Pcorrected <0.001). In the covariance analysis, a decrease in the level of consciousness was significantly correlated with decreased cerebral glucose metabolism in the both posterior cingulate cortices (Puncorrected <0.005).Conclusion Our findings suggest that the posteromedial parietal cortex, which are part of neural network for consciousness, may be relevant structure for pathophysiological mechanism

  16. Auras and clinical features in temporal lobe epilepsy: a new approach on the basis of voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Teresa Castilho Garcia; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; da Silva, Henrique Hattori; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2010-05-01

    MRI investigations in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) have demonstrated structural abnormalities extending beyond ipsilateral hippocampus which may be studied through voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We investigated brain morphology related to clinical features in patients with refractory TLE with MTS using VBM. One hundred patients with unilateral TLE with MTS (59 left) and 30 controls were enrolled. VBM5 was employed to analyze (1) hemispheric damage, (2) influence of initial precipitating injury (IPI): 23 patients with febrile seizures and 19 with status epilepticus, and (3) types of auras classified as: mesial, including psychic auras (19 patients); anterior mesio-lateral, as autonomic symptoms, specially epigastric auras (27 patients) and neocortical, which included auditory, vertiginous, somatosensory and visual auras (16 patients). (1) Left TLE patients presented more widespread gray matter volume (GMV) reductions affecting ipsilateral hippocampus, temporal neocortex, insula and also left uncus, precentral gyrus, thalamus, parietal lobule, cuneus and bilateral cingulum. (2) Febrile seizures group presented ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus, neocortical temporal, frontal and occipital cortices, insula and cingulum. Status epilepticus group presented more widespread GMV reductions involving temporal and extratemporal lobes. (3) Patients with mesial auras showed significant ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus and amygdala, particularly right TLE group, who presented greater extension of GMV reduction in the entorhinal cortex. Significant reductions in hippocampus, amygdala and insula were seen in patients with anterior mesio-lateral auras. This study evaluated a large number of TLE-MTS patients showing structural damage extending beyond hippocampus, and different types of IPI associated with the extension of brain damage. Subtypes of auras are related to different clusters of areas of GMV reductions in

  17. Voxel-based registration of simulated and real patient CBCT data for accurate dental implant pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, António H. J.; Queirós, Sandro; Morais, Pedro; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Correia, André Ricardo; Fernandes, Valter; Pinho, A. C. M.; Fonseca, Jaime C.; Vilaça, João. L.

    2015-03-01

    The success of dental implant-supported prosthesis is directly linked to the accuracy obtained during implant's pose estimation (position and orientation). Although traditional impression techniques and recent digital acquisition methods are acceptably accurate, a simultaneously fast, accurate and operator-independent methodology is still lacking. Hereto, an image-based framework is proposed to estimate the patient-specific implant's pose using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and prior knowledge of implanted model. The pose estimation is accomplished in a threestep approach: (1) a region-of-interest is extracted from the CBCT data using 2 operator-defined points at the implant's main axis; (2) a simulated CBCT volume of the known implanted model is generated through Feldkamp-Davis-Kress reconstruction and coarsely aligned to the defined axis; and (3) a voxel-based rigid registration is performed to optimally align both patient and simulated CBCT data, extracting the implant's pose from the optimal transformation. Three experiments were performed to evaluate the framework: (1) an in silico study using 48 implants distributed through 12 tridimensional synthetic mandibular models; (2) an in vitro study using an artificial mandible with 2 dental implants acquired with an i-CAT system; and (3) two clinical case studies. The results shown positional errors of 67+/-34μm and 108μm, and angular misfits of 0.15+/-0.08° and 1.4°, for experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, in experiment 3, visual assessment of clinical data results shown a coherent alignment of the reference implant. Overall, a novel image-based framework for implants' pose estimation from CBCT data was proposed, showing accurate results in agreement with dental prosthesis modelling requirements.

  18. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Areas Vargas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS, including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. Materials and Methods: We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a control rats, with 105 days of age (C105 (n = 7; (b control rats with 65 days of age (C65 (n = 9, injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil; (c treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105 (n = 10 and (d treated rats with 65 days of age (T65 (n = 13. The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105 and 121 days of age (C65 and T65 and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The weight (p < 0.001 and volume (p = 0.004 of the prostate ventral lobe showed differences between C65 and T65 groups and between C105 and T105 groups. The epithelium height showed no difference between groups C65 and T65 (p = 0.8509, but the T105 group showed an increase of 32% compared to C105 (p = 0.0089. Concerning

  19. Posterior odontoid process angulation in pediatric Chiari I malformation: an MRI morphometric external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Dewan, Michael C; Day, Matthew A; Shannon, Chevis N; Tomycz, Luke; Tulipan, Noel; Wellons, John C

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Osseous anomalies of the craniocervical junction are hypothesized to precipitate the hindbrain herniation observed in Chiari I malformation (CM-I). Previous work by Tubbs et al. showed that posterior angulation of the odontoid process is more prevalent in children with CM-I than in healthy controls. The present study is an external validation of that report. The goals of our study were 3-fold: 1) to externally validate the results of Tubbs et al. in a different patient population; 2) to compare how morphometric parameters vary with age, sex, and symptomatology; and 3) to develop a correlative model for tonsillar ectopia in CM-I based on these measurements. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of 119 patients who underwent posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty at the Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt University; 78 of these patients had imaging available for review. Demographic and clinical variables were collected. A neuroradiologist retrospectively evaluated preoperative MRI examinations in these 78 patients and recorded the following measurements: McRae line length; obex displacement length; odontoid process parameters (height, angle of retroflexion, and angle of retroversion); perpendicular distance to the basion-C2 line (pB-C2 line); length of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia; caudal extent of the cerebellar tonsils; and presence, location, and size of syringomyelia. Odontoid retroflexion grade was classified as Grade 0, > 90°; Grade I,85°-89°; Grade II, 80°-84°; and Grade III, < 80°. Age groups were defined as 0-6 years, 7-12 years, and 13-17 years at the time of surgery. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, Kruskal-Wallis 1-way ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test were performed to assess the relationship between age, sex, and symptomatology with these craniometric variables. RESULTS The prevalence of posterior odontoid angulation was 81%, which is almost identical to that in the previous report

  20. CNS involvement in primary Sjogren Syndrome: assessment of gray and white matter changes with MRI and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C; Tsifetaki, Niki; Konitsiotis, Spyridon; Zikou, Anastasia; Astrakas, Loukas; Drosos, Alexandros; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate with MRI the involvement of gray matter and white matter structures in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Fifty-three patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, 18 age- and disease duration-matched patients with systemic sclerosis, and 35 age-matched control subjects were examined for differences in white matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) detected on FLAIR MR images. Differences in brain volume between patients with primary Sjögren syndrome and controls were studied by application of voxel-based morphometry to a 3D T1-weighted sequence. WMHIs were observed in 38 of the 53 patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, six of 18 patients with systemic sclerosis, and 17 of 35 controls. The numbers of WMHIs 2 mm or larger and the number smaller than 2 mm were higher in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome than in controls (≥ 2 mm, p = 0.004; syndrome patients and that in systemic sclerosis patients. After control for age, a positive relation was found between disease duration and total number of WMHIs (p = 0.037) and number of WMHIs 2 mm or larger (p = 0.023) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. In comparison with the controls, patients with primary Sjögren syndrome had decreased gray matter volume in the cortex, deep gray matter, and cerebellum. Associated loss of white matter volume was observed in areas corresponding to gray matter atrophy and in the corpus callosum (p syndrome have WMHIs and gray and white matter atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis.

  1. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Brain Volumes Changes of Postmenopausal Women Revealed by Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Zhang

    Full Text Available The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI provides an opportunity to evaluate how menopausal hormone therapy (HT affects the structure of older women's brains. Our earlier work based on region of interest (ROI analysis demonstrated potential structural changes underlying adverse effects of HT on cognition. However, the ROI-based analysis is limited in statistical power and precision, and cannot provide fine-grained mapping of whole-brain changes.We aimed to identify local structural differences between HT and placebo groups from WHIMS-MRI in a whole-brain refined level, by using a novel method, named Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Analysis (ODVBA. ODVBA is a recently proposed imaging pattern analysis approach for group comparisons utilizing a spatially adaptive analysis scheme to accurately locate areas of group differences, thereby providing superior sensitivity and specificity to detect the structural brain changes over conventional methods.Women assigned to HT treatments had significant Gray Matter (GM losses compared to the placebo groups in the anterior cingulate and the adjacent medial frontal gyrus, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which persisted after multiple comparison corrections. There were no regions where HT was significantly associated with larger volumes compared to placebo, although a trend of marginal significance was found in the posterior cingulate cortical area. The CEE-Alone and CEE+MPA groups, although compared with different placebo controls, demonstrated similar effects according to the spatial patterns of structural changes.HT had adverse effects on GM volumes and risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. These findings advanced our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of HT effects.

  2. Feasibility of voxel-based Dose Painting for recurrent Glioblastoma guided by ADC values of Diffusion-Weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, M; Botti, A; Sghedoni, R; Cagni, E; Ciammella, P; Iotti, C; Iori, M

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor and frequently recurs in the same location after radiotherapy. Intensive treatment targeting localized lesion is required to improve GBM outcome, but dose escalation using conventional methods is limited by healthy tissue tolerance. Helical Tomotherapy (HT) Dose Painting (DP) treatments were simulated to safely deliver high doses in the recurrent regions. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) data from five recurrent GBM were retrospectively considered for planning. Hypo-fractionated (25-50Gy, 5 fractions) voxel-based prescriptions were opportunely converted to personalized structured-based dose maps to create DP plans with a commercial Treatment Planning System. Optimized plans were generated and analyzed in terms of plan conformity to dose prescription (Q0.90-1.10), tolerance of the healthy tissues (DMAX), and dosimetry accuracy of the deliverable plans (γ-index). Only three of the five cases could receive a safe retreatment without violating the maximum critical organs dose constraints. The conformity of the simulated plans was between 40.9% and 79.9% (Q0.90-1.10), their delivery time was in the range of 38.3-63.6min, while the dosimetry showed γ-index of 82.4-92.4%. This study proved the ability of our method to simulate personalized, deliverable and dosimetrically accurate DPBN plans. HT hypo-fractionated treatments guided by ADC maps can be realized and applied to deliver high doses in the GBM recurrent regions, although there are some critical issues related to low Q0.90-1.10 values, to exceeding of healthy-tissue dose constraints for some patients and long delivery times. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fully automated treatment planning for head and neck radiotherapy using a voxel-based dose prediction and dose mimicking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Chris; Welch, Mattea; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A.; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2017-08-01

    Recent works in automated radiotherapy treatment planning have used machine learning based on historical treatment plans to infer the spatial dose distribution for a novel patient directly from the planning image. We present a probabilistic, atlas-based approach which predicts the dose for novel patients using a set of automatically selected most similar patients (atlases). The output is a spatial dose objective, which specifies the desired dose-per-voxel, and therefore replaces the need to specify and tune dose-volume objectives. Voxel-based dose mimicking optimization then converts the predicted dose distribution to a complete treatment plan with dose calculation using a collapsed cone convolution dose engine. In this study, we investigated automated planning for right-sided oropharaynx head and neck patients treated with IMRT and VMAT. We compare four versions of our dose prediction pipeline using a database of 54 training and 12 independent testing patients by evaluating 14 clinical dose evaluation criteria. Our preliminary results are promising and demonstrate that automated methods can generate comparable dose distributions to clinical. Overall, automated plans achieved an average of 0.6% higher dose for target coverage evaluation criteria, and 2.4% lower dose at the organs at risk criteria levels evaluated compared with clinical. There was no statistically significant difference detected in high-dose conformity between automated and clinical plans as measured by the conformation number. Automated plans achieved nine more unique criteria than clinical across the 12 patients tested and automated plans scored a significantly higher dose at the evaluation limit for two high-risk target coverage criteria and a significantly lower dose in one critical organ maximum dose. The novel dose prediction method with dose mimicking can generate complete treatment plans in 12-13 min without user interaction. It is a promising approach for fully automated treatment

  4. Approach to voxel-based carbon stock quanticiation using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Piao, Dongfan; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Yoon, Mihae; Moon, Jooyeon

    2016-04-01

    Forest is an important means to adapt climate change as the only carbon sink recognized by the international community (KFS 2009). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sectors including forestry contributed 24% of total anthropogenic emissions in 2010 (IPCC 2014; Tubiello et al. 2015). While all sectors excluding AFOLU have increased Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, land use sectors including forestry remains similar level as before due to decreasing deforestation and increasing reforestation. In earlier researches, optical imagery has been applied for analysis (Jakubowski et al. 2013). Optical imagery collects spectral information in 2D. It is difficult to effectively quantify forest stocks, especially in dense forest (Cui et al. 2012). To detect individual trees information from remotely sensed data, Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been used (Hyyppäet al. 2001; Persson et al. 2002; Chen et al. 2006). Moreover, LiDAR has the ability to actively acquire vertical tree information such as tree height using geo-registered 3D points (Kwak et al. 2007). In general, however, geo-register 3D point was used with a raster format which contains only 2D information by missing all the 3D data. Therefore, this research aimed to use the volumetric pixel (referred as "voxel") approach using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei. By comparing the parameters derived from voxel based LiDAR data and field measured data, we examined the relationships between them for the quantification of forest carbon. This study expects to be more helpful to take advantage of the strategic application of climate change adaption.

  5. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal F-18-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Gerald S. M. A.; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel J. B.; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry J M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image registration algorithm for VOI and voxel-wise assessment of longitudinal variations in FDG tumor uptake in NSCLC patients. Methods: Evaluation of the elastix toolbox was performed using F-18-FDG PET/CT ...

  6. Evaluation of elastix-based propagated align algorithm for VOI- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal 18F-FDG PET/CT data from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Gerald SMA; Fischer, Alexander; Koole, Michel JB; Pruim, Jan; Groen, Harry JM

    2015-01-01

    Background Deformable image registration allows volume of interest (VOI)- and voxel-based analysis of longitudinal changes in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tumor uptake in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study evaluates the performance of the elastix toolbox deformable image registration algorithm for VOI and voxel-wise assessment of longitudinal variations in FDG tumor uptake in NSCLC patients. Methods Evaluation of the elastix toolbox was performed using 18F-FDG PET/CT at ...

  7. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-{sup 14}C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in

  8. Voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy in post-stroke apathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-ran Yang

    Full Text Available To explore the structural basis of post-stroke apathy by using voxel-based analysis (VBA of fractional anisotropy (FA maps.We enrolled 54 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke during convalescence, and divided them into apathy (n = 31 and non-apathy (n = 23 groups. We obtained magnetic resonance images of their brains, including T1, T2 and DTI sequences. Age, sex, education level, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD scores, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores, and infarct locations for the two groups were compared. Finally, to investigate the structural basis of post-stroke apathy, VBA of FA maps was performed in which we included the variables that a univariate analysis determined had P-values less than 0.20 as covariates.HAMD (P = 0.01 and MMSE (P<0.01 scores differed significantly between the apathy and non-apathy groups. After controlling for age, education level, HAMD scores, and MMSE scores, significant FA reduction was detected in four clusters with peak voxels at the genu of the corpus callosum (X = -16, Y = 30, Z = 8, left anterior corona radiata (-22, 30, 10, splenium of the corpus callosum (-24, -56, 18, and right inferior frontal gyrus white matter (52, 24, 18, after family-wise error correction for multiple comparisons.Post-stroke apathy is related to depression and cognitive decline. Damage to the genu of the corpus callosum, left anterior corona radiata, splenium of the corpus callosum, and white matter in the right inferior frontal gyrus may lead to apathy after ischemic stroke.

  9. Voxel-Based Spatial Filtering Method for Canopy Height Retrieval from Airborne Single-Photon Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne single-photon lidar (SPL is a new technology that holds considerable potential for forest structure and carbon monitoring at large spatial scales because it acquires 3D measurements of vegetation faster and more efficiently than conventional lidar instruments. However, SPL instruments use green wavelength (532 nm lasers, which are sensitive to background solar noise, and therefore SPL point clouds require more elaborate noise filtering than other lidar instruments to determine canopy heights, particularly in daytime acquisitions. Histogram-based aggregation is a commonly used approach for removing noise from photon counting lidar data, but it reduces the resolution of the dataset. Here we present an alternate voxel-based spatial filtering method that filters noise points efficiently while largely preserving the spatial integrity of SPL data. We develop and test our algorithms on an experimental SPL dataset acquired over Garrett County in Maryland, USA. We then compare canopy attributes retrieved using our new algorithm with those obtained from the conventional histogram binning approach. Our results show that canopy heights derived using the new algorithm have a strong agreement with field-measured heights (r2 = 0.69, bias = 0.42 m, RMSE = 4.85 m and discrete return lidar heights (r2 = 0.94, bias = 1.07 m, RMSE = 2.42 m. Results are consistently better than height accuracies from the histogram method (field data: r2 = 0.59, bias = 0.00 m, RMSE = 6.25 m; DRL: r2 = 0.78, bias = −0.06 m and RMSE = 4.88 m. Furthermore, we find that the spatial-filtering method retains fine-scale canopy structure detail and has lower errors over steep slopes. We therefore believe that automated spatial filtering algorithms such as the one presented here can support large-scale, canopy structure mapping from airborne SPL data.

  10. Experimental chronic entrapment of the sciatic nerve in adult hamsters: an ultrastructural and morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinz R.A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrapment neuropathy is a group of clinical disorders involving compression of a peripheral nerve and interference with nerve function mostly through traction injury. We have investigated the chronic compression of peripheral nerves as an experimental procedure for detecting changes in ultrastructural nerve morphology. Adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, N = 30 were anesthetized with a 25% pentobarbital solution and received a cuff around the right sciatic nerve. Left sciatic nerves were not operated (control group. Animals survived for varying times (up to 15 weeks, after which they were sacrificed and both sciatic nerves were immediately fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution. Experimental nerves were divided into segments based upon their distance from the site of compression (proximal, entrapment and distal. Semithin and ultrathin sections were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes were qualitatively described and data from semithin sections were morphometrically analyzed both in control and in compressed nerves. We observed endoneurial edema along with both perineurial and endoneurial thickening and also the existence of whorled cell-sparse structures (Renaut bodies in the subperineurial space of compressed sciatic nerves. Morphometric analyses of myelinated axons at the compression sites displayed a remarkable increase in the number of small axons (up to 60% in comparison with the control axonal number. The distal segment of compressed nerves presented a distinct decrease in axon number (up to 40% comparatively to the control group. The present experimental model of nerve entrapment in adult hamsters was shown to promote consistent histopathologic alterations analogous to those found in chronic compressive neuropathies.

  11. A voxel-based investigation for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain using ultra short echo times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Kjer, Hans Martin; Van Leemput, Koen;

    2014-01-01

    , however, need to be assigned to the MRI images for dose calculation and patient setup based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Here, we investigate the geometric and dosimetric performance for a number of popular voxel-based methods to generate a so-called pseudo CT (pCT). Five patients...... receiving cranial irradiation, each containing a co-registered MRI and CT scan, were included. An ultra short echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization was used. Six methods were investigated for three popular types of voxel-based approaches; (1) threshold-based segmentation, (2) Bayesian segmentation...... including or excluding additional spatial information. Approach 3 used a statistical regression correlating MRI voxels with their corresponding CT voxels. A similar photon and proton treatment plan was generated for a target positioned between the nasal cavity and the brainstem for all patients. The CT...

  12. Comparative morphologic and morphometric studies on the lower respiratory tract of adult Japanese quail (coturnix japonica and pigeon (columbia livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Akau Hena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was concerned with the comparative evaluation of the morphologic and morphometric parameters of the lower respiratory tract of Japanese quail and that of pigeon. In the course of this work twenty birds (ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails of both sexes were purchased from a poultry market in Sokoto metroplis, Sokoto, Nigeria and used. It was observed in this study that the lower respiratory tract extended from the caudal part of the oral cavity (around the larynx down to the neck and to the thoracic region. The lower respiratory tract structures were the trachea (including the syrinx, the bronchus and the lungs. In the study, all the birds used were adults with mean body weight of 159.51±8.19g and 265.78±4.88g for the Japanese quail and pigeon respectively, this was considered extremely significant (P

  13. Morphometric brain characterization of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: diffeomorphic anatomic registration using exponentiated Lie algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wanjie; Li, Bin; Huang, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Taolin; Wang, Jinhui; Gong, Qiyong; Yang, Yanchun

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have used neuroimaging to characterize treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study sought to explore gray matter structure in patients with treatment-refractory OCD and compare it with that of healthy controls. A total of 18 subjects with treatment-refractory OCD and 26 healthy volunteers were analyzed by MRI using a 3.0-T scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to identify structural changes in gray matter associated with treatment-refractory OCD. A partial correlation model was used to analyze whether morphometric changes were associated with Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores and illness duration. Gray matter volume did not differ significantly between the two groups. Treatment-refractory OCD patients showed significantly lower gray matter density than healthy subjects in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and mediodorsal thalamus (MD) and significantly higher gray matter density in the left dorsal striatum (putamen). These changes did not correlate with symptom severity or illness duration. Our findings provide new evidence of deficits in gray matter density in treatment-refractory OCD patients. These patients may show characteristic density abnormalities in the left PCC, MD and dorsal striatum (putamen), which should be verified in longitudinal studies. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The morphological and morphometric study of tissues of dentoalveolar system in children with impaired course of the antenatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drogomiretskaya M.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies and deformation of dental system in children and adolescents contribute not only to the deterioration of dental health, bat quite often this is the cause of a wide range of somatic pathology. The aim of our study was to determine risk factors of dental system myofunctional disorders in children with impaired course of the antenatal period using morphological and morphometric studies. The changes that have been defined in the organs examined were dystrophic and dyscirculatory and differed in degrees of severity in all parts of the oral cavity. Dystrophic changes were detected in the gums and tongue epithelium. Dyscirculatory disorders were characterized by formation of submucosal edema, development of the vascular bed hyperemia and presence of hemorrhage under the basement membrane of the epithelium and salivary gland stroma. Pronounced changes were recorded in the nerve cells of the oral cavity.

  15. Ultrastructural Alterations of Myelinated Fibers and Oligodendrocytes in the Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia: A Postmortem Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya A. Uranova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is believed to result from altered neuronal connectivity and impaired myelination. However, there are few direct evidence for myelin abnormalities in schizophrenia. We performed electron microscopic study of myelinated fibers and oligodendrocytes and morphometric study of myelinated fibers in the prefrontal cortex in gray and white matters in schizophrenia and normal controls. Six types of abnormal fibers and ultrastructural alterations of oligodendrocytes were found in schizophrenia. No significant group differences in area density of myelinated fibers were found. Frequency of pathological fibers was increased significantly in gray matter in young and elderly schizophrenia patients and in patients with predominantly positive symptoms. In contrast, in white matter, frequency of altered fibers was increased significantly in elderly patients, in patients with predominantly negative symptoms, and correlated with illness duration. Progressive alterations of myelinated fibers in white matter might be followed by alterations of myelinated fibers in gray matter in schizophrenia.

  16. Comparative morphometric and glycohistochemical studies on the epididymal duct in the donkey (Equus asinus) and dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Ebada, Safwat; Rashed, Reda; Attia, Hossam

    2012-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare morphometric and glycohistochemical differences in the epididymal duct of the donkey and the dromedary camel. Paraffin-embedded sections from the different regions of the duct (caput, corpus and cauda) of both species were stained conventionally for general histology and histomorphometry and also with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated lectins for glycohistochemical mapping. Morphometric data (means ± SE) showed that the luminal diameter was widest (1029.76 ± 15.04 μm) in the donkey cauda and narrowest (179.80 ± 3.27 μm) in the camel corpus. The thickness of the peritubular muscle coat had the highest (74.32 ± 1.85 μm) and the lowest (24.32 ± 0.74 μm) values in the donkey cauda and corpus respectively. The greatest (94.44 ± 2.08 μm) and the least (21.48 ± 0.66 μm) values of epithelial height were reported respectively in the camel caput and in the donkey cauda. The length of stereocilia of principal cells in the camel was greatest (21.88 ± 0.57 μm) and lowest (6.68 ± 0.28 μm) in the caput and cauda. Binding sites for only six out of eight lectins could be found. The distribution pattern of binding sites of different lectins showed significant variations in both a species-specific and also region-specific manner. Distinct labeling was found in the Golgi zone, apical cytoplasm and on stereocilia of principal cells in the camel (WGA and DBA) and donkey (DBA) caput region, while other lectins exhibited variable reactivity in the other regions in both species. The basal cells showed variable binding to most of the lectins, however, they displayed distinct binding to WGA and PSA throughout the duct in camel and donkey respectively. In conclusion, both morphometric and glycohistochemical findings displayed regional species-specific and potentially functional relevant characteristics.

  17. Sperm motility parameters and spermatozoa morphometric characterization in marine species: a study of swimmer and sessile species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, V; Pérez, L; Asturiano, J F; Yoshida, M

    2014-09-15

    The biodiversity of marine ecosystems is diverse and a high number of species coexist side by side. However, despite the fact that most of these species share a common fertilization strategy, a high variability in terms of the size, shape, and motion of spermatozoa can be found. In this study, we have analyzed both the sperm motion parameters and the spermatozoa morphometric features of two swimmer (pufferfish and European eel) and two sessile (sea urchin and ascidian) marine species. The most important differences in the sperm motion parameters were registered in the swimming period. Sessile species sperm displayed notably higher values than swimmer species sperm. In addition, the sperm motilities and velocities of the swimmer species decreased sharply once the sperm was activated, whereas the sessile species were able to maintain their initial values for a long time. These results are linked directly to the species-specific lifestyles. Although sessile organisms, which show limited or no movement, need sperm with a capacity to swim for long distances to find the oocytes, swimmer organisms can move toward the female and release gametes near it, and therefore the spermatozoa does not need to swim for such a long time. At the same time, sperm morphology is related to sperm motion parameters, and in this study an in-depth morphometric analysis of ascidian, sea urchin, and pufferfish spermatozoa, using computer-assisted sperm analysis software, has been carried out for the first time. A huge variability in shapes, sizes, and structures of the studied species was found using electron microscopy.

  18. Postnatal growth of the ventral prostate in Wistar rats: a stereological and morphometrical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R; Carvalho, Hernandes F

    2006-08-01

    Morphological and stereological analyses were used to characterize the growth kinetics of the Wistar rat ventral prostate (VP). Volume density and absolute volume of the epithelium, lumen, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and nonmuscular stroma were determined by stereology and paired with plasma testosterone levels and different morphometric measurements. The VP shows an initial growth within the first 3 weeks, a resting phase, and the puberal growth. The puberal growth was coincident with the raise in plasma testosterone. Lumen formation occurred within the 3 postnatal weeks. After an expected increase during puberty, the lumen showed a further increase at the 12th week. The volume density of the nonmuscular stroma and of the SMCs decreased slowly postnatally. Absolute volume of the luminal compartment showed three phases of growth (weeks 1-3, 6-9, and 11-12). On the other hand, the increase in the absolute volume of the epithelium was steady up to the 8th week and then showed a marked increase up the 10th week. The increase in epithelial volume was characterized morphologically by the presence of epithelial infoldings and sprouts. The growth of the epithelium showed a 2-week delay as compared to the lumen and occurred only until the 10th week. The epithelial height was variable but could be related to the synthetic activity of the epithelium. In conclusion, the postnatal growth of the VP results from a combination of epithelial proliferation/differentiation and synthesis/accumulation of the secretory products in the lumen.

  19. Dosimetry of inhaled plutonium-239 dioxide in rodent lung: a morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, K.

    1979-06-01

    Morphometric analysis of rat and hamster lung did not demonstrate any extensive changes in lung composition or structure following inhalation exposure to /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ at levels near that for maximum tumor yield in rats. The problem of dosimetry for this compound thus appears to be relatively uncomplicated by any major radiation-induced pathological alterations in the lung. Rat and hamster lung were found to be similar in structure and composition, with few significant differences which could be directly related to the different tumor responses. The distribution of /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ particles was not uniform in all regions of the lung; thus estimation of the dose to specific tissues or regions within the lung requires a correction for this effect. Species differences were found for particle distribution in the subpleural region and major airways, and in the spatial association of particles, both of which may affect the tumor development process. These regions contain the principal target cells for tumor production and serve as foci for the origin of tumors. Different dose distributions within these regions may therefore explain, at least in part, the difference in tumor response to inhaled /sup 239/Pu0/sub 2/ for rats and hamsters.

  20. Voxel-Based Correlation between Coregistered Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects with Suspected Alzheimer Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallin, L.; Axelsson, R.; Wahlund, L.O.; Oeksengard, A.R.; Svensson, L.; Juhlin, P.; Wiberg, M. Kristoffersen; Frank, A. [Division of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    Background: Current diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is made by clinical, neuropsychologic, and neuroimaging assessments. Neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be valuable in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, as well as in assessing prognosis. Purpose: To compare SPECT and MRI in a cohort of patients examined for suspected dementia, including patients with no objective cognitive impairment (control group), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Material and Methods: 24 patients, eight with AD, 10 with MCI, and six controls, were investigated with SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO, Ceretec; GE Healthcare Ltd., Little Chalsont UK) and dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with a contrast-enhancing gadobutrol formula (Gadovist; Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany). Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR images was calculated. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were then performed in 24 different brain areas using brain registration and analysis of SPECT studies (BRASS; Nuclear Diagnostics AB, Stockholm (SE)) on both SPECT and DSC-MRI. Results: Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR showed a high correlation, with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.94. ROI analyses of 24 regions showed significant differences between the control group and AD patients in 10 regions using SPECT and five regions in DSC-MR. Conclusion: SPECT remains superior to DSC-MRI in differentiating normal from pathological perfusion, and DSC-MRI could not replace SPECT in the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer disease.

  1. Voxel-Based Correlation between Coregistered Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects with Suspected Alzheimer Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallin, L.; Axelsson, R.; Wahlund, L.O.; Oeksengard, A.R.; Svensson, L.; Juhlin, P.; Wiberg, M. Kristoffersen; Frank, A. (Division of Radiology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    Background: Current diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is made by clinical, neuropsychologic, and neuroimaging assessments. Neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be valuable in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, as well as in assessing prognosis. Purpose: To compare SPECT and MRI in a cohort of patients examined for suspected dementia, including patients with no objective cognitive impairment (control group), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Material and Methods: 24 patients, eight with AD, 10 with MCI, and six controls, were investigated with SPECT using 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO, Ceretec; GE Healthcare Ltd., Little Chalsont UK) and dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with a contrast-enhancing gadobutrol formula (Gadovist; Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany). Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR images was calculated. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were then performed in 24 different brain areas using brain registration and analysis of SPECT studies (BRASS; Nuclear Diagnostics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)) on both SPECT and DSC-MRI. Results: Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR showed a high correlation, with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.94. ROI analyses of 24 regions showed significant differences between the control group and AD patients in 10 regions using SPECT and five regions in DSC-MR. Conclusion: SPECT remains superior to DSC-MRI in differentiating normal from pathological perfusion, and DSC-MRI could not replace SPECT in the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer disease

  2. Construction and evaluation of F-18 FDG PET probabilistic MAP for voxel based analysis of the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, K. C.; Kim, J. S.; Na, Y. S.; Moon, D. H.; Ryu, J. S. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop F-18 FDG PET and MRI template for normal rat brain. Also, feasibility of SPM in detailed regional analysis of molecular changes in the rat brain was explored for F-18 FDG PET imaging of a model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten normal rats were scanned with PET and MRI. The PET images were acquired with 3D mode using microPET focus 120 scanner after injection of 37 MBq F-18 FDG. T2-weighted MR images were acquired using 4.7T MRI system. A MRI-based spatial normalization was used. The PET images were coregistered to T2-weighted MR images. Maximum mutual information (MMI) registrations and affine spatial normalizations were performed using SPM2. The spatial normalization of the MRI to the standard MRI was applied to the integral images. The normalized PET images were averaged voxel wise to create PET template. Eight TBI model rats were subjected to a moderate lateral fluid percussion injury. At 2 days, 1 week, 3 weeks and 5 weeks post FPI, PET images of 8 TBI rats were acquired 4 times. TBI PET images were realigned, spatially normalized to a created PET-template and smoothed (8 mm FWHM). To assess the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions in TBI compared to normal controls were obtained by a two-sided t-test of SPM (uncorrected p < 0.001, 50 voxels). Visually acceptable PET and MRI templates were created. Registration errors were negligible when MMI procedure was used to register a translated or rotated image volume. Thirty-two PET studies of 8 TBI model subjects were obtained. SPM analysis showed injured distribution of decrease F-18 FDG uptake in TBI rats compared with normal rats. In SPM analysis, the extent and severity of significant hypo metabolic lesions were decreased according to a significant effect of time. At 5 weeks injured animals showed F-18 FDG uptake recovery using SPM analysis. These results indicate that voxel-based method will be useful for future longitudinal studies of rat brain.

  3. Artificial neural networks and geometric morphometric methods as a means for classification: A case-study using teeth from Carcharhinus sp. (Carcharhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, K J; Slice, D E; Naylor, G J P

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades, geometric morphometric methods have become increasingly popular and powerful tools to describe morphological data while over the same period artificial neural networks have had a similar rise in the classification of specimens to preconceived groups. However, there has been little research into how well these two systems operate together, particularly in comparison to preexisting techniques. In this study, geometric morphometric data and multilayer perceptrons, a style of artificial neural network, were used to classify shark teeth from the genus Carcharhinus to species. Three datasets of varying size and species differences were used. We compared the performance of this combination with geometric morphometric data in a linear discriminate function analysis, linear measurements in a linear discriminate function analysis, and a preexisting methodology from the literature that incorporates linear measurements and a two-layered discriminate function analysis. Across datasets, geometric morphometric data in a multilayer perceptron tended to yield modest accuracies but accuracies that varied less across species whereas other methods were able to achieve higher accuracies in some species at the expense of lower accuracies in others. Further, the performance of the two-layered discriminate function analysis illustrates that constraining what material is classified can increase the accuracy of a method. Based on this tradeoff, the best methodology will then depend on the scope of the study and the amount of material available. J. Morphol. 278:131-141, 2017. ©© 2016 Wiley Periodicals,Inc.

  4. Ecological character displacement in Plethodon: biomechanical differences found from a geometric morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D C; Rohlf, F J

    2000-04-11

    Ecological character displacement describes a pattern where morphological differences between sympatric species are enhanced through interspecific competition. Although widely considered a pervasive force in evolutionary ecology, few clear-cut examples have been documented. Here we report a case of ecological character displacement between two salamander species, Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon hoffmani. Morphology was quantified by using linear measurements and landmark-based geometric morphometric methods for specimens from allopatric and sympatric populations from two geographic transects in south-central Pennsylvania, and stomach contents were assayed to quantify food resource use. Morphological variation was also assessed in 13 additional allopatric populations. In both transects, we found significant morphological differentiation between sympatric populations that was associated with a reduction in prey consumption in sympatry and a segregation of prey according to prey size. No trophic morphological or resource use differences were found between allopatric populations, and comparisons of sympatric populations with randomly paired allopatric populations revealed that the observed sympatric morphological differentiation was greater than expected by chance. The major trophic anatomical differences between sympatric populations relates to functional and biomechanical differences in jaw closure: sympatric P. hoffmani have a faster closing jaw, whereas sympatric P. cinereus have a slower, stronger jaw. Because salamanders immobilize prey of different sizes in different ways, and because the observed sympatric biomechanical differences in jaw closure are associated with the differences in prey consumption, the observed character displacement has a functional ecological correlate, and we can link changes in form with changes in function in this apparent example of character displacement.

  5. A pilot study of voxel-based morphometry on brain structures related to emotional enhancement effect of memory%基于体素形态学测量对成人情绪记忆增强效应相关脑结构的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文; 王海宝; 徐丽艳; 潘豪; 吴津民; 余永强

    2011-01-01

    目的 采用基于体素形态学测量(VBM)和行为学相结合的方法,检测全脑容积及情绪记忆成绩,以探讨情绪记忆增强效应相关脑区形态学特点.方法 32名健康年轻人参加实验.试验过程包括情绪记忆行为学检测和磁共振扫描两个阶段,其中行为学检测包括记忆编码和再认,并记录行为学成绩.利用3.0T磁共振采集伞脑容积数据.采用VBM5对全脑容积进行分割,获得脑灰质、脑白质和脑脊液容积.运用SPM5和SPSS13.0统计软件包进行相关统计分析.结果 情绪图片再认正确率较中性图片正确率高(t=5.08,P<0.01),增强效应明显(△Pr=0.12±0.01);情绪记忆增强效应主要相关脑区包括双侧杏仁核、额叶背外侧、额中回、前额叶背内侧、梭状回、右侧海马旁回、左侧眶回、中扣带回,并与双侧杏仁核容积率显著相关(左:r=0.564,P<0.01,右:r=0.541,P<0.01).结论 从脑形态结构水平证实了杏仁核等相关脑区是参与情绪记忆的重要脑结构,进一步扩展了功能成像的相关研究结果.%Objective The brain volume and behavioral performance of emotional memory were measured by combining voxel-hased morphometry (VBM) and behavior to explore the morphological characters of brain regions related to the emotional enhancement effect of memory.Methods A total of 32 healthy young subjects participated in the study.The experimental processes included MR scan and behavioral performance of emotional memory the latter of which involved two phases-encoding and retrieval.Behavioral performance was recorded and the whole-brain 3D MRI data were acquired via 3.0T MR.3D MRI data were segmented by VBM5,and the wholebrain volumes of gray matter,white matter and CSF were produced.SPM5 and SPSS13.0 were used for statistical analysis of the 3D MRI data and behavioral data,respectively.Results Retrieval accuracy of the emotional pictures was higher than that of the neutral pictures ( t =5.08,P<0

  6. Complementary Hemispheric Asymmetries in Object Naming and Recognition: A Voxel-Based Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acres, K.; Taylor, K. I.; Moss, H. E.; Stamatakis, E. A.; Tyler, L. K.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientific research proposes complementary hemispheric asymmetries in naming and recognising visual objects, with a left temporal lobe advantage for object naming and a right temporal lobe advantage for object recognition. Specifically, it has been proposed that the left inferior temporal lobe plays a mediational role linking…

  7. Neural Correlates of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Prehn; Marc Korczykowski; Hengyi Rao; Zhuo Fang; Detre, John A.; Robertson, Diana C.

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which mora...

  8. Morphology and morphometric analysis of stromal capillaries in full term human placental villi of smoking mothers: an electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, G; Dhuria, R; Salhan, S; Jain, A K

    2011-01-01

    The capillaries of placental villi play a very important role in the feto-maternal exchange of gases and nutrients. A morphological change in their structure may lead to the impairment of placental function. In this study an attempt has been made to find out the morphological and morphometric features of the capillaries in full term placental villi of non smoking mothers as well as active and passive smoking mothers under an electron microscope. A total number of 163 placentae from active, passive and nonsmoking mother (n = 61+42+60) were processed for electron microscopic study. The ultrathin sections were examined under electron microscope and images were recorded. Morphometry and statistical analysis were carried out with the help of software. The study revealed that the endothelial cells of stromal capillaries of the placental villi were oedematous and the cytoplasm was rich in dilated endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, fibrils and fine filaments in both groups of the smokers' placenta in comparison to control. Morphometric analysis showed a significant reduction in the perimeter of the stromal capillary of the tertiary villi of placenta in both active and passive smokers from mean value of 71.65 ± 47.82 µ to mean value of 59.77 ± 29.72 µ (p = 0.07) and 49.49 ± 20.94 µ (p = 0.0005) respectively. In case of passive smoker, area of the capillary (µm²) reduced significantly (p = 0.00004) from mean value of 266.29 ± 331.86 µm² to 116.64 ± 83.62 µm² whereas the number of capillary per villus increased significantly (p = 0.046) from mean value 2.42 ± 1.84 to 4.2 ± 3.16. The thickness of basement membrane of the endothelial cells of stromal capillaries of the placenta increased significantly in active as well as passive smokers (p = 0.00001). The ultrastructural changes noticed in the endothelial cells of placental villi may be due to hypoxia resulting from tobacco consumption either in active or passive form by the pregnant mothers. Thus, targeted

  9. Geometric and morphometric analysis of fish scales to identity genera, species and populations case study: the Cyprinid family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Narjes Tabatabei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using fish scale to identity species and population is a rapid, safe and low cost method. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using geometric and morphometric methods in fish scales for rapid identification of species and populations and compare the efficiency of applying few and/or high number of landmark points. For this purpose, scales of one population of Luciobarbus capito, four populations of Alburnoides eichwaldii and two populations of Rutilus frisii kutum, all belonging to cyprinid family, were examined. On two-dimensional images of the scales 7 and 23 landmark points were digitized in two separate times using TpsDig2, respectively. Landmark data after generalized procrustes analysis were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA and Cluster Analysis. The results of both methods (using 7 and 23 landmark points showed significant differences of the shape of scales among the three species studied (P0.05. The results also showed that few number of landmarks could display the differences between scale shapes. According to the results of this study, it could be stated that the scale of each species had unique shape patterns which could be utilized as a species identification key.

  10. Aging in the vestibular nuclear complex of the male golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): anatomic and morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J A; Suárez, C; Navarro, A; Díaz, C; Alvarez, J C; González del Rey, C; Tolivia, J

    2007-08-01

    To study the effects of senescence on the vestibular nuclear complex twenty brainstems from male golden hamsters between 3 and 27 months-old were used and the possible variations in the number of neurons, neuronal morphology and nuclear volume were studied. The neuron profiles were drawn with a camera lucida and Abercrombie's method was used to estimate the total number of neurons. The test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov with the correction of Lilliefors was used to evaluate the fit of our data to a normal distribution and a regression analysis was done to decide if the variation of our data with age was statistically significant. The results of the present study are relevant only for male animals and the effect of senescence could be different in female vestibular nuclear complex. Aging affects the volume of the superior and lateral vestibular nuclei, as well as the nuclear neuronal diameter of the medial vestibular nucleus, but no significant neuronal loss has been appreciated in vestibular nuclear complex related with age. During the aging process we have observed that the distribution of neurons within the vestibular nuclei of the golden hamster does not show important changes and most of their morphometric parameters do not vary significantly.

  11. Updating on in-vivo and in-vitro effects of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans (mesoglycan) on arterial endothelium: a morphometrical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanganelli, P; Bianciardi, G; Carducci, A; Palummo, N; Simoes, C; Tarabochia, B; Weber, G; Verzuri, M S; Auteri, A

    1992-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans, which include heparin, heparansulfate and dermatansulfate, are substances that exhibit many significant biological activities. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments for studying the effects of heparin and an association of heparan-like glycosaminoglycan and dermatansolfate (mesoglycan) on aortic arterial endothelium were performed. The studies were developed by means of computerized morphometric techniques. The in-vitro tests, performed on bovine aortic endothelial cells, have revealed an increase in survival rate, enhancement of cell density at confluence, and increase of nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, after "in-vitro" administration of heparin or mesoglycan. The in-vivo tests have revealed a minor development of aortic intimal lipid deposition in mesoglycan-treated hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. Our morphometrical results confirmed by statistical tests strongly support the data collected in the literature over many years on the protective effects of mesoglycan and heparin on endothelium.

  12. Assessment of the effects of laser or LED photobiomodulation on hypothyroid rats of cutaneous wound healing: A morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Isabele Cardoso Vieira; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; dod Reis Júnior, João Alves; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Rodriguez, Tânia Tavares; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Hypothyroid has been associated to a disruption of the body's metabolism, including the healing process. Laser and LED have been shown to be effective on improving healing in many situations, but their benefit in the improvement of healing on hypothyroidism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess, morphometrically, the influence of Laser (λ660nm, 24 J/cm2, 40mW, CW, spot output= 4mm2;) and LED (λ630nm ± 20, 24 J/cm2, 150mW, CW, spot output= 0.5 cm2) on the wound healing of rats with Hypothyroid. Under general anesthesia, a standard surgical wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 72 male Wistar rats divided into 6 groups of 12 animals each: G1: Euthyroid; G2: Euthyroid + Laser; G3: Euthyroid + LED; G4: Hypothyroid; G5: Hypothyroid + Laser and G6: Hypothyroid + LED. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. Rats were irradiated after surgery each 48h then killed after 7 and 14 days. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Hypothyroid rats with phototherapy laser or LED showed significant less wound contraction than euthyroid's rats at the 7th day (pphotobiomodulation using 24 J/cm2 per session improved cutaneous wound healing in hypothyroid rats.

  13. A morphometric study of bone surfaces and skin reactions after stimulation with static magnetic fields in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder-Aronson, S.; Lindskog, S. (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to measure any bone surface changes after stimulation with orthodontic magnets and, furthermore, to examine the soft tissue in immediate contact with the magnets. Both distal parts of the tibial hind legs in six groups of young rats were fitted with devices holding two orthodontic magnets in the experimental legs and similar devices without magnets in the control legs. The animals were killed after 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Morphometric evaluation showed significant increases in resorbing areas after 3 and 4 weeks. Similarly, a reduction was evident in the number of epithelial cells under the areas where the magnets had been applied. These findings indicate that the stimulation of bone resorption in the present study may have been caused by inhibition of the bone-lining osteoblasts. This proposition is supported by the apparent inhibitory effect of the magnetic fields on epithelial recycling that was seen as a reduced thickness of the epithelium under the magnets. Consequently, static magnetic fields should be used with care in orthodontic practice until a more complete understanding of their mechanism of action has been established.

  14. Morphometrics applied to medical entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Morphometrics underwent a revolution more than one decade ago. In the modern morphometrics, the estimate of size is now contained in a single variable reflecting variation in many directions, as many as there are landmarks under study, and shape is defined as their relative positions after correcting for size, position and orientation. With these informative data, and the corresponding software freely available to conduct complex analyses, significant biological and epidemiological features can be quantified more accurately. We discuss the evolutionary significance of the environmental impact on metric variability, mentioning the importance of concepts like genetic assimilation, genetic accommodation, and epigenetics. We provide examples of measuring the effect of selection on metric variation by comparing (unpublished) Qst values with corresponding (published) Fst. The primary needs of medical entomologists are to distinguish species, especially cryptic species, and to detect them where they are not expected. We explain how geometric morphometrics could apply to these questions, and where there are deficiencies preventing the approach from being utilized at its maximum potential. Medical entomologists in connection with control programs aim to identify isolated populations where the risk of reinfestation after treatment would be low ("biogeographical islands"). Identifying them can be obtained from estimating the number of migrants per generation. Direct assessment of movement remains the most valid approach, but it scores active movement only. Genetic methods estimating gene flow levels among interbreeding populations are commonly used, but gene flow does not necessarily mean the current flow of migrants. Methods using the morphometric variation are neither suited to evaluate gene flow, nor are they adapted to estimate the flow of migrants. They may provide, however, the information needed to create a preliminary map pointing to relevant areas where one could

  15. Development of Virtual Morphometric Globes Using Blender

    CERN Document Server

    Florinsky, I V

    2015-01-01

    Virtual globes - programs implementing interactive three-dimensional (3D) models of planets - are increasingly used in geosciences. Global morphometric models can be useful for tectonic and planetary studies. We describe the development of the first testing version of the system of virtual morphometric globes for the Earth, Mars, and the Moon. As the initial data, we used three 15'-gridded global digital elevation models (DEMs) extracted from SRTM30_PLUS, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter gridded archives. For three planetary bodies, we derived global digital models and maps of several morphometric attributes (i.e., horizontal curvature, vertical curvature, minimal curvature, maximal curvature, and catchment area). To develop the system, we used Blender, the open-source software for 3D modeling and visualization. First, a 3D sphere model was generated. Second, the global morphometric maps as textures were imposed to the sphere surface. Finally, the real-time 3D graphics B...

  16. A Small-scale Cross-sectional Study for the Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Relation to Body Composition and Morphometric Characters in Fishermen of Araku Valley, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallav Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Findings of this small-scale population-based study indicated that health and physical fitness of young fishermen is under the influence of both occupational workload and nutritional status, as found by body composition and morphometric characters.

  17. Automated Voxel-Based Analysis of Volumetric Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT Data Improves Measurement of Serial Changes in Tumor Vascular Biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coolens, Catherine, E-mail: catherine.coolens@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Driscoll, Brandon [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chung, Caroline [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Shek, Tina; Gorjizadeh, Alborz [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ménard, Cynthia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jaffray, David [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Center and University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Development of perfusion imaging as a biomarker requires more robust methodologies for quantification of tumor physiology that allow assessment of volumetric tumor heterogeneity over time. This study proposes a parametric method for automatically analyzing perfused tissue from volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography (CT) scans and assesses whether this 4-dimensional (4D) DCE approach is more robust and accurate than conventional, region-of-interest (ROI)-based CT methods in quantifying tumor perfusion with preliminary evaluation in metastatic brain cancer. Methods and Materials: Functional parameter reproducibility and analysis of sensitivity to imaging resolution and arterial input function were evaluated in image sets acquired from a 320-slice CT with a controlled flow phantom and patients with brain metastases, whose treatments were planned for stereotactic radiation surgery and who consented to a research ethics board-approved prospective imaging biomarker study. A voxel-based temporal dynamic analysis (TDA) methodology was used at baseline, at day 7, and at day 20 after treatment. The ability to detect changes in kinetic parameter maps in clinical data sets was investigated for both 4D TDA and conventional 2D ROI-based analysis methods. Results: A total of 7 brain metastases in 3 patients were evaluated over the 3 time points. The 4D TDA method showed improved spatial efficacy and accuracy of perfusion parameters compared to ROI-based DCE analysis (P<.005), with a reproducibility error of less than 2% when tested with DCE phantom data. Clinically, changes in transfer constant from the blood plasma into the extracellular extravascular space (K{sub trans}) were seen when using TDA, with substantially smaller errors than the 2D method on both day 7 post radiation surgery (±13%; P<.05) and by day 20 (±12%; P<.04). Standard methods showed a decrease in K{sub trans} but with large uncertainty (111.6 ± 150.5) %. Conclusions

  18. Morphometrics, 3D Imaging, and Craniofacial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Percival, Christopher J.; Green, Rebecca; Young, Nathan M.; Mio, Washington; Marcucio, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown how volumetric imaging and morphometrics can add significantly to our understanding of morphogenesis, the developmental basis for variation and the etiology of structural birth defects. On the other hand, the complex questions and diverse imaging data in developmental biology present morphometrics with more complex challenges than applications in virtually any other field. Meeting these challenges is necessary in order to understand the mechanistic basis for variation in complex morphologies. This chapter reviews the methods and theory that enable the application of modern landmark-based morphometrics to developmental biology and craniofacial development, in particular. We discuss the theoretical foundations of morphometrics as applied to development and review the basic approaches to the quantification of morphology. Focusing on geometric morphometrics, we discuss the principal statistical methods for quantifying and comparing morphological variation and covariation structure within and among groups. Finally, we discuss the future directions for morphometrics in developmental biology that will be required for approaches that enable quantitative integration across the genotype-phenotype map. PMID:26589938

  19. Comparison of (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, brain perfusion SPECT, and voxel-based MRI morphometry for distinguishing between dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Yoshitaka; Toyama, Hiroshi; Manabe, Yuta; Sarai, Masayoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnostic value of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy, N-isopropyl-p[(123)I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for the differentiation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirty-five and 34 patients with probable DLB and probable AD, respectively, were enrolled. All patients underwent (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy, (123)I-IMP brain perfusion SPECT, and brain MRI. For (123)I-MIBG imaging, we calculated early and delayed heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) uptake ratios. Three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) were used to analyze the results of (123)I-IMP SPECT. VBM with statistical parametric mapping 8 plus diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to analyze the brain MRI data. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for discriminating DLB and AD was highest (0.882) for the delayed H/M ratio on (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy. AUC for z-score measurement in the occipital lobe was 0.818 and that for the extent of gray matter (GM) atrophy in the whole brain was 0.788. AUC for the combination of 3D-SSP and VBM analysis was 0.836. The respective sensitivities and specificities for distinguishing DLB from AD were 97.1 and 100 % for the delayed H/M ratio using (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy; 88.6 and 73.5 % for the occipital lobe z-score using 3D-SSP analysis; 85.7 and 64.7 % for the extent of whole brain GM atrophy using voxel-based MRI morphometry; and 91.4 and 76.5 % for the combination of 3D-SSP analysis and VBM. (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy was superior to brain perfusion SPECT and brain MRI using an advanced statistical technique to differentiate DLB and AD.

  20. Cytological study of DNA content and nuclear morphometric analysis for aid in the diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia within oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Xiao, Xuan; Wu, Wenyan; Shen, Xuemin; Zhou, Zengtong; Liu, Wei; Shi, Linjun

    2017-09-01

    To quantitatively examine the DNA content and nuclear morphometric status of oral leukoplakia (OL) and investigate its association with the degree of dysplasia in a cytologic study. Oral cytobrush biopsy was carried out to obtain exfoliative epithelial cells from lesions before scalpel biopsy at the same location in a blinded series of 70 patients with OL. Analysis of nuclear morphometry and DNA content status using image cytometry was performed with oral smears stained with the Feulgen-thionin method. Nuclear morphometric analysis revealed significant differences in DNA content amount, DNA index, nuclear area, nuclear radius, nuclear intensity, sphericity, entropy, and fractal dimension (all P content analysis identified 34 patients with OL (48.6%) with DNA content abnormality. Nonhomogeneous lesion (P = .018) and high-grade dysplasia (P = .008) were significantly associated with abnormal DNA content. Importantly, the positive correlation between the degree of oral dysplasia and DNA content status was significant (P = .004, correlation coefficient = 0.342). Cytology analysis of DNA content and nuclear morphometric status using image cytometry may support their use as a screening and monitoring tool for OL progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of classification methods for voxel-based prediction of acute ischemic stroke outcome following intra-arterial intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Anthony J.; Siemonsen, Susanne; Flottmann, Fabian; Fiehler, Jens; Forkert, Nils D.

    2017-03-01

    Voxel-based tissue outcome prediction in acute ischemic stroke patients is highly relevant for both clinical routine and research. Previous research has shown that features extracted from baseline multi-parametric MRI datasets have a high predictive value and can be used for the training of classifiers, which can generate tissue outcome predictions for both intravenous and conservative treatments. However, with the recent advent and popularization of intra-arterial thrombectomy treatment, novel research specifically addressing the utility of predictive classi- fiers for thrombectomy intervention is necessary for a holistic understanding of current stroke treatment options. The aim of this work was to develop three clinically viable tissue outcome prediction models using approximate nearest-neighbor, generalized linear model, and random decision forest approaches and to evaluate the accuracy of predicting tissue outcome after intra-arterial treatment. Therefore, the three machine learning models were trained, evaluated, and compared using datasets of 42 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intra-arterial thrombectomy. Classifier training utilized eight voxel-based features extracted from baseline MRI datasets and five global features. Evaluation of classifier-based predictions was performed via comparison to the known tissue outcome, which was determined in follow-up imaging, using the Dice coefficient and leave-on-patient-out cross validation. The random decision forest prediction model led to the best tissue outcome predictions with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.37. The approximate nearest-neighbor and generalized linear model performed equally suboptimally with average Dice coefficients of 0.28 and 0.27 respectively, suggesting that both non-linearity and machine learning are desirable properties of a classifier well-suited to the intra-arterial tissue outcome prediction problem.

  2. Effects of LED phototherapy on relative wound contraction and reepithelialization during tissue repair in hypothyroid rats: morphometric and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; da Guarda, Milena Góes; Xavier, Flávia Calo Aquino; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Rodriguez, Tânia Tavares; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio Luis Barbosa; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphometrically and histologically, the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) (λ630 ± 20 nm) phototherapy on reepithelialization and wound contraction during tissue repair in hypothyroid rats. Thyroid hormone deficiency has been associated with disorders of tissue repair. LED phototherapy has been studied using several healing models, but their usefulness in the improvement of hypothyroidism wound healing remains unknown. Under general anesthesia, a standard surgical wound (1 cm(2)) was produced on the dorsum of 48 male Wistar rats divided into four groups of 12 animals each: EC-control euthyroid, ED-euthyroid + LED, HC-control hypothyroid, and HD-Hypothyroid + LED. The irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day for 7 and 14 days. Photographs of the wound were taken at the day of the surgical procedure and on days 8 and 15 after surgery, when animals' deaths occurred. The specimens were removed, routinely processed, and stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Seven days after the surgery, it was possible to observe statistically significant reductions in the wound area of the irradiated euthyroid group, in comparison to hypothyroid group, irradiated and non-irradiated (ANOVA, p < 0.05). The reepithelialization was significantly higher in the euthyroid and hypothyroid groups irradiated with LED than in the non-irradiated groups (Fisher's test, p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the experimental period of 14 days among the groups. The hypothyroidism delayed wound healing and the LED phototherapy, at these specific parameters, improved the process of reepithelialization in the presence of hypothyroidism.

  3. Neurobiological changes of schizotypy: evidence from both volume-based morphometric analysis and resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Yin, Da-zhi; Fan, Ming-xia; Cheung, Eric F C; Pantelis, Christos; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-03-01

    The current study sought to examine the underlying brain changes in individuals with high schizotypy by integrating networks derived from brain structural and functional imaging. Individuals with high schizotypy (n = 35) and low schizotypy (n = 34) controls were screened using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent brain structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3T scanner. Voxel-based morphometric analysis and graph theory-based functional network analysis were conducted. Individuals with high schizotypy showed reduced gray matter (GM) density in the insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus. The graph theoretical analysis showed that individuals with high schizotypy showed similar global properties in their functional networks as low schizotypy individuals. Several hubs of the functional network were identified in both groups, including the insula, the lingual gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the rolandic operculum. More hubs in the frontal lobe and fewer hubs in the occipital lobe were identified in individuals with high schizotypy. By comparing the functional connectivity between clusters with abnormal GM density and the whole brain, individuals with high schizotypy showed weaker functional connectivity between the left insula and the putamen, but stronger connectivity between the cerebellum and the medial frontal gyrus. Taken together, our findings suggest that individuals with high schizotypy present changes in terms of GM and resting-state functional connectivity, especially in the frontal lobe.

  4. Morphometric and ultrastructural studies of the effect of infrared laser on rabbit temporo-mandibular joint fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cornejo Uribe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared laser beams has been successfully used in joint lesions treatment due to its analgesic anti inflamatory and healing action, and on a cellular level, inducing an accentuated synthesis of ATP, activating cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis. Samples of normal-control and irradiated tissue from temporo-mandibular joint disc of rabbit, were obtained, with daily doses of 2 joules/cm²during 10 consecutive days. They were prepared for transmission electronic microscopy.Transmission electronic micrographs of normal and irradiated fibroblasts were obtained with final increase of 11.500 X for morphometric studies with the purpose of quantifying the volumetric fractions of the cellular components pertaining to the mentioned cellular types. Volumetric fractions of the quoted cell corresponding to nucleus, cytoplasm, rough endoplasmatic reticule, eu and heterochromatin were evaluated. In the same manner, the nucleus - cytoplasmatic relation and the area of each cellular type were quantified. The results derived from the morphometric comparative study between the normal and irradiated fibroblasts indicated that there were significant differences with respect to the volumetric fractions of euchromatin and heterochromatin and fundamentally in the cellular areas of both types. On the other hand, the rest of quantified parameters remained constant. It could be concluded that the cellular function reflected in collagen synthesis and secretion remained constant in both cellular types. However, by means of infrared laser stimulations, this fibroblast facilitated protein synthesis, due to high percentage of transcriptionally active euchromatine.O raio laser infravermelho tem sido usado com sucesso no tratamento de lesoes articulares por sua ação analgesica, antinflamatoria e cicatrizante e, ao nivel celular, induzindo acentuada síntese de ATP, ativando a proliferação celular e a síntese do colágeno. Foram obtidas amostras do disco da

  5. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with extracts of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, D O; Komolafe, O A; Adewole, O S; Obuotor, E M; Abiodun, A A; Adenowo, T K

    2010-05-01

    Microanatomical changes in the pancreatic islet cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied after treatment with methanolic extracts of Annona muricata leaves. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (control, untreated diabetic group, and A. muricata-treated diabetic group) of ten rats each. Diabetes mellitus was experimentally induced in groups B and C by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control rats were intraperitoneally injected with an equivalent volume of citrate buffer. Daily intra peritoneal injections of 100 mg/kg A. muricata were administered to group C rats for two weeks. Post sacrifice the pancreases of the rats were excised and fixed in Bouin's fluid. The tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections of 5 mum thickness were produced and stained with H & E, Gomori aldehyde fuchsin, and chrome alum haematoxylin-phloxine for demonstration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islets. Histomorphological and morphometric examination of the stained pancreatic sections showed a significant increase in the number, diameter, and volume of the beta-cells of pancreatic islets of the A. muricata-treated group (5.67 +/- 0.184 N/1000 mum(2), 5.38 +/- 0.093 mum and 85.12 +/- 4.24 mum(3), respectively) when compared to that of the untreated diabetic group of rats (2.85 +/- 0.361 N/1000 mum(2), 2.85 +/- 0.362 mum and 69.56 +/- 5.216 mum(3), respectively). The results revealed regeneration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islet of rats treated with extract of A. muricata.

  6. Histologic, morphometric, and densitometric study of peri-implant bone in rabbits with local administration of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Isabel F; Alobera, Miguel A; Baca, Rafael; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the local administration of growth hormone (GH) would influence the formation of peri-implant bone around titanium sheets placed in the tibiae of young rabbits. Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly placed in 1 of 2 groups: the experimental group, in which 4 IU (1.2 mg) of lyophilized powder (GH) was added to a surgically created defect at implant placement, or the control group, in which an implant sheet was placed without hormonal treatment. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3, and 6 weeks after surgery, and histologic sections were stained with Masson, Alcian blue, picrosirius, and hematoxylin-eosin and observed under light microscopy. The sections were analyzed morphometrically and densitometrically to calculate the amount of newly formed bone. At week 2, GH-group sections showed enhanced growth of the trabeculae from the periosteal tissue, with thicker and more irregular trabeculae than those observed in control group specimens. A tendency toward greater bone area and lesser density was observed in the GH group, although the groups did not differ significantly. Nevertheless, bone-to-implant contact in weeks 2 and 6 was significantly greater in the GH group (P < .05). An increase in the cortical response from periosteal and endosteal reactions was observed with the high local administration of GH, in disagreement with most authors. In the first phases of bone repair, the osteons were more disorganized; they were more organized by the sixth week. Local administration of GH could stimulate the first phases of the bone remodeling process in this experimental model.

  7. Ultrastructural morphometric findings of cardiomyocytes in patients with impaired ventricular function--a comparative clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wassilew, Katharina; Terziev, Denis; Wassilew, Georgi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The present study aims to analyze the differences in ultrastructural changes between right ventricular myocardium in clinically determined grades of heart failure (HF) [New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes I-IV] and their value in the routine diagnostic setting. METHODS: We investigated...... ratio (Pperoxide acid shift. CONCLUSION: In this present study, right ventricular myocardial ultrastructure differed between patients diagnosed with HF...

  8. Morphometric Study of Pterion in Dry Human Skull Bone in North Indian Population

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    G.S.Gindha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pterion is the bony land mark which lies in the norma lateralis of the skull. It is almost Hshaped which is formed by the articulation of four bones with each other i.e. frontal, parietal, greater wing of sphenoid and temporal bones. The pterion is having a great clinical significance. The present study is done on 65 dry human skull mean 130 pteria of both sides of the skull (right and left sides are studied. The morphological shapes of the pteria are noted, recorded and photographed. The study of the location of pterion from zygomatic-frontal suture and mid-point of superior border of zygomatic arch is done for the land marking of the pterion superficially in the temporal region. The aim of this study is to compare our study with the standard literature and studies done by other authors for any variations in the study. Out of 130 pteria studied, spheno-parietal type of pterion is found in 94 (72.31% cases, epipteric type in 30 (23.0% cases, fronto-teporal type in 6 (4.61% cases and stellate type of pterion is not found in the present study. Mean distance between zygomatico-frontal suture and central point of pterion is found to be (38.71±3.1037 mm on right side and (36.29±3.7307 mm on left side, the mean distance between midpoint of zygomatic arch and center point of pterion is found to be (39±2.5635 mm on right side and (37.00±3.3481 mm on left side. The anatomical variations are important. The epipteric type of pterion sometimes is considered as fractured skull which sometimes create problem neurosurgeons during their surgery. The present study will be helpful for neurosurgeons, anthropologists, forensic medicine and forensic dentologist in their diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Di Somma; Matteo de Notaris; Vita Stagno; Luis Serra; Joaquim Enseñat; Isam Alobid; Joan San Molina; Joan Berenguer; Paolo Cappabianca; Alberto Prats-Galino

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1) simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions); (2) dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specifi...

  10. Morphometric analysis of sella turcica in North Indian population: a radiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Puja Chauhan; Sunita Kalra; Shashi M. Mongia; Sadakat Ali; Anurag Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the morphology and measure the size of the sella turcica in North Indian population. Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 individuals (90 males and 90 females) with an age range of 12 - 65 years were taken. Morphology of sella turcica was studied and various measurements were taken to determine the shape of the sella. Statistical analysis was done to calculate differences in dimensions and to establish if any, relationship...

  11. Structural and functional brain changes in early- and mid-stage primary open-angle glaucoma using voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming-Ming; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Xiao-Yong; Shi, Chang-Zheng; Chen, Jian; Huang, Xiang-He

    2017-03-01

    To investigate structural and functional brain changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) by using voxel-based morphometry based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (VBM-DARTEL) and blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI), respectively.Thirteen patients diagnosed with POAG and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. For each participant, high-resolution structural brain imaging and blood flow imaging were acquired on a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Structural and functional changes between the POAG and control groups were analyzed. An analysis was carried out to identify correlations between structural and functional changes acquired in the previous analysis and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL).Patients in the POAG group showed a significant (P < 0.001) volume increase in the midbrain, left brainstem, frontal gyrus, cerebellar vermis, left inferior parietal lobule, caudate nucleus, thalamus, precuneus, and Brodmann areas 7, 18, and 46. Moreover, significant (P < 0.001) BOLD signal changes were observed in the right supramarginal gyrus, frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left cuneus, and left midcingulate area; many of these regions had high correlations with the RNFL.Patients with POAG undergo widespread and complex changes in cortical brain structure and blood flow. (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02570867).

  12. A comparison of gray and white matter density in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies using voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji E; Park, Bosuk; Song, Sook K; Sohn, Young H; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2010-01-15

    Despite clinical and neuropsychological similarities between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), recent studies have demonstrated that structural and pathological changes are more severe in DLB than in PDD. We used voxel-based morphometry using a 3-T MRI scanner to compare gray and white matter densities in 20 patients with probable PDD and 18 patients with probable DLB, who had similar overall severity of dementia and similar demographic characteristics. The gray matter density was significantly decreased in the left occipital, parietal, and striatal areas in patients with DLB compared with patients with PDD. The white matter density was significantly decreased in bilateral occipital and left occipito-parietal areas in patients with DLB compared with those with PDD. The degree of white and gray matter atrophy was similar in patients with DLB; in contrast, there was markedly less atrophy in the white matter than in the gray matter in patients with PDD. On analyzing the change of WM density relative to that of GM density in patients with DLB compared to those with PDD, the area of WM atrophy in the occipital areas was more extensive than that of GM atrophy. Our data demonstrate that atrophy of both gray and white matter was more severe in patients with DLB and that white matter atrophy relative to gray matter atrophy was less severe in patients with PDD. These data may reflect a difference in the underlying nature of PDD and DLB.

  13. Voxel-based morphometry of the marmoset brain: In vivo detection of volume loss in the substantia nigra of the MPTP-treated Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikishima, K; Ando, K; Komaki, Y; Kawai, K; Yano, R; Inoue, T; Itoh, T; Yamada, M; Momoshima, S; Okano, H J; Okano, H

    2015-08-06

    Movement dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Here, we established a method for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and automatic tissue segmentation of the marmoset monkey brain using a 7-T animal scanner and applied the method to assess DA degeneration in a PD model, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated animals, with tyrosine-hydroxylase staining. The most significant decreases of local tissue volume were detected in the bilateral SN of MPTP-treated marmoset brains (-53.0% in right and -46.5% in left) and corresponded with the location of DA neurodegeneration found in histology (-65.4% in right). In addition to the SN, the decreases were also confirmed in the locus coeruleus, and lateral hypothalamus. VBM using 7-T MRI was effective in detecting volume loss in the SN of the PD-model marmoset. This study provides a potential basis for the application of VBM with ultra-high field MRI in the clinical diagnosis of PD. The developed method may also offer value in automatic whole-brain evaluation of structural changes for the marmoset monkey.

  14. A morphological and morphometric study of jugular foramen in dry skulls with its clinical implications

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    Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Jugular foramen of human skull is one of the most interesting foramina. It is a complex bony canal, numerous vital structures, including nerves and vessels are transmitted through it. Most of the intracranial and extra cranial lesions of posterior cranial fossa might affect the structures in jugular foramen in addition to intrinsic abnormalities. As the neurosurgeons have become courageous in approaching this area, so there is a need to become familiar with this area. Hence, the present study was done to examine the anatomy of jugular foramen, including its morphological features and dimensions. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 50 dried skulls. 100 jugular foramina were studied on both right and left side of skulls. The length, width of jugular foramen and width and depth of jugular fossa were measured using vernier calipers. Presence of dome, complete and incomplete septation was also looked for. Results: The mean right and left anteroposterior diameter, latero-medial diameter, area, jugular fossa width, depth in our study was 11.22, 16.52, 187.34, 6.83, 11.58 mm and 9.52, 16.02, 153.2, 5.69, 11.13 mm. Dome was present in jugular foramen in 74% on the right side and 58% on the left side. Complete septation in jugular foramen is seen in 44% on the right side and 42% on the left side. Conclusion: This study will help the neurosurgeons while doing surgery in this region.

  15. MORPHOMETRIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ARTICULAR FACETS OF THE THORACOLUMBAR VERTEBRAL COLUMN IN NORTH INDIAN POPULATION

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    Rimpi Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The articular processes of thoracolumbar vertebral column play an important role in weight transmission and determining the range and direction of movements between any two vertebrae. Size of these facets has been correlated with the magnitude of stress imposed on them. Purpose of study: The present study has been conducted on the articular processes of 510 vertebrae (thoracic: 360; lumbar:150 with the aim to provide high quality data sets for constructing the models of spine to study mechanics of spinal instrumentation. The length , width and the distance between the right & left superior & inferior articular processes have been measured with the vernier callipers. The presence/ absence of mamillary tubercle has been observed in the present study. Results: The length of thoracic SAFs was almost same at all levels whereas that of the lumbar SAFs increased gradually from L1-L5. However the width showed a variable trend. In case of thoracic IAFs both these parameters showed a variable trend. Whereas in lumbar region, these increased gradually from L1-L5. The distance between two inferior articular processes was more than that between two superior articular processes at almost all levels except T1-T3 & L1-L4 where reverse was true. The mamillary tubercle/process was altogether absent from T-1 to T-8. From T-9 to T-11, the number of vertebral column showing mamillary tubercle increased from 4-19. However at T-12, it was seen in 29 Vertebral columns. In lumbar region, it was well developed in all vertebrae and termed as mamillary process. Conclusion: The measurements obtained by present study reveals the importance of articular facets in understanding basic spinal mechanics and its application with respect to weight transmission.

  16. A morphometric study of the adrenal cortex of the female DDD mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujio, Masashi; Mizorogi, Toshihiro; Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kuwahara, Sachi; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Ohno, Tamio; Tanaka, Shin

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the thickness of the adrenocortical zone is associated with age in virgin and parous female DDD mice. The zona reticularis and zona glomerulosa of parous mice tended to be thicker than those of virgin mice at all ages. The zona fasciculata lactating parous mice was significantly thicker than that of virgin mice at 20 weeks of age (PDDD mice less than one year of age.

  17. When Is Posterolateral Orbitotomy Useful in a Pterional Craniotomy? A Morphometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Benjamin; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Wadhwa, Rishi; Nourbakhsh, Ali; Caldito, Gloria; Nanda, Anil; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    Adding posterolateral orbitotomy to pterional craniotomy allows greater exposure of the anterolateral skull base. However, there is a paucity of literature quantifying the relative benefit of adding posterolateral orbitotomy for various surgical targets. Our study is a step to address this issue. We performed dissections of five cadaveric heads (10 sides). The anterior communicating artery (A-Com) complex, posterior chiasm (anterior third ventricular region), ipsilateral optic canal, and ipsi...

  18. Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches for Cerebral Aneurysms: Anatomical, Virtual Reality and Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Di Somma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1 simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions; (2 dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered.

  19. [Morphologic, morphometric and immunohistochemical studies on pancreatic intraductal hyperplasia and infiltrating carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, R

    1999-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer belongs to the neoplasms which are characterised by increasing morbidity and mortality. Five-year survival rates of about 0.4% are the norm, and little has changed in the last 70 years. Important etiological factors are age, sex, diet, tobacco smoking, alcohol abuse, occupation and chemical exposure, hereditary chronic pancreatitis, and previous surgery (cholecystectomy and gastrectomy). The majority of exocrine tumours of the pancreas are malignant and 80-90% of them comprise ductal adenocarcinomas. The development and growth of pancreatic carcinoma appears to be caused by a progressive accumulation of multiple genetic abnormalities. This includes oncogene (K-ras) activation, loss of tumour-suppressor p53 gene function and overexpression of growth factors and their ligands. The morphological background for the development of pancreatic carcinoma is ductal epithelial hyperplasia. Current molecular studies have resulted in the identification of cell clones exhibiting the same genetic alterations (K-ras and p53 mutations) as in infiltrating pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is only partially defined. The purpose of our study was to evaluate Ki-67 proliferative index and HER-2/neu gene expression in pancreatic intraepithelial proliferative lesions as a sign of increasing epithelial proliferation and dysplasia. Additionally we made an attempt to apply morphometry in demarcating between intraepithelial proliferations of "reactive" type and proliferations with tendency towards progression to cancer. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of bcl-2 and p53 genes in various types of pancreatic intraepithelial proliferations and in pancreatic cancer and to answer the question whether they interact in the process of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. We have also undertaken investigations aiming at determination of the CD44s gene and its v6 isoform expression in intraductal and invasive pancreatic carcinoma

  20. Morphometric study of the sacral hiatus in Nigerian dry human sacral bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukoha Ukoha U, Okafor Joseph I, Anyabolu Arthur E, Ndukwe Godwin U, Eteudo Albert N, Okwudiba Nchedo J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sacrum is a large triangular bone formed by the fusion of the five sacral vertebrae and forms the caudal region of the vertebral column. Aims: This was aimed at studying the morphometry of the sacral hiatus noting its anatomical variations that is useful in caudal epidural anaesthesia. Materials and Methods: Eighty three intact adult sacra of unknown sex were measured with vernier callipers and the various shapes of the sacral hiatus were also noted. Results: The findings revealed that inverted U (48.2% was the most predominant shape; followed by inverted V (34.9%, dumbbell (4.8%, bifid (4.8% and irregular (4.8%. The mean anteroposterior diameter at the apex was 5.52 ± 1.89mm. The mean length of the sacral hiatus was 20.05 ± 9.22mm and the transverse width at base of hiatus was 12.35 ± 3.12mm. There was complete spina bifida in 1.2% and absence of sacral hiatus in another 1.2%. Conclusion: The knowledge of anatomical variations of sacral hiatus is important in the administration of caudal epidural anaesthesia in the studied population and may help to reduce its failure rate.

  1. Distal Insertional Footprint of the Brachialis Muscle: 3D Morphometric Study

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    Srinath Kamineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study is to describe the three-dimensional morphometry of the brachialis muscle at its distal attachment to the ulna. Methods. Fifty cadaveric elbows were dissected and the brachialis distal insertion was isolated on the ulna bone and probed with a three-dimensional digitizer, to create a three-dimensional model of the footprint. Measurements and analysis of each footprint shape were recorded and compared based on gender and size. Results. There was significant gender difference in the surface length (P= 0.002 and projected length (P= 0.001 of the brachialis footprint. The shapes of the footprint also differed among the specimens. Conclusion. The shape of the brachialis muscle insertion differed among all the specimens without significant variation in gender or sides. There was also a significant difference in muscle length between males and females with little difference in the width and surface area. Significance. The information obtained from this study is important for kinematic understanding and surgical procedures around the elbow joint as well as the understanding of the natural age related anatomy of the brachialis footprint morphology.

  2. Comparative morphometric study of shank bone in the tom (Meleagris gallopavo and local cock (Gallus banikaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Sadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 20 legs of ten adult clinically and healthy local and Tom were obtained from Mosul local market, were divided into three groups; the first and second groups were subjected to gross feature regarding to shape, position, relationship of tibiotarsal and fibula in both birds also the length and diameters of shank bone while third group study morphological of muscles, blood and nerve supply of leg. The purpose of this study, this part of the limb is popularly known as the (drum stick, the bird in lowering its body flexes knee and hock joints and this passively tenses these tendons of leg which clamp the digits about the perch, and that is the much longer than the femur and, in spite of importance study to parameters of leg are more economic to choose breed of fertilization depend on the measurement, the outcome of this investigation may served as a guide for successful study of domestic birds in Iraq. The results include in both birds, the leg is consist of tibia fuses with tarsal element, forming tibiotarsus and fiblula articulates with the femur that in contrast to mammals. In Tom the tibia has two cnemial crest in proximal extremity and the distal extremity has tendinal groove, but in local cock it has one cnemial crest of proximal extremity, and it has two tendinal groove in the distal extremity, while hock joint in the Tom and local cock is an intertarsal joint that unites the tibiotarsus with the tarsometatarsus but the stiff joint is similar to that seen in mammals. The mean length of tibiotarsal in Tom 17.99±0.44 cm and the mean length of tibiotarsal in local coke 11.74±0.31 cm, the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in Tom 3.02±0.0021 cm proximal part, 2.21±0.005 cm middle part, 1.94±0.0021 cm distal part, but the mean diameter of tibiotarsal in local coke 2.86±0.048 cm proximal part, 2.02±0.067 cm middle part, 1.51±0.0022 cm distal part. While the mean length of fibula in Tom 11.62±0.21 cm and the mean length

  3. ROLE OF ILIUM IN SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF HIP BONE: A MORPHOMETRIC STUDY IN NORTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Sachdeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sex estimation of skeletal remains is an important issue in both forensics and bioarchaeology. Many mammalian species display sexual dimorphism in the pelvis, where females possess larger dimensions of the obstetric canal than males. This is contrary to the general pattern of body size dimorphism, where males are larger than females. Pelvic dimorphism is often attributed to selection relating to parturition, or as a developmental consequence of secondary sexual differentiation. Current opinion regards the hip bone as the most reliable sex indicator because it is the most dimorphic bone, particularly in adult individuals. Material & Methods: In the present study, an attempt has been made to find the base line data of thirteen parameters pertaining to ilia of 100 hip bones of known sex and side. Variables studied were: Total length of iliac crest, lengths of its ventral & dorsal segments; distance between Anterior Superior Iliac Spine & Iliac Tubercle; Iliac height; Ventral, Sacral, Direct, Lower & Upper iliac heights; Iliac breadth; Lower, Ventral & Sacral iliac breadths, Length of pelvic & sacral parts of Chilotic Line. Results: The results obtained were tabulated, statistically analysed & compared to the earlier literature. It was seen that almost all the parameters except Sacral Iliac Height, Lower Iliac Height & Pelvic parts of Chilotic line were longer in males. Conclusion: To conclude, the morphometry of ilium also constitutes an important mean of sexual dimorphism. However its parameters are longer in males as it does not form a part of birth canal so is independent of sex hormones & is akin to general rule that male bones are larger than female bones.

  4. Comparative studies of high performance swimming in sharks I. Red muscle morphometrics, vascularization and ultrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, D; Sepulveda, C; Mathieu-Costello, O; Graham, J B

    2003-08-01

    Tunas (family Scombridae) and sharks in the family Lamnidae are highly convergent for features commonly related to efficient and high-performance (i.e. sustained, aerobic) swimming. High-performance swimming by fishes requires adaptations augmenting the delivery, transfer and utilization of O(2) by the red myotomal muscle (RM), which powers continuous swimming. Tuna swimming performance is enhanced by a unique anterior and centrally positioned RM (i.e. closer to the vertebral column) and by structural features (relatively small fiber diameter, high capillary density and greater myoglobin concentration) increasing O(2) flux from RM capillaries to the mitochondria. A study of the structural and biochemical features of the mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) RM was undertaken to enable performance-capacity comparisons of tuna and lamnid RM. Similar to tunas, mako RM is positioned centrally and more anterior in the body. Another lamnid, the salmon shark (Lamna ditropis), also has this RM distribution, as does the closely related common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus; family Alopiidae). However, in both the leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata) and the blue shark (Prionace glauca), RM occupies the position where it is typically found in most fishes; more posterior and along the lateral edge of the body. Comparisons among sharks in this study revealed no differences in the total RM quantity (approximately 2-3% of body mass) and, irrespective of position within the body, RM scaling is isometric in all species. Sharks thus have less RM than do tunas (4-13% of body mass). Relative to published data on other shark species, mako RM appears to have a higher capillary density, a greater capillary-to-fiber ratio and a higher myoglobin concentration. However, mako RM fiber size does not differ from that reported for other shark species and the total volume of mitochondria in mako RM is similar to that reported for other sharks and for tunas. Lamnid RM properties thus suggest a higher

  5. Morphometric study of the root anatomy in furcation area of mandibular first molars

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    Andréa Marcia Marcaccini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Furcation involvement in periodontal disease has been a challenge for the dentist. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate root dimensions in the furcation area of 233 mandibular first molars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Digital photomicrographs were used to obtain the following measurements on the buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth: root trunk height (RT, horizontal interadicular distance obtained 1 mm (D1 and 2 mm (D2 below the fornix and interadicular angle (IA. RESULTS: Mean± standard deviation of buccal and lingual furcation measurements were, respectively, 1.37±0.78 mm and 2.04±0.89 mm for RT; 0.86±0.39 mm and 0.71±0.42 mm for D1; 1.50±0.48 mm and 1.38±0.48 mm for D2; 41.68±13.20° and 37.78±13.18° for IA. Statistically significant differences were found between all measured parameters for buccal and lingual sides (p<0.05, paired t test. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lingual furcation of mandibular first molars presented narrower entrance and longer root trunk than the buccal furcation, suggesting more limitation for instrumentation and worse prognosis to lingual furcation involvements in comparison to buccal lesions.

  6. Morphometric study of the layers of the canine small intestine at five sampling sites.

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    Sarriá, R; Latorre, R; Henroteaux, M; Henroteaux, N; Soria, F; Pérez-Cuadrado, E; López Albors, O

    2012-06-01

    The histology of the canine intestine has not been accurately defined. To establish the precise thickness of its different layers, whole wall samples of the small intestine were removed from 41 cadavers at five standardised sampling sites (duodenum, proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum and distal ileum). The total thickness was estimated by morphometry, as was the thickness of the mucosa, muscularis mucosae, submucosa and muscularis externa. In addition, the size of the lymphoid aggregates in the submucosa and the thickness of the circular and longitudinal layers within both the muscularis mucosae and the muscularis externa were estimated. The total intestinal thickness depended very much upon the thickness of the mucosa and submucosa. The mucosa decreased progressively from proximal to distal parts of the small intestine (47% reduction). The thickness of the submucosa, however, changed little from the duodenum to the distal jejunum, but increased significantly in the ileum; this change was positively correlated with the amount of lymphoid tissue. Sex influenced the thickness of the intestinal wall, with males displaying higher thickness values along the small intestine. Conversely, no correlation between bodyweight and intestinal thickness was found for any of the five sampling sites. This study gives absolute and relative values for the thickness of the layers of the dog intestine which might help in the diagnosis of small intestinal pathology from postmortem samples and/or endoscopic biopsies.

  7. Morphometric study of lymphoid cells in mycosis fungoides and its simulators.

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    Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Ramam, M

    2003-01-01

    The distinction of early stages of mycosis fungoides from benign lymphoid disorders of skin is difficult by conventional histological techniques. We studied 10 cases of mycosis fungoides, 10 cases of large plaque parapsoriasis, 10 cases of other benign lymphoid disorders of skin and 5 cases of lymph nodes. Nuclear area, perimeter of the nucleus, nuclear contour index, cytoplasmic area, form factor and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio as well as DNA-ploidy were determined by image analysis. There were statistically significant difference (P value < 0.05) between all parameters except nuclear cytoplasmic ratio of the lymphoid cells of Mycosis Fungoides and benign lymphoid disorders of skin. Aneuploidy was found in 50% cases of Mycosis Fungoides. Histopathological parameters like epidermotropism pautrier micro-abscess and atypical lymphocytic infiltrate in both epidermis and dermis were more marked in aneuploid than diploid cases. So, the determination of nuclear contour index and DNA-ploidy is of importance to differentiate between Mycosis Fungoides and benign lymphoid disorders of skin.

  8. Uncovering the social deficits in the autistic brain.A Source-Based Morphometric study

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    Alessandro Grecucci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their grey-matter concentrations. We analyzed structural MRI images of 32 young men affected by autistic disorder (AD and 50 healthy controls. Controls were matched for sex, age, handedness. IQ scores were also monitored to avoid confounding. A multivariate Source-Based Morphometry (SBM was applied for the first time on AD and controls to detect maximally independent networks of gray matter. Group comparison revealed a gray-matter source that showed differences in AD compared to controls. This network includes broad temporal regions involved in social cognition and high-level visual processing, but also motor and executive areas of the frontal lobe. Notably, we found that gray matter differences, as reflected by SBM, significantly correlated with social and behavioral deficits displayed by AD individuals and encoded via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. These findings provide support for current hypotheses about the neural basis of atypical social and mental states information processing in autism.

  9. Digital morphometric study of the extrasulcal surface of the cingulate gyrus in man

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    Spasojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The frequency of different morphological types and extrasulcal (visible surface area of the cingulate gyms, were measured and analyzed in order to obtain more precise data about morphology, right/left and sex differences in the human brain. Material and methods. The study included 42 brains (84 hemispheres from persons of both sexes and of different age (26 males, 16 females, 20-65 years old, without neuropathological changes. After fixation in 10% formaline (3-4 weeks and removal of meninges the brains were photographed under standard conditions by digital camera. Following determination of morphological type, regions of interest of cingulate gyrus were determined in stereotactic system system of coordinates and the extrasulcal surface was measured by digital AutoCAD planimetry. Results and discussion. Three basic morphological types of cingulate gyrus were found: the continuous type (34.5%, segmented type (35.7% and double paralel type (29.8%. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of morphological types related to the side (right/left or sex (p>0.05. The area of extrasulcal cortex of cingulate gyrus was statistically significantly (p<0.O5 larger on the left hemispheres (for 1.13 cm than on the right (left: 14.58 cm; right: 13.45 cm. The extrasulcal surface of the left cingulate gyrus was significantly larger (p0.05 in males (males 15.9 cm: females - 13.6 cm, while for the right cingulate gyrus this difference was not significant. Conclusion. Morphometry indicated sex and right/left differences of extrasulcal surface area of the human cingulate gyrus. However, the morphological analysis itself did not indicate corresponding differences, suggesting complexity of the problem of sex dimorphism and of right/left asymmetries in the domain of limbic cortex.

  10. The effect of compressed air massage on untraumatised rabbit skeletal muscle - a morphometric and ultrastructural study

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    M. A. Gregory

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the therapeutic uses of massage is to facilitate repairof damaged tissue. A potential hazard of massage is that direct pressure onmuscle is known to damage skeletal myofibres. This study examines theeffect of a new form of massage using compressed air on the morphology ofuntraumatised rabbit skeletal myofibres. Under anaesthetic, the left and right vastus lateralis muscles of 16 New Zealand, white rabbits were treated with 10 minutes of compressed air therapy at 1 Bar using a single hole (5 mm applicator head and control biopsies were taken from the opposite limb. Biopsies were prepared for light microscopy and transmission electronmicroscopy. Morphometry, using image analysis revealed a significant increase in myofibre diameters 10 minutes  (p < 0.001 and 24 hours (p<0.01 after compressed air massage. Six days after treatment diameters were significantly reduced (p < 0.01. Morphologically, myofibres in control specimens were normal. Shortly after compressed air  massage, juxta-nuclear and intermyofibrillar oedema was present and electron-lucent spaces were filled with swollen mitochondria and elements of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR. Glycogen and other non-contractile organelles were sometimes aggregated in oedematous, sub-sarcolemmal regions. Twenty four hours after treatment, intermyofibrillar oedema was reduced, but SR swelling remained and many fibres were characterised by focal and large areas of myofibrillar disorganisation. With the exception of occasional swollen elements of the SR and a single internalised nucleus, myofibres morphology had returned to normal 6 days after treatment. Compressed air massage causes less damage to skeletal myofibres than a similar form of localised pressure treatment, deep transverse frictions. Clinicalstudies using this new modality are warranted.

  11. Activated hepatic stellate cells in liver cirrhosis. A morphologic and morphometrical study.

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    Carpino, Guido; Franchitto, Antonio; Morini, Sergio; Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Merli, Manuela; Gaudio, Eugenio

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells have been considered the most important cell-type involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. Proliferation and differentiation of hepatic stellate cells into myofibroblast-like cells has been related to the development of liver fibrosis. The alpha-actin expressed by hepatic stellate cells was considered a marker of their activation to myofibroblast-like cell. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in morphology, distribution, percentage and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression of hepatic stellate cells in normal and cirrhotic livers, and to correlate activated hepatic stellate cells with the progression of fibrosis. Human liver biopsies (n=121) were divided in five groups: 1) normal livers (controls); 2) cirrhosis post-HCV hepatitis; 3) cirrhosis post-HBV hepatitis; 4) non viral related cirrhosis; 5) recurrent HCV hepatitis after orthotopic liver transplantation. Samples immunostained with anti alpha-smooth muscle actin antibody by immunoperoxidase method were semi-quantitatively evaluated. Liver fibrosis was quantified by computer image analysis on specimens stained with Masson's trichrome. In normal adult livers stellate cells were very rarely stained for alpha-smooth muscle actin. In cirrhotic livers, a strongly enhanced percentage of stellate cells expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected in cirrhotic fragments with respect to the control group, with a significant correlation between alpha-smooth muscle actin positive stellate cells and the volume fraction of fibrosis. Moreover, liver biopsies of recurrent hepatitis revealed an increased number of activated stellate cells compared to normal livers, and intermediate volume fraction of fibrosis. These results confirmed that a direct correlation existed between activated stellate cells and the progression of fibrosis. Alpha-smooth muscle actin confirmed to be a reliable marker of hepatic stellate cells activation also in precocious stages of the disease.

  12. Brain Morphometric Correlates of Metabolic Variables in HIV: The CHARTER Study

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    ARCHIBALD, S.L.; MCCUTCHAN, J.A.; SANDERS, C.; WOLFSON, T.; JERNIGAN, T.L.; ELLIS, R.J.; ANCES, B.M.; COLLIER, A.C.; MCARTHUR, J.C.; MORGELLO, S.; SIMPSON, D.M.; MARRA, C.; GELMAN, B.B.; CLIFFORD, D.B.; GRANT, I.; FENNEMA-NOTESTINE, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Obesity and other metabolic variables are associated with abnormal brain structural volumes and cognitive dysfunction in HIV-uninfected populations. Since individuals with HIV infection on combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) often have systemic metabolic abnormalities and changes in brain morphology and function, we examined associations among brain volumes and metabolic factors in the multi-site CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) cohort. Design: Cross-sectional study of 222 HIV-infected individuals. Methods: Metabolic variables included body mass index (BMI), total blood cholesterol (C), low- and high-density lipoprotein C (LDL-C and HDL-C), blood pressure, random blood glucose, and diabetes. MRI measured volumes of cerebral white matter, abnormal white matter, cortical and subcortical gray matter, and ventricular and sulcal CSF. Multiple linear regression models allowed us to examine metabolic variables separately and in combination to predict each regional volume. Results: Greater body mass index (BMI) was associated with smaller cortical gray and larger white matter volumes. Higher total cholesterol (C) levels were associated with smaller cortex volumes; higher LDL-C was associated with larger cerebral white matter volumes, while higher HDL-C levels were associated with larger sulci. Higher blood glucose levels and diabetes were associated with more abnormal white matter. Conclusions: Multiple atherogenic metabolic factors contribute to regional brain volumes in HIV-infected, CART-treated patients, reflecting associations similar to those found in HIV-uninfected individuals. These risk factors may accelerate cerebral atherosclerosis and consequent brain alterations and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25227933

  13. A morphometric study of the middle and lower cervical vertebral endplates and their components

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    Feng, Hang; Fang, Xiang-Yi; Huang, Da-Geng; Yu, Cheng-Cheng; Li, Hou-Kun; Zhao, Song-Chuan; Ge, Chao-Yuan; Bai, Ru-Hai; Hao, Ding-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cervical disc arthroplasty is a common method of treating cervical degenerative disease. However, the footprints of most prosthesis dimensions are obtained from data of Caucasian individuals. Besides, there is a large discrepancy between footprints of currently available cervical disc prostheses and anatomic dimensions of cervical endplates. We aimed to detail the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic morphology of the subaxial cervical vertebral endplate, utilizing high-precision, high-resolution scanning equipment, and provide a theoretical basis for designing appropriate disc prostheses for Chinese patients. A total of 138 cervical vertebral endplates were studied. Each endplate was digitized using a non-contact optical 3D range scanning system and then reconstructed to quantify diameters and surface area for the whole endplate and its components (central endplate and epiphyseal rim). The whole endplate and mid-plane concavity depth were measured. There is marked morphologic asymmetry, in that the cranial endplate is more concave than the corresponding caudal endplate, with endplate concavity depths of 2.04 and 0.69 mm, respectively. For the caudal endplates, the endplate concavity apex locations were always located in the posterior portion (81.42%), while in cranial endplates relatively even. The central endplate was approximately 60% of the area of the whole endplate and the anterior section of the ring was the widest. From C3/4 down to C6/7 discs, the vertebral endplate gradually became more elliptical. Chinese cervical endplate anatomic sizes are generally smaller than that of Caucasians. Although Korean and Chinese individuals both belong to the Asian population subgroup, the majority of anatomic dimensions differ. Singaporean cervical endplate morphology is very similar to that of Chinese patients. We performed a comprehensive and accurate quantitative description of the cervical endplate, which provide references to shape and profile an artificial

  14. Morphometric and immunohistochemical study of the abomasum of red deer during prenatal development

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    Masot, A J; Franco, A J; Redondo, E

    2007-01-01

    The red deer is well suited to scientific study, given its economic importance as an animal to be hunted, and because it has a rich genetic heritage. However, there has been little research into the prenatal development of the stomach of ruminants in general, and none for the red deer. For this reason, we undertook histological evaluation of the ontogenesis of the abomasum in red deer. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out on 50 embryos and fetuses from the initial stages of prenatal life until birth. The animals were divided for test purposes into five experimental groups: group I [1.4–3.6 cm crown–rump length (CRL); 30–60 days, 1–25% of gestation]; group II (4.5–7.2 cm CRL; 67–90 days, 25–35% of gestation); group III (8–19 cm CRL; 97–135 days, 35–50% of gestation); group IV (21–33 cm CRL; 142–191 days, 50–70% of gestation) group V (36–40 cm CRL; 205–235 days, 75–100% of gestation). In the organogenesis of the primitive gastric tube of red deer, differentiation of the abomasum took place at 67 days, forming a three-layered structure: the epithelial layer (pseudostratified), pluripotential blastemic tissue and serosa. The abomasal wall displayed the primitive folds of the abomasum and by 97 days abomasal peak areas were observed on the fold surface. At 135 days the abomasal surface showed a single mucous cylindrical epithelium, and gastric pits were observed in the spaces between abomasal areas. At the bottom of these pits the first outlines of glands could be observed. The histodifferentiation of the lamina propria-submucosa, tunica muscularis and serosa showed patterns similar to those described for the forestomach of red deer. The abomasum of red deer during prenatal life, especially from 67 days of gestation, was shown to be an active structure with full secretory capacity. Its histological development, its secretory capacity (as revealed by the presence of neutral mucopolysaccharides) and its

  15. Some comparative gross and morphometrical studies on the gastrointestinal tract in pigeon (columbia livia and Japanese quail (coturnix japonica

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    Sunday Akau Hena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the comparative morphology and morphometry of the gastrointestinal tract of the Japanese quail and pigeon, a total number of twenty birds twenty birds (comprising of ten pigeons and ten Japanese quails of both sexes were used obtained and used by the researhers. The birds were weighed, dissected and the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract located and eviscerated from which the comparative morphologic and morphometric studies were carried out. The numerical data generated were subjected to statistical analyses using the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat statistical package, with values of P0.05, their corresponding lengths were 9.77±0.35cm and 12.46±0.99cm respectively, while the mean body weights of the quail and pigeon used in the study were 159.5±8.18g and 265±4.86g for the quail and pigeon, respectively (P>0.05. The mean weights of the proventriculus in the quail and pigeon were 0.69±0.07g and 0.54±0.09g respectively (P>0.05 and their mean lengths were 1.75±0.13cm and 1.44±0.28cm respectively; this was not considered significant relative terms. The weights and lengths of gizzard in the quail and pigeon showed different values with the ultimate conclusion that the gizzard’s weight and length were higher in the pigeon than in the quail (P0.05. The ceca in the pigeon was rudimentary in contrast to the robust type found in the quail, the weights of both the right and left ceca in the quail and pigeon were considered very significant (P The vertebrate gastrointestinal tract is a dynamic and energetically expensive organ system whose various anatomical and physiological parameters were regularly being used in clinical evaluations and for assessing dynamics of growth and associated physiological functions for normal and anomalous developments in birds, the knowledge of which will not only add to literatures in these bird types but which will also aid in understanding their biology and mode of domestication

  16. Morphometric variation in the hominoid orbital aperture: a case study with implications for the use of variable characters in Miocene catarrhine systematics.

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    Seiffert, E R; Kappelman, J

    2001-04-01

    Variable characters are ubiquitous in hominoid systematics and present a number of unique problems for phylogenetic analyses that include extinct taxa. As yet, however, few studies have quantified ranges of variation in complex morphometric characters within extant taxa and then used those data to assess the consistency with which discrete character states can be applied to poorly represented fossil species. In this study, ranges of intrageneric morphometric variation in the shape of the hominoid orbital aperture are estimated using exact randomization of average pairwise taxonomic distances (ATDs) derived from size-adjusted centroid, height-width, and elliptic Fourier (EF) variables. Using both centroid and height-width variables, 19 of the 21 possible ATDs between individuals representing seven extinct catarrhine taxa (Aegyptopithecus, Afropithecus, Ankarapithecus, Ouranopithecus, Paranthropus, Sivapithecus and Turkanapithecus) can be observed within a single extant hominoid subspecies, although generally with low probabilities. A resampling study is employed as a means for gauging the effect that this intrataxonomic variation may have on the consistency with which discrete orbital shape character states can be delimited given the small sample sizes available for most Miocene catarrhine taxa preserving this feature (i.e., n=1). For each type of morphometric variable, 100 cluster (UPGMA) analyses of pairwise ATDs are performed in which a single individual is randomly selected from each hominoid genus and analyzed alongside known extinct taxa; consensus trees are computed in order to obtain the frequencies with which different shape clusters appeared in each of the three analyses. The two major clusters appearing most frequently in all three consensus trees are found in only 57% (centroid variables), 49% (height-width variables), and 36% (EF variables) of these trees. If ranges of variation within represented extinct taxa could also be estimated, these frequencies

  17. Association between regional white and gray matter volume and ambiguity tolerance: Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

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    Tong, Dandan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Che, Xianwei; Zhang, Meng; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang; Liu, Yijun; Cao, Guikang

    2015-08-01

    The concept of tolerance of ambiguity (AT) is defined as the way in which an individual tends to perceive and deal with confusing, vague, and unclear situations. AT is generally considered as an important personality trait, but the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in AT have never been investigated. Using voxel-based morphometry and MSTAT-II scale, we investigated the correlations between AT and regional white matter volume (rWMV) and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in 351 young healthy subjects. We found AT to be positively correlated with rGMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and negatively correlated with rGMV in the precuneus. These results indicate that increased rGMV in the left DLPFC may lead to characteristics of ambiguous stimuli consideration from multiple contexts and risk taking. Decreased rGMV in the left precuneus may be associated with a high tolerance for ambiguity, which attributes uncertainty to self-related factors.

  18. Assessing the clinical outcome of Vim radiosurgery with voxel-based morphometry: visual areas are linked with tremor arrest!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleasca, Constantin; Witjas, Tatiana; Najdenovska, Elena; Verger, Antoine; Girard, Nadine; Champoudry, Jerome; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Levivier, Marc; Guedj, Eric; Régis, Jean

    2017-09-23

    Radiosurgery (RS) is an alternative to open standard stereotactic procedures (deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy) for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), aiming at the same target (ventro-intermediate nucleus, Vim). We investigated the Vim RS outcome using voxel-based morphometry by evaluating the interaction between clinical response and time. Thirty-eight patients with right-sided ET benefited from left unilateral Vim RS. Targeting was performed using 130 Gy and a single 4-mm collimator. Neurological and neuroimaging assessment was completed at baseline and 1 year. Clinical responders were considered those with at least 50% improvement in tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH). Interaction between clinical response and time showed the left temporal pole and occipital cortex (Brodmann area 19, including V4, V5 and the parahippocampal place area) as statistically significant. A decrease in gray matter density (GMD) 1 year after Vim RS correlated with higher TSTH improvement (Spearman = 0.01) for both anatomical areas. Higher baseline GMD within the left temporal pole correlated with better TSTH improvement (Spearman = 0.004). Statistically significant structural changes in the relationship to clinical response after Vim RS are present in remote areas, advocating a distant neurobiological effect. The former regions are mainly involved in locomotor monitoring toward the local and distant environment, suggesting the recruiting requirement in targeting of the specific visuomotor networks.

  19. Association between lesion location and language function in adult glioma using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping.

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    Banerjee, Pia; Leu, Kevin; Harris, Robert J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Pope, Whitney B; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Management of language difficulties is an important aspect of clinical care for glioma patients, and accurately identifying the possible language deficits in patients based on lesion location would be beneficial to clinicians. To that end, we examined the relationship between lesion presence and language performance on tests of receptive language and expressive language using a highly specific voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) approach in glioma patients. 98 adults with primary glioma, who were pre-surgical candidates, were administered seven neurocognitive tests within the domains of receptive language and expressive language. The association between language performance and lesion presence was examined using VLSM. Statistical parametric maps were created for each test, and composite maps for both receptive language and expressive language were created to display the significant voxels common to all tests within these language domains. We identified clusters of voxels with a significant relationship between lesion presence and language performance. All tasks were associated with several white matter pathways. The receptive language tasks were additionally all associated with regions primarily within the lateral temporal lobe and medial temporal lobe. In contrast, the expressive language tasks shared little overlap, despite each task being independently associated with large anatomic areas. Our findings identify the key anatomic structures involved in language functioning in adult glioma patients using an innovative lesion analysis technique and suggest that expressive language abilities may be more task-dependent and distributed than receptive language abilities.

  20. Voxel-based approach to generate entire human metacarpal bone with microscopic architecture for finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C Y; Tsui, C P; Tang, Y M; Wei, L; Wong, C T; Lam, K W; Ip, W Y; Lu, W W J; Pang, M Y C

    2014-01-01

    With the development of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, it is possible to construct three-dimensional (3D) models of human bone without destruction of samples and predict mechanical behavior of bone using finite element analysis (FEA). However, due to large number of elements required for constructing the FE models of entire bone, this demands a substantial computational effort and the analysis usually needs a high level of computer. In this article, a voxel-based approach for generation of FE models of entire bone with microscopic architecture from micro-CT image data is proposed. To enable the FE analyses of entire bone to be run even on a general personal computer, grayscale intensity thresholds were adopted to reduce the amount of elements. Human metacarpal bone (MCP) bone was used as an example for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method. The micro-CT images of the MCP bone were combined and converted into 3D array of pixels. Dual grayscale intensity threshold parameters were used to distinguish the pixels of bone tissues from those of surrounding soft tissues and improve predictive accuracy for the FE analyses with different sizes of elements. The method of selecting an appropriate value of the second grayscale intensity threshold was also suggested to minimize the area error for the reconstructed cross-sections of a FE structure. Experimental results showed that the entire FE MCP bone with microscopic architecture could be modeled and analyzed on a personal computer with reasonable accuracy.

  1. Neural bases of antisocial behavior: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Inokuchi, Ryota; Nakao, Tomohiro; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with antisocial behavior place a great physical and economic burden on society. Deficits in emotional processing have been recognized as a fundamental cause of antisocial behavior. Emerging evidence also highlights a significant contribution of attention allocation deficits to such behavior. A comprehensive literature search identified 12 studies that were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, which compared 291 individuals with antisocial problems and 247 controls. Signed Differential Mapping revealed that compared with controls, gray matter volume (GMV) in subjects with antisocial behavior was reduced in the right lentiform nucleus (P antisocial behavior. Previous studies have suggested an FPC role in attention allocation during emotional processing. Therefore, GMV deviations in this area may constitute a neural basis of deficits in attention allocation linked with antisocial behavior.

  2. Single-digit arithmetic processing – anatomical evidence from statistical voxel-based lesion analysis

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    Urszula eMihulowicz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Different specific mechanisms have been suggested for solving single-digit arithmetic operations. However, the neural correlates underlying basic arithmetic (multiplication, addition, subtraction are still under debate. In the present study, we systematically assessed single-digit arithmetic in a group of acute stroke patients (n=45 with circumscribed left- or right-hemispheric brain lesions. Lesion sites significantly related to impaired performance were found only in the left-hemisphere damaged group. Deficits in multiplication and addition were related to subcortical/white matter brain regions differing from those for subtraction tasks, corroborating the notion of distinct processing pathways for different arithmetic tasks. Additionally, our results further point to the importance of investigating fiber pathways in numerical cognition.

  3. Single-digit arithmetic processing—anatomical evidence from statistical voxel-based lesion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihulowicz, Urszula; Willmes, Klaus; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Klein, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Different specific mechanisms have been suggested for solving single-digit arithmetic operations. However, the neural correlates underlying basic arithmetic (multiplication, addition, subtraction) are still under debate. In the present study, we systematically assessed single-digit arithmetic in a group of acute stroke patients (n = 45) with circumscribed left- or right-hemispheric brain lesions. Lesion sites significantly related to impaired performance were found only in the left-hemisphere damaged (LHD) group. Deficits in multiplication and addition were related to subcortical/white matter brain regions differing from those for subtraction tasks, corroborating the notion of distinct processing pathways for different arithmetic tasks. Additionally, our results further point to the importance of investigating fiber pathways in numerical cognition. PMID:24847238

  4. Brain regions involved in human movement perception: a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Beaton, Susan; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-02-01

    Face, hands, and body movements are powerful signals essential for social interactions. In the last 2 decades, a large number of brain imaging studies have explored the neural correlates of the perception of these signals. Formal synthesis is crucially needed, however, to extract the key circuits involved in human motion perception across the variety of paradigms and stimuli that have been used. Here, we used the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis approach with random effect analysis. We performed meta-analyses on three classes of biological motion: movement of the whole body, hands, and face. Additional analyses of studies of static faces or body stimuli and sub-analyses grouping experiments as a function of their control stimuli or task employed allowed us to identify main effects of movements and forms perception, as well as effects of task demand. In addition to specific features, all conditions showed convergence in occipito-temporal and fronto-parietal regions, but with different peak location and extent. The conjunction of the three ALE maps revealed convergence in all categories in a region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus as well as in a bilateral region at the junction between middle temporal and lateral occipital gyri. Activation in these regions was not a function of attentional demand and was significant also when controlling for non-specific motion perception. This quantitative synthesis points towards a special role for posterior superior temporal sulcus for integrating human movement percept, and supports a specific representation for body parts in middle temporal, fusiform, precentral, and parietal areas.

  5. Common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume alteration in major depression and bipolar disorder: evidence from voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, T; Radua, J; Via, E; Cardoner, N; Abe, O; Adams, T M; Amico, F; Cheng, Y; Cole, J H; de Azevedo Marques Périco, C; Dickstein, D P; Farrow, T F D; Frodl, T; Wagner, G; Gotlib, I H; Gruber, O; Ham, B J; Job, D E; Kempton, M J; Kim, M J; Koolschijn, P C M P; Malhi, G S; Mataix-Cols, D; McIntosh, A M; Nugent, A C; O'Brien, J T; Pezzoli, S; Phillips, M L; Sachdev, P S; Salvadore, G; Selvaraj, S; Stanfield, A C; Thomas, A J; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J A; Veltman, D J; Young, A H; Fu, C H; Cleare, A J; Arnone, D

    2016-05-24

    Finding robust brain substrates of mood disorders is an important target for research. The degree to which major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with common and/or distinct patterns of volumetric changes is nevertheless unclear. Furthermore, the extant literature is heterogeneous with respect to the nature of these changes. We report a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in MDD and BD. We identified studies published up to January 2015 that compared grey matter in MDD (50 data sets including 4101 individuals) and BD (36 data sets including 2407 individuals) using whole-brain VBM. We used statistical maps from the studies included where available and reported peak coordinates otherwise. Group comparisons and conjunction analyses identified regions in which the disorders showed common and distinct patterns of volumetric alteration. Both disorders were associated with lower grey-matter volume relative to healthy individuals in a number of areas. Conjunction analysis showed smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula. Group comparisons indicated that findings of smaller grey-matter volumes relative to controls in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus, along with cerebellar, temporal and parietal regions were more substantial in major depression. These results suggest that MDD and BD are characterised by both common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume changes. This combination of differences and similarities has the potential to inform the development of diagnostic biomarkers for these conditions.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 May 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.72.

  6. Development and validation of a fast voxel-based dose evaluation system in nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Dong, Shang-Lung; Wu, Jay; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2014-11-01

    PET imaging has been widely used in the detection and staging of malignancies and the evaluation of patient-specific dosimetry for PET scans is important in nuclear medicine. However, patient-specific dosimetry can be estimated only by Monte Carlo methods which are usually time-consuming. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast dose evaluation system namely SimDOSE. SimDOSE is a Monte Carlo code embedded in SimSET with a dose scoring routine to record the deposited energy of the photons and electrons. Fluorine-18 is one of the most commonly used radionuclides that decay predominantly by positron emission. Only a 635 keV (Emax) positron and two annihilation photons should be concerned in F-18 radiation dosimetry, hence simulation is relatively simple. To evaluate the effects of resolution, an F-18 point source placed in a 20 cm diameter sphere filled with water was simulated by SimDOSE and GATE v6.1. Grid sizes of 1 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were tested and each was simulated with a total of 107 decays. The resultant dose distribution functions were compared. Dose evaluation on ORNL phantom was also performed to validate the accuracy of SimDOSE. The grid size of phantom was set as 3 mm and the number of decays was 107. The S-values of liver computed by SimDOSE were compared with GATE and OLINDA (Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment) for 11C, 15O, and 18F.Finally, the CPU time of simulations was compared between SimDOSE and GATE. The dose profiles show the absorption doses located 3 mm outside the center are similar between SimDOSE and GATE. However, 71% (19%) difference of the center dose between SimDOSE and GATE are observed for 1 mm (3 mm) grid. The differences of the profile lie in the assumption in SimDOSE that all kinetic energies of electrons are locally absorbed. The ratios of S values of (SimDOSE/OLINDA) range from 0.95 to 1.11 with a mean value of 1.02±0.043. To compare simulation time from SimDOSE to GATE for calculation of 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm gird point

  7. Age-related cortical grey matter reductions in non-demented Down's syndrome adults determined by MRI with voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teipel, Stefan J; Alexander, Gene E; Schapiro, Marc B; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rapoport, Stanley I; Hampel, Harald

    2004-04-01

    Ageing in Down's syndrome is accompanied by amyloid and neurofibrillary pathology the distribution of which replicates pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. With advancing age, an increasing proportion of Down's syndrome subjects >40 years old develop progressive cognitive impairment, resembling the cognitive profile of Alzheimer's disease. Based on these findings, Down's syndrome has been proposed as a model to study the predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease. Using an interactive anatomical segmentation technique and volume-of-interest measurements of MRI, we showed recently that non-demented Down's syndrome adults had significantly reduced hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and corpus callosum sizes with increasing age. In this study, we applied the automated and objective technique of voxel-based morphometry, implemented in SPM99, to the analysis of structural MRI from 27 non-demented Down's syndrome adults (mean age 41.1 years, 15 female). Regional grey matter volume was decreased with advancing age in bilateral parietal cortex (mainly the precuneus and inferior parietal lobule), bilateral frontal cortex with left side predominance (mainly middle frontal gyrus), left occipital cortex (mainly lingual cortex), right precentral and left postcentral gyrus, left transverse temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. The reductions were unrelated to gender, intracranial volume or general cognitive function. Grey matter volume was relatively preserved in subcortical nuclei, periventricular regions, the basal surface of the brain (bilateral orbitofrontal and anterior temporal) and the anterior cingulate gyrus. Our findings suggest grey matter reductions in allocortex and association neocortex in the predementia stage of Down's syndrome. The most likely substrate of these changes is alterations or loss of allocortical and neocortical neurons due to Alzheimer's disease-type pathology.

  8. Reproducibility of automated simplified voxel-based analysis of PET amyloid ligand [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake using 30-min scanning data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, Sargo [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Scheinin, Noora M.; Naagren, Kjell; Rinne, Juha O. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Kemppainen, Nina M. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Turku (Finland); Kailajaervi, Marita [University of Turku, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Research Services Turku (CRST), Turku (Finland); GE Healthcare, Turku Imanet, Turku (Finland); Leinonen, Mika [4-Pharma Ltd, Turku (Finland); Scheinin, Mika [University of Turku, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Research Services Turku (CRST), Turku (Finland)

    2009-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 11}C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ([{sup 11}C]PIB) enables the quantitation of {beta}-amyloid accumulation in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Voxel-based image analysis techniques conducted in a standard brain space provide an objective, rapid and fully automated method to analyze [{sup 11}C]PIB PET data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both region- and voxel-level reproducibility of automated and simplified [{sup 11}C]PIB quantitation when using only 30 min of imaging data. Six AD patients and four healthy controls were scanned twice with an average interval of 6 weeks. To evaluate the feasibility of short scanning (convenient for AD patients), [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake was quantitated using 30 min of imaging data (60 to 90 min after tracer injection) for region-to-cerebellum ratio calculations. To evaluate the reproducibility, a test-retest design was used to derive absolute variability (VAR) estimates and intraclass correlation coefficients at both region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel level. The reproducibility both at the region level (VAR 0.9-5.5%) and at the voxel level (VAR 4.2-6.4%) was good to excellent. Based on the variability estimates obtained, power calculations indicated that 90% power to obtain statistically significant difference can be achieved using a sample size of five subjects per group when a 15% change from baseline (increase or decrease) in [{sup 11}C]PIB accumulation in the frontal cortex is anticipated in one group compared to no change in another group. Our results showed that an automated analysis method based on an efficient scanning protocol provides reproducible results for [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake and appears suitable for PET studies aiming at the quantitation of amyloid accumulation in the brain of AD patients for the evaluation of progression and treatment effects. (orig.)

  9. Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 weighted voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In childhood, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is reliably associated with reduced volume of the striatum. In contrast, striatal abnormalities are infrequently detected in voxel-based morphometry (VBM neuroimaging studies of adults with ADHD. This discrepancy has been suggested to reflect normalisation of striatal morphology with age and prolonged treatment of symptoms. If so, this would indicate that while striatal abnormalities are linked to symptom expression in childhood, they cannot explain the persistence of these symptoms in adulthood. However, this may not be case. Instead, we hypothesized that the lack of evidence for striatal abnormalities in adult ADHD may reflect poor sensitivity of typical (T1-weighted neuroimaging to detect subcortical differences. To address this, we acquired both magnetisation transfer (MT saturation maps optimised for subcortical contrast, and conventional T1-weighted images in 30 adults with ADHD and 30 age, IQ, gender and handedness-matched controls. Using VBM of both datasets, we demonstrate volumetric reductions within the left ventral striatum on MT that are not observed on identically pre-processed T1-weighted images from the same participants. Nevertheless, both techniques reported similar sensitivity to cortical abnormalities in the right inferior parietal lobe. Additionally, we show that differences in striatal iron may potentially explain this reduced sensitivity of T1-weighted images in adults. Together, these findings indicate that prior VBM studies reporting no abnormalities in striatal volume in adult ADHD might have been compromised by the methodological insensitivity of T1-weighted VBM to subcortical differences, and that structural abnormalities of the striatum in ADHD do indeed persist into adulthood.

  10. A global distributed basin morphometric dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinyi; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Mei, Yiwen; Hong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Basin morphometry is vital information for relating storms to hydrologic hazards, such as landslides and floods. In this paper we present the first comprehensive global dataset of distributed basin morphometry at 30 arc seconds resolution. The dataset includes nine prime morphometric variables; in addition we present formulas for generating twenty-one additional morphometric variables based on combination of the prime variables. The dataset can aid different applications including studies of land-atmosphere interaction, and modelling of floods and droughts for sustainable water management. The validity of the dataset has been consolidated by successfully repeating the Hack's law.

  11. Refining the Indications for the Addition of Orbital Osteotomy during Anterior Cranial Base Approaches: Morphometric and Radiologic Study of the Anterior Cranial Base Osteology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBattista, Juan Carlos; Andaluz, Norberto; Zuccarello, Mario; Kerr, Robert G; Keller, Jeffrey T

    2014-08-01

    Objectives In anatomic and radiologic morphometric studies, we examine a predictive method, based on preoperative imaging of the anterior cranial base, to define when addition of orbital osteotomy is warranted. Design Anatomic and radiographic study. Setting In 100 dry skulls, measurements in the anterior cranial fossa included three lines and two angles based on computerized tomography (CT) scans taken in situ and validated using frameless stereotactic navigation. The medial angle (coronal plane) was the intersection between the highest point of both orbits and the midpoint between the two frontoethmoidal sutures to each orbital roof high point. The oblique angle (sagittal plane) was the intersection at the midpoint of the limbus sphenoidale. Results No identifiable morphometric patterns were found for our classification of anterior fossae; the two-tailed distribution pattern was similar for all skulls, disproving the hypothetical correlation between visual appearance and morphometry. Orbital heights (range: 6.6-18.7 mm) showed a linear relationship with medial and oblique angles, and they had a linear distribution relative to angular increments. Orbital heights > 11 mm were associated with angles ≥ 20 degrees and more likely to benefit from orbitotomy. Conclusion Preoperative CT measurement of orbital height appears feasible for predicting when orbitotomy is needed, and it warrants further testing.

  12. Gross Morphological and Morphometric Studies on Digestive Tracts of Three Nigerian Indigenous Genotypes of Chicken with Special Reference to Sexual Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and morphometric studies were carried out on the Gastrointestinal Tracts (GIT of three Nigerian indigenous genotypes of chicken with special reference to sexual dimorphism. Eighteen adult chickens of the three genotypes (three male and three female per genotype, all above one year of age were bought from Mokwa local markets. They were quarantined for two weeks, stabilized for another weeks, live weights taken and then slaughtered using Halal method. After careful evisceration, GIT segments were examined grossly and then weights, lengths, thickness and width of the segments were obtained. The GIT of Normal feathered (No, Naked neck (Na and Frizzle feathered (F genotypes like in other breeds of chicken was found to consist of the crop, an expansion of the esophagus, located in the lower neck region, the glandular stomach (proventriculus, the muscular stomach (ventriculus, small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and large intestine (ceca and colorectum. The mean weights, lengths, thickness and widths of esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, small intestine and large intestine of the three genotypes studied were not significantly different from one another, except the weight of oesophagus and width of ventriculus. Also, no significant difference was found between male and female when the means of these parameters were compared irrespective of genotype involved. In conclusion, all the three genotypes have similar gross and morphometric patterns and in addition their ileum was the longest portion of the intestine in contrast to what was reported in other breeds of chicken in the literature.

  13. Limestone biopitting in coastal settings: A spatial, morphometric, SEM and molecular microbiology sequencing study in the Mallorca rocky coast (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, F.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Del Valle, L.; Nogales, B.

    2017-01-01

    Biological agency on rock coasts has been widely recognised over recent decades. This study deals with the distribution and morphometric characteristics of microforms features developed by cyanobacteria (Rivularia sp.) on coastal limestone outcrops. These coastal microforms, known as biopits, have a small rounded basin shape a few millimetres in size. Environmental and geological data were collected from 100 random rock surface spots from Punta des Faralló cape (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean), from which major controls on the spatial distribution of biopits were established. Additionally, morphological data on 382 biopits determined the diagnostic morphometry of these features and their enlargement mechanisms. The results indicated that biopits exhibit a preferential location in shaded exposures and sheltered areas from prevailing winds and waves, avoiding direct insolation and desiccation. Other major controls on these microforms location and development were variables such as the rock surface slope and the distance to the coast (i.e. influence of splash and spray). Shadow spots displayed higher biopits density than other locations according to the patterns determined by environmental and geomorphological factors at the study site. Morphometric analyses showed that biopits have a width twice their depth. The average width of the microforms was 6.49 ± 2.40 mm and the average depth 2.46 ± 1.09 mm. Most frequently, the width/depth ratio was 2 or larger. This characteristic shape ratio was an additional factor that plays a role in maintaining the necessary humidity for microorganisms associated with biopits.

  14. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Deryk S; Gracco, Vincent L; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-09-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006).

  15. Influence of parameter settings in voxel-based morphometry 8. Using DARTEL and region-of-interest on reproducibility in gray matter volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, M; Abe, O; Aoki, S; Hayashi, N; Miyati, T; Takao, H; Matsuda, H; Yamashita, F; Iwatsubo, T; Mori, H; Kunimatsu, A; Ino, K; Yano, K; Ohtomo, K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether reproducibility of gray matter volumetry is influenced by parameter settings for VBM 8 using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) with region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. We prepared three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects. All subjects were imaged with each of five MRI systems. Voxel-based morphometry 8 (VBM 8) and WFU PickAtlas software were used for gray matter volumetry. The bilateral ROI labels used were those provided as default settings with the software: Frontal Lobe, Hippocampus, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Parietal Lobe, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe. All 3D-T1WIs were segmented to gray matter with six parameters of VBM 8, with each parameter having between three and eight selectable levels. Reproducibility was evaluated as the standard deviation (mm³) of measured values for the five MRI systems. Reproducibility was influenced by 'Bias regularization (BiasR)', 'Bias FWHM', and 'De-noising filter' settings, but not by 'MRF weighting', 'Sampling distance', or 'Warping regularization' settings. Reproducibility in BiasR was influenced by ROI. Superior reproducibility was observed in Frontal Lobe with the BiasR1 setting, and in Hippocampus, Parietal Lobe, and Putamen with the BiasR3*, BiasR1, and BiasR5 settings, respectively. Reproducibility of gray matter volumetry was influenced by parameter settings in VBM 8 using DARTEL and ROI. In multi-center studies, the use of appropriate settings in VBM 8 with DARTEL results in reduced scanner effect.

  16. Detecting damaged regions of cerebral white matter in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using voxel-based analysis with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Beppu, Takaaki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Department of Hyperbaric Medicine, Morioka (Japan); Sanjo, Katsumi; Koeda, Atsuhiko [Iwate Medical University, Department of Psychiatry, Morioka (Japan); Mori, Kiyoshi [Iwate Prefectural Critical Care and Emergency Center, Department of Neurology, Morioka (Japan); Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    The present study aimed to detect the main regions of cerebral white matter (CWM) showing damage in the subacute phase for CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms using voxel-based analysis (VBA) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Subjects comprised 22 adult CO-poisoned patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. Patients were classified into patients with transient acute symptoms only (group A) and patients with chronic neurological symptoms (group S). In all patients, DTI covering the whole brain was performed with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system at 2 weeks after CO exposure. As procedures for VBA, all fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from DTI were spatially normalized, and FA values for all voxels in the whole CWM on normalized FA maps were statistically compared among the two patient groups and controls. Voxels with significant differences in FA were detected at various regions in comparisons between groups S and A and between group S and controls. In these comparisons, more voxels were detected in deep CWM, including the centrum semiovale, than in other regions. A few voxels were detected between group A and controls. Absolute FA values in the centrum semiovale were significantly lower in group S than in group A or controls. VBA demonstrated that CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms had already suffered damage to various CWM regions in the subacute phase. In these regions, the centrum semiovale was suggested to be the main region damaged in the subacute phase after CO inhalation. (orig.)

  17. Exploring trees in three dimensions: VoxR, a novel voxel-based R package dedicated to analysing the complex arrangement of tree crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecigne, Bastien; Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian

    2017-09-07

    Interest in tree form assessments using the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) has increased in recent years. Yet many existing methods are limited to small-sized trees, principally due to noise and occlusion phenomena. In this paper, a novel voxel-based program that is dedicated to the analyses of large tree structures is presented. The method is based on the assumption that architectural trait variations (i.e. branching angle, bifurcation ratio, biomass allocation, etc.) influence the way a tree explores space. This method uses the concept of space exploration that considers a voxel as a portion of space explored by the tree. Once the TLS scene is voxelized, the program provides tools that extract qualitative (geometrical) and quantitative (volumetric) metrics. These tools measure (1) voxel dispersion in three dimensions (3-D), (2) projections of the voxel cloud in 2-D and (3) multi-temporal changes within a single tree crown. To test algorithm capabilities of measuring larger tree architectural traits, two application studies were conducted using point clouds that were either generated by a tree growth simulation model, thereby allowing algorithm application in a perfectly controlled environment, or acquired in the field with a TLS device. The space exploration concept makes it possible to take advantage of the volumetric nature of voxels to compensate for occlusion. The hypothesis that large-sized voxels can be used to reduce occlusion in the original point cloud was tested, as well as the consequences of voxel size on quantification of tree volume and on precision of derived metrics. Results show that space exploration is well adapted to highlight architectural differences among trees. They also suggest that large-sized voxels are efficient for occlusion compensation at the expense of metrics precision in some cases. The best resolution to choose depending on the research objectives and quality of the TLS scan is discussed.

  18. Distribution of Vascular Patterns in Different Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma. A Morphometric Study in Two Distinct Types of Blood Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; García-Bustos, V; Granero, E; Cuesta, S; Sales, M A; Marcos, V; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the presence of mature and immature vessels as a prognostic factor in patients with renal cell carcinoma and propose a classification of renal cancer tumor blood vessels according to morphometric parameters. Tissue samples were obtained from 121 renal cell carcinoma patients who underwent radical nephrectomy. Staining with CD31 and CD34 was used to differentiate between immature (CD31+) and mature (CD34+) blood vessels. We quantified the microvascular density, microvascular area and different morphometric parameters: maximum diameter, minimum diameter, major axis, minor axis, perimeter, radius ratio and roundness. We found that the microvascular density was higher in CD31+ than CD34+ vessels, but CD34+ vessels were larger than CD31+ vessels, as well as being strongly correlated with the ISUP tumor grade. We also identified four vascular patterns: pseudoacinar, fascicular, reticular and diffuse. Pseudoacinar and fascicular patterns were more frequent in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (37.62 and 35.64% respectively), followed by reticular pattern (21.78%), while in chromophobe tumors the reticular pattern predominated (90%). The isolated pattern was present in all papillary tumors (100%). In healthy renal tissue, the pseudoacinar and isolated patterns were differentially found in the renal cortex and medulla respectively. We defined four distinct vascular patterns significantly related with the ISUP tumor grade in renal cell carcinomas. Further studies in larger series are needed in order to validate these results. Analysis of both mature and immature vessels (CD34+ and CD31+) provides additional information when evaluating microvascular density.

  19. Measurement error in geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruciano, Carmelo

    2016-06-01

    Geometric morphometrics-a set of methods for the statistical analysis of shape once saluted as a revolutionary advancement in the analysis of morphology -is now mature and routinely used in ecology and evolution. However, a factor often disregarded in empirical studies is the presence and the extent of measurement error. This is potentially a very serious issue because random measurement error can inflate the amount of variance and, since many statistical analyses are based on the amount of "explained" relative to "residual" variance, can result in loss of statistical power. On the other hand, systematic bias can affect statistical analyses by biasing the results (i.e. variation due to bias is incorporated in the analysis and treated as biologically-meaningful variation). Here, I briefly review common sources of error in geometric morphometrics. I then review the most commonly used methods to measure and account for both random and non-random measurement error, providing a worked example using a real dataset.

  20. Prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in Tourette Syndrome: evidence from voxel-based morphometry and magnetization transfer imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengler Reinhard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathophysiological evidence suggests an involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in Tourette syndrome (TS. To identify TS related abnormalities in gray and white matter we used optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI which are more sensitive to tissue alterations than conventional MRI and provide a quantitative measure of macrostructural integrity. Methods Volumetric high-resolution anatomical T1-weighted MRI and MTI were acquired in 19 adult, unmedicated male TS patients without co-morbidities and 20 age- and sex-matched controls on a 1.5 Tesla neuro-optimized GE scanner. Images were pre-processed and analyzed using an optimized version of VBM in SPM2. Results Using VBM, TS patients showed significant decreases in gray matter volumes in prefrontal areas, the anterior cingulate gyrus, sensorimotor areas, left caudate nucleus and left postcentral gyrus. Decreases in white matter volumes were detected in the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus and the anterior corpus callosum. Increases were found in the left middle frontal gyrus and left sensorimotor areas. In MTI, white matter reductions were seen in the right medial frontal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally and the right cingulate gyrus. Tic severity was negatively correlated with orbitofrontal structures, the right cingulate gyrus and parts of the parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex bilaterally. Conclusion Our MRI in vivo neuropathological findings using two sensitive and unbiased techniques support the hypothesis that alterations in frontostriatal circuitries underlie TS pathology. We suggest that anomalous frontal lobe association and projection fiber bundles cause disinhibition of the cingulate gyrus and abnormal basal ganglia function.

  1. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Doallo

    Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.

  2. Detection of changes in cerebrospinal fluid space in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus using voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi [University of Tsukuba, Clinical Neuroscience, Medical Sciences for Control of Pathological Process, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Takahashi, Satoshi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology, Morioka (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    We attempted to detect alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We obtained sagittal volume images of the entire head by three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and compared the regional distribution of CSF in 12 patients with iNPH, 14 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 17 healthy individuals using VBM with automatically extracted CSF objects. VBM demonstrated significant widening at the lateral ventricles and Sylvian fissures and narrowing of the CSF space at the high convexity/midline areas in iNPH patients, compared to the AD patients and healthy controls (p<0.05, after correction with a false-discovery rate). In addition, the ratio of the CSF volume in the lateral ventricle/Sylvian fissure area to that in the high convexity/midline area in iNPH patients (3.9{+-}1.2) was remarkably greater than that in AD patients (1.2{+-}0.3) and controls (0.9{+-}0.3; one-way ANOVA, p <0.001; post hoc Tukey's test, p < 0.001); we could discriminate iNPH patients from those in the other two groups without any overlap, when using a cutoff level of 1.9. VBM using CSF objects can be used to delineate the characteristic alteration of the CSF space in iNPH patients, which has been evaluated by visual interpretation. (orig.)

  3. Voxel-based morphometry and automated lobar volumetry: the trade-off between spatial scale and statistical correction.

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    Voormolen, Eduard H J; Wei, Corie; Chow, Eva W C; Bassett, Anne S; Mikulis, David J; Crawley, Adrian P

    2010-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and automated lobar region of interest (ROI) volumetry are comprehensive and fast methods to detect differences in overall brain anatomy on magnetic resonance images. However, VBM and automated lobar ROI volumetry have detected dissimilar gray matter differences within identical image sets in our own experience and in previous reports. To gain more insight into how diverging results arise and to attempt to establish whether one method is superior to the other, we investigated how differences in spatial scale and in the need to statistically correct for multiple spatial comparisons influence the relative sensitivity of either technique to group differences in gray matter volumes. We assessed the performance of both techniques on a small dataset containing simulated gray matter deficits and additionally on a dataset of 22q11-deletion syndrome patients with schizophrenia (22q11DS-SZ) vs. matched controls. VBM was more sensitive to simulated focal deficits compared to automated ROI volumetry, and could detect global cortical deficits equally well. Moreover, theoretical calculations of VBM and ROI detection sensitivities to focal deficits showed that at increasing ROI size, ROI volumetry suffers more from loss in sensitivity than VBM. Furthermore, VBM and automated ROI found corresponding GM deficits in 22q11DS-SZ patients, except in the parietal lobe. Here, automated lobar ROI volumetry found a significant deficit only after a smaller sub-region of interest was employed. Thus, sensitivity to focal differences is impaired relatively more by averaging over larger volumes in automated ROI methods than by the correction for multiple comparisons in VBM. These findings indicate that VBM is to be preferred over automated lobar-scale ROI volumetry for assessing gray matter volume differences between groups.

  4. Selection of voxel size and photon number in voxel-based Monte Carlo method: criteria and applications.

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    Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Ran, Wei Yu; Wang, Guo Xiang; Wu, Wen Juan

    2015-01-01

    The voxel-based Monte Carlo method (VMC) is now a gold standard in the simulation of light propagation in turbid media. For complex tissue structures, however, the computational cost will be higher when small voxels are used to improve smoothness of tissue interface and a large number of photons are used to obtain accurate results. To reduce computational cost, criteria were proposed to determine the voxel size and photon number in 3-dimensional VMC simulations with acceptable accuracy and computation time. The selection of the voxel size can be expressed as a function of tissue geometry and optical properties. The photon number should be at least 5 times the total voxel number. These criteria are further applied in developing a photon ray splitting scheme of local grid refinement technique to reduce computational cost of a nonuniform tissue structure with significantly varying optical properties. In the proposed technique, a nonuniform refined grid system is used, where fine grids are used for the tissue with high absorption and complex geometry, and coarse grids are used for the other part. In this technique, the total photon number is selected based on the voxel size of the coarse grid. Furthermore, the photon-splitting scheme is developed to satisfy the statistical accuracy requirement for the dense grid area. Result shows that local grid refinement technique photon ray splitting scheme can accelerate the computation by 7.6 times (reduce time consumption from 17.5 to 2.3 h) in the simulation of laser light energy deposition in skin tissue that contains port wine stain lesions.

  5. Morphometric Characterization of Small Cell Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoi Anca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphometry in histopathology is used to characterize cell populations belonging to different tissues and to identify differences in their parameters with prognostic implications. To achieve morphometric examination were selected 6 of 24 cases identified as small cell lymphocytic lymphoma. For each case analysis was done on five fields, for each field measuring the parameters of 20 cells. The studied parameters were for cytoplasm: cytoplasmic area, maximum and minimum cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter; for nucleus were measured: nuclear area, minimum and maximum nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, nuclear contour index, nuclear ellipticity index, nuclear irregularity index. Also the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was calculated in all studied cases. Small cell lymphocytic lymphoma is characterized in morphometric terms having a small cytoplasmic area (average 29.206 and also a small nuclear area (mean 28.939 having a nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appearance suggestive for adult lymphocyte. A nuclear contour index small value (3.946, ellipticity index value also small (3.521 and small nuclear irregularity index (3.965. Standard deviations, in any of the studied morphometric categories, is around or below 1 suggesting monomorphic cell appearance. These morphometric and microscopic features characterized mainly by a small population of adult lymphocytes, monomorphic, with rounded hipercromic nuclei, dense chromatin, support the framing into indolent lymphoma group in terms of clinical outcome.

  6. Genetic Variation in the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Val108/158Met Is Linked to the Caudate and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Volume in Healthy Subjects: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Watanabe

    Full Text Available The effect of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism on brain morphology has been investigated but remains controversial. We hypothesized that a comparison between Val/Val and Val/Met individuals, which may represent the most different combinations concerning the effects of the COMT genotype, may reveal new findings. We investigated the brain morphology using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in 27 Val/Val and 22 Val/Met individuals. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that the volumes of the bilateral caudate and posterior cingulate cortex were significantly smaller in Val/Val individuals than in Val/Met individuals [right caudate: false discovery rate (FDR-corrected p = 0.048; left caudate: FDR-corrected p = 0.048; and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex: FDR-corrected p = 0.048]. This study demonstrates that interacting functional variants of COMT affect gray matter regional volumes in healthy subjects.

  7. Genetic Variation in the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Val108/158Met Is Linked to the Caudate and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Volume in Healthy Subjects: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keita; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ide, Satoru; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Watanabe, Rieko; Abe, Osamu; Korogi, Yukunori

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism on brain morphology has been investigated but remains controversial. We hypothesized that a comparison between Val/Val and Val/Met individuals, which may represent the most different combinations concerning the effects of the COMT genotype, may reveal new findings. We investigated the brain morphology using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in 27 Val/Val and 22 Val/Met individuals. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that the volumes of the bilateral caudate and posterior cingulate cortex were significantly smaller in Val/Val individuals than in Val/Met individuals [right caudate: false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected p = 0.048; left caudate: FDR-corrected p = 0.048; and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex: FDR-corrected p = 0.048]. This study demonstrates that interacting functional variants of COMT affect gray matter regional volumes in healthy subjects. PMID:26566126

  8. Baseline study of morphometric traits of wild Capsicum annuum growing near two biosphere reserves in the Peninsula of Baja California for future conservation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Rueda-Puente, Edgar Omar; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-05-10

    Despite the ecological and socioeconomic importance of wild Capsicum annuum L., few investigations have been carried out to study basic characteristics. The peninsula of Baja California has a unique characteristic that it provides a high degree of isolation for the development of unique highly diverse endemic populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate for the first time the growth type, associated vegetation, morphometric traits in plants, in fruits and mineral content of roots, stems and leaves of three wild populations of Capsicum in Baja California, Mexico, near biosphere reserves. The results showed that the majority of plants of wild Capsicum annuum have a shrub growth type and were associated with communities consisting of 43 species of 20 families the most representative being Fabaceae, Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Significant differences between populations were found in plant height, main stem diameter, beginning of canopy, leaf area, leaf average and maximum width, stems and roots dry weights. Coverage, leaf length and dry weight did not show differences. Potassium, sodium and zinc showed significant differences between populations in their roots, stems and leaves, while magnesium and manganese showed significant differences only in roots and stems, iron in stems and leaves, calcium in roots and leaves and phosphorus did not show differences. Average fruit weight, length, 100 fruits dry weight, 100 fruits pulp dry weight and pulp/seeds ratio showed significant differences between populations, while fruit number, average fruit fresh weight, peduncle length, fruit width, seeds per fruit and seed dry weight, did not show differences. We concluded that this study of traits of wild Capsicum, provides useful information of morphometric variation between wild populations that will be of value for future decision processes involved in the management and preservation of germplasm and genetic resources.

  9. Small-world and scale-free organization of voxel-based resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, M P; Stam, C J; Boersma, M; Hulshoff Pol, H E

    2008-11-15

    The brain is a complex dynamic system of functionally connected regions. Graph theory has been successfully used to describe the organization of such dynamic systems. Recent resting-state fMRI studies have suggested that inter-regional functional connectivity shows a small-world topology, indicating an organization of the brain in highly clustered sub-networks, combined with a high level of global connectivity. In addition, a few studies have investigated a possible scale-free topology of the human brain, but the results of these studies have been inconclusive. These studies have mainly focused on inter-regional connectivity, representing the brain as a network of brain regions, requiring an arbitrary definition of such regions. However, using a voxel-wise approach allows for the model-free examination of both inter-regional as well as intra-regional connectivity and might reveal new information on network organization. Especially, a voxel-based study could give information about a possible scale-free organization of functional connectivity in the human brain. Resting-state 3 Tesla fMRI recordings of 28 healthy subjects were acquired and individual connectivity graphs were formed out of all cortical and sub-cortical voxels with connections reflecting inter-voxel functional connectivity. Graph characteristics from these connectivity networks were computed. The clustering-coefficient of these networks turned out to be much higher than the clustering-coefficient of comparable random graphs, together with a short average path length, indicating a small-world organization. Furthermore, the connectivity distribution of the number of inter-voxel connections followed a power-law scaling with an exponent close to 2, suggesting a scale-free network topology. Our findings suggest a combined small-world and scale-free organization of the functionally connected human brain. The results are interpreted as evidence for a highly efficient organization of the functionally connected

  10. The Mousterian chil