WorldWideScience

Sample records for votre commune dossier

  1. Dossier about hospital aeraulics; Dossier aeraulique hospitaliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    Air quality is a topic of prime importance in hospitals. A badly designed or maintained installation can lead the development of nosocomial pathologies. This dossier comprises four papers dealing with: the technical rules of air quality mastery in hospitals (air treatment, fight against contamination, general recommendations, topology of installations), the design, diagnosis, cleaning and decontamination of aeraulic networks, the new regulatory constraints of air treatment in hospitals and surgery rooms, and the risks of infectious disease transmission through air conditioning and ventilation systems. (J.S.)

  2. Ressources communes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les ressources communes sont des ressources naturelles ou artificielles partagées par différents utilisateurs ; l’exploitation de ces ressources crée une rivalité, souvent (mais pas nécessairement à l’origine de leur dégradation, voire de leur destruction. Cet article présente brièvement la théorie des ressources communes développée ces vingt dernières années par Elinor Ostrom et ses collègues, et l’illustre par plusieurs études de cas de systèmes d’irrigation du nord de l’Italie (Lombardie et Vallée d’Aoste. Il démontre que différents mécanismes sociaux, tels que les valeurs partagées et le réseau social existant au sein de la communauté d’utilisateurs, influent sensiblement sur l’efficacité des systèmes institutionnels de gestion des ressources communes.Common-pool resources are natural or man-made resources shared among different users, a condition that produces a competition for their utilization leading often (although not necessarily to their degradation or even to their destruction. This paper shortly discusses the "theory of the commons", as developed in the last 20 years by Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues, and illustrates it by mean of case studies regarding a number of irrigation systems in Northern Italy (Lombardy and Vallée d’Aoste. We show that that different social mechanisms, like the shared values e the social network existing inside the community of users, play a significant role in influencing the outcomes of the institutional schemes for the commons management.

  3. Industrial air conditioning dossier; Dossier Clim industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, J.

    2004-04-01

    Because each industrial process is different and has its own specificities, the question of air conditioning in the industry must be considered in a global way and has to take into consideration the different steps of the process and the expectations of prime contractors which, today, pay more attention to the environmental and energy saving aspects. The cooling towers, even if much debated today, remain one of the most efficient solution for high power installations. This dossier presents three examples of realizations: a newspaper printing workshop which requires a precise regulation of temperature and hygrometry, the huge volume workshop of an aerospace company with important solar and internal heat loads, and the painting workshop of a car making company which requires a rigorous control of temperature, humidity and dust content of the ambient air. (J.S.)

  4. Integration Within a Commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammers, Linda Stoneall

    1974-01-01

    Reports an in-depth participant observation of a rural American commune located in a canyon in Northwestern United States in the summer of 1971, focusing on the internal dynamics of the commune; values and beliefs are viewed as the primary focus of integration in addition to common definitions, solidarity, and other factors. (JM)

  5. SNPs & indels Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.; Aanen, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    This description accompanies four files containing SNPs and indels found in two sets of isolates of Schizophyllum commune. This dataset was created for and used in Nieuwenhuis, Nieuwhof and Aanen (2013) On the asymmetry of mating in natural populations of the mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune. F

  6. DOSSIER: Intelectuales y Editores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sorá

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El intelectual abre ideas, el editor las cierra. El escritor produce textos, el editor impresos. El intelectualescribe pero es el editor quien publica. No por nada, afirman algunos psicólogos, el pensamientoculmina con su publicación. Entre el escritor y el editor se moviliza una energía simbólica y socialsublimada bajo las líneas impresas que llegan al lector. Ese entre-lugar de producción de sentidos, decosmologías, de sociedad que marcó la formación de gran parte de las culturas desde la aparición de laexpresión gráfica de las ideas, permanece como un problema esquivo para la investigación, al menospara la antropología practicada en estas latitudes. Parece una cuestión obturada por el dominanteacúmulo de historias de las ideas, de la literatura, del pensamiento que reactualizan la oposición entreespíritu y materia, estética y sociedad, texto y contexto. Evidencia de ello es la clausura sufrida por lasociología de la literatura, una sub-disciplina tan incómoda para los guardianes del aura del genioliterario nacional.Este dossier busca iluminar esa relación con la certeza de que modela uno de los terrenos másfértiles para repensar el legado de la historia de la cultura en occidente y para generar un basto programade problemas de investigación escasamente explorados por las ciencias sociales y humanas en AméricaLatina, y aplicables al estudio de toda cultura, con o sin escritura.

  7. Dossier electromobility and services; Dossier Elektromobilitaet und Dienstleistungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwede, Max; Knoll, Michael

    2010-07-01

    According to the individual electromobility, the dossier under consideration reports on the political, environmental, economic and technical context within which municipalities may cover new services for sustainable mobility. Among others, measures to promote electromobility in the communities as well as a framework for business models for the electrical mobility are presented. As a business model, Better Place, STAWAG StromSTA {sup registered} Mobile, rolling energy storages and drive current provider are presented.

  8. Communes en communebewegingen : een literatuurstudie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramwinckel-Weeda, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    This publication presents the results of the study of a corpus of relevant literature on communes and commune movements in Western society. The study is descriptive-analytical, and the communes analyzed belong partly to the past and partly to the present. The analysis was predominantly based upon

  9. Real revolution in Kana commune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skardhamar, Laura Perez

    2008-01-01

    Embarking from a case study of the Danish commune Kana, this article focuses on an overlooked aspect of the youth rebellion that was an intrinsic part of the self-articulation of the commune movement: namely, the re-addressing of the relationship between the private and the public, the personal...

  10. THEMATIC DOSSIER: LEGAL AND FORENSIC DENTISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Mon Núñez, José Medín; Instituto de Medicina Legal, Panamá; Escobar Velásquez, Luz Dary; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Zárate Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Universidad Autónoma de Asunción, Paraguay.

    2016-01-01

    En este editorial, tres destacados especialistas latinoamericanos, quienes sirvieron como editores invitados, introducen el dossier Odontología Legal y Forense. Los autores presentan un perfil resumido del trabajo odontológico y su importancia cuando se pone al servicio de la ley, principalmente en temas de identificación. Adicionalmente, listan los temas generales de los artículos que contiene el dossier. En este editorial, tres destacados especialistas latinoamericanos, quienes sirvieron...

  11. The Communes and Cultural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Heikki; Seikkula, Ari

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Finland's system of cultural services provided for communes that includes adult education, art activities, entertainment and physical culture. Article outlines the scope of the available and planned programs. (GB)

  12. Impact of the plant protection practices on the operators' exposure: survey by the communes and ministry of equipment and transport (MET-RW)

    OpenAIRE

    Godeaux, Denis; Schiffers, Bruno; Culot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, wi...

  13. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  14. Améliorer votre efficacité techniques d'aujourd'hui pour en faire plus en moins de temps

    CERN Document Server

    Savoyat, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Quels que soient votre fonction, votre métier ou votre mission dans l'entreprise, ce livre pragmatique peut vous ouvrir les chemins d'une nouvelle vie. Il a été conçu et écrit pour vous rendre service et pour vous aider à gagner en efficacité. Les meilleures pratiques y ont été retenues pour vous. Certaines sont utilisées avec succès par plus d'un million de personnes à travers le monde. Leur mise en oeuvre est simple pour un impact maximal sur votre productivité, sur la qualité de votre travail et sur la satisfaction que vous retirerez de votre quotidien professionnel. Les principes et les conseils d'efficacité décrits dans ce livre peuvent être appliqués seul comme en équipe, et être généralisés à l'ensemble d'une entreprise. Vous pouvez choisir de les découvrir par une lecture du début à la fin, qui vous permettra une révision systématique de votre manière de travailler et de votre potentiel de gains en efficacité. Mais vous pouvez également opter pour une découverte théma...

  15. Editorial Dossier: Energía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Durán

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El editor de la Revista de Ingeniería de la Universidad de los Andes me ha invitado ha servir como editor especial en el tema del dossier del número 25 sobre Energía y Medio Ambiente en Colombia y el Mundo. Contamos con cinco artículos escritos por destacados estudiosos y grupos de investigación de la problemática de la energía.

  16. Editorial Dossier: Energía

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Durán

    2007-01-01

    El editor de la Revista de Ingeniería de la Universidad de los Andes me ha invitado ha servir como editor especial en el tema del dossier del número 25 sobre Energía y Medio Ambiente en Colombia y el Mundo. Contamos con cinco artículos escritos por destacados estudiosos y grupos de investigación de la problemática de la energía.

  17. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users : case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon region (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Godeaux, Denis; Schiffers, Bruno; Culot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, wi...

  18. [Why to have a dossier on qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Brugnolli, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Why a dossier on qualitative research. The main reasons for a dossier on qualitative research are presented, together with strengths and weaknesses of qualitative research compared to quantitative. The different perspectives offered by the two methods on the exploration and interpretation of phenomena are briefly described.

  19. A propos dossiers thématiques

    CERN Document Server

    Andant, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Les enseignants de Français langue étrangère disposeront grâce aux dossiers thématiques d'"A propos" d'un abondant matériel pédagogique, souple, diversifié et stimulant pour la préparation et l'animation de leurs cours au niveau intermédiaire. Ils y trouveront de surcroît de très nombreuses exploiter les documents sélectionnés ainsi que des suggestions pour construire des séquences pédagogiques.

  20. Dossier "TIC i patrimoni. Presentació

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cèsar Carreras

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ja fa uns quants anys que les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació (TIC formen part de la nostra vida, i per aquest motiu han anat perdent l'apel·latiu de noves tecnologies per a convertir-se senzillament en TIC. A poc a poc aquestes tecnologies s'han incorporat amb més o menys fortuna als diversos àmbits professionals i, en general, de la nostra vida. Per això, ja hem superat una primera etapa d'ignorància absoluta, s'ha pogut constatar allò que les tecnologies actuals ens permeten millorar de les nostres tasques presents i allò que voldríem que fessin però que encara no fan.A fi de superar un possible desconeixement del tema presentem aquest dossier dedicat a les TIC i el patrimoni dins de la revista Digithum. Text complet (PDF Dossier complet (PDF

  1. Présentation du dossier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Les textes rassemblés dans ce dossier proviennent de la première Journée d’étude organisée par le groupe COnTEXTES, le 28 mars 2006 à l’Université de Liège. Le choix d’aborder une telle problématique a été guidé par le constat d’un décalage générationnel : tandis que la critique idéologique a mobilisé la plupart des consciences théoriques attentives aux forces sociales qui traversent le littéraire (Louis Althusser, Marc Angenot, Philippe Hamon, parmi d’autres, le concept d’idéologie semble a...

  2. Reluctant Communitarians: Personal Stories and Commune Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    1986-01-01

    Uses a thematic approach to explore the therapeutic norm, the confrontation communication, and the nature of commitment in a small contemporary commune. Focuses on the behavior of prominent individuals. (MS)

  3. Schizophyllum commune-induced allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and sinobronchial mycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Tsukatani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present 32- and 38-year-old males with Schizophyllum commune-induced allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS. S. commune-induced AFRS was diagnosed by clinical and radiographic findings, positive specific IgE antibodies against S. commune as measured by the ImmunoCAP system, and sequencing analysis of the fungus. Our two cases with S. commune-induced AFRS for the first time showed evidence for type 1 hypersensitivity to S. commune as determined by using specific IgE antibodies against S. commune, and the fungus was identified by sequence analysis.

  4. Schizophyllum commune-induced allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and sinobronchial mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukatani, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Haruhiko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hasegawa, Hiroki; Makimura, Koichi; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Ueda, Norishi

    2015-06-01

    We present 32- and 38-year-old males with Schizophyllum commune-induced allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). S. commune-induced AFRS was diagnosed by clinical and radiographic findings, positive specific IgE antibodies against S. commune as measured by the ImmunoCAP system, and sequencing analysis of the fungus. Our two cases with S. commune-induced AFRS for the first time showed evidence for type 1 hypersensitivity to S. commune as determined by using specific IgE antibodies against S. commune, and the fungus was identified by sequence analysis.

  5. Dossiê do Barreado / Barreado Dossier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Pellerano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente resenha apresenta o livro Cozinhando a tradição: Festa, cultura, história e turismo no litoral paranaense, de Maria Henriqueta Sperandio Garcia Gimenes-Minasse, publicado em 2013 pela Editora UFPR. A obra apresenta a história do Barreado, prato tradicional do litoral do Paraná, as transformações que aconteceram no preparo e no consumo e sua relação com o desenvolvimento econômico e turístico da região, que se vê representada na sua preparação culinária. Barreado Dossier - This review presents the book Cooking tradition: Party, culture, history and tourism in the coast of Paraná, of Henrietta Maria Garcia Sperandio Gimenes-Minasse, published in 2013 by UFPR Press. The book presents the history of Barreado, traditional dish of the coast of Paraná, the changes in its preparation and consumption and its relation to economic development and tourism in the region represented in its culinary preparation. 

  6. Presentación Dossier Tema Libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana González Rey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el décimo número de la Revista Historia 2.0: Conocimiento Histórico en Clave Digital, los editores saludamos a los lectores. Durante estos cinco años la publicación ha pasado por diversas etapas de aprendizaje en las que destacamos el apoyo de los autores, estudiantes y de los profesionales de la historia que contribuyen a divulgar y sostener la edición. Hemos querido celebrar nuestros cinco años con un dossier de Tema Libre, tal como fue él de nuestra primera entrega, en ésta nueva edición número diez (10. Los artículos aquí publicados fueron al igual que en todas las ediciones convocados públicamente, en la página de Facebook de AHISAB, a través la distribución mediante listas de correos, de servidores gratuitos como H- México, quiénes nos han colaborado en el proceso de distribución de las convocatorias. Igualmente la evaluación por pares fue de manera anónima de acuerdo a todos los estándares internacionales, una labor que debemos agradecer notoriamente púes constituye la base fundamental y académica de nuestra publicación.

  7. Dossier 'Cultural management, a new discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Munilla

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, neither universities nor the other training centres have considered cultural management to be a free-standing area of knowledge, seeing it instead to be dependent on other areas classically accepted by the scientific and education community.In this dossier, three researchers and professionals bring us into closer contact with the world of cultural management in terms of their different areas of professional activity and their corresponding different perspectives: cultural management in public institutions and their approach to the university world; the impact that two institutions and their management model, Barcelona's Contemporary Art Museum (MACBA and Barcelona's Contemporary Culture Centre (CCCB, can have on a city and a neighbourhood, and how this new discipline is seen in terms of the day-to-day of managing events of international scope. All three, Alba Colombo, Joaquim Rius and Laura Solanilla, are united in their passion for this discipline; likewise, all three of them, show exactly the extent to which interdisciplinary training is vital for this 'new' (or not so new cultural profession.

  8. Social accommodation and energy efficiency dossier; Dossier habitat social et efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despretz, H. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Morlot, R. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Gibert, M. [OPAC 38, Grenoble (France); Marichez, J.M. [CDHR 62 - Arras (France); Bouchardeau, Ph. [ADIL 26 (France); Sidler, O. [Enertech, 26 - Felines sur Rimandoule (France); Hamadou, H. [Mouvement pour les Villages d' Enfants, MVE (France)

    2001-09-01

    This dossier takes stock of the experiences and programs in progress in some French regions about the enforcement of the new thermal regulation from June 2001 in social accommodations: recall of the principles of the new regulation, practices and needs for renewable energy uses in accommodations for underprivileged people; campaign of sensitization to water, electricity and heat saving; the energy policy of the OPAC 38, a social accommodation organization of Grenoble (SE France); the energy mastery in Northern France rural accommodations; the social stake of energy mastery, its impact on standard of living, health and public finances; the first lessons gained from the scheduled operations of improvement of accommodations (rehabilitation of private buildings) in Drome region (SE France); the electricity mastery action of Montreuil-Vincennes Energie organization for the evaluation of the different specific uses of electricity in common and private parts of social apartment buildings. (J.S.)

  9. Teaching Dossier Documents: A Comparison of Importance by Major Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnap, Charles A.; Kohut, Gary F.; Yon, Maria G.

    2010-01-01

    Most institutions of higher education require evidence of effective teaching as part of the review process for reappointment and for tenure/promotion. This study examines the relative importance of various documents placed in the teaching section of the dossier as rated by pre-tenured faculty members and review committee members. Results indicate…

  10. Implementation and Evaluation of the Course Dossier Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Wahidun N.; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2017-01-01

    It has been argued that for novice students to acquire a full understanding of scientific texts, they also need to pursue a recurrent construction of their comprehension of scientific concepts. The course dossier method has students examine concepts in multiple passes: (a) through reflective writing on text before it is considered in the…

  11. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)

    1997-12-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  12. El "ius commune" como derecho supletorio en Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    Marzal Rodríguez, Pascual

    1994-01-01

    Examen de la normativa valenciana de Jaime I sobre el "ius commune", su interpretación por los juristas y la consolidación del Derecho común como supletorio del derecho valenciano. Study of the Valencian regulations of Jaime 1 regarding the "ius commune", its intexpretation by the jurists and the consolidation of the "ius commune" as supplementary of Valencian law.

  13. El "ius commune" como derecho supletorio en Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    Marzal Rodríguez, Pascual

    1994-01-01

    Examen de la normativa valenciana de Jaime I sobre el "ius commune", su interpretación por los juristas y la consolidación del Derecho común como supletorio del derecho valenciano. Study of the Valencian regulations of Jaime 1 regarding the "ius commune", its intexpretation by the jurists and the consolidation of the "ius commune" as supplementary of Valencian law.

  14. Les communes bretonnes sur le Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Martin-Brelot

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans un contexte de montée en puissance des usages d’Internet d’une part, et d’incertitude territoriale d’autre part, l’hypothèse principale de cette étude est que le Web modifie la portée spatiale des organisations publiques, en offrant notamment un nouveau cadre pour exprimer des relations territoriales variées. L’exploration des hyperliens de près de 400 sites de communes du Morbihan et du Finistère permet tout d’abord d’en évaluer la richesse de contenu (images, vidéos… et d’ouverture vers l’extérieur (liens externes, Facebook, etc.. Si les sites les plus fournis et ouverts tendent à appartenir aux communes les plus peuplées, l’examen des relations entre ces sites montre que de très petites communes peuvent occuper des positions centrales dans l’espace virtuel. Des différences de configurations entre les graphes de chaque département sont également identifiées.

  15. Pulmonary Schizophyllum Commune Infection Developing Mucoid Impaction of the Bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Tokunaga, Daidou; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Matsushita, Aya; Harasawa, Keiji; Yoneda, Koichiro; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shozaburo; Miyahara, Yousuke; Yano, Ryozo; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted for cough, sputum, and an abnormal chest X-ray shadow. Bronchoscopy showed mucoid impaction of the bronchi (MIB). Histopathologic evidence of mucous plugs was consistent with one component of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis. Schizophyllum commune (S. commune) was identified. Two attempts at removal of the mucous plugs were unsuccessful. Itraconazole was then administered, and the mucous plugs disappeared. There are few reports of MIB due to S. commune; we herein report a case of MIB due to S. commune infection. PMID:18299722

  16. Why Communes Fail: A Comparative Analysis of the Viability of Danish and American Communes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shey, Thomas H.

    1977-01-01

    Danish communes, while exhibiting substantial flexibility, ingenuity and viability, invariably fail for primarily personal reasons or motives. However, unlike their American counterparts, economic and practical considerations play a correspondingly minor role. Presented at the Southern Sociological Society, Miami, Florida, April 9, 1976. (Author)

  17. The Functional Foods Dossier: Building Solid Health Claims. How to prepare the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional food. Practical Industrial guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Korver, O.; Kühn, M.C.; Richardson, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    This practical book explains to the industry manager all the special aspects related to the preparation of the scientific dossier for health claims of European functional foods (science, legislation, communication, product development).

  18. Valeurs communes. Progetto della Commissione Europea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bonora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Titolo: Valori comuni Titolo originale: Valeurs communes 2004/2005 Project leader: cooperativa Lai-momo Partner: Africa e Mediterraneo, Italia; Grupo Comunicar, Spagna; L'Afrique dessineé, Francia; Translit, Spagna; Le Comptoir du livre, Belgio; CS Associazione di Cooperazione allo Sviluppo, Italia; Agronomi senza frontiere, Italia; Fumo di China, Italia. Riferimento: Andrea Marchesini Reggiani - redazione@africaemediterraneo.it I fumetti e la guida didattica, realizzati per il progetto, sono acquistabili sul sito web www.laimomo.it, materiali e informazioni sono disponibili sul sito www.valeurcommunes.org. Il materiale di Valori comuni è utilizzato per laboratori di educazione interculturale nelle classi.

  19. Implementation and Evaluation of the Course Dossier Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahidun N. Khanam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that for novice students to acquire a full understanding of scientific texts, they also need to pursue a recurrent construction of their comprehension of scientific concepts. The course dossier method has students examine concepts in multiple passes: (a through reflective writing on text before it is considered in the classroom, (b in a one-page essay at the end of the week, and (c through a final essay at the end of the term. Students are encouraged to relate to the text in their reflective writing and critiques in the manner of a hermeneutical circle. Students are further scaffolded in writing their final essay by the use of student reviewers. This study explored how students in a humanities course perceived and accomplished the course dossier method. It was found that students’ understanding of concepts improved as the course progressed. D’aucuns ont fait valoir qu’afin que les étudiants novices comprennent pleinement les textes scientifiques, ils doivent également poursuivre une construction récurrente de leur compréhension des concepts scientifiques. La méthode qui consiste à tenir un dossier de cours requiert des étudiants qu’ils examinent les concepts en plusieurs passes : (a par le biais de la rédaction réflective sur le texte avant que celui-ci soit étudié en classe, (b par un essai d’une page à la fin de la semaine et (c par un essai final à la fin du trimestre. Les étudiants sont encouragés à mettre le texte en rapport avec leur rédaction réflective et leurs critiques à la manière d’un cercle herméneutique. De plus, les étudiants sont davantage préparés à rédiger leur essai final par l’utilisation d’étudiants réviseurs. Cette étude explore la manière dont les étudiants d’un cours de sciences humaines perçoivent et accomplissent la méthode qui consiste à tenir un dossier de cours. On a découvert qu’au fur et à mesure que le cours a progressé, les étudiants ont

  20. Impact of the plant protection practices on the operators' exposure: survey by the communes and ministry of equipment and transport (MET-RW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the health-related aspects of the surveys (environmental aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of bad practices and a growing awareness of the non-agricultural users with respect to health risks. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major health risks (which endanger the operator and the public). Information, awareness-raising and, especially, training of people therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  1. Residential sector dossier. Energy savings as target; Dossier residentiel. Les economies d'energie en point de mire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappa, F.

    2004-05-01

    With the 2003 heat wave in Europe, the sales of air conditioning split systems have reached records with a progress of about 40%. Beside these data, it is a new perception of these devices that is progressively gaining the consumers mind, in particular in the residential sector which has been considered as 'very promising' by air conditioning professionals, but which has never reached its expected development in France, so far. Manufacturers are more and more looking towards this sector with the energy savings and the environment protection as main arguments. The French scientific and technical committee of air conditioning industries (Costic) is carrying out several actions in parallel which aim at giving help to professionals for the realisation of quality air conditioning installations. This dossier takes stock of the technical and regulatory aspects of residential air conditioning (choice of appliances, evacuation of condensates, air flow, abatement of energy consumptions and noise pollution, Vivrelec offer of Electricite de France (EdF), improvement of esthetics and efficiency..). Some examples of innovative realizations illustrate this dossier: high environmental quality house with 77% of space heating savings, combination of ventilation and radiant ceiling. (J.S.)

  2. DoSSiER: Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Wenzel, Hans; Genser, Krzysztof; Elvira, Daniel; Pokorski, Witold; Carminati, Federico; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Ribon, Alberto; Folger, Gunter; Dotti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER can be easily accessed via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in json or xml exchange formats. In this article, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  3. Visual clone identification of Penicillium commune isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Lund, Flemming; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-02-01

    A method for visual clone identification of Penicillium commune isolates was developed. The method is based on images of fungal colonies acquired after growth on a standard medium and involves a high degree of objectivity, which in future studies will make it possible for non-experts to perform a qualified identification of different species as well as clones within a species. A total of 77 P. commune isolates from a cheese dairy were 3-point inoculated on Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) agar and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. After incubation, the isolates were classified into groups containing the same genotype determined by DNA fingerprinting (AFLP). Each genotype also has a specific phenotype such as different colony colours. By careful image acquisition, colours were measured in a reproducible way. Prior to image analysis, each image was corrected with respect to colour, geometry and self-illumination, thereby gaining a set of directly comparable images. A method for automatic extraction of a given number of concentric regions was used. Using the positions of the regions, a number of relevant features--capturing colour and colour-texture from the surface of the fungal colonies--was extracted for further analysis. We introduced the Jeffreys-Matusitas (JM) distance between the feature distributions to express the similarity between regions in two colonies, and to evaluate the overall (weighted) similarity. The nearest neighbour (NN) classification rule was used. On a dataset from 137 isolates, we obtained a "leave-one-out" cross-validation identification rate of approximately 93-98% compared with the result of DNA fingerprinting.

  4. The Eskdale Commune: Desert Alternative to Secular Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Frederick S.; Stott, Larry W.

    1974-01-01

    The Schools of Eskdale, a religious commune of the Order of Aaron, are attempting to escape the dualism and fragmentation so prevalent in public schools and show promise of becoming another viable alternative to secular schooling. (Author)

  5. La réforme du Fonds des Communes

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Conférence pour des décideurs publics et privés intéressés par le développement de la région namuroise portant sur la réforme du Fonds des communes (dispositif de transfert destiné aux financement général des communes wallonnes) et ses conséquences.

  6. The influence of Schizophyllum commune on asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2011-12-01

    The sensitization and exposure to fungal allergens have been reported to be associated with asthma. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of sensitization to Schizophyllum commune (S. commune) on the severity and exacerbations of asthma. Ninety-two patients with asthma of various levels of severity [mild (n = 18), moderate (28), and severe (46)] and exacerbation severity [moderate (n = 43) and severe (6)] were retrospectively examined with regard to fungal sensitization such as specific IgE or intradermal skin reactions against S. commune and other common allergens. We also classified the patients into three groups: (1) three or more asthma attacks during the past year (F-BA) (n = 29),(2) one or two asthma attacks (NF-BA) (n = 20), and (3) no asthma attack (C-BA) (n = 43). The positive rate of late cutaneous reactions to S. commune was higher in patients with severe asthma (41.2%) than with moderate (26.1%) or mild asthma (6.7%), and was significantly different among the three groups (P commune and the age of the patients as an independent determinant of asthma severity, and the skin results and %FVC an independent determinant of exacerbation frequency. This study demonstrated that S. commune is an environmental fungus that appears to enhance both the severity of asthma and the exacerbation frequency.

  7. Glucoamylase is a major allergen of Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyotome, T; Satoh, M; Yahiro, M; Watanabe, A; Nomura, F; Kamei, K

    2014-03-01

    Schizophyllum commune is one of the causative agents of basidiomycosis including disorders such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis, allergic fungal sinusitis, and mucoid impaction of bronchi, the incidence of those of which has been increasing. These mycoses are difficult to diagnose because only a limited number of diagnostic tools are currently available. The biggest problem is that no specific antigens of S. commune have been identified to enable serodiagnosis of the disease. In this study, we attempted to identify a major antigen of S. commune to establish a reliable serodiagnostic method. We used mass spectrometry to identify an antigen that reacted with the serum of a patient with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by S. commune. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, highly purified, and the patient sera IgG and IgE titres against the protein were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein identified as a major antigen of S. commune was named Sch c 1; it was a homolog of glucoamylase. The IgG and IgE titres against Sch c 1 in patient sera were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteer sera (P commune-induced mycosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Presentación al Dossier de Historia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Antonio Melo Flórez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrando en el tema de este número, el Dossier de Historia Ambiental fue una propuesta que se presentó al Comité Editorial de la revista teniendo en cuenta la vigencia de un tema como este en las condiciones actuales de la sociedad que se debate entre el temor, la negación y la acción ambientalista. Pero más allá del activismo, la historia ambiental se ha constituido en una rama de la historia que entra en comunicación con las ciencias naturales y ambientales para insertar lo humano en la discusión actual, centrada en el cambio climático, pero que no es ajena a los “desastres naturales” ni a las transformaciones del paisaje para dar paso al desarrollo.

  9. Presentación al Dossier de Historia Pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana González Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Con este número cumplimos ocho ediciones de la revista Historia 2.0: Conocimiento Histórico en Clave Digital. Con una política editorial abierta, la revista ha logrado mantener su espacio en la red y su carácter de edición para jóvenes historiadores. La siguiente edición que gratamente les presentamos a nuestros lectores es resultado de un proceso de evaluación variopinto, una continuación del dossier iniciado en la edición número siete dedicado a la historia ambiental. Como complemento se presenta un interesante apartado que pretende abrir el debate en torno a la historia pública, un campo que aunque ha ganado un espacio de especialización en Estados Unidos y Europa es prácticamente desconocido en América Latina.

  10. Unusual reversible elastomeric gels from Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Sol; Gonzales, Karen N; Romero, Eduardo G; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2017-04-01

    Nostoc commune cyanobacteria grow in extreme conditions of desiccation and nutrient-poor soils. Their colonies form spherical gelatinous bodies are composed of a variety of polysaccharides that allow them to store water and nutrients. In this paper, we study this type of biological gel that shows characteristics of both chemical and physical gels. The structure of this gel was assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy, plate-plate rheometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and absorption/desorption tests. The storage modulus of this gel was found to be frequency independent, as is usual for chemical gels. The stress sweeps showed a reversible stress softening behaviour that was explained in terms of the physical nature of the interactions of this network. The high density of physical crosslinks probably allows this physical network to behave as a highly elastomeric chemical network, limiting the relaxation of individual chains. On the other hand, reversibility is associated with the physical nature of its bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lyall

    The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

  12. Molecular markers reveal cryptic species within Polytrichum commune (common hair-cap moss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R; van der Velde, M; van de Zande, L; Boerema, AC; van Zanten, BO

    Based on morphological characters only, the taxonomy of the moss genus Polytrichum has still not been fully resolved. Application of molecular techniques might clarify some of these problems. Within P. commune s.l., the taxonomic status of several varieties, e.g., P. commune var. commune and P.

  13. Rhynchosporium commune: a persistent threat to barley cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrova, Anna; Knogge, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    Rhynchosporium commune is a haploid fungus causing scald or leaf blotch on barley, other Hordeum spp. and Bromus diandrus. Rhynchosporium commune is an anamorphic Ascomycete closely related to the teleomorph Helotiales genera Oculimacula and Pyrenopeziza. Rhynchosporium commune causes scald-like lesions on leaves, leaf sheaths and ears. Early symptoms are generally pale grey oval lesions. With time, the lesions acquire a dark brown margin with the centre of the lesion remaining pale green or pale brown. Lesions often merge to form large areas around which leaf yellowing is common. Infection frequently occurs in the leaf axil, which can lead to chlorosis and eventual death of the leaf. Rhynchosporium commune is seed borne, but the importance of this phase of the disease is not fully understood. Debris from previous crops and volunteers, infected from the stubble from previous crops, are considered to be the most important sources of the disease. Autumn-sown crops can become infected very soon after sowing. Secondary spread of disease occurs mainly through splash dispersal of conidia from infected leaves. Rainfall at the stem extension growth stage is the major environmental factor in epidemic development. DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION: Rhynchosporium commune produces unique beak-shaped, one-septate spores both on leaves and in culture. The development of a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and, more recently, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has allowed the identification of asymptomatic infection in seeds and during the growing season. The main measure for the control of R. commune is the use of fungicides with different modes of action, in combination with the use of resistant cultivars. However, this is constantly under review because of the ability of the pathogen to adapt to host plant resistance and to develop fungicide resistance. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  14. A case of Schizophyllum commune sinusitis following unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Takashi; Shinohara, Akihito; Tatsuno, Keita; Seo, Sachiko; Nannya, Yasuhito; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Makimura, Koichi; Moriya, Kyoji; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2013-08-01

    Schizophyllum commune is a globally distributed basidiomycete fungus that is known as a rare cause of sinusitis, for which no prompt treatment has been established. We describe the first report of S. commune sinusitis following unrelated cord blood transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Thirteen days after transplantation, a 23-year-old female developed maxillary and ethmoid sinusitis. The sinusitis was antimicrobial-resistant, and the sinus aspirate culture revealed white wooly mold, which was identified as S. commune by nucleotide sequencing. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous administration of liposomal amphotericin B for 2 months, followed by oral voriconazole. This report suggests the effectiveness of liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole for S. commune infection in immunocompromised patients. Given the difficulty in distinguishing S. commune infection from aspergillosis by standard culture methods, the incidence of S. commune infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be underestimated. Nucleotide sequencing may be useful in the diagnosis of S. commune infection.

  15. Gestion documentaire des dossiers mixtes : méthodes et outils dans une approche-métier

    OpenAIRE

    Monfort, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Comment gérer de façon efficiente les dossiers mixtes où coexistent des documents physiques et des documents électroniques ? Après avoir exploré la notion de dossier dans les environnements physique et électronique, ce mémoire tente d'identifier des solutions de gestion documentaire permettant de répondre aux spécificités des dossiers dont les supports sont hétérogènes en s'appuyant sur une approche-métier à travers l'étude du dossier individuel de salarié et du dossier relatif à l'immeuble....

  16. Preparing dossiers: strength of the evidence and problems of proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David P

    2012-02-01

    In Europe, for authorisation of a health claim, applicants must follow the procedures in the legislation and in the guidelines for submission of a dossier set out by the European Food Safety Authority. The Functional Foods in Europe (FUFOSE) and Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods (PASSCLAIM) projects underpinned the laws and provided criteria against which the quality of the totality of the available data could be judged. Whereas the regulations and PASSCLAIM require an assessment of the extent to which cause and effect can be demonstrated between a food category, a food or constituent and a health benefit, the European Food Safety Authority requires conclusive evidence of cause and effect. This latter standard of proof and a focus on randomised controlled trials done on isolated components and using validated physiological biomarkers may not always be appropriate to assess nutrition science. The aims of this paper are to address the strengths and weaknesses of different sources of evidence that contribute to the totality of the available data, to undertake a critical examination of the application of a drug-like assessment model in evidence-based nutrition and to encourage research on new biomarkers of health and homeostatic adaptability. There is a need for (a) a robust and pragmatic scientific framework for assessing the strength, consistency and biological plausibility of the evidence, and (b) consumer understanding research on claims that use qualifying language and/or graphics to reflect the weight of evidence. Such scientific, policy and communication approaches are proportionate and could help stimulate academic research, promote fair trade and product innovation and contribute to consumer education about food and health.

  17. Iminolactones from Schizophyllum commune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xuemei; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liu, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Schizine A (1) and B (2) the first naturally occurring iminolactones (3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-oxazin-2-one derivatives) to be reported have been isolated from the fruiting bodies of Schizophyllym commune. In principle the 2-oxazinone moiety might have been formed by a reaction between the amino acids ...

  18. Hydrophobin gene expression affects hyphal wall composition in Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wetter, MA; Wosten, HAB; Sietsma, JH; Wessels, JGH

    2000-01-01

    Disruption of the SC3 hydrophobin gene of Schizophyllum commune (Delta SC3 strain) affected the composition of the cell wall. Compared to a wild-type strain the amount of mucilage (i.e., water-soluble (1-3)beta -glucan with single glucose residues attached by (I-G)P-linkages) increased considerably,

  19. FRUITING GENES OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE ARE TRANSCRIPTIONALLY REGULATED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUREN, FHJ; VANDERLENDE, TR; WESSELS, JGH

    Fruiting genes in Schizophyllum commune are controlled by the mating-type genes and other regulatory genes. To examine whether differential accumulation of mRNAs for these fruiting genes is caused by transcriptional regulation, run-on transcription assaYs were performed with nuclei isolated from

  20. FRUITING GENES OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE ARE TRANSCRIPTIONALLY REGULATED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUREN, FHJ; VANDERLENDE, TR; WESSELS, JGH

    1993-01-01

    Fruiting genes in Schizophyllum commune are controlled by the mating-type genes and other regulatory genes. To examine whether differential accumulation of mRNAs for these fruiting genes is caused by transcriptional regulation, run-on transcription assaYs were performed with nuclei isolated from cul

  1. Schizophyllum commune: an emergent or misdiagnosed fungal pathogen in rhinology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Justin; Maubon, Danièle; Varoquaux, Damien Arthur; Boulze, Carole; Normand, Anne Cécile; Righini, Christian Adrien; Piarroux, Renaud; Dessi, Patrick; Ranque, Stéphane

    2016-03-01

    Schizophyllum commune is a common basidiomycete fungus that is rarely involved in human disease. The medical records of patients operated on for fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) in two University Hospitals between 2012 and 2014 were reviewed. Within the two-year survey, six female, and notably no male, patients were diagnosed with S. commune rhinosinusitis. Mean age was 44.6 years at diagnosis (30 to 68 years). Mean time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 8.5 months (2 to 12 months). All six patients were immunocompetent and had no particular host factor for FRS. S. commune was identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and identifications were confirmed via DNA sequence analysis. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis was diagnosed in three of our six patients. Based on histological findings, antifungal treatment was delivered in association with surgery. The basidiomycete fungus S. commune is an emerging cause of rhinosinusitis probably as a direct consequence of the recent technological progress in fungal identification methods (DNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Urban Commune: Fact or Fad, Promise or Pipe Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Saul V.; And Others

    This paper focuses its attention on the evolving communes in many North American cities and their members. The purpose was to learn as much as possible about how people live under this one particular set of conditions, the criteria for success or failure of this life style, and the implications for society and the future. This is an…

  3. Sparetime Education in Shanyang People's Commune. (People's Republic of China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang-Da, Yao

    Sparetime education has been developed in the Shanyang People's Commune to accomplish three major tasks. These are to wipe out illiteracy among the young and middle-aged, to disseminate knowledge about society and about agricultural technology, and to train personnel with knowledge in various social, economic, and technological fields. To meet the…

  4. Chitin-glucan complex production by Schizophyllum commune submerged cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnou, Dzianis; Krcmar, Martin; Prochazkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Chitin-glucan complex is a fungal origin copolymer that finds application in medicine and cosmetics. Traditionally, the mycelium of Micromycetes is considered as an industrial chitin-glucan complex source. Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune submerged cultivation for chitin-glucan complex production was studied. In different S. commune strains chitin-glucan complex composed 15.2 +/- 0.4 to 30.2 +/- 0.2% of mycelium dry weight. Optimized conditions for chitin-glucan complex production (nutrient medium composition in g/l: sucrose - 35, yeast extract - 4, Na2HPO4*12H2O - 2.5, MgSO4*7 H2O - 0.5; medium initial pH 6.5; aeration intensity 21 of air per 11 of medium; 144 hours of cultivation) resulted in 3.5 +/- 0.3 g/l complex yield. Redirection of fungal metabolism from exopolysaccharide synthesis to chitin-glucan complex accumulation was achieved most efficiently by aeration intensity increase. Chitin-glucan complex from S. commune had the structure of microfibers with diameter 1-2 microm, had water-swelling capacity of 18 g/g, and was composed of 16.63% chitin and 83.37% glucan with a degree of chitin deacetylation of 26.9%. S. commune submerged cultivation is a potent alternative to Micromycetes for industrial-scale chitin-glucan complex production.

  5. FRUITING GENES OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE ARE TRANSCRIPTIONALLY REGULATED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUREN, FHJ; VANDERLENDE, TR; WESSELS, JGH

    1993-01-01

    Fruiting genes in Schizophyllum commune are controlled by the mating-type genes and other regulatory genes. To examine whether differential accumulation of mRNAs for these fruiting genes is caused by transcriptional regulation, run-on transcription assaYs were performed with nuclei isolated from cul

  6. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users: case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the environmental aspects of the surveys (health-related aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of good practices (including zero pesticides) and a growing awareness of environmental issues among non-agricultural users. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major environmental risks (in the form of water pollution from pesticides). Information, awareness-raising and training therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  7. Serbian: The Serbian Language in Education in Hungary. Regional Dossiers Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, Anton, Comp.; Solymosi, Judit, Comp.

    2014-01-01

    This regional dossier aims at providing a concise description of and basic statistics on minority language education in a specific region of Europe--the territory of Magyarország (Hungary). Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as…

  8. Welsh: The Welsh Language in Education in the UK, 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meirion Prys, Comp.; Jones, Ceinwen, Comp.

    2014-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  9. Maltese: The Maltese Language in Education in Malta. Regional Dossiers Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciriha, Lydia, Comp.

    2013-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe--Malta. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as…

  10. Basque: The Basque Language in Education in France. Second Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe--the Northern Basque country. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support…

  11. Tips for Constructing a Promotion and Tenure Dossier that Documents Engaged Scholarship Endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of the community engagement movement in higher education over the past 2 decades has resulted in more faculty member interest and practice in engaged scholarship. As more institutions value this work, faculty members are looking for ways to enhance the effectiveness of their engaged scholarship dossiers for promotion and tenure. This…

  12. Bilateral allergic fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune and Aspergillus niger. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Khalifa; Ishino, Takashi; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Schizophillum commune (S. commune) is a rare type of basidiomycetous fungus that has being reported as a cause of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), invasive type of fungal sinusitis and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM). However, it is believed that S. commune was often misdiagnosed to Aspergillus sp. We report a case of bilateral nasal polyps and maxillary, ethmoidal and sphenoidal involvement within the context of S. commune and Aspergillus niger associated AFRS. Our patient was suffering from a chronic disease with periods of remission and exacerbation and was treated successfully by a combination of surgical and antifungal treatment. In our experience, S. commune may be found frequently in patients with AFRS. AFRS, including the S. commune-associated type, usually runs a prolonged course and can affect any paranasal sinus. Surgical treatment alone is not sufficient and must be combined with medical treatment.

  13. ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA AGAINST SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE FR. IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTARJO DIKIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune Fr., is one of the important fungi, causes brown germ and seed rot of oil palm. Biodiversity of antagonistic bacteria from oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia is expected to support in development of biopesticide. Isolation with liquid assay and screening antagonistic bacteria using dual culture assay were carried out in the bioexploration. A total of 265 bacterial isolates from plant parts of oil palm screened 52 antagonistic bacterial isolates against 5. commune. Bacterial isolates were identified by using Biolog* Identification System i.e. Bacillus macroccanus, B. thermoglucosidasius, Burkholderia cepacia, B. gladioli, B. multivorans, B pyrrocinia, B. spinosa, Corynebacterium agropyri, C. misitidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Microbacterium testaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. citronellolis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Serratia ficaria, Serratia sp., S. marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri, Sternotrophomonas maltophilia.

  14. The distribution of all French communes: A composite parametric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderín-Ojeda, Enrique

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of the size of all French settlements (communes) from 1962 to 2012 is examined by means of a three-parameter composite Lognormal-Pareto distribution. This model is based on a Lognormal density up to an unknown threshold value and a Pareto density thereafter. Recent findings have shown that the untruncated settlement size data is in excellent agreement with the Lognormal distribution in the lower and central parts of the empirical distribution, but it follows a power law in the upper tail. For that reason, this probabilistic family, that nests both models, seems appropriate to describe urban agglomeration in France. The outcomes of this paper reveal that for the early periods (1962-1975) the upper quartile of the commune size data adheres closely to a power law distribution, whereas for later periods (2006-2012) most of the city size dynamics is explained by a Lognormal model.

  15. Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune: an emerging pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Ashok, Rangaiahgari; Majety, Madhavi; Chitta, Megharaj; Narayen, Nitesh

    2016-07-12

    Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune is very rare. In this study, we report the clinical and microbiological profile of five patients with fungal keratitis due to S. commune. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings from all five patients showed septate branching hyaline fungal filaments. Similarly, in all five patients Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates inoculated with corneal scrapings showed white, cottony colonies on the second day of incubation. Lactophenol cotton blue stained wet preparation of 7-day-old colonies on SDA revealed clamp connections and no spores. The fungus was identified by its characteristic clamp connections, fan-shaped bracket fruiting body with pinkish-grey longitudinally split-radiating gills. The phenotypic identification of one of the five isolates further conformed by ITS sequencing. Treatment outcome was available for two of the five patients; in these two patients, the keratitis resolved with topical natamycin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Case report of Schizophyllum commune sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ángela Castro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune is a basidiomycete fungus with broad distribution in nature; however, it is a rare cause of infectious disease. We report the isolation of this mould in a 46 year-old immunocompetent patient with chronic sinusitis previously treated with multiple antibiotics and topical nasal steroids. Material obtained via a left maxillary sinus antrostomy showed septate hyaline hyphae with clamp connections on direct examination with KOH and histopathological studies. Further growth on Sabouraud agar produced a white mould that, based on its microscopic and macroscopic characteristics, was identified as S. commune. Despite its low frequency, this fungus should be considered a possible pathogen, particularly in samples obtained from paranasal sinuses.

  17. A Case of Sinusitis Caused by Schizophyllum Commune and Bacteria in Acute Myelocytic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiuyun; Liang, Yuying; Zeng, Lijun; Chen, Shuiping

    2015-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune infections have been rarely reported. Here we reported a rare case of sinusitis in an acute myelocytic leukemia patient, who was co-infected by Escherichia coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and basidiomycetous fungi (Schizophyllum commune) in sinuses. Considering the in vitro and in vivo anti-fungal activity of voriconazole, it might be a good option to treat Schizophyllum commune infections when antifungal susceptibility testing is not available. When severe side effects occur, amphotericin B or itraconazole might be subsequent choice.

  18. Maxillary Sinusitis Caused by Medusoid Form of Schizophyllum commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Lynne; Bartley, James R.; Parr, Dinah H.; Morris, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of maxillary sinusitis in a diabetic female caused by the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. Identification of the isolate was hampered by its atypical features. Subcultures formed sterile medusoid structures from nonclamped mycelia until spontaneous dikaryotization resulted in the development of characteristic fan-shaped fruiting bodies. Identification was confirmed by the presence of spicules formed on the hyphae and by vegetative compatibility with known isolates. PMID:10488217

  19. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J T

    2016-09-23

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically.

  20. Schizophyllum commune: a new organism in eye infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suman; Sengupta, Jayangshu; Banerjee, Debdulal; Khetan, Archana; Mandal, Santi Mohan

    2013-04-01

    We report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by a rare fungus Schizophyllum commune. Clinical examination, slit-lamp examination, and microbiological evaluation of the corneal ulcer were done, and its treatment outcome was studied. The fungal etiology was established by conventional microbiological techniques, polymerase chain reaction and speciation by DNA sequencing. Corneal scraping showed the presence of fungal filaments. The fungus was identified as S. commune based on DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region. The organism was susceptible to amphotericin B and voriconazole and demonstrated resistance to anidulafungin, itraconazole, and fluconazole. Therapeutic keratoplasty was performed but there was recurrence of the infection in the graft, which was controlled with topical voriconazole and intracameral amphotericin B. At the end of 3 months, the affected eye had developed phthisis bulbi. The best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of keratitis caused by the rare fungus S. commune. Management of these cases is difficult, and surgical procedures may be needed.

  1. Genomic and Biochemical Analysis of N Glycosylation in the Mushroom-Forming Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, E.; Ohm, R.A.; Jong, de J.F.; Rouwendal, G.J.A.; Wosten, H.A.B.; Lugones, L.G.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    N-linked glycans of Schizophyllum commune consist of Man(5-9)GlcNAc(2) structures. Lack of further glycan maturation is explained by the absence of genes encoding such functions in this and other homobasidiomycetes. N-linked glycans in vegetative mycelium and fruiting bodies of S. commune are mainly

  2. From Hollowed-Out Council to Educative Commune: Imagining Local Authorities in a Democratic Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the case for local authorities having an important role in a renewed democratic public education, adopting the term "educative commune" to express an image of the local authority as a protagonist working with others to build a local educational project. As well as considering the role of this educative commune in a…

  3. Fatal empyema thoracis caused by Schizophyllum commune with cross-reactive cryptococcal antigenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper F W; Teng, Jade L L; Li, Iris W S; Wong, Sally C Y; Leung, Sally S M; Ho, Po-On; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-02-01

    We report a fatal case of Schizophyllum commune empyema thoracis with cross-reactive cryptococcal antigenemia. In vitro testing confirmed the ability of the fungus to cause a positive cryptococcal antigen latex agglutination system (CALAS) test result. Such a result may lead to delay in diagnosis and treatment, as most strains of S. commune are resistant to fluconazole.

  4. Reorganization of Elementary Educational System and Commutation of Children to Collective Commune Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palonka, Krystyna Maria

    Between 1973-1979, the elementary educational system in rural areas of Poland has been reorganized into a system of collective commune schools; students commute or are bused to the schools. Since September 1973, 944 new collective commune schools have been set up. A study of the data indicates that the process of setting up collective commune…

  5. Obtaining funds from the EU budget by rural communes of the Masovian voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wojewódzka-Wiewiórska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-repayable funds, including those offered within the framework of EU funds, constitute an important source of funding for activities undertaken by communes. The aim of the article is to define the level of absorption of funds from the EU budget by rural communes of the Masovian voivodeship in 2006-2009. The typology of the communes was done on the basis of the level of their socio-economic development (synthetic index zi and the amount of funds obtained (absorption index Wa. The statistical data came from the Local Data Bank (BDL of the Central Statistical Office (GUS. Rural communes of the Masovian voivodeship are highly varied in terms of obtaining funds from the EU budget. In the case of 10.5% of the rural communes in the analysed voivodeship no funds were obtained from the EU in the period in question. Almost one third of the rural communes is characterised by a low level of development and a medium level of funds absorption. The least numerous (7% are communes with a high level of devel-opment and low absorption. Communes with a low level of development and low absorp-tion of EU funds exist in every subregion of the voivodeship.

  6. Nano Regulation in the European Union (NanoTrust Dossier No. 017en – November 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberger, Iris; Nentwich, Michael; Fiedeler, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, the European Union has intensified its efforts with regard to regulatory aspects of nanotechnology. New legislation is based on existing regulations. At the beginning the assumption still prevailed that current legislation would suffice to cover nanotechnology. However, some fields have started to adapt; in particular with regard to chemicals, cosmetics and food. This dossier describes the changing EU regulatory strategy. It further gives an overview of legal fields important to n...

  7. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  8. Functional and Comparative Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation by Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A.; Lee, Hanbyul; Park, Hongjae; Brewer, Heather M.; Carver, Akiko; Copeland, Alex; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Martin, Joel; Purvine, Samuel O.; Schackwitz, Wendy; Tegelaar, Martin; Tritt, Andrew; Baker, Scott; Choi, In-Geol; Lugones, Luis G.; Wosten, Han A. B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    The Basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune is a wood-decaying fungus and is used as a model system to study lignocellulose degradation. Version 3.0 of the genome assembly filled 269 of 316 sequence gaps and added 680 kb of sequence. This new assembly was reannotated using RNAseq transcriptomics data, and this resulted in 3110 (24percent) more genes. Two additional S. commune strains with different wood-decaying properties were sequenced, from Tattone (France) and Loenen (The Netherlands). Sequence comparison shows remarkably high sequence diversity between the strains. The overall SNP rate of > 100 SNPs/kb is among the highest rates of within-species polymorphisms in Basidiomycetes. Some well-described proteins like hydrophobins and transcription factors have less than 70percent sequence identity among the strains. Some chromosomes are better conserved than others and in some cases large parts of chromosomes are missing from one or more strains. Gene expression on glucose, cellulose and wood was analyzed in two S. commune strains. Overall, gene expression correlated between the two strains, but there were some notable exceptions. Of particular interest are CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes) that are regulated in different ways in the different strains. In both strains the transcription factor Fsp1 was strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose and wood, when compared to glucose. Over-expression of Fsp1 using a constitutive promoter resulted in higher cellulose and xylose-degrading enzyme activity, which suggests that Fsp1 is involved in regulating CAZyme gene expression. Two CAZyme genes (of family GH61 and GH11) were shown to be strongly up-regulated during growth on cellulose, compared to glucose. Proteomics on the secreted proteins in the growth medium confirmed this. A promoter analysis revealed the shortest active promoters for these two genes, as well as putative transcription factor binding sites.

  9. Cyclohexanone derivatives with cytotoxicity from the fungus Penicillium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-zhi; Ren, Jin-wei; Tang, Jin-shan; Liu, Xing-zhong; Che, Yong-sheng; Yao, Xin-sheng

    2013-06-01

    Four new cyclohexanone derivatives (2-5) and one known analog, (-)-Palitantin (1) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Penicillium commune, a fungal strain of low-temperature habitats. The structures of 2-5 were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, the absolute configuration of 2 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, whereas that 3-5 were deduced via the CD data. Cytotoxicities of 2-5 against five human carcinoma cell lines (Hela, A549, MCF7, HCT116, T24) were evaluated.

  10. Agricultural activities in the Oleśnica commune

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the agricultural activity in the Oleśnica commune. The representative rural property owner was a secondary-educated 43-year old man. Over 70% of respondents demonstrated their willingness to expand by purchasing or renting land and also to develop infrastructure. Agricultural activities within this area were focused mainly on plant-growing, which was preferable due to sustained tide of the market. Arable land was the dominating land type and the ...

  11. Medieval codes of ius commune in Portugal: status quaestionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Portugal inherited from the kingdom of León legal sources and its earliest law code. With the “rebirth” of Roman law, the Ius commune –arriving very early in the twelfth century– soon came to shape everyday life, from the middle ages until the Enlightenment of the late eighteenth century. Enormous research efforts have been made to locate chronologically and spatially medieval remnants of these legal texts. This work aims to provide a summary, including a comprehensive and updated picture, of the status quaestionis of this theme.

  12. Translocation in Polytrichum commune (Bryophyta). II. Clonal integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.J.; Schiele, E.M.; Damberg, D.T. (Bates College, Lewiston, ME (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Polytrichum commune is a perennial moss that grows by rhizomatous production of interconnected shoots. It possesses a well-developed internal system of food-conducting tissue. Liquid scintillation determinations following pulse-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} treatment of a single shoot in rhizomatously connected groups indicate that tagged photoassimilates are transported into: (1) newly developing stems during the early growing season; (2) shared rhizomes (with an increase observed in rhizome allocation toward the end of the year, as well as a year-end percentage increase in starch reserves); and (3) mature neighboring shoots. Over the course of the growing season, photoassimilate export from pulse-labeled shoots ranges between 12.9% and 21.4% of total tagged. The amount of export is significantly influenced by defoliation, shading, stem tip removal, and 50 ppm indole-3-acetic acid treatments performed on rhizomatously connected neighbor shoots. Physiological integration within P. commune can be inferred from these results. Control is exerted by endogenous hormones or by changes in the activity of sources and sinks.

  13. Hypocholesterolemic effect of Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing, an edible blue-green alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Heather E; Blobaum, Kara R; Jesch, Elliot D; Ku, Chai Siah; Park, Young-Ki; Lu, Fan; Carr, Timothy P; Lee, Ji-Young

    2009-10-01

    Intake of an edible blue-green alga Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (N. Commune) has been shown to lower plasma total cholesterol concentration, but the mechanisms behind the hypocholesterolemic effect have not been elucidated. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of N. commune in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed the AIN-93 M diet supplemented with 0 or 5% (wt/wt) dried N. Commune for 4 weeks. Lipid levels in the plasma and liver, intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal sterol excretion were measured. Expression of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was evaluated by quantitative realtime PCR. N. commune supplementation significantly reduced total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations by approximately 20% compared to controls. Intestinal cholesterol absorption was significantly decreased, while fecal neutral sterol output was significantly increased in N. commune-fed mice. mRNA levels of the cholesterol transporters such as Niemann Pick C1 Like 1, scavenger receptor class B type 1, ATP-binding cassette transporters G5 and A1 in small intestine were not significantly different between two groups. Hepatic lipid contents including total cholesterol, triglyceride and free cholesterol in N. commune-fed mice were not significantly altered. However, the expression of cholesterol modulating genes including sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase were significantly increased in mice fed N. commune. N. commune supplementation exerted a hypocholesterolemic effect in mice, largely in part, by reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption and promoting fecal neutral sterol excretion.

  14. Dossiers documentaires : techniques et enjeux : le cas du pôle veille et analyses média

    OpenAIRE

    Joly, Johnatan

    2012-01-01

    La restructuration d'un fonds de dossiers documentaires au sein du pôle veille et analyses média du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication a été l'occasion d'opérer une réflexion globale sur les enjeux liés à la création, l'alimentation et les modalités de diffusion d'un tel fonds. Ce mémoire débute par une définition du dossier documentaire pour ensuite étudier les apports d'un fonds de dossiers dans les tâches quotidiennes d'un centre de documentation mais aussi ses vertus stratégiq...

  15. Une solidarité envers et entre les communes

    OpenAIRE

    FRINAULT, Thomas; Reigner, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    L'étude du dispositif lié à la dotation de solidarité communautaire (DSC) souligne une nouvelle fois que l'intercommunalité reste avant tout le résultat d'un processus de négociation. En attestent la liberté de créer ou non la DSC ; celle de décider de son importance budgétaire comme des clefs de répartition et des critères de pondération. « Ici, l'ordre communautaire apparaît assez largement apprivoisé par les communes. Nonobstant, les phénomènes observés d'institutionnalisation de la DSC ré...

  16. Jean-Christophe Bureau, La politique agricole commune

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, Coline

    2007-01-01

    Ce petit précis sur la politique agricole commune (PAC) tombe à pic ! À l’heure où la politique agricole devient l’affaire de tous, discutée aussi bien dans le Grenelle de l’environnement que dans le dernier rapport sur le développement de la Banque mondiale, dénoncée comme trop dispendieuse des fonds publics ou défendue pour sa contribution à l’harmonie du territoire, il était temps de pouvoir se replonger dans l’analyse historique et économique du rôle qu’elle a joué en Europe. Jean-Christo...

  17. Agricultural activities in the Oleśnica commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Borkowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse and assess the agricultural activity in the Oleśnica commune. The representative rural property owner was a secondary-educated 43-year old man. Over 70% of respondents demonstrated their willingness to expand by purchasing or renting land and also to develop infrastructure. Agricultural activities within this area were focused mainly on plant-growing, which was preferable due to sustained tide of the market. Arable land was the dominating land type and the main products were: grains, potatoes and rape. Introduced in farms innovations were focused on increasing ef-fectiveness of plant-growing and improving the quality of work in rural properties. These innovations were expected to increase income and, in longer term, make the rural production more competitive on the European market.

  18. Antimicrobial Aromatic Polyketides from Gorgonian- Associated Fungus, Penicillium commune 518

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊锋; 刘培培; 王义; 王慧; 李静; 庄以彬; 朱伟明

    2012-01-01

    Seven new aromatic polyketides, communols A-G (1-7), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of Penicillium commune 518, a marine-derived fungus associated with the Gorgonian, Muricella abnormalis. The new structures of 1-7 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Among them, communol D (4) was the first example of a naturally occurring aromatic polyketide with a sulfoxide group from marine thngi. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 all showed moderate antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 4.1/16.4, 6.4/25.8, and 23.8/23.8μmoloL^-1, respectively.

  19. Hybridization and asymmetric reproductive isolation between the closely related bryophyte taxa Polytrichum commune and P. uliginosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, M; Bijlsma, R

    2004-01-01

    Based on genetic differentiation, the haploid dioecious bryophyte taxa Polytrichum commune and P. uliginosum have been inferred to be completely reproductively isolated. However, analysing diploid sporophytes from a sympatric population for three diagnostic microsatellite markers, we show here that

  20. Molecular detection of Schizophyllum commune in a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prashant; Verma, Nitya; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Agarwal, Satya Prakash

    2015-05-24

    We present a rare case of Schizophyllum commune causing allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) in a 56-year-old immunocompetent woman. In our case, diagnosis of AFRS was based on the history of illness, CT scan findings, culture and PCR. The PCR product was further analysed by sequencing to confirm S. commune. The patient was treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and antiallergic drugs. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of morphological variation and biomass growth of Nostoc commune under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yi; Yang, Zujun

    2014-05-01

    Nostoc commune is a blue green alga used for health food and herbal medicine due to its nutritional values and antioxidant properties. However, wild type N. commune has been decreasing in quantity as a result of ever-growing market demand and environmental pollution. Therefore, artificial culture of N. commune is important as it can bring great social and economic benefits. In this article, N. commune was cultured in BG11 medium, under which condition morphological variation and biomass growth of N. commune were investigated. Results indicated that concentration, fresh weight and dry weight of the colony increased fastest at 40 rpm from the 1st day to 14th day and the fresh and dry weight increased as the culturing time was prolonged, and reached 27.22 g l⁻¹ and 0.88 g l⁻¹ respectively on 56th day. Aggregated cell mass formed on 4th day and it expanded to asteriated colonies on 10th day. Single microcolonies formed on the 21st day had diameters 200-250 μm. Macrocolonies obtained after 28 days had diameters of 5 mm on 42nd day. Discoid colonies were formed as macrocolonies ruptured on 49th day and the diameter reached 15 mm on 56th day. Results of the present study can promote large-scale industrial production of N. commune.

  2. The tourism resources and possibilities using of its for development of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Andrzej; Brzezińska-Wójcik, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Structural part of the resources of the tourism potential of the town and commune of Nałęczów and the commune of Wojciechów was studied in this paper. In the study, the attractiveness of tourism resources of the communes was assessed based on 48 features grouped into four divisions: sightseeing assets, recreational and special assets, tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. A field survey (listing, query) and a quantitative evaluation of tourist resources, carried out by means of a multidimensional comparative analysis, indicated an appreciable difference in features between the commune of Nałęczów and commune of Wojciechów. The tourist attractiveness index determined for the commune of Nałęczów was 0.695, almost twice as high as the index for the commune of Wojciechów (0.349). In the light of carrying out of investigations, the tourist attractiveness of the commune of Nałęczów results primarily from its environmental (mineral springs, unique flora) and cultural assets (historic monuments) as well as recreational assets (bioclimate, forest complexes, ravines; more than half of the commune's territory is within the Kazimierz Landscape Park) and special assets (angling). The tourism potential of the commune of Wojciechów is primarily determined by its recreational assets (diverse land relief) and special assets (hunting). The commune of Nałęczów is superior with regard to tourist infrastructure and environmental protection. Owing to the diversity of tourist assets, different degrees of tourist infrastructure development and varying quality of the natural environment, various forms of tourism exist in the two communes, i.e. educational tourism (environmental, geotourism, ecotourism, cultural and festival tourism), recreational tourism (agritourism), adventure tourism (walking, cycling, skiing and cross-country skiing) as well as health tourism (health, spa and wellness tourism).

  3. Presentación del Dossier. La hora del celuloide: Historia, Tiempo Presente y Cine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Germán Fandiño Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier pretende ofrecer diferentes reflexiones y visiones sobre el mundo del cine y la impronta que éste ha dejado sobre nuestra historia más reciente, tanto en aspectos relacionados con la Historia Cultural, como en otros directamente implicados con aspectos políticos, sociales y propagandísticos característicos de nuestras sociedades contemporáneas. Todo ello viene a incidir en la premisa, reforzada ya hace tiempo, de que el llamado séptimo arte tiene mucho que aportar a quienes cultivamos la disciplina de Clío y, muy especialmente, a todos aquellos que, tras sus huellas, observan y atisban el latido vivo y cercano de nuestra realidad más inmediata.___________________ABSTRACT:This dossier tries to offer different approaches and visions about the cinema world and the stamp that this one has left on our more recent history, as much in aspects related to Cultural History, like in others directly implied with political, social and propagandistic issues, characteristic of our contemporary societies. All this comes to affect the premise, reinforced years ago, of which the named seventh art must much contribute to those who we cultivated the discipline of Clio and, very especially, to all those that, after their tracks, observe and watch the alive and near beat of our immediate reality.

  4. Dossier "La gestió de la cultura, una nova disciplina?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Munilla

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Tradicionalment, ni les universitats ni altres centres de formació han considerat la gestió de la cultura com un àmbit de coneixement propi i sí, en canvi, com a dependent d'altres de clàssicament acceptats per la comunitat científica i educativa.En aquest dossier tres investigadors i professionals, des dels seus diferents àmbits d'aplicació professional, ens acosten al món de la gestió cultural des de diferents vessants: la gestió cultural en les institucions públiques i la seva aproximació al món universitari; l'impacte que dues institucions i el seu model de gestió, el Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona (MACBA i el Centre de Cultura Contemporània de Barcelona (CCCB, poden tenir per a una ciutat i per a un barri, i com es veu aquesta nova disciplina des del dia a dia de la gestió d'esdeveniments culturals d'abast internacional. A tots tres, Alba Colombo, Joaquim Rius i Laura Solanilla, els uneix la passió per aquesta disciplina; tots tres, a més, escenifiquen exactament fins a quin punt aquesta formació interdisciplinària és bàsica per a aquesta "nova" (o no tan nova professió de la cultura. Text complet (PDF Dossier complet (PDF

  5. MonDossierMedical.ch - The Personal Health Record for Every Geneva Citizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Aurélie; Schmid, Adian; Plaut, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    MonDossierMedical.ch is a project led by the canton of Geneva, making it possible for every patient to access his own electronic health record (EHR) and to share the medical files with his doctors. It was introduced across the canton in mid-2013, and provided to all patients free of charge. It is based on the first Swiss-wide eHealth-compliant pilot project "e-toile". The canton of Geneva developed "e-toile" as a public-private partnership together with Swiss Post and it was launched in 2011 in some of the canton's municipalities. Back then, Geneva's EHR represented the first Swiss attempt to link all healthcare professionals in the treatment chain. Today, it serves more than 6,000 patients and 400 physicians. This number is growing regularly, as well as the health care institutions (private hospitals, labs) joining the community. The project fits into the national strategy of Switzerland in establishing a national EHR by linking regional implementations like MonDossierMedical.

  6. A Critical Analysis of the Environmental Dossiers from the OECD Sponsorship Programme for the Testing of Manufactured Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Hjorth, Rune; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2017-01-01

    prior, during and/or at the end of the study. We find that the information in the dossiers present an incomplete portfolio of nanomaterial ecotoxicological evaluations that are difficult to draw substantive conclusions from and that most of the studies were not designed to investigate the validity...

  7. Dossier Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weegh-Nieboer, M. op de

    2010-01-01

    Below the 100 nm, we enter the world of nanoparticles. Our relative unfamiliarity with this world can be a problem for us in roughly two different ways. We can become so blinded by the opportunities that we lose sight of the risks involved; or we can become so blinded by the risks that we do not tak

  8. The Einstein dossiers science and politics - Einstein's Berlin period with an appendix on Einstein's FBI file

    CERN Document Server

    Grundmann, Siegfried

    2004-01-01

    In 1919 the Prussian Ministry of Science, Arts and Culture opened a dossier on "Einstein's Theory of Relativity." It was rediscovered by the author in 1961 and is used in conjunction with numerous other subsequently identified 'Einstein' files as the basis of this fascinating book. In particular, the author carefully scrutinizes Einstein's FBI file from 1950-55 against mostly unpublished material from European including Soviet sources and presents hitherto unknown documentation on Einstein's alleged contacts with the German Communist Party and the Comintern. Siegfried Grundmann's thorough study of Einstein's participation on a committee of the League of Nations, based on archival research in Geneva, is also new. This book outlines Einstein's image in politics and German science policy. It covers the period from his appointment as a researcher in Berlin to his fight abroad against the "boycott of German science" after World War I and his struggle at home against attacks on "Jewish physics" of which he was made...

  9. Dossier : L’Amérique militante aujourd’hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Vallas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Les années 1960 et 70 ont vu le développement florissant d’un militantisme « tous azimuts », d’une mobilisation sans précédent des femmes, des Afro-Américains, des étudiants, des minorités sexuelles, qui a réussi à profondément modifier le paysage social, politique et culturel des Etats-Unis. Les mouvements sociaux et l’activisme politique de cette période ont déjà fait l’objet de nombreux travaux et d’abondantes recherches, et c’est pourquoi ce dossier se donne pour objet d’étude « L’Amériqu...

  10. Transcriptional analysis of genes encoding β-glucosidase of Schizophyllum commune KUC9397 under optimal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Min; Lee, Hanbyul; Heo, Young Mok; Lee, Hwanhwi; Hong, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-05-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the gene responsible for beta-glucosidase (BGL) production and to generate a full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of one of the putative BGL genes, which showed a significant expression level when Schizophyllum commune KUC9397 was grown in optimized medium. The relative expression levels of seven genes encoding BGL of S. commune KUC9397 were determined with real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR in cellulose-containing optimized medium (OM) compared to glucose-containing basal medium (BM). The most abundant transcript was bgl3a in OM. The transcript number of the bgl3a increased more than 57.60-fold when S. commune KUC9397 was grown on cellulose-containing OM compared to that on glucose-containing BM. The bgl3a was identified, and a deduced amino acid sequence of bgl3a shared homology (97%) with GH3 BGL of S. commune H4-8. This is the first report showing the transcription levels of genes encoding BGL and identification of full-length cDNA of glycoside hydrolase 3 (GH3) BGL from S. commune. Furthermore, this study is one of the steps for consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol.

  11. Molecular identification of Schizophyllum commune as a cause of allergic fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eun Jeong; Shin, Jong Hee; Lim, Sang Chul; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2012-09-01

    Schizophyllum commune, a basidiomycetous fungus, rarely causes disease in humans. We report a rare case of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in a 14-yr-old girl. The patient presented with nasal obstruction and a purulent nasal discharge. Materials obtained during endoscopic surgery of the frontal recess revealed allergic mucin and a few fungal hyphae. A potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture from the allergic mucin yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mold. Although no distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules or a clamp connection were present, the case isolate disclosed compatible mycological features including growth at 37℃, susceptibility to cycloheximide, and production of a tart and disagreeable smell. S. commune was confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA. We believe this is the first report of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in Korea. Moreover, this report highlights the value of gene sequencing as an identification tool for non-sporulating isolates of S. commune.

  12. Molecular genetic and chemotaxonomic characterization of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and its neighboring species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Hiromi; Horiguchi, Noriomi; Takaichi, Shinichi; Kofuji, Rumiko; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Wada, Keishiro; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeny of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and its neighboring Nostoc species was studied using molecular genetic and chemotaxonomic approaches. At least eight genotypes of N. commune were characterized by the differences among 16S rRNA gene sequences and the petH gene encoding ferredoxin-NADP⁺ oxidoreductase and by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. The genotypes of N. commune were distributed in Japan without regional specificity. The nrtP gene encoding NrtP-type nitrate/nitrite permease was widely distributed in the genus Nostoc, suggesting that the occurrence of the nrtP gene can be one of the characteristic features that separate cyanobacteria into two groups. The wspA gene encoding a 36-kDa water stress protein was only found in N. commune and Nostoc verrucosum, suggesting that these Nostoc species that form massive colonies with extracellular polysaccharides can be exclusively characterized by the occurrence of the wspA gene. Fifteen species of Nostoc and Anabaena were investigated by comparing their carotenoid composition. Three groups with distinct patterns of carotenoids were related to the phylogenic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences. Nostoc commune and Nostoc punctiforme were clustered in one monophyletic group and characterized by the occurrence of nostoxanthin, canthaxanthin, and myxol glycosides.

  13. Glycosylated porphyra-334 and palythine-threonine from the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Yamaba, Minami; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2013-08-26

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally different MAAs have been identified in eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. In this study novel glycosylated MAAs were found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune (N. commune). An MAA with an absorption maximum at 334 nm was identified as a hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 508 Da. Another MAA with an absorption maximum at 322 nm was identified as a two hexose-bound palythine-threonine derivative with a molecular mass of 612 Da. These purified MAAs have radical scavenging activities in vitro, which suggests multifunctional roles as sunscreens and antioxidants. The 612-Da MAA accounted for approximately 60% of the total MAAs and contributed approximately 20% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract, indicating that it is the major water-soluble UV-protectant and radical scavenger component. The hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative and the glycosylated palythine-threonine derivatives were found in a specific genotype of N. commune, suggesting that glycosylated MAA patterns could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the characterization of the morphologically indistinguishable N. commune. The glycosylation of porphyra-334 and palythine-threonine in N. commune suggests a unique adaptation for terrestrial environments that are drastically fluctuating in comparison to stable aquatic environments.

  14. Molecular Identification of Schizophyllum commune as a Cause of Allergic Fungal Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eun Jeong; Lim, Sang Chul; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2012-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune, a basidiomycetous fungus, rarely causes disease in humans. We report a rare case of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in a 14-yr-old girl. The patient presented with nasal obstruction and a purulent nasal discharge. Materials obtained during endoscopic surgery of the frontal recess revealed allergic mucin and a few fungal hyphae. A potato dextrose agar (PDA) culture from the allergic mucin yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mold. Although no distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules or a clamp connection were present, the case isolate disclosed compatible mycological features including growth at 37℃, susceptibility to cycloheximide, and production of a tart and disagreeable smell. S. commune was confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 regions of the 26S ribosomal DNA. We believe this is the first report of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by S. commune in Korea. Moreover, this report highlights the value of gene sequencing as an identification tool for non-sporulating isolates of S. commune. PMID:22950076

  15. The mycelial response of the white-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune to the biocontrol agent, Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujor, Victor C; Monti, Monia; Peiris, Diluka Gayani; Clements, Mark Owen; Hedger, John Norman

    2012-02-01

    In this study, agar plate interaction between Schizophyllum commune and Trichoderma viride was investigated to characterise the physiological responses occurring during interspecific mycelial combat. The metabolite profiles and morphological changes in both fungi paired on agar were studied relative to the modulation of phenoloxidase activity in S. commune. The calcium ionophore A23187 was incorporated in self-paired cultures of S. commune to explore possible involvement of calcium influx in the response of S. commune to T. viride. The levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls in the confronted mycelia of S. commune were also measured. Contact with T. viride induced pigmentation and cell wall hydrolysis in S. commune with concomitant increase in phenoloxidase activity, rise in the levels of oxidative stress indicators and increased levels of phenolic compounds, antioxidant γ-amino butyric acid, and pyridoxine and osmo-protective sugar alcohols. Calcium ionophore mimicked the pigmentation in the T. viride-confronted mycelia of S. commune, implicating calcium influx in the response to T. viride. The changes in S. commune are indicative of targeted responses to osmotic and oxidative stresses and phenoloxidase-mediated detoxification of noxious compounds in the contact interface with T. viride, which may confer resistance in natural environments. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of mushrooms and lignocellulose degradation encoded in the genome sequence of Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt W.; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. Stephen; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han A.B.

    2010-07-12

    The wood degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is a model system for mushroom development. Here, we describe the 38.5 Mb assembled genome of this basidiomycete and application of whole genome expression analysis to study the 13,210 predicted genes. Comparative analyses of the S. commune genome revealed unique wood degrading machinery and mating type loci with the highest number of reported genes. Gene expression analyses revealed that one third of the 471 identified transcription factor genes were differentially expressed during sexual development. Two of these transcription factor genes were deleted. Inactivation of fst4 resulted in the inability to form mushrooms, whereas inactivation of fst3 resulted in more but smaller mushrooms than wild-type. These data illustrate that mechanisms underlying mushroom formation can be dissected using S. commune as a model. This will impact commercial production of mushrooms and the industrial use of these fruiting bodies to produce enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  17. The impact of local governments on their own revenue source efficiency. Review of communes in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Felis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current system of funding local governments in Poland requires changes; within tax revenues the changes should concern the system of property taxes. The reformed property tax should be a potential source of considerable additional commune revenues. The article is aimed at the analysis of how communes can affect the volume of revenues from property owned by other entities. The analyses concerning the role and place of property taxes in the system of revenues of Polish communes and the application of tax authority tools indicate that local authorities can develop to a slight degree the structure of property taxes to affect the volume of their revenues and the course of social and economic processes.

  18. The relations between the school and the commune in New China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kexiao, Lei

    1980-09-01

    There are close relationships between rural schools and communes. In fulltime primary and middle schools, emphasis is placed on the teaching and learning of scientific and cultural knowledge, but the principle of combining education with productive labour is also consistently followed and work-and-study programmes are actively carried out. The agricultural middle schools and agro-technical schools, basing their curricula on a work-and-study system, are directly governed by the communes and train agro-technical personnel for them. The communes provide various resources and facilities for schools. The present situation in the field of rural education is that secondary education is being structurally reformed and primary education popularized. After the overthrow of the `gang of four', difficulties in education still exist, but the situation is promising and its future is bright.

  19. Isolation and antitumor efficacy evaluation of a polysaccharide from Nostoc commune Vauch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Ding, Guo-Bin; Guo, Songjia; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Liangqi; Li, Ke; Guo, Xiangrong

    2015-09-01

    Nostoc commune Vauch. has been traditionally used as a healthy food and medicine for centuries especially in China. It has been demonstrated that the polysaccharides isolated from Nostoc commune Vauch. exhibit strong antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about their anticancer activities and the underlying mechanisms of action. Herein, we report the isolation of a polysaccharide from Nostoc commune Vauch. (NVPS), and its physicochemical properties were analyzed. In an attempt to demonstrate the potential application of NVPS in tumor chemotherapy, the in vitro antitumor activity was determined. NVPS significantly suppressed the growth and proliferation of MCF-7 and DLD1 cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this in vitro antitumor efficacy was elucidated, and the results indicated that NVPS simultaneously triggered intrinsic, extrinsic and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that NVPS could be used as a novel promising source of natural antitumor agents.

  20. Distribution of Penicillium commune isolates in cheese dairies mapped using secondary metabolite profiles, morphotypes, RAPD and AFLP fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Nielsen, A.B.; Skouboe, P.

    2003-01-01

    In an 8-year study of the diversity and distribution of Penicillium commune contaminants in two different cheese dairies, swab and air samples were taken from the production plants, the processing environment and contaminated cheeses. A total of 321 Penicillium commune isolates were characterized...... morphotyping, P. commune isolates with identical profiles using all four typing techniques were interpreted as closely related isolates with a common origin and the distribution of these isolates in the processing environment indicated possible contamination points in the cheese dairies. The coating process...... and unpacking of cheeses with growth of P. commune seemed to cause the contamination problems. Several identical P. commune isolates remained present in the processing environment for more than 7 years in both dairies....

  1. Isolation and in silico analysis of Fe-superoxide dismutase in the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesheri, Minu; Kanchan, Swarna; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-12-15

    Cyanobacteria are known to endure various stress conditions due to the inbuilt potential for oxidative stress alleviation owing to the presence of an array of antioxidants. The present study shows that Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune possesses two antioxidative enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase that jointly cope with environmental stresses prevailing at its natural habitat. Native-PAGE analysis illustrates the presence of a single prominent isoform recognized as Fe-SOD and three distinct isoforms of catalase. The protein sequence of Fe-SOD in N. commune retrieved from NCBI protein sequence database was used for in silico analysis. 3D structure of N. commune was predicted by comparative modeling using MODELLER 9v11. Further, this model was validated for its quality by Ramachandran plot, ERRAT, Verify 3D and ProSA-web which revealed good structure quality of the model. Multiple sequence alignment showed high conservation in N and C-terminal domain regions along with all metal binding positions in Fe-SOD which were also found to be highly conserved in all 28 cyanobacterial species under study, including N. commune. In silico prediction of isoelectric point and molecular weight of Fe-SOD was found to be 5.48 and 22,342.98Da respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that among 28 cyanobacterial species, Fe-SOD in N. commune was the closest evolutionary homolog of Fe-SOD in Nostoc punctiforme as evident by strong bootstrap value. Thus, N. commune may serve as a good biological model for studies related to survival of life under extreme conditions prevailing at the Antarctic region. Moreover cyanobacteria may be exploited for biochemical and biotechnological applications of enzymatic antioxidants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Les mécanismes généraux de financement des communes

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Dans le cadre d'une journée d'études du CIEP sur les finances communales, cet exposé a présenté le cadre général des finances communales, les enjeux des transferts généraux, les mécanismes de répartition du Fonds des communes dans les trois Régions belges, quelques autres tansferts généraux. La conclusion a principalement porté sur les inégalités entre commune et les marges de manoeuvre dont disposent les gestionnaires locaux.

  3. The application of GIS for the proposal of new communes in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Boldin

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS as a basis for the limitation of the new territorial units in Slovenia is described. Basic elements of arranging graphic and attributes data are described as well as the way of preparing different census data according to change of official commune codes and the way of digitalization of smaller territorial units, as a component part of new communes. Computer hardware and software is also presented.

  4. Conference/debate on nuclear power. Press file; Conference/debat sur le nucleaire. Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-15

    This press dossier presents in a digest way the advantages of nuclear power with respect to other energy sources. After a presentation of the worldwide energy resources (electric power demand, fossil-fuel reserves, renewable energies, environmental constraints), the dossier describes the functioning principle of a PWR reactor as a presentation of the French nuclear program (historical aspects, policy, organization of activities, trade, EPR project). In the last part, the sociological aspects of nuclear power are approached: environmental aspects (natural radioactivity, reactors safety, radioactive wastes, environment protection, carbon dioxide and energy production), and public health aspects (principles of radioactivity, dose effects, industrial and scientific applications of radionuclides, nuclear controversy, reactor accidents, legal aspects of radioprotection, safety standards and controls). (J.S.)

  5. Documenting the rationale and psychometric characteristics of patient reported outcomes for labeling and promotional claims: the PRO Evidence Dossier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, Dennis A; Gnanasakthy, Ari; Weinfurt, Kevin

    2007-05-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMEA) are willing to consider including information on patient reported outcomes (PROs) in product labeling and advertising. Pharmaceutical industry researchers must provide sufficient evidence supporting PRO benefit before an approval may be granted. This report describes the purpose and content of a PRO Evidence Dossier, which consists of important information supporting PRO claims. The dossier should be completed by pharmaceutical industry or other researchers to document the planning of the PRO assessment strategy, psychometric evidence, desired target labeling statements, and the clinical trial evidence of PRO benefits. The systematic reporting and documentation of information on the rationale for including PROs, rationale for the selection of specific PRO instruments, evidence on the psychometric qualities of the PRO measures, and guidelines for interpreting PRO findings will facilitate achieving a PRO labeling or promotional claim. Combining all the relevant information into a single document will facilitate the review and evaluation process for clinical and regulatory reviewers. The PRO Evidence Dossier may also be helpful to industry and academic researchers in identifying further information that will need to be developed to support the clinical development program and the PRO endpoints.

  6. Should we or shouldn't we? Some aspects of the confidentiality of clinical reporting and dossier access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, A

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, reservations are expressed about two deviations from analytic neutrality: when the analyst seeks the patient's permission for publication or presentation of clinical material and when the analyst allows the patient access to the dossier under access-of-information legislation. In the first case, concern centres mainly on the entanglement of the patient in the therapist's sanctioned version of their work, an entanglement that might inhibit future revisions of the patient's self-understanding. In the second case, the analytic mental space, symbolised by the dossier, is viewed as neither uniquely the analyst's nor the patient's, a complex dialectical chamber the privacy of which must be respected, even by the patient whose discourse contributes to it, in order for it to function effectively. Transparency and accountability in the analytic context reveal a paradox that is not exclusive to it: the possibility of full disclosure runs counter to the expression of subjective truth. In a clinical example, curiosity about the dossier is seen to have been a new version of an earlier thwarted questioning about origins and identity. A specific deficiency in the therapist's understanding may have contributed to the patient's enactment.

  7. Lipid extract of Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kutzing, a blue-green alga, inhibits the activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Heather E; Blobaum, Kara R; Park, Young-Ki; Ehlers, Sarah J; Lu, Fan; Lee, Ji-Young

    2008-03-01

    Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (N. commune), a blue-green alga, has been used as both a food ingredient and in medicine for centuries. To determine the effect of N. commune on cholesterol metabolism, N. commune lipid extract was incubated at increasing concentrations (25-100 mg/L) with HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. The addition of N. commune lipid extract markedly reduced mRNA abundance of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and LDL receptor (LDLR) (P commune lipid extract confirmed the inhibitory role of N. commune in cholesterol synthesis (P commune lipid extract, expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) was assessed. Whereas mRNA for SREBP-2 remained unchanged, SREBP-2 mature protein was reduced by N. commune (P commune lipid extract also decreased SREBP-1 mature protein by approximately 30% (P commune lipid extract inhibits the maturation process of both SREBP-1 and -2, resulting in a decrease in expression of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.

  8. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to co-infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and Schizophyllum commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Seki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old female presented with eosinophilic pneumonia accompanied by bronchial asthma. She was finally diagnosed with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM due to co-infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and Schizophyllum commune detected by genetic analysis of the plug and from cultures.

  9. Antioxidative activities and chemical characterization of polysaccharides extracted from the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaus, A.; Kozarski, M.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Todorovic, N.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of hot water extract (HWE), hot water extracted polysaccharides (HWP) and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides (HWAE) were obtained from fruiting bodies of the wild basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. All extracts contained both a- and ß-glucans as determined by Megazyme ß-gl

  10. POSSIBILITIES OF ACQUIRING AND ENERGETIC USE OF BIOMASS IN COMMUNES IN MAŁOPOLSKA VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sroka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This analysis touches upon an evaluation and estimation of the potential of communes in Małopolska voivodeship in terms of energetic use of plant biomass. The research results showed that if biomass, in the form of straw and hay not used in agriculture and willow (salix cultivated on lands out of agricultural production, was marked for energetic aims, the generation of about 8.3 PJ of energy would be possible. It was also pinpointed that within the group of communes with the highest potential of hay and willow for energetic use (25% of communes, environmental (the quality of production space and economic factors (the area structure, and confi guration, etc. will hinder the development of the biomass market. The same conditions which contributed to the regress of agriculture are seen as an obstacle to eff ective and profi table biomass production. The only real opportunity for development of the biomass market is seen in straw, which can be acquired in communes with the best natural and economic conditions.

  11. INSOLUBLE HYDROPHOBIN COMPLEXES IN THE WALLS OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE AND OTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, OMH; FEKKES, MP; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted

  12. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune, to our knowledge never before examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan, were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1.0% (w/v) distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by...

  13. The ethnically mixed area of the commune of Lendava, along the newly established stat border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with regional impacis of the new state border benveen Slovenia and Croatia on ethnically mixed area of the commune Lendava in northeast Slovenia. Different social, age and ethnic groups have dissimilar relations towards the influence of that new element in regional structure. Key words: Ethnic groups, border regions, political geography, Prekmurje, Slovenia

  14. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  15. Development of Molecular Methods for Identification of Schizophyllum commune from Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzina, Walter; Lang-Loidolt, Doris; Braun, Hannes; Freudenschuss, Kurt; Stammberger, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    In the last 50 years, to our knowledge, only 16 cases of diseases caused by Schizophyllum commune in humans have been reported. Within only 6 months, we found four isolates of this basidiomycetous fungus, obtained from patients suffering from chronic sinusitis. The cultures of the isolated fungi showed neither clamp connections nor fruiting bodies (basidiocarps), which are distinctive features for S. commune, but fast-growing cottony white mycelium only. This was harvested, and DNA was extracted. The internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified with fungus-specific primers, and the PCR products were sequenced. Two strains of S. commune, collected from branches of a European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and a tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), respectively; four specimens from the herbarium of the Institute of Botany, Karl-Franzens-University Graz; and two strains from internationally known culture collections (CBS 340.81 [ATCC 44201] and CBS 405.96) were investigated in the same way. The sequence data of all strains were compared and showed homology of over 99% in this 660-bp-long fragment of rDNA. With these results, a map of restriction enzyme cutting sites and a primer set specific for S. commune were created for reliable identification of this human pathogenic fungus. PMID:11427544

  16. First report of otitis externa caused by Schizophyllum commune and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Tadeja; Tomazin, Rok; Battelino, Saba

    2016-05-01

    Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune is a widely distributed cellulolytic fungus that is a well-known pathogen. It can cause a wide range of different infections, and here we describe the first case of otitis externa and a molecularly based identification process.

  17. Novel thermostable glycosidases in the extracellular matrix of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed; Kuzuha, Satomi; Takani, Yayoi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2008-10-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and forms a visible colony in which the cells are embedded in extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), which play a crucial role in the extreme desiccation tolerance of this organism. When natural colonies were immersed in water, degradation of the colonies occurred within 2 days and N. commune cells were released into the water. The activities that hydrolyze glycoside bonds in various N. commune fractions were examined using artificial nitrophenyl-linked sugars as substrates. A beta-D-glucosidase purified from the water-soluble fraction was resistant to 20 min of boiling. The beta-D-glucosidase, with a molecular mass of 20 kDa, was identified as a cyanobacterial fasciclin protein based on its N-terminal amino-acid sequence. The 36-kDa major protein in the water-soluble fraction was purified, and the N-terminal amino-acid sequence of the protein was found to be identical to that of the water-stress protein (WspA) of N. commune. This WspA protein also showed heat-resistant beta-D-galactosidase activity. The fasciclin protein and WspA in the extracellular matrix may play a role in the hydrolysis of the EPSs surrounding the cells, possibly as an aid in the dispersal of cells, thus expanding the colonies of this cyanobacterium.

  18. Schizophyllum commune as an emerging fungal pathogen: a review and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, A; Randhawa, H S; Gaur, S N; Agarwal, K; Kathuria, S; Roy, P; Klaassen, C H; Meis, J F

    2013-01-01

    We report Schizophyllum commune as the aetiological agent of one case each of allergic broncho-pulmonary mycosis (ABPM) and pulmonary fungal ball, and present a literature review. The fungus was characterised by clamp connections, hyphal spicules, and formation of basidiocarps with basidiospores. The phenotypic identification was confirmed by sequencing of the ITS region. To-date, ABPM and pulmonary fungal ball to S. commune have been reported exclusively from Japan and North America respectively. Of the 71 globally reported cases due to S. commune, 45 (63%) were bronchopulmonary, 22 (31%) sinusitis and 4 extrapulmonary. Taken together, cases of bronchopulmonary disease and sinusitis numbered 67 (94%), indicating the respiratory tract as the primary target of disease. Concerning the country-wise distribution, Japan topped the list with 33 cases (46%), followed by Iran - 7 cases (10%), U.S.A. - 6 cases (9%), and a lower prevalence of 1.4-6% for the remaining 12 countries. The preponderance of the disease in Japan may be attributed to its greater awareness vis-à-vis that in other countries rather than to any geographical/climatic factors. We believe that the burden of S. commune-incited disease is currently underestimated, warranting comprehensive prospective studies to determine its prevalence. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. The Relations between the School and the Commune in New China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kexiao, Lei

    1980-01-01

    Describes the structure of the Chinese rural school system and its operational ties to the communes, which provide the "productive labor" component of Chinese education, various resources and facilities for schools, and governance of agrotechnical education at the middle and secondary level. (SJL)

  20. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to co-infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Masafumi; Ohno, Hideaki; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Iida, Tetsuya; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Tomono, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    A 61-year-old female presented with eosinophilic pneumonia accompanied by bronchial asthma. She was finally diagnosed with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) due to co-infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and Schizophyllum commune detected by genetic analysis of the plug and from cultures.

  1. Crucial Role of Extracellular Polysaccharides in Desiccation and Freezing Tolerance in the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Yoshiyuki; Takani, Yayoi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and has a cosmopolitan distribution. In this study, the role of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in the desiccation tolerance of photosynthesis in N. commune was examined. Although photosynthetic O2 evolution was not detected in desiccated colonies, the ability of the cells to evolve O2 rapidly recovered after rehydration. The air-dried colonies contained approximately 10% (wt/wt) water, and field-isolated, natural colonies with EPS were highly water absorbent and were rapidly hydrated by atmospheric moisture. The cells embedded in EPS in Nostoc colonies were highly desiccation tolerant, and O2 evolution was not damaged by air drying. Although N. commune was determined to be a mesophilic cyanobacterium, the cells with EPS were heat tolerant in a desiccated state. EPS could be removed from cells by homogenizing colonies with a blender and filtering with coarse filter paper. This treatment to remove EPS did not damage Nostoc cells or their ability to evolve O2, but O2 evolution was significantly damaged by desiccation treatment of the EPS-depleted cells. Similar to the EPS-depleted cells, the laboratory culture strain KU002 had only small amount of EPS and was highly sensitive to desiccation. In the EPS-depleted cells, O2 evolution was also sensitive to freeze-thaw treatment. These results strongly suggest that EPS of N. commune is crucial for the stress tolerance of photosynthesis during desiccation and during freezing and thawing. PMID:16269775

  2. INSOLUBLE HYDROPHOBIN COMPLEXES IN THE WALLS OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE AND OTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, OMH; FEKKES, MP; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    1993-01-01

    Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted wi

  3. Preincubation of Penicillium commune conidia under modified atmosphere conditions: Influence on growth potential as determined by an impedimetric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    The combined effect of preincubation time, relative humidity (r.h.), headspace carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) on subsequent growth potential of conidia from Penicillium commune was studied using Response Surface Modelling (RSM). Native conidia were preincubated under modified atmosphere...... during the time of preincubation. This paper describes the first investigation of the combined effect of two significant environmental factors on the growth potential of conidia from P. commune. It is demonstrated that storage for more than 56 d in levels of CO2 below 20% results in sublethal injury...... of the conidia from P. commune, retarding growth by increasing lag times and decelerating growth rates....

  4. Cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in Fusarium commune transcriptome and functional characterization of three identified xylanases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuhong, Huang; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    in Fusarium commune. Prediction of the cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in the F. commune transcriptome using peptide pattern recognition revealed 147 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and six genes encoding lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (AA9 and AA11), including all relevant cellulose......-d-xylanase and β-xylosidase activities; and XYL11 was a true xylanase characterized by high substrate specificity. These results indicate that F. commune with genetic modification is a promising source of enzymes for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass....

  5. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory, we selected terrestrial mosses with different life forms: the orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. Metal concentrations were determined in both species growing together at sites situated at various distances approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 km from polluters. MARS analysis evaluated different tendencies of both species for Cd, Co and Pb accumulation depending on the distance from the emitter. In P. schreberi, the concentration of these metals diminished relatively rapidly with an increasing distance from the emitter up to 3000 m and then stabilised. For P. commune, a steady decrease could be observed with increasing the distance up to 6000 m. PCCA ordination explained that both species from the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant were correlated with the highest Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb as well as Mn and Ni concentrations in their tissues. The mosses from sites closest to both power plants were correlated with the highest Cd and Zn concentrations. P. commune contained significantly higher Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations compared to P. schreberi. This may be caused by the lamellae found in the leaves of P. commune which increase the surface area of the possible aerial absorption of contaminants. Soil may also be an additional source of metals, and it affects the uptake in endohydric P. commune more than in ectohydric P. schreberi. However, the precise explanation of these relations needs further investigation.

  6. Cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in Fusarium commune transcriptome and functional characterization of three identified xylanases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuhong, Huang; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    in Fusarium commune. Prediction of the cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in the F. commune transcriptome using peptide pattern recognition revealed 147 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and six genes encoding lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (AA9 and AA11), including all relevant cellulose...... decomposing enzymes (GH3, GH5, GH6, GH7, GH9, GH45 and AA9), and abundant hemicellulases. We further applied peptide pattern recognition to reveal nine and seven subfamilies of GH10 and GH11 family enzymes, respectively. The uncharacterized XYL10A, XYL10B and XYL11 enzymes of F. commune were classified......-d-xylanase and β-xylosidase activities; and XYL11 was a true xylanase characterized by high substrate specificity. These results indicate that F. commune with genetic modification is a promising source of enzymes for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass....

  7. Differentiation of swidden agriculture in Northeast Cambodia: Kavet swiddeners, the state and the markets in Kok Lak commune

    OpenAIRE

    You, Rithy; Kleinpeter, Vivien; Diepart, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, Kavet ethnic minority people traditionally practiced swidden agriculture and accessed natural resources in the uplands as an important, and unchallenged, part of their food system. This present study aims to trace the historical transformation of land use and tenure practices by Kavet communities in Kok Lak commune in the context of various state-driven and social-economic transformations. At commune level, we look at land use changes along with the migrations a...

  8. Dossier Imitation - Introduction générale Special section on Imitation – General introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Petit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce dossier spécial, nous nous sommes intéressés à l’aspect ontogénique et phylogénique de l’imitation. Nous avons invité des spécialistes du développement de l’enfant et des primatologues à discuter de ce que l’imitation représente pour l’espèce humaine, de sa présence chez des espèces de primates non humains et des éventuelles similarités observées au sein de l’ordre des primates. L’imitation possède une double dimension, cognitive et sociale. En effet, les processus d’imitation impliquent des compétences cognitives qui s’inscrivent dans des contextes sociaux et culturels. Ce mode d’apprentissage soulève de nombreuses questions : Peut-on considérer l’imitation comme une compétence innée ? L’étude de son développement permet-elle de comprendre les mécanismes du fonctionnement cognitif ? L’imitation est-elle uniquement humaine ?This special issue is interested in the ontogeny and the phylogeny of imitation. We have invited experts in developmental psychology and in primatology to discuss the definition of imitation in Human, its existence in non human primate species and to address the question of similarities between the different primate species. Imitation has both a cognitive and a social dimension. Imitation involves, indeed, cognitive processes that are part of social and cultural life. Learning occurs via imitation and several questions can be asked: Is imitation innate? Will studying its ontogeny help understanding its cognitive processes? Finally, is imitation human specific?

  9. NIC (Nuclear Industry in China) exhibition. Press file; Exposition NIC (Nuclear Industry in China). Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-27

    Framatome participated to the NIC exhibition which took place in Beijing (China) on March 1998. This press dossier was distributed to visitors. It presents in a first part the activities of the Framatome group in people`s republic of China (new constructions (Daya Bay, Ling Ao project), technological cooperation and contracts in the nuclear domain, technology transfers in the domain of nuclear fuels, activities and daughter companies in the domain of industrial equipments, Framatome Connectors International (FCI) daughter company in the domain of connectors engineering). Then, the general activities of Framatome in the nuclear, industrial equipment, and connectors engineering domains are summarized in the next 3 parts. (J.S.)

  10. Introducción al dossier “Salud y enfermedad en América Latina. Una perspectiva intercultural”

    OpenAIRE

    Gil García, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    “Salud, dinero y amor”, las tres cosas más importantes de esta vida según la popular canción. Sin embargo, en tanto que valores culturales, no cabe duda de que cada sociedad tendrá sus propios raseros a la hora de medir estas variables; más aún, cada sociedad entenderá estas variables de un modo completamente diferente, de acuerdo con sus propios patrones de racionalidad cultural. Así, en materia de salud – que es de lo que trata este dossier – resulta evidente que a diferentes culturas, dife...

  11. Immunomodulatory Potential of the Polysaccharide-Rich Extract from Edible Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fen Liao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A dry sample of Nostoc commune from an organic farm in Pingtung city (Taiwan was used to prepare polysaccharide-rich (NCPS extract. The conditioned medium (CM from NCPS-treated human peripheral blood (PB-mononuclear cells (MNC effectively inhibited the growth of human leukemic U937 cells and triggered differentiation of U937 monoblast cells into monocytic/macrophagic lines. Cytokine levels in MNC-CMs showed upregulation of granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulatory factor and IL-1β and downregulation of IL-6 and IL-17 upon treatment with NCPS. Moreover, murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells treated with NCPS exhibited the stimulatory effects of nitric oxide and superoxide secretion, indicating that NCPS might activate the immunity of macrophages. Collectively, the present study demonstrates that NCPS from N. commune could be potentially used for macrophage activation and consequently inhibited the leukemic cell growth and induced monocytic/macrophagic differentiation.

  12. Analysis of the sexual development-promoting region of Schizophyllum commune TRP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kikuo; Kinoshita, Hideki; Tazuke, Kazuyuki; Maki, Yoshinori; Yoshiura, Yumi; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Shibai, Hiroshiro; Kurosawa, Shin-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism of sexual development of basidiomycetous mushrooms from mating to fruit body formation. Sequencing analysis showed the TRP1 gene of basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune encoded an enzyme with three catalytic regions of GAT (glutamine amidotransferase), IGPS (indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase), and PRAI (5-phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase); among these three regions, the trp1 mutant (Trp(-)) had a missense mutation (L→F) of a 338th amino acid residue of the TRP1 protein within the IGPS region. To investigate the function of IGPS region related to sexual development, dikaryons with high, usual, and no expression of the IGPS region of TRP1 gene were made. The dikaryotic mycelia with high expression of the IGPS formed mature fruit bodies earlier than those with usual and no expression of the IGPS. These results showed that the IGPS region in TRP1 gene promoted sexual development of S. commune.

  13. Migration Suppression of Small Cell Lung Cancer by Polysaccharides from Nostoc commune Vaucher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Ding, Guo-Bin; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Lichao; Wu, Haili; Li, Hanqing; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-08-17

    Nostoc commune Vauch., classified into cyanobacteria, has been always well appreciated as a healthy food and medicine worldwide owing to its rich nutrition and potent bioactivities. Nevertheless, the inhibitory effect of polysaccharides from N. commune Vauch. (NVPS) against cancer cell progression and metastasis is still being unraveled. The results in this study showed that NVPS remarkably suppressed cell migration through blocking the epithelial-mesenchymal transition program in NCI-H446 and NCI-H1688 human small cell lung cancer cells. The inhibitory effects were attributed to the suppression of integrin β1/FAK signaling through regulating cell-matrix adhesion. Furthermore, NVPS treatment could increase E-cadherin expression, but down-regulate N-cadherin, Vimentin, and MMP-9 expression, which resulted in the blockage of STAT3 nuclear translocation and JAK1 signaling. These findings suggest that NVPS may be a good candidate for development as a possible antitumor agent against small cell lung cancer.

  14. A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali Akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also clamp connection structures on PDA medium. To identify the obtained isolate properly, molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region was performed and indicated that the causing agent of the infection is surely Schizophillum commune. The patient completely recovered after surgical endoscopic operation and consequent post-operation MRI revealed clearance of sinuses.

  15. Production of (+)-valencene in the mushroom-forming fungus S. commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtmeijer, Karin; Cankar, Katarina; Beekwilder, Jules; Wösten, Han A B; Lugones, Luis G; Bosch, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Production of commercially interesting sesquiterpenes was previously examined in plants and microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We here investigate the potential of the mushroom Schizophyllum commune for the production of sesquiterpenes. Genomic analysis of S. commune revealed that the mevalonate pathway required for the synthesis of the farnesyl diphosphate substrate for sesquiterpene production is operational. Introduction of a valencene synthase gene resulted in production of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene, both in mycelium and in fruiting bodies. Levels of (+)-valencene in culture media of strains containing a mutated RGS regulatory protein gene (thn) were increased fourfold compared to those in wild-type transformants. Up to 16 mg L(-1) (+)-valencene was produced in these strains. In addition, the amount of (+)-valencene containing n-dodecane recovered from the culture medium increased sixfold to sevenfold in the thn mutant strains due to the absence of schizophyllan.

  16. OGM : vers une définition commune du contenu du problème ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Les divergences croissantes depuis des années entre experts, responsables économiques, et acteurs sociaux et « citoyens » au sujet des OGM, ont pu être analysées à juste titre, comme exprimant la difficulté de dégager une « définition commune du contenu du problème »1.

  17. [Polymorphism of endocellular isoenzymes Schizophyllum commune Fr. (Basidiomycetes) in territory of Donetsk area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, S M

    2011-01-01

    Results of research of endocellular isoenzyme polymorphism of Schizophyllum commune Fr. cultures growing on the territory of Donetsk region are presented. Description of AMY, ADH, GPDH, GDH, SDH, EST electrophoretic spectrum has been carried out. The enzyme systems ADH, GPDH and GDH were monomorphic. The greatest variety of endocellular isoforms was shown for EST. Well defined six zones were detected and for three of them the polymorphism was peculiar.

  18. First isolation of Schizophyllum commune in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Yasuko; Hirano, Yuzo; Watabe, Hirofumi; Hosaka, Kentaro; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2016-07-01

    To date, Schizophyllum commune infection has been identified in only humans and dogs. A 7-year-old female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) died after exhibiting corneal opacity, anorexia, and labored respiration. At necropsy, phthisis of the left eyeball was detected, and multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions, especially in the lung, heart, and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, numerous hyphae were seen in granulomatous lesions in the eyes, lung, heart, and lymph nodules. An isolate on potato dextrose agar from the eyes, lung, and sputum yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mycelia with basidiocarps (fruiting bodies) at 37°C. A suitable temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 25°C, although sustained growth also occurred at 37°C. The fungal isolate, KH-JPN15-011, had distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules and clamp connections, which were consistent with the characteristics of basidiomycete fungus. The sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA showed 99.67% (617 bp) similarity with those of S. commune Phylogenetic analysis showed that the present isolate is most closely related to the samples from the Old World. This is the first report of a fatal disease caused by S. commune in exotic animals. Previously reported human and canine infections have not included granulomatous endophthalmitis and myocarditis. After considering these and previous findings, there is a possibility that S. commune from the Old World may include numerous highly pathogenic strains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Two new diketopiperazines from the tin mine tailings-derived fungus Schizophyllum commune YIM DT 10058.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunyu, Wei-Xun; Ding, Zhang-Gui; Zhao, Jiang-Yuan; Wang, Yong-Xia; Han, Xiu-Lin; Li, Ming-Gang; Wen, Meng-Liang

    2017-07-01

    Two new diketopiperazines, named diphenylalazine C (1) and epicoccin U (2), together with six known compounds (3-8) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth of the tin mine tailings-derived fungus Schizophyllum commune YIM DT 10058. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

  20. Cultural Conditions for Mycelial Growth and Molecular Phylogenetic Relationship in Different Wild Strains of Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nuhu; Cha, Youn Jeong; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Tae Soo; Lee, U Youn

    2010-03-01

    The common split-gilled mushroom, Schizophyllum commune is found throughout the world on woody plants. This study was initiated to evaluate conditions for favorable vegetative growth and to determine molecular phylogenetic relationship in twelve different strains of S. commune. A suitable temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 30℃. This mushroom grew well in acidic conditions and pH 5 was the most favorable. Hamada, glucose peptone, Hennerberg, potato dextrose agar and yeast malt extract were favorable media for growing mycelia, while Lilly and glucose tryptone were unfavorable. Dextrin was the best and lactose was the less effective carbon source. The most suitable nitrogen sources were calcium nitrate, glycine, and potassium nitrate, whereas ammonium phosphate and histidine were the least effective for the mycelial growth of S. commune. The genetic diversity of each strain was investigated in order to identify them. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA were amplified using PCR. The size of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rDNA from the different strains varied from 129 to 143 bp and 241 to 243 bp, respectively. The sequence of ITS1 was more variable than that of ITS2, while the 5.8S sequences were identical. A phylogenetic tree of the ITS region sequences indicated that the selected strains were classified into three clusters. The reciprocal homologies of the ITS region sequences ranged from 99 to 100%. The strains were also analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with 20 arbitrary primers. Twelve primers efficiently amplified the genomic DNA. The number of amplified bands varied depending on the primers used or the strains tested. The average number of polymorphic bands observed per primer was 4.5. The size of polymorphic fragments was obtained in the range of 0.2 to 2.3 kb. These results indicate that the RAPD technique is well suited for detecting the genetic diversity in the S. commune strains tested.

  1. Induction of cellulose in Schizophyllum commune: thiocellobiose as a new inducer.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Several mono-, di, tetra-, and polysaccharides were screened for their ability to induced cellulase production by the tetrapolar hymenomycete Schizophyllum commune. Out of 21 carbohydrates screened, 4 (thiocellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose, cellobiose, and xylan) induced all three enzymes tested (carboxymethylcellulase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase). The inducing effect increased with rising concentrations of the inducers up to a certain value, beyond which there was either a leveling off ...

  2. L'attraction des villes françaises, vue des communes concernées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel VIGOUROUX

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans l'Inventaire Communal (INSEE de 1979, les communes déclarent les villes qui les attirent, pour toute autre motif que le travail l'attraction est principale ou secondaire. L'image produite est une couverture du territoire, plus ou moins complète et hiérarchisée selon les régions.

  3. Provision of water by halite deliquescence for Nostoc commune biofilms under Mars relevant surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänchen, Jochen; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by findings of new mineral related water sources for organisms under extremely dry conditions on Earth we studied in an interdisciplinary approach the water sorption behaviour of halite, soil component and terrestrial Nostoc commune biofilm under Mars relevant environmental conditions. Physicochemical methods served for the determination of water sorption equilibrium data and survival of heterotrophic bacteria in biofilm samples with different water contents was assured by recultivation. Deliquescence of halite provides liquid water at temperatures <273 K and may serve as water source on Mars during the morning stabilized by the CO2 atmosphere for a few hours. The protecting biofilm of N. commune is rather hygroscopic and tends to store water at lower humidity values. Survival tests showed that a large proportion of the Alphaproteobacteria dominated microbiota associated to N. commune is very desiccation tolerant and water uptake from saturated NaCl solutions (either by direct uptake of brine or adsorption of humidity) did not enhance recultivability in long-time desiccated samples. Still, a minor part can grow under highly saline conditions. However, the salinity level, although unfavourable for the host organism, might be for parts of the heterotrophic microbiota no serious hindrance for growing in salty Mars-like environments.

  4. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn(II) by nostoc commune: isotherm and kinetics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, Fatthy M. [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Hassan, Sedky H.A. [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Koutb, Mostafa [Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Applied Science, Biology Department, Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-15

    In this study, Nostoc commune (cyanobacterium) was used as an inexpensive and efficient biosorbent for Cd(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solutions. The effect of various physicochemical factors on Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption such as pH 2.0-7.0, initial metal concentration 0.0-300 mg/L and contact time 0-120 min were studied. Optimum pH for removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) was 6.0, while the contact time was 30 min at room temperature. The nature of biosorbent and metal ion interaction was evaluated by infrared (IR) technique. IR analysis of bacterial biomass revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups, which are responsible for biosorption of Cd(II) and Zn (II). The maximum biosorption capacities for Cd(II) and Zn(II) biosorption by N. commune calculated from Langmuir biosorption isotherm were 126.32 and 115.41 mg/g, respectively. The biosorption isotherm for two biosorbents fitted well with Freundlich isotherm than Langmuir model with correlation coefficient (r{sup 2} < 0.99). The biosorption kinetic data were fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thus, this study indicated that the N. commune is an efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. A Global Analysis of CYP51 Diversity and Azole Sensitivity in Rhynchosporium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Patrick C; Stefansson, Tryggvi S; Fountaine, James; Richina, Veronica; McDonald, Bruce A

    2016-04-01

    CYP51 encodes the target site of the azole class of fungicides widely used in plant protection. Some ascomycete pathogens carry two CYP51 paralogs called CYP51A and CYP51B. A recent analysis of CYP51 sequences in 14 European isolates of the barley scald pathogen Rhynchosporium commune revealed three CYP51 paralogs, CYP51A, CYP51B, and a pseudogene called CYP51A-p. The same analysis showed that CYP51A exhibits a presence/absence polymorphism, with lower sensitivity to azole fungicides associated with the presence of a functional CYP51A. We analyzed a global collection of nearly 400 R. commune isolates to determine if these findings could be extended beyond Europe. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that CYP51A played a key role in the emergence of azole resistance globally and provide new evidence that the CYP51A gene in R. commune has further evolved, presumably in response to azole exposure. We also present evidence for recent long-distance movement of evolved CYP51A alleles, highlighting the risk associated with movement of fungicide resistance alleles among international trading partners.

  6. Physicochemical Requirement for the Vegetative Growth of Schizophyllum commune Collected from Different Ecological Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Jayasinghe, Chandana; Lee, Geon Woo; Kim, Hye Young; Shim, Mi Ja; Rho, Hyun-Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Hur, Hyun; Lee, Min Woong; Lee, U-Youn

    2008-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune is an edible and medicinal mushroom widely distributed in the world. The optimal growth conditions for the mycelia of 10 strains of the fungus were investigated. The temperature suitable for the mycelial growth and density was obtained at 30~35℃. Among the tested conditions, the minimum mycelial growth was found at 15℃. In case of pH, the most favorable growth was found at pH 5. The results indicated that this mushroom well adapted to high temperature and low pH for its mycelial growth. Considering growth phenotype of mycelia, Hamada, Hennerberg, PDA and YM were the most suitable and Lilly, Glucose triptone, Glucose peptone and Hoppkins were the most unfavorable among tested media for the mycelial growth of S. commune. Out of tested carbon sources, dextrin and fructose were the most suitable and lactose, mannose and sorbitol were the unsuitable for the fungus. Compact mycelial density was obtained from most of the carbon sources. Among used nitrogen sources, calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate and alanine were the most appropriate and the most incompatible were ammonium phosphate, histidine, urea and arginine for mycelial growth of S. commune on the culture media. Calcium nitrate, histidine and potassium nitrate showed moderately thin or thin, and rest of nitrogen sources showed compact or moderately compact mycelial density. PMID:23997605

  7. [Characteristics of toxigenic properties of Myrothecium cinctum (Corda) sacc., 1886 and Myrothecium commune pidopl., 1969].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭchenko, A M; Tsyganenko, E S; Andrienko, E V; Savchuk, Ia I

    2013-01-01

    The comparative study of toxigenic potential of Myrothecium cinctum (12 strains) and Myrothecium commune (7 strains) was conducted. The ability to produce the complex of macrocyclic trichothecenes (MCTC) presented in ethanol soluble fraction (ESF), as well as fungistatic activity against yeasts test-cultures (strains Saccharomyces vini "Feodosia" and Candida stellatoidea 62) and rabbit skin test were evaluated. It was established that ESF output varied within wide limits in all studied strains of both species but it was significantly lower in M. commune strains. Higher ESF yields were accompanied as a rule by higher fungistatic activity and skin reaction in rabbits. The separate strains showed high biological activity with minor ESF output that could be possible caused by domination of more toxic components in complex preparation. The study of MCTC component structure by high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) showed with a few exceptions the presence of verrucarins A and J, roridins A, E, and H as well as unidentified components whose column retention times were 2.1 and 4.9 minutes. The production of roridin H and unknown component with 2.1 min. retention time was typical of M. cinctum strains while verrucarin A and unidentified component with 4.9 min. retention time was typical of M. commune strains.

  8. Evolutive and structural characterization of Nostoc commune iron-superoxide dismutase that is fit for modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Lu, M; Li, J-Y; Qin, Y; Gong, X-G

    2012-10-04

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has extensive clinical applications for protecting organisms from toxic oxidation. In this study, the integrated iron-superoxide dismutase gene (fe-sod) coding sequence of Nostoc commune stain CHEN was cloned from genomic DNA and compared to sods from other reported algae. These analyses of immunology and phylogenetics indicated that this Fe-SOD is considerably homologous with SODs from lower prokaryotes (Fe-SOD or Mn-SOD) but not those from higher animals (Cu/Zn-SOD). In addition, the N. commune Fe-SOD shows 67 to 93% protein sequence identity to 10 other algal Fe-SODs (or Mn-SODs) and 69 to 93% gene sequence identity. Rare nonsynonymous substitutions imply that algal SODs are being subjected to strong natural selection. Interestingly, the N. commune Fe-SOD enzyme molecule has a compact active center that is highly conserved (38.1% of residues are absolutely conserved), and 2 loose ends localized outside the molecule and inclined to mutate (only 11.5% of residues are absolutely conserved). Based on associative analyses of evolution, structure, and function, this special phenomenon is attributed to function-dependent evolution through negative natural selection. Under strong natural selection, although the mutation is random on the gene level, the exterior region is inclined to mutate on the protein level owing to more nonsynonymous substitutions in the exterior region, which demonstrates the theoretical feasibility of modifying Fe-SOD on its ends to overcome its disadvantages in clinical applications.

  9. Characterization and biological activities of extracellular melanin produced by Schizophyllum commune (Fries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, G; Eyini, M; Gunasekaran, P

    2015-06-01

    Melanins are enigmatic pigments produced by a wide variety of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Here, we have isolated and characterized extracellular melanin from mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune. The extracellular dark pigment produced by the broth culture of S. commune, after 21 days of incubation was recovered by hot acid-alkali treatment. The melanin nature of the pigment was characterized by biochemical tests and further, confirmed by UV, IR, EPR, NMR and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra. Extracellular melanin, at 100 μg/ml, showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluorescens and antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii and T. rubrum. At a concentration of 50 μg/ml, melanin showed high free radical scavenging activity of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) indicating its antioxidant potential. It showed concentration dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma Cell Line (HEP-2). This study has demonstrated characterization of melanin from basidiomycetes mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune and its applications.

  10. [Two sudden deaths of children with mesenterium commune -- a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusová, Kateřina; Votava, Milan; Zeman, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the digestive system represent a complicated topic concerning many medical specializations. The goal of this article is to describe two cases of children with mesenterium commune. First was an infant (5.5 months old female) who died shortly after being admitted to hospital with acute bronchitis, vomiting and diarrhoea. The autopsy revealed the cause of death--volvulus of the entire small intestine and the first portion of the large intestine with haemorrhagic infarsation of the intestinal wall in an infant with congenital anomaly of intestinal fixation--mesenterium commune. Second case was a 2.5 years old female after two heart surgeries, with pulmonary hypertension, who died suddenly at home. The cause of death was volvulus of a portion of the small intestine with haemorrhagic infarsation of the intestinal wall and also mesenterium commune. Congenital malpositions of the intestine originate due to malrotation and malfixation of the intestine during prenatal and early postnatal period. This wide range of the individuals developmental disorders always result in a condition where the topographical findings in the abdominal cavity are not as commonly found. Abnormally positioned intestines cannot develop a normal mesentery and are prone to volvulus, which represents the most serious complication with acute abdominal symptoms and when diagnosed late, it can lead to sudden death. Whilst performing autopsies such cases are rarely seen. However in forensic medicine and also in clinical practice it is important to consider intestinal malposition as a cause of acute abdomen.

  11. Novel glycosylated mycosporine-like amino acids with radical scavenging activity from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kei; Nazifi, Ehsan; Kunita, Shinpei; Wada, Naoki; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2011-10-05

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV absorbing pigments, and structurally distinct MAAs have been identified in taxonomically diverse organisms. Two novel MAAs were purified from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, and their chemical structures were characterized. An MAA with an absorption maximum at 335 nm was identified as a pentose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 478 Da. Another identified MAA had double absorption maxima at 312 and 340 nm and a molecular mass of 1,050 Da. Its unique structure consisted of two distinct chromophores of 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one and 1,3-diaminocyclohexen and two pentose and hexose sugars. These MAAs had radical scavenging activity in vitro; the 1050-Da MAA contributed approximately 27% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract of N. commune. These results suggest that these glycosylated MAAs have multiple roles as a UV protectant and an antioxidant relevant to anhydrobiosis in N. commune. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvement of nutrition knowledge and practices among reproductive-aged women through participatory communication in two communes of yenthe district in bacgiang province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Le Thi; Son, Trinh Hong; Ogle, Britta

    2007-09-01

    Over the years many approaches have been used in communication for behavioral changes in nutrition. The overall aim of this study was to provide practical insights into how participatory, audience-centered communication activities can be effectively used for imparting information and for behavioral change promotion on the topic of dietary diversity and micronutrient nutrition, among reproductive-age women in Vietnam. The communication initiatives for improving nutrition knowledge and practices of the women in two selected communes (Dongky and Donglac) in Bacgiang province were carried out from January, 2003 to December, 2005. The Dongky commune was selected as the intervention commune, while the Donglac commune served as the control. In the intervention commune of Dongky the problems and strategies of nutrition communication and education were defined, IEC materials and some seeds of iron-rich vegetables and fruits were provided. Besides that, a contest on nutrition knowledge at a primary school and a competition between nutrition collaborators were held. The results of the study showed that food consumption of the women in both communes improved compared to levels at the baseline survey, especially in the intervention commune. The total knowledge scores and the nutrition practices of the women in the Dongky commune significantly improved compared to the data at baseline and were higher compared to that of the control commune.

  13. Dossier “El Elias antropólogo: sociología figuracional, trabajo de campo y reflexividad”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Colabella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este dossier vio su nacimiento en un simposio promovido por las coordinadoras, con el propósito de tributar la obra del sociólogo judío-alemán Norbert Elias. Dicho evento se realizó en el año 2013, en el marco de las VII Jornadas de Etnografía y Métodos Cualitativos organizadas por el Centro de Antropología Social del Instituto de Desarrollo Económico y Social (CAS-IDES. En aquel momento les propusimos a varios colegas, que pensaran su material etnográfico a partir de un texto elisiano que los hubiera impactado particularmente. La consigna consistió en que los participantes repensaran alguna dimensión de su trabajo de campo y el proceso de reflexividad a partir de alguna de las líneas de la sociología figuracional de Elias. Posteriormente, gracias a la iniciativa generosa de Gustavo Sorá y Rosana Guber, fue posible convertir esas ponencias en un conjunto de textos articulados que dieron forma al presente dossier.

  14. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-10-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ max, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase.

  15. Pre-School Education in a Vietnamese Commune: A Case Report. Pre-School Education Documents Reprint Series; Number F.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinh, Tran Thi

    This brief report discusses the development of mass participation in the provision of preschool education for 769 children of 3 to 6 years of age in Tan Tien-- a pilot commune located in the Red River Delta, Hai Hung province, North Vietnam. Tan Tien commune is described and the targets of the preschool movement are indicated. Phases of the…

  16. Gérer la communication numérique communale guide pratique 2.0 à destination des communes

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Pour une meilleure communication numérique des communes.La ville, la commune 2.0 existe bel et bien. Souvent, les sites-vitrines d''autrefois ont laissé la place à d''authentiques sites web pensés et conçus pour englober un maximum de fonctionnalités. En suivant l''évolution des comportements et usages des citoyens, la commune reste au plus proche de ceux-ci, et c''est bien là son intérêt.Une communication numérique beaucoup plus large, qui englobe notamment la gestion de la présence et de l''activité sur les réseaux sociaux, est un gage de démocratie.Chaque concept est introduit par une déf

  17. Schizophillum commune causing sinusitis with nasal polyposis in the sub-Himalayan region: first case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santwana; Gupta, Poonam; Singh, Digvijay; Kanga, Anil; Mohindroo, N K; Jhobta, Anupam

    2014-02-01

    Schizophillum commune is an environmental fungus rarely causing human infections of diverse nature. Sinusitis occurs in immunocompromised persons and seldom in healthy subjects. Though easily isolated, the lack of awareness of its virulence is a bottleneck in the diagnosis of this infection. We report the first case of S. commune sinusitis with nasal polyps in an immunocompetent male from the sub-Himalayan region. The computerized tomography scan findings established the clinical diagnosis, and causative agent was confirmed as S. commune. A white, woolly mold with septate, hyaline hyphae and characteristic spicules but unclamped connections suggested a monokaryotic isolate. Patient was treated successfully with fiberoptic endoscopic sinus surgery, and no antifungal therapy was instituted. There was no recurrence at review after 1 year.

  18. Presentación del Dossier: Anarquismo y movimientos sociales. Entre la tradición y el cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ceballos Reyes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En este dossier dedicado al movimiento anarquista se incluye una colección de artículos que pretenden reflejar desde distintas disciplinas académicas y perspectivas teóricas la trayectoria histórica y la situación presente de dicha corriente de pensamiento. En un primer lugar hemos decidido incluir una serie de artículos que analizan algunos aspectos de los orígenes y la tradición histórica del anarquismo. Posteriormente hemos optado por presentar varios artículos que exploran las conexiones entre el anarquismo y los nuevos movimientos sociales.

  19. Presentación del Dossier: Anarquismo y movimientos sociales. Entre la tradición y el cambio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ceballos Reyes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En este dossier dedicado al movimiento anarquista se incluye una colección de artículos que pretenden reflejar desde distintas disciplinas académicas y perspectivas teóricas la trayectoria histórica y la situación presente de dicha corriente de pensamiento. En un primer lugar hemos decidido incluir una serie de artículos que analizan algunos aspectos de los orígenes y la tradición histórica del anarquismo. Posteriormente hemos optado por presentar varios artículos que exploran las conexiones entre el anarquismo y los nuevos movimientos sociales.Palabras Clave: anarquismo, nuevos movimientos sociales, historia actual, globalización. 

  20. Introducción al dossier Teatro en el mundo árabe: entre el Oriente y el Occidente

    OpenAIRE

    Amine, Khalid; Carlson, Marvin

    2014-01-01

    El presente dossier compilado para la revista Investigación Teatral se ocupa de la historia y la política del teatro y el performance en la cultura árabe (con toda la carga lingüística, geopolítica y cultural que este último término conlleva). Los artículos que hemos reunido se centran en la historia del teatro en una porción del planeta hasta ahora muy poco estudiada, pese al creciente interés que han venido manifestando los especialistas por el teatro que se hace más allá de Europa y Estado...

  1. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium commune Isolates from a Conifer Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jane E; Kim, Mee-Sook; James, Robert L; Dumroese, R Kasten; Klopfenstein, Ned B

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and colony morphology are not correlated. Forty-one isolates of Fusarium spp., morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum, were collected from nursery samples (soils, healthy seedlings, and diseased seedlings). These isolates were characterized by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and DNA sequencing of nuclear rDNA (internal transcribed spacer including 5.8S rDNA), mitochon-drial rDNA (small subunit [mtSSU]), and nuclear translation elongation factor 1-alpha. Each isolate had a unique AFLP phenotype. Out of 121 loci, 111 (92%) were polymorphic; 30 alleles were unique to only highly virulent isolates and 33 alleles were unique to only isolates nonpathogenic on conifers. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from all three regions and the combined data set showed that all highly virulent isolates clearly separated into a common clade that contained F. commune, which was recently distinguished from its sister taxon, F. oxysporum. Interestingly, all but one of the nonpathogenic isolates grouped into a common clade and were genetically similar to F. oxysporum. The AFLP cladograms had similar topologies when compared with the DNA-based phylograms. Although all tested isolates were morphologically indistinguishable from F. oxysporum based on currently available monographs, some morphological traits can be plastic and unreliable for identification of Fusarium spp. We consider the highly virulent isolates to be F. commune based on strong genetic evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported evidence that shows F. commune is a cause of Fusarium disease (root rot and dampingoff) on Douglas-fir seedlings. Furthermore

  2. « Laudato si’», une responsabilité cosmique de la maison commune

    OpenAIRE

    Crabbé, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Laudato si’ est un long document, qui adopte essentiellement la position traditionnelle des environnementalistes y compris l’interdisciplinarité. Son auteur se déclare sans réserve en faveur du développement durable et des actions climatiques basées sur le principe de précaution et sur celui de la responsabilité commune mais différenciée, qu’il considère comme des obligations morales. Comme une lettre encyclique est avant tout un document religieux et éthique, elle nous enjoint de changer nos...

  3. A favorable clinical effect of an expectorant in allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Haruki; Taira, Tetsuhiko; Wakuda, Kazushige; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Endo, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old Japanese woman with wet cough and dyspnea was diagnosed with pneumonia at a clinic. Antibiotics did not improve her symptoms; therefore, she was referred to our hospital one month after symptom onset. Chest radiograph findings revealed complete collapse of the left lung. Bronchoscopy showed white mucus plug in the left main bronchus, which could not be removed. She was initially treated with bromhexine. Subsequently, culture results of the mucus plug specimen obtained during bronchoscopy yielded Schizophyllum commune. After three weeks, improvement of the collapsed lung was observed on chest radiograph.

  4. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Price, Neil Pj

    2013-01-01

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune were examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan from agricultural biomass. Strains were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1% (w/v) distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by the dry grind process. Ten of 11 strains tested produced more than 2 g schizophyllan/L. Two strains, ATCC 20165 and CBS 266.60, produced more than 10 g schizophyllan/L. Schizophyllan from these strains was similar to commercial product in terms of solution viscosity, molecular weight, and surface tension properties, suggesting that they would be equivalent in biomaterial applications.

  5. Importance of Distributed Generation in the National Power System Based on the Example of Gierałtowice Commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Bargiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the location capabilities of non-renewable energy sources (natural gas as well as renewable energy (biogas, methane, solar and water in a selected community. An assessment of energy supply end user – large load municipal communities are presented. Implementation plans of the energy mini centres in the Gierałtowice commune are shown, which using biogas, methane from agricultural and wind, as well as the practical tests of working these mini centres. Problems that Gierałtowice commune encountered while working on the implementation of energy investments, the directions of the solutions and the prospect of further investment were discussed.

  6. Mushrooms by magic: making connections between signal transduction and fruiting body development in the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Gail E; Horton, J Stephen

    2006-09-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune has been utilised as a model system for examining the genetic regulation of sexual reproduction, a process that culminates in the production of mushrooms in this and many other related species. Recent studies have suggested that conserved elements of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling pathway play a role in the control of mushroom development in S. commune. The small G-protein Ras also appears to impinge on the process, either by inputting into the cAMP pathway, or by acting in parallel. The molecular connections between nutrient sensing and mushroom development are now beginning to be examined.

  7. Penicillium commune metabolic profile as a promising source of antipathogenic natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diblasi, Lorena; Arrighi, Federico; Silva, Julio; Bardón, Alicia; Cartagena, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium is an important genus of ascomycetous fungi in the environment and in food and drug production. This paper aims to investigate statins and antipathogenic natural products from a Penicillium commune environmental isolate. Fractions (F1, F2, F3 and F4) were obtained from an ethyl acetate extract. Direct insertion probe/electron ionisation/ion trap detection mass spectrometry (MS and MS/MS) identified lovastatin (1) in F1, while GC-MS showed that 3-isobutylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione (2) was the main constituent of F2 (49.34%). F4 presented 3 (16.38%) as an analogue of 2 and their known structures were similar to that of an autoinducer-signal. F1 produced a significant decrease in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, which is the main cause of bacterial pathogenicity. F2 and F4 were effective against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, but when F2 was associated with oxacillin, it showed an important activity against both bacteria. These novel results suggest that P. commune INTA1 is a new source of promising antipathogenic products.

  8. Schizophyllum commune Lipase Production on Pretreated Sugarcane Bagasse and Its Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Chee Kam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune UTARA1 was used for lipase production under solid state fermentation (SSF of sugarcane bagasse (SB impregnated with used cooking oil medium. Pretreatments of steam, microwave, hydrochloric acid (HCl, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, and their combinations, such as steam-assisted HCl, steam-assisted NaOH, microwave-assisted HCl, and microwave-assisted NaOH, on the milled SB, were done prior to SSF to investigate their effects on lipase production via SSF. The highest lipase activity among the pretreated SB was 0.200 U/gSB, using steam-assisted HCl treated SB, which is lower than the lipase activity produced from the untreated SB, which was 0.413 U/gSB. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM imaging showed significant rupture of the SB structure after steam-assisted-HCl pretreatments where the thin walls of the SB pith were wrinkled and collapsed, with no distinctive cell wall structure. The HCl pretreated SB gave the highest crystallinity index (CrI, 91.43%, compared to the untreated, 61.90%. Conversely, microwave and NaOH pretreatments reduced the CrI, which were 46.15% and 43.36%, respectively. In this study, the results obtained indicated that pretreated SB did not improve the lipase production of Schizophyllum commune UTARA1 under SSF.

  9. A novel ribonuclease with potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity from cultured mushroom Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Chang; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, He-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    A 20-kDa ribonuclease (RNase) was purified from fresh fruiting bodies of cultured Schizophyllum commune mushrooms. The RNase was not adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel but adsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. It exhibited maximal RNase activity at pH 6.0 and 70°C. It demonstrated the highest ribonucleolytic activity toward poly (U) (379.5 μ/mg), the second highest activity toward poly (C) (244.7 μ/mg), less activity toward poly (A) (167.4 μ/mg), and much weaker activity toward poly (G) (114.5 μ/mg). The RNase inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 65 μM. No effect on [(3)H-methyl]-thymidine uptake by lymphoma MBL2 cells and leukemia L1210 cells was observed at 100 μM concentration of the RNase. A comparison of RNases from S. commune and Volvariella volvacea revealed that they demonstrated some similarities in N-terminal amino acid sequence, optimum pH and polyhomoribonucleotide specificity. However, some differences in chromatographic behavior and molecular mass were observed.

  10. Purification and characterization of a novel acid phosphatase from the split gill mushroom Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Qing; Chen, Qing-Jun; Sun, Jian; Wang, He-Xiang; Han, Chun-Hua

    2013-10-01

    A monomeric acid phosphatase (ACP) with a molecular mass of 72.5 kDa was purified from fresh fruiting bodies of cultured Schizophyllum commune mushroom. The isolation procedure entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, and Q-sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. It demonstrated a unique N-terminal amino acid sequence of NAPWAQIDEV, which exhibited 60% amino acid identity to that of S. commune hypothetical histidine ACP based on its genome sequence, but less than 30% amino acid identity to that of other fungal ACPs previously reported. The ACP exhibited an optimum temperature at 50 °C, an optimum pH at pH 4.6, and was considerably stable at a pH range of 4.0 to 9.0, and a temperature range of 20-40 °C. The Km of the purified enzyme for ρ-nitrophenyl phosphate (ρNPP) was 0.248 mM and the Vmax was 9.093 × 10(-3)  μM/min. ACP activity was strongly inhibited by Al(3+) and Fe(3+) , but enhanced by Co(2+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) at a concentration of 0.5 mM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of an Exopolysaccharide from Submerged Mycelial Culture of Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bin; Yang, Yuedong; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Mushroom polysaccharides have attracted attention in food and pharmacology fields because of their many biological activities. The structure characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide from Schizophyllum commune were evaluated in present study. Methods: An exopolysaccharide from a submerged mycelial fermentation of S. commune was obtained using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-150 chromatography. The molecular weight (MW), monosaccharide compositions, chemical compositions, methylation analysis, circular dichroism studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy were investigated. Results: It was a homogeneous protein-bound heteropolysaccharide with MW of 2,900 kDa. The exopolysaccharide contained a β-(1→3) glycosidic backbone, (1→4)- and (1→6)- glycosidic side chain, and high amount of glucose. The anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide was assessed by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and 5- lipoxygenase (5-LOX) from macrophages. This exopolysaccharide significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited lipopolysaccharides-induced iNOS expression levels in the cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: It indicated significant anti-inflammatory effects, which showed that exopolysaccharide might be exploited as an effective anti-inflammatory agent for application in NO-related disorders such as inflammation and cancer.

  12. DOSSIER: OSTEOMETRÍA DE CAMÉLIDOS SUDAMERICANOS / South American camelid osteometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés D. Izeta

    2009-12-01

    diferenciación entre especies basadas en análisis de tipo cualitativo corresponden al estudio de la morfología dental de los incisivos (Wheeler 1982, Lavallée et al. 1995: 58-59 y el estudio de las fibras (lanilla y pelo (Reigadas 1994, 2001. El otro tipo de técnica que permite la identificación de las distintas especies corresponde a los análisis cuantitativos a partir de la osteometría y la aplicación de análisis estadísticos sobre sus resultados. Una de las primerasaplicaciones de esta clase de estudios sobre camélidos de contextos arqueológicos fue realizada por Jonathan Kent (1982. Otros autores lo han seguido como Elkin (1996, Izeta (2004, 2006 e. p., López (2003, Madero (1992, 1993-1994 y Yacobaccio et al. (1997-1998 para el Noroeste de la Argentina y L’Hereux (2005 para Patagonia. En el ámbito de la Paleontología también se han realizado diversos estudios aplicando este tipo de análisis como los de Menegaz (2000 y Menegaz et al. (1988, 1989 entre otros.Por ello este Dossier tiene como fin agrupar diversos trabajos que enfocan en esa diversidad dentro de la familia Camelidaecon el fin de logar diversas interpretaciones. Estas van desde cuestiones relacionadas con la identificación de caracteres métricos que permitan definir sexo (Kaufmann y L´Heureux, variaciones métricas entre especies domésticas (Vásquez y Rosales, entre especies domésticas y silvestres (Cartajena, Izeta et al., entre especies silvestres (Labarca y Prieto y patrones económicos (Olivera y Grant.

  13. DOSSIER: Osteometría de camélidos sudamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés D. Izeta

    2009-11-01

    diferenciación entre especies basadas en análisis de tipo cualitativo corresponden al estudio de la morfología dental de los incisivos (Wheeler 1982, Lavallée et al. 1995: 58-59 y el estudio de las fibras (lanilla y pelo (Reigadas 1994, 2001. El otro tipo de técnica que permite la identificación de las distintas especies corresponde a los análisis cuantitativos a partir de la osteometría y la aplicación de análisis estadísticos sobre sus resultados. Una de las primeras aplicaciones de esta clase de estudios sobre camélidos de contextos arqueológicos fue realizada por Jonathan Kent (1982. Otros autores lo han seguido como Elkin (1996, Izeta (2004, 2006 e. p., López (2003, Madero (1992, 1993-1994 y Yacobaccio et al. (1997-1998 para el Noroeste de la Argentina y L’Hereux (2005 para Patagonia. En el ámbito de la Paleontología también se han realizado diversos estudios aplicando este tipo de análisis como los de Menegaz (2000 y Menegaz et al. (1988, 1989 entre otros. Por ello este Dossier tiene como fin agrupar diversos trabajos que enfocan en esa diversidad dentro de la familia Camelidae con el fin de logar diversas interpretaciones. Estas van desde cuestiones relacionadas con la identificación de caracteres métricos que permitan definir sexo (Kaufmann y L´Heureux, variaciones métricas entre especies domésticas (Vásquez y Rosales, entre especies domésticas y silvestres (Cartajena, Izeta et al., entre especies silvestres (Labarca y Prieto y patrones económicos (Olivera y Grant.

  14. Tourist attractiveness of rural communes of natural values in the Warmińsko-mazurskie and Podlaskie voivodeships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The condition of the natural environment is seen as one of the most important factors shaping the size and structure of tourism in the commune. To protect the natural diversity of the most valuable areas, protected areas are created. They require specific treatments to reduce the negative impact of tourists on the natural environment. On the other hand, represent an opportunity for the community, to achieve economic results through the development of the supply of tourist services. Research was carried on communes located in the Warmia-Mazury and Podlasie carried area where a national / landscape park exists or a commune area of minimum 50% area included in the Natura 2000 program. To analyse the tourist attractiveness of respondents communes a set of three measures was used: Baretje and Defert’s indicator, Charvát’s and Schneider’s indicator. An opportunity for a comprehensive development of these communities is the proper management of valuable natural areas according to the concept of sustainable development.

  15. A HOMOLOGOUS GENE-REPORTER SYSTEM FOR THE BASIDIOMYCETE SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE BASED ON INTERNALLY DELETED HOMOLOGOUS GENES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUREN, FHJ; HARMSEN, MC; WESSELS, JGH

    Problems encountered in our attempts to achieve expression of heterologous genes, driven by ascomycetous regulatory sequences, in homobasidiomycetes led us to develop a gene-reporter system based on the expression of homologous genes in Schizophyllum commune. Internal deletions were made in the

  16. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the response of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, to the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujor, V C; Peiris, D G; Monti, M; Kang, A S; Clements, M O; Hedger, J N

    2012-04-01

    Investigation of changes in the protein profile of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, when paired against the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride, for 48 h. Variations in protein profile resulting from contact with T. viride were assessed by spot separation using 2 dimensional protein gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS protein identification. Contact with T. viride elicited a systematic response in S. commune, characterized by marked increases in proteins involved for transcription and translation (61%) and cell wall/hyphal biogenesis and stabilization (17%), whereas metabolism-associated proteins decreased in amounts (64%). Trichoderma viride, however, exhibited typical mycoparasitic behaviour with increases in the amounts of proteins involved in proteolysis and carbohydrate metabolism. The protein profile of S. commune confronted by T. viride indicates the up-regulation of mechanisms specifically targeted at the mycoparasitic machinery of T. viride, particularly cell wall lysis and antibiosis. The proteomic responses observed in S. commune may occur in natural environments, providing an insight to the mechanism involved in conferring resistance to mycoparasitic attack. This study, therefore, warrants further investigation for the targeted design of more robust biocontrol agents. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Detection of the cytochrome b mutation G143A in Irish Rhynchosporium commune populations using targeted 454 sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Sinead; Barthe, Marie-Sophie; Tobie, Camille; Kildea, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Rhynchosporium commune is a major fungal pathogen of barley crops, and the application of fungicides, such as quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs), plays an important role in crop disease control. The genetic mechanisms linked to QoI resistance have been identified in the cytochrome b gene, with QoI resistance conferred by the G143A substitution. The objective of this study was to develop a high-throughput molecular assay to detect and identify mutations associated with QoI resistance within the Irish R. commune population. Leaf lesions of R. commune sampled from 74 sites during 2009-2014 and isolates from 2006 and 2007 were screened for non-synonymous mutations of the cytochrome b gene using 454 targeted sequencing. The presence of the G143A substitution was confirmed in R. commune samples at one site in 2013 and at four sites in 2014; however, the frequency of the substitution in these samples was low (2-18%). The 454 sequencing results were confirmed by PCR-RFLP and Sanger sequencing. The molecular assay that has been applied to this monitoring programme has shown that the application of 454 next-generation sequencing offers the potential for high throughput and accurate characterisation of non-synonymous mutations associated with fungicide resistance in a crop pathogen. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Occurrence of the root-rot pathogen, Fusarium commune, in forest nurseries of the midwestern and western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jane E. Stewart; R. Kasten Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium commune can cause damping-off and root rot of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries, and this pathogen has been previously reported from Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, USA. We collected Fusarium isolates from additional nurseries in the midwestern and western USA to more fully determine occurrence of this pathogen. We used DNA sequences of the mitochondrial...

  19. INTERFACIAL SELF-ASSEMBLY OF A SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE HYDROPHOBIN INTO AN INSOLUBLE AMPHIPATHIC PROTEIN MEMBRANE DEPENDS ON SURFACE HYDROPHOBICITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOSTEN, HAB; RUARDY, TG; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ; WESSELS, JGH

    1995-01-01

    Hydrophobins are small secreted fungal proteins rich in hydrophobic amino acids with a characteristic hydropathy pattern and conserved location of eight cysteine residues. It was previously shown that purified SC3p hydrophobin of Schizophyllum commune self-assembles at hydrophilic/hydrophobic interf

  20. Os dossiês da REF: além das fronteiras entre academia e militância REF's dossiers: crossing the border between research and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Weidner Maluf

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, apresentado originalmente no Encontro da REDEFEM em outubro de 2002, discute os Dossiês publicados desde o surgimento da Revista Estudos Feministas até o presente momento, fazendo um levantamento e uma breve descrição de cada um deles. Os Dossiês constituem uma seção da REF e se dedicam à abertura de um espaço de diálogo entre a produção acadêmica e intelectual e a militância, o ativismo e as políticas feministas. Os textos podem assumir diversos formatos além de artigos ou de ensaios acadêmicos. No final deste artigo, é feita uma breve análise do lugar dos dossiês nas fricções entre academia e militância, buscando ir além das dicotomias entre ação e reflexão ou teoria e prática.This article analyzes the Dossiers of Revista Estudos Feministas. This section is published since the appearance of the journal on 1992. We describe each one of the 24 dossiers published until now and analyze it main characteristics. The main objective of the Dossiers is to establish a dialogue between the feminist academic discussions and the feminist activism and politics. They are open to different styles of text beyond the academic paper. In the end of the article we analyze the place of the dossiers in the discussions about the tensions between academy and activism, trying to go beyond the dichotomies between action and reflection or between theory and practice.

  1. Los retos de lo local en lo global: aportes analíticos y normativos. Comentarios al dossier de Íconos 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez , Jeannette

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una revisión crítica del dossier de la revista Íconos 24 ¿lo global y lo local en el medio rural¿. El dossier nos propone una reflexión muy trascendente para Ecuador, justo cuando se negocia un Tratado de Libe Comercio con los Estados Unidos que influirá directamente en el mundo rural ecuatoriano, de partida, tan heterogéneo social y territorialmente. La discusión propuesta, se libera, sin embargo, de esa coyuntura y, así, los distintos autores analizan los conflictos estructurales de fondo de las localidades rurales para confrontar la apertura y el influjo de la globalización, advirtiendo los posibles intersticios para una inserción más favorable desde lo local. En esta tarea, los autores apelan a la discusión teórico-conceptual, a los análisis comparativos, a la re-lectura de la historia y a los análisis estructurales. El comentario que se presenta en este artículo atiende los aportes de los autores del dossier en tres niveles: lo teórico, lo metodológico y lo propositivo.

  2. Characterization of the chemical diversity of glycosylated mycosporine-like amino acids in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Iwamuro, Yoshiaki; Chinaka, Satoshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally unique glycosylated MAAs are found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In this study, we examined two genotypes of N.commune colonies with different water extract UV-absorption spectra. We found structurally distinct MAAs in each genotype. The water extract from genotype A showed a UV-absorbing spectrum with an absorption maximum at 335nm. The extract contained the following compounds: 7-O-(β-arabinopyranosyl)-porphyra-334 (478Da), pentose-bound shinorine (464Da), hexose-bound porphyra-334 (508Da) and porphyra-334 (346Da). The water extract from genotype B showed a characteristic UV-absorbing spectrum with double absorption maxima at 312 and 340nm. The extract contained hybrid MAAs (1050Da and 880Da) with two distinct chromophores of 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one and 1,3-diaminocyclohexen linked to 2-O-(β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside. A novel 273-Da MAA with an absorption maximum at 310nm was also identified in genotype B. The MAA consisted of a 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one linked to a γ-aminobutyric acid chain. These MAAs had potent radical scavenging activities in vitro and the results confirmed that the MAAs have multiple roles as a UV protectant and an antioxidant relevant to anhydrobiosis in N. commune. The two genotypes of N. commune exclusively produced their own characteristic glycosylated MAAs, which supports that MAA composition could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the classification of N. commune. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Translocation in Polytrichum commune (Bryophyta) I. Conduction and allocation of photoassimilates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.J.; Schiele, E.M.; Scheirer, D.C. (Bates College, Lewiston, ME (USA) Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA))

    1988-02-01

    Leafy stems and connecting underground rhizomes of Polytrichum commune Hedw. contain leptome tissues similar in structure to phloem. Isolated stems in clonal groupings were pulse labelled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Labelled sugar, mostly sucrose, glucose, and fructose, appeared in the pulse labelled stems 30 min after treatment. A small amount (3.3%) of labelled sugar was transported to neighboring stems. Silver grain deposition in microautoradiographs of interconnecting rhizomes occurred predominantly over leptome tissues. Increased amounts of translocated radioactivity appeared in starch and cell wall polysaccharide pools one week and six weeks after treatment. These results (1) indicate that transport of photoassimilate occurs through the leptome of perennating rhizomes, (2) demonstrate that translocated carbon is subsequently utilized or stored, and (3) raise important questions about the significance of long distance transport in the life strategy of this complex clonal moss.

  4. Preparation of polysaccharides from cyanobacteria Nostoc commune and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Bin; Wu, Sheng-Jun; Liu, Dou

    2014-01-01

    In this study, water soluble polysaccharides were prepared from cyanobacteria Nostoc commune by water extraction. Factors affecting the polysaccharide yields were investigated, and the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: time, 4h; temperature, 90 °C; the ratio of liquid to solid, 60:1 (v/w); and extraction times, 4. The extract was filtered, concentrated to ∼10% (w/v), precipitated with 3 volumes of ethanol, freeze-dried, and ground to yield a water soluble power. The polysaccharide content of the product was 96.7%, and the yield was 9.18% (w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrated that the product samples were mainly composed of polysaccharides. The polysaccharides showed high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (92.71%) and reducing capacity (0.445) at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel expansin protein from the white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Eduardo Tovar-Herrera

    Full Text Available A novel expansin protein (ScExlx1 was found, cloned and expressed from the Basidiomycete fungus Schizophylum commune. This protein showed the canonical features of plant expansins. ScExlx1 showed the ability to form "bubbles" in cotton fibers, reduce the size of avicel particles and enhance reducing sugar liberation from cotton fibers pretreated with the protein and then treated with cellulases. ScExlx1 was able to bind cellulose, birchwood xylan and chitin and this property was not affected by different sodium chloride concentrations. A novel property of ScExlx1 is its capacity to enhance reducing sugars (N-acetyl glucosamine liberation from pretreated chitin and further added with chitinase, which has not been reported for any expansin or expansin-like protein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a bona fide fungal expansin found in a basidiomycete and we could express the bioactive protein in Pichia pastoris.

  6. Schizophyllum Commune a Causative Agent of Fungal Sinusitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Premamalini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of maxillary sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune, in a 50-year-old female. The patient presented with nasal obstruction, purulent nasal discharge from right side of the nose, cough, headache, and sneezing. Computed tomography revealed extensive opacity of the right maxillary sinus as well as erosion of the nasal wall and maxillary bone. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was done, and fungal debris present on right side of the maxillary sinus was removed and sent to laboratory. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination of the nasal discharge showed hyaline, septate hyphae. Primary isolation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA yielded a white woolly mould. Banana peel culture after 8 weeks showed macroscopically visible fan-shaped fruiting bodies. Lactophenol cotton blue (LPCB mount of the same revealed hyaline septate hyphae, often with clamp connections. Identification was confirmed by the presence of clamp connections formed on the hyphae and by vegetative compatibility with known isolates.

  7. The influence of canon law on ius commune in its formative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmeti Sami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Medieval period, Roman law and canon law formed ius commune or the common European law. The similarity between Roman and canon law was that they used the same methods and the difference was that they relied on different authoritative texts. In their works canonists and civilists combined the ancient Greek achievements in philosophy with the Roman achievements in the field of law. Canonists were the first who carried out research on the distinctions between various legal sources and systematized them according to a hierarchical order. The Medieval civilists sought solutions in canon law for a large number of problems that Justinian’s Codification did not hinge on or did it only superficially. Solutions offered by canon law were accepted not only in the civil law of Continental Europe, but also in the English law.

  8. The health level in children under 6 years Commune 20 Santiago de Cali (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina María García Zapata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A series of projects aimed to reducing morbidity and mortality rates on children below 6 years old, in Commune 20 of Cali, Colombia. Material and methods: A cross-sectional study based on a random sample of 114 children less than six years old, were examined before Primary Health Care interventions were applied. Results: 65% of the children ages were between 3 and 4 years old, 81.65 are mestizos and 51% live in nuclear families. The prevalence of initial carious lesions and cavitated as ICDAS criteria was 67.54% (95%CI 58.8-76, 27%, the proportion of healthy children was 32.45%, and 33% of the children were overweight. Conclusions: The baseline health conditions in this population are consistent with health situation analysis for the paediatric population of Cali. 

  9. Spatial analysis of undernutrition of children in léogâne Commune, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Andrea L; Eddy, Brittany; Hipp, James Aaron; Iannotti, Lora

    2013-12-01

    Over a fifth (21.9%) of children under 5 years of age in Haiti suffer from chronic malnutrition, 11.4% are underweight, and 5.1% suffer from acute malnutrition. Léogâne Commune has one of the highest under-five mortality rates in the country. Ordinary least squares regression conducted using data from household surveys to assess the impact of causal factors on child undernutrition may mask important local variations. To characterize the nutrition and health situation of children 6 to 35 months of age in LLogdne Commune, Haiti, using geographically weighted regression. In July 2008, the Children's Nutrition Program of Haiti conducted a representative cross-sectional household survey (N = 150) using a modified 33 x 6 alternative sampling design. Household questionnaires were administered to caregivers of children 6 to 35 months of age and anthropometric measurements were collected. Geographically weighted regression was employed to evaluate how undernutrition (weight-forage) and its household determinants vary across the region. Geographically weighted regression and ordinary least squares regression models were compared. The residuals of the ordinary least squares regression model were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.08, z = 1.90, p = .058), indicating that undernutrition occurs in pockets rather than being evenly distributed throughout the population. There was no improvement in performance from the ordinary least squares regression model to the geographically weighted regression model. Despite some limitations, this study illustrates a promising approach for using geospatial data to improve the understanding of how a nutrition situation varies across a region and provide deeper insight into its underlying causes.

  10. Studies of polysaccharides from three edible species of Nostoc (cyanobacteria) with different colony morphologies : structural characterization and effect on the complement system of polysaccharides from Nostoc commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, L.P.; Huang, Z.; Thomas-Oates, J.E.; Smestad-Paulsen, B.; Cohen, E.H.; Michaelsen, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune Vaucher produces quite complex extracellular polysaccharides. The cyanobacterium is nitrogen fixing, and on growing the cyanobacterium in media with and without nitrogen, different types of extracellular polysaccharides were obtained. These were also different from

  11. Short story student-writers: active roles in writing through the use of e-portfolio dossier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cuesta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describen los efectos causados por el uso del enfoque de género y proceso y del dossier del portafolio electrónico en el desarrollo de la habilidad para escribir historias cortas de un grupo de estudiantes de undécimo grado de un colegio público en Bogotá. Este estudio nació de la necesidad por despertar el interés de los estudiantes frente al desarrollo de sus habilidades de escritura y por encontrar estrategias instruccionales para guiarlos durante las etapas de este proceso. El análisis de datos revela una mejoría significativa en la producción escrita y evidencia la aparición de nuevos roles por parte de los estudiantes: de un estado pasivo se transformaron en creadores, constructores y evaluadores activos de su proceso de producción escrita de historias cortas. Estos roles les ayudaron a reflexionar sobre su aprendizaje y a mejorar su capacidad para tomar decisiones y desarrollar su pensamiento crítico. Los resultados también validaron el uso que tiene el portafolio electrónico como una herramienta útil en el aprendizaje y la evaluación.

  12. Comparative analysis of the secretomes of Schizophyllum commune and other wood-decay basidiomycetes during solid-state fermentation reveals its unique lignocellulose-degrading enzyme system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ning; Liu, Jiawen; Yang, Jinshui; Lin, Yujian; Yang, Yi; Ji, Lei; Li, Meng; Yuan, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    The genome of Schizophyllum commune encodes a diverse repertoire of degradative enzymes for plant cell wall breakdown. Recent comparative genomics study suggests that this wood decayer likely has a mode of biodegradation distinct from the well-established white-rot/brown-rot models. However, much about the extracellular enzyme system secreted by S. commune during lignocellulose deconstruction remains unknown and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, extracellular proteins of S. commune colonizing Jerusalem artichoke stalk were analyzed and compared with those of two white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and a brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. Under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions, S. commune displayed considerably higher levels of hydrolytic enzyme activities in comparison with those of P. chrysosporium, C. subvermispora and G. trabeum. During biodegradation process, this fungus modified the lignin polymer in a way which was consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, similar to that of G. trabeum. The crude enzyme cocktail derived from S. commune demonstrated superior performance over a commercial enzyme preparation from Trichoderma longibrachiatum in the hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass at low enzyme loadings. Secretomic analysis revealed that compared with three other fungi, this species produced a higher diversity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, especially hemicellulases and pectinases acting on polysaccharide backbones and side chains, and a larger set of enzymes potentially supporting the generation of hydroxyl radicals. In addition, multiple non-hydrolytic proteins implicated in enhancing polysaccharide accessibility were identified in the S. commune secretome, including lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) and expansin-like proteins. Plant lignocellulose degradation by S. commune involves a hydroxyl radical-mediated mechanism for lignocellulose modification

  13. Effect of Introns and AT-Rich Sequences on Expression of the Bacterial Hygromycin B Resistance Gene in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtmeijer, Karin; Wösten, Han A. B.; Springer, Jan; Wessels, Joseph G. H.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that introns are required for efficient mRNA accumulation in Schizophyllum commune and that the presence of AT-rich sequences in the coding region of genes can result in truncation of transcripts in this homobasidiomycete. Here we show that intron-dependent mRNA accumulation and truncation of transcripts are two independent events that both affect expression of the bacterial hygromycin B resistance gene in S. commune. PMID:11133486

  14. The effect of a poverty reduction policy and service quality standards on commune-level primary health care utilization in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong; Bich Hanh, Duong; Lavergne, M Ruth; Mai, Tung; Nguyen, Quang; Phillips, James F; Hughes, Jane; Van Thuc, Ha

    2010-07-01

    Although universal access to quality health services is a primary policy goal of the Government of Vietnam (GOVN), economic restructuring and privatization of health services have been associated with emerging inequities in access to care. A GOVN programme for socio-economic development known as Program 135 (P135) designates communes known to be relatively poor as priority localities for development resources. Under this programme, basic curative and preventive health services, including some prescription drugs, are provided free of charge at commune health centres (CHCs). In an effort to improve the quality of care provided at CHCs, the national Ministry of Health (MOH) has implemented a set of national benchmarks for commune health care, which defines a minimum configuration of equipment, staff, training and other elements of service provision. This research examines the impact of P135 poverty reduction policy, achievement of MOH benchmark indicators and commune socio-economic characteristics on CHC utilization rates in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. The analysis uses administrative data reported from 178 CHCs in Thai Nguyen Province for nine quarters, including 2004, 2005 and the first quarter of 2006. Mixed linear regression models are used to estimate the main and interaction effects on utilization rates of exposure to the P135 policies, achievement of MOH benchmarks, poverty, distance to the district hospital and ethnic composition. Communes that are poor and remote have comparatively high CHC utilization rates. Multivariate regression results suggest that communes exposed to the P135 policy have higher utilization rates, but these effects are conditional upon achievement of benchmark standards, thus perceived quality care enhances CHC utilization. Combining Program P135 with benchmark investment reduced the gap between primary health care utilization in poor communes versus those that are less poor. These commune-level findings suggest that CHC policies

  15. 2005 dossier: granite; Dossier 2005: granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - advantage of granitic formations for the geologic disposal; 2 - containers; 3 - design study of a disposal facility in granitic environment; 4 - understanding and modelling of granite; 5 - description of disposal concepts in granitic environment; 6 - long-term and safety aspects; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  16. Cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in Fusarium commune transcriptome and functional characterization of three identified xylanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhong; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-06-01

    Specific enzymes from plant-pathogenic microbes demonstrate high effectiveness for natural lignocellulosic biomass degradation and utilization. The secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes of Fusarium species have not been investigated comprehensively, however. In this study we compared cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes of classical fungal enzyme producers with those of Fusarium species. The results indicated that Fusarium species are robust cellulose and hemicellulose degraders. Wheat bran, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan-based growth media induced a broad spectrum of lignocellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium commune. Prediction of the cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes in the F. commune transcriptome using peptide pattern recognition revealed 147 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and six genes encoding lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (AA9 and AA11), including all relevant cellulose decomposing enzymes (GH3, GH5, GH6, GH7, GH9, GH45 and AA9), and abundant hemicellulases. We further applied peptide pattern recognition to reveal nine and seven subfamilies of GH10 and GH11 family enzymes, respectively. The uncharacterized XYL10A, XYL10B and XYL11 enzymes of F. commune were classified, respectively, into GH10 subfamily 1, subfamily 3 and GH11 subfamily 1. These xylanases were successfully expressed in the PichiaPink™ system with the following properties: the purified recombinant XYL10A had interesting high specific activity; XYL10B was active at alkaline conditions with both endo-1,4-β-d-xylanase and β-xylosidase activities; and XYL11 was a true xylanase characterized by high substrate specificity. These results indicate that F. commune with genetic modification is a promising source of enzymes for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass.

  17. Capacity of Commune Health Stations in Chi Linh District, Hai Duong Province, for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Thuy Nga, Nguyen; Thi My Anh, Bui; Nguyen Ngoc, Nguyen; Minh Diem, Dang; Duy Kien, Vu; Bich Phuong, Tran; Quynh Anh, Tran; Van Minh, Hoang

    2017-07-01

    The primary health care system in Vietnam has been playing an important role in prevention and control of diseases. This study aimed to describe the capacity of commune health stations in Chi Linh district, Hai Duong province for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). A mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative approaches) approach was applied to collect data in 20 commune health stations. The participants, including health workers, stakeholders, and patients with NCDs, were selected for the study. The findings reported that the main activities of prevention and control of NCDs at commune health stations (CHSs) still focused on information-education-community (IECs), unqualified for providing screening, diagnosis, and treatments of NCDs. The capacity for prevention and control of NCDs in CHSs was inadequate to provide health care services related to prevention and control of NCDs and unmet with the community's demands. In order to ensure the role and implementation of primary care level, there is an urgent need to improve the capacity of CHSs for prevention and control of NCDs, particularly a national budget for NCDs prevention and control, the essential equipment and medicines recommended by the World Health Organization should be provided and available at the CHSs.

  18. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LiP PRODUCED BY Schyzophyllum commune IBL-06 USING BANANA STALK IN SOLID STATE CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asgher,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin peroxidase was produced from Schyzophyllum commune IBL-06 through solid state fermentation of an abundantly available agro-industrial waste, banana stalk, under pre-optimized conditions. LiP was fractionated by 65% saturation with NH4SO4 and dialysis to 1.5-fold purification. The enzyme was further purified by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography to 2.34 fold with specific activity of 468 U/mg. A single band of 80 kDa was obtained on native gel while on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and two bands having molecular weight of 33 & 47 kDa were obtained, suggesting that LiP was a two polypeptide oligomeric protein. The present LiP from S. commune IBL-06 was optimally active at pH 5 and 35°C. The stability assay showed that LiP retained activity in an acidic pH range of 4 to 6 and a temperature of 25 to 45°C after 24 h of incubation. Lignin peroxidase oxidized the vertry alcohol and showed kinetic constants KM and Vmax values of 0.46 mM and 388 mM/min, respectively. All organic and inorganic compounds inhibited S. commune LiP, but EDTA, β-Marcaptoethanol, and Pb(NO32 were the most inhibitory.

  19. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials by consolidated biological processing using the wood rot fungus Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisawa, Sakae; Ando, Hiromasa; Ariga, Osamu; Sakuma, Yoh

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, ethanol production from polysaccharides or wood chips was conducted in a single reactor under anaerobic conditions using the white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune NBRC 4928, which produces enzymes that degrade lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The ethanol yields produced from glucose and xylose were 80.5%, and 52.5%, respectively. The absolute yields of ethanol per microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), xylan and arabinogalactan were 0.26g/g-MCC, 0.0419g/g-xylan and 0.0508g/g-arabinogalactan, respectively. By comparing the actual ethanol yields from polysaccharides with monosaccharide fermentation, it was shown that the rate of saccharification was slower than that in fermentation. S. commune NBRC 4928 is concluded to be suitable for CBP because it can produce ethanol from various types of sugar. From the autoclaved cedar chip, only little ethanol was produced by S. commune NBRC 4928 alone but ethanol production was enhanced by combined use of ethanol fermenting and lignin degrading fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Schizophyllum commune: The main cause of dying trees of the Banja Luka arbored walks and parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matavulj Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of investigation of the main cause of dying trees of the main arbored walks (Mladena Stojanovića Aley and Park, the investigation of the presence and diversity of macrofungi in Banja Luka City were undertaken in the period 2006-2011. Relatively poor generic diversity of lignicolous (pathogenic or potentially pathogenic and saprotrophic macrofungi with only 16 species representing this group (13 basidiomycets: Schizophyllum commune, Fomes fomentarius, Stereum hirsutum, Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Pseudotrametes gibbosa, Ganoderma applanatum, G. lucidum, G. adspersum, Polyporus squamosus, Meripilus giganteus, Laetiporus sulphureus, Auricu­laria auricula-judae, and 3 ascomycets: Nectria cinnabarina, Xylaria hypoxylon, X. poly­morpha were recorded. Such a poor qualitative composition of this very important fungal group could be explained by the reduction in the number of plant species in arbored walks and alleys, as well as the reduction in the number of fungi resistant to heavy air pollution caused by nearby (1-5m fuel combustion in engines. Although only preliminary, our results pointed to the necessity of conservation and protection of the most beautiful features of Banja Luka and its alleys and arbored walks, by undertaking the measures of curing damaged trees and treating them with fungicides in order to wipe out the epiphytia caused in more than 95% of cases (dated May 2011 by Split-gill (Schizophyllum commune, present on dead wood but also on damaged trees of Aesculus hyppocastaneum (127 trees, Tilia cordata (124 trees, Tilia platyphyllos (36 trees, Tilia argentea (40 trees, Acer negundo (20 trees, Platanus acerifolia (2 trees, Robinia pseudoacacia (3 trees, Fraxinus ornus (1 tree, Betula pendula (1 tree, Catalpa sp. (2 trees, etc. Altogether, during the last decade, around 200 trees collapsed or were sanitary cut in Banja Luka arbored walk from the Malta site to the Green bridge, a total length around 5 km. The

  1. Presentación del dossier: Actitudes ante la muerte, culto a los difuntos y devociones marianas en la religiosidad andina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia; Gabriela Folquer; Caretta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ofrecemos en este dossier unos trabajos que focalizan la mirada en las actitudes y prácticas religiosas en torno a la muerte y en las devociones marianas de la región Sur Andina Latinoamericana, en la que se inserta el Noroeste Argentino. El recorrido temporal de estos estudios se inicia en la colonia y recorre diferentes tópicos hasta los inicios del siglo xx, analizando experiencias locales de Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, Salta, Humahuaca (Jujuy, el Chaco Salteño y Tucumán.

  2. Presentación dossier: Cultura política, educación y constitución de subjetividades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Herrera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El dossier se hace en conmemoración de los 15 años del grupo de investigación Educación y Cultura Política de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, una trayectoria de existencia en la que presentamos algunos de sus trazos teóricos y metodológicos visualizados en los artículos que tienen cada uno a su disposición.

  3. La croissance de la truite commune (Salmo trutta L. sur le bassin de Scorff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAGLINIÈRE J. L.

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available La croissance de la truite commune (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée à partir du suivi de cinq cohortes âgées de 0 - à 2 - ans dans quatre milieux différents (Scorff aval et amont, affluent, sous-affluent. D'une manière générale, la taille destruites quelque soit leur âge diminue de l'aval vers l'amont du Scorff et de la rivière à l'affluent et au sous-affluent. Le taux mensuel de croissance G = 2,85 (LnL2 — LnL1/(T2 — T1 diminue de la première à la troisième année de vie quelque soit l'ordre de drainage. Ce taux de croissance varie suivant le milieu pour les deux premières classes d'âge (0 + et 1 +, cet effet milieu étant relié à la densité de population pour les individus 0 +. Le taux de croissance varie également suivant les années mais uniquement chez les plus jeunes truites et cet effet année est relié principalement à la température de l'eau. Un modèle de Von Bertalanffy est proposé pour décrire la relation entre la taille (Lf et la somme des températures moyennes journalières depuis la date moyenne d'émergence (Tmjpendant la première année : Lf = 106,7 (1 — exp [ — 0,0005 (Tmj + 468]. Les résultats sont discutés et permettent de dégager les faits majeurs intervenant sur la croissance de la truite tout au long d'un cycle jusqu'à la maturation sexuelle. Mots-clés : Température - Croissance - Truite commune - Rivière - France.

  4. Symptoms and causes of poverty in a rural Vietnamese commune: Does ethnicity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Le

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from a sample survey of 200 households drawn from a mountainous commune in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region to measure and explain relative poverty. Principal components analysis is used to construct a multidimensional index of poverty outcomes from variables measuring household income and the value of domestic assets. This index of poverty is then regressed on likely causes of poverty including different forms of resource endowment and social exclusion defined by gender and ethnicity. The ordinary least squares estimates indicate that poverty is indeed influenced by ethnicity, partly through its interaction with social capital. However, poverty is most strongly affected by differences in human and social capital. Differences in the amount of livestock and high quality farmland owned also matter. Thai households are poorer than their Kinh counterparts even when endowed with the same levels of human, social, physical and natural capital considered in the study. This empirical result provides a rationale for further research on the causal relationship between ethnicity and poverty outcomes.

  5. Feruloyl esterases from Schizophyllum commune to treat food industry side-streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieter, Annabel; Kelle, Sebastian; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2016-11-01

    Agro-industrial side-streams are abundant and renewable resources of hydroxycinnamic acids with potential applications as antioxidants and preservatives in the food, health, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) from Schizophyllum commune were functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris with extracellular activities of 6000UL(-1). The recombinant enzymes, ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2, released ferulic acid from destarched wheat bran and sugar beet pectin. Overnight incubation of coffee pulp released caffeic (>60%), ferulic (>80%) and p-coumaric acid (100%) indicating applicability for the valorization of food processing wastes and enhanced biomass degradation. Based on substrate specificity profiling and the release of diferulates from destarched wheat bran, the recombinant FAEs were characterized as type D FAEs. ScFaeD1 and ScFaeD2 preferably hydrolyzed feruloylated saccharides with ferulic acid esterified to the O-5 position of arabinose residues and showed an unprecedented ability to hydrolyze benzoic acid esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Representations of communities and majority decisions in Italian Communes in the twelfth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco De Angelis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the very first evidences of the consular colleges and the restricted consilia, the political life of Italian communes represents an interesting laboratory of experimentations of deliberative practices. The essay investigates forms and protagonists of decision-making processes, focused on the majority principle affirmation and on its ambits and reasons of practical application up to the coming of the potestas government. The works – old but still fundamental – made about this theme by Edoardo Ruffini are a necessary point of departure: in the first part of this paper the author shows their most important contents, especially the historical relativity of the majority principle, that «doesn't have in itself its reason of being; it can get or not, only depending on where and how it is applied». The examples given by 12th century documents and narrative sources confirm, indeed clarify the practical value of this «legal formula», fathoming the political culture and the institutional mechanism of communal bodies during consular period.

  7. QUALITE DE L'EAU DE CONSOMMATION DANS LA COMMUNE DE SOUMAA (BLIDA - ALGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. HAMAIDI - CHERGUI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude a été réalisée en vue d’apporter des rép onses convaincantes aux préoccupations des consommateurs de la commune de Soumaa sur la qualité de l'eau de robinet. Pour évaluer l’efficacité du traitement (chloration, un suivi saisonnier durant une période de sept mois de la qualité bactériologique des échantillons d'eau prélevés depuis la source (oued Bouchemla jusqu'au point d'usage, en passant par le stade d'eau traitée (après sa chloration a été effectué. Les résultats obtenus pour les 49 échantillons prélevés ont montré que : - 57,14% des échantillons d'eau prélevés après son traitement présentent un chlore positif, et 42,85% des échantillons sont de bonne qualité bactériologique. -60% des prélèvements effectués auprès des consommateurs sont de bonne qualité bactériologique, parmi eux, 34,28% ont présenté un chlore négatif.

  8. Holocellulase activity from Schizophyllum commune grown on bamboo: a comparison with different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Valencia, Jorge William; Valencia Jiménez, Arnubio; Gonçalves de Siqueira, Félix; Dussan Medina, Kelly; Restrepo Franco, Gloria M; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira; Siegfried, Blair D; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2011-12-01

    The natural biodiversity that is found in tropical areas offers countless biotechnological opportunities; especially if we take in account that many biomolecules from several microorganisms have supported for many years, different industrial applications in areas such as pharmacology, agro-industry, bioprocess, environmental technology, and bioconversion. In order to find new lignocellulolytic enzymes and evaluate bamboo fibers as substrate, Schizophyllum commune a fungus with broad distribution was isolated and grown during 15 days in liquid culture medium containing 1% lignocellulosic fibers from bamboo, banana stem, and sugarcane bagasse. The enzymatic activity of xylanase, mannanase, polygalacturonase, CMCase, FPase, and avicelase were evaluated. Sugarcane bagasse and banana stem showed to induce higher hollocellulase activity when compared with bamboo as the main carbon source. The physical mechanism that the fungus uses to degrade bamboo was observed not only in fibers naturally infected but also in healthy fibers that were treated and untreated with enzyme solution. SEM analysis showed the structural disruption and invasion of the vascular bundles, parenchyma cells, and parenchymatous tissues as a consequence of the presence of this fungus and the catalytic action of its enzymes into the plant tissue.

  9. Drinking water: a need met for the people of the commune of Bantè, Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Fousseni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir is a Beni¬nese non-governmental organization established in 1999 following the initiatives of young Beninese execu¬tives. A case study undertaken in 2003 in the villages of Galata and Agbon in the commune of Bantè identified the need for drinking water as the most urgent need. In response to this need, and with the financial support of Oxfam Québec, RACINES initiated a project for the installation of manual water pumps in the two villages. The development of this project involved three major phases: the mobilization of communities around this project, the installation of water pumps and the organization of socio-sanitary educational activities. Twenty months into the execution of the project, a local management committee was established and strengthened, a hand-operated water pump was installed and water-themed public awareness activities, such as water use, water sanitation and the dangers of drinking dirty or contaminated water, were organized every month or so in each of the two communities. Overall, this project has introduced a new type of leadership in the commune of Bantè, involving a high level of participation by young people working alongside the elders in the local management committees and ensuring the perpetuation of the systems installed.RACINES (Recherches, Actions Communautaires, Initiatives pour un Nouvel ESpoir est une organisation béninoise non gouvernementale créée en 1999 à l’initiative de jeunes cadres béninois. Au nombre des besoins identifiés en 2003 suite à une étude prospective, l’eau potable s’est révélée comme besoin prioritaire dans les villages de Galata et d’Agbon dans la commune de Bantè. En réponse à ce besoin, RACINES a initié, avec le soutien financier de Oxfam Québec, un projet pour l’installation de pompes d’eau manuelles dans les villages concernés. La mise en œuvre de ce projet comporte trois

  10. [From "morbus democraticus" to passionate idealism. Different reactions of French alienists after the Commune of Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caire, M

    1990-04-01

    Literary and medical works published immediately after the fall of the Commune of Paris purport an analysis which deserves a critical reading: the study of the influence that alcoholism and the federate movement had on each other, easily naïve and not without excess, stamped with obviously reactionary emotions, appears as historically and scientifically questionable as the proposals towards an interpretation of the event in terms of mental pathology. The search of cases of insanity among the rebels, the idea that their acts could only express some kind of phrenopathic disorder opens the debate on the very existence of some morbid types such as Falret's and Pottier's "reasoning, inexhaustible and proselyte lunatics", the "many characters with fanciful projects, including reformists of the human race, and various utopists" that Morel includes in his classification of hereditary insanity, Serieux's and Capgras "idealists concerned with justice" found amongst delusions related to altruistic claims, Dide's and Guiraud's "idealistic passions, social reformers, anarchists" appear to us as very outdated classifications, on the border of the psychiatric field.

  11. Preparation and structural elucidation of a glucomannogalactan from marine fungus Penicillium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanli; Mao, Wenjun; Wang, Junfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Zhao, Chunqi; Li, Na; Wang, Chunyan; Yan, Mengxia; Guo, Tao; Liu, Xue

    2013-09-12

    The coral-associated fungus Penicillium commune produces an extracellular polysaccharide, FP2-1, when grown in potato dextrose-agar medium. FP2-1 was isolated from the fermented broth using anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography, and its structure was elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including detailed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that FP2-1 was a glucomannogalactan with a molar ratio of galactose, mannose and glucose of 3.9:1.9:1.0. Structure of FP2-1 may be represented, at an average, as a backbone of (1→2)-linked α-mannopyranose with the every second residue substituted at position 6 by a pentasaccharide branch. The branches consist of four (1→6)-linked β-galactofuranose residues with terminal α-glucopyranose residue attached to the last galactofuranose residue at position 2. FP2-1 was a novel galactofuranose-containing extracellular polysaccharide differing from previously described extracellular polysaccharides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Van Hoang, Minh; Nguyen, Hinh Duc

    2013-01-30

    Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely 'benefits and prospects,' 'facility and equipment,' 'performance,' and 'professionals.' The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for 'performance' (66.6/100) and lowest for 'facility and equipment' (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level.

  13. Molecular weight and helix conformation determine intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of exopolysaccharide from Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bin; Yang, Yuedong; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2017-09-15

    Intestinal anti-inflammatory activities of exopolysaccharide from S. commune were assessed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice model. The changes of molecular weight (MW), atomic force microscope morphology, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution, and viscosity were recorded after sonication treatment. The results indicated that the triple helical structure of exopolysaccharide was dissociated into single helical structure and random coiled structure by ultrasonication via breaking of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The medium (936kDa) and high MW (1437kDa) exopolysaccharide had the mixture of triple helix and single helix conformation, while the low MW (197kDa) exopolysaccharide exhibit random coiled conformation. The intestinal anti-inflammatory activity study showed that oral administration of medium and high MW (1437kDa) exopolysaccharide significantly recovered DSS-induced colitis in inflamed tissues and reduced inflammation induced infiltration of macrophages. These results showed that medium (936kDa) and high MW (1437kDa) exopolysaccharide had intestinal anti-inflammatory activity. The intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of exopolysaccharide was related to helical structure and molecular weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel small molecule 11β-HSD1 inhibitor from the endophytic fungus Penicillium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiguang; Chen, Xintao; Tong, Qingyi; Zhu, Hucheng; He, Yan; Lei, Liang; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Wang, Jianping; Li, Hua; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-05-19

    Two new phenone derivatives penicophenones A (1) and B (2), a new cyclic tetrapeptide penicopeptide A (3), and five known compounds were isolated from the culture broth of Penicillium commune, an endophytic fungus derived from Vitis vinifera. Compounds 1-3 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were determined by comparing its ECD with related molecules and modified Marfey's analysis, respectively. Penicophenone A (1) possesses a rare benzannulated 6,6-spiroketal moiety, which is a new member of the unusual structural class with peniphenone A as the representative. Compound 3 exhibited significant inhibition activities against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in vitro and showed strong binding affinity to 11β-HSD1. Moreover, compound 3 treatments decreased the lipid droplet accumulation associate with the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 expression in differentiate-induced 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the molecular docking demonstrated that compound 3 coordinated in the active site of 11β-HSD1 is essential for the ability of diminishing the enzyme activity.

  15. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of rat aorta induced by extract of Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyun; Li, Sujuan; Wang, Peng; Yan, Saimei; Hu, Lin; Pan, Xiaoxia; Yang, Cui; Leung, George Pakheng

    2014-09-25

    Schizophyllum commune (SC) is widely consumed by Chinese, especially in southern part of China. The aim of the present study was to assess the extract of SC on vascular tone and the mechanisms involved. Experiments were performed on aorta of 18-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dried SC was extracted with 50% ethanol, 90% ethanol and deionized water, respectively. The effects of SC on the isometric tension of rat aortic rings were measured. Protein expression for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was also determined in the primarily cultured rat aortic arterial endothelial cells (RAECs). The results showed that the water extract of SC induced a marked relaxation in aortic rings with or without endothelium. After the pretreatments of N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, RP-cAMP, and methylene blue, the SC-induced relaxation was significantly decreased. In addition, the contraction due to Ca(2+) influx and intracellular Ca(2+) release was also inhibited by SC. Furthermore, expression of the eNOS protein was significantly elevated in RAECs after treatment of SC. In conclusion, the water extract of SC induces an endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation in rat aorta. The relaxing effect of SC involves the modulation of NO-cGMP-dependent pathways, PGI2-cAMP-depedent pathways, Ca(2+) influx though calcium channels and intracellular Ca(2+) release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Are PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR Genes Involved in Mediating Resistance to Rhynchosporium commune in Barley?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzin, Stephan; Hanemann, Anja; Sharma, Shailendra; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Günther; Röder, Marion S

    2016-01-01

    A family of putative PECTIN ESTERASE INHIBITOR (PEI) genes, which were detected in the genomic region co-segregating with the resistance gene Rrs2 against scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune in barley, were characterized and tested for their possible involvement in mediating resistance to the pathogen by complementation and overexpression analysis. The sequences of the respective genes were derived from two BAC contigs originating from the susceptible cultivar 'Morex'. For the genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3, HvPEI4 and HvPEI6, specific haplotypes for 18 resistant and 23 susceptible cultivars were detected after PCR-amplification and haplotype-specific CAPS-markers were developed. None of the tested candidate genes HvPEI2, HvPEI3 and HvPEI4 alone conferred a high resistance level in transgenic over-expression plants, though an improvement of the resistance level was observed especially with OE-lines for gene HvPEI4. These results do not confirm but also do not exclude an involvement of the PEI gene family in the response to the pathogen. A candidate for the resistance gene Rrs2 could not be identified yet. It is possible that Rrs2 is a PEI gene or another type of gene which has not been detected in the susceptible cultivar 'Morex' or the full resistance reaction requires the presence of several PEI genes.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharide from Schizophyllum commune as affected by ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bin; Zeng, Huansong; Yang, Yuedong; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Xu, Baojun

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound treatment was applied to modify the physicochemical properties of an exopolysaccharide from mycelial culture of Schizophyllum commune. Molecular weight (MW) degradation, viscosity and anti-inflammatory property of ultrasonic treated polysaccharide were optimized with response surface methodology. The best ultrasonic parameters were obtained with a three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design. The optimized conditions for efficient anti-inflammatory activity are initial concentration at 0.4%, ultrasonic power at 600W, and duration of ultrasonic irradiation for 9min. Under these conditions, the nitric oxide inhibition rate was 95±0.03% which agreed closely with the predicted value (96%). Average MW of polysaccharide decreased after ultrasonic treatments. The viscosity of degraded polysaccharide dropped compared with native polysaccharide. The anti-inflammatory activity was improved by ultrasound treatment. The results suggested that ultrasound treatment is an effective approach to decrease the MW of polysaccharide with high anti-inflammatory activity. Ultrasonic treatment is a viable modification technology for high MW polymer materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen's evolutionary potential, and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C, and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation had higher growth rate at all three temperatures compared with populations from climates with less temperature fluctuation. Population differentiation in growth rate (QST) was significantly higher at 22°C than population differentiation for neutral microsatellite loci (GST), consistent with local adaptation for growth at higher temperatures. At 18°C, we found evidence for stabilizing selection for growth rate as QST was significantly lower than GST. Heritability of growth rate under the three temperatures was substantial in all populations (0.58–0.76). Genetic variation was lower in populations with higher growth rate at the three temperatures and evolvability increased under heat stress in seven of nine populations. Our findings imply that the distribution of this pathogen is unlikely to be genetically limited under climate warming, due to its high genetic variation and plasticity for thermal tolerance. PMID:23745143

  19. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of the γ-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Daniela; De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-04-15

    A carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) belonging to the γ-class has been cloned, purified and characterized from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. The enzyme showed a good catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction (hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and a proton) with the following kinetic parameters, kcat of 9.5×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/KM of 8.3×10(7)M(-1)s(-1), being the γ-CA with the highest catalytic activity described so far. A range of aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides and one sulfamate were investigated as inhibitors of the new enzyme, denominated here NcoCA. The best NcoCA inhibitors were some sulfonylated sulfanilamide derivatives possessing elongated molecules, aminobenzolamide, acetazolamide, benzolamide, dorzolamide, brinzolamide and topiramate, which showed inhibition constants in the range of 40.3-92.3nM. As 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) and γ-CAs are closely associated in carboxysomes of cyanobacteria for enhancing the affinity of RubisCO for CO2 and the efficiency of photosynthesis, investigation of this new enzyme and its affinity for modulators of its activity may bring new insights in these crucial processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ius Constitutionale Commune en América Latina: una mirada a un constitucionalismo transformador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin von Bogdandy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El Ius Constitutionale Commune en América Latina (ICCAL se refiere a un enfoque regional sobre el constitucionalismo transformador. Dicho enfoque se nutre de la inquietante experiencia respecto de condiciones de vida inaceptables y apunta a la transformación de la realidad política y social de América Latina por medio del fortalecimiento concertado de la democracia, el Estado de derecho y los derechos humanos. Los problemas comunes a los países latinoamericanos, tales como la exclusión de amplios sectores de la sociedad y la débil normatividad del derecho, son temas centrales de este enfoque. El ICCAL no apuesta por la integración funcional de la región, sino más bien por un constitucionalismo regional de los derechos con garantías supranacionales. Como resultado de esto último, los representantes del ICCAL reconocen la muy estrecha relación que existe entre el derecho constitucional, el derecho internacional y el derecho comparado. La apertura de los ordenamientos jurídicos nacionales de numerosos países latinoamericanos hacia el derecho internacional, y en particular hacia el sistema interamericano de protección de los derechos humanos, es de especial importancia y constituye el núcleo normativo del iccal. La presente contribución analiza los elementos centrales de dicho enfoque y describe sus contornos específicamente latinoamericanos.

  1. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. Objective: This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely ‘benefits and prospects,’ ‘facility and equipment,’ ‘performance,’ and ‘professionals.’ Results: The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%, benefit packages (25.1%, equipment (35.7%, and environment (41.8%. The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for ‘performance’ (66.6/100 and lowest for ‘facility and equipment’ (50.4/100. Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. Conclusion: The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level.

  2. Repression of proinflammatory gene expression by lipid extract of Nostoc commune var sphaeroides Kützing, a blue-green alga, via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Ki; Rasmussen, Heather E; Ehlers, Sarah J; Blobaum, Kara R; Lu, Fan; Schlegal, Vicki L; Carr, Timothy P; Lee, Ji-Young

    2008-02-01

    We investigated whether lipid extract from a blue-green alga, N commune, modulates proinflammatory gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The cells were incubated with N commune lipid extract (0-100 microg/mL) and subsequently activated by LPS (100 ng/mL). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that mRNA abundance of proinflammatory mediators, including TNF-alpha, COX-2, IL-1beta, IL-6, and iNOS, was significantly reduced by N commune lipid extract in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta into cell culture medium was also significantly decreased by N commune lipid extract. Thin-layer chromatography-densitometry analysis showed that N commune lipid extract contained approximately 15% of fatty acids. To determine whether the inhibition of proinflammatory mediator production by N commune lipid extract is primarily conferred by fatty acids in the lipid extract, macrophages were incubated with 100 microg/mL of N commune lipid extract or 15 microg/mL of a fatty acid mixture, which was formulated to reflect the fatty acid composition of N commune lipid extract. The fatty acid mixture significantly reduced RNA abundance of TNF-alpha and COX-2, but to a lesser extent than did the N commune lipid extract, suggesting the presence of additional bioactive compounds with an antiinflammatory property in the lipid extract. As NF-kappaB is a major regulator for the proinflammatory gene expression, we measured its DNA-binding activity. DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB was significantly reduced by N commune lipid extract. In conclusion, our study suggests that N commune lipid extract represses the expression of proinflammatory genes in RAW 264.7 macrophages, at least in part, by inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB pathway.

  3. Observatorio de Jóvenes, Comunicación y Medios. Dossier de Jóvenes y Legalidad. Reconfiguraciones en el abordaje de la complejidad penal juvenil : EPC. 2012. 232 páginas

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El Dossier de Jóvenes y Legalidad reúne un conjunto heterogéneo de reflexiones sobre el eje “juventud, delito y agencias de control”. Las mismas fueron realizadas por diferentes organizaciones, militantes y funcionarios a partir de sus experiencias de trabajo territorial, militancia política, extensión universitaria o intervención profesional.

  4. Application of principal component analysis to ecodiversity assessment of postglacial landscape (on the example of Debnica Kaszubska commune, Middle Pomerania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Adam

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess ecodiversity understood as a comprehensive natural landscape factor (Jedicke 2001), it is necessary to apply research methods which recognize the environment in a holistic way. Principal component analysis may be considered as one of such methods as it allows to distinguish the main factors determining landscape diversity on the one hand, and enables to discover regularities shaping the relationships between various elements of the environment under study on the other hand. The procedure adopted to assess ecodiversity with the use of principal component analysis involves: a) determining and selecting appropriate factors of the assessed environment qualities (hypsometric, geological, hydrographic, plant, and others); b) calculating the absolute value of individual qualities for the basic areas under analysis (e.g. river length, forest area, altitude differences, etc.); c) principal components analysis and obtaining factor maps (maps of selected components); d) generating a resultant, detailed map and isolating several classes of ecodiversity. An assessment of ecodiversity with the use of principal component analysis was conducted in the test area of 299,67 km2 in Debnica Kaszubska commune. The whole commune is situated in the Weichselian glaciation area of high hypsometric and morphological diversity as well as high geo- and biodiversity. The analysis was based on topographical maps of the commune area in scale 1:25000 and maps of forest habitats. Consequently, nine factors reflecting basic environment elements were calculated: maximum height (m), minimum height (m), average height (m), the length of watercourses (km), the area of water reservoirs (m2), total forest area (ha), coniferous forests habitats area (ha), deciduous forest habitats area (ha), alder habitats area (ha). The values for individual factors were analysed for 358 grid cells of 1 km2. Based on the principal components analysis, four major factors affecting commune ecodiversity

  5. Isolation and purification of an axenic diazotrophic drought-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, from natural cyanobacterial crusts and its utilization for field research on soils polluted with radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Jun; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nishi, Yasuaki

    2012-08-01

    Nitrogen fixation and drought tolerance confer the ability to grow on dry land, and some terrestrial cyanobacteria exhibit these properties. These cyanobacteria were isolated in an axenic form from Nostoc commune clusters and other sources by modifying the method used to isolate the nitrogen-fixing and drought-tolerant cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. HK-01. Of these cyanobacteria, N. commune, which is difficult to isolate and purify, uses polysaccharides to maintain water, nitrogen fertilizers for nitrogen fixation, and can live in extreme environments because of desiccation tolerance. In this study, we examined the use of N. commune as biosoil for space agriculture and possible absorption of radioisotopes ((134)Cs, (137)Cs). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.

  6. TOURISM AS A POSSIBLE SOLUTION FOR THE FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMMUNE OF HUSASĂU DE TINCA, BIHOR COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Liana LĂZURAN (GIURĂU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to analyse the tourism potential of the commune of Husasău de Tinca from the Bihor County, Romania as a sustainable solution of development for the future. The natural setting offers the possibility of practicing various types and forms of tourism, but unfortunately its potential has not been harnessed. Through this paper we would like to highlight the impact that tourism could have on the local community as it could be an alternative for the agricultural function of the commune. The hospitality of the people living here and a still more beautiful landscape might be strengths of the commune in order to develop tourist activities.

  7. Water stress proteins from Nostoc commune Vauch. exhibit anti-colon cancer activities in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Songjia; Shan, Shuhua; Jin, Xiaoting; Li, Zongwei; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Liangqi; An, Quan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-14

    Nostoc commune has been traditionally used in China as a health food and medicine. The water stress proteins (WSP) of Nostoc commune are the major component of the extracellular matrix. This study purified and identified the water stress proteins (WSP1) from Nostoc commune Vauch., which could inhibit the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines. The IC50 values of WSP1 against DLD1, HCT116, HT29, and SW480 cells were 0.19 ± 0.02, 0.21 ± 0.03, 0.39 ± 0.05, and 0.41 ± 0.01 μg/μL, respectively. Notably, it displayed very little effect on the normal human intestinal epithelial FHC cell line. The IC50 value of WSP1 against FHC cells was 0.67 ± 0.05 μg/μL. Moreover, the growth of DLD1 xenografted tumors in nude mice were significantly suppressed in the WSP1 treated group. Mechanistically, the cell-cycle analysis revealed that WSP1 induced growth inhibition by G1/S arrest. Meanwhile, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays showed WSP1 could activate caspase-8, -9, and -3, along with subsequent PARP cleavage. Furthermore, the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-FMK, partly reversed the effect caused by WSP1, confirming that WSP1 induced cell apoptosis through caspase-dependent pathway. Collectively, WSP1 has targeted inhibition for colon cancer proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and it is valuable for future exploitation and utilization as an antitumor agent.

  8. Transcription factors of Schizophyllum commune involved in mushroom formation and modulation of vegetative growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkmans, Jordi F; Patil, Mohini B; Gehrmann, Thies; Reinders, Marcel J T; Wösten, Han A B; Lugones, Luis G

    2017-03-22

    Mushrooms are the most conspicuous fungal structures. Transcription factors (TFs) Bri1 and Hom1 of the model fungus Schizophyllum commune are involved in late stages of mushroom development, while Wc-2, Hom2, and Fst4 function early in development. Here, it is shown that Bri1 and Hom1 also stimulate vegetative growth, while biomass formation is repressed by Wc-2, Hom2, and Fst4. The Δbri1Δbri1 and the Δhom1Δhom1 strains formed up to 0.6 fold less biomass when compared to wild-type, while Δwc-2Δwc-2, Δhom2Δhom2, and Δfst4Δfst4 strains formed up to 2.8 fold more biomass. Inactivation of TF gene tea1, which was downregulated in the Δwc-2Δwc-2, Δhom2Δhom2, and Δfst4Δfst4 strains, resulted in a strain that was severely affected in mushroom development and that produced 1.3 fold more biomass than the wild-type. In contrast, introducing a constitutive active version of hom2 that had 4 predicted phosphorylation motifs eliminated resulted in radial growth inhibition and prompt fructification in both Δhom2 and wild-type strains, even in sterile monokaryons. Together, it is concluded that TFs involved in mushroom formation also modulate vegetative growth. Among these TFs is the homeodomain protein Hom2, being the first time that this class of regulatory proteins is implicated in repression of vegetative growth in a eukaryote.

  9. A Central Role for Ras1 in Morphogenesis of the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Nicole; Jung, Elke-Martina; Freihorst, Daniela; Hennicke, Florian; Horton, J. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Fungi have been used as model systems to define general processes in eukaryotes, for example, the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, as well as to study polar growth or pathogenesis. Here, we show a central role for the regulator protein Ras in a mushroom-forming, filamentous basidiomycete linking growth, pheromone signaling, sexual development, and meiosis to different signal transduction pathways. ras1 and Ras-specific gap1 mutants were generated and used to modify the intracellular activation state of the Ras module. Transformants containing constitutive ras1 alleles (ras1G12V and ras1Q61L), as well as their compatible mating interactions, did show strong phenotypes for growth (associated with Cdc42 signaling) and mating (associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling). Normal fruiting bodies with abnormal spores exhibiting a reduced germination rate were produced by outcrossing of these mutant strains. Homozygous Δgap1 primordia, expected to experience increased Ras signaling, showed overlapping phenotypes with a block in basidium development and meiosis. Investigation of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A indicated that constitutively active ras1, as well as Δgap1 mutant strains, exhibit a strong increase in Tpk activity. Ras1-dependent, cAMP-mediated signal transduction is, in addition to the known signaling pathways, involved in fruiting body formation in Schizophyllum commune. To integrate these analyses of Ras signaling, microarray studies were performed. Mutant strains containing constitutively active Ras1, deletion of RasGap1, or constitutively active Cdc42 were characterized and compared. At the transcriptome level, specific regulation highlighting the phenotypic differences of the mutants is clearly visible. PMID:23606288

  10. Transcriptome and Functional Analysis of Mating in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Susann; Freihorst, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Jung, Elke-Martina; Senftleben, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we undertook a functional characterization and transcriptome analysis that enabled a comprehensive study of the mating type loci of the mushroom Schizophyllum commune. Induced expression of both the bar2 receptor and the bap2(2) pheromone gene within 6 to 12 h after mates' contact was demonstrated by quantitative real-time PCR. Similar temporal expression patterns were confirmed for the allelic bbr1 receptor and bbp1 pheromone-encoding genes by Northern hybridization. Interestingly, the fusion of clamp connections to the subterminal cell was delayed in mating interactions in which one of the compatible partners expressed the bar2 receptor with a truncated C terminus. This developmental delay allowed the visualization of a green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labeled truncated receptor at the cell periphery, consistent with a localization in the plasma membrane of unfused pseudoclamps. This finding does not support hypotheses envisioning a receptor localization to the nuclear membrane facilitating recognition between the two different nuclei present in each dikaryotic cell. Rather, Gfp fluorescence observed in such pseudoclamps indicated a role of receptor-pheromone interaction in clamp fusion. Transcriptome changes associated with mating interactions were analyzed in order to identify a role for pheromone-receptor interactions. We detected a total of 89 genes that were transcriptionally regulated in a mating type locus A-dependent manner, employing a cutoff of 5-fold changes in transcript abundance. Upregulation in cell cycle-related genes and downregulation of genes involved in metabolism were seen with this set of experiments. In contrast, mating type locus B-dependent transcriptome changes were observed in 208 genes, with a specific impact on genes related to cell wall and membrane metabolism, stress response, and the redox status of the cell. PMID:22210832

  11. The Definitive Diagnostic Process and Successful Treatment for ABPM Caused by Schizophyllum commune: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Ogawa

    2012-01-01

    Discussion: The two patients with MIB were successfully diagnosed as ABPM caused by Schizophyllum commune (Sc-ABPM accompanied with hyperattenuating mucoid impaction. The reliability of some allergological makers as a substitution for the bronchoprovocation test should be clarified in near future. Clinical manifestations demonstrated in our cases suggested that the allergic reaction such as eosinophilic bronchoalveolitis spreading around the mucus plug was a primary lesion underlying the Sc-ABPM. The success of the treatment for Sc-ABPM will be achieved by the strategy targeting to fundamental condition and by the control of the disease recurrence by means of effective environmental management.

  12. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Schizophyllum commune, an Emerging Basidiomycete in Bronchopulmonary Mycoses

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Gaur, Shailendra N.; Roy, Pradip; Randhawa, Harbans S.; Meis, Jacques F.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune (n = 30) showed lowest geometric mean MICs of isavuconazole (0.19 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.2 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.24 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (0.29 μg/ml) and high geometric mean MICs of fluconazole (19.39 μg/ml) and flucytosine (17.28 μg/ml). Five cases (of 8) of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis that were treated with itraconazole had no recrudescence after 6 to 24 months of follow-up. One case each of invasive pulmonary mycosis and fungal ball were treated success...

  13. Molecular characterization and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile of Schizophyllum commune, an emerging basidiomycete in bronchopulmonary mycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Gaur, Shailendra N; Roy, Pradip; Randhawa, Harbans S; Meis, Jacques F

    2013-06-01

    Schizophyllum commune (n = 30) showed lowest geometric mean MICs of isavuconazole (0.19 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.2 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.24 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (0.29 μg/ml) and high geometric mean MICs of fluconazole (19.39 μg/ml) and flucytosine (17.28 μg/ml). Five cases (of 8) of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis that were treated with itraconazole had no recrudescence after 6 to 24 months of follow-up. One case each of invasive pulmonary mycosis and fungal ball were treated successfully with voriconazole and itraconazole.

  14. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of Schizophyllum commune, an Emerging Basidiomycete in Bronchopulmonary Mycoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Shallu; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Kshitij; Gaur, Shailendra N.; Roy, Pradip; Randhawa, Harbans S.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophyllum commune (n = 30) showed lowest geometric mean MICs of isavuconazole (0.19 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.2 μg/ml), voriconazole (0.24 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (0.29 μg/ml) and high geometric mean MICs of fluconazole (19.39 μg/ml) and flucytosine (17.28 μg/ml). Five cases (of 8) of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis that were treated with itraconazole had no recrudescence after 6 to 24 months of follow-up. One case each of invasive pulmonary mycosis and fungal ball were treated successfully with voriconazole and itraconazole. PMID:23507274

  15. Clay 2001 dossier: progress report on feasibility studies and research into deep geological disposal of high-level, long-lived waste; Dossier 2001 argile: sur l'avancement des etudes et recherches relatives a la faisabilite d'un stockage de dechets a haute activite et a vie longue en formation geologique profonde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    A French Act of Parliament passed on 30 December 1991 set out the main areas of research required to prepare solutions for the long-term management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste. The three avenues of research listed in the Act included a feasibility study of the deep geological disposal of these waste, with responsibility for steering the study given to ANDRA, France National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. Following government decisions taken in 1998, the study focused on two types of geological medium, clay and granite. The clay formations study is essentially based on results from an underground laboratory sited at the border between the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments, where the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite beds are being investigated. No site has yet been chosen for an underground laboratory for the granite study, so for the time being this will draw on generic work and on research carried out in laboratories outside France. ANDRA has decided to present an initial report on the results of its research programme, publishing a dossier on the work on clay formations in 2001 with a second dossier covering the work on granite due for release in 2002. This dossier is thus a review of the work carried out by ANDRA on the feasibility study into a radioactive waste repository in a clay formation. It represents one step in a process of studies and research work leading up to the submission of a report due in 2005 containing ANDRA conclusions on the feasibility of a repository in the clay formation. (author)

  16. Een onopgelost dossier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Th. Jensma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Goffe Jensma, An unsolved caseIn order to account for the composition of his dissertation, which Te Velde raised as a point for discussion, Jensma notes that from a methodological point of view the pivotal distinction in cases of forgery is between solved and unsolved cases. Where solved cases comply with the balanced rhetoric of historiography, unsolved cases, such as this one have,in practice, to be described using more rigid terms derived from pseudo-legal debates. It is of paramount importance to this debate that the interpretations are complete; there may be no shred of doubt left about the solution that is presented. This, scholarly speaking, absurd requirement explains why Jensma chose the ‘thick description’ method to do literary justice to the Oera Linda book affair. Jensma further rejects, at least as a compelling interpretation, Te Velde’s suggestion to consider the case of the Oera Linda Book specifically within the context of the Dutch playful liberal debating-culture of the1860s and 1870s. The key to understanding the Oera Linda book affair does not lie in the sophisticated irony with which this ‘joke’ was played, but rather in the tragic misunderstanding that was accidentally caused by this serious and deliberate hoax.

  17. Een onopgelost dossier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Th. Jensma

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Goffe Jensma, An unsolved caseIn order to account for the composition of his dissertation, which Te Velde raised as a point for discussion, Jensma notes that from a methodological point of view the pivotal distinction in cases of forgery is between solved and unsolved cases. Where solved cases comply with the balanced rhetoric of historiography, unsolved cases, such as this one have,in practice, to be described using more rigid terms derived from pseudo-legal debates. It is of paramount importance to this debate that the interpretations are complete; there may be no shred of doubt left about the solution that is presented. This, scholarly speaking, absurd requirement explains why Jensma chose the ‘thick description’ method to do literary justice to the Oera Linda book affair. Jensma further rejects, at least as a compelling interpretation, Te Velde’s suggestion to consider the case of the Oera Linda Book specifically within the context of the Dutch playful liberal debating-culture of the1860s and 1870s. The key to understanding the Oera Linda book affair does not lie in the sophisticated irony with which this ‘joke’ was played, but rather in the tragic misunderstanding that was accidentally caused by this serious and deliberate hoax.

  18. Biogas document; Dossier Biogaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verchin, J.C.; Servais, C. [Club BIOGAZ, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2002-06-01

    In this document concerning the biogas, the author presents this renewable energy situation in 2001-2002, the concerned actors, the accounting of the industrial methanization installations in France, the three main chains of process for industrial wastes and two examples of methanization implementation in a paper industry and in a dairy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Climate Change Dossier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is one of the great issues of our time. It is a complex, multi-facetted issue concerning flooding, energy efficiency, CO2 storage and sustainable energy, among others. TNO is actively involved in the issue, undertaking many studies relating to various aspects. The climate is changing;

  20. Short Communication: Effects of temperature on growth, pigment composition and protein content of an Antarctic Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJANA TRIPATHI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tripathi R, Dhuldhaj UP, Singh S. 2012. Short Communication: Effects of temperature on growth, pigment composition and protein content of an Antarctic Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 134-137. Effect of temperature variation on biomass accumulation, pigment composition and protein content were studied for the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, isolated from Antarctica. Results confirmed the psychrotrophic behavior (optimum growth temperature 25◦C of the cyanobacterium. Low temperature increased the duration of lag phase and exponential growth phase. Maximum increase in biomass was recorded on 24th day at 25◦C and on 12th day at 50C. The downshift from 25 to 5◦C had almost negligible effect on chl a content. Maximal protein content was recorded for cultures growing at 50C on 12th day. The carotenoids/chl a ratio was maximum (2.48 at 50C on 9th day. It remained almost constant for cultures growing at 5 and 350C. There was an induction in protein synthesis following downshift in temperature from 25 to 5◦C.

  1. Place product in the promotion of communes – the case of the Milicz carp and the Barycz Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Glinka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The constant competitiveness for the interest of entrepreneurs, tourists, students makes that local government units put effort into creating their image. However, the limited capital and organizational resources make that these units initiate multilateral promotion actions. Preparing its offer they repeatedly use attractive place products. The main aim of the article is to answer the question whether, if so in what ways, the Milicz carp, treated as a place product, is used in the promotion of the Local Action Group “Partnership for the Barycz Valley” created by the eight communes of Lower Silesia and Wielkopolskie province. Especially while taking into account two elements: first, the premises of the official strategic documents adopted within ‘the Barycz Valley’, second, the conducted in practice promotion actions. The use of two methods: content analysis and comparative analysis allows to state that the Milicz carp, against the goals in the given documents, plays a significant role in the promotion of the cooperating communes. Actions in the field of public relations have the greatest importance. On the other hand, the actions concerning the promotion of the Milicz carp do not accompany all the enterprises shaping the image of ‘the Barycz Valley’.

  2. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary Sącz Commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gałaś Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  3. Delimitation of Areas of Environmental Conflicts on the Background of Geological Conditions, Exemplified by Stary Sącz Commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałaś, Slávka

    2014-12-01

    Delimitation and characterization of areas of conflict are essential to assess suitability of land for different activities carried out in the field of rational land use. In the paper, delimitation of the conflict areas and conflicts categorization in terms of possibility of their overcoming, the scale of the range and the period of their occurrence exemplified by urban - rural commune Stary Sącz have been presented. The software ArcGIS 10.1, the method of maps superimposing and analysis of interactions between different geoenvironmental factors have been applied to obtain the goal of the investigation. Specific geological structure together with morphological and climatic conditions in Stary Sącz commune create ideal conditions for occurrence of con-flict areas on the background of the geological conditions. Accurate and early recognition of these conflicts - existing and potential ones, is a prerequisite for the environmental risk prevention and elimination of its effects through the proper preparation of planning documents and development plans and programs.

  4. Reduced scytonemin isolated from Nostoc commune induces autophagic cell death in human T-lymphoid cell line Jurkat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsuzuki, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Toshiomi; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2013-10-01

    Nostoc commune is a terrestrial benthic blue-green alga that often forms an extended mucilaginous layer on the soil, accumulates on stones and mud in aquatic environments. Reduced-scytonemin (R-scy), isolated from N. commune Vaucher, has been shown to suppress the human T-lymphoid Jurkat cell growth. To reveal the mechanisms underlying the R-scy-mediated inhibition of Jurkat cell growth, we examined cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) modification in these cells. We observed multiple vacuoles as well as the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II in R-scy-treated cells. These results suggest that the R-scy induced Jurkat cell growth inhibition is attributable to the induction of type II programmed cell death (PCD II; autophagic cell death or autophagy). We further examined the mechanisms underlying R-scy-induced PCDII. The cells treated with R-scy produced large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the elimination of R-scy-induced ROS by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly opposed R-scy-induced PCDII. Based on these results, we conclude that ROS formation plays a critical role in R-scy-induced PCDII. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of cellulolytic enzyme system of Schizophyllum commune mutant and evaluation of its efficiency on biomass hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornlake, Warasirin; Rattanaphanjak, Phatcharamon; Champreda, Verawat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Kittisenachai, Suthathip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Fujii, Tatsuya; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    Schizophyllum commune is a basidiomycete equipped with an efficient cellulolytic enzyme system capable of growth on decaying woods. In this study, production of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from S. commune mutant G-135 (SC-Cel) on various cellulosic substrates was examined. The highest cellulase activities including CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase were obtained on Avicel-PH101 while a wider range of enzymes attacking non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin were found when grown on alkaline-pretreated biomass. Proteomic analysis of SC-Cel also revealed a complex enzyme system comprising seven glycosyl hydrolase families with an accessory carbohydrate esterase, polysaccharide lyase, and auxiliary redox enzymes. SC-Cel obtained on Avicel-PH101 effectively hydrolyzed all agricultural residues with the maximum glucan conversion of 98.0% using corn cobs with an enzyme dosage of 5 FPU/g-biomass. The work showed potential of SC-Cel on hydrolysis of various herbaceous biomass with enhanced efficiency by addition external β-xylosidase.

  6. Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Rao, Vigneswara; Low, Jia Yin; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2013-04-01

    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X 1 : 99.5-290.5 min) and temperature (X 2 : 30.1-54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant activities and TPC. The optimal extraction time and temperature were: 290.5 min and 35.7 °C (DPPH(•) scavenging ability); 180.7 min and 41.7 °C (ABTS(•+) inhibition ability); 185.2 min and 42.4 °C (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP); 290.5 min and 40.3 °C (TPC). These optimum conditions yielded 85.10%; 94.31%; 0.74 mM Fe(2+) equivalent/100 g; 635.76 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g, respectively. The yields of antioxidant activities and TPC obtained experimentally were close to its predicted values. The establishment of such model provides a good experimental basis employing RSM for optimizing the extraction time and temperature on antioxidants from S. commune aqueous extract.

  7. Dynein Heavy Chain, Encoded by Two Genes in Agaricomycetes, Is Required for Nuclear Migration in Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsch, Melanie; Schubert, Daniela; Gube, Matthias; Ring, Christiane; Hanisch, Lisa; Linde, Jörg; Krause, Katrin; Kothe, Erika

    2015-01-01

    The white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (Agaricomycetes) was used to study the cell biology of microtubular trafficking during mating interactions, when the two partners exchange nuclei, which are transported along microtubule tracks. For this transport activity, the motor protein dynein is required. In S. commune, the dynein heavy chain is encoded in two parts by two separate genes, dhc1 and dhc2. The N-terminal protein Dhc1 supplies the dimerization domain, while Dhc2 encodes the motor machinery and the microtubule binding domain. This split motor protein is unique to Basidiomycota, where three different sequence patterns suggest independent split events during evolution. To investigate the function of the dynein heavy chain, the gene dhc1 and the motor domain in dhc2 were deleted. Both resulting mutants were viable, but revealed phenotypes in hyphal growth morphology and mating behavior as well as in sexual development. Viability of strain Δdhc2 is due to the higher expression of kinesin-2 and kinesin-14, which was proven via RNA sequencing.

  8. The concept of sustainable tourism development in rural areas – A case study of Zbąszyń commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiak Marta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in rural areas has been defined as all tourist activities conducted in rural areas. The development of tourism in rural areas is dependent on external factors (e.g. landscape attractiveness, as well as internal factors (e.g. involvement of local authorities and society. Hence, it is important to increase the tourism potential for further increase of local tourism, and in turn to intensify the social-economic development according to a sustainable policy and multifunctional rural development. The main aim of the present study was to indicate possibilities to improve tourism management of the Zbąszyń urban-rural commune. For this purpose the following detailed aims were set: to evaluate local society satisfaction with tourism development in Zbąszyń commune, to evaluate the natural-landscape state of the analyzed area, to designate a new tourist trail or to revise the existing trails, and to propose modernization of existing tourism infrastructure. The obtained results revealed that in the opinion of local society there is still not sufficient tourism development despite some natural-landscape values. Hence, activities connected with tourism enrichment should be mainly connected with designation of two new cycling trails and supplementation of tourist information signs and tables. All proposed activities leading to an increase of tourism potential should bear in mind social aspects as well as natural values and would have a positive effect on economic income of the area.

  9. Dynein Heavy Chain, Encoded by Two Genes in Agaricomycetes, Is Required for Nuclear Migration in Schizophyllum commune.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Brunsch

    Full Text Available The white-rot fungus Schizophyllum commune (Agaricomycetes was used to study the cell biology of microtubular trafficking during mating interactions, when the two partners exchange nuclei, which are transported along microtubule tracks. For this transport activity, the motor protein dynein is required. In S. commune, the dynein heavy chain is encoded in two parts by two separate genes, dhc1 and dhc2. The N-terminal protein Dhc1 supplies the dimerization domain, while Dhc2 encodes the motor machinery and the microtubule binding domain. This split motor protein is unique to Basidiomycota, where three different sequence patterns suggest independent split events during evolution. To investigate the function of the dynein heavy chain, the gene dhc1 and the motor domain in dhc2 were deleted. Both resulting mutants were viable, but revealed phenotypes in hyphal growth morphology and mating behavior as well as in sexual development. Viability of strain Δdhc2 is due to the higher expression of kinesin-2 and kinesin-14, which was proven via RNA sequencing.

  10. Cytoplasmic continuity revisited: closure of septa of the filamentous fungus Schizophyllum commune in response to environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend F van Peer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycelia of higher fungi consist of interconnected hyphae that are compartmentalized by septa. These septa contain large pores that allow streaming of cytoplasm and even organelles. The cytoplasm of such mycelia is therefore considered to be continuous. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show by laser dissection that septa of Schizophyllum commune can be closed depending on the environmental conditions. The most apical septum of growing hyphae was open when this basidiomycete was grown in minimal medium with glucose as a carbon source. In contrast, the second and the third septum were closed in more than 50% and 90% of the cases, respectively. Interestingly, only 24 and 37% of these septa were closed when hyphae were growing in the absence of glucose. Whether a septum was open or closed also depended on physical conditions of the environment or the presence of toxic agents. The first septum closed when hyphae were exposed to high temperature, to hypertonic conditions, or to the antibiotic nourseothricin. In the case of high temperature, septa opened again when the mycelium was placed back to the normal growth temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, it is concluded that the septal pores of S. commune are dynamic structures that open or close depending on the environmental conditions. Our findings imply that the cytoplasm in the mycelium of a higher fungus is not continuous per se.

  11. Budget of the Topólka commune and the use of EU funds – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalcewicz-Kaniowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of article is to show and evaluate how funding from the European Union has helped to develop the Topólka commune and improve living conditions of its citizens. To achieve this Topólka budget performance reports have been analysed and dynamics of the changes has been recorded. It appears that in 2007-2010 the province obtained most of its income from external sources in the form of different grants and subventions. The average for the obtained grants in 2007-2009 was 32.3-33.1%, while in 2010 it fell to 26.1%. Money from the budget is spent on own and commissioned projects. The research shows that, in the studied period, the majority of funds was allocated to education and parenting (31% of total spending. The research also proves that investment requirements of the commune exceed its annual budget. Without help from the EU, Topólka’s development would slow down considerably

  12. Références bibliographiques du dossier « Les grands débats éducatifs aujourd’hui »

    OpenAIRE

    Vervisch-Lestrade, Maryannick

    2013-01-01

    Cette bibliographie thématique présente une sélection de documents récents, français et étrangers, consultables au CIEP. Liée au dossier de la revue, elle est organisée par rapport à la logique de celui-ci. La plupart des références y sont donc classées selon l’ordre alphabétique des grandes régions du monde, les documents présentant un caractère international figurant en tête de la liste. International BANQUE MONDIALE. Priorités et stratégies pour l’éducation : une étude de la Banque mondial...

  13. The tourism potential of the commune Janów Podlaski and its evaluation of tourism appeal as compared to the administrative district of Biała Podlaska (Lublin voivodeship)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Chmielewska, Anna Beata

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis has been to evaluate tourism appeal of the commune of Janów Podlaski, as compared to the other communes in the administrative district of Biała Podlaska, and to analyse the recreational potential of the natural environment within the commune and it's present day infrastructure for tourism industry. For evaluation of the tourism attractiveness of the commune, based on comparative analysis, the method of synthetic measures was applied. The commune of Janów Podlaski belongs to one of the most attractive areas for tourists in the administrative district of Biała Podlaska. The attractiveness of the commune is associated with the Bug river, which flows across high-value landscapes and possess many ecological assets. Development of water tourism, however, is hindered by the fact that the Bug forms part of Poland's state border and it's water is rather polluted. Walking tourism in the commune of Janów Podlaski is encouraged owing to a well-developed and properly sing-posted networks of trails. The accommodation facilities are not evenly distributed as most of the rooms for tourists can be found in Janów Podlaski.

  14. The Provision of Sexual and Reproductive Health Education to Children in a Remote Mountainous Commune in Rural Vietnam: An Exploratory Study of Parents' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Fisher, Jane R. W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the expectations of parents in a remote mountainous commune in Vietnam about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education for their children. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 parents of eight-year-old children and key informants including a principal, a teacher and staff of the Youth…

  15. Cloning of nifHD from Nostoc commune UTEX 584 and of a flanking region homologous to part of the Azotobacter vinelandii nifU gene.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    The heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 contains two nifH-like sequences (nifH1 and nifH2) in addition to nifHD. A region of DNA 1 kilobase upstream from the 5' end of nifH showed considerable sequence similarity to part of the published nifU sequences of Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  16. THE SC7/SC14 GENE FAMILY OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE CODES FOR EXTRACELLULAR PROTEINS SPECIFICALLY EXPRESSED DURING FRUIT-BODY FORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUREN, FHJ; ASGEIRSDOTTIR, SA; KOTHE, EM; SCHEER, JMJ; WESSELS, JGH

    The Sc7 and Sc14 genes are specifically expressed in the dikaryon of the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune during fruiting. These genes are closely linked (within 6 kb) and highly similar in gene structure and nucleotide sequence (70% identical nucleotides in their coding regions). The

  17. Chiliying: Life in a Rural Commune in China. Part 1: People of Asia Series, Middle School, No. 1. Student Booklet and Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Burton F., Ed.; Parramore, Barbara M., Ed.

    This resource book contains fourteen readings on the People's Republic of China and in particular on Chiliying, a farming commune in the province of Honan. Political, geographical, and historical perspectives are presented as well as glimpses into the working, educational, social, and family lives of Chinese citizens. Each short reading is…

  18. The Provision of Sexual and Reproductive Health Education to Children in a Remote Mountainous Commune in Rural Vietnam: An Exploratory Study of Parents' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tran Thi Thu; Fisher, Jane R. W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the expectations of parents in a remote mountainous commune in Vietnam about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education for their children. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 parents of eight-year-old children and key informants including a principal, a teacher and staff of the Youth…

  19. Europeanisering van het vertrouwensbeginsel : Betekenis van het Europese vertrouwensbeginsel voor de equivalente beginselen in Nederland, Frankrijk en België in het kader van een groeiend ius commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    The central issue in this book is the Europeanization of the principle of legitimate expectations in the context of European administrative law and of the growth of a European ius commune. First, an overview is given of the European principle of legitimate expectations and the equivalent principles

  20. Active Fe-Containing Superoxide Dismutase and Abundant sodF mRNA in Nostoc commune (Cyanobacteria) after Years of Desiccation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkey, Breanne; Kovarcik, Don Paul; Wright, Deborah J.; Wilmoth, Gabriel; Prickett, Todd F.; Helm, Richard F.; Gregory, Eugene M.; Potts, Malcolm

    2000-01-01

    Active Fe-superoxide dismutase (SodF) was the third most abundant soluble protein in cells of Nostoc commune CHEN/1986 after prolonged (13 years) storage in the desiccated state. Upon rehydration, Fe-containing superoxide disumutase (Fe-SOD) was released and the activity was distributed between rehydrating cells and the extracellular fluid. The 21-kDa Fe-SOD polypeptide was purified, the N terminus was sequenced, and the data were used to isolate sodF from the clonal isolate N. commune DRH1. sodF encodes an open reading frame of 200 codons and is expressed as a monocistronic transcript (of approximately 750 bases) from a region of the genome which includes genes involved in nucleic acid synthesis and repair, including dipyrimidine photolyase (phr) and cytidylate monophosphate kinase (panC). sodF mRNA was abundant and stable in cells after long-term desiccation. Upon rehydration of desiccated cells, there was a turnover of sodF mRNA within 15 min and then a rise in the mRNA pool to control levels (quantity of sodF mRNA in cells in late logarithmic phase of growth) over approximately 24 h. The extensive extracellular polysaccharide (glycan) of N. commune DRH1 generated superoxide radicals upon exposure to UV-A or -B irradiation, and these were scavenged by SOD. Despite demonstrated roles for the glycan in the desiccation tolerance of N. commune, it may in fact be a significant source of damaging free radicals in vivo. It is proposed that the high levels of SodF in N. commune, and release of the enzyme from dried cells upon rehydration, counter the effects of oxidative stress imposed by multiple cycles of desiccation and rehydration during UV-A or -B irradiation in situ. PMID:10613879

  1. Mercury in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of Hg pollution--an accumulation and desorption experiment with microscopic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Dubińska, Anna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2014-10-01

    Because of its high mobility in ecosystems, mercury is one of the main toxic threats to the environment, and its concentration must be carefully controlled. To fulfill this need, we selected terrestrial mosses with different characteristic life forms: orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. The concentrations of mercury were determined in both species growing together at sites situated approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6km to the north, south, east and west, respectively of five known mercury polluters. The mercury concentrations reflected the emissions produced by the surrounding industry, reaching values of 0.44mgkg(-1) in P. schreberi and 0.79mgkg(-1) in P. commune in the vicinity of the chlor-alkali industry. To determine how long a load of Hg would remain in the mosses after mercury emitters restricted releases of Hg to the atmosphere, accumulation and desorption experiments were performed. We compared the two moss species collected from clean and moderately and heavily mercury-polluted sites. After eight days of exposure to mercury, P. schreberi accumulated up to 25mgkg(-1) of Hg, and P. commune accumulated up to 31mgkg(-1). Both in the field and in the experiment, P. commune accumulated significantly higher concentrations of Hg than did P. schreberi, most likely because of its surface morphology, which is likely to enhance the capture of metal from the atmosphere. After sixteen days of exposure, mercury changed the structure of the plasma membrane and affected organelles such as the nuclei and chloroplasts, leading to cell disintegration and death. The negative effects of mercury on the functioning of living cells appeared first in the older leaves of P. schreberi. After 64 days growing in the absence of Hg, P. schreberi clearly retained only 10-14% of the initially accumulated Hg, while P. commune retained 10-21%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Questions internationales, Dossier sur « Les catastrophes naturelles », n°19, mai-juin 2006, Paris, La Documentation française, 128 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Callens

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La collection de dossiers de la Documentation française consacrés aux « Questions internationales » propose un numéro dédié aux catastrophes naturelles. Le même éditeur avait proposé une livraison sur « Les risques naturels et technologiques » dans la collection des « Problèmes politiques et sociaux » (n°908, janvier 2005. Le dossier sur les catastrophes naturelles se compose de 8 articles. Un article de Philippe Ryfman sur « les ONG, acteurs controversés des relations internationales » vien...

  3. The impacts of the expansion of fruit farming businesses In the Commune of Llay Llay, Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzalez Cid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The commune of Llay Llay is characterized by the existence of a regional economy structured around fruit farming businesses. The operations of these enterprises have not had a beneficial impact on the area. Rather has been confronted by a dual predicament: temporary work and low wages. As well, the environment is threatened as the agricultural frontier extends into the foothills of the nearby mountain ranges. In addition, there is evidence of increased land concentration and control of water on the part of the agribusinesses, to the detriment of the livelihoods of small producers.  The loss of land and water is the other face of a peasant proletarization process that is ultimately functional to the agribusinesses needs for financial and human resources

  4. Chemical profile of the secondary metabolites produced by a deep-sea sediment-derived fungus Penicillium commune SD-118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Li, Xiaoming; Meng, Li; Li, Chunshun; Gao, Shushan; Huang, Caiguo; Wang, Bingui

    2012-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from Penicillium commune SD-118, a fungus obtained from a deep-sea sediment sample, resulted in the isolation of a known antibacterial compound, xanthocillin X ( 1), and 14 other known compounds comprising three steroids ( 2-4), two ceramides ( 5 and 6), six aromatic compounds ( 7-12), and three alkaloids ( 13-15). Xanthocillin X ( 1) was isolated for the first time from a marine fungus. In the bioassay, xanthocillin X ( 1) displayed remarkable antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and significant cytotoxicity against MCF-7, HepG2, H460, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Meleagrin ( 15) exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2, Hela, Du145, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. This is the first report of the cytotoxicity of xanthocillin X ( 1).

  5. Commune Health Workers' Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Knowledge and Perceived Difficulties Providing Decentralized MMT Services in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunqing; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Li, Li

    2017-07-13

    With the initial establishment of countrywide methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) system, Vietnam is in the process of expanding and decentralizing the MMT program to community-based healthcare settings. The study aimed to measure the MMT-related knowledge and perceived difficulties in treating patient who use drugs (PWUD) among community-based healthcare providers, e.g., commune health workers (CHW), and examine its correlated factors. A total of 300 CHW from 60 communes in two provinces of Vietnam completed a survey using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) method. Twelve true-or-false questions were used to assess the CHW's MMT-related knowledge. The CHW's background characteristics and perceived difficulties treating PWUD were recorded. The mean MMT knowledge score was 8.2 (SD = 1.2; range: 5-11). Misconceptions toward the benefits, procedure, and side effects of MMT were prevalent. The participants perceived varying degrees of difficulties in recruiting, engaging, and communicating with PWUD. With all covariates holding constant, younger age (standardized ẞ = -0.166; p = 0.0078) was associated with less MMT-related knowledge. Number of PWUD seen in a month and MMT-related knowledge was associated with less perceived difficulties treating PWUD. Conclusions/importance: The finding shed lights on the CHW's knowledge gap, which need to be addressed to facilitate the decentralization of MMT services in Vietnam. In preparation for a decentralized MMT service delivery model, specially designed training is warranted to equip CHW with knowledge and confidence to provide MMT-related services to PWUD.

  6. En diálogo con los artículos del dossier psicoanálisis y filosofía. ¿Hay un diálogo posible?/In dialogue with the articles of dossier psychoanalysis and phylosophy. Is there a possible dialogue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la pregunta que anima este número de la revista ¿hay un diálogo posible entre el psicoanálisis y la filosofía? el presente artículo tiene como cometido realizar un dialogo con algunos autores del Dossier, tomando como punto de referencia los trabajos en los cuales está presente cierta problematización del psicoanálisis a través de los trabajos de Foucault. The main question that brings about this new issue of the Journal is about the possible or impossible dialog between psychoanalysis and philosophy. Particularly, this article considers author contributions to this issue challenging psychoanalysis through the lens of Foucauldian theory.

  7. Le financement général des communes : comparaison interrégionale des modes de répartition

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    The Fonds des communes refers to a system of general purpose, non earmarked grants. This paper details and compares the repartition schemes used in the three Regions. The main goals in all three Regions are fiscal equalization and compensation for higher costs and/or higher demand for local public goods – notably the ones resulting from externalities. Therefore, substantial differences remain in terms of implementation. Peer reviewed

  8. Cultivation Techniques of Schizophyllum commune Intercropped in Coffee and Tea Gardens%咖啡园茶园套种白参菌栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传利; 杨发军; 王喜; 何素明; 周洋; 李学俊; 李万伟

    2015-01-01

    阐述云南咖啡园、茶园套种白参菌的栽培技术要点,并对套种白参菌的综合效益进行分析。%Inter-planting cultivation techniques of Schizophyllum commune Fr in coffee and tea gardens of Yunnan tropical re-gion was reviewed, and the comprehensive benefit was analyzed as well.

  9. Tolerance of the widespread cyanobacterium Nostoc commune to extreme temperature variations (-269 to 105°C), pH and salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Jespersen, Thomas Sand

    2012-06-01

    Nostoc commune is a widespread colonial cyanobacterium living on bare soils that alternate between frost and thaw, drought and inundation and very low and high temperatures. We collected N. commune from alternating wet and dry limestone pavements in Sweden and tested its photosynthesis and respiration at 20°C after exposure to variations in temperature (-269 to 105°C), pH (2-10) and NaCl (0.02-50 g NaCl kg(-1)). We found that dry field samples and rewetted specimens tolerated exposure beyond that experienced in natural environmental conditions: -269 to 70°C, pH 3-10 and 0-20 g NaCl kg(-1), with only a modest reduction of respiration, photosynthesis and active carbon uptake at 20°C. (14)CO(2) uptake from air declined markedly below zero and above 55°C, but remained positive. Specimens maintained a high metabolism with daily exposure to 6 h of rehydration and 18 h of desiccation at -18 and 20°C, but died at 40°C. The field temperature never exceeded the critical 40°C threshold during the wet periods, but it frequently exceeded this temperature during dry periods when N. commune is already dry and unaffected. We conclude that N. commune has an excellent tolerance to low temperatures, long-term desiccation and recurring cycles of desiccation and rewetting. These traits explain why it is the pioneer species in extremely harsh, nutrient-poor and alternating wet and dry environments.

  10. 组培条件对金发藓Polytrichum commune(Bryopsida:Musci)孢子萌发的影响%Influences of in vitro Factors on Spore Germination of Polytrichum commune ( Bryopsida: Musci)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞英; 郭水良

    2008-01-01

    在组培条件下探讨了培养基类型,蔗糖浓度,光照强度,温度和铅离子对金发藓孢子萌发的影响.结果表明:含有丰富营养成分的培养基有利于孢子的两极萌发,而含有低浓度营养成分的培养基则有利于孢子的萌发.在含有矿质离子的培养基中,光对孢子萌发没有影响.然而,在没有矿质离子的SM培养基中,光能显著地抑制孢子的萌发.在ω=0.5%的蔗糖浓度和20~30℃的温度范围内,孢子萌发率较高.随着铅浓度的升高,孢子萌发率显著降低.组培条件下金发藓孢子萌发所需的上述条件也符合其野外生长的环境特征.研究结果揭示了对金发藓孢子萌发起促进或抑制的环境因子,有助于在野外或组培条件下人为地培养金发藓.%In vitro experiments were conducted to test the effects of culture medium types, content of sucrose, light intensities, tem-peratures and Pb2+ concentration on spore germination of Polytrichum commune ( Polytrichaceae, Musci). Results show: the culture medium with rich nutrient promotes the bipolar germination rate of the spores, while those with low nutrient increase the spore germina-tion rate. Whether light is present or absent, the spore germination rates are similar on the media with minerals. However, the light significantly inhibits the germination of the spores on SM medium without minerals. In the media with 0. 5% sucrose under the tempera-tures from 20 ~ 30℃ J the spores germinated well. With the increase of the Pb2+ concentration in the medium, the spore germination rate decreases significandy. The response of the spores to the factors in virto are speculated from their habitat characteristics in the field. Our results preliminarily reveal the factors to facilitate or inhibit the spore germination, which is valuable for us to culture P.commune both in the field and in vitro conditions.

  11. PFP1, a gene encoding an Epc-N domain-containing protein, is essential for pathogenicity of the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siersleben, Sylvia; Penselin, Daniel; Wenzel, Claudia; Albert, Sylvie; Knogge, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Scald caused by Rhynchosporium commune is an important foliar disease of barley. Insertion mutagenesis of R. commune generated a nonpathogenic fungal mutant which carries the inserted plasmid in the upstream region of a gene named PFP1. The characteristic feature of the gene product is an Epc-N domain. This motif is also found in homologous proteins shown to be components of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes of fungi and animals. Therefore, PFP1 is suggested to be the subunit of a HAT complex in R. commune with an essential role in the epigenetic control of fungal pathogenicity. Targeted PFP1 disruption also yielded nonpathogenic mutants which showed wild-type-like growth ex planta, except for the occurrence of hyphal swellings. Complementation of the deletion mutants with the wild-type gene reestablished pathogenicity and suppressed the hyphal swellings. However, despite wild-type-level PFP1 expression, the complementation mutants did not reach wild-type-level virulence. This indicates that the function of the protein complex and, thus, fungal virulence are influenced by a position-affected long-range control of PFP1 expression. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Alteration of white-rot basidiomycetes cellulase and xylanase activities in the submerged co-cultivation and optimization of enzyme production by Irpex lacteus and Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, Eka; Kachlishvili, Eva; Singer, Steven W; Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Mono and dual cultures of four white-rot basidiomycete species were evaluated for cellulase and xylanase activity under submerged fermentation conditions. Co-cultivation of Pycnoporus coccineus or Trametes hirsuta with Schizophyllum commune displayed antagonistic interactions resulting in the decrease of endoglucanase and total cellulase activities. In contrast, increases in cellulase and xylanase activity were revealed through the compatible interactions of Irpex lacteus with S. commune. Co-cultivation conditions were optimized for maximum enzyme production by I. lacteus and S. commune, the best producers of cellulase/xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. An optimized medium for the target enzyme production by the mixed culture was established in a laboratory fermenter yielding 7U/mL total cellulase, 142U/mL endoglucanase, 104U/mL xylanase, and 5.2U/mL β-glucosidase. The dual culture approach resulted in an enzymatic mixture with 11% improved lignocellulose saccharification potential compared to enzymes from a monoculture of I. lacteus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiological factors associated with polymicrobial urine cultures: Census-based study in a commune of Los Ríos Region, 2009-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Navarro A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection is the most frequent infectious disease in ambulatory as in hospitalized patients. Diagnosis requires urine culture test (UCx, where a value less than 5% of polymicrobial specimens is considerate acceptable. OBJECTIVE: To determinate frequency and epidemiological factors associated to polymicrobial UCx, found in patients with presumptive diagnosis of urinary infection, from Panguipulli’s Commune, Chile. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Cross-sectional study, where all urine culture test proceeded from health centers of Panguipulli’s Commune, were analyzed. They were processed at the laboratory of Panguipulli’s Hospital between January 2009 and April 2011. Different epidemiological variables were analyzed according to Chi-Squared test (p105 CFU; 1.05% <105 CFU, and 10.6% were polymicrobial. In ambulatory centers, the prevalence of contaminated UCx was 11.2%, and urine specimens obtained outside of locality of Panguipulli showed greater degree of contamination than those which were obtained in Panguipulli’s CESFAM (p<0,01. In Panguipulli’s Hospital, 10.6% of UCx were polymicrobial. The highest contamination prevalence was registered in Maternity ward (13.9%, while the lowest one was obtained in E.R. (9.1%. DISCUSSION : The prevalence of contaminated urine cultures at inpatient services and outpatient centers of Panguipulli’s Commune exceeded the established international recommendations. Differences between the distances of localities and the degree of contamination samples were evidenced. Therefore, it is recommended to analyze protocols and normative for the urine specimens obtaining.

  14. Using GIS techniques to detect the impact of territorial evolution on producing natural hazard in Northern Romania, commune Vorniceni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gălbău, Ionela

    2015-04-01

    Using techniques of information, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), on spatial analysis, offers numerous possibilities in terms of spatial emphasizing the study area and marking hazard risk areas (especially landslides). Although the means ultra modern techniques have advanced, using GIS in spatial planning remains the most important technique used. Also, GIS maps obtained are more objective than paper made by hand, using the same data and the same conceptual model. The study area, commune Vorniceni is situated in the north of Romania, Ibaneasa River basin, a tributary of Jijiei and occupies an area of 63 km2. The area has experienced over the past 50 years, a trend not only territorial but also morphological and morphometric. This study involves a relation between the evolution of territorial distribution of the population of the commune Vorniceni and influence on the environment. The construction of the dam reservoir Ibaneasa River using poor borrow pits, meant a starting point for the development of landslides. Brutal antropic intervention on the environment by building a dam or lake clogging the two reservoirs (ponds) increased possibility of negative phenomena in the area. These phenomena directly affect the village population as territorial evolution involved the construction of settlements in areas with potential risk of landslides. The analysis of the factors that have influenced the evolution of territorial and producing negative phenomena and making GIS database will be followed by the realization of a hypsometric map of slopes, slope inclination and land use. All this, highlights the relationship anthropic environment - natural environment, and not turning both low population provides another opportunity to use the land in a beneficial way by harnessing the risk map obtained. Although not without shortcomings, the method proved to be a feasible and cost-effective approach for assessing landslide susceptibility and mapping. "ACKNOWLEDGMENT This

  15. Anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic activity of ethanolic extract and its various fractions from Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw in L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Yaping; Wang, Xiaobing; Wang, Pan; Li, Hongxia; Yan, Han; Liu, Quanhong

    2012-08-30

    Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw is a traditional Chinese herb for treatment of fever, hemostatic, uterine prolapse and especially for lymphocytic leukemia, but the antitumor effect and its potential mechanism remains unclear. The present study was to investigate the possible anti-proliferative activity of ethanolic extract and the organic fractions from P. commune on murine leukemia L1210 cells. The content of ethanolic extract and its fractions was performed on HPLC analysis with gradient elution. L1210 cells were treated with different concentrations of ethanolic extract and its fractions at different time intervals. Cell viability was evaluated using MTT assay. Apoptotic cell death was monitored by nuclear condensation and confirmed by exposure of phosphatidylserine to outer leaflet of plasma membrane. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed by flow cytometry using rhodamine 123 staining. The obtained results showed that the cell viability of L1210 cells was reduced by ethanolic extract of P. commune in a concentration-dependent manner, and the IC(50) value was about 77.22 μg/ml at 24h post treatment. The ethylacetate fraction displayed higher anti-tumor effect than that of chloroform and butanol fractions with 32.29 μg/ml (IC(50) value, 48 h). Microscopy studies revealed that ethanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction treated cells showed morphological characteristics of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation and DNA aggregation. Further, Annexin V-PE/ 7-AAD double staining showing the out leaflet of phosphatidylserine and the decline of mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry confirmed that the extracts do, in fact, induce apoptosis in L1210 cells. This is the first report on anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic effect of P. commune in cultured leukemia cells, which provides scientific basis for its usefulness as traditional medicine. Further studies are needed to confirm the precise mechanism not only the crude extract but as well the

  16. Ras GTPase-activating protein gap1 of the homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune regulates hyphal growth orientation and sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Knabe, Nicole; Kothe, Erika

    2006-04-01

    The white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune is used for the analysis of mating and sexual development in homobasidiomycete fungi. In this study, we isolated the gene gap1 encoding a GTPase-activating protein for Ras. Disruption of gap1 should therefore lead to strains accumulating Ras in its activated, GTP-bound state and to constitutive Ras signaling. Haploid Deltagap1 monokaryons of different mating types did not show alterations in mating behavior in the four different mating interactions possible in fungi expressing a tetrapolar mating type system. Instead, the growth rate in Deltagap1 monokaryons was reduced by ca. 25% and ca. 50% in homozygous Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons. Monokaryons, as well as homozygous dikaryons, carrying the disrupted gap1 alleles exhibited a disorientated growth pattern. Dikaryons showed a strong phenotype during clamp formation since hook cells failed to fuse with the peg beside them. Instead, the dikaryotic character of the hyphae was rescued by fusion of the hooks with nearby developing branches. Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons formed increased numbers of fruitbody primordia, whereas the amount of fruitbodies was not raised. Mature fruitbodies formed no or abnormal gills. No production of spores could be observed. The results suggest Ras involvement in growth, clamp formation, and fruitbody development.

  17. Phenolic acids isolated from the fungus Schizophyllum commune exert analgesic activity by inhibiting voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui-Min; Wang, Gan; Liu, Ya-Ping; Rong, Ming-Qiang; Shen, Chuan-Bin; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to search for compounds with analgesic activity from the Schizophyllum commune (SC), which is widely consumed as edible and medicinal mushroom world. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), tosilica gel column chromatography, sephadex LH 20, and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify compounds from SC. Structural analysis of the isolated compounds was based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effects of these compounds on voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels were evaluated using patch clamp. The analgesic activity of these compounds was tested in two types of mouse pain models induced by noxious chemicals. Five phenolic acids identified from SC extracts in the present study included vanillic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, o-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid, 3-hydroxy-5-methybenzoic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They inhibited the activity of both tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-r) and tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-s) NaV channels. All the compounds showed low selectivity on NaV channel subtypes. After intraperitoneal injection, three compounds of these compounds exerted analgesic activity in mice. In conclusion, phenolic acids identified in SC demonstrated analgesic activity, facilitating the mechanistic studies of SC in the treatment of neurasthenia.

  18. Mammalian mitochondrial intermediate peptidase: Structure/function analysis of a new homologue from Schizophyllum commune and relationship to thimet oligopeptidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaya, G.; Sakati, W.R.; Rollins, R.A. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    Mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP) is a component of the mitochondrial protein import machinery required for maturation of nuclear-encoded precursor proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or inner membrane. We previously characterized this enzyme in rat (RMIP) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YMIP) and showed that MIP activity is essential for mitochondrial function in yeast. We have now defined the structure of a new MIP homologue (SMIP) from the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. SMIP includes 4 exons of 523, 486, 660, and 629 bp separated by 3 short introns. The predicted SMIP, YMIP, and RMIP sequences share 31-37% identity and 54-57% similarity over 700 amino acids. When SMIP and RMIP were expressed in a yeast mip1{Delta} mutant, they were both able to rescue the respiratory-deficient phenotype caused by genetic inactivation of YMIP, indicating that the function of this enzyme is conserved in eukaryotes. Moreover, the MIP sequences show 20-24% identity and 40-47% similarity to a family of oligopeptidases from bacteria, yeast, and mammals. MIP and these proteins are characterized by a highly conserved motif, F-H-E-X-G-H-(X){sub 12}-G-(X){sub 5}-D-(X){sub 2}-E-X-P-S-(X){sub 3}-E-X, centered around a zinc-binding site and appear to represent a new family of genes associated with proteolytic processing in the mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Mammalian mitochondrial intermediate peptidase: structure/function analysis of a new homologue from Schizophyllum commune and relationship to thimet oligopeptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaya, G; Sakati, W R; Rollins, R A; Shen, G P; Hanson, L C; Ullrich, R C; Novotny, C P

    1995-08-10

    Mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP) is a component of the mitochondrial protein import machinery required for maturation of nuclear-encoded precursor proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or inner membrane. We previously characterized this enzyme in rat (RMIP) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YMIP) and showed that MIP activity is essential for mitochondrial function in yeast. We have now defined the structure of a new MIP homologue (SMIP) from the basidiomycete fungus Schizophyllum commune. SMIP includes 4 exons of 523, 486, 660, and 629 bp separated by 3 short introns. The predicted SMIP, YMIP, and RMIP sequences share 31-37% identity and 54-57% similarity over 700 amino acids. When SMIP and RMIP were expressed in a yeast mip1 delta mutant, they were both able to rescue the respiratory-deficient phenotype caused by genetic inactivation of YMIP, indicating that the function of this enzyme is conserved in eukaryotes. Moreover, the MIP sequences show 20-24% identity and 40-47% similarity to a family of oligopeptidases from bacteria, yeast, and mammals. MIP and these proteins are characterized by a highly conserved motif, F-H-E-X-G-H-(X)2-H-(X)12-G-(X)5-D-(X)2-E-X-P-S-(X)3-E-X, centered around a zinc-binding site and appear to represent a new family of genes associated with proteolytic processing in the mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments.

  20. Invasion dynamics of Asian hornet, Vespa velutina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): a case study of a commune in south-west France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel N; Brown, Mike A; Datta, Samik; Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Budge, Giles E; Keeling, Matt J

    2017-01-01

    Asian hornet, Vespa velutina Lepeletier nests were discovered in 2007 in Andernos-les-Bains on the south-west coast of France, 3 years after the first reported sightings in France. The number of nests increased in the commune over the following 7 years, despite local authorities enacting a destruction policy. The nests existed in close proximity to one another leading to a high density of over 10 nests per square kilometre in urban areas. New information on the chosen habitat for nests is presented, and the differences between primary and secondary locations are evident, with primary nests mostly occupying buildings and man-made structures, while secondary nests were found on trees. Using Bayesian inference methods, we fit a basic model to the observational data, which allows us to estimate key demographic parameters. This model fit is highly informative for predicting V. velutina spread and colonisation of other at-risk regions, and suggests that local control has a limited impact on the spread of V. velutina once established within a region.

  1. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of nostocionone isolated from Nostoc commune Vauch and its derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Tsuchida, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Yuji; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is the primary pathogenic agent responsible for acne vulgaris on the skin and hair follicles. Overgrowth of this bacterium inhibits growth and promotes follicular inflammation, with an associated increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. P. acnes has therefore been considered the main target for the prevention and medical treatment of acne vulgaris. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-P. acnes and anti-inflammatory properties of 6 compounds isolated from Nostoc commune. One of these compounds, nostocionone (Nost), and one of its derivatives, NostD3 [(1E,4E)-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one], significantly inhibited P. acnes growth. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of Nost and NostD3 on heat-killed (hk) P. acnes-induced inflammation in macrophages. Both Nost and NostD3 suppressed hk P. acnes-induced nitric oxide (NO) production through the suppression of inducible NO synthase expression, following inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B. Taken together, our findings suggested that both Nost and NostD3 were promising agents for the treatment of acne vulgaris, and that NostD3 showed higher efficacy than Nost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immobilized lipase from Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 for the production of fatty acids methyl esters from cyanobacterial oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyoti; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Madan; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Novel lipase from model mushroom Schizophyllum commune strain ISTL04 produced by solid state fermentation of Leucaena leucocephala seeds, was immobilized onto Celite for enzymatic FAMEs production from cyanobacterial endolith Leptolyngbya ISTCY101. The isolate showed vigorous growth and produced remarkable lipase activity of 146.5 U g(-1) dry solid substrate, without any external lipase inducer. Single-factor experiments were carried out to study the effects of various reaction parameters on the FAMEs yield. The best conditions for enzymatic transesterification as revealed by the results were: 1:3 oil to methanol molar ratio, added at 3h intervals, 12% water content, 1581.5 U g(-1) immobilized lipase, temperature 45 °C, and time 24h. Under these conditions, the maximum FAMEs yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase was able to produce >90% of the relative FAMEs yield after four repeated transesterification cycles. This immobilized lipase exhibited potential for application in biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteomic characterization and schizophyllan production by Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 cultured on Leucaena leucocephala wood under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Madan; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-07-01

    In this study Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 was grown on Leucaena leucocephala wood (LLW) for secretome analysis and schizophyllan production. There is no report on extracellular protein profile and schizophyllan production on woody biomass by this fungus under submerged fermentation conditions. Leucaena leucocephala, a promising bioenergy crop having high holocellulose content was used as substrate without pretreatment. The maximum sugar, extracellular protein and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production during fermentation was found to be 8.53±0.07mgmL(-1), 391±7.51mgL(-1) and 4.2±0.1gL(-1) or 0.21gg(-1)LLW on day 18 respectively. The secretome profile was dominated by glycoside hydrolases followed by carbohydrate esterase and other oxidative enzymes. EPS was further characterized by FTIR and GC-MS for functional group, monomer composition and linkage analysis and was identified as schizophyllan. The result indicated that LLW can be utilized as a low cost substrate for enzyme cocktail and schizophyllan production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition studies of a γ-carbonic anhydrase from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Carginale, Vincenzo; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente

    2015-11-01

    We report the cloning and catalytic activity of a γ-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isolated from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, NcoCA. The enzyme has a significant catalytic activity for the physiologic reaction, CO2 hydration to bicarbonate and protons, with a k(cat) of 9.5×10(5) s(-1) and a k(cat)/K(m) of 8.3×10(7) M(-1) × s(-1), being the most catalytically efficient γ-CA investigated so far. An anion inhibition study of NcoCA with inorganic/organic anions is also reported here. Fluoride, sulfate, perchlorate and tetrafluoroborate did not inhibit appreciably NcoCA, whereas the other halides, pseudohalides, bicarbonate, nitrate, nitrite and many complex inorganic anions showed inhibition in the millimolar range. The best NcoCA inhibitors detected so far were diethyldithiocarbamate (K(I) of 0.80 mM) as well as sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (K(I)s in the range of 70-90 μM). Since γ-CAs are present in carboxysomes, being involved in photosynthesis, this study may be relevant for a better understanding of such processes in some Antarctic organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Presentación evolutiva del dossier “Representaciones urbanas e identidades femeninas en América Latina (de fines del siglo XIX a principios del siglo XXI)”.Primera entrega. Eje uno: “Ciudades literarias, 1900-1930” y Eje dos: “Ciudades y traba

    OpenAIRE

    Darrigrandi, Claudia; Puppo, María Lucía; Queirolo, Graciela

    2009-01-01

    Abrimos este dossier con la publicación de dos de sus ejes. En el primero, “Ciudades literarias”, se analizan las representaciones de la experiencia femenina en ciudades en vías de modernización a través de las protagonistas de dos novelas: María Eugenia en Caracas, de Ifigenia (1924) de la escritora Teresa de la Parra y Juana Lucero en Santiago de Chile, de la novela homónima de Augusto D’Halmar (1902). En el segundo eje de este dossier, “Ciudades y trabajadoras”, nos sumergimos en el mundo ...

  6. 2005 dossier. ANDRA's researches on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Results and perspectives; Dossier 2005. Les recherches de l'Andra sur le stockage geologique des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue. Resultats et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (argilites and granites). Content: 1 - Research on deep disposal of radioactive waste: general interest task: Legislative framework, ANDRA scientific objectives, Inspections and assessments; 2 - Designing a safe and reversible disposal system: Repository safety, Reversibility: an essential requirement; 3 - Clay Research on a repository in a clay formation, A long research programme, Dossier 2005 Argile; 4 - Meuse/Haute-Marne site clay: Expected properties of the rock formation, Choice of argillite, Meuse/Haute-Marne site, Conclusions from 10 years of research at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site; 5 - Repository installations: Safe and reversible architecture, Disposal of B waste, Disposal of C waste, Possible disposal of spent fuel (CU); 6 - The disposal facility in operation: From waste packages reception to their disposal in cells, Stages of the progressive closure of engineered structures; 7 - Reversible management: Freedom of choice for future generations, Various closure stages; 8 - Long-term evolution of the repository: Apprehending the repository complexity Main evolutions expected, Slow and limited release of radioactive substances; 9 - Repository safety and impact on man: Several evolution scenarios, Normal evolution, Altered evolution; 10 - Granite Research on a repository in a granite formation: A global approach, Scientific co-operations, Dossier 2005 Granite; 11 - Characteristics of French granite formations: What properties are required for a repository?, Different types of granite formations; 12 - Repository installations: Repository design adapted to granite fractures, Clay seals to prevent water flows, Waste disposal packages ensuring long-term leak-tightness, Physical and chemical environment favourable for waste packages, Architecture

  7. Response of Nostoc Commune to Environmental Factors%地木耳对环境因子的响应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓娇; 白琼; 鄢波

    2013-01-01

      The environmental factors are the vital limiting factors for life activities ,and have obvious influences on the growth of biological organism and physiological metabolic of living organisms . This article studies the growth environment of Nostoc commune and the soil pH value , the organic matter , the entire nitrogen , the entire phosphorous ,the available phosphorus and the available potassium of Nostoc commune's distribution area . The results show that Nostoc commune is suitable to survive in the micro environment with high temperature and humidity and poor ventilation ,and its growth needs sufficient moisture content but cannot be waterlogged . The Nostoc commune adapts to growing in the neutrality to the acidity and the high organic soil content and has no special requirements on the soil texture and the entire nitrogen ,entire phosphorus ,available phosphorus and potassium content of the soil .%  指出了环境因子是生命活动的重要限制因子,对生物有机体的生长发育和生理代谢具有明显的影响。对地木耳生长的环境和其分布区土壤pH值、有机质、全氮、全磷、速效磷和速效钾含量进行了研究,结果表明:地木耳适宜生存于温度和湿度较高、通气性较差的微环境中,其生长需要充足的水分,但不宜水渍;地木耳对土壤质地无特殊要求,适宜在中性至酸性和有机质含量较高的土壤中生长,而对土壤全氮、全磷、速效磷和速效钾的含量则无特殊要求。

  8. Clustering of cases of type 1 diabetes in high socioeconomic communes in Santiago de Chile: spatio-temporal and geographical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Avilés, Francisco; Carrasco, Elena; Icaza, Gloria; Pérez-Bravo, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe spatial and space-time patterns of type 1 diabetes in children less than 15 years old, diagnosed between 2000 and 2005 with residence in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. Knox and Mantel tests were used to detect space-time interaction between cases. An ecological Bayesian model adjusted by socioeconomic factor and year was proposed to estimate the incidence by communes. Initially, there was no space-time interaction between cases, but there is evidence of clustering effect in urban areas of the region. The incidence rate for the overall study period was estimated by 6.18/100,000 (95% CI: 5.69-6.70), with a significant annual trend of 8.2% (P 1). The geographical incidence could be explained by the human development index, as a socioeconomic factor. These results suggest that children living in communes with higher socioeconomic levels may be at higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Our findings support the hypothesis of an aetiological role of environmental factors in the onset of type 1 diabetes.

  9. The ethyl acetate fraction of Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw induced cell apoptosis via reactive oxygen species in L1210 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Xiao, Yaping; Wang, Pan; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhou, Yuetao; Yan, Han; Liu, Quanhong

    2013-07-30

    Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw is a traditional Chinese herb for treatment of fever, hemostatic, uterine prolapse and especially for leukemia. Previous studies indicated its anti-leukemia effect but the potential mechanisms have not been fully explained. The present study was further to investigate the underlying mechanism of ethyl acetate extract of Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw (EEF)-induced toxicity and apoptosis in L1210 cells. Viability, DNA damage and apoptotic protein expressions of L1210 cells were analyzed by ViaCount, comet assay and western blot, respectively. At different times after EEF treatment, Bax redistribution in L1210 cells was examined using confocal microscopy; loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was monitored by fluorescence microscope using rhodamine 123 staining; Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation were measured by flow cytometry using fluorescent dye, DCFH-DA and PI, respectively. EEF significantly inhibited L1210 cell survival, promoted Bax translocation onto mitochondria, stimulated caspase-9 activation and subsequent DNA damage in L1210 cells. Abundant ROS was detected in L1210 cells after EEF treatment, and the ROS scavenger NAC significantly relieved EEF-induced cell viability decline, MMP loss, and DNA fragmentation. EEF could induce mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis in L1210 cells, and ROS may play an important role in this action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The letters of Alix Joffroy (1844-1908), a medical intern at Lariboisière's Hospital at the time of the Commune of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiberghien, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Since opening in 1848, Lariboisière's Hospital was strongly associated with the history of Paris and especially with the terrible days of the siege of Paris and the fights of the Commune. On the day after the surrender, Alix Joffroy wrote his first letter to his mother. He described the events as he experienced them, expressing his feelings about the causes of this political and military disaster and his experience there as an intern. Some weeks after the defeat of France by the Prussians, humbled Parisians attacked governmental troops. From March to May 1871 an improvised insurrectionary movement, The Commune of Paris, had taken power in the capital During the Bloody Week from 21 to 28 May 1871; this movement was suppressed by the Versaillaise Army. In his second letter, Joffroy related with great realism the tooth and nail fighting at the barricades and then the savage repression by the Army of the Communards around Lariboisière's Hospital. Two letters preciously preserved by Alix Joffroy's descendants give this man's unique direct account of a tragic period of the 19th century. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Vedettes de la chanson (dossier) [Stars of Song (Dossier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambard, Lucette

    1976-01-01

    Analyzes some of the roles which popular singers play in France. These roles are found to be poetic, political, and cultural, and are found to be tied to a socioeconomic context. (Text is in French.) (AM)

  12. Dossier Super Ships. Special on Offshore; Dossier Superschepen. Special Offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Velzen, T.; Biesboer, F.; Akkermans, J.

    2010-02-26

    In 5 articles attention is paid to the offshore industry focusing on the use of ships (1) capacity of cargo carriers; (2) problems with regard to the Nord Stream pipeline for the transport of natural gas; (3) energy efficient ships; (4) foundations for offshore wind turbines; and (5) on the platform Perdido, the offshoreproject in the Gulf of Mexico. [Dutch] In 5 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan de offshore industrie met de nadruk op het gebruik van schepen: (1) capaciteit van containerschepen voor transport; (2) problemen met de aanleg van de Nord Stream aardgaspijpleiding; (3) energie efficiente vaartuigen; (4) funderingspalen voor windturbines op zee; en (5) over het platform Perdido, het offshoreproject in de Golf van Mexico.

  13. Little Magazines etc. - en dossier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania; Serup, Martin Glaz; Olsson, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Jesper Olsson, Martin Glaz Serup og Tania Ørum redegør her for den sektion af tidsskriftet OEI (nr. 35:440-531), som de har redigeret i fællesskab, og som handler om de små tidsskrifter (little magazines), der op gennem det 20. århundrede har haft så stor betydning for modernismen og avantgarden....

  14. Memoirs of law, sciences and technologies - Law and climate thematic issue; Cahiers droit, sciences et technologies - Dossier thematique droit et climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, IDHE ENS-Cachan (France); Jouzel, J. [IPSL-LSCE, CEA-CNRS, UVSQ, CE Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boisson de Chazournes, L. [Faculte de droit, Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Sadeleer, N. de; Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Godard, O. [CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Dep. Humanites et Sciences Sociales (France); Le Prestre, P. [Laval univ. (Canada); Maljean-Dubois, S. [CNRS, CERIC, Paul Cezanne Univ., Aix-en-Provence (France); Wemaere, M. [IDDRI, Dep. Climat et Energie (France); Rousseaux, S. [CNRS, Droit et Changement Social, Association Climaterre (France); Louchard, O. [Reseau Action Climat (France)

    2009-07-01

    This dossier is organized around two essential points: 1 - climate is a scientific question which combines science and governance. In this context, the last IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report gives an essential place to uncertainties with claiming that 'it is more probable than improbable that we may be in an irreversible process of global warming'. Therefore, it has become necessary to think about the management of uncertainties using law and to a massive mobilization of the precaution principle. The essential economical aspects to the implementation of a significant abatement of greenhouse gases cannot be passed over in silence as well. Finally, the civil society occupies a more and more important place, not only in international negotiations, but inside the countries as well. 2 - Global warming is thinkable at a World scale only. This implies that some kind of a climate geopolitics is emerging in the World, considering the existence at the same time of different sources and different problems to deal with (technical, economical) depending on the regions of the world. From the strictly legal point of view, the scenarios presented at Bali consider the World by 2012 onward. In this context, the fight against global warming mobilizes several legal instruments, some being new and the others being not. We assist to a real law genesis. The emissions trading markets, for instance, and other financial mechanisms, belong to these new instruments. However, using old legal means to solve new problems is another way to create law. It is also important to stress on the fact that the international law is not the only possible legal mean to square the fight against global warming. The liability right for the violation of a public property, i.e. the atmosphere, remains an instrument combining experience and novelty and has proved itself in several countries. Finally, in France, the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' policy has led to an

  15. Ou Ning: Bishan Commune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Ning

    Ou Ning: How to Start Your Own Utopia Oversat fra kinesisk af Mai Corlin 120 sider (faksimile, farvetryk) + 32 sider (hæfte) 180 kr Udgivet af OVO press og Antipyrine Den kinesiske aktivist, redaktør og kurator Ou Ning udformede sin notesbog Hvordan man laver sin egen utopi i 2010 til en Moleskin...

  16. 氮元素对地木耳脂肪酸的影响%Effect of nitrogen on fatty acids composition of Nostoc commune

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞; 许璞; 朱建一; 万能; 汤俊

    2013-01-01

    Nostoc commune cultivated in two different conditions(with or without nitrogen in medium)were analyzed for their fatty acids composition using a modified Bligh-Dyer method and GC-MS.The results indicated that C16 and C18 were dominant compositions of total fatty acids (TFAs), among which the contents of unsaturated fatty acids(UFAs) were all above 50% in all tested samples.TFAs concentration of N.commune cultivated in medium without nitrogen (BG11O) was 13.29mg/g, while that of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and UFAs were present at 36.91% ,63.09% respectively.C18: 1 was present at 15.99% in particular; TFAs concentration of N.commune cultivated in medium with nitrogen( BGll)was 7.72mg/g,while concentrations of SFAs and UFAs were present at 47.91% ,52.09% respectively.C18:1 was 1.74%.The present study showed that the contents of TFAs especially UFAs was significantly(p <0.05) higher in BG110 group than in BG11 group.This demonstrated that the absence of nitrogen was propitious to the accumulation of fatty acids especially UFAs.%采用改进的Bligh-Dyer(mBD)法,气相色谱-质谱联用法(GC-MS)对含氮(BG11)和无氮(BG110)条件下培养的地木耳(Nostoc commune)脂肪酸进行提取、分离和测定.结果显示:两种培养条件下的地木耳脂肪酸都以C16和C18脂肪酸为主,而且不饱和脂肪酸含量均高于50%.无氮培养条件下地木耳总脂肪酸含量为13.29mg/g,饱和脂肪酸占36.91%,不饱和脂肪酸占63.09%,其中C18∶1的含量为15.99%;含氮条件下培养的地木耳总脂肪酸含量为7.72mg/g,饱和脂肪酸占47.91%,不饱和脂肪酸占52.09%,其中C18∶1的含量为1.74%.结论:无氮培养地木耳的脂肪酸含量显著高于含氮培养组(P<0.05),表明氮源缺失有利于地木耳脂肪酸特别是不饱和脂肪酸的积累.

  17. Stone-Eating Fungi: Mechanisms in Bioweathering and the Potential Role of Laccases in Black Slate Degradation With the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtzel, Julia; Siegel, Daniela; Krause, Katrin; Kothe, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Many enzymes, such as laccases, are involved in the saprotrophic lifestyle of fungi and the effects of those may be linked to enhanced bioweathering on stone surfaces. To test this hypothesis, we studied the decomposition of kerogen-enriched lithologies, especially with black slate containing up to 20% of Corg. Indeed, a formation of ditches with attached hyphal material could be observed. To address enzymes involved, proteomics was performed and one group of enzymes, the multicopper oxidase family members of laccases, was specifically investigated. A role in bioweathering of rocks containing high contents of organic carbon in the form of kerogen could be shown using the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune, a white rot fungus that has been used as a model organism to study the role of filamentous basidiomycete fungi in bioweathering of black slate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 地皮菜培养条件的研究及生长特征初探%Study on Culture Conditions of Nostoc commune and Primary Discussion on Its Cell Growth Character

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文谦

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 研究地皮菜的人工培养技术与生长特征.[方法] 以实验室保藏的地皮菜藻种为试材,改良Zarrouk培养基为基本培养基,选择不同含量的MgSO_4·7H_2O、NaNO_3、K2HPO4 3种无机盐添加到培养基进行正交试验, 研究培养基组成条件对地皮菜生长的影响,用优化的培养基配方对地皮菜培养6 d后,应用数学软件STATISTICA6.0对地皮菜生长曲线进行回归分析.[结果] 培养基中3种无机盐对地皮菜生长量的影响为K_2HPO_4 >NaNO_3> MgSO_4·7H_2O.通过正交试验确定地皮菜液体培养基中3种无机盐的最佳配方为: MgSO_4·7H_2O 0.500 g/L、NaNO_3 1.000 g/L、和K_2HPO_4 0.150 g/L.应用Logistic方程对地皮菜细胞生长进行模拟能够较好地描述地皮菜细胞的生长过程,该细胞生长曲线呈"S"形, 生长过程可分为延迟期、指数生长期和减速期.[结论] 该研究为地皮菜的大规模人工培养提供科学依据.%[Objective] The propose was to study the artificial culture technique of Nostoc commune and its growth character. [Method] With the alga seeds of N. commune stored in the lab as the tested material and the improved Zarrouk medium as the basic medium, 3 inorganic salts of MgSO_4·7H_2O, NaNO_3 and K_2HPO_4 with different contents were selected to add into the medium for the orthogonal test so as to research the effects of the medium composing condition on the growth of N. commune and optimize the medium formula. After N. commune was cultured with the optimized medium formula for 6 d, the math software STATISTICA 6.0 was adopted to make the regression analysis on the growth curve of N. commune. [Result] The effect of 3 inorganic salt contents in the medium on the biomass of N. commun in order was K_2HPO_4 > NaNO_3 > MgSO_4·7H_2O. The optimized optimal formula for 3 inorganic salts in the liquid medium of N. commune was confirmed through orthogonal test as following: MgSO_4·7H_2O concentration was 0.500 g

  19. Translocation of mercury from substrate to fruit bodies of Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata on oat flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Jiří; Švec, Karel; Kolihová, Dana; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-03-01

    The cultivation and fructification of 15 saprotrophic and wood-rotting fungal strains were tested on three various semi-natural medium. The formation of fruit bodies was observed for Panellus stipticus, Psilocybe cubensis, Schizophyllum commune and Stropharia rugosoannulata in the frame of 1-2 months. Mercury translocation from the substrate to the fruit bodies was then followed in oat flakes medium. Translocation was followed for treatments of 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20ppm Hg in the substrate. All four fungi formed fruit bodies in almost all replicates. The fruit body yield varied from 0.5 to 15.3g dry weight. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2.99 was found for P. cubensis at 1.25ppm Hg. The BCF decreased with increasing Hg concentration in the substrate: 2.49, 0, 2.38, 1.71 and 1.82 for P. stipticus; 3.00, 2.78, 2.48, 1.81 and 2.15 for P. cubensis; 2.47, 1.81, 1.78, 1.07 and 0.96 for S. commune; and 1.96, 1.84, 1.21, 1.71 and 0.96 for S. rugosoannulata. The Hg contents in the fruit bodies reflected the Hg contents in the substrate; the highest contents in the fruit bodies were found in P. cubensis (43.08±7.36ppm Hg) and P. stipticus (36.42±3.39ppm).

  20. 脱水和复水过程中金发藓(Polytrichum commune)与湿地匐灯藓(Plagiomnium acutum)叶绿素荧光特性变化的比较研究%Comparison on Alternation of Chlorophyll Fluoroscence Between Polytrichum commune and Plagiomnium acutum During Dehydration and Rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓濛; 田向荣; 李菁; 石进校

    2012-01-01

    Polytrichum commune from relative drought habitat and Plagiomnium acutum from wet habitat were used as materials, and their chlorophyll fluroscence characteristics, such as ETR-PAR (Photosyntheti-cally Active Radiation-electron transportation rate) light respond curves, Fv/Fm (ratio of chlorophyll variation fluorescence), Y( II) (quantum yielding of PS II), qP (photochemical quenching) and NPQ (none-photochemical quenching) in diferent dehydration and rehydration treatments were detected by IMAGING-PAM analyzer (WALZ). In the procedure of desiccation, P. commune could sustain a higher inhibit light intensity (over 800 μmol/(m2·s)) and a stable ETR value (about 20), but inhibit light intensity of P. acutum menifested a dramatic decline and decreased to about 400 μmol/(m2·s), and ETR value could be inhibited to null. Fv/Fm, Y (II), qP of both two bryophyta species displayed a drop trends, nevertheless, P. commune contain a higher value. NPQ of two bryophytes manifested an obvious peak, and the peak of P. commune occured early and possess a lower alternative range. In the process of rehydration, inhibit light intensity and ETR value of both species recover rapidly, and P. commnue menifested slowly and was provide with less alternation. Fv/Fm, Y (II) of both species recover to normal state, and values of P. commune was higher. Results indicated that desiccation tolerance of bryophytes primarily rely on the repair ability in recovery process. But bryophytes from difer-ent habitat should reflect distinct response on desiccation, P. commune from relative drought habitat possess stronger desicccation tolerance than P. acutum from wet habitat.%以来自不同水分生境的金发藓(Polytrichum commune)和湿地匐灯藓(Plagiomnium acutum)为材料,利用叶绿素荧光成像技术比较了脱水和复水过程中两种藓类的荧光光响应曲线、光系统Ⅱ光能转化效率(ratio of chlorophyll variation fluorescence,Fv/Fm)、

  1. The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor. The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand. Research indicates that franchising private reproductive health and family planning (RHFP services in developing countries improves quality and utilization. However, there is very little evidence that franchising improves RHFP services delivered through community-based public health clinics. This study evaluates behavioral outcomes associated with a new approach - the Government Social Franchise (GSF model - developed to improve RHFP service quality and capacity in Vietnam's commune health stations (CHSs. Methods The project involved networking and branding 36 commune health station (CHS clinics in two central provinces of Da Nang and Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. A quasi-experimental design with 36 control CHSs assessed GSF model effects on client use as measured by: 1 clinic-reported client volume; 2 the proportion of self-reported RHFP service users at participating CHS clinics over the total sample of respondents; and 3 self-reported RHFP service use frequency. Monthly clinic records were analyzed. In addition, household surveys of 1,181 CHS users and potential users were conducted prior to launch and then 6 and 12 months after implementing the GSF network. Regression analyses controlled for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Results CHS franchise membership was significantly associated with a 40% plus increase in clinic-reported client volumes for both reproductive and general health services. A 45% increase in clinic-reported family planning service clients related to GSF membership was marginally significant (p = 0.05. Self-reported frequency of RHFP service use

  2. SD118-Xanthocillin X (1), a Novel Marine Agent Extracted from Penicillium commune, Induces Autophagy through the Inhibition of the MEK/ERK Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Chen, Huan; Shang, Zhuo; Jiao, Binghua; Yuan, Bin; Sun, Weizhang; Wang, Bingui; Miao, Mingyong; Huang, Caiguo

    2012-01-01

    A compound named SD118-xanthocillin X (1) (C18H12N2O2), isolated from Penicillium commune in a deep-sea sediment sample, has been shown to inhibit the growth of several cancer cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we employed a growth inhibition assay and apoptotic analysis to identify the biological effect and detailed mechanism of SD118-xanthocillin X (1) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. SD118-xanthocillin X (1) demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the growth of HepG2 cells and caused slight cellular apoptosis and significantly induced autophagy. Autophagy was detected as early as 12 h by the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II, following cleavage and lipid addition to LC3-I. The pharmacological autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine largely attenuates the growth inhibition and autophagic effect of SD118-xanthocillin X (1) in HepG2 cells. Our data also indicated that the autophagic effect of SD118-xanthocillin X (1) occurs via the down-regulation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and the up-regulated class III PI3K/Beclin 1 signaling pathway. PMID:22822377

  3. Intégrité génomique et repeuplements chez la truite commune du versant méditerranéen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POTEAUX C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available La truite commune est une espèce manipulée depuis près d'un siècle. Pour remplacer l'effectif prélevé par la pêche, des pratiques de déversements de truites d'élevage ont été mises en place très tôt. Pour la truite sauvage du versant méditerranéen, ces repeuplements résultent en une introgression génétique des truites résidantes par les truites d'élevage, génétiquement différenciées. Nous avons effectué dans cet article une revue des données protéiques obtenues pour de nombreux échantillons méditerranéens dans notre laboratoire, en estimant l'introgression domestique et en essayant de décrire les conséquences génétiques des repeuplements sur les populations en place. Quelques solutions de remplacement aux déversements classiques de truites d'élevage sont discutées.

  4. In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of edible blue-green algae, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing and Spirulina plantensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Cassada, David A.; Snow, Daniel D.; Rogers, Douglas G.; Lee, Jiyoung

    2011-01-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) have been consumed as food and herbal medicine for centuries. However, safety for their consumption has not been well investigated. This study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro and in vivo toxicity of cultivated Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP). Neither NO nor SP contained detectable levels of microcystin (MC)-LA, MC-RR, MC-LW and MC-LR by LC/MS/MS. Cell viability remained ~70-80% when HepG2 cells were incubated with 0-500 μg/ml of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water-extractable fractions of NO and SP. Four-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93G/M diet supplemented with 0, 2.5% or 5% of NO and SP (wt/wt) for 6 months. For both genders, BGA-rich diets did not induce noticeable abnormality in weight gain and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations except a significant increase in plasma ALT levels by 2.5% NO supplementation in male mice at 6 month. Histopathological analysis of livers, however, indicated that BGA did not cause significant liver damage compared with controls. In conclusion, our results suggest that NO and SP are free of MC and the long-term dietary supplementation of up to 5% of the BGA may be consumed without evident toxic side-effects. PMID:21473896

  5. Nutrient improvement for simultaneous production of exopolysaccharide and mycelial biomass by submerged cultivation of Schizophyllum commune AGMJ-1 using statistical optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Mayur; Patel, Harshad; Gupte, Shilpa; Gupte, Akshaya

    2013-08-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) of fungal origin have attracted special attention from researchers due to their multifarious applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, optimization of the process parameters for the production of exopolysaccharide by Schizophyllum commune AGMJ-1 was studied using one factor at a time (OFAT) method, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM). OFAT method revealed xylose and yeast extract to be the most effective carbon and nitrogen sources and pH 5.3 as an optimum for maximum EPS production. Xylose, yeast extract and KCl were screened as statistically significant variables for EPS production using PBD. RSM based on the central composite design estimated that maximum EPS (4.26 g L(-1)), mycelial biomass (14 g L(-1)) and specific yield (0.45 g g(-1)) were obtained when concentration of xylose, yeast extract and KCl were set at 2.5 g % (w/v), 0.83 g % (w/v) and 6.53 mg % (w/v), respectively, in the production medium.

  6. "Two colours, one people?": the paradoxes of the multiracial union Calédonienne in the commune of Koné (New Caledonia, 1951-1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépied, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Between the 1950s and the 1970s, New Caledonian politics were dominated by one major party, the Union Calédonienne (UC), supported by the vast majority of Kanak voters and a crucial minority of European voters. In retrospect, the multicultural project of the UC under the rubric 'two colours, one people' can seem quite surprising, as it was elaborated less than ten years after the end of a particularly oppressive colonial era and three decades before the emergence of radical Kanak demands for decolonisation. This paper analyses the ambiguous relationships between the UC and New Caledonia's colonial heritage through a micro-historical sociology of the party in the rural commune of Koné (northwest coast) that draws on both archival research and interviews. With regard to both colonial and socio-economic cleavages, the paper retraces the individual and collective trajectories of UC militants and elected members of the mairie (municipal council), to gain a better understanding of the local electoral success of the party. On the scale of Koné, the UC relied in practice on a complex articulation between diverse social logics of political affiliation: across colonial frontiers, within and among Kanak communities, 'little settlers' (petits colons), merchants, mining workers, and 'white' (or not so 'white') local populations.

  7. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  8. CAUSES THAT LEAD TO THE SEVERE DECLINE IN THE NUMBER OF CATTLE BRED BY SUBSISTENCE FARMERS IN PLATARESTI COMMUNE, CALARASI COUNTY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria-Loredana PREDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania is a country of contrasts especially as agriculture is concerned. On one side we have state of the art machinery and equipment being used on farms larger than 100 ha and on the other side we have small subsistence farms operated by an aging and poor population. The paper aims to highlight few causes that have stressed even more the difficult situation of the rural population of this country; especially those that have been brought about by the financial crisis initiated in 2008 and that have gotten even worse with the passing of time. We have performed a qualitative and quantitative analysis showing the decline in the number of cattle bred, either for milk or meat, by the subsistence farmers from Plataresti commune, Calarasi County, Romania, allowing us to identify few causes that could be counteracted by a proactive social measure. The results of our research indicate one possible measure meant to counteract negative effects that subsistence farmers are now facing.

  9. Quantitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites in wild Nostoc commune Vauch%野生地木耳中次生代谢产物含量测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士振; 季添英; 冯小妹; 朱晨曦; 尹华宝; 黄训端; 尤硕愚

    2014-01-01

    测定了野生地木耳(Nostoc commune Vauch.)中次生代谢产物含量,并与4种常见食用菌藻黑木耳(Auricu-laria auricular-judae)、银耳( Tremella fuciformis)、紫菜( Porphyra)、海带( Laminaria japonica)进行比较分析,总酚、总黄酮和缩合单宁含量测定采用分光光度法,总生物碱含量测定采用高效液相色谱法( HPLC )。结果显示,野生地木耳中总酚含量为24.255 mg/g ±1.631 mg/g,总黄酮含量为5.741 mg/g ±0.239 mg/g,总生物碱含量为0.768 mg/g ±0.073 mg/g,缩合单宁含量为0.069 mg/g ±0.009 mg/g。4种食用菌藻中次生代谢产物含量范围为:总酚(5.520~62.326 mg/g)、总黄酮(0.847~7.010 mg/g)、总生物碱(0.408~4.132 mg/g)、缩合单宁(0.063~0.233 mg/g);比较分析结果显示,野生地木耳次生代谢产物中的总酚和总黄酮物质含量较高,且总酚是主要次生代谢产物,缩合单宁与总生物碱含量较低;总酚含量约为黑木耳和银耳的2倍、紫菜的6倍;总黄酮含量约为黑木耳的7倍,银耳的3倍。%This experiment determined the contents of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs)in wild Nostoc commune Vauch., and ana-lyzed the differences of the PSMs contents among wild Nostoc commune Vauch., Auricularia auricular-judae, Tremella fuciformis, Por-phyra and Laminaria japonica.The contents of condensed tannins , total polyphenol and flavonoids in wild Nostoc commune Vauch. were tested by UV-VIS spectrophotometer , and the contents of total alkaloids were quantified by high performance liquid chromatogra -phy ( HPLC) .The results showed that the content of total polyphenol was 24.255 mg/g ±1.631 mg/g, the total flavonoids was 5.741 mg/g ±0.239 mg/g, the total alkaloids was 0.768 mg/g ±0.073 mg/g and the condensed tannins was 0.069 mg/g ±0.009 mg/g in air-dry of wild Nostoc commune Vauch.The content range of several kinds of PSMs in daily edible fungoids and

  10. Les exploitations familiales peuvent -elles faire face à l’urbanisation ? Cas de la commune urbaine de Sebaa -Ayoune dans la plaine du Saïs (Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Benabed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L’agriculture périurbaine doit composer avec l’urbanisation et un marché foncier actif. Une étude réalisée dans la commune urbaine de Sebaa-Ayoune, près de Meknès (Maroc, met en évidence des comportements très différents des agriculteurs dans cette situation d’urbanisation. Certains ne vendent pas la terre et maintiennent leur exploitation en développant une activité extra-agricole, d’autres vendent une partie de leur terre pour investir en agriculture dans la partie restante, enfin la dernière catégorie vend une partie des terres pour développer des activités extra-agricoles. Il faut ajouter à ces 3 catégories d’agriculteurs familiaux, celle des néo-agriculteurs qui achètent quelques hectares de terre pour planter des arbres fruitiers. Les stratégies des producteurs de cette zone périurbaine et leur diversité s’expliquent d’abord par un marché foncier actif (prix élevé de la terre et l’origine de leur exploitation (melk, réforme agraire, néo-agriculteur. Les facilités de commercialisation des produits agricoles dues à la proximité de la ville (vente en circuit court, segmentation de la qualité,… ne contribuent pas pour le moment à la durabilité des exploitations agricoles péri-urbaine dans la région de Meknès.

  11. Comparaison des performances de deux souches de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. (domestique et hybride sauvage x domestique introduites au stade alevin dans un ruisseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIHOUARN A.

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available La production d'un hybride mâle sauvage x femelle domestique, chez la truite commune (Salmo trutta a parfois été proposée pour le repeuplement (CUINAT, 1971. Nos précédents travaux (MAISSE et al., 1983 ont montré que ces sujets sont plus difficiles à élever que ceux dont les deux parents sont domestiques. La présente étude a porté sur la comparaison des performances des hybrides et des domestiques déversés simultanément dans un ruisseau où la reproduction de la truite est compromise par le colmatage du fond. Les déversements ont été effectués sur la totalité du ruisseau, en mai, deux années de suite. Des inventaires ont été réalisés sur des secteurs représentatifs en mai, avant les déversements, et en octobre. Les résultats ont montré que les taux d'implantation, tant en 0+ qu'en 1+, ne différaient pas suivant l'origine des poissons. De plus, sur chacun des secteurs inventoriés, les individus d'origine domestique ont gardé l'avantage de taille qu'ils avaient au moment du déversement. L'intérêt d'un tel croisement est discuté en fonction des diverses stratégies de repeuplement à mettre en œuvre.

  12. ANESTHÉSIE ET PROCÉDURES CHIRURGICALES POUR L’IMPLANTATION DE RADIO ÉMETTEURS DANS LA CAVITÉ VENTRALE DE TRUITES COMMUNES ADULTES (SALMO TRUTTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOSSET C.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la meilleure technique d’implantation chirurgicale intra-abdominale de radioémetteurs chez la truite commune (Salmo trutta. Deux types d’anesthésie, chimique au clou de girofle et par l’électricité sont comparés. Deux types d’émetteurs, à antenne filaire externe et à antenne interne enroulée et deux emplacements de l’incision de la paroi abdominale, en avant et en arrière de la ceinture pelvienne, sont testés. Le clou de girofle est un anesthésique satisfaisant mais l’anesthésie par l’électricité est immédiate, et ne semble pas occasionner de stress post-opératoire. Elle offre un meilleur confort d’intervention que l’anesthésie chimique et ne présente aucun danger pour le poisson et l’expérimentateur. Elle convient donc parfaitement pour l’insertion chirurgicale des émetteurs de radiopistage. Si on ne recherche pas une distance d’émission maximale, l’émetteur à antenne interne est préférable à l’émetteur à antenne externe : il est plus stable à l’intérieur de l’abdomen et son expulsion semble moins fréquente. Toutefois, la perte d’émetteur est relativement fréquente dans les deux cas et doit être prise en compte lors de toute surveillance par radiopistage, d’une durée supérieure à 40 jours. L’emplacement de l’incision n’a aucune influence sur la survie, le risque d’expulsion, la cicatrisation et le positionnement des marques dans l’abdomen.

  13. Hypolipidemic Effect of a Blue-Green Alga (Nostoc commune) Is Attributed to Its Nonlipid Fraction by Decreasing Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Weller, Curtis L; Carr, Timothy P; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that Nostoc commune var. sphaeroids Kützing (NO), a blue-green alga (BGA), exerts a hypolipidemic effect in vivo and its lipid extract regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the hypolipidemic effect of NO is attributed to an algal lipid or a delipidated fraction in vivo compared with Spirulina platensis (SP). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an AIN-93M diet containing 2.5% or 5% of BGA (w/w) or a lipid extract equivalent to 5% of BGA for 4 weeks to measure plasma and liver lipids, hepatic gene expression, intestinal cholesterol absorption, and fecal sterol excretion. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) was significantly lower in 2.5% and 5% NO-fed groups, while plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased in the 5% NO group compared with controls. However, neither NO organic extract (NOE) nor SP-fed groups altered plasma lipids. Hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α, and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 were induced in 5% NO-fed mice, while there were no significant changes in hepatic lipogenic gene expression between groups. NO, but not NOE and SP groups, significantly decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. When HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with NOE and SP organic extract (SPE), there were marked decreases in protein levels of HMGR, low-density lipoprotein receptor, and fatty acid synthase. In conclusion, the nonlipid fraction of NO exerts TC and TG-lowering effects primarily by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and by increasing hepatic fatty acid oxidation, respectively.

  14. Eco-physiological responses of Polytrichum commune to soil contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls%大金发藓对土壤多氯联苯污染的生理生态响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴启美; 周启星

    2015-01-01

    通过微体繁殖技术在多氯联苯(PCBs)污染土壤基质上进行大金发藓(Polytrichum commune)的室内培养,研究了不同浓度(5、10和20 mg·kg–1)低氯PCBs (Aroclor 1242)和高氯PCBs (Aroclor 1254)对大金发藓生理生态指标的影响。经6个月的培养,大金发藓的密度和盖度分别达93%和50株·cm–2以上, PCBs处理组与对照组相比无显著差异,表明PCBs对大金发藓茎叶碎片再生成新植株体的能力没有产生不利影响。大金发藓鲜质量和株高随低氯PCBs (Aroclor 1242)浓度增加而增加、随高氯PCBs (Aroclor 1254)浓度增加而减小,但均高于对照,表明PCBs处理对大金发藓的生长具有一定的促进作用。PCBs处理组大金发藓叶绿素a、b以及叶绿素a + b含量较对照组有所增加,叶绿素a/b值与对照组相比基本没有变化。PCBs处理组大金发藓膜脂过氧化产物丙二醛含量和超氧化物歧化酶活性与对照组相比无显著差异,谷胱甘肽含量较对照组显著增加,表明谷胱甘肽在大金发藓体内活性氧清除过程中起重要作用。总体来看,大金发藓能在所设浓度的PCBs范围内正常生长,对PCBs有较强的耐性。%Aims The objective of this study was to investigate the tolerance of Polytrichum commune to soil contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the underlying eco-physiological mechanisms. Methods Polytrichum commune was propagated and cultured in PCBs contaminated soil by means of micro-propagation under laboratory conditions, and eco-physiological variables relating to tolerance to PCBs (Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254) contamination were studied. Important findings The coverage and density of P. commune were higher than 93% and 50 plants·cm–2 and there was no significant difference between the PCBs treatments and the control. PCBs (Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254) had no adverse effects on the regeneration of gametophyte fragments. The height and

  15. 云南裂褶菌宿主多样性及生境调查%Investigation on the Host Diversity and Eco-environment of Schizophyllum commune in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦杰; 王翠玲; 李荣春

    2012-01-01

    It is the first time that we collected Schizophyllum commune which come from different hosts and habitat conditions in areas of the midland, the South, the West and the Southwest in Yunnan, and elaborated the characteristics and habitat conditions of host. Four hundred and seven strains of Schizophyllum commune were isolated from different hosts and habitats in Yunnan. The host plants belong to 75 species, 30 families, including 4 species which belong to Monocotyledon, 64 species belonging to Dicotyledons and 7 species belonging to Gymnosperms. The altitude range of the habitats is from 372 m to 3 321 m.%首次对滇中、滇南、滇西以及滇西南地区不同宿主、生境的野生裂褶菌Schizophyllum commune资源进行采集,并阐述了裂褶菌宿主特性以及生长地的生境条件.分离到不同宿主、生境的裂褶菌菌株407个,宿主植物共75种,分属于30科,其中单子叶植物4种,双子叶植物64种,裸子植物7种.菌株生态分布的海拔范围为372 ~3 321 m.

  16. Contribution of poses screen preimpregnated (PSP) installed at openings and eaves of dwellings in the reduction of malaria transmission in the commune of aguégués in bénin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F Modeste Gouissi; Sahidou Salifou; A Patrick Edorh; A Rufine Sedjame; SG Augustin Gouissi; W Anges Yadouleton; Martin Akogbeto; Michel Boko

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the contribution of poses screen pre-impregnated (PSP) installed at openings and eaves of dwellings in the reduction of malaria transmission in the commune of Aguégués in Bénin. Methods: The PSP were manufactured from preimpregnated Olyset Net. They were installed at windows, eaves and doors of 70 dwellings. 320 children aged 6-59 months were treated and 311 children were recruited in the control zone. Variables measured are: plasmodic index (IP), gametocyte index, parasite density (PD), fever, hemoglobin, anemia. Results: The global IP was 16.62% with PSP and 72.20% without PSP. Gametocyte index did not differ significantly between the treated zone (27.8) and the control zone (29.1). The total geometric mean of DP was 309 in the treated zone and 600 in the control zone. Hemoglobin level is 8.7 in the control zone and 9.5 in the treated zone. We noted a predominance of anemia in the control zone compared to the treated zone. Conclusions: The PSP have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity in the commune of Aguégués.

  17. Apport des arbres fruitiers à la sécurité alimentaire en milieu urbain tropical: cas de la commune de Limete- Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyindula, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit Trees Contribution to Food Security in Tropical Urban Environment: Instance of Commune of Limete in Kinshasa- Democratic Republic of Congo. Problems of hunger and malnutrition in urban environnements force the populations to exploit all the food resources available. This work investigates the contribution to the diet of the population of the edible fruits produced by the 19 species of trees found in a district of Kinshasa. An investigation carried out in 1.09% of the 18,475 household plots of the commune of Limete permitted to estimate at approximately 47,000 feet the number of trees planted there and their annual production at approximately 4.087 tons. The six main species (Mangifera indica, Persea americana, Elaeis guineensis, Carica papaya, Dacryodes edulis and Musa paradisiaca account on their own for an approximate total of 36,400 feet. The contribution of these species to the population alimentation was estimated respectively at 10.9 g, 6.1 g, 4.5 g, 4.4 g, 1.8 g and 0.6 g of fruits per person and per day. The control of certain environmental- friendly techniques and environmental education relating to the trees in urban environment should increase the importance of this contribution.

  18. E-trade dossier. Back end: towards a virtual oil company? An application service provider specialized in petroleum applications. Aspentech allies with IBM. The E-trade era has started. France adapts to information technologies; Dossier E-commerce. Aval: vers une compagnie petroliere virtuelle? Un ASP specialise dans les applications petrolieres. Aspentech s'allie a IBM. L'ere de l'E-commerce a commence. La France s'adapte aux technologies de l'information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-08-01

    This dossier analyzes the expected impact of the electronic business on the petroleum and gas industries. It comprises 5 articles dealing with: the development of E-business in the back end of the petroleum industry for the reduction of costs and the control of the interface with clients, the knowledge data-base portal developed by GeoNet for the supply of softwares to oil and gas industries, the strategic alliance between IBM and Aspen Technology (a supplier of integrated e-business softwares), the launching of a unique global portal on the Web by Schlumberger for the commercialization of oil and gas data and assets, the French government priorities in the development of information technologies in a legal frame. (J.S.)

  19. Etude de la croissance de la truite commune Salmo trutta fario (L dans deux rivières du Finistère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROUZET P.

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Des inventaires piscicoles réalisés depuis 1974 dans deux rivières du Finistère ont permis de préciser la croissance des populations de truites communes (Salmo trutta fario L. par deux méthodes différentes : scalimétrie et structure de population. Les résultats font apparaître une croissance faible à modérée comparable à celle des populations de truites de certaines rivières du Pays Basque et du Massif Central ou d'Angleterre et d'Irlande du Nord. La taille moyenne à 3 ans, lors de la première ponte, est comprise entre 19 et 23,5 cm. Compte tenu de la taille légale (tolérée en Bretagne à 18 cm, la plupart des truites sont pêchées avant d'avoir pu se reproduire. L'application du modèle de RICKER à une population de truites non exploitée, en faisant varier l'effort de pêche (exploitation modérée ou forte et la taille de première capture (15, 18 et 20 cm montre que, dans le cas d'une exploitation modérée, l'augmentation de la taille tolérée diminuerait le nombre des prises sans augmenter le potentiel reproducteur. Si l'exploitation est forte, l'augmentation de la taille tolérée à 20 cm permet d'accroître le potentiel reproducteur tout en conservant des captures comparables en nombre et en poids à celles effectuées dans le cadre d'une exploitation modérée à partir d'une longueur totale de 18 cm. Cet exemple théorique fait apparaître la nécessité d'une connaissance approfondie des paramètres régissant la population de truites et en particulier le taux d'exploitation afin de définir une taille limite de capture appropriée.

  20. A heteroglycan from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune modulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion by THP-1 monocytes through phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Astridur; Thorlacius, Gudny Ella; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia; Vikingsson, Arnor; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2014-09-25

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have been consumed as food and used in folk medicine since ancient times to alleviate a variety of diseases. Cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc have been shown to produce complex exopolysaccharides with antioxidant and antiviral activity. Furthermore, Nostoc sp. are common in cyanolichen symbiosis and lichen polysaccharides are known to have immunomodulating effects. Nc-5-s is a heteroglycan isolated from free-living colonies of Nostoc commune and its structure has been characterized in detail. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Nc-5-s on the inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes and how the effects are mediated. THP-1 monocytes primed with interferon-γ and stimulated with LPS in the presence of Nc-5-s secreted less of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and more of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 than THP-1 monocytes stimulated without Nc-5-s. In contrast, Nc-5-s increased LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-8. Nc-5-s decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Akt kinase, but did not affect phosphorylation of the p38 kinase, activation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway, nor DNA binding of c-fos. These results show that Nc-5-s has anti-inflammatory effects on IL-6 and IL-10 secretion by THP-1 monocytes, but its effects are pro-inflammatory when it comes to TNF-α and IL-8. Furthermore, they show that the effects of Nc-5-s may be mediated through the ERK1/2 pathway and/or the Akt/phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway and their downstream effectors. The ability of Nc-5-s to decrease IL-6 secretion, increase IL-10 secretion and moderate ERK1/2 activation indicates a potential for its development as an anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw ethyl acetate extract-triggered perturbations in intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis regulates mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenjuan; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Pan; Jia, Yali; Liu, Quanhong; Tang, Wei; Wang, Xiaobing

    2015-08-22

    Polytrichum commune L.ex Hedw (PCLH), a moss of Bryopsida, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine and shown to possess anticancer activities. Previous studies have indicated its anti-leukemia effect but the potential mechanisms have not been fully explained. The present study aimed to further investigate the efficacy of PCLH ethyl acetate fraction (PC-EEF) and the associated mechanisms in human leukemia cells. Phytochemical analysis of PC-EEF was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC. MTT analysis and trypan blue exclusion assay were adopted to examine its cytotoxicity on a panel of leukemia cells (K562, U937, HL-60 and K562/DOX cells) and non-cancerous cells (human PBMCs). Anti-proliferative effect was monitored by colony formation assay and EdU incorporation assay. Ultrastructural alterations on K562 cell membrane surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Changes on plasma membrane integrity, cell membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Fluorescence microscope was performed to assess [Ca(2+)]i level, mitochondrial injury and cytochrome c release. Apoptosis-associated protein expression was analyzed by western blot. The role of Ca(2+) in PC-EEF-induced cell death was investigated by Ca(2+) chelating reagent BAPTA-AM. PC-EEF possessed relatively high flavonoid content (about 88.84 ± 0.89%) and showed significant cytotoxicity to human leukemia cells. PC-EEF could cause obvious cell morphological deformation, membrane integrity loss and membrane depolarization. Meanwhile, PC-EEF treatment could dramatically potentiate perturbations in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Subsequently, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, cytochrome c release and Bcl-2/Bax down-regulation were all observed. Consistent with these results, PC-EEF treatment resulted in significant activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation and apoptosis. Moreover, PC

  2. PURIFICACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE alfa-AMILASA DE PENICILLIUM COMMUNE PRODUCIDA MEDIANTE FERMENTACIÓN EN FASE SÓLIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Espinel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio reporta la purificación y caracterización parcial de una alfa-amilasa producida por Penicillium commune mediante fermentación en fase sólida, empleandoyuca blanca colombiana (Manihot esculenta Crantz como soporte. La enzima fue purificada por precipitación fraccionada con sulfato de amonio, cromatografía de intercambio aniónico (DEAE-Sephadex A-50, cromatografía de filtración por gel (Sephadex G-75 y cromatografía de intercambio catiónico (CM-Sephadex C-50 obteniendo una actividad específica final de 314,82 U/mg, un grado de purificación del orden de 62 y un rendimiento de 9%. La purificación hasta la homogeneidad fue confirmada por SDS-PAGE. El peso molecular estimado fue 35 kDa. La enzima mostró máxima actividad de hidrólisis de almidón soluble con pH 6,0, y estabilidad en un intervalo de pH de 5,0-7,0. La estabilidad térmica de la enzima se presentó en el intervalo de temperatura 0-50 °C y su temperatura óptima fue 70 °C. Los iones Ca2+,Ba2+ y Ag+ aumentaron significativamente la actividad de la enzima, siendo el ión Ca2+ el que tuvo el más alto poder activador. Cu2+ no alteró significativamente la actividad de la enzima, mientras que Li+ y Fe3+ la disminuyeron ligeramente (13%, y Co2+ y Hg2+ la disminuyeron 25% y 40% respectivamente. Los valores de Km y Vmáx fueron calculados usando la linealización de Lineweaver- Burk, con el resultado Km= 0,48 mg/mL y Vmáx = 5,85 micromol glucosa/min. Entre los principales productos de hidrólisis del almidón de yuca se encuentran la maltosa y la glucosa, este resultado proporciona evidencia de que la enzima es capaz de romper los enlaces glicosídicos alfa-1,4 del almidón, comportamiento característico de una alfa-amilasa.

  3. Looking for new measures of local government debt. Case study of an example of repayment period of communes of Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship in the years 2002–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jurewicz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The debt of local government units is, to a large extent, the sum of repayment of commitments contracted to carry out investment projects. It is not surprising that in the literature of the subject local government debt is presented mainly as good, profitable or constructive. Commitment to repayment obligations is always associated with the possibility of an occurrence of negative effects which often appear to be underestimated. In numerous scientific and public publications, the indebtedness of the Polish self-governments is assessed first of all by the prism of its relation to earned incomes. However, it is imperative to look for metrics and data sources to look at this debt from new perspectives. The purpose of this study is to present the results of research conducted in the communes of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship using new measures of their debt.

  4. Study on fluoranthene and phenanthrene degradation by Schizophyllum commune MCCC 3A00233%裂褶菌 MCCC 3A00233对菲、荧蒽降解作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方方; 薛雅蓉; 段宁; 刘常宏; 骆祝华

    2016-01-01

    采用平板和液体培养技术,研究了1株海洋源裂褶菌(Schizophyllum commune MCCC 3A00233)降解多环芳烃(polycy‐clic aromatic hydrocarbons ,PAHs)类化合物菲、荧蒽的效率及机理。结果表明:裂褶菌MCCC 3A00233对菲、荧蒽具有较高的耐受性,在质量浓度高达200 mg/L的平板上,菌丝生长的抑制率≤25%;当菲、荧蒽的质量浓度为50 mg/L时,菌株生长最快,培养10 d对菲、荧蒽的降解率≥80%,降解产物对植物、微生物的毒性大大减小。另外,该菌对菲、荧蒽的降解作用主要是通过产生锰过氧化物酶(manganese peroxidase ,MnP),其次为木质素过氧化物酶(lignin peroxidase ,LiP)和漆酶(Laccase)而起作用的,其中Lip和Laccase在该菌降解菲、荧蒽的起始阶段发挥重要作用。这些结果表明,裂褶菌MCCC 3A00233是1株高效降解菲、荧蒽的白腐真菌,可用于海水中PAHs类污染物的降解。%The degradation efficiency and mechanism of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (fluoranthene and phenan‐threne) by a marine fungus Schizophyllum commune MCCC 3A00233 were evaluated by using plate and liquid culture techniques . The results show that S .commune MCCC 3A00233 can tolerate fluoranthene and phenanthrene at the concentration as high as 200 mg/L .The strain MCCC 3A00233 grows well in the culture containing 50 mg/L of either fluoranthene or phenanthrene ,re‐sulting in ≥80% degradation of the compounds after 10 d of incubation based on gas chromatography (GC) analysis .In addition , the degradation products were much less toxic to plants and microorganisms compared to their mother compounds (fluoranthene and phenanthrene) .Further study indicates that degradation of fluoranthene and phenanthrene by the strain MCCC 3A00233 is mainly due to the production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) ,lignin peroxidase (LiP) and Laccase .It seems that Lip and Lacca‐se play more

  5. Nuclear energy; Le dossier du nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch. [Ministere de l' Industrie et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, 75 - Paris (France); Bacher, P.; Tanguy, P. [and others

    2001-11-01

    11 contributions written by experts are gathered in this document dedicated to nuclear energy (N.E): 1) could we live without N.E?, 2) do we have to fear N.E?, 3) a critical point of view on N.E, 4) the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 5) the impact of low radiation doses, 6) the management of a nuclear power plant, 7) the optimisation of wastes at The Hague facility, 8) the management of radioactive wastes in France, 9) the next generation of nuclear reactors, 10) N.E and public acceptance, and 11) is N.E the energy for the future? (A.C.)

  6. Bibliographie cumulée du dossier

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Alcántara, V., R. Barba, J. Barral, A. Crespo, A. Eiriz, A. Falquina, S. Herrero, A. Ibarra, M. Megías, M. Pérez, V. Pérez, J. Rolland, J. Yravedra, A. Vidal & M. Domínguez-Rodrigo. 2006. « Determinación de procesos de fractura sobre huesos frescos: un sistema de análisis de los ángulos de los planos de fracturación como discriminador de agentes bióticos », Trabajos de Prehistoria, 63 (1) : 25-38. Andrews, P. 1990. Owls, caves and fossils. Predation, Preservation and Accumulation of Small Mam...

  7. Study on the Salt tolerance and Mechanism of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria Nostoc Commune and Anabaena Azotica Ley%固氮蓝藻Nostoc commune和Anabaena azotica Ley耐盐性及机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巍; 冯玉杰

    2008-01-01

    文章考察了两种固氮蓝藻Nostoc commune(地木耳)和Anabaena azotica Ley(固氮鱼腥藻)在不同浓度Na2CO3(0.2×10-4~1.8×10-4 g/ml)的BG11o培养基中的耐盐性.分别测定了两种固氮蓝藻在不同培养阶段的叶绿素a含量、胞外多糖含量、氨基酸含量和固氮酶活性的变化.研究结果表明两种固氮蓝藻都能在Na2CO3盐胁迫条件下生长,且随着Na2CO3盐胁迫性增加,两种蓝藻的叶绿素a含量、胞外多糖含量、氨基酸含量和固氮酶活性都呈现先增加后减少的趋势;而随着培养天数的增加,两种藻类叶绿素a的变化曲线与微生物的生长曲线很相似,胞外多糖和氨基酸的增长和叶绿素a的增长是同步的,其中,Anabaena azotica Ley的固氮酶活性在培养到21天时达到最大值,Nostoc commune的固氮酶活性在培养到28天时达到最大值;比较而言Anabaena azotica Ley的耐盐性好于Nostoc commune的耐盐性,固氮能力也高于Nostoc commune.

  8. Masse rénale avec image stellaire centrale: Quel est votre diagnostic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Qarro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le carcinome chromophobe se voit essentiellement à la cinquième décennie et représente 5% des tumeurs rénales. Il existe deux sous types de cancer à cellules chromophobes: le type clair (70% et le type éosinophile. La variante à cellules éosinophiles doit être distinguée de l'oncocytome. Ce dernier se caractérise par une cicatrice fibreuse centrale d'aspect stellaire. Le carcinome chromophobe et l'oncocytome peuvent même coexister dans le cadre du syndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé. Certaines tumeurs appelées hybrides partagent des caractéristiques architecturales et cytologiques de ces deux tumeurs. Le pronostic du carcinome chromophobe est favorable. Il est le plus souvent limité au rein et de bas grade nucléaire. Il semblerait donc licite dans les cas ou un examen extemporané mettrait en évidence une tumeur chromophobe, de limiter l'intervention à une néphrectomie partielle si techniquement réalisable.

  9. Lighting in your accommodation. Synthesis; L'eclairage dans votre logement. Note de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This study has been realized on 10000 families in order to know the French attitudes concerning the lighting of their accommodation. The questions asked dealt with the nature and the use conditions of the lighting and the attitude in the framework of energy consumption. (A.L.B.)

  10. La stratégie - guide de votre gestion d'entreprise

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Quiconque crée et dirige une entreprise poursuit des objectifs. Pour les atteindre, il est nécessaire de prendre des décisions, d'introduire des mesures et d'affecter des ressources. La stratégie permet à la petite entreprise (PE) de ne pas perdre de vue son objectif, ne pas se disperser et de se démarquer.

  11. ANALYSE DE LA VARIABILITÉ DE LA CROISSANCE D'UNE POPULATION DE TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. DANS UN TORRENT PYRÉNÉEN. GROWTH VARIABILITY ANALYSIS OF A BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. POPULATION IN A PYRENEAN MOUNTAIN STREAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAGARRIGUE T.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La population de truite commune de la Neste d'Oueil, sous - affluent pyrénéen de la Garonne, a été suivie entre juillet 1996 et mars 1999. Durant 2 ans et 9 mois, 9 échantillonnages ont eu lieu en février-mars, juillet et septembre sur 2 secteurs de rivière, afin de suivre l'évolution saisonnière de la croissance, de la densité totale et de la biomasse totale en truites communes. Parallèlement à l'étude de la population, 652 truites communes d'âge compris entre 1+ et 6+ ans, pour des tailles comprises entre 100 et 290 mm, ont été marquées en mars 1998 par implants visibles numérotés afin de suivre l'évolution de la croissance individuelle. Les taux de recapture entre campagne ont varié de 19.5 à 74 %, suivant la saison considérée. La croissance des truites communes présente une forte variabilité saisonnière, validée par le marquage. Elle est quasiment nulle, avec des pertes de poids pour les individus d'âge > 1+, en automne et en hiver, en raison de températures rigoureuses et d'un probable effet de la reproduction. Elle se réalise quasi exclusivement au printemps, avant d'atteindre l'optimum thermique de croissance. Elle est très faible en période estivale, malgré les conditions thermiques optimales. En été, le ralentissement de la croissance semble résulter de l'action conjuguée de la maturation gonadique, de la saturation de la capacité d'accueil du milieu physique et de la compétition intra-spécifique maximale à cette période du fait i de l'arrivée probable dans le cours principal d'individus 1+ et 2+ dévalants des affluents et ii de la diminution de la "quantité et de la qualité" de l'habitat physique à l'étiage régulant l'accessibilité à la ressource trophique potentiellement disponible abondante en densité mais constituée de très petites proies, peu rentables énergétiquement. Le rôle de la croissance dans la dynamique de la population de truite commune de la Neste d’Oueil est

  12. Collaboration for Land, Air, Sea, and Space Vehicles: Developing the Common Ground in Vehicle Dynamics, System Identification, Control, and Handling Qualities (La collaboration dans le domaine des vehicules terrestres, aeriens, maritimes et spatiaux: L’etablissement d’une approche commune de la dynamique des vehicules, l’identification des systemes, et les qualite’s de controle et de pilotage)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    et à mesure du déroulement des réunions, une approche commune s’est dégagée. Des discussions particulièrement fructueuses concernant les...SSBN, SSN, SSK Ambulance Cruise, SSM Special operation Car, Utility SAM UUV, ROV Rail Tactical ballistic Torpedo Specialised: Rotary wing: Air...conversion for mission requirements, e.g., a truck used as a troop or cargo carrier , wrecker, fuel hauler, ambulance , etc. Air: Fuselage stretch

  13. 越南南定省交水县交善乡对海平面上升的家庭和社区应对经验和对策%Household and commune adaptation experience and strategies for sea level rise in Giao Thien commune, Giao Thuy district,Nam Dinh province, Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮国正

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过收集社会经济学数据,评估居民和社区对海平面上升的适应能力,评估海平面上升的负面影响及其对策,确定应对海平面上升备用对策.[方法]在越南南定省交水县交善乡选择99户居民,分成3组,采用半问卷调查、面谈、家庭群组讨论、重要人物访谈以及当地居民非正式会谈等方法进行调查.[结果]海平面上升已对当地社区造成了极大的负面影响,如作物产量降低、土地流失、盐碱地面积增加、基础设施损坏等.当地社区和居民已经意识到海平面上升的负面影响,并采取了各种应对方法.改变经济结构、选择适宜的作物品种、把水产养殖地转给家庭、鼓励渔民成立渔业合作社并建立早期预警系统是应对海平面上升的主要对策.[结论]应根据潮汐节律和台风、暴风雨发生等所确定的水面上升规律,采取不同的应对策略和方法,以减少海平面上升造成的破坏和损失.%[Objective]The main objectives of the study were to collect socioeconomic data to help assess adaptive capacity; identify negative impacts of sea level rise (SLR) and adaptation strategies; and determine lessons learnt to prepare for SLR. [Method]The present study was conducted in Giao Thien commune,Giao Thuy district,Nam Dinh province,Vietnam.Three household groups with total of 99 households were selected to conduct survey by semi questionnaire interview ,face-toface interview, household group discussions, interview of the key persons, and informal interview of local residents. [ Result ]The results showed that the SLR has raised and caused great impacts to local communities such as reduction in crop productivities,loss of land, increase of salined land areas,damage in infrastructure,etc. The community has been aware of the negative impacts of SLR and responded by various ways. The changing economic structure, selection of appropriate crop varieties,transferring aquaculture land

  14. Exposition : CERN - Pays de Gex - 50 Ans - Une Histoire parallèle - French version only

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Dans le cadre du cinquantenaire du CERN, la Commune de Gex présente du 4 au 17 octobre 2004, une exposition réalisée par la Maison de l'Europe, avec le soutien de la Communauté des Communes du Pays de Gex. Cette exposition comporte deux parties : une histoire du CERN de ses débuts en 1954 à nos jours, avec ses grands travaux et ses principales avancées dans la connaissance de la matière, et parallèlement, une histoire du Pays de Gex avec toutes les conséquences d'un grand saut démographique sur l'habitat, les infrastructures, les équipements, l'enseignement, l'emploi et les loisirs. Si vous vous intéressez à votre environnement, à l'évolution de votre région, qu'elle soit votre région de naissance ou d'adoption, venez visiter cette exposition au Carré des Arts, rue de Gex la ville (derrière la bibliothèque), du ...

  15. HABITAT DE LA TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. PENDANT LA PÉRIODE JUVÉNILE EN RUISSEAU : PRÉFÉRENCES, MOUVEMENTS, VARIATIONS JOURNALIÈRES ET SAISONNIÈRES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUSSEL J. M.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article synthétise les résultats de travaux récents sur l’habitat de la truite commune pendant sa période juvénile en ruisseau. Par des approches in situ (affluents du Scorff, Bretagne et en milieu expérimental, les variations temporelles d’utilisation de l’habitat ont été étudiées, ainsi que l’influence de certains facteurs abiotiques (vitesse de courant, profondeur, granulométrie, abris et biotiques (prédation, compétition intraspécifique sur les choix d’habitat de l’individu. A l’aide de la bibliographie sur le sujet, nous proposons un bilan des changements journaliers et saisonniers d’habitat du juvénile en ruisseau, depuis l’émergence jusqu’à la première reproduction. En matière de protection des milieux, l’accent est mis sur l’importance de la diversité des habitats disponibles dans les affluents où se reproduit l’espèce.

  16. Characterization of a new thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, gen. nov. and sp. nov.: its phylogenetic relationship to Thermodesulfobacterium commune and their origins deep within the bacterial domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, E. A.; Devereux, R.; Maki, J. S.; Gilmour, C. C.; Woese, C. R.; Mandelco, L.; Schauder, R.; Remsen, C. C.; Mitchell, R.

    1994-01-01

    A thermophilic sulfate-reducing vibrio isolated from thermal vent water in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming, USA is described. The gram-negative, curved rod-shaped cells averaged 0.3 micrometer wide and 1.5 micrometers long. They were motile by means of a single polar flagellum. Growth was observed between 40 degrees and 70 degrees C with optimal growth at 65 degrees C. Cultures remained viable for one year at 27 degrees C although spore-formation was not observed. Sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite were used as electron acceptors. Sulfur, fumarate and nitrate were not reduced. In the presence of sulfate, growth was observed only with lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen plus acetate, or formate plus acetate. Pyruvate was the only compound observed to support fermentative growth. Pyruvate and lactate were oxidized to acetate. Desulfofuscidin and c-type cytochromes were present. The G + C content was 29.5 mol%. The divergence in the 16 S ribosomal RNA sequences between the new isolate and Thermodesulfobacterium commune suggests that these two thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria represent different genera. These two bacteria depict a lineage that branches deeply within the Bacteria domain and which is clearly distinct from previously defined phylogenetic lines of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain YP87 is described as the type strain of the new genus and species Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii.

  17. À la recherche des « voix » des fallāhīn dans un dossier d’archives judiciaires égyptiennes Searching for the “Voices” of the Fallāhīn in a File from Egyptian Court Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Clément

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available À travers l’étude du dossier de Mikhīmar, un jeune fallāh (paysan égyptien condamné à mort pour meurtre en 1893, cet article montre qu’une approche des archives centrée sur les traces matérielles laissées par le processus de composition et de recomposition du dossier permet de restituer en partie la performance des différents acteurs du processus judiciaire, et contribue par là même à jeter une lumière nouvelle sur le système de justice colonial au tournant du xxe siècle. Plus précisément, l’analyse des traces — citations entre parenthèses et pétitions en annexes — laissées par la négociation, qui se déroule tout au long de la procédure entre la famille de la victime et les autorités judiciaires autour de la nature commanditée du meurtre et des poursuites à engager contre les responsables, révèle à la fois la dimension conflictuelle et éminemment politique du processus de décision des magistrats et une capacité d’expression et de contestation du système tout à fait insoupçonnée de la part des fallāhīn.Through the study of the legal file of Mikhīmar (a young fallāh or Egyptian peasant sentenced to death for murder in 1893, this article shows that an approach to the archives focusing on the material traces left by the process of composing and recomposing the file makes it possible to partially reconstruct the performance of the different actors of the legal process, and thereby helps to shed a new light on the colonial justice system at the turn of the 20th century. More precisely, the analysis of the traces—quotations between brackets and petitions in appendices—left by the negotiation that unfolded throughout the procedure between the victim’s family and the legal authorities over the nature of the crime as a proxy murder and the action to be taken against those responsible, reveals both the conflictual and highly political dimension of the legal professionals’ decision

  18. Dossier Biofuels. The Source of Alcool; Dossier Biobrandstoffen. De Bron van Alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van ' t Wel, R.

    2011-07-15

    Without us taking due notice, biofuels have become increasingly important for the energy need. According to the European Union, in 2020 10% of all transport fuels need to be generated from (vegetable) renewable sources. This should decrease our dependence on fossil fuels and reduce CO2 emissions. The search for economically viable and technologically and ecologically suitable fuels is ongoing, but where are we to obtain these billions of liters of biofuel? How will this affect the car owner at the filling station? And where does the transaction between Shell and the Brazilian sugar and ethanol producer Cosan fit in this trend?. [Dutch] Zonder dat we het direct merken zijn biobrandstoffen steeds belangrijker voor de energiebehoefte. In 2020 moet volgens de Europese Unie 10% van alle transportbrandstoffen uit (plantaardige) hernieuwbare bronnen komen. Het moet de afhankelijkheid van fossiele brandstoffen verminderen, evenals de uitstoot van CO2. De zoektocht naar economisch haalbare en technologisch en ecologisch geschikte brandstoffen is in volle gang. Maar waar komen al die miljarden liters biobrandstof vandaan? Wat merkt de automobilist aan de pomp er van? En hoe past de transactie tussen Shell en de Braziliaanse suiker en ethanolproducent Cosan in die trend?.

  19. 地木耳护肤品的配制及性能检验和功效测试%Preparation,Performance Examination and Efficacy Test of Skin Care Products of Nostoc commune

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑芳; 康苗苗; 冯佳; 吕俊平; 刘琪; 谢树莲

    2016-01-01

    为探索天然植物资源在护肤美容方面的功效,以地木耳(Nostoc commune Vauch.)提取物为原料,配制了护肤霜、润肤露、化妆水和面膜等护肤品,对其性能和功效进行了研究。结果表明,配制的护肤品外观均匀、细腻,色泽自然,分散均一,易涂展,肤感清爽,且具有良好的稳定性;外界温度变化和振摇均不影响其状态和功效;对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽胞杆菌和大肠杆菌均有明显的抑制作用,具有广谱抗菌性;同时,涂敷后清爽滋润,无不适,安全无毒无副作用。地木耳护肤品对自由基具有较强的清除作用,保湿性好,紫外吸收能力强,对酪氨酸酶的抑制率较大,具有抗皱抗衰、保湿、防晒、美白的多重功效。%In order to explore the effects of natural plant resources in skin care,the performance and ef-ficacy of skin care products,such as skin cream,skin lotion,toning lotion and facial mask,prepared with Nostoc commune extracts,were studied.The results showed that the skin care products had uniform and deli-cate appearance,genuine luster,uniform dispersion,easy applying exhibition,skin feeling fresh and good stability.Their status and efficacy were not affected by external temperature change and vibration.They also possessed obvious inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli,so they had broad -spectrum antimicrobial resistance.It was refreshing and moisturizing without uncomfortable feeling after coated,so they were safe without toxic and side effects.They had strong scavenging effects on free radi-cals,good moisture retention,strong ultraviolet absorption ability and great inhibition rate of tyrosinase,thus they owned multiple functions such as anti -wrinkling,anti -aging,moisture keeping,sun protection and whitening.

  20. Mechanism of Acupuncture Analgesia and Endogenous Cannabinoid System in Integumentum Commune%电针镇痛的外周机制与皮肤内源性大麻素系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠君; 李熳; 陈琳

    2011-01-01

    The pain was an unpleased sensation and emotional experience associated with tissue damaged. Nociceptive stimulus induced periphery tissues releasing much inflammatory factors and im-munological cells to deliver various kinds of cytokines. All of them participate in the activation and modulation on nociceptors and accompanied with periphery sensitization at the same time, and neuro-immunifaction microcircuit regulation become the key point of algaesthesis modulation. The conventional view was that acupuncture analgesia was induced majorly by centra analgesia mechanisms and endogenous opioid peptides system, but recent researches manifestated that periphery analgesia mechanisms (include local inflammatory factors, local endogenous opioid peptides system and endogenous cannabinoid system in integumentum commune) could interpretate the focal arrival of acu-esthesia efficacy of acupuncture analgesia better.%疼痛是与组织损伤相关联的不愉快的感觉和情绪体验.伤害性刺激引起外周组织释放多种炎性因子,免疫细胞释放各种细胞因子,参与激活和调制伤害性感受器,同时外周敏感化,致使神经-免疫微环路调节成为痛觉调制的关键环节.传统观念认为,针刺镇痛主要受中枢性镇痛机制以及内源性阿片肽系统调制;最近的研究表明,外周镇痛机制(包括局部炎性因子、内源性阿片肽系统以及皮肤内源性大麻素系统)能更好地解释针刺镇痛取得的"气至病所"的功效.

  1. Reduced scytonemin isolated from Nostoc commune suppresses LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production in murine macrophage RAW264 cells by inducing hemeoxygenase-1 expression via the Nrf2/ARE pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Koketsu, Mamoru; Yokota, Naoto; Touho, Shota; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki

    2014-07-01

    Reduced scytonemin (R-scy) and scytonemin (Scy) isolated from Nostoc commune exhibit anti-tumor and ultraviolet-absorbing properties. In this study, we examined the effects of R-scy and Scy on the induction of nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) in murine macrophage RAW264 cells. While both R-scy and Scy suppressed LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production, R-scy exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect compared with Scy. To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of R-scy, we examined the changes in the intracellular signaling cascade after LPS/IFNγ stimulation in cells. In addition to the attenuation of LPS/IFNγ-induced upregulation of the inducible isoform of NO synthase, R-scy decreased the activity of nuclear factor-κB, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) after LPS/IFNγ stimulation. R-scy treatment increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression by increasing the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and thereby activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant response element signaling. The induction of HO-1 by R-scy was inhibited by pretreatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), as well as SB203580 and LY294002, inhibitors for p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt, respectively. Our findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of R-scy could involve both the ROS/PI3K/Akt and the p38 MAPK/Nrf2 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. De la “constitucionalización” a la “convencionalización” del ordenamiento jurídico. La contribución del ius constitutionale commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo García Jaramillo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las expresiones más vívidas de la transnacionalización del derecho constitucional en América Latina es el diálogo judicial y académico que se ha venido desarrollando –sobre todo entre los países que en los últimos 25 años reformaron sus constituciones con importantes elementos afines, como la incorporación del bloque de constitucionalidad–. Dicha transnacionalización se ha fortalecido, a su vez, por otra de estas expresiones, como es la jurisprudencia de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos en ejercicio del control de convencionalidad. Es pertinente la difusión y depuración del concepto de “convencionalización” del ordenamiento jurídico, que complementa y armoniza su proceso de “constitucionalización”. En virtud del mismo, no son ya únicamente las disposiciones constitucionales las que condicionan la validez y el desarrollo de los ordenamientos jurídicos nacionales, sino también las obligaciones internacionales que adquieren los países sobre la protección de los derechos consagrados en la Convención Americana sobre Derechos Humanos y otros pactos. Este trabajo procura avanzar en la dirección de dicha evolución a partir de la utilidad del concepto de ius constitutionale commune para comprender este fenómeno y proyectar rumbos de acción hacia un constitucionalismo transformador de las desigualdades sociales y políticas que aquejan a los países de la región.

  3. Factors associated with the problematical of quality drinking water and public health in the municipality of Abomey-calavi in Benin/Facteurs associés à la problématique de la qualité de l’eau de boisson et la santé des populations dans la commune d’Abomey-calavi au Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Degbey, Cyriaque

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is double: 1) to study the factors associated with the problems of quality with drinking water on the physicochemical and biological level in the municipality of Abomey-Calavi in Benin ; 2)to study its relationships with public health. The goal is to bring on one hand, the tools of improvement to the quality of water and public health in this commune. In addition, to contribute to the reduction of the rate of morbidity and mortality generated by the dis...

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism and Membrane Lipid Peroxidation of Polytrichum commune and Plagiomnium acutum during Fast Drying and Rehydration%快速脱水与复水过程中2种藓类植物的活性氧代谢与脂质过氧化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓濛; 李菁; 田向荣; 李朝阳

    2012-01-01

    Polytrichum commune from relative drought habitat and Plagiomnium acutum from wet habitat were used as materials, their difference in reactive oxygen species metabolism, lipid peroxidation and response of antioxidative system were studied under dehydration and rehydration stress. (l)During process of dehydration and rehydration,moisture content alternation under summer sunlight is similar to changes on silica gel fast desiccation. (2) Membrane permeability of P. acutum recovered rapidly after rehydration, but its alternation was dramatic. On contrary,permeability of P. commune sustained a stable lower level. (3)In the procedure of desiccation and rehydration,malondiadehyde (MDA) content of both bryophytes displayed opposite trends of moisture content alternation, that is to say, increased under desiccation and then decreased under rehydration,and content in P. commune was obviously lower than that in P. acutum. (4)Dur-ing dehydration and rehydration,superoxide anion (O-2) reproductive rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of both species manifested a tendency similar to MDA content,and their value in P. commune was obviously higher than that in P. acutum. (5) Induced by ROS, activities of antioxidative enzymes of both bryophytes,such as superoxide dismutasc (SOD) ,catalase (CAT) and ascorbic peroxidase (APX) manifested the same tendency of ROS alternation, in other words, possessed a peak during dehydration and rehy-dration,and their activities in P. commune was much more sensitive to dehydration oxidative stress than that in P. acutum. (6)The ascorbic acid (AsA) content decreased under desiccation and then increased under rehydration, and content in P. commune was obviously lower than that in P. acutum. Results mentioned above indicated that both bryophytes contains powerful ability to adapt desiccation oxidative stress, especially, the repair ability in rehydration process. Nevertheless, bryophytes from deferent habitat should reflect distinct response on

  5. LOCAL PRODUCTS IMAGE DETERMINANT COMMUNES OF NISKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a characterization of local products, creating an image of Krzeszów, Rudnik and Ulanów municipalities of the Nisko county, in the Podkarpackie province. The study of 500 inhabitants showed that knowledge of these products is varied. The best known were: plum jam from Krzeszów, wickerwork from Rudnik, and rafting bread and rafting tradition cultivated by inhabitants of Ulanów.

  6. Drying: a key-step of your industrial process; Le sechage: une etape cle de votre process industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Ingenieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques, ENSIACET, 31 - Toulouse (France); Leconte, J.M. [NEU Sechage Industriel, 59 - Templemars (France); Gayot, A. [Faculte de Pharmacie de Lille, 59 (France)] [and others

    2001-03-01

    This document brings together 13 testimonies of experts about the drying techniques used in industrial processes. The following points are approached: understanding and mastering of drying parameters: characterization of the products do be dried, affinity between product and solvent, humidity retaking, energy transfer..; domains of applications of the main drying techniques: conduction drying, atomization process, fluidized bed drying, microwave drying; which help drying engineering can provide to industrial processes (optimization and operation); industrial applications and case studies in pharmacy, chemistry and agriculture and food industry. (J.S.)

  7. Perles et saphirs ou comment parer votre expression francaise (Pearls and Sapphires or How to Embellish Your French Expression).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geno, Thomas H.

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the pitfalls of French grammar and syntax by reproducing a student's composition, which mangles the language. Draws from similarly frustrating experiences and from a "New York Times" article entitled "The Fumble-rules of Grammar" to compile a list of "General Principles for the Improvement of Oral and Written French Expression." (MES)

  8. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and economic aspects; Des eoliennes dans votre environnement? Eoliennes et aspects economiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The wind energy industry has demonstrated its maturity and technical reliability. Because it will play an increasing role on the power generation market, the question of the cost and profitability of the wind energy has become of prime importance. Two main traps must be avoided: the first should be to deny the present and future economical interest of wind energy because of its supplementary cost with respect to conventional power generation techniques. The second trap should be to underestimate the economical progresses that wind energy must carry on to ensure its large scale development. Therefore, some advantageous pricing and regulatory conditions are necessary to allow the development of this emerging energy source. This document presents: the cost of a wind power project (initial investment, financial incentives); the profitability of a project (cost of a kWh of wind power origin, retail price, warranty of power supply capacity, indirect environmental costs, value of decentralized production); economical interest of wind power (energy efficiency, employment, financial advantages for the local economy); and who are the investors. (J.S.)

  9. Dossier OEuvre complète: el libro abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Velázquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El libro Le Corbusier et Pierre Jeanneret OEuvre complète 1910-1929, suele usarse a manera de un simple muestrario de la colección de edificios y proyectos. Sin embargo se trata de un libro muy particular, que implicó para su autor un primer balance y una mirada sobre su propia historia. El artículo se propone, mediante una aproximación al proceso de selección de los documentados que componen el libro, hacer aflorar algunos aspectos del guión que se esconde entre sus páginas. Especialmente se busca entender la decisión sobre los proyectos que elige como punto de inicio de su labor profesional. En particular se estudian los casos de Atelier d’artistes (1910 y el de todas las casas construidas en su ciudad natal Chaux-des-Fonds entre 1907 y 1914. Se trata de entender qué pudo llevar a la decisiónde no publicar las casas y en su lugar, haber preferido empezar por una obra aparentemente “menor”. Ya que parte del material publicado en OEuvre complète ya había sido utilizado, originariamente, en la revista L’Esprit Nouveau, como parte del articulo “Casas en serie”, se rastrean los vínculos tanto a nivel de forma, como de contenido, entre las dos publicaciones.

  10. Presentación al dossier de Historia Urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Antonio Melo Flórez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos la sexta edición de nuestra publicación, esta vez con el tema central enfocado en la Historia Urbana, temática que, como esperábamos, tuvo gran acogida por parte de investigadores en todos los niveles de formación y de varias instituciones académicas latinoamericanas. El resultado no podía ser otro ya que cientos de investigadores de todo el mundo se dedican a esta especialidad de la historia. El tema de la Ciudad adquiere cada vez mayor importancia, si se tiene en cuenta la gran cantidad de temáticas susceptibles de ser abordadas por este enfoque disciplinar y más aún cuando los problemas de las urbes a nivel global y sobre todo a nivel latinoamericano, están tan vigentes. Este número quiere ser un aporte, un grano de arena más que se suma a la inmensa producción académica referente a la historia urbana, esperando con ello generar conocimiento que aporte en alguna medida a la solución de los fenómenos adversos que afronta los habitantes de la ciudad actual, tales como: pobreza, marginalidad, segregación, errores de planificación y dificultades de acceso a la vivienda, por nombrar sólo algunos.

  11. Dossier Nº 18 PALESTINA: HISTORIZAR EL CONFLICTO, PENSAR EL PRESENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Rovira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historia y Memoria, como diferentes maneras de elaborar el pasado, se ponen en tensión en el largo conflicto palestino israelí. Son retomadas, indagadas, reformuladas, en pos de recuperar la voz y la dignidad de un pueblo o de legitimar y mantener el poder coercitivo de otro. Para el Estado israelí, historia y memoria se retroalimentan. La Historia del pueblo de Israel está elaborada desde la memoria personal y colectiva que se mantiene por transmisión generacional no reduciéndose solo a la Historia oral. Hay Historia pero no en sentido historiográfico. Serán las especulaciones a la luz del historicismo del siglo XIX y el nacimiento de los Estados nacionales, junto con la profesionalización de la Historia, lo que llevará a leer la Torá como una versión revelada de la “verdad de los hechos pasados”. Surge entonces el problema entre historiografía y memoria colectiva.

  12. Editorial Dossier: Ingeniería y Medio Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rodríguez Becerra

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La intervención humana en la naturaleza ha generado impactos que afectan negativamente la integridad de los ecosistemas, de los cuales depende en gran parte el bienestar de la humanidad, y que, en algunos casos, han llegado a amenazar la integridad de la vida misma en nuestro planeta, tal como se evidencia en forma dramática con el calentamiento global.

  13. Beller Lecture: Dialogue Across Divides - Physicists and the Iran Dossier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuneck, Götz

    For over a decade, the nuclear activities of the Islamic Republic of Iran have been at the center of international concerns and subsequent track II talks. NGOs, think tanks and analysts played a role to help to find technical solutions in a highly political setting. The talk will give an overview about the role of physicists to understand the Iranian sensitive nuclear fuel-cycle and to prepare the ground for the JCPOA. Furthermore, the experience of the work of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs will be elaborated.

  14. Presentación al Dossier de Historia Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carrillo González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del régimen colonial en América amerita una constante generación de propuestas de análisis que conlleven a una mayor comprensión de sus procesos. El impacto de la conquista y colonización del Nuevo Mundo se encuentra estrechamente imbricado a la conformación de los sectores de convergencia que coadyuvaron a la transformación del espacio territorial y sociocultural, cuyas implicaciones son palpables a través de un dilatado transcurso del tiempo que incluso desemboca en los movimientos emancipadores y la conformación de los Estadosnacionales. El establecimiento de las instituciones hispanas en América fue una estrategia que la Corona implementó para cristalizar la sujeción de los territorios del Nuevo Mundo y darle cause a su política de utilidad económica. Pero más allá de los primeros contactos, el eje fundamental del sistema colonial giró en torno a la explotación minera, el trabajo compulsivo implementado en las repúblicas de indios y el producto de la mano de obra esclava. El contacto entre los componentes heterogéneos que intervinieron en dicho proceso, tanto de los sectores sociales dominantes compuestos por colonizadores y representantes de las instituciones hispanas, como también, de los grupos subalternos conformados por la población indígena y afrodescendiente, generó una serie de cambios en el entorno cultural que gradualmente fueron cobrando vigencia en el transcurso de los siglos. La colonización abrió un nuevo modelo de sujeción a través de pactos e instituciones que tenían la finalidad de mantener vigentes los mecanismos compulsivos inherentes a la condición de vasallaje que adquirieron las poblaciones originarias, como también, de establecer y preservar el nuevo ordenamiento sociopolítico implantado por los conquistadores.

  15. Editorial Dossier: Ingeniería y Agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cadena Gómez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura es mucho más que producir un cultivo o criar animales. Por el contrario, la agricultura debería ser definida como la industria de los alimentos, dado que incluye todo lo relacionado con la producción de los alimentos y las fibras que necesitamos para sobrevivir, así como también los productos deseados para disfrutar del bienestar que proporcionan. La agricultura se extiende desde los recursos naturales como el suelo, el agua, el aire hasta las actividades para cultivar plantas y ganados, el arte del cultivo y explotación de la tierra, y además, la industria que procesa las materias primas en productos para el consumo. Incluye también las actividades de almacenamiento, transporte, distribución y mercadeo de esos productos tanto a nivel nacional como internacional; al mismo tiempo, los temas de financiación, seguridad de los alimentos y protección del medio ambiente con el objeto de obtener productos con fines humanos o con destino a los animales domésticos [1].

  16. Socrus non socra (App. Pr. 170. The Hispanic Epigraphic Dossier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Abascal Palazón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of socra instead of socrus is common in the Latin epigraphy of the Principate. In the whole Roman Empire, textual evidences of socra/socera surpass the testimonies of socrus. In the light of the expression socrus non socra collected in the Appendix Probi, are discussed the five testimonies of the word socra known today in the Roman inscriptions of the Iberian Peninsula. The article includes a textual correction of a Roman stela from Campo Arcís (Requena, Valencia. Hispania citerior.

  17. Synthesis document of the presentations; Dossier de synthese des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrousos, C. [Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France); Choudat, D. [Paris-5 Univ., Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Cochin, 75 (France); Dutrillaux, B. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This colloquium has been organized to answer questions from health professionals. They are more and more confronted to public information about public health and to patient anxiety. The aim of the interventions is to realize a clearly and comprehensive synthesis of events concerning the nuclear and health domain during 2000. The following three sessions deal with this subject: occupational diseases and ionizing radiation; the public information and attitude facing nuclear accidents and especially Chernobyl; medical and sanitary aspects of a nuclear accident: management and follow up of people. (A.L.B.)

  18. Relations entre les caractéristiques de l'habitat et les populations de truites communes (Salmo trutta L. de la vallée de la Neste d'Aure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARAN P.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Les relations entre les caractéristiques de l'habitat et les biomasses et densités de truites communes (Salmo trutta L. ont été recherchées dans 33 stations de la rivière Neste d'Aure et trois de ses affluents : la Neste du Louron, la Neste du Rioumajou et le ruisseau d'Espiaube dans le département des Hautes-Pyrénées. L'étude a été conduite sur un cycle annuel. Dans un premier temps, la validité du modèle d'Indice de Qualité d'Habitat (HQI (BINNS et EISERMAN, 1979, basé sur 10 variables de l'habitat, a été testée. Les biomasses théoriques prévues par le modèle ne sont pas linéairement corrélées aux biomasses observées par pêche électrique. Le meilleur ajustement linéaire est obtenu grâce à des transformations par les logarithmes. Toutefois, la pente de la droite de régression est significativement différente de 1 (t = 2.53(p < 0.01. Le modèle de l'Indice de Qualité d'Habitat ne constitue pas, dans le cas de la vallée d'Aure, un outil satisfaisant de prévision des biomasses de truites. Dans un deuxième temps, l'influence de chaque variable de l'habitat a été testée individuellement. Les biomasses observées sont significativement corrélées à l'altitude (entre 1350 et 600 m, aux surfaces d'abris, à la température mensuelle maximale (pour une gamme allant de 10 à 16 °C, à la conductivité électrique, à la vitesse moyenne au fond, à la profondeur moyenne et au rapport largeur/profondeur. Les densités sont significativement corrélées aux mêmes variables, à l'exception de la profondeur moyenne ; il faut également ajouter des corrélations significatives avec la pente de la ligne d'eau et la largeur de la rivière. L'étude par classe d'âge montre que l'abondance de la cohorte 0+ est liée à l'altitude, la température et la conductivité. La largeur moyenne constitue la seule caractéristique de l'habitat physique corrélée avec les biomasses et densités de 0+. L'étude par saison indique

  19. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: safety analysis of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome analyse de surete du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the safety aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - safety approach: context and general goal, references, design approach by safety functions, safety approach during the construction-exploitation-observation-closure phase, safety analysis during the post-closure phase; 2 - general description: HLLL wastes, granitic environment, general structure of the architecture of a disposal facility; 3 - safety functions and disposal design: general context, safety functions of the long-term disposal, design dispositions retained to answer the functions; 4 - operational safety: people's protection, radiological risks during exploitation, risk analysis in accident situation; 5 - qualitative safety analysis: methodology, main results of the analysis of the features, events and processes (FEP) database; 6 - disposal efficiency evaluation during post-closure phase: calculation models, calculation tools used for the modeling of radionuclides transport, calculation results and main lessons. (J.S.)

  20. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: Granite. Tome evolution phenomenologique du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological aspects of the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes (HLLL) in granite formations. Content: 1 - introduction: ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formation; 2 - the granitic environment: geologic history, French granites; 3 - HLLL wastes and disposal design concepts; 4 - identification, characterization and modeling of a granitic site: approach, geologic modeling, hydrologic and hydro-geochemical modeling, geomechanical and thermal modeling, long-term geologic evolution of a site; 5 - phenomenological evolution of a disposal: main aspects of the evolution of a repository with time, disposal infrastructures, B-type wastes disposal area, C-type wastes disposal area; spent fuels disposal area, radionuclides transfer and retention in the granitic environment; 6 - conclusions: available knowledge, methods and tools for the understanding and modeling of the phenomenological evolution of a granitic disposal site. (J.S.)

  1. Dossier Energy Storage. Electricity supply when the wind does not blow; Dossier Energieopslag. Stroom op voorraad als het niet waait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Velzen, T.

    2010-10-01

    Wind turbines do not operate on command, which makes the integration into the electricity network problematic. At the moment coal- and gas-fired power plants serve as a backup in case there is no or little wind. Large-scale energy storage systems should eventually replace conventional reserves. However, the commercial feasibility of large buffers is doubtful. [Dutch] Windturbines draaien niet op commando, wat de integratie in het elektriciteitssysteem bemoeilijkt. Nu fungeren kolen- en vooral gascentrales in geval van windstilte als back-up. Grootschalige opslagsystemen moeten de conventionele reserves op den duur vervangen. De commerciele haalbaarheid van omvangrijke buffers is echter twijfelachtig.

  2. Dossier high-efficient electric water heater. Electricity by a Stirling engine; Het Dossier HRE-ketel. Stroom uit Stirlingmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtens, B.

    2010-10-15

    The market seems ready for a private power plant on the wall in the attic, which also heats the house. Such an installation is the successor of the high efficiency boiler, which is in use in most of the homes in the Netherlands. After fifteen years of development Dutch companies have taken the lead in this technology. The manufacturer Remeha in Apeldoorn, Netherlands, started one month ago with the production of high efficiency electric boiler. [Dutch] De markt lijkt klaar voor een eigen stroomcentrale aan de muur op zolder die bovendien het huis verwarmt. De installatie is de opvolger van de hoogrendementsketel, die de meeste huizen in Nederland verwarmt. Na vijftien jaar ontwikkeling hebben Nederlandse bedrijven het technologische voortouw genomen. De Apeldoornse fabrikant Remeha is een maand geleden als eerste met serieproductie van de hre-ketel begonnen.

  3. Dossier Compact nuclear power plants. Nuclear power for remote sites; Het Dossier Compacte Kerncentrales. Atoomstroom voor afgelegen plaatsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Velzen, T.

    2011-09-02

    The disaster in Fukushima has nipped the nuclear renaissance in the bud. Most of the plans to build new power plants are on hold. Relatively small reactors can still relaunch the sector: they cost less, can be easily fitted into the grid and the risks would be lower. Nevertheless, the order books are empty. [Dutch] De ramp in Fukushima heeft de prille nucleaire renaissance in de kiem gesmoord. De meeste plannen voor de bouw van nieuwe centrales staan in de wacht. Relatief kleine reactoren kunnen de sector mogelijk alsnog vlot trekken: ze kosten minder, laten zich makkelijker inpassen in het elektriciteitsnet en de risico's zouden geringer zijn. Toch blijven de orderboeken leeg.

  4. Diagnóstico y propuestas comunitarias para el mejoramiento integral del barrio, el faro, comuna 8. Medellín (diagnosis and community proposal for the integral improvement of the “el faro” neighborhood in the “8th” commune in Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velásquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente texto presenta los resultados de un ejercicio investigativo. que visibiliza Por un lado las problemáticas más sentidas de los habitantes de las comunidades Golondrinas y El Faro de la Comuna 8 de la ciudad de Medellín, un ejercicio que se adelantó como respuesta ante los procesos de intervención institucional, derivados de los constantes procesos de transformación de la ciudad, los cuales, han generado desplazamientos y silencios frente a la realidad misma de dichas comunidades; por otro lado, presenta las propuesta de solución construidas desde las mismas comunidades ante dichos problemas. ABSTRACT: This text presents: on the one hand, the results of an investigative exercise, which makes visible the deepest problems of the inhabitants of the communities swallows and the lighthouse of 8 commune of the city of Medellin, an exercise that be stepped forward in response to the process of institutional intervention arising from the constant processes of transformation of the city, which have led to displacement and rests with the same realities of those communities; on the other hand, it presents the proposal of solution built from the same communities face these problems.

  5. «PAC/MULTIFONCTIONALITÉ DE L‘AGRICULTURE» Produire de l‘identité avant de produire les biens pour le marché ? La multifonctionnalité, une caractéristique ancienne de la politique agricole commune (2e partie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthelemy Denis

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available La production pour le marché nécessite une identité préalable des producteurs, qui fonde la spécificité de leurs conditions et façons de produire. Cette identité relève d’une économie identitaire, distincte dans ses objectifs et modalités de l’économie de marché. La politique agricole commune fournit un exemple particulièrement éclairant, car elle a toujours associé ces deux aspects : la définition et le renouvellement de l’identité des agriculteurs; l’encouragement et le soutien de la production pour le marché. La production de l’identité comporte deux dimensions principales : d’une part l’établissement de communautés identitaires, qui vont assurer la définition et organiser la production de l’identité; d’autre part la mise en oeuvre de mécanismes de prix fondés sur la finalité de perpétuer les conditions d’existence de la communauté, et non vers l’obtention d’un profit de marché.

  6. El discurso hegemónico sobre las acciones colectivas de resistencia civil: Casos comunas 8, 9 y 13 de Medellín The Hegemonic Discourse about Collective Actions of Civil Resistance: Cases Communes 8, 9 and 13 of Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Luz Alzate Zuluaga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la manera cómo en la prensa escrita son informadas las distintas expresiones de resistencia civil, a partir del rastreo de la información registrada en la prensa escrita local y nacional acerca de los casos de las Comunas 8, 9 y 13 de la ciudad de Medellín durante los años 2002-2006. Se busca conocer así, de qué modo han sido descritas e interpretadas dichas prácticas, cuáles son las ausencias y los aspectos subrayados con lo emitido, qué relaciones de poder se legitiman, entre otras cuestiones. Llegando a afirmar la existencia de un discurso difundido y legitimado en los medios masivos de comunicación, acorde con el orden social y político hegemónico y dominante en Colombia. Este discurso consiste en la invisibilidad de los mensajes políticos de denuncia y oposición frente a los actores armados y sus dinámicas de guerra, y también consiste en la minimización del desafío de las prácticas colectivas producidas cotidianamente en defensa de los derechos vulnerados de los habitantes de los barrios populares y en busca del reconocimiento y justicia frente a la exclusión social y política.This article discusses the way that Press reports about the different expressions of civil resistance from tracking information registered on the local and national press about the cases of Communes 8, 9 and 13 of the city of Medellín during the years 2002-2006. The intention is to know how such practices have been described and interpreted, which are the absences and emphasized aspects with the emitted information, what power relations are legitimized, among other questions. There is an affirmation of the existence of a legitimate and spread discourse on the media consistent with the social and political hegemonic order in Colombia. This discourse consist in the invisibility of the political message of denunciation and opposition to the armed actors and their war dynamics, and also consists in the minimization of

  7. Knowing about Special Education to Help You Help Your Child = Informez-Vous sur l'Education Speciale pour Pouvoir Aider Votre Enfant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    This pamphlet is intended to inform both English and French speaking parents of handicapped children in New York State about rights and services of the special education program. Separate sections cover federal and state law, student assessment, individualized education program development under the committee for the handicapped, and parental…

  8. De la nature de la contestation : qu’avez-vous fait de la contestation exprimée à votre égard ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gryspeerdt, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Parmi les théoriciens qui ont fourni un cadre cohérent d’analyse des expressions de la controverse, il convient de citer un historien et un économiste, tous deux ouverts à d’autres disciplines que leur discipline de base. Par le haut intérêt que cet auteur porte aux communautés, les publications de Daniel Boorstin relèvent tout autant, sinon davantage, de l’anthropologie que de l’histoire. Les théories développées par Albert O. Hirschmann s’appliquent tout autant aux phénomènes du développeme...

  9. Lassa Virus Seroprevalence in Sibirilia Commune, Bougouni District, Southern Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogoba, Nafomon; Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Maiga, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Konaté, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul Salam; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Boisen, Matt; Nelson, Diana; Oottamasathien, Darin; Millett, Molly; Garry, Robert F; Branco, Luis M; Traoré, Sékou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2016-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d'Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented. LASV IgG seroprevalence ranged from 14.5% to 44% per village. No sex bias was noted; however, seropositivity rates increased with participant age. These findings confirm human LASV exposure in Mali and suggest that LASV infection/Lassa fever is a potential public health concern in southern Mali.

  10. From Monastery to Commune: Teaching the Sociology of Extraordinary Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Offers suggestions for a sociology course in extraordinary groups, utopian studies, or alternative communities to help broaden awareness and understanding of human behavior, past and present groups, and cultural pluralism. Includes ideas for field trips, projects, readings, and films and videos. Discusses basing lectures on commitment, conversion,…

  11. Trois monothéismes, une cause commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Colonna

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available L’apport d’Albert Piette à l’anthropologie de la religion, à travers son livre La Religion de près constitue un miracle, au sens où l’on ne voit pas bien ce qui l’a rendu possible en 1999 plutôt qu’aujourd’hui, ou il y a vingt, cinquante ou soixante-quinze ans. Pour tout dire, étant donnés les blocages théoriques et politiques, au sens fort, qui ont rendues impossibles jusqu’ici toute sociologie ou anthropologie de la pratique ordinaire du catholicisme en France (et pratiquement ailleurs, on...

  12. Dossier Autarky. Own energy first. Without the net. Bureaucracy hinders self supply; Het Dossier Autarkie. Eigen energie eerst. Los van het net. Bureaucratie belemmert zelfvoorziening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeilmaker, R.

    2010-08-20

    Autarky in the field of energy is technically feasible and economically increasingly more attractive. The government makes it difficult for citizens to generate decentralized renewable energy with its bureaucracy and legislation. [Dutch] Autarkie op energiegebied is technisch mogelijk en ook economisch steeds aantrekkelijker bij stijgende rekeningen voor nutsvoorzieningen. De overheid maakt het burgers met bureaucratie en wetgeving echter lastig om decentraal duurzame energie op te wekken.

  13. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome architecture et gestion du stockage geologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  14. Dossier of the observatory workshops of April 10, 2002; Dossier des ateliers de l'Observatoire du 10 avril 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The workshops organized by the French observatory of indoor air quality on April 10, 2002 aimed at making a status of the lessons learnt from the pilot study carried out during 2001 by the observatory on 90 residential buildings and 9 schools. This document summarizes the preliminary results obtained during this study and presents the 2002-2003 operational campaign of investigation which will be carried out on 800 sites (accommodations and schools). The pilot study has permitted to perform a first adjustment of the measurement means and has demonstrated the feasibility of the future large-scale campaign. (J.S.)

  15. 小农水治理对农村社会管理制度的嵌入性--以人民公社制度和“乡政村治”制度为例%The embeddedness of the governance of small irrigation facilities in the rural social management institution:A case study of the People’s Commune and the“Township governing with villagers’ autonomy”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜威漩

    2016-01-01

    小农水治理对农村社会管理制度的嵌入性是指小农水治理嵌入农村社会管理制度之中,即小农水治理与农村社会管理制度相联系并受农村社会管理制度影响。人民公社制度下,人民公社及村级基层组织拥有的强大农村社会动员及农村公共事务管理功能有效提升了小农水治理绩效;但人民公社制度本身的缺陷使小农水治理中诸如集体行动困境等问题并未完全解决。“乡政村治”制度下,乡镇政府及村级基层组织农村社会动员及农村公共事务管理功能的弱化导致了小农水“建”“管”“用”陷入困境,但随着“乡政村治”制度的不断完善,其对小农水治理的积极影响必将充分展现。只有重构农村社会管理制度环境:构建财政支持小农水治理的长效投入机制、长效激励机制及有效监督机制以强化小农水治理中的国家力量,实现乡镇政府、村级基层组织治水功能的制度创新以强化小农水治理中的乡村基层组织力量,构建农民参与的市场引导机制、组织引领机制和精神激励机制以强化小农水治理中的农民力量;才能实现新时代背景下的小农水善治。%The embeddedness of governance of small irrigation water facilities in the rural social management institution is that the governance of small irrigation water facilities is embedded in the rural social management institution, namely the governance of small-scale irrigation water facilities is associated with and affected by the rural social management institution. The strong function of rural social mobilization and the rural public affairs management which People’s communes and village-level organizations had under the institution of People’s commune effectively improved the governance performance of small-scale irrigation water facilities;but the problem such as collective action dilemma in the governance of small

  16. La reussite scolaire de votre enfant: Pour aider votre enfant a mieux apprendre a la Maison et a l'ecole, de la 1re a la 9e annee. Manuel d'accompagnement a l'intention du parent = The Parent Advantage: Helping Children Become More Successful Learners at Home and School, Grades 1-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Catherine; Antaya-Moore, Dana

    This guide for French-speaking parents of students with learning disabilities in Alberta presents a variety of strategies parents can use to help their children in grades 1 through 9 become successful learners. Section 1 offers ideas for helping students get and stay organized, such as using self-talk to create a positive attitude and organizing…

  17. Nanosilver (NanoTrust Dossier No. 010en – November 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Gazsó, André; Nentwich, Michael; Simkó, Myrtill; Fries, René; Greßler, Sabine; Fiedeler, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Silver has a rich history of use in medicine and hygiene due to its broad-spectrum toxicity to bacteria, fungi and algae. For a number of years, silver has been used increasingly in its nano-particulate form. This form exhibits an elevated toxic potential compared to traditional silver compounds. Silver is not considered a systemic toxin in humans except at high doses. Products containing nanosilver are one of the most important classes of nanoproducts. Nanosilver coatings on medical devices ...

  18. Dossier 3 : Les dimensions humaine et sociale du développement durable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Si le concept de développement durable continue d’étendre son influence, cette montée en puissance repose encore largement sur la dimension environnementale. C’est en effet la prudence et la précaution sur les écosystèmes qui inspirent l’essentiel des discours, des actions et des analyses de la soutenabilité du développement ou de la croissance.Or les dimensions humaine et sociale ont toute leur place dans la problématique du développement durable. Ces composantes humaine et sociale ne sont d...

  19. L'hypofirme, fabrique de projets hypermodernes : Dossier Gestion de Projet et Complexité

    OpenAIRE

    Asquin, Alain

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Les pratiques actuelles du projet sont plurielles. Certaines sont ancrées dans une modernité gestionnaire d'après guerre, d'autres sont issues du management frénétique, post-moderne, des années 80. Alors que nous serions dans les prémisses d'une société nouvelle, hypermoderne, émergent des pratiques du projet pensées en complexité. Cependant l'ensemble entre en collision et il n'est pas certain que ces pratiques nouvelles progressent tant les modes de pensée mécanistes...

  20. Document education to the energy; Dossier documentaire education a l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-01

    This document proposes a recording of more than one hundred educational tools essential for the realization of a project on the energy education: books, reviews, videotapes, CD-Rom, educational cases. (A.L.B.)

  1. Introduction au dossier « L’Asie centrale »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Cariou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avec les bouleversements géopolitiques qui affectent le continent asiatique depuis deux décennies l’Asie centrale n’est plus tout à fait cet espace géographique incertain écarté de la communauté internationale, voire même oublié des atlas dont les cartes étaient généralement centrées sur les territoires voisins plus lisibles et médiatiques du Moyen-Orient, de l’Inde, de la Chine ou de la Russie. Constituée par les cinq ex-républiques socialistes soviétiques du Kazakhstan, du Kirghizstan, de l...

  2. Dossier: Pueblos indígenas latinoamericanos: historias de lucha, memorias de resistencia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Sabrina; Mejía Arregui, Erandi; Arbelaéz Gutiérrez, Leidy Yohana

    2016-01-01

    El estudio de la historia reciente ha abierto grandes controversias en las Ciencias Sociales respecto a cómo definir un campo de estudio cuyas fronteras temporales, disciplinares, espaciales se caracterizan por ser endebles y difusas. Por su régimen de historicidad particular, el estudio del pasado cercano nos permite encontrarnos con múltiples experiencias históricas, voces que entretejen memorias y olvidos que conviven en nuestro presente. Resulta usual asociar el estudio de la historia rec...

  3. Motivational study for an hybrid demonstrator; Dossier de motivation pour un demonstrateur hybride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boidron, M.; Fiorini, G.L.; Thomas, J.B. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France). Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires; Flocard, H. [Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS/IN2P3), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-02-15

    This document recalls first the role of hybrid accelerator driven systems (ADS) in the domain of transmutation of long-lived fission products and minor actinides. It presents the specific contribution of these systems in the management of radioactive wastes and their technical feasibility and safety aspects. Then, follows a motivational analysis for the construction of a demonstration facility with its specifications and R and D needs: feasibility, schedule, links with other ADS-related programs, cost, international cooperation, recommendations. (J.S.)

  4. Presentación del Dossier: Narración y crimen organizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sheinbaum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los estudios literarios han abordado problemas relativos al crimen organizado en México, sus investigaciones se han enfocado en la narconovela, los narcocorridos y la literatura del norte, de tal suerte que son escasos los trabajos que se ocupen de las narraciones en torno a estos fenómenos desde el campo de la teoría narrativa. Me refiero a esa área interdisciplinaria que estudia las narraciones independientemente de si son o no literarias. Es un campo que tiene la virtud de promover la colaboración entre la antropología, la sociología, los estudios literarios y otras disciplinas. Su elasticidad permite explorar conjuntamente cómo se ha dado cuenta del crimen organizado en relatos orales, en el periodismo escrito y televisivo, en etnografías, en informes oficiales y en ficciones de toda índole.

  5. Press document. Photovoltaic energy: boosting the evolution; Dossier de presse. Photovoltaique: accelerer l'innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    The french potential in the photovoltaic energy is considerable but not very exploited. In this context the CEA, by its function of applied research institute in the domain of the low carbon energies can be a major actor of the sector development. This document presents the research programs in the photovoltaic domain, developed at the CEA, especially on the silicon performance, the photovoltaic solar cells and their integration in the buildings. (A.L.B.)

  6. Editorial del Dossier: Movilidad sostenible: una construcción multidisciplinaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Acevedo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La movilidad urbana, los beneficios e impactos de la infraestructura de transporte, así como las relaciones con el territorio y la economía son temas en permanente evolución. Constituyen una rica fuente de investigación, de innovación, de revisión de teorías y de necesaria actualización. El tema de la movilidad se estudia desde diferentes disciplinas y perspectivas. Los aspectos económicos, la ingeniería y la tecnología, los aspectos sociales y políticos, la gestión del territorio y de los sistemas de transporte son componentes necesarios en el estudio de la movilidad. Sin embargo, la dificultad de desarrollar una visión multidisciplinaria es considerable.

  7. The Contingency of Social Change in Agriculture and Food in Latin America: Introduction to Dossier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes Chauca, Myriam; Sherwood, S.G.; Arce, A.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    En esta edición especial de Íconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, consideramos a la ciencia social del desarrollo en la agricultura y alimentación como un campo de colusión, choque y competencia entre entidades dedicadas a la generación de narrativas de la realidad. Actualmente la narrativa predomin

  8. Editorial dossier “plea bargain and bargaining criminal justice: new and multiples points of view”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia da Rosa Mendes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tal como poucos o tema da barganha e da justiça criminal negocial tem sido um dos principais pontos de acaloradas discussões dentro da pauta de assuntos do processo penal no mundo e, de algum tempo, também no Brasil. Neste sentido, o dossiê  "Colaboração Premiada e Justiça Criminal Negocial" tem como objetivo propiciar um espaço amplo e aberto às analises e estudos daqueles que se debruçam sobre os principais aspectos do instituto da colaboração/delação premiada em suas diversas interfaces, como, por exemplo: ao sistema de justiça criminal negocial no direito comparado; à ação penal pública e oportunidade; à celebração do acordo e a decretação de medidas cautelares; ao controle dos acordos durante a investigação preliminar; aos limites constitucionais de atuação do Ministério Público investigador, acusador e negociador; ao sistema acusatório e o papel do Poder Judiciário nos acordos; e aos direitos do colaborador e a atuação da mídia.

  9. A dossier about the Lunigiana domus of the Bianchi of Moregnano (12th-13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Nobili

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In twelfth and thirteenth century Tuscan sources the term domus means "kinship group defined by common descent", but it can also refer to the overall patrimony belonging to such a group, or alternatively the seigneurial staff, inclusive of servants and tenants. The last of these meanings, the broadest and most comprehensive, is prevalent in twelfth and thirteenth century documents concerning the domus of the Bianchi da Moregnano in Lunigiana, who were vassalls of the Estensi and then the Malaspina.

  10. Editorial Dossier: "Requisitos para realizar grandes proyectos de infraestructura en Colombia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Vargas Caicedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Como lo señala el doctor Carlos Angulo Galvis, rector de la Universidad de los Andes, en la apertura del Foro "Requisitos para realizar grandes proyectos de infraestructura en Colombia", es necesario indagar sobre estas temáticas desde un enfoque multidisciplinario y como un problema integral. Se requiere examinar la experiencia, encontrar soluciones y diseñar esquemas que permitan proponer al país caminos para superar su reconocido rezago en este frente; pues, según la intervención de Germán Cardona, Ministro de Transporte, se han evidenciado malos manejos en el sector, obras mal estructuradas y programadas.

  11. Minima hereticalia. Dossiers from the Veronese archives (12th-13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Varanini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A few unpublished documents demonstrate the ‘cathar’ heretics’ presence in the veronese territory (in the castles of Sirmione and Cerea, between the 12th and 13th centuries and in the city itself,  as well as  the tendency of the municipal political authorities towards a repressive attitude.

  12. Multimedia Integration for Language e-Learning: Content, Context and the e-Dossier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Villalon, Pedro Pablo; Ortega, Manuel; Sanchez-Villalon, Asuncion

    2010-01-01

    In the education world, it is widely accepted that language learning is one of the pioneering disciplines in the application and use of the information and communication technologies, initially preceded by the widespread use of audiovisual resources which, finally integrated in the digital space, bring about the use of multimedia. Additionally,…

  13. La Trinidad Heterodoxa en América Latina (Dossier: Historia del Arte)

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Mario

    2007-01-01

    El artículo explora los orígenes de la representación de la Trinidad y su declive en Europa, durante el siglo XVI, luego de la Contrarreforma. Prohibida en Europa por considerársele herética y confusa para los fines pedagógicos de la iconográfía católica, el tema trinitario floreció en América durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVII en variadas formas y adaptaciones. La prohibición se derivaba del hecho de que esta iconografía podía generar significados idolátricos al relacionar la representa...

  14. Editorial del Dossier: Movilidad sostenible: una construcción multidisciplinaria

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Acevedo; Juan Pablo Bocarejo

    2009-01-01

    La movilidad urbana, los beneficios e impactos de la infraestructura de transporte, así como las relaciones con el territorio y la economía son temas en permanente evolución. Constituyen una rica fuente de investigación, de innovación, de revisión de teorías y de necesaria actualización. El tema de la movilidad se estudia desde diferentes disciplinas y perspectivas. Los aspectos económicos, la ingeniería y la tecnología, los aspectos sociales y políticos, la gestión del territorio y de los si...

  15. Editorial L&E, v.9, n.2, 2015 - Dossier Rios e Cidades

    OpenAIRE

    Conpadre, Rede

    2015-01-01

    O Dossiê “Rios e Cidades” resulta dos trabalhos apresentados em maio de 2014 na quarta versão do Seminário ItineranteFranco-Brasileiro Rios e Cidades na História do Brasil: rio São Franciscoorganizado e ilustrado a partir do rio São Francisco e das cidades-beira Remanso, Pilão Arcado, Juazeiro, Petrolina e Paulo Afonso. Sua forma itinerante se inspira na tradição excursionista trazida ao Brasil pelos geógrafos franceses nos anos 1930 para coletar dados sobre os gêneros de vida, as paisagens, ...

  16. The Contingency of Social Change in Agriculture and Food in Latin America: Introduction to Dossier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes Chauca, Myriam; Sherwood, S.G.; Arce, A.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    En esta edición especial de Íconos. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, consideramos a la ciencia social del desarrollo en la agricultura y alimentación como un campo de colusión, choque y competencia entre entidades dedicadas a la generación de narrativas de la realidad. Actualmente la narrativa

  17. Editorial L&E, v.8, n.4, 2014 : Dossier Company Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Conpadre, Rede

    2014-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha vuelto parte importante de la literatura científica sobre el Paisaje, Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Regional el tema de los caseríos obreros o Company Towns que se edificaron en los proyectos de industrialización regional en todo el continente americano a partir de los inicios de la mecanización fabril. En los Estados Unidos de América el término hace alusión a los pueblos o villas fabriles construidos ex profeso para el control paternalista de la mano de obra de grand...

  18. Installation of the ITER committee industry. Participants guide; Installation du Comite industrie ITER. Dossier des participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    ITER is an international project to design and build an experimental fusion reactor based on the tokamak concept. This guide presents the ITER project and objectives and the associated organizations in France, the recommendations and actions for ITER, the industrial mobilization, the industrial committee and its members, technological sheets for the enterprises and the statistical document of the SESSI. (A.L.B.)

  19. Dossier « Le champ des commons en question : perspectives croisées »

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Douglas Clyde

    2012-01-01

    The European Union has declared its intention to move in the direction of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Their experience with the management of multi-species, mixed fisheries (MSMF) is one area where insight can be gained about what this may mean in practice. The present paper dr...... technical regulation, to assign individual property rights or even to effectively divide the resources into distinct units. Hence, common property institutions will become more, rather than less, relevant as management approaches in developed country fisheries evolve....

  20. TAILLE À 3 ANS DE LA TRUITE COMMUNE (SALMO TRUTTA L. DANS LES RIVIÈRES DES PYRÉNÉES FRANÇAISES : RELATIONS AVEC LES CARACTÉRISTIQUES MÉSOLOGIQUES ET INFLUENCE DES AMÉNAGEMENTS HYDROÉLECTRIQUES. TOTAL LENGTH OF AGE-3 BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L. IN FRENCH PYRENEAN STREAMS : RELATIONSHIPS WITH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND INFLUENCE OF HYDROELECTRIC FACILITIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAGARRIGUE T.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La croissance de populations de truite commune (Salmo trutta L. a été étudiée sur 84 cours d'eau répartis sur l'ensemble de la chaîne des Pyrénées. Pour cela, des échantillons d'écailles ont été récoltés dans 215 sites situés à des altitudes comprises entre 185 et 2000 m, pour des largeurs variant de 1,2 à 60 m. La croissance des individus a été déterminée par scalimétrie. La longueur totale moyenne atteinte par les individus à l'âge de 3 ans a été retenue comme variable biologique. La taille moyenne à 3 ans des individus est fortement structurée par l'altitude, ce gradient altitudinal représentant en grande partie un gradient thermique. Elle est corrélée négativement avec l'altitude et la densité totale en truites communes et positivement avec la largeur du cours d'eau et la conductivité estivale. La nature du débit joue également un rôle important sur la croissance puisqu'à altitude et à température moyenne estivale équivalentes, la taille moyenne à 3 ans est significativement plus faible en site soumis à un débit réservé qu'en site à débit naturel. Selon la nature du débit, deux modèles prédictifs de la taille moyenne à 3 ans (T3 en fonction de l'altitude (ALT et de la largeur du cours d'eau (L ont été établis par régression multiple pas à pas : - sites à débit naturel : Log (T3 = 2.457 - 0.007 x sgrt ALT + 0.066 x Log (L 65.5 % (p The growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta L. populations has been studied on 84 streams distributed over the whole range of the Pyrenees. Samples of scales were collected in 215 sites located at altitudes ranging between 185 and 2000 m, for width varying from 1,2 to 60 m. The growth of individuals was determined by scale reading. The mean total length of age-3 trout was selected as the biological variable. The mean total length of age-3 trout was strongly structured by altitude, this altitudinal gradient mainly representing a thermal gradient. It is

  1. Le Droit de Votre Enfant a une Education: Un Guide pour les Parents d'Enfants Handicapes de l'Etat de New York (Your Child's Right to an Education: A Guide for Parents of Handicapped Children in New York).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The handbook is a French translation of "Your Child's Right to an Education" published by the New York State Education Department, Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions. The following topics are among those considered: eligibility for special education, program types, alternative placements (such as residential settings),…

  2. Le Droit de Votre Enfant a une Education: Un Guide pour les Parents d'Enfants Handicapes de l'Etat de New York (Your Child's Right to an Education: A Guide for Parents of Handicapped Children in New York).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept. Albany. Office for the Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    The handbook is a French translation of "Your Child's Right to an Education" published by the New York State Education Department, Office for Education of Children with Handicapping Conditions. The following topics are among those considered: eligibility for special education, program types, alternative placements (such as residential…

  3. Hydro electric scheme on the Forestay river. Communes of Chexbres and Rivaz. Feasibility study; Turbinage du Forestay. Communes de Chexbres et Rivaz. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study of the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme located in Rivaz, Switzerland on the shore of the lake of Geneva. Water of the Forestay river, which crosses a steep wine region, is used in a 89 kW Pelton turbine with a water head of 63 m and a maximum flow rate of 180 litre/s, producing about 350,000 kWh/year for now more than 50 years. After retrofitting the maximum electric power produced should be 707 kW, generating 2,500,000 kWh/y by using a water head of 184 m and a maximum flow rate of 500 litre/s. Part of the new equipment would be mounted underground in order to respect the aesthetics of the beautiful site. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.109 CHF/kWh.

  4. Poèmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théo Crassas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paris Volez jusqu’aux limites océaniques de votre organisme vivant, épanouissez-vous en quatre lignes de ciel, devenez jet naturel aux sonorités de mille jours, cherchez votre mouvement dans les travaux de votre poitrine et dans le dessin d’or de votre surface, faites jouer le jardin des cloches et des balançoires, mirez-vous au-delà de toute image secondaire, dans votre essence de Babyloniens, chassez celui qui a maudit vos édifices, frottez-vous sans mépris à la poussière des oiseaux en sur...

  5. GAC-EPA

    CERN Multimedia

    GAC-EPA

    2013-01-01

    En tant que Président du GAC-EPA, je porte à votre connaissance ce communiqué émanant de la Direction du CERN. Le 2 juin 2013, le CERN inaugure le projet Passeport Big Bang, un parcours touristique et scientifique formé de dix plates-formes d'exposition devant dix sites du CERN dans le Pays de Gex et le Canton de Genève. Les plateformes sont reliées par des itinéraires balisés et par un jeu de piste. C'est un projet est mené en collaboration avec les communes du Pays de Gex, Meyrin et Genève Tourisme dans un souci de renforcer notre dialogue avec nos voisins : http://passeport-big-bang.web.cern.ch/fr. A l’occasion de cette inauguration, nous organisons un événement populaire et festif : le matin, les familles pourront participer à des randonnées à vélo tandis que les sportifs pourront tester les 5...

  6. Presentación al Dossier Historia del Crimen, la Prevención y el Castigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Antonio Melo Flórez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of violent crime has had a great development in last decades, as much in American continent as in Europe. Exceptions like United States, Latin America and some European regions, have created doubts about generalizations than assume the accuracy of the theory of civilizing process inherited from Norbert Elias sociology, which could explain the decreasing trend of criminal violence since the Middle Ages. In this essay some ideas has presented about this debate, as well as a short balance of Latin American studies about the topic, that in some way has been outside of long term perspectives. Finally, its doing a call to fill the lacuna in quantitative studies and make a review of criminality from a long term perspective that could connect today increasing of violent crime with an historical trend and even propose resolution options to this trouble.

  7. The international documents of Petrole and Techniques. Algeria 2002; Les dossiers internationaux de petrole et techniques. Algerie 2002 premiere partie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-08-01

    In the first part of the document Chakib Khelil presents the current reforms and the upstream sector groups take stock on 15 years of market deregulation. The hydrocarbons sector, motor of the Algerian economy, opens more and more leading the country to the modernity. The upstream market deregulation allowed to restore the petroleum and gas reserves level and to modernize the concerned societies. Facing the new petroleum deposits in Algeria, opportunities are given to french and foreign societies which will accept risks and strategical partnership. (A.L.B.)

  8. Prólogo al dossier monográfico "La presencia italiana en las Américas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Crolla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretender elaborar una cartografía de la presencia de los italianos en el continente americano constituye a primera vista una empresa titánica y de resultados siempre aproximativos e incompletos. Pero intentar realizarlo es un desafío que debe asumirse a fin de colocar nuevas piezas en un puzzle inconmensurable, configurado por cantidades de complejas aristas que esperan ser analizadas. La significativa presencia de viajeros e inmigrantes italianos en el continente americano durante los últimos doscientos años -especialmente relevante desde el punto de vista histórico, cultural y humano- permite de forma excepcional estudiar este complejo fenómeno migratorio partiendo del caso concreto del área hispanoamericana y lusófona, tomando para ello como referencia los múltiples ejemplos de interacción entre culturas, al igual que lo que sucedió en América del Norte, donde el arribo de oleadas inmigratorias y los contactos políticos y culturales fueron también sumamente fructíferos.En este sentido, el abordaje de mutuas contaminaciones e interinfluencias a lo largo del tiempo pasa necesariamente por el estudio de fenómenos históricos tan significativos como son las causas y perfiles de la (e(inmigración así como los procesos particulares de inserción en las nuevas territorialidades; la incidencia de la italianidad en corrientes políticas, sociológicas y culturales en los ámbitos de inserción, en las prácticas de lectura y de traducción; o el aporte de creadores italianos y sus descendientes en el campo de la literatura, la filosofía, la ciencia, el arte y la arquitectura. Otro campo de interés es el de la lengua y las investigaciones que se orientan a la detección de italianismos y al estudio de la generación de interlenguas en las variantes del español hispanoamericano, del portugués brasileño, en el inglés norteamericano y en el bilingüismo canadiense. Y todo ello sin descuidar la importancia que la matriz cultural italiana tuvo en la configuración de imaginarios y en prácticas socioculturales ligadas a la vida comunitaria y familiar, la gastronomía, la toponimia, la música y otras múltiples y variadas expresiones.

  9. Dossier Nº 16 LA REVOLUCIÓN LIBERTADORA EN ESPACIOS REGIONALES: ACTORES, PRÁCTICAS Y DISCURSOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aníbal Castillo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La Revolución Libertadora supone un fenómeno que no había recibido hasta recientemente mucha atención por parte de la historiografía. Como contrapunto, durante los últimos años ha sido ostensible el incremento de la producción sobre este tópico. Dentro de los aportes más relevantes en el marco de la nueva ola de trabajos sobre la Revolución Libertadora se evidencian ciertas líneas de prolongación, sobre todo en lo que concierne a los objetos estudio (como los partidos políticos, la iglesia, el ámbito laboral y la resistencia peronista, con respecto a las investigaciones llevadas a cabo durante las últimas décadas del siglo pasado. No obstante, más allá de las continuidades, es manifiesto el hecho de que las nuevas indagaciones sobre la Revolución Libertadora traen consigo múltiples innovaciones en muy diversos sentidos. En lo que concierne a los aspectos metodológicos, se destaca la atención puesta en la dimensión regional, que redefinen interpretaciones sobre las correlaciones entre los polos del centro y la periferia.

  10. Dossier : Género, violencia y política en la historia reciente latinoamericana. Una introducción

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Victoria; Robles Recabarren, Javiera Libertad

    2014-01-01

    Fil: Alvarez, Victoria. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación; Argentina. Fil: Robles Recabarren, Javiera Libertad. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias de la Educación; Argentina.

  11. Dossier Nº 15 REDES SOCIALES Y PODER POLÍTICO. AMÉRICA LATINA SIGLOS XIX Y XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Garcilazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A finales de la década de 1970 los paradigmas historiográficos dominantes comenzaron a ser puestos en cuestión, produciéndose lo que se ha dado en llamar la “crisis” de la historia. Ello se debió por un lado, al cambio de perspectiva respecto a la escala de observación –de este modo el microanálisis comenzó a ser visto como una herramienta metodológica sugerente para el abordaje de lo social– y por el otro, a la introducción de nuevas variables que orientaron la atención hacia la dinámica de las estructuras, colocando en el centro de la escena a los actores y a su entorno social. En este contexto la categoría de red social asomó con fuerza. Particularmente en el campo historiográfico adquirió una perspectiva transversal vinculando distintas áreas –como la historia económica, política, social, de mujeres, entre otras– e incorporando algunos aportes de otras disciplinas como la sociología y la antropología. En un primer momento el concepto comenzó a ser utilizado en un sentido metafórico para manifestar las interacciones de un sistema social. Aunque posteriormente adquirió un uso analítico como respuesta a la insatisfacción que los cientistas sociales experimentaron ante el esquema estructural-funcionalista por presentar ciertas limitaciones para el estudio de las sociedades. Si bien el análisis de redes ha cobrado especial importancia en algunas áreas de estudio, los especialistas afirman que aún no ha demostrado todas sus potencialidades. Esto se ha debido, entre otras variables, a la continuidad de su uso metafórico más que analítico y a la ausencia de herramentales teóricos provenientes de la disciplina histórica convirtiéndolo en un término múltiple y ecléctico.

  12. Liderazgo y linaje nobiliario en la Península Ibérica. Presentación del dossier

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Sopena, Pascual

    2013-01-01

    ESPAÑOL: Esta presentación resume algunos de los principales problemas que propone la hegemonía social de la nobleza medieval y el liderazgo del linaje. / ENGLISH: This presentation summarizes some of the major issues proposed by the social dominance of the medieval nobility and leadership lineage.

  13. Primera y Segunda Fase del Plan de Comunicación PolMark: dossier de prensa

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Moncada, Rocío; Aceituno Casanova, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Este informe técnico es parte de uno de los dos informes técnicos del proyecto Polmark. Se refiere a la comunicación de los resultados en el ámbito español. La comunicación en salud es un proceso social y dinámico que guarda relación con el acceso y la utilización de la información. El proyecto PolMark incluye la propuesta de un plan de comunicación y difusión de los resultados. El propósito del plan de comunicación español es por un lado, influir en la agenda mediática, para sensibilizar...

  14. Greece: Socio-cultural Information. The Education of Migrant Workers' Children: Dossiers for the Intercultural Training of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragoussis, Nikolaos

    The report provides information on the social situation, the family, and the education system in Greece. The social situation is discussed in terms of the Greek political system, forms of society and social stratification, the linguistic situation, religions represented, social life and relationships, and 14 holidays and festivals. Information on…

  15. Nano Regulation in Austria (I): Chemical and Product Safety (NanoTrust Dossier No. 018en – January 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Gazsó, André; Eisenberger, Iris; Nentwich, Michael; Simkó, Myrtill; Fiedeler, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Compared to international standards, an Austrian debate on regulation of nanotechnologies was only initiated in 2006. A first parliamentary inquiry was made in 2007. The same year, the Bioethics Commission at the Federal Chancellery adopted a recommendation on nanotechnology. The regulation of nanotechnology is also mentioned in the Program of the Austrian federal government for the (current) 24th legislative period. A legal inquiry into this topic has just begun with only preliminary conclus...

  16. On voluntary and obligatory nano-labeling (NanoTrust Dossier No. 031en – July 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberger, Iris; Nentwich, Michael; Greßler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Labelling is a central regulatory tool for risk governance. It aims at meeting a number of goals: It should enable consumers to make informed purchase decisions, avoid consumers being misled and promote innovation. Hence, consumers take part in the risk management of different product groups. Labelling of nano-products has been part of the early discussion on nano-regulation, both at national and EU level. Member states have refrained from independent national initiatives. However, nano-speci...

  17. DOSSIER LEGISLATURAS: RELACIONES DE GOBIERNO E INESTABILIDAD. EL JUICIO POLÍTICO EN LA ESCALA SUBNACIONAL EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Rodrigo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia el juicio político a primeros mandatarios en la escala subnacional, en tanto fenómeno que implica una solución institucional a situaciones de crisis política. El objetivo es conocer la configuración de las relaciones políticas que hicieron posible la destitución mediante juicio político de dos gobernadores en la provincia de San Juan, (Argentina: Jorge Alberto Escobar (1992 y Alfredo Avelín (2002. Para el análisis comparativo de los casos se construye un esquema que combina las variables presentes en la literatura y las organiza en una periodización en cuatro momentos. El argumento central del artículo es que la comprensión de este tipo de fenómenos, tanto en la escala subnacional como nacional, requiere poner en el centro del análisis la actividad cotidiana de los actores y sus relaciones.

  18. Dossier de Prevención de Puesto: Seguridad, Higiene, Ergonomía, Medio Ambiente y Patrimonio

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Torres, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo, tiene como objeto desarrollar de forma práctica, todos los conocimientos adquiridos de forma teórica en el transcurso del Máster en Gestión de la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, Calidad y Medio Ambiente. La práctica en casi toda su totalidad se ha centrado en el ámbito de la Gestión de la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales en sus tres ramas (Seguridad Industrial, Higiene Industrial y Ergonomía y Psicosociología aplicada), también se han desempeñado activid...

  19. Pressure vessels dossier restoration according to NR-13 requirements; Enquadramento de vasos de pressao a norma NR-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose L. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Osorio C. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Pressure vessels are static pressurized equipment typical in oil industry facilities. In TRANSPETRO terminals and stations as well as in the whole PETROBRAS, these equipment can be found in the form of condenser accumulators, separators, heat exchangers, storage spheres and others. Because they work sustaining pressure and, many times flammable fluids, pressure vessels have a reasonable potential for hazard. For this reason, the NR-13 regulation was created. It deals with the safety in maintenance, operation and inspection of pressure vessels and boilers. During the compliance to the NR- 13 rules, a problem usually found is the lack of documents for different reasons. In this case, the NR-13 obligates the owner to recreate the vessel documentation under the responsibility of a chartered professional. This paper presents a case study where NR-13 rules were conformed by tasks involving documentation reconstruction based on information collected by means of inspection and tests performed on the field. (author)

  20. Nanoparticles and nanostructured materials in the food industry (NanoTrust Dossier No. 004en – December 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Gazsó, André; Nentwich, Michael; Simkó, Myrtill; Greßler, Sabine; Fiedeler, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers interesting manufacturing and processing opportunities for the food production industry and promises a large market potential. On the other hand consumers object to the use of nanoparticles and nanomaterials in food. For this reason, the industry’s communications on this sensible subject are only very cautious, and information on current developments and applications is rare. Industry seems to be especially interested in “delivery systems” and nano-capsules for the prote...

  1. Efecto de los fluoruros en la composicion quimica del esmalte dental posblanqueamiento.(DOSSIER AVANCES EN MATERIALES DENTALES)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baldion Elorza, Paula Alejandra; Arcos Hurtado, Leidy Catalina; Mora Portilla, Mario Alexander

    2011-01-01

    ...% y determinar el efecto de la aplicacion de fluoruros en la concentracion de iones. Metodos: se evaluaron 36 premolares sanos por microscopia electronica de barrido para medir el porcentaje de calcio, cloro, fosforo y oxigeno, en tres momentos: 1...

  2. Dossier Nº 17 ITINERARIOS DE LO COTIDIANO. PRÁCTICAS, SOCIABILIDADES Y COMPORTAMIENTOS SOCIALES EN LAS DICTADURAS DEL CONO SUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Luciani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En los estudios dedicados a la última dictadura militar en Argentina destaca la preocupación por abordar la compleja trama entre estado y sociedad. Los interrogantes se anidan sobre dos ejes centrales en ocasiones superpuestos, por un lado las actitudes sociales -individuales y colectivas- frente al golpe y la dictadura; por otro, los modos en que la instalación del régimen militar alteró la vida cotidiana de los ciudadanos. La complejidad a la hora de definir cómo abordar esos procesos ha llevado a la apertura de algunas líneas de indagación y otras tantas de debate. No haremos referencia extensa a los derroteros que se han propuesto en este sentido, pero constataremos que desde los primeros acercamientos al tema, la mayoría de los estudios han pendulado entre posiciones que destacan el terror como elemento explicativo de todas las acciones o inacciones y la percepción de una sociedad ajena, extraña que desconoció la represión ejercida y ejecutada en dictadura. Estas construcciones han permitido un deslizamiento del problema entendiéndolo en términos de normalidad/anormalidad. La primera premisa supone que la vida de la “gente común”, sus prácticas y sus relaciones no fueron afectadas drásticamente por el golpe de estado y la posterior dictadura, siendo posible extrañarlas de la trama represiva implementada por la dictadura y que se ramificaba en centros clandestinos de detención, apropiación de bebes, tortura, desaparición y asesinato, por sólo mencionar algunos de los más cruentos destinos de las víctimas. La segunda, que la excepcionalidad que significó la existencia de esa trama marcó a fuego la vida de todos los ciudadanos por igual, poniendo entre paréntesis su propia existencia, paralizando toda posibilidad de acción. Así el binomio normalidad/ anormalidad ha sostenido la mayoría de los trabajos que abordan la sociedad en dictadura, -tanto los escritos desde la memoria como los estudios de corte histórico- generando miradas parciales, cuando no erróneas.

  3. Urbanisme n°325, juillet-août 2002.Dossier : Corps et sexualité

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkouche, Ammara

    2012-01-01

    Mettre en rapport le corps et la sexualité montre, comme le synthétise Thierry Paquot, l’érotisation latente de la ville à travers des lieux initiatiques, mais aussi certaines réactions aux nuisances urbaines (Davis Le Breton), ou encore l’appropriation des interstices urbains pour libérer l’esprit. Ainsi en est-il des sportifs (Jean-Pierre Augustin) ou simplement des gens assis (Jean-Pierre Charbonneau). Pour le plaisir du corps et de son confort, il s’agit de fournir les raisons d’un aménag...

  4. Le cromlech Meatse 8 (commune d'Itxassou, Labourd (Compte rendu de fouilles 1992-93.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Blot

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El cromlech Meatse 8 cuyo diámetro es de 4,30 m.,presenta una corona de losas amontadas, separadas a intervalos regulares, por otras, verticales, en posición radial. La cista central, formada por losas hincatadas verticalmente, está rodeada de un conjunto de pequeñas losas con un fin de estética más que de sostenimiento. Tanto el cuido llevodo en la arquitectura, como la ausencia de mobiliario, o de huesos calcinados, hacen de este cromlech, por otra parte el más antiguo conocido en el País Vasco, (fechado al 14C;2960 +50, un monumento simbólico por excelencia.

  5. Effect of health expenses on household capabilities and resource allocation in a rural commune in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Thuy Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Significant health expenses can force households to reduce consumption of items required for daily living and long-term well-being, depriving them of the capability to lead economically stable and healthy lives. Previous studies of out-of-pocket (OOP and other health expenses have typically characterized them as "catastrophic" in terms of a threshold level or percentage of household income. We aim to re-conceptualize the impact of health expenses on household "flourishing" in terms of "basic capabilities." METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a 2008 survey covering 697 households, on consumption patterns and health treatments for the previous 12 months. We compare consumption patterns between households with and without inpatient treatment, and between households with different levels of outpatient treatment, for the entire study sample as well as among different income quartiles. We find that compared to households without inpatient treatment and with lower levels of outpatient treatment, households with inpatient treatment and higher levels of outpatient treatment reduced investments in basic capabilities, as evidenced by decreased consumption of food, education and production means. The lowest income quartile showed the most significant decrease. No quartile with inpatient or high-level outpatient treatment was immune to reductions. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of health expenses on consumption patterns might well create or exacerbate poverty and poor health, particularly for low income households. We define health expenditures as catastrophic by their reductions of basic capabilities. Health policy should reform the OOP system that causes this economic and social burden.

  6. [Return migration and the development of a rural commune in Basilicata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R; Mortimer, J; Strachan, A; Viganola, M

    1985-06-01

    "This study, based essentially on a survey of 80 returnees, examines the extent to which return migration has contributed to processes of economic change in an agro-town in southern Italy, Bernalda (Potenza)." The authors conclude that return migration has had only a limited impact on the economy because of the low demand for skilled labor in the area of origin. (summary in ENG, FRE)

  7. Féminisme et universalisme : vers une définition commune de la justice

    OpenAIRE

    Tissot, Damien

    2013-01-01

    My dissertation explores the ways feminists mobilize the notion of "the universal" in their claims for justice. Since the late 1950s, the use of universalism in feminist discourse, whether claimed or latent, has been highly criticized. Namely, this critique highlights the ethnocentric, imperialist, and patriarchal philosophical framework underlying this discourse that was inherited from Enlightenment theory. In recent years, queer and postcolonial feminisms have expanded on this critique, urg...

  8. La multifonctionnalité dans la politique agricole commune : projet ou alibi ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroll Jean-Christophe

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available La multifonctionnalité de l’agriculture est une notion récente, aujourd’hui revendiquée par la France et l’Europe pour justifier les spécificités du « modèle agricole européen » et le bien-fondé des soutiens qui lui sont attribués. L’analyse de sa mise en oeuvre et des masses budgétaires qui lui sont consacrées permet de mesurer le chemin qui reste à parcourir pour traduire les nouveaux discours dans les faits. L’analyse de l’argumentaire de politique agricole des institutions européennes et internationales révèle également les enjeux implicites que masquent les contradictions des discours sur la multifonctionnalité, si bien qu’on peut se demander si cette notion nouvelle ne contribue pas, in fine, à occulter le débat politique de fond.

  9. Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum and fusarium commune isolates from a conifer nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane E. Stewart; Mee-Sook Kim; Robert L. James; R. Kasten Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium species can cause severe root disease and damping-off in conifer nurseries. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Isolates of Fusarium spp. can differ in virulence; however, virulence and...

  10. Structure and function of the septal pore cap of Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Peer, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi form networks (mycelia) of long, tubular structures (hyphae) that extend at their tip (apex) and branch subapically (behind the tip). Hyphae are compartmentalized by cross walls (septa) that contain a central pore which is covered by a septal pore cap (SPC) in fungi belonging to th

  11. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zawadzki, K.; Samecka-Cymerman, A.; Kolon, K.; Wojtuń, B.; Mróz, L.; Kempers, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory,

  12. Audit énergétique du Centre sportif de Combremont de la commune de Riddes

    OpenAIRE

    Briguet, Lionel; Genoud, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    L’objectif de ce travail est la réalisation d’un audit énergétique du Centre sportif de Combremont à Riddes. Le but étant d’analyser les consommations électriques et thermiques de l’établissement en vue d’apporter des recommandations d’amélioration de l’efficacité énergétique. Tout d’abord, une analyse de l’éclairage du site sera effectuée. Puis, les déperditions thermiques de l’enveloppe de la bâtisse seront déterminées. Une observation des différentes installations techniques sera fait...

  13. Paradise Lost: Age-Dependent Mortality of American Communes, 1609-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Theorists agree that the risk of folding changes as organizations age, but there is little consensus as to the general form or generative processes of age-dependent mortality. This article investigates four such processes (maturation, senescence, legitimation and obsolescence), which have been taken as competing accounts. Using two analytical…

  14. HAUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT CHOSEN LUBLIN COMMUNES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jadwiga Sender

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic elements of environmental and economic policy of Poland is water and sewage management. On the area of Poland with less developed sewage infrastructure part of the population using household sewage systems. But mostly they are used no outflow tanks (92%. The dynamic development of settlements around urban areas should be focused on particular care for the natural environment, also water. The aim of the study was to determine the share of sewage treatment plants in the development of wastewater management in four municipalities adjacent to Lublin city. The study involved the demographic analysis in municipalities, the development of water and sewage systems as well as participation of sewage treatment plants in this system during the years 2005 -2014. In all the studied municipalities there was an upward trend associated with the expansion of of water supply network and sewerage. In all the studied municipalities it occurred a total of 1,413 units of sewage treatment plants, and only 227 of them were financed from the municipality. The largest number of sewage treatment was within the municipality Niemce. In recent years, most municipalities there was a slight decline in sewage treatment plants investments. This is due to the development of the sewerage network in the areas of municipalities.

  15. The Ecological Dynamics of the Rundale Agrarian Commune (NIRSA) Working Paper Series. No. 51.

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Eamonn; Flaherty, Eoin

    2009-01-01

    In the following account we apply a Marxist ‘mode of production’ framework that attempts to create a better understanding of the complex relationships between society and nature. Most of the discussion of the dualism of nature/society has tended to replicate this divide as reflected in the intellectual division between the natural sciences and the social sciences. We hope to cross this analytic divide and provide an analysis that incorporates both natural and social variables. Marx’s work on ...

  16. Functional Genomics of Lignocellulose Degradation in the Basidiomycete White Rot Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tegelaar, Martin [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Henrissat, Bernard [Univ. of Marseille (France); Brewer, Heather M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purvine, Samuel O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baker, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wosten, Han A. B. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands); Grigoriev, Igor V. [Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lugones, Luis G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    White and brown rot fungi are among the most important wood decayers in nature. Although more than 50 genomes of Basidiomycete white and brown rots have been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute, there is still a lot to learn about how these fungi degrade the tough polymers present in wood. In particular, very little is known about how these fungi regulate the expression of genes involved in lignocellulose degradation. Here, we used transcriptomics, proteomics, and promoter analysis in an effort to gain insight into the process of lignocellulose degradation.

  17. Remerciements - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Profondément touchée par votre témoignage de sympathie et d'affection reçu lors de son grand deuil, la famille de Danielle MERTINA vous remercie de l'avoir entourée par votre présence, vos messages ou votre envoi de fleurs et vous prie de trouver ici l'expression de sa vive reconnaissance. Son fils, Franck. Son frère, Claude.

  18. Plan estratégico de marketing para incentivar el turismo hacia los senderos interpretativos ubicados en la ruta del spondylus pertenecientes a la provincia de Santa Elena

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, E; V. Rojas; Naranjo, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a strategic marketing plan to encourage tourism to the trails located in the communes of the province of Santa Elena, commune Dos Mangas: path "Las Cascadas" y "Las Pozas", commune Loma Alta: path "El Chorrillo" y "La Bramona", commune Salanguillo: path "Salto Chico" y "Las Campanas", commune Sinchal: path "Sinchal", commune La Entrada: path "La Entrada", commune Sacachun: path "Circulo de Piedras".. " The project basis to determine whether these pathways are tourists not ...

  19. French and English Equality of Language Status in the Officer Corps of the Canadian Infantry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Director of Land Personal Office (DLP 6). Her passion for the integration of the two official languages into the Canadian Forces sets quite an example in...vous eu l’occasion de travailler dans votre langue seconde durant votre carrière? Si oui, pendant combien de temps et

  20. Stratégie d'entreprise: les étapes principales à suivre

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Urs

    2011-01-01

    Elaborer la stratégie d'une petite entreprise (PE) implique que l'on réfléchisse bien aux objectifs. Dans l'article suivant, nous vous montrons comment identifier votre positionnement et votre potentiel, et comment formuler une stratégie d'entreprise à partir de ces éléments.

  1. Pregnancy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dental Association French (français) A Healthy Pregnancy Une grossesse saine - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations ... votre bébé et de votre corps pendant la grossesse - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Concerns ...

  2. Competition on the electric power market. New liabilities for the municipalities and municipalities groups; Concurrence sur le marche de l'electricite. Nouvelles responsabilites pour les communes et les groupements de communes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Facing the opening, at the first of july 2004, of the electric power market, this document aims to help the municipalities. It presents the main stakes of the deregulation, the main lines of the reform, the concerned organisms and the actors. (A.L.B.)

  3. Tomato (Lycopersicum commune Juice and Physical Exercise Increase Number of Neurons and ERβ expression in Post-Ovariectomy Rats Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Laswati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estrogen deficiency condition can degrade the quality of life, decline in cognitive function will be more severe trough age. Phytoestrogen compounds can be found in pegaga leaf extract, tomatoes and papaya is an easy and inexpensive way to increase estrogen levels in post menopause women through extra gonadal estrogen induction. Therefore, the aims of this study were to examine the effect of tomato juice, physical exercise, and combination of these treatments on promoting neurons and ERβ expression in somatosensory cortex that contribute to cognitive function of post-ovariectomy rats. Method: Twenty-eight female healthy Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus, 8-10 weeks old, from Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine Airlangga University include in this experiment. The animals were housed in the animal-care facility with ad libitum food and water. The temperatur was maintained at 18°C-24°C.  The treatments were done 2 weeks after ovariectomy. Tomato were made in Laboratory of  Pharmacognocy  and Phytochemistry, Faculty of  Pharmacy, Airlangga University, from inner part of the tomato fruits (mucous like substance with freeze dry method (-40°C. Results: The weight of white rat Rattus norvegicus post ovariectomy in this study was between 133-170 gram with a mean weight 154.32 ± 9.72 gram. Hematoxylin/eosin staining showed neuronal deficit in the control rats brain. In figure 1, the tomato group showed the largest of neurons number (145.43 ± 17.728, followed the combination group (140.57 ± 22.449, the exercise group (136.86 ± 23.104 and the smallest number in the control group (96.43± 28.965. Four weeks after treatments the number of neurons increased significant in the tomato group (p=0.001, exercise group (p=0.004 and combination group (p=0.002 from the control group.  This study showed no significant different between tomato and exercise group (p=0.500, tomato and combination group (p=0.701 and between exercise and combination group (p=0.769. Conclusions: In conclusion, our data demonstrated that post ovariectomy rats showed deficit numbers of neurons and decreased ERβ in the somatosensory cortex. Treatment with physical exercise, tomato juice, and combination of these treatments increased the number of neurons and ERβ expression in the somatosensory cortex.

  4. Distribution spatiale de l'ulcère de Buruli dans la commune de Zê (Bénin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sopoh, G; Victoire, A; Johnson, R C; Barogui, Y; Dossou, A; Van der Werf, T S; Stienstra, Y; Makoutodé, M; Boko, M

    2010-01-01

    The goals of this cross-sectional study conducted in the Zè district of Benin were to determine the overall distribution and prevalence of Buruli ulcer (BU) and to identify environmental and behavioral risk factors. A total of 425 current or previous BU patients from the study district were included

  5. Le Cromlech Méatsé 12 (commune d'Itxassou, Laburdi. (Compte rendu de fouilles 1994.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Blot

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available El cromlech Meatsé 12, de 5 m. de diámetro, presenta una corona periférica constituída por pequeños amontonamientos de losetas superpuestas, que rodean por el exterior a una serie de grandes losas dispuestas tangencialmente en círculo. La cista central, totalmente estéril, está constituída por una tapa y cuatro losas. El ajuar consiste en un "chopping tool" y un canto, depositados sobre el peristalito. Este monumento, de significado esencialmente simbólicico, no contenía ni carbón de leña ni restos humanos calcinados. La palinología lo sitúa en el Subboreal o en el Subatlántico.

  6. Philippe Descola, Tim Ingold, Être au monde. Quelle expérience commune ?

    OpenAIRE

    De Meyer, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    Philippe Descola et Tim Ingold, deux anthropologues de renom, s’opposent au dualisme nature/culture. Il semble que ce soit là leur seul point d’accord. C’est du moins ce qui ressort de la lecture de leur petit livre Être au monde. Celui-ci est la transcription d’une rencontre qui s’est tenue à Grenoble en novembre 2013. Michel Lussault, le modérateur de ce débat, leur posa quatre questions tenant de l’épistémologie. À la première question qui cherchait à savoir comment l’anthropologie peut dé...

  7. Impact of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) to Local Communities and Environment in Hop Tien Commune, Dong Hy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wageningen International,

    2008-01-01

    This case-study is designed to support the development of the Viet Nam – Netherlands Water Partnership on Water for Food and Ecosystems. The partnership is between Viet Nam’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality

  8. Hygiène posturale et économie rachidienne dans la lombalgie commune – une pratique à repenser

    OpenAIRE

    Kupper, Danièle; Cedraschi, Christine; Genevay, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, scientific understanding of low back pain has increased considerably, sometimes shoving concepts thought to be unshakable. If we consider postural hygiene,whose techniques were conceptualized in the 70's and are still widely used, not only some axioms were not confirmed but some evidences suggest that it may sometimes have deleterious effects. After reviewing these elements it appears that there is no simple formula applicable to all patients with low back pain. Instead we of...

  9. Proposition d'élaboration d'un tableau de bord pour le service financier de la commune de Nyon

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, Sara da Silva; Tuberosa, Jean

    2016-01-01

    De nos jours, la notion de chiffres est très présente, ce qui amène le désir de tout établissement à connaître les résultats de son activité en temps réel, afin de prendre des mesures correctrices pour atteindre les objectifs qu’elle s’est fixés. Pour cela la mise en place d’un outil est nécessaire, ma proposition pour répondre à ce besoin est le tableau de bord. Pour mettre en place cet outil, des analyses de l’environnement, de la stratégie et des risques sont nécessaires. De plus la défini...

  10. Fusarium commune is a new species within the Gibberella clade identified by morphological and molecular phylogenetic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; O'Donnell, K.; Nirenberg, H. I.;

    2003-01-01

    from its putative sister taxon, the E oxysporum complex, in having long, slender monophialides and polyphialides when cultured in the dark. Based on the combined DNA sequence data from translation elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) and the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (mtSSU r...

  11. Local products image determinant communes of Nisko Znaczenie produktów lokalnych w budowaniu wizerunku gmin powiatu Nisko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grzybek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a characterization of local products, creating an image of Krzeszów, Rudnik and Ulanów municipalities of the Nisko county, in the Podkarpackie province. The study of 500 inhabitants showed that knowledge of these products is varied. The best known were: plum jam from Krzeszów, wickerwork from Rudnik, and rafting bread and rafting tradition cultivated by inhabitants of Ulanów.

  12. Hygiène posturale et économie rachidienne dans la lombalgie commune – une pratique à repenser

    OpenAIRE

    Kupper, Danièle; Cedraschi, Christine; Genevay, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, scientific understanding of low back pain has increased considerably, sometimes shoving concepts thought to be unshakable. If we consider postural hygiene,whose techniques were conceptualized in the 70's and are still widely used, not only some axioms were not confirmed but some evidences suggest that it may sometimes have deleterious effects. After reviewing these elements it appears that there is no simple formula applicable to all patients with low back pain. Instead we of...

  13. Two minutes of the Great Council of the Commune of Verona in the Scaligeri age (June and September 1367

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Varanini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We publish here the minutes of two meetings of the Great Council of the city of Verona, held in June and September 1367. Each minute includes a list of the names of the members of the Council (867 in the first minute and 742 in the second. The first part of the essay provides the required archival and diplomatistic information. These same documents are studied from the point of view of the social and political history in the essay by the same author The Great Council of the town of Verona in 1367, in Venice and the Veneto during the Renaissance: the Legacy of Benjamin Kohl, edited by M. Knapton, J.E. Law and A. Smith (.

  14. Le Cromlech Méatsé 12 (commune d'Itxassou, Laburdi). (Compte rendu de fouilles 1994).

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Blot

    1996-01-01

    El cromlech Meatsé 12, de 5 m. de diámetro, presenta una corona periférica constituída por pequeños amontonamientos de losetas superpuestas, que rodean por el exterior a una serie de grandes losas dispuestas tangencialmente en círculo. La cista central, totalmente estéril, está constituída por una tapa y cuatro losas. El ajuar consiste en un "chopping tool" y un canto, depositados sobre el peristalito. Este monumento, de significado esencialmente simbólicico, no contenía ni carbón de leña ni ...

  15. [Urinary tract infection and pregnancy at the referral health center of the Commune II (CSFEF C.II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Issa; Sogoba, S; Coulibaly, D; Sow, S A

    2008-01-01

    Prospective study has been conducted with regards to systematic cytological and bacteriological urine examination, including 505 pregnant women examined from April to May 2006. The results have shown that 50 persons have a positive urine cytology representing 9.9% of the population. The age range from 20-34 was mostly represented 66% of cause. Almost 90% of the patients has a history of urinary tract infection. Leukorrhea was present in 94% of examined women. The urine culture has concluded to E. coli infection was asymptomatic, against 50% of Staphylococcus aureus. We have noticed 16% complications related 3 premature deliveries, 4 abortions and 1 death in utero. Early diagnostic of urinary tract infection based on urine analysis on antibiotic selection by any pregnant women is the key of the prevention.

  16. John Dewey, Une foi commune (1934 trad. fr., Les empêcheurs de penser en rond-La decouverte, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain MOLLARD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dépasser le dualisme entre les valeurs religieuses et la culture moderne issue de la science a été central dans l'agenda de bon nombre d'intellectuels et de libéraux religieux du XIXème. Dewey, né en 1859, l'année même de la publication par Darwin de L'origine des espèces, a toute sa vie essayé de comprendre les significations concrètes de ce dépassement dans les domaines de la psychologie, de la pédagogie, de l'épistémologie, de la métaphysique, de l'esthétique, de la morale et de la religio...

  17. Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in Europe - a common approach; Surete nucleaire et radioprotection en Europe - une approche commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, Ann [Institut irlandais de protection radiologique - RPII (Ireland)

    2010-11-15

    In Europe, the European Union has adopted directives and implemented other measures which form the basis of a common approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection across all Member States. In particular, there are EU directives setting out radiation protection standards and establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations. There are also arrangements in place to provide for an effective response to nuclear emergencies and to facilitate high quality research into nuclear and radiation protection related topics. Inevitably the stage of development in each area is somewhat different, but generally progress is ongoing in each area. From the point of view of a small country like Ireland, the development of common standards and arrangements across Europe is beneficial as they are based on the best available knowledge and expertise; they provide for greater transparency; they facilitate public confidence and make best use of the available resources. However, there are some areas in which common approaches could be further advanced. For example, the medical exposure of patients is increasingly of concern across Europe and the further development of common approaches in this area would be helpful. It would also be useful to develop a more integrated approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection regulation and to better integrate nuclear and radiation issues with other public health and environment concerns. (author)

  18. Word and Spirit in Melanchthon’s Loci Communes : Searching for the Relationship between the External and the Internal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Belt, Hendrik; Beck, Andreas J.

    2016-01-01

    During the reformation the relationship between the Bible and the Spirit was an important issue. The theology of early Protestantism focused on the word of God, but also acknowledged the necessity of the work of the Spirit. The word that was outwardly proclaimed as law and gospel was believed to be

  19. Comparative Law-Ius Commune - Cosmopolitanism%比较法·共同法·世界主义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米健

    2011-01-01

    @@ 一、共同法的世界观基础 在中国文化中,人们是讲"天"的.中国人的天有两重含义:一是自然,一是世界,前者讲人与自然的关系,基本上由道家思想予以体现;后者讲人与人的关系,基本上由儒家思想予以体现.就人与自然的关系看,中国文化认为:人生于天地之间,出于自然,属于自然,存于自然,化于自然,人就是自然的组成部分.此庄子所谓,"天地与我并生,而万物与我为一."

  20. Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in France in 2005; La surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2005. Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    In 2005, the Asn pursued its significant investment in radiation protection and reaffirms its ambition to become as efficient in radiation protection as it is in nuclear safety as of 2009. 2005 was a year of great progress for the Asn as it consolidated its organisation and working methods, in accordance with the 2005-2007 strategic plan it set for itself. The Asn continued progress in the field of radiation protection has given rise to various new regulations to improve the legislative and regulatory framework in this area. The Asn plans to step up its efforts to ensure better monitoring of patient exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide better management of radon-related risks, particularly in housing. Fully aware that its newfound power in this area requires outside evaluation, the Asn has asked the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to organize an I.R.R.S. (Integrated Regulatory Review Service) assignment consisting of a peer-conducted audit. The IAEA has confirmed that this audit will take place in November 2006. (N.C.)

  1. Efectividad de las protesis intrabucales protectoras emplomadas en teleterapia y braquiterapia.(DOSSIER CIENCIAS BASICAS, MEDICINA ORAL, BIOTECNOLOGIA Y BIOINFORMATICA EN ODONTOLOGIA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosales Ibanez, Raul; Montalvo Ramirez, Gustavo; de Lima Moreno, Javier; Sanchez-Rubio Carrillo, Ricardo Manuel; Estrada Esquivel, Blanca Estela; Sanchez-Rubio Carrillo, Raul Armando

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: se presentan las primeras fases de pruebas in vitro que refutan la hipotesis de que el material de 2-3 mm de plomo utilizado como protector en protesis radiferas, durante radioterapia en pacientes...

  2. DOSSIER LEGISLATURAS: LOS ESTUDIOS LEGISLATIVOS EN MÉXICO: UNA REVISIÓN DE SU EVOLUCIÓN, TEMAS Y ÁMBITOS DE DESARROLLO

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Patrón Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Los estudios legislativos en México han aumentado considerablemente en número, producción académica y expansión de líneas de investigación en los últimos años. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una revisión de los estudios legislativos a través de una clasificación tomando en cuenta las líneas temáticas más abordadas. Asimismo, hacemos notar las diferencias notables que existen todavía entre los estudios a nivel federal del poder legislativo y los congresos locales. Por último, dam...

  3. Nuclear toxicology file: impact of uranium on the vertebrae reproduction; Dossier toxicologie nucleaire: impact de l'uranium sur la reproduction des vertebres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, S.; Carriere, M. [CEA Saclay, IRAMIS, Lab. Pierre Sue, Groupe Toxicologie Humaine et Environnementale-CNRS, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2008-09-15

    Studies led on rats showed an achievement on the reproductive system. The effects on the progeny were also studied with some depleted uranium.The depleted uranium can cross the placental barrier and to affect the development of embryos to the rat. Teratogen effects were also observed. For the strongest tested dose (50 mg / kg /day during 9 days is approximately 20 % of the lethal dose), an embryonic mortality was observed. Below this dose, the foetal toxicity was resulted by a decrease of the weight and the size of the foetus associated with malformations and disturbances in the different stages of development. For high doses (25 mg / kg / day) the number of alive fetuses, the growth and the development as well as their survival were considerably affected. Concerning the uranium effects on the foetal testicle, the first results seem to indicate a particular sensitivity of the human male gonad with regard to the foetal testicle of mouse. The effects on the follicle genesis in vivo and on the oocytes in vitro have been studied. The modification of the rhythm of the oocyte meiosis observed in vitro, could occur in pre-ovulation follicles and lead to the ovulation of oocytes capable of being fertilized but incapable of normal embryonic development. A particular attention must be thus worn to the girls and to the women susceptible to be exposed to not negligible quantities of uranium. (N.C.)

  4. 2005: risks and opportunities for the renewable energies. Press document; 2005: risques et opportunites pour les energies renouvelables. Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    In this document the Syndicate of the Renewable Energies presents the economic situation of the renewable energies from foreign parts and from France. It takes stock also on the 2001 directive on the development of the electric power and shows how the renewable energies are wrongly said to generate taxes on the electric utilities. Each renewable energies sources are then detailed. (A.L.B.)

  5. Dossier “Violencias y sexualidades: una relación compleja en la historia de Chile”. A modo de introducción

    OpenAIRE

    Saldaña, Margarita Iglesias

    2008-01-01

    Hace cerca de diez años atrás Cécile Dauphin y Arlette Farge plantearon que “la violencia sería la tensión máxima donde se expresaría la relación de los sexos. La brutalidad, provenga esta de la violación o de las míticas Amazonas o de las ‘tejedoras de la revolución (francesa)’ revela, en una sociedad bajo influencia masculina, un algo extraño de la mujer: es al mismo tiempo quien rechaza la lógica de la guerra y por tanto del Estado, y la que actúa con la violencia de los hombres para manif...

  6. Inventory of fixtures file. Biogas: from shadow to light; Dossier etat des lieux. Biogaz: de l'ombre a la lumiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-06-01

    The biogas is recognized as an emergent channel by the Department of industry. It has been a without precedent development for three years. New installations of methanization are numerous. Several field experiments are related in this file (biogas extractor, methanization, district heating). (N.C.)

  7. Docencia en Entornos Virtuales de Aprendizaje (EVA) : Dossier de contenidos - Eje temático: Tutoría en Aula Virtual

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La siguiente publicación se ha redactado especialmente para el Seminario de Posgrado “Docencia en Entornos Virtuales de Aprendizaje”, llevado a cabo a instancias de la Secretaría de Publicaciones y Posgrado de la Facultad de Bellas Artes de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata. El mencionado seminario está dirigido a docentes y profesionales de todas las áreas disciplinares (no exclusivo de Bellas Artes); y contempla -como consideración prioritaria- posibilitar las competencias no limitadas a...

  8. Nuclear toxicology file: ecological consequences of a chronic exposure to uranium; Dossier toxicologie nucleaire: Consequences ecologiques d'une exposition chronique a l'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Ch.; Alonzo, F.; Bonzom, J.M.; Gilbin, R.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Simon, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN:DEI/SECRE), Service d' Etude du Comportement des Radionucleides dans les Ecosystemes, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2008-09-15

    This article presents the thought process and the current developments, based on the experimental acquisition of the answers of the alive organisms to the chronic low dose exposures of natural uranium in fresh water, to identify the consequences of this exposure on the populations composing the ecosystems. The results acquired on the zebra fish (Danio rerio) show an impact on the first steps of development. We note a delay of hatching upon 40 % from 20 {mu}g/l of uranium. This delay comes along with a decrease of the size and with a reduction of the growth of larvas as well as with an increase of their mortality for higher uranium concentration. For adults exposed to uranium a decrease of reproduction success is observed from a concentration of 20{mu}g/l. The consequences in term of fertility (total number of laid roes) are drastic, with a reduction of a factor 2 and 60, for the organisms exposed respectively to 20 and 250 {mu}g/l of uranium. A study was also made on several generations (populations of benthic invertebrates), it suggests an adaptation (genetic selection) but created a bigger fragility to a new environment even identical to their environment of origin with notably a decrease of the reproduction. (N.C.)

  9. Statement on the dossier for a derogation request of the US authorities concerning cold-treated strawberry plants intended for planting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health examined the report “Evaluation of Strawberry Nursery Plant Cold Treatments on Survival of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci”, submitted to the European Commission by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Th...

  10. Statement on the dossier for a derogation request of the US authorities concerning cold-treated strawberry plants intended for planting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health examined the report “Evaluation of Strawberry Nursery Plant Cold Treatments on Survival of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci”, submitted to the European Commission by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA...... are currently known to infect strawberry and that no viruses of Fragaria listed in European Council Directive 2000/29/EC are known to be transmitted by B. tabaci. However, adult whiteflies of B. tabaci on strawberry consignments can carry plant viruses irrespective of whether strawberry is a host plant...

  11. The French Electricity Company (EDF) and the environment. Press file for 1996; EDF et l'environnment 1996. Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, Jean-Pierre [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-03-27

    In 1996 the actions of EDF in the domain of environment have recorded FF 4 billions (FF 3.5 billion in 1995), representing about 2% of the EDF's turnover. The EDF keeps on its efforts for reducing the impact of its activities upon environment. Several applications of an environment protective electricity generation are promoted by the company. The company brings services and technical solutions to its clients which meet their energy needs and conserving at the same time the life conditions. Furthermore, EDF participates in the activity of numerous national and international organisms, intervening in the environmental questions, in decision making, participating in studies and actions and following continually the direction of a durable economic and social development. The report is structured in three chapters: 1. an industrial responsibility; 2. services and techniques for environment; 3. action towards a durable development.

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of betaine anhydrous as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Danisco Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycine betaine (betaine acts as a methyl group donor in transmethylation reactions in organisms. Betaine occurs in numerous vertebrate tissues as an osmolyte, ensuring osmoprotection. Betaine is safe for piglets at the maximum supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed with a margin of safety below 5. This conclusion is extended to all pigs and extrapolated to all animal species and categories. The use of betaine as a feed additive up to a supplementation rate of 2 000 mg/kg complete feed is unlikely to pose concerns for consumer safety. Users’ inhalation exposure to betaine is expected to be minimal. Betaine anhydrous should be considered irritant to skin, eyes and mucous membranes and a skin sensitiser. It is likely to cause skin sensitisation. The supplementation of feed with betaine anhydrous does not pose a risk to the environment. Betaine has the potential to become efficacious in all animal species and categories when administered via feed or water for drinking. The FEEDAP Panel made some recommendations on (i introduction of a maximum content for supplemental betaine in complete feed and water for drinking; (ii avoidance of simultaneous use of betaine in feed and water for drinking; and (iii avoidance of simultaneous inclusion of betaine and choline chloride in premixtures.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of formaldehyde for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Regal BV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The additive formaldehyde is an aqueous solution containing 35 % formaldehyde and 14 % methanol. It is intended for use in all animal species at concentrations between 200 and 1000 mg active substance/kg complete feed. Free and reversibly bound formaldehyde is readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and joins the pool of endogenous formaldehyde. It is rapidly oxidised to formic acid further on to carbon dioxide and water. Formaldehyde is a carcinogen by inhalation. While local irritation is expected to strongly promote carcinogenesis, lower local concentrations of formaldehyde are known to produce DNA adducts. Therefore, the FEEDAP Panel deems it prudent not to consider the exposure to non-irritant concentration as totally riskless. Moreover, on the basis of the present knowledge, a causal association between formaldehyde exposure and leukaemia cannot be ruled out. The FEEDAP Panel estimated the oral intake of formaldehyde of consumers from food of animal origin to be 4 mg per person per day. A reliable additional exposure of consumers to formaldehyde from supplementing feedingstuffs cannot be calculated. However, the FEEDAP Panel considers that the proposed use of formaldehyde as a feed additive would not increase consumer exposure and consequently would not pose an additional risk for the consumer. A safe feed concentration for all animal species and categories could not be determined. Formaldehyde is a strong irritant, a potent skin and respiratory sensitiser. Measures should be taken to ensure that the respiratory tract, skin and eyes of any person handling the product are not exposed to any dust, mist or vapour generated by the use of formaldehyde. The use of formaldehyde in animal nutrition is not expected to pose a risk for the environment. Formaldehyde in concentrations between 200 and 1000 mg/kg feed (compound feed and/or feed material has the potential to be an efficacious preservative.

  14. Présentation du dossier « Université Invitée » : la Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias V. Powald

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sise au cœur de Munich, en vis-à-vis de la somptueuse Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, la Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität peut se prévaloir depuis quelques années de l’appellation « d’élite » décernée par le gouvernement fédéral d’Allemagne. Elle dispose d’une importante faculté des lettres et langues au sein de laquelle la section de littérature générale et comparée (Allgemeine und vergleichende Literaturwissenschaften, ou encore Komparatistik détient une place de choix. Il va sans dire qu’au-de...

  15. Signos y sintomas clinicos predoctores de cicatrizacion apical 12 meses despues de microcirugia endodontica.(DOSSIER ENDODONCIA, TERAPIA PULPAR MODERNA Y REVOLUCIONARIA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marin Zuluaga, Dairo Javier; Martinez Agudelo, Patricia; Garcia Guerrero, Claudia Carmina; Suarez Rueda, Luis Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar la presencia de dolor espontaneo/dolor a la percusion pre y posquirurgicos, como predictores de la cicatrizacion periapical 12 meses despues de microcirugia endodontica (ME). Metodos...

  16. Cicatrizacion y regeneracion osea de los maxilares despues de una quistectomia: reporte de un caso y revision de la literatura.(DOSSIER AVANCES EN MATERIALES DENTALES)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebolledo Cobos, Martha; Molinares Camargo, Luisa; Higgins Samper, Estefania; Ricardo, Jonathan Harris

    2011-01-01

    .... es muy importante conocer como ocurre la cicatrizacion de los defectos oseos tras la quistectomia, identificando los diferentes procesos y tecnicas para acelerar la neoformacion osea, la utilizacion...

  17. Introduction au dossier « Transport et logistique durables : vers la nécessaire prise en compte de leur interdépendance »

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadet, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    L'interdépendance entre la logistique et le transport doit être prise en compte dans toute démarche visant à réduire les impacts sur l'environnement du transport. L'arbitrage entre le coût du stockage et celui du transport détermine l'organisation de l'ensemble de la chaîne logistique, de la production à la distribution, et par conséquent les caractéristiques qualitatives de la demande de transport. Le juste à temps oriente ce choix vers le mode routier. L'agrandissement de la taille des entr...

  18. DOSSIER LEGISLATURAS: LOS ESTUDIOS LEGISLATIVOS EN MÉXICO: UNA REVISIÓN DE SU EVOLUCIÓN, TEMAS Y ÁMBITOS DE DESARROLLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Patrón Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios legislativos en México han aumentado considerablemente en número, producción académica y expansión de líneas de investigación en los últimos años. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una revisión de los estudios legislativos a través de una clasificación tomando en cuenta las líneas temáticas más abordadas. Asimismo, hacemos notar las diferencias notables que existen todavía entre los estudios a nivel federal del poder legislativo y los congresos locales. Por último, damos cuenta de las rutas de investigación que han tenido más desarrollo y las que todavía han sido escasamente abordadas.

  19. DOSSIER LEGISLATURAS. EL CAMBIO INSTITUCIONAL EN LOS SISTEMAS DE COMISIONES: UN ANÁLISIS TEMPORAL DE LA ASAMBLEA DEL DISTRITO FEDERAL (1988-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Magdaleno del Río

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La Asamblea Legislativa del Distrito Federal es un importante espacio de toma de decisiones que ha evolucionado normativamente de una forma gradual. De 1988 al 2012, a grandes rasgos, se crearon nuevas comisiones, se institucionalizó el número de miembros que puede tener cada comisión, se modificó la normatividad para seleccionar los miembros y presidentes y la forma de definición de agenda de las comisiones. En esta investigación, el principal objetivo es mostrar las características de los escenarios bajo los cuáles se han impulsado estos cambios formales y los intereses a los que respondieron. A grandes rasgos, son tres los factores que han entrado en contradicción (conflicto y producido distintos escenarios de cambios institucionales formales: los intereses de los partidos políticos, la conformación de la legislatura y el contexto institucional. Más concretamente, cuando los partidos de oposición adquirieran fuerza numérica en la legislatura (mayor porcentaje de curules y las normas del sistema de comisiones no les beneficiaban, propusieron importantes cambios en la legislatura, los cuales fueron aprobados, con la intención de restar poder al partido mayoritario y tener una mayor influencia en el proceso de toma de decisiones.

  20. DOSSIER LEGISLATURA: EQUILIBRIOS DE PODER EN LAS ENTIDADES FEDERATIVAS. ESTUDIO LONGITUDINAL DE LAS LEGISLATURAS LOCALES EN MÉXICO EN EL PERIODO 2000-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Montero Bagatella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las entidades federativas reprodujeron el diseño institucional del presidencialismo mexicano. Sin embargo, no han reproducido de la misma manera el proceso de democratización. Este artículo analiza los incentivos que tiene el poder legislativo en las entidades federativas en México para servir de contrapeso frente al ejecutivo, a partir de una revisión teórica sobre los incentivos que genera el diseño del sistema presidencial. Entre los principales hallazgos se identifica que en la mayoría de los estados existen contextos que incentivan el fortalecimiento de los legislativos, así como la identificación de casos excepcionales en donde los contextos plurales se constituyen como amenazas para la gobernabilidad o los de bajo nivel de pluralidad que generan incentivos para la concentración del poder en los gobernadores.