WorldWideScience

Sample records for voting systems

  1. An electronic voting system supporting vote weights

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, C.; Zúquete, A.

    2006-01-01

    Typically each voter contributes with one vote for an election. But there are some elections where voters can have different weights associated with their vote. In this paper we provide a solution for allowing an arbitrary number of weights and weight values to be used in an electronic voting system. We chose REVS, Robust Electronic Voting System, a voting system designed to support Internet voting processes, as the start point for studying the introduction of vote weights. To the best of our...

  2. OFFICIAL VOTING SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC VOTING: E-VOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Dorantes Gonzalez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Official voting system by electronic ballot: E-Vote, which aims to streamline primary electoral processes performed in the country, beginning with the District Federal benefits and improvements. The principal benefices are economic and ecological time, taking into account process security features and the integrity of the captured votes. This system represents an alternative to the currently devices and systems implemented in countries like Venezuela, Brazil and the United States, as well formalized as a prototype able to compete with others developed by the Institute Federal Electoral District (IEDF.

  3. Voting systems for environmental decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Mark A; Regan, Helen M; Maguire, Lynn A; Colyvan, Mark; Justus, James; Martin, Tara G; Rothley, Kris

    2014-04-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Voting Systems for Environmental Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURGMAN, MARK A; REGAN, HELEN M; MAGUIRE, LYNN A; COLYVAN, MARK; JUSTUS, JAMES; MARTIN, TARA G; ROTHLEY, KRIS

    2014-01-01

    Voting systems aggregate preferences efficiently and are often used for deciding conservation priorities. Desirable characteristics of voting systems include transitivity, completeness, and Pareto optimality, among others. Voting systems that are common and potentially useful for environmental decision making include simple majority, approval, and preferential voting. Unfortunately, no voting system can guarantee an outcome, while also satisfying a range of very reasonable performance criteria. Furthermore, voting methods may be manipulated by decision makers and strategic voters if they have knowledge of the voting patterns and alliances of others in the voting populations. The difficult properties of voting systems arise in routine decision making when there are multiple criteria and management alternatives. Because each method has flaws, we do not endorse one method. Instead, we urge organizers to be transparent about the properties of proposed voting systems and to offer participants the opportunity to approve the voting system as part of the ground rules for operation of a group. Sistemas de Votación para Decisiones Ambientales Resumen Los sistemas de votación agregan preferencias eficientemente y muy seguido se usan para decidir prioridades de conservación. Las características deseables de un sistema de votación incluyen la transitividad, lo completo que sean y la optimalidad de Pareto, entre otras. Los sistemas de votación que son comunes y potencialmente útiles para la toma de decisiones ambientales incluyen simple mayoría, aprobación y votación preferencial. Desafortunadamente, ningún sistema de votación puede garantizar un resultado y a la vez satisfacer un rango de criterios de desempeño muy razonable. Además, los métodos de votación pueden manipularse por los que toman las decisiones y votantes estratégicos si tienen el conocimiento de los patrones de votación y de las alianzas entre miembros dentro de las poblaciones votantes. Las

  5. Multi-Candidate E-Voting System for Absentee

    OpenAIRE

    Her, Yong-Sork; Sakurai, Kouichi

    2002-01-01

    The voting plays important roles in a democratic country. Due to the problems of the existed voting m ethod, the new voting methods, electronic voting system, have been developing using the computer net work and cryptographic techniques. Many electronic voting schemes have been introduced for secure electronic voting systems. In this paper, we propose the secure electronic voting for absentee e-voting system. The absentee voting plays the important percentage in the existing voting system. Bu...

  6. Penrose voting system and optimal quota

    CERN Document Server

    Slomczynski, W; Slomczynski, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2006-01-01

    Systems of indirect voting based on the principle of qualified majority can be analysed using the methods of game theory. In particular, this applies to the voting system in the Council of the European Union, which was recently a subject of a vivid political discussion. The a priori voting power of a voter measures his potential influence over the decisions of the voting body under a given decision rule. We investigate a system based on the law of Penrose, in which each representative in the voting body receives the number of votes (the voting weight) proportional to the square root of the population he or she represents. Here we demonstrate that for a generic distribution of the population there exists an optimal quota for which the voting power of any state is proportional to its weight. The optimal quota is shown to decrease with the number of voting countries.

  7. Penrose Voting System and Optimal Quota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomczynski, W.; Zyczkowski, K.

    2006-11-01

    Systems of indirect voting based on the principle of qualified majority can be analysed using the methods of game theory. In particular, this applies to the voting system in the Council of the European Union, which was recently a subject of a vivid political discussion. The {ITALIC a priori} voting power of a voter measures his potential influence over the decisions of the voting body under a given decision rule. We investigate a system based on the law of Penrose, in which each representative in the voting body receives the number of votes (the voting weight) proportional to the square root of the population he or she represents. Here we demonstrate that for a generic distribution of the population there exists an optimal quota for which the voting power of any state is proportional to its weight. The optimal quota is shown to decrease with the number of voting countries.

  8. Smart Voting System for Non Resident Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shijas N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An Smart voting system for Indian election is proposed for the first time in this project. The proposed model has a greater security in the sense that voter high security password is confirmed before the vote is accepted in the main database of Election Commission of India. The additional feature of the model is that the voters can confirm if his/her vote has gone to correct candidate/party. In this model a person can also vote from outside of his/her allotted constituency or from his/her preferred location. In the proposed system the tallying of the votes will be done automatically

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Strategic Voting in Anonymous Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiance

    2016-01-01

    Democratically choosing a single preference from three or more candidate options is not a straightforward matter. There are many competing ideas on how to aggregate rankings of candidates. However, the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem implies that no fair voting system (equality among voters and equality among candidates) is immune to strategic…

  10. Component Based Electronic Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, David

    An electronic voting system may be said to be composed of a number of components, each of which has a number of properties. One of the most attractive effects of this way of thinking is that each component may have an attached in-depth threat analysis and verification strategy. Furthermore, the need to include the full system when making changes to a component is minimised and a model at this level can be turned into a lower-level implementation model where changes can cascade to as few parts of the implementation as possible.

  11. The Secure Electronic Voting System for Absentee

    OpenAIRE

    Her, Yong-Sork; Sakurai, Kouichi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the absentee e-voting system based on security, completeness and verifiability. We use r-th residue cryptography for homomorphic encryption, ZKIP (Zero-Knowledge interactive proofs), RSA algorithm for the secure absentee e-voting.

  12. A NOVEL VOTING SYSTEM USING SMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kamaraju

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting systems have the potential to improve traditional voting procedures by providing added convenience and flexibility to the voter. Numerous electronic voting schemes have been proposed in the past, but most of them have failed to provide voter authentication in an efficient and transparent way. On the other hand, GSM (Global System for Mobile communications is the most widely used mobile networking standard. There are more than one billion GSM users worldwide that represent a large user potential not for mobile telephony, but also for other mobile applications that exploit the mature GSM infrastructure. In this paper, the electronic voting scheme using GSM mobile technology is presented. By integrating an electronic voting scheme with the GSM infrastructure, we are able to exploit existing GSM authentication mechanisms and provide enhanced voter authentication and mobility while maintaining voter privacy. The objective of this project is to avoid the queue in voting time. Voting machines provide easy access to cast the vote by using mobile phone.

  13. Security System for Mobile Voting with Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Marinescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, voting has been a democratic right and way to choose our politicians. Nowadays, the voting process became a major issue in order to avoid crucial vulnerabilities like multiple voting, missing ballot papers, electoral fraud and miscount votes in an election. To prevent those leaks in our current voting system and to improve other factors like time-consuming and reducing cost of resources, I decided to implement a secured mobile voting system on android.In today’s era, the number of people that possess a smart-phone is larger and larger and also the advanced stage of technology can concur to a reliable solution for voting.The architecture of this system will contain the mobile application that need to be installed on a mobile device, also will contain a server to compute multiple operations (face detection, face recognition and matching the face with the existing ones, matching unique id of the smart-phone with the one stored in database based on user personal identification number and a server database. Firstly, an introduction about the subject and system is presented. Problem formulation will contain a research about this topic. Solution of the problem is presented in four subsections: architecture of the system, implementation, face recognition verifier and other solutions.

  14. Blind Signatures in Electronic Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Marcin

    Electronic voting systems are created to facilitate the election, accelerate voting and counting votes and increase turnout for the election. The main problems of the electronic systems are related with the assurance of system security (cryptographic security and protection against frauds) and a guarantee that the voters are anonymous. The authorization of voters and the anonymity of them seem to be contradictory, but it is possible to create such a system where the both requirements are met. Some solutions, the most common e-voting systems, are presented in the paper. These models are adjusted to the demands and implemented in the polls system for quality of teaching evaluation where anonymity is very important. The blind signature protocol, model directed to user's anonymity, is a very good solution of the authorization and anonymity problem in the polls system with remote access only, as it was described in the paper.

  15. Vote-by-Phone: An Investigation of a Usable and Accessible IVR Voting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae Holmes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the Help America Vote Act (HAVA was to ensure that voters with disabilities could vote privately and independently. However, the current state of most voting methods does not allow for private and independent voting for everyone. In response to this issue, we tested a remote IVR voting system developed by Author 1 and Author 2 (2013, with an added audio speed adjustment feature and synthetic voice to increase usability and accessibility, especially for visually impaired voters (Pinter, 2011. The focus of this research was to examine the viability and usability of the IVR voting system as an accessible voting platform for visually impaired voters. The system was tested by users with and without visual impairments, and usability was measured using the three ISO 9241-11 usability metrics (ISO 9241-11, 1998 of efficiency (time to complete a ballot, effectiveness (accuracy, and satisfaction (subjective usability. Results indicate that the IVR voting system could be a viable voting alternative to other established voting methods, with similar performance among sighted and visually impaired users.

  16. Electoral system, pesonal votes, and party choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    Using local elections in Denmark as an example this paper shows that individual party choice is influenced both by individual level, municipality level, and national level characteristics. Some hypotheses about the effects of the electoral system on personal votes derived from a theory by Carey...

  17. Electoral system, pesonal votes, and party choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    Using local elections in Denmark as an example this paper shows that individual party choice is influenced both by individual level, municipality level, and national level characteristics. Some hypotheses about the effects of the electoral system on personal votes derived from a theory by Carey...

  18. Security analysis of electronic voting and online banking systems

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is on security analysis of electronic voting and online banking systems. Six papers form the basis of the thesis and include the following topics: a model for analysis of voting systems, a case study where we apply the proposed model, a new scheme for remote electronic voting, and three case studies of commercial online banking solutions in Norway.

  19. From a toy model to a complete weighted voting system

    CERN Document Server

    Slomczynski, W; Slomczynski, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2007-01-01

    We investigate systems of indirect voting based on the law of Penrose, in which each representative in the voting body receives the number of votes (voting weight) proportional to the square root of the population he or she represents. For a generic population distribution the quota required for the qualified majority can be set in such a way that the voting power of any state is proportional to its weight. For a specific distribution of population the optimal quota has to be computed numerically. We analyse a toy voting model for which the optimal quota can be estimated analytically as a function of the number of members of the voting body. This result, combined with the normal approximation technique, allows us to design a simple, efficient, and flexible voting system which can be easily adopted for varying weights and number of players.

  20. AN E-VOTING SYSTEM FOR LEBANESE ELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajjar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present an electronic voting system (E-Voting, hopefully, to be applied to the Lebanese electoral system. This E-Voting system (E-VS was designed for electorates through computers programmed with convivial Graphical User Interfaces. The complex treatments and features are achieved at the levels of applicative layer and database. Several security measures were integrated into the E-VS in order to achieve an enhanced, speedy and accurate performance. It is about time that conventional voting in Lebanon gives way to E-Voting and hence simplifies the task for Electorates, Deputy Returning Officer and Returning Officer.

  1. Vote!

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin comes out at the same time as the public meetings end. The attendance at these meeting encourages us to believe that you feel more and more concerned by your employment conditions and by the Management's decisions in this area. We now must consolidate this interest with a vote. It is essential that you take a few minutes of your time to express your opinion in an electronic poll. Now is the time to seize the opportunity you have been given to influence your employment conditions for the coming five years. We will ask you to give your opinion on two packages, the first concerning the future salary level, the second concerning other employment conditions. In both cases, your participation and replies will determine what the Staff Association should do next and will be carefully watched by our negotiation partners*. We will also ask you to tell us to what extent you would be willing to take action in the event that you disagree with the proposals made by the Management. The Staff Association needs ...

  2. ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the world’s largest democracy with a population of more than 1 billion; India has an electorate of more than 668 million and covers 543 parliamentary constituencies. Voting is the bridge between the governed and government. The last few years have brought a renewed focus on to the technology used in the voting process. The current voting system has many security holes, and it is difficult to prove even simple security properties about them. A voting system that can be proven correct has many concerns. There are some reasons for a government to use electronic systems are to increase elections activities and to reduce the elections expenses. Still there is some scope of work in electronic voting system because there is no way of identification by the electronic voting system whether the user is authentic or not and securing electronic voting machine from miscreants. This paper provides an overview of the experiences of other countries using electronic voting machine. The comparative focus is on the adoption of electronic voting systems adopted at the international level.

  3. ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kumar; Dr. Ekta Walia

    2011-01-01

    India is the world’s largest democracy with a population of more than 1 billion; India has an electorate of more than 668 million and covers 543 parliamentary constituencies. Voting is the bridge between the governed and government. The last few years have brought a renewed focus on to the technology used in the voting process. The current voting system has many security holes, and it is difficult to prove even simple security properties about them. A voting system that can be proven correct ...

  4. Secure Internet Voting System based on Public Key Kerberos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Khalid Abd-Alrazzq

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting system is an important tool which allows voters to vote over the Internet without the geographical restrictions with considers important criteria in evaluating electronic voting schemes such as the mobility, democracy, and privacy. In this paper secure remote voting system has been presented. The proposed system uses public key Kerberos which is another form of traditional Kerberos as infrastructure deal with voters. The public key is used in all steps of Kerberos (not only in initial. The proposed system utilizes the advantages of threshold cryptography to prevent anyone to decrypt or sign the ballot alone without agreement all authorities, and use threshold blind signature to prevent discovers the vote or the identity of voter and protect the content of the ballot during casting and provide verifiable and discourages ballot buying.

  5. Digital Voting Systems and Communication in Classroom Lectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the use of digital voting systems in large group teaching situations have often focused on the ”non-anonymity” and control and testing functions that the technology provides. There has also been some interest in how students might use their votes tactically to gain “credits”. By focusi...

  6. Square root voting system, optimal threshold and \\pi

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, Karol

    2011-01-01

    The problem of designing an optimal weighted voting system for the two-tier voting, applicable in the case of the Council of Ministers of the European Union (EU), is investigated. Various arguments in favour of the square root voting system, where the voting weights of member states are proportional to the square root of their population are discussed and a link between this solution and the random walk in the one-dimensional lattice is established. It is known that the voting power of every member state is approximately equal to its voting weight, if the threshold q for the qualified majority in the voting body is optimally chosen. We analyze the square root voting system for a generic 'union' of M states and derive in this case an explicit approximate formula for the level of the optimal threshold: $q \\simeq 1/2+1/\\sqrt{{\\pi} M}$. The prefactor $1/\\sqrt{{\\pi}}$ appears here as a result of averaging over the ensemble of unions with random populations.

  7. Gaining assurance in a voter-verifiable voting system

    OpenAIRE

    Alberdi, E.; Strigini, L.; Leach, K; Ryan, P.; Palanque, P.; Winckler, M.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on e-voting systems has many examples of discussion of the correctness of the computer and communication algorithms of such systems, as well as discussions of their vulnerabilities. However, a gap in the literature concerns the practical need (before adoption of a specific e-voting system) for a complete case demonstrating that the system as a whole has sufficiently high probability of exhibiting the desired properties when in use in an actual election. This paper discusses the...

  8. Vote Stuffing Control in IPTV-based Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Rajen

    Vote stuffing is a general problem in the functioning of the content rating-based recommender systems. Currently IPTV viewers browse various contents based on the program ratings. In this paper, we propose a fuzzy clustering-based approach to remove the effects of vote stuffing and consider only the genuine ratings for the programs over multiple genres. The approach requires only one authentic rating, which is generally available from recommendation system administrators or program broadcasters. The entire process is automated using fuzzy c-means clustering. Computational experiments performed over one real-world program rating database shows that the proposed approach is very efficient for controlling vote stuffing.

  9. Towards a Standard Architecture for Digital Voting Systems - Defining a Generalized Ballot Schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochran, Dermot Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many electoral jurisdictions have their own distinctive voting schemes. There is no clear consensus about the ideal voting scheme for fair elections. Various systems for electronic and online voting have been either proposed or developed, but these systems tend to be aimed at particular vote...... counting schemes e.g. plurality. This paper proposes a way to decouple the ballot casting process from the vote counting scheme, using a generalized ballot schema....

  10. Dimension, egalitarianism and decisiveness of European voting systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras Escobar, Francisco; Freixas Bosch, Josep; Magaña Nieto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of three major aspects has been carried out that may apply to any of the successive voting systems used for the European Union Council of Ministers, from the first one established in the Treaty of Rome in 1958 to the current one established in Lisbon. We mainly consider the voting systems designed for the enlarged European Union adopted in the Athens summit, held in April 2003 but this analysis can be applied to any other system. First, it is shown that the dimension of these voti...

  11. Offline and Online E-Voting System with Embedded Security for Real Time Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaguvel.R 1 and Gnanavel.G 2

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In many proposals, the security of the system relies mainly on the black box voting machine. But security of data, privacy of the voters and the accuracy of the vote are also main aspects that have to be taken into consideration while building secure e-voting system. In this project the authenticating voters and polling data security aspects for e-voting systems was discussed. It ensures that vote casting cannot be altered by unauthorized person. The voter authentication in online e-voting process can be done by formal registration through administrators and by entering GSM One time password. In Offline e-voting process authentication can be done using facial recognization, finger vein sensing and RFID (smart cards which enables the electronic ballot reset for allowing voters to cast their votes. Also the voted data and voters details can be sent to the nearby Database Administration unit in a timely manner using GSM System with cryptography technique

  12. Teaching Case: Analysis of an Electronic Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nik; Toohey, Danny

    2014-01-01

    This teaching case discusses the analysis of an electronic voting system. The development of the case was motivated by research into information security and management, but as it includes procedural aspects, organizational structure and personnel, it is a suitable basis for all aspects of systems analysis, planning and design tasks. The material…

  13. 75 FR 74025 - Procedural Manual for the Election Assistance Commission's Voting System Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... COMMISSION Procedural Manual for the Election Assistance Commission's Voting System Testing and Certification...; publication of Voting System Testing and Certification Manual, Version 2.0, for 60 day public comment period... manual for its Voting System Testing and Certification Program. This manual sets the...

  14. Information Management System for Electronic Voting In Support of the Schieffelin Award for Excellence in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC VOTING IN SUPPORT OF THE SCHIEFFELIN AWARD...from... to) - Title and Subtitle Information Management System for Electronic Voting in Support of the Schieffelin Award for Excellence in...Management System for Electronic Voting in Support of the Schieffelin Award for Excellence in Teaching 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR (S

  15. Method for secure electronic voting system: face recognition based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, M. Affan; Baig, Misbah M.; Mehboob, Shahzain; Naseem, Imran

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework for low cost secure electronic voting system based on face recognition. Essentially Local Binary Pattern (LBP) is used for face feature characterization in texture format followed by chi-square distribution is used for image classification. Two parallel systems are developed based on smart phone and web applications for face learning and verification modules. The proposed system has two tire security levels by using person ID followed by face verification. Essentially class specific threshold is associated for controlling the security level of face verification. Our system is evaluated three standard databases and one real home based database and achieve the satisfactory recognition accuracies. Consequently our propose system provides secure, hassle free voting system and less intrusive compare with other biometrics.

  16. Electronic Voting Systems for Lectures then and Now: A Comparison of Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Vicki; Oliver, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Research and practice in the use of electronic voting systems has developed over the last five years. Electronic voting systems, also known as personal response systems, audience response systems or classroom communication systems, use handsets to elicit responses from students as part of structured teaching sessions, typically lectures. The use…

  17. 78 FR 22536 - Procedural Manual for the Election Assistance Commission's Voting System Test Laboratories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... COMMISSION Procedural Manual for the Election Assistance Commission's Voting System Test Laboratories Program Manual, Version 2.0 AGENCY: United States Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice; publication of Voting System Test Laboratories Program Manual, Version 2.0, for 60 day public comment...

  18. The Theory and Implementation of Electronic Voting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Groth, Jens; Salomonsen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    We describe the theory behind a practical voting scheme based on homomorphic encryption. We give an example of an ElGamal-style encryption scheme, which can be used as the underlying cryptosystem. Then, we present efficient honest verifier zero-knowledge proofs that make the messages in the voting...

  19. Models and Principles of Designing e-Voting Systems, Ensuring its Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available All over the world there is one main problem for government organizations in organizing general elections or referendums. The problem is that citizens are very apathetic and their participation in elections and referendums is very low. The elections and referendums, which are based on the traditional election system, use paper ballots which are inconvenient for a lot of citizens who have election rights, because it’s not very comfortable or possible to reach voting polls on election day. In this case the participation of citizens is very low, because it’s not always possible to visit polling stations when the distance to it is quite far or citizens have no time to vote. One of the easiest ways to increase participation of citizens in the country political processes is creation of electronic voting systems that can be used to cast citizen votes both remotely or not. Because of the opinion that e-voting systems will be more convenient for voters and that this will increase voter turnout on elections and referendums, governments of some countries are trying to create and begin to use those systems in their countries’ general elections and referendums. This scientific paper represents the standards and main aspects of creation of e-voting systems, models and the main threats to electronic voting systems. It discusses system attack methods and people who are interested in compromising e-voting systems. Also it analyses the practice of using e-voting systems for elections and referendums in some world countries.

  20. Models and Principles of Designing e-Voting Systems, Ensuring its Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All over the world there is one main problem for government organizations in organizing general elections or referendums. The problem is that citizens are very apathetic and their participation in elections and referendums is very low. The elections and referendums, which are based on the traditional election system, use paper ballots which are inconvenient for a lot of citizens who have election rights, because it’s not very comfortable or possible to reach voting polls on election day. In this case the participation of citizens is very low, because it’s not always possible to visit polling stations when the distance to it is quite far or citizens have no time to vote. One of the easiest ways to increase participation of citizens in the country political processes is creation of electronic voting systems that can be used to cast citizen votes both remotely or not. Because of the opinion that e-voting systems will be more convenient for voters and that this will increase voter turnout on elections and referendums, governments of some countries are trying to create and begin to use those systems in their countries’ general elections and referendums.This scientific paper represents the standards and main aspects of creation of e-voting systems, models and the main threats to electronic voting systems. It discusses system attack methods and people who are interested in compromising e-voting systems. Also it analyses the practice of using e-voting systems for elections and referendums in some world countries.

  1. Using Instant Messaging Systems as a Platform for Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletiadou, Anastasia; Grimm, Rüdiger

    Many Instant Messaging (IM) systems like Skype or Spark offer ex tended services such as file sharing, VoIP, or a shared whiteboard. As the name suggests, IM applications are predominantly used for spontaneous text-based communication for private or business purposes. In this paper we explore their potential to serve as platforms for secure collaborative applications like electronic contract negotiation, e-payment or electronic voting. Such applications have to deal with challenges like time constraints (“instant” com munication is desired), integration of media channels and the absence of one uni fying “sphere of control” covering all participants. In this paper, we address these challenges by discussing one particular secure collaborative application: secure decision processes for small groups. We provide the following contribu tions: (1) we define three varying scenarios and corresponding security require ments (2) we present an IM-based architecture implementing these scenarios, in cluding a Video-based authentication mechanism, and (3) we discuss poten tial attack patterns.

  2. On the Manipulability of Voting Systems: Application to Multi-Carrier Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, François; Noirie, Ludovic

    2012-01-01

    Today, Internet involves many actors who are making revenues on it (operators, companies, service providers,...). It is therefore important to be able to make fair decisions in this large-scale and highly competitive economical ecosystem. One of the main issues is to prevent actors from manipulating the natural outcome of the decision process. For that purpose, game theory is a natural framework. In that context, voting systems represent an interesting alternative that, to our knowledge, has not yet been considered. They allow competing entities to decide among different options. Strong theoretical results showed that all voting systems are susceptible to be manipulated by one single voter, except for some "degenerated" and non-acceptable cases. However, very little is known about how much a voting system is manipulable in practical scenarios. In this paper, we investigate empirically the use of voting systems for choosing end-to-end paths in multi-carrier networks, analyzing their manipulability and their ec...

  3. Ideology, Party Systems and Corruption Voting in European Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Bågenholm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    What is the impact of corruption on citizens' voting behavior? There is a growing literature on an increasingly ubiquitous puzzle in many democratic countries: that corrupt officials continue to be re-elected by voters. In this study we address this issue with a novel theory and newly collected...... original survey data for 24 European countries. The crux of the argument is that voters' ideology is a salient factor in explaining why citizens would continue voting for their preferred party despite the fact that it has been involved in a corruption scandal. Developing a theory of supply (number...... of effective parties) and demand (voters must have acceptable ideological alternatives to their preferred party), we posit that there is a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of corruption voting and where voters place themselves on the left/right spectrum. The further to the fringes, the more likely...

  4. Assessment of an electronic voting system within the tutorial setting: A randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN54535861

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Young Neville J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic voting systems have been used in various educational settings with little measurement of the educational impact on students. The goal of this study was to measure the effects of the inclusion of an electronic voting system within a small group tutorial. Method A prospective randomised controlled trial was run at the Royal Adelaide Hospital, a teaching hospital in Adelaide, Australia. 102 students in their first clinical year of medical school participated in the study where an electronic voting system was introduced as a teaching aid into a standard tutorial. Long-term retention of knowledge and understanding of the topics discussed in the tutorials was measured and student response to the introduction of the electronic voting system was assessed. Results Students using the electronic voting system had improved long-term retention of understanding of material taught in the tutorial. Students had a positive response to the use of this teaching aid. Conclusion Electronic voting systems can provide a stimulating learning environment for students and in a small group tutorial may improve educational outcomes.

  5. Enhancing E-Voting Systems By Leveraging Biometric Key Generation (Bkg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Ossai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of e-voting methods in electioneering processes will effectively reduce cost as well as enhance election activities. What makes an e-voting model reliable and acceptable is its ability to properly authenticate voters and provide a secure means through which a voter can express his/her franchise. This paper therefore proposes a design of an e-voting system that leverages a Biometric Encryption scheme known as Biometric key Generation (BKG which is a secured strategy that entails using of biometrics to generate secure cryptographic keys. The main objective of this research is to improve on the already existing E-voting systems adopting a secured bio-cryptographic technique vis Biometric key Generation (BKG as well as using a secure transmission channel for confidential datasets of a voting process. This work develops a simulation model of an E-voting system which adopts relevant algorithms with emphasis on biometric key generation schemes. The simulation of a prototype model of the electronic voting system is developed using Proteus 7.6 application software. The prototype model would consist of electronic kiosk polling booths that are all networked to the state electoral collection center and collection centers that are networked to the national electoral collection center via a VPN backbone. The proposed e-voting system uses a Virtual Private Network (VPN as the means of communication between the various polling booths and collection points. The results of validation show that the proposed model facilitates the adoption of E-governance in the developing countries.

  6. Increasing Interactivity in Lectures Using an Electronic Voting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, S. W.; Brown, M. I.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the experience of the opening two years of an institution-wide project in introducing electronic voting equipment for lectures is presented. Eight different departments and a wide range of group size (up to 300) saw some use. An important aspect of this is the organizational one of addressing the whole institution, rather than a…

  7. Towards a Fraud Prevention E-Voting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Hazem El-Gendy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Election falsification is one of the biggest problems facing third world countries as well as developed countries with respect to cost and time. In this paper, the guidelines for building a legally binding fraud-proof Electronic-Voting are presented. Also, the limitations are discussed.

  8. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ELCTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM USING FINGER PRINT AND ZIG-BEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRISHNA CHAITANYA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days voting process is exercised by using EVM (Electronic voting Machine. The very common problem, rigging which can be faced in every electoral procedure. One candidate can cast the vote of all members or of some other members in electoral list illegally. This results in the loss of votes for other contestants. There is some scope of work in EVM, because there is no way of identification by EVM whether the user is authentic or not. To replace this system, a novel approach is introduced i.e.., EVM added with a finger print verifier. By this way, a single person can vote only once and also bogus voting is eliminated since it is impossible to replicate the finger print of a person. In this paper, Zig-Bee technology is used for wireless sensor data communication. The results will be updated in Master device i.e. (personal computer through Zig-Bee.The Master device is operated by election officer.

  9. Push button parliament–why India needs a non-partisan, recorded vote system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaka Patil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Decisions of national importance are made by Parliamentary voting. Yet Indian Members of Parliament (MPs vote with a remarkable lack of freedom and accountability. The introduction of the Tenth Schedule in the Constitution has crippled free expression, since it provides that MPs voting against ‘any direction’ of their Party are liable to disqualification from the legislature In addition, except for Constitutional amendments, Indian Parliamentary Procedure Rules do not require votes of MPs to be recorded unless the Speaker’s decision is contested in the House. The result is that voting in the House has become mechanical, controlled by Party politics and devoid of responsibility. This paper comments on a general theory of democratic accountability through the lens of Parliamentary voting. It suggests that the voting system adopted in the Parliament is an effective indicator to measure the level of accountability of its Members. In the context of India, this paper argues that the level of accountability will increase to a desirable extent only when there is adoption of a recorded system for every important House vote. Upon examination of India’s record thus far (through the sample of the 14th Lok Sabha it becomes evident that the level of divisions (recorded votes is substantially lower than other countries. This leads the paper to probe, as to why that might be the case. Part II of the paper answers that question by examining the Tenth Schedule of the Constitution. The paper scrutinizes the disproportionate influence of the Party in decision making in the Parliament. Apart from dealing with the inherent problem of the Tenth Schedule, this paper suggests two procedural changes to make parliamentary expression more meaningful. Firstly, the recording of all important votes within the Parliament and secondly, registering Party whips with the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs so that the voter knows the clear stand of every Parliamentary

  10. Push button parliament–why India needs a non-partisan, recorded vote system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaka Patil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Decisions of national importance are made by Parliamentary voting. Yet Indian Members of Parliament (MPs vote with a remarkable lack of freedom and accountability. The introduction of the Tenth Schedule in the Constitution has crippled free expression, since it provides that MPs voting against ‘any direction’ of their Party are liable to disqualification from the legislature  In addition, except for Constitutional amendments, Indian Parliamentary Procedure Rules do not require votes of MPs to be recorded unless the Speaker’s decision is contested in the House. The result is that voting in the House has become mechanical, controlled by Party politics and devoid of responsibility. This paper comments on a general theory of democratic accountability through the lens of Parliamentary voting. It suggests that the voting system adopted in the Parliament is an effective indicator to measure the level of accountability of its Members. In the context of India, this paper argues that the level of accountability will increase to a desirable extent only when there is adoption of a recorded system for every important House vote. Upon examination of India’s record thus far (through the sample of the 14th Lok Sabha it becomes evident that the level of divisions (recorded votes is substantially lower than other countries. This leads the paper to probe, as to why that might be the case. Part II of the paper answers that question by examining the Tenth Schedule of the Constitution. The paper scrutinizes the disproportionate influence of the Party in decision making in the Parliament. Apart from dealing with the inherent problem of the Tenth Schedule, this paper suggests two procedural changes to make parliamentary expression more meaningful. Firstly, the recording of all important votes within the Parliament and secondly, registering Party whips with the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs so that the voter knows the clear stand of every Parliamentary

  11. Electronic voting systems for defending free will and resisting bribery and coercion based on ring anonymous signcryption scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vote by ballot is the feature in a democratic society and the process of decision-making, tending to achieve the philosophy of democratic politics by having the public who are eligible to vote for competent candidates or leaders. With the rapid development of technologies and network applications, electronization has been actively promoted globally during the social transformation period that the concept of electronic voting is further derived. The major advantages of electronic voting, comparing with traditional voting, lie in the mobility strength of electronic voting, reducing a large amount of election costs and enhancing the convenience for the public. Electronic voting allows voters completing voting on the Internet that not only are climate and location restrictions overcome, but the voter turnout is also increased and the voting time is reduced for the public. With the development in the past three decades, electronic voting presents outstanding performance theoretically and practically. Nevertheless, it is regrettable that electronic voting schemes still cannot be completely open because of lures by money and threats. People to lure by money and threats would confirm the voters following their instructions through various methods that more factors would appear on election results, affecting the quality and fairness of the election. In this study, this project aims to design an electronic voting scheme which could actually defend voters’ free will so that lure of money and threats would fail. Furthermore, an electronic voting system based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography is proposed to ensure the efficiency and security, and Ring Signature and Signcryption are applied to reducing the computing costs. Moreover, this project also focuses on applying voting system to mobile devices. As the system efficiency and security are emphasized, voters do not need to participate in the election, but simply complete voting with smart phones, i

  12. Voting in the European Union: The square root system of Penrose and a critical point

    OpenAIRE

    Zyczkowski, Karol; Slomczynski, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    The notion of the voting power is illustrated by examples of the systems of voting in the European Council according to the Treaty of Nice and the more recent proposition of the European Convent. We show that both systems are not representative, in a sense that citizens of different countries have not the same influence for the decision taken by the Council. We present a compromise solution based on the law of Penrose, which states that the weights for each country should be proportional to t...

  13. Design and implementation of I2Vote--an interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooijen, P M A; Broekema, A; Oudkerk, M

    2011-08-01

    To develop, implement and test a novel audience response system (ARS) that allows image based interaction for radiology education. The ARS developed in this project is based on standard Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) (HP iPAQ 114 classic handheld) running Microsoft® Windows Mobile® 6 Classic with a large 3.5 in. TFT touch screen (320×240 pixel resolution), high luminance and integrated IEEE 802.11b/g wireless. For software development Visual Studio 2008 professional (Microsoft) was used and all components were written in C#. Two test sessions were conducted to test the software technically followed by two real classroom tests in a radiology class for medical students on thoracic radiology. The novel ARS, called I2Vote, was successfully implemented and provided an easy to use, stable setup. The acceptance of both students and teachers was very high and the interaction with the students improved because of the anonymous interaction possibility. An easy to use handheld based ARS that enables interactive, image-based, teaching is achieved. The system effectively adds an extra dimension to the use of an ARS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Voting Contagion

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Social influence plays an important role in human behavior and decisions. The sources of influence can be generally divided into external, which are independent of social context, or as originating from peers, such as family and friends. An important question is how to disentangle the social contagion by peers from external influences. While a variety of experimental and observational studies provided insight into this problem, identifying the extent of social contagion based on large-scale observational data with an unknown network structure remains largely unexplored. By bridging the gap between the large-scale complex systems perspective of collective human dynamics and the detailed approach of the social sciences, we present a parsimonious model of social influence, and apply it to a central topic in political science -- elections and voting behavior. We provide an analytical expression of the county vote-share distribution in a two party system, which is in excellent agreement with 92 years of observed U...

  15. Impact of Electronic Voting Machines on Blank Votes and Null Votes in Brazilian Elections in 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Nicolau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting machines were used for the first time in general elections in Brazil in 1998; in that year, some cities used this new voting method, while others continued to vote using paper ballots. Few studies have demonstrated that the rate of invalid votes for federal deputy was significantly lower in cities that used electronic voting machines. This article analyzes the frequency of null votes and blank votes for four posts—federal deputy, state deputy, the president and governor. Based on a comparison of the results from the 1998 elections with the results from previous elections (1994, the article demonstrates that electronic voting machines reduced the percentage of blank votes for federal deputy, state deputies, the president and governor. Meanwhile, null votes reduced the competition for the posts of federal deputy and state deputy; however, it increased the competition for posts with greater visibility in the Brazilian political system: the governor and president.

  16. 76 FR 1559 - Guidelines for the Use of Electronic Voting Systems in Union Officer Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... stations, terminals, or kiosks that are set up in a securable location or locations. Voters must come to a... democratic self-government.'' Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 (1969... guidelines? 2. Describe the potential advantages and disadvantages of electronic voting systems in union...

  17. Happy Zapping in the Classroom: Enhancing Teaching and Learning with Electronic Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, David

    2010-01-01

    The use of electronic voting systems (EVS) in teaching at all levels is increasing as the technology becomes cheaper and easier to use. Although many educators initially take a cynical view of the educational value of such technology, many of those who use EVS express a very positive view of their experiences. This article aims to share these…

  18. Happy Zapping in the Classroom: Enhancing Teaching and Learning with Electronic Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, David

    2010-01-01

    The use of electronic voting systems (EVS) in teaching at all levels is increasing as the technology becomes cheaper and easier to use. Although many educators initially take a cynical view of the educational value of such technology, many of those who use EVS express a very positive view of their experiences. This article aims to share these…

  19. The Association between Students' Use of an Electronic Voting System and their Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G. E.; Cutts, Q. I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of an electronic voting system (EVS) in a first-year computing science subject. Previous investigations suggest that students' use of an EVS would be positively associated with their learning outcomes. However, no research has established this relationship empirically. This study sought to establish whether there was…

  20. Development of a body motion interactive system with a weight voting mechanism and computer vision technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chern-Sheng; Chen, Chia-Tse; Shei, Hung-Jung; Lay, Yun-Long; Chiu, Chuang-Chien

    2012-09-01

    This study develops a body motion interactive system with computer vision technology. This application combines interactive games, art performing, and exercise training system. Multiple image processing and computer vision technologies are used in this study. The system can calculate the characteristics of an object color, and then perform color segmentation. When there is a wrong action judgment, the system will avoid the error with a weight voting mechanism, which can set the condition score and weight value for the action judgment, and choose the best action judgment from the weight voting mechanism. Finally, this study estimated the reliability of the system in order to make improvements. The results showed that, this method has good effect on accuracy and stability during operations of the human-machine interface of the sports training system.

  1. An e-voting system for Android Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes López García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos electorales que utilizan dispositivos electrónicos permiten a los votantes emitir su voto de forma electrónica. Dispositivos tales como las computadoras de escritorio, las máquinas de registro directo (DRE, tarjetas inteligentes, etc., junto con las redes privadas o el Internet han sido las herramientas principales para implementar sistemas electrónicos de votación. Años atrás, los dispositivos móviles no habían sido considerados debido a sus restricciones en almacenamiento y poco poder de procesamiento; sin embargo, en la actualidad, la tecnología en estos dispositivos ha evolucionado, y es posible implementar aplicaciones cada vez más completas, que consideran los servicios de seguridad como son la confidencialidad y la autenticación. En este artículo, un sistema de votación electrónica (e-voting es implementado para teléfonos inteligentes Android. El sistema está compuesto de tres entidades: Servidor de Autenticación (SA, Servidor de Votación (SV y el votante (V el cual se ejecuta en un teléfono inteligente Android. Dos mensajes de longitud corta son necesarios para generar una boleta electrónica entre el V y el SA. Con la finalidad de emitir el voto, la boleta es enviada en un mensaje más, del V al SV. Las funciones de emparejamiento bilineales son usadas para verificar las firmas contenidas en la boleta electrónica, la cual tiene una longitud corta, por tanto, el tiempo de transmisión es muy corto. Adicionalmente, considerando que las operaciones más costosas, como el emparejamiento bilineal, no son ejecutadas en el V, los resultados obtenidos de las pruebas muestran que el sistema de votación electrónica es muy eficiente.

  2. How Safe are “Safe” Seats? A Comparison of Voluntary and Compulsory Voting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Fry

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Many observers have expressed concern that low voter turnout reflects an acute shortcoming in democratic politics. One proposed remedy, making voting compulsory, has garnered increasing attention among academics over recent years. Our article focuses on some of the technical properties of compulsory voting rules (CVR while ignoring the philosophical debate over whether voting should be an obligation or a right. Using basic probability analysis, we compare a voluntary voting rule (VVR to a compulsory one. We show that, under certain conditions, an electoral seat or district can become safer – or less competitive – with the imposition of a CVR. We also discuss some political implications of our analysis. For example, when generalized to, say, the national political system, this result implies fewer competitive seats in a CVT compared to a VVR, everything else equal. We contend that, because fewer seats will be “in play” in a CVT, CVRs should exhibit lower turnover of seats. Also, political suppliers can be expected to more narrowly focus their attention – and resources – on this smaller set of competitive seats than we would expect unver a VVR.

  3. Who Votes by Mail?: A Dynamic Model of the Individual-Level Consequences of Voting-by-Mail Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berinsky, A J

    2001-01-01

    Election administrators and public officials often consider changes in electoral laws, hoping that these changes will increase voter turnout and make the electorate more reflective of the voting-age population. The most recent of these innovations is voting-by-mail (VBM), a procedure by which ballots are sent to an address for every registered voter. Over the last 2 decades, VBM has spread across the United States, unaccompanied by much empirical evaluation of its impact on either voter turnout or the stratification of the electorate. In this study, we fill this gap in our knowledge by assessing the impact of VBM in one state, Oregon. We carry out this assessment at the individual level, using data over a range of elections. We argue that VBM does increase voter turnout in the long run, primarily by making it easier for current voters to continue to participate, rather than by mobilizing nonvoters into the electorate. These effects, however, are not uniform across all groups in the electorate. Although VBM in Oregon does not exert any influence on the partisan composition of the electorate, VBM increases, rather than diminishes, the resource stratification of the electorate. Contrary to the expectations of many reformers, VBM advantages the resource-rich by keeping them in the electorate, and VBM does little to change the behavior of the resource-poor. In short, VBM increases turnout, but it does so without making the electorate more descriptively representative of the voting-age population.

  4. Chance in preferential voting systems - an unacceptable element in Irish electoral law

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, John; O Neill, Gerald

    1984-01-01

    The single transferable vote system of proportional representation as operated in elections to Dail Eireann is one of the most sophisticated electoral systems, maximising the capacity of the voter to determine the outcome of an election and allowing multi-dimensional representation of party political and other interests. Its most significant drawback is the fact that it retains an element of chance in certain circumstances, although this has been reduced to insignificance in the comparable el...

  5. Investigating the effects of majority voting on CAD systems: a LIDC case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrazza, Miguel; Kennedy, Brendan; Rasin, Alexander; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems can provide a second opinion for either identifying suspicious regions on a medical image or predicting the degree of malignancy for a detected suspicious region. To develop a predictive model, CAD systems are trained on low-level image features extracted from image data and the class labels acquired through radiologists' interpretations or a gold standard (e.g., a biopsy). While the opinion of an expert radiologist is still an estimate of the answer, the ground truth may be extremely expensive to acquire. In such cases, CAD systems are trained on input data that contains multiple expert opinions per case with the expectation that the aggregate of labels will closely approximate the ground truth. Using multiple labels to solve this problem has its own challenges because of the inherent label uncertainty introduced by the variability in the radiologists' interpretations. Most CAD systems use majority voting (e.g., average, mode) to handle label uncertainty. This paper investigates the effects that majority voting can have on a CAD system by classifying and analyzing different semantic characteristics supplied with the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset. Using a decision tree based iterative predictive model, we show that majority voting with labels that exhibit certain types of skewed distribution can have a significant negative impact on the performance of a CAD system; therefore, alternative strategies for label integration are required when handling multiple interpretations.

  6. The Normalization of Party Systems and Voting Behaviour in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    of the first multiparty elections. Theories about party system formation and strategic voter behaviour let suggest that the party system stabilises and nationalises after several elections. It is only with sufficient experience that political parties and voters have enough information to act strategically...... and to adjust their behaviour to the new electoral systems. A novel database on electoral results on the district level that I constructed allows me to test those hypotheses by measuring "party nationalisation" and "wasted votes" for the first time for Eastern Europe. Both indicators are calculated...

  7. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  8. Voting Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During his time as a state senator in Illinois, Barack Obama voted “Present” 129 times, a deliberate act of nonvoting that subsequently became an important campaign issue during the 2008 presidential elections. In this article, I examine the use of Present votes in the Illinois state senate. I find evidence that Present votes can largely be characterized as protest votes used as a legislative tool by the minority party. Incorporating information from Present votes into a Bayesian polytomous item-response model, I find that this information increases the efficiency of ideal point estimates by approximately 35%. There is little evidence of significant moderation by Obama when Present votes are accounted for, though my results suggest that Obama’s voting record may have moderated significantly before his subsequent election to the U.S. Senate. My results also suggest that because legislative nonvoting may occur for a variety of reasons, naive inclusion of nonvoting behavior into vote choice models may lead to biased results.

  9. A generalization of Paillier's public-key system with applications to electronic voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Jurik, Mads Johan; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2010-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Paillier's probabilistic public-key system, in which the expansion factor is reduced and which allows to adjust the block length of the scheme even after the public key has been fixed, without losing the homomorphic property. We show that the generalization is as se......We propose a generalization of Paillier's probabilistic public-key system, in which the expansion factor is reduced and which allows to adjust the block length of the scheme even after the public key has been fixed, without losing the homomorphic property. We show that the generalization...... is as secure as Paillier's original system and propose several ways to optimize implementations of both the generalized and the original scheme. We construct a threshold variant of the generalized scheme as well as zero-knowledge protocols to show that a given ciphertext encrypts one of a set of given...... schemes. We show how the basic scheme for a yes/no vote can be easily adapted to casting a vote for up to t out of L candidates. The same basic building blocks can also be adapted to provide receipt-free elections, under appropriate physical assumptions. The scheme for 1 out of L elections can...

  10. Decision Analysis for Multicandidate Voting Systems. Applications of Elementary Decision Analysis to Political Science. [and] An Application of Voting Theory to Congress. Applications of Decision Theory and Game Theory to American Politics. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 384 and 386.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Samuel, III; Enelow, James M.

    This document consists of two modules. The first studies a variety of multicandidate voting systems, including approval, Borda, and cumulative voting, using a model which takes account of a voter's intensity of preference for candidates. The voter's optimal strategy is investigated for each voting system using decision criteria under uncertainty…

  11. Innovative Way of Internet Voting - Secure On-line Vote - SOLV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Vermani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth in Information Technology, internet voting system has been evolved. This is a web based system that must provide high level of security. In this paper we have proposed Secure On-line Vote (SOLV, an internet voting system. SOLV gives voters a reliable and highly secure environment to cast their vote on web. This system ensures authentication of voters and guarantees the secrecy and integrity of each vote.

  12. Which Mixed-Member Proportional Electoral Formula Fits You Best? Assessing the Proportionality Principle of Positive Vote Transfer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-member proportional systems (MMP) are a family of electoral systems which combine district-based elections with a proportional seat allocation. Positive vote transfer systems belong to this family. This article explains why they might be better than their siblings, and examines under which ...

  13. Vote Buying

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We examine the consequences of vote buying, assuming this practice were allowed and free of stigma. Two parties competing in a binary election may purchase votes in a sequential bidding game via up-front binding payments and/or campaign promises (platforms) that are contingent upon the outcome of the election. We analyze the role of the parties' budget constraints and voter preferences. For instance, if only campaign promises are allowed, then the winning party depends not only on the relativ...

  14. The Normalization of Party Systems and Voting Behaviour in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Eastern European elections are regarded as outlying cases in international research. According to scholars, the reason for it lies in a low institutionalisation of political parties. In this article, I focus on the developments which occur in the institutionalisation of party systems in the course...... of the first multiparty elections. Theories about party system formation and strategic voter behaviour let suggest that the party system stabilises and nationalises after several elections. It is only with sufficient experience that political parties and voters have enough information to act strategically...... and to adjust their behaviour to the new electoral systems. A novel database on electoral results on the district level that I constructed allows me to test those hypotheses by measuring "party nationalisation" and "wasted votes" for the first time for Eastern Europe. Both indicators are calculated...

  15. Teacher Perceptions About the Electronic Voting System Used in Classroom Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Fidan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting system used in the study, primary and secondary schools (Elektroy - EOS use, and on the contributions of the educational environment using the system to investigate teachers' views. Case study used qualitative research methods. In this respect primary and secondary schools in the province of Bolu in Turkey, EOS opinion of the class that implements the different branches were 22 teachers, content analysis was conducted. To increase the interest and motivation of students to EOS result of the study course, the student assessment opportunities offered at the time and concluded that the competitive environment created. In this system, the uses of instructional materials have been identified mostly used as a measurement tool. Sorry did not see top-ranked students fail to hear them, the formation of a noisy environment, such as time consuming problems encountered in the implementation process have been identified.

  16. Modeling safety instrumented systems with MooN voting architectures addressing system reconfiguration for testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Echeverria, A.C., E-mail: alextorres74@yahoo.com.m [Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Martorell, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Cami de Vera sn, 4602 Valencia (Spain); Thompson, H.A. [Department of Automatic Control and System Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    This paper addresses the modeling of probability of dangerous failure on demand and spurious trip rate of safety instrumented systems that include MooN voting redundancies in their architecture. MooN systems are a special case of k-out-of-n systems. The first part of the article is devoted to the development of a time-dependent probability of dangerous failure on demand model with capability of handling MooN systems. The model is able to model explicitly common cause failure and diagnostic coverage, as well as different test frequencies and strategies. It includes quantification of both detected and undetected failures, and puts emphasis on the quantification of common cause failure to the system probability of dangerous failure on demand as an additional component. In order to be able to accommodate changes in testing strategies, special treatment is devoted to the analysis of system reconfiguration (including common cause failure) during test of one of its components, what is then included in the model. Another model for spurious trip rate is also analyzed and extended under the same methodology in order to empower it with similar capabilities. These two models are powerful enough, but at the same time simple, to be suitable for handling of dependability measures in multi-objective optimization of both system design and test strategies for safety instrumented systems. The level of modeling detail considered permits compliance with the requirements of the standard IEC 61508. The two models are applied to brief case studies to demonstrate their effectiveness. The results obtained demonstrated that the first model is adequate to quantify time-dependent PFD of MooN systems during different system states (i.e. full operation, test and repair) and different MooN configurations, which values are averaged to obtain the PFD{sub avg}. Also, it was demonstrated that the second model is adequate to quantify STR including spurious trips induced by internal component failure

  17. Digital Voting Systems and Communication in Classroom Lectures--An Empirical Study Based around Physics Teaching at Bachelor Level at Two Danish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the use of digital voting systems in large group teaching situations have often focused on the "non-anonymity" and control and testing functions that the technology provides. There has also been some interest in how students might use their votes tactically to gain "credits". By focusing on an empirical study of…

  18. An Application of time stamped proxy blind signature in e-voting

    OpenAIRE

    Suryakanta Panda; Santosh Kumar Sahu; Jagannath Mohapatra; Ramesh Kumar Mohapatra

    2013-01-01

    Voting is a way for a voter to make a decision or express an opinion or to choose a candidate. E-voting (Electronic Voting) refers to both the electronic means of casting a vote and the electronic means of counting and publishing that votes. The E - voting system has some specific advantages as compared to the traditional voting system. In this paper, a secure and efficient e-voting protocol is proposed which is based on the time stamped proxy blind signature.

  19. Embedded Based Electronic Voting Machine Using Password

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varkala Vinay,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Electronic voting machine plays a key role in elections. The Earlier EVM’S needs more man power, time and mislead the voting scenario due to influence of local people vote and after voting the other may vote only after the Password is set then the system gets ready to accept the polling. After completion of the polling we may make the system to reset .If the person is authenticated then the vote is issued and the polling process is done using buzzer system, else that denies the process. At every regular intervals of time the polled votes are recorded and give the count that how many votes are casted through LCD. This system gives an efficient way to conduct elections and display the results on the same day.

  20. Design and implementation of I2Vote-An interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Broekema, A.; Oudkerk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, implement and test a novel audience response system (ARS) that allows image based interaction for radiology education. Methods: The ARS developed in this project is based on standard Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) (HP iPAQ 114 classic handheld) running Microsoft (R) Windows

  1. Design and implementation of I2Vote-An interactive image-based voting system using windows mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Broekema, A.; Oudkerk, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, implement and test a novel audience response system (ARS) that allows image based interaction for radiology education. Methods: The ARS developed in this project is based on standard Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) (HP iPAQ 114 classic handheld) running Microsoft (R) Windows

  2. Global coordination: weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Erik Lane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to halt the depletion of global ecological capital, a number of different kinds of meetings between Governments of countries in the world has been scheduled. The need for global coordination of environmental policies has become ever more obvious, supported by more and more evidence of the running down of ecological capital. But there are no formal or binding arrangements in sight, as global environmental coordination suffers from high transaction costs (qualitative voting. The CO2 equivalent emissions, resulting in global warming, are driven by the unstoppable economic expansion in the global market economy, employing mainly fossil fuel generated energy, although at the same time lifting sharply the GDP per capita of several emerging countries. Only global environmental coordination on the successful model of the World Band and the IMF (quantitative voting can stem the rising emissions numbers and stop further environmental degradation. However, the system of weighted voting in the WB and the IMF must be reformed by reducing the excessive voting power disparities, for instance by reducing all member country votes by the cube root expression.

  3. Optimistic Voting for Managing Replicated Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林怀忠; 陈纯

    2002-01-01

    An epidemic model gives an efficient approach for transaction processing ofreplication systems in weakly connected environments. The approach has the advantages ofhigh adaptation, support for low-bandwidth network, and committing updates in an entirelydecentralized control fashion. But the previous implementing protocols, like ROWA protocol,quorum protocol, and voting protocol, have a common shortcoming that they are pessimisticin conflict reconciliation, therefore bring high transaction abort rate and reduce system perfor-mance dramatically when the workload scales up. In this paper, an optimistic voting protocol,which introduces condition vote and order vote in the voting process of transactions, is pro-posed. The condition vote and order vote postpone the final decision on conflicting transactionsand avoid transaction aborts that are incurred by read-write and write-write conflicts. Exper-imental results indicate that the optimistic voting protocol decreases abort rate and improvesaverage response time of transactions markedly when compared to other protocols.

  4. Sincere Voting with Cardinal Preferences: Approval Voting

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester, Miguel Angel; Rey-Biel, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    We discuss sincere voting when voters have cardinal preferences over alter- natives. We interpret sincerity as opposed to strategic voting, and thus define sincerity as the optimal behaviour when conditions to vote strategically vanish. When voting mechanisms allow for only one message type we show that this op- timal behaviour coincides with an intuitive and common definition of sincerity. For voting mechanisms allowing for multiple message types, such as approval vot- ing (AV), there exists...

  5. Electoral Systems and the Influence of the Median Voter: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from popular and parliamentary votes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    When moving from a plurality rule to a proportional system, members of national parliament have more incentives to diverge from the median voter's preferences. We match voting behavior concerning legislative proposals of Swiss members of parliament with real referenda outcomes on the same issues for the years 1996 to 2009. This quasi-experimental data allows us to identify whether differences in electoral systems induce members of parliament to diverge from the choices of the median voter. Em...

  6. The Risks of Electronic Voting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallach, Dan (Rice University)

    2004-08-18

    Recent election problems have sparked great interest in managing the election process through the use of electronic voting systems. While computer scientists, for the most part, have been warning of the perils of such action, vendors have forged ahead with their products, claiming increased security and reliability. Many municipalities have adopted electronic systems, and the number of deployed systems is rising. For these new computerized voting systems, neither source code nor the results of any third-party certification analyses have been available for the general population to study, because vendors claim that secrecy is a necessary requirement to keep their systems secure. Recently, however, the source code for a voting system from Diebold, a major manufacturer, appeared on the Internet. Diebold's systems were used in Georgia's state-wide elections in 2002, and the company recently announced that the state of Maryland awarded them an order for about $55 million to deliver touch-screen voting systems. This unique opportunity for independent scientific analysis of voting system source code demonstrates the fallacy of the closed-source argument for such a critical system. Our analysis shows that this voting system is far below even the most minimal security standards applicable in other contexts. We highlight several issues including unauthorized privilege escalation, incorrect use of cryptography, vulnerabilities to network threats, and poor software development processes. For example, common voters, without any insider privileges, can cast unlimited votes without being detected by any mechanisms within the voting terminal. Furthermore, we show that even the most serious of our outsider attacks could have been discovered without the source code. In the face of such attacks, the usual worries about insider threats are not the only concerns; outsiders can do the damage. That said, we demonstrate that the insider threat is also quite considerable. We

  7. CREATION A MATHEMATICAL MODEL, THAT PROVIDES A SUFFICIENT LEVEL OF ANONYMITY IN E-VOTING SYSTEM WITH THE INTEGRITY AND PRIVACY OF TRANSMITTED DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugryumov D. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an analytical review of existing methods to ensure anonymity, the study of the system architecture of the electronic voting, and presented the author’s idea to improve the client's anonymity in such systems. The result is a mathematical model, that provides a sufficient level of anonymity in electronic voting system to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of transmitted data

  8. The Design and Development of Real-Time E-Voting System in Nigeria with Emphasis on Security and Result Veracity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi’í Muhammad Abdulhamid

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Elections are believed to be the key pillars of democracy and voting is one of the electoral processes that ensure the sustenance of democracy in any civil society. In this paper, we developed an electronic voting system, which will eliminate rigging and manipulation of results to its barest minimum, this problem is mostly associated with the manual system of voting. The implementation of electronic voting system in Nigeria will boost the integrity of INEC and the result they produce. The programs used to develop this system are PHP, MySQL, Java Query, CSS and HTML. These packages make the Graphic Interface User friendly enough for even those with little or no computer knowledge.

  9. Secure Biometric E-Voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Taha Kh.; Aborizka, Mohamed

    The implementation of the e-voting becomes more substantial with the rapid increase of e-government development. The recent growth in communications and cryptographic techniques facilitate the implementation of e-voting. Many countries introduced e-voting systems; unfortunately most of these systems are not fully functional. In this paper we will present an e-voting scheme that covers most of the e-voting requirements, smart card and biometric recognition technology were implemented to guarantee voter's privacy and authentication.

  10. Parameterized Control Complexity in Fallback Voting

    CERN Document Server

    Erdélyi, Gábor

    2010-01-01

    We study the parameterized control complexity of fallback voting, a voting system that combines preference-based with approval voting. Electoral control is one of many different ways for an external agent to tamper with the outcome of an election. We show that adding and deleting candidates in fallback voting are W[2]-hard for both the constructive and destructive case, parameterized by the amount of action taken by the external agent. Furthermore, we show that adding and deleting voters in fallback voting are W[2]-hard for the constructive case, parameterized by the amount of action taken by the external agent, and are in FPT for the destructive case.

  11. The Computer Ate My Vote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter Y. A.

    Public confidence in voting technologies has been badly shaken over the past years by, amongst other events, the problems with the 2000 and 2004 US presidential elections and the 2007 French presidential election. Serious vulnerabilities have been exposed and documented in all the existing electronic voting systems. Many of these systems use proprietary, protected code and the voters and election officials are expected to take assurances of the suppliers and certifiers on trust.

  12. Challenges of Electronic Voting - A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Ebrahim Elewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Voting (e-Voting is the most important application in e-Government and e-Democracy. Thanks to the rapid growth in the use of computers and advances in cryptography, it is a serious push for e-Voting because many people already have access to the Internet. e-Voting can be the fastest, cheapest, and most effective way to administer the election, count the votes, and report the results. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the major challenges facing e-Voting systems, introduce different ideas to face those challenge from different countries, and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of those ideas. Each of the challenges presented in this paper must be taken into account in crafting a legal framework for e-Voting to prevent harm before balloting is concluded.

  13. How devices transform voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; van der Hof, Simone; Groothuis, Marga M.

    2011-01-01

    Several European countries have been involved in the implementation of electronic forms of voting in elections. This may include electronic voting machines at polling stations, Internet voting, or both. In the former, the registration and counting of the votes is done electronically, but

  14. How devices transform voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Hof, van der Simone; Groothuis, Marga M.

    2010-01-01

    Several European countries have been involved in the implementation of electronic forms of voting in elections. This may include electronic voting machines at polling stations, Internet voting, or both. In the former, the registration and counting of the votes is done electronically, but authenticat

  15. 基于蓝牙技术的手机投票系统%Mobile Voting System Based on Bluetooth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 郑晓静

    2013-01-01

    This report describes how to develop a mobile voting system based on Bluetooth technology. The voting system runs on PC platform, which is treated as server;and cellular phones, which are treated as client. The work has been focused mainly on Bluetooth protocol used in exchanging data between server and client. During the development, Netbeans IDE with mobility pack is used to create J2ME application. Sun wireless toolkit 2.0 is the best option as build tools and device emulator. A detailed explanation on architecture of this project is discussed including the system structure, communication handler, question syntax, etc. The demonstration platform for this voting system was Compaq nx8220 laptop, Sony-Ericsson W810i and Nokia 6630 mo?bile device.%该文描述了一种基于蓝牙技术的手机投票系统设计方案.整个投票系统分为服务器端和客户端并利用蓝牙进行数据传输.手机作为客户端用于发送投票信息;计算机作为服务器端用于接收客户端发送的投票结果.该文详细介绍了整个系统的设计结构及实现方法,以NetBeans IDE作为JAVA开发环境.该投票系统的测试平台是Compaq nx8220计算机, Sony-Ericsson W810i手机和Nokia 6630手机.

  16. A Practical Electronic Voting System Based on Digital Signature%一种基于数字签名的实用电子投票系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞波; 陈建平; 顾翔

    2012-01-01

    电子投票系统的研究与设计正逐渐成为信息安全领域的研究热点.本文通过研究三种典型电子投票模型,针对选票碰撞、中途退出和作弊现象等关键问题,提出一种新的电子投票系统,系统设计基于RSA、盲签名、比特承诺等技术,采用数字签名和临时id方案.研究表明,该系统可以较好地解决电子投票系统中的若干关键问题,是一种实用和安全的电子投票系统.%The design of an electronic voting system has been a hot research topic in the area of information security. This paper investigates three typical electronic voting models and presents a new electronic voting system. The system is designed using the techniques of RSA> blind signature, bit commitment, and temporary id. It can solve the key problems of an electronic voting system, which is proved a practical and reliable electronic voting system.

  17. Providing a Distance Bounding Protocol Named Pasargad in order to Defend against Relay Attacks on RFID-Based Electronic Voting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arjmand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important characteristic of RFID-based electronic voting system compared to traditional votingsystem is that votes in the electronic system are as contactless smart cards in place of paper ballots. Forcasting ballots, voters use a computer terminal to write their choices (their chosen candidates intocontactless smart cards and then put the smart card inside the box. The most important threat forRFIDsystems is information robbery and relay attacks. In this article, by designing a protocol calledDistance Bounding Protocol it is tried to defend these systems against relay attacks.

  18. Architecture of COOPTO Remote Voting Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silhavy, Radek; Silhavy, Petr; Prokopova, Zdenka

    This contribution focuses on investigation of remote electronic voting system, named COOPTO. Researching of suitability of electronic voting solution is forced by necessity of the improvement election process. The COOPTO is based on topical investigation of voting process and their implementation of using modern information and communication technology. The COOPTO allows voters, who are not in their election district, to participate in the democracy process. The aim of this contribution is to describe results of the development of the COOPTO solutions.

  19. Network-Based Voting System—Evaluation and Optimization of CCMVS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢; 唐竞新

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to a novel voting system,the Network-based Voting System (NVS). The system design is based on the careful analysis and evaluation of a traditional voting system, the computer controlled and managed voting system. The new system integrates technologies such as image processing, networking and databases to enhance three aspects of system performance:

  20. System-level protection and hardware Trojan detection using weighted voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany A.M. Amin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of hardware Trojans is becoming more serious especially with the widespread of fabless design houses and design reuse. Hardware Trojans can be embedded on chip during manufacturing or in third party intellectual property cores (IPs during the design process. Recent research is performed to detect Trojans embedded at manufacturing time by comparing the suspected chip with a golden chip that is fully trusted. However, Trojan detection in third party IP cores is more challenging than other logic modules especially that there is no golden chip. This paper proposes a new methodology to detect/prevent hardware Trojans in third party IP cores. The method works by gradually building trust in suspected IP cores by comparing the outputs of different untrusted implementations of the same IP core. Simulation results show that our method achieves higher probability of Trojan detection over a naive implementation of simple voting on the output of different IP cores. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed method requires less hardware overhead when compared with a simple voting technique achieving the same degree of security.

  1. System-level protection and hardware Trojan detection using weighted voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hany A M; Alkabani, Yousra; Selim, Gamal M I

    2014-07-01

    The problem of hardware Trojans is becoming more serious especially with the widespread of fabless design houses and design reuse. Hardware Trojans can be embedded on chip during manufacturing or in third party intellectual property cores (IPs) during the design process. Recent research is performed to detect Trojans embedded at manufacturing time by comparing the suspected chip with a golden chip that is fully trusted. However, Trojan detection in third party IP cores is more challenging than other logic modules especially that there is no golden chip. This paper proposes a new methodology to detect/prevent hardware Trojans in third party IP cores. The method works by gradually building trust in suspected IP cores by comparing the outputs of different untrusted implementations of the same IP core. Simulation results show that our method achieves higher probability of Trojan detection over a naive implementation of simple voting on the output of different IP cores. In addition, experimental results show that the proposed method requires less hardware overhead when compared with a simple voting technique achieving the same degree of security.

  2. Application of Biometrics in Mobile Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Gentles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Voting process in today’s era is behind its time in respect of the usage of modern ICT. The voting process is being seen mostly as a manual and paper based one. This process can be overwhelming, time-consuming and prone to security breaches and electoral fraud. Over the years technology related systems were being developed to resolve some of the issues like electoral fraud, impersonation, double voting etc. One such system is Electronic based voting that has been actively used for voting in countries like India. However, these systems seem to be prone to electoral frauds and voters have to make tremendous effort to cast their ballots. There are still a few very important areas which have to be identified and addressed viz., the Security which involves a person be able to vote in a secure manner, the time spent for voting by voters, the efficiency in counting of votes and the cost involved in employing people towards monitoring the voting process. So taking these areas/issues into consideration we have now come with the biometrics authenticated mobile voting system, to start with for a country like Jamaica. The technology being proposed now is novel and the first of its kind proposed at present. It is proposed that using fingerprint supported biometric control information and encryption along with Secure Socket Layer i.e. SSL using VeriSign, would make the software involved in the voting process well secured. In addition tying the credentials to a mobile device will make the system even more robust. We have considered the mobile equipment for the present system development, a smart phone using Android 3.0 (Honeycomb. The details of the proposed development are presented in this paper.

  3. Simple and Secure Electronic Voting with Pret a Voter

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous, Unspecified

    2008-01-01

    Pr^et a Voter is an electronic voting system with very high security properties. We aim to make the system truly usable and applicable in elections with many races and candidates by allowing the vote to be formed using a voting machine and printing a minimalistic receipt. We also introduce the procedure/technology mix concept to describe the use of procedures, peo- ple and technology to secure electronic voting systems.

  4. The Use of Electronic Voting Systems in Lectures within Business and Marketing: A Case Study of Their Impact on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masikunas, George; Panayiotidis, Andreas; Burke, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the impact on student learning of introducing an electronic voting system (EVS) into large-group lectures for first-year undergraduate students undertaking degrees in marketing and business systems. We discuss the potential for using EVS-style interactive lectures in marketing and business programmes. We then…

  5. Question: Who Can Vote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  6. Party brands and voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigge Winther; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    the question: Do party brands influence voting behavior? Currently, we do not know because the two research fields of voting behavior and party brands are currently not explicitly linked. Traditionally, the study of voting behavior has gained powerful insights from concepts such as cleavage structure, party...

  7. Verifiability of electronic voting: between confidence and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Gutwirth, Serge; Poullet, Yves; De Hert, Paul

    2010-01-01

    When computing scientists speak about electronic voting, it is often in terms of trust. But there are two contradictory statements. First, they argue that it should not be necessary to trust e-voting systems, which would be the case if they are provably secure. Second, for an e-voting system to be s

  8. Bucklin Voting is Broadly Resistant to Control

    CERN Document Server

    Erdélyi, Gábor; Rothe, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Electoral control models ways of changing the outcome of an election via such actions as adding/deleting/partitioning either candidates or voters. These actions modify an election's participation structure and aim at either making a favorite candidate win ("constructive control") or prevent a despised candidate from winning ("destructive control"), which yields a total of 22 standard control scenarios. To protect elections from such control attempts, computational complexity has been used to show that electoral control, though not impossible, is computationally prohibitive. Among natural voting systems with a polynomial-time winner problem, the two systems with the highest number of proven resistances to control types (namely 19 out of 22) are "sincere-strategy preference-based approval voting" (SP-AV, a modification of a system proposed by Brams and Sanver) and fallback voting. Both are hybrid systems; e.g., fallback voting combines approval with Bucklin voting. In this paper, we study the control complexity...

  9. Transparency in Parliamentary Voting

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We use a change in the voting procedures of one of the two chambers of the Swiss parliament to explore how transparency affects the voting behavior of its members. Until 2013, the Council of States (Ständerat) had voted by a show of hands. While publicly observable at the time of the vote, legislators’ decisions could only be verified ex post through the time-consuming screening of online videos. In 2014, halfway through the legislative period, the chamber switched to electronic voting. Since...

  10. An Application of time stamped proxy blind signature in e-voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryakanta Panda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Voting is a way for a voter to make a decision or express an opinion or to choose a candidate. E-voting (Electronic Voting refers to both the electronic means of casting a vote and the electronic means of counting and publishing that votes. The E - voting system has some specific advantages as compared to the traditional voting system. In this paper, a secure and efficient e-voting protocol is proposed which is based on the time stamped proxy blind signature.

  11. Anchoring Bias in Online Voting

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Voting online with explicit ratings could largely reflect people's preferences and objects' qualities, but ratings are always irrational, because they may be affected by many unpredictable factors like mood, weather, as well as other people's votes. By analyzing two real systems, this paper reveals a systematic bias embedding in the individual decision-making processes, namely people tend to give a low rating after a low rating, as well as a high rating following a high rating. This so-called \\emph{anchoring bias} is validated via extensive comparisons with null models, and numerically speaking, the extent of bias decays with interval voting number in a logarithmic form. Our findings could be applied in the design of recommender systems and considered as important complementary materials to previous knowledge about anchoring effects on financial trades, performance judgements, auctions, and so on.

  12. Supplementary vote; analysis, applications, and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    The Supplementary Vote (SV) was invented as a compromise between the two-round runoff system and the alternative vote. This paper shows that in many ways it is not. Under SV voters rank order a limited number of candidates. If one candidate is supported by over 50% of the voters he/she is declared

  13. Party brands and voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigge Winther; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars argue that Western societies have seen a decreasing impact of voting behavior based on cleavages and party identifications. Equally, issue ownership voting is seemingly not increasing its relevance by filling this gap. From this departure we seek out an alternative variable by posing...... the question: Do party brands influence voting behavior? Currently, we do not know because the two research fields of voting behavior and party brands are currently not explicitly linked. Traditionally, the study of voting behavior has gained powerful insights from concepts such as cleavage structure, party...... heuristics and voting models. Next, the article measures the brand value of Danish parties by utilizing a representative association analysis. Finally, this measure is used to conduct the very first empirical analysis of a party brand's effect on voting behavior. Overall, the primary finding demonstrates...

  14. 试析我国股东网络投票制度的完善%Probing the Perfection of Shareholders' Network Voting System in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    长江

    2009-01-01

    Under the background of world internet information technology developped highly, many coun-tries have started to carry out shareholders' network voting system, to reduce the cost of the re-quest--proxy for the shareholders using their voting right, to overcome "the rational indifference" of the small shareholders' view to the voting right, to balance the major stockholders' control to company in some extent, and then to perfect the voting mechanism of the general meeting of shareholders. In our country, this system is still at the preliminary developping phase and is imperfect, which needs the ex-ploration in practice and the summary in theory.%在世界网络信息技术高度发展的背景下,许多国家纷纷开始推行上市公司股东网络投票表决制度,以期能够降低股东表决权行使的委托--代理成本,克服小股东对于投票权的"理性冷漠",一定程度上制衡大股东对公司的操控,进而完善上市公司股东大会表决机制.在我国,该制度尚处于初步发展阶段,且不完善,需要实践探索和理论总结.

  15. ETHICS AND ELECTRONIC VOTING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    13 pages; International audience; In the first part, we will define the main properties of a democratic election, providing a typology of electronic devices and give a view on some legal documents pertaining to the matter. In the second part, the ethics of voting will be evaluated: our methodology is detailed, followed by an examination of pure paper-based elections, paperless electronic voting and verifiable electronic voting. The new concept of legally operative transparency is defined and ...

  16. Distance voting (e-voting: the ways of its applicability in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Cosuleanu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the e-voting systems implementation experience in Europe (and the world and the necessity and possibility to implement the effective Out of Country Voting (OCV for Moldova. This paper is aimed also to start a discussion on different aspects of information system "Elections" to be built in Moldova.

  17. One Cow, One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    We study investment decisions in a farmers' cooperative. Farmers sell their products through the cooperative. Before production takes place the cooperative has to decide on an investment. We study whether voting on investment leads to efficient investment decisions. The answer depends on how the ...... the number of votes and the cost of the investment are distributed among the farmers. It is shown that in a variety of settings, there is no reason to suppose that voting rules favoring large farmers - "one cow, one vote" rules - are more efficient than simple majority rule...

  18. Development of a majority vote decision module for a self-diagnostic monitoring system for an air-operated valve system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Shin [Dept. of Information and Communication Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jang Bom [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Taek [Dept. of Information and Communication Engineering, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    A self-diagnostic monitoring system is a system that has the ability to measure various physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, or acceleration from sensors scattered over a mechanical system such as a power plant, in order to monitor its various states, and to make a decision about its health status. We have developed a self-diagnostic monitoring system for an air-operated valve system to be used in a nuclear power plant. In this study, we have tried to improve the self-diagnostic monitoring system to increase its reliability. We have implemented three different machine learning algorithms, i.e., logistic regression, an artificial neural network, and a support vector machine. After each algorithm performs the decision process independently, the decision-making module collects these individual decisions and makes a final decision using a majority vote scheme. With this, we performed some simulations and presented some of its results. The contribution of this study is that, by employing more robust and stable algorithms, each of the algorithms performs the recognition task more accurately. Moreover, by integrating these results and employing the majority vote scheme, we can make a definite decision, which makes the self-diagnostic monitoring system more reliable.

  19. Anonymity in voting revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter; Chaum, David; Jakobsson, Markus; Rivest, Ronald L.; Ryan, Peter Y.A.; Benaloh, Josh; Kutylowski, Miroslaw; Adida, Ben

    2010-01-01

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in

  20. Unconditionally Secure Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Akira; Imai, Hideki

    In this chapter, we will show how to achieve unconditional or information-theoretic security in electronic voting with the following property: 1 Even all voters and tallying authorities have unbounded computing power, the distorted integrity of the voting results can be detected and proved incorrect by every honest voter,

  1. Voting: a behavioral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Max; Visser, Max

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of voting for a party in an election has important social implications, yet, due to strong mentalistic influences in electoral research, it has rarely been studied from the behavior analytical perspective. In this article a behavioral analysis of voting is presented and a derived

  2. History of voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, Martin; Moghaddam, Fathali M.

    2017-01-01

    Voting is the act of declaring a choice among a number of alternative options in the process of reaching a group decision on a particular matter. In politics, this mostly concerns the selection of a person for a specific position, such as a mayor or a member of parliament. The right to vote in

  3. Disability and voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko

    2014-07-01

    For millions of people with disabilities in the United States, exercising the fundamental right to vote remains a challenge. Over the last few decades, the U.S. government has enacted several pieces of legislation to make voting accessible to individuals with disabilities. We examine trends in self-reported voting rates among people with and without disabilities to uncover evidence for the effects of these policies on political participation. We also explore what policy change is necessary to encourage people with disabilities to vote by investigating whether the participation rates vary by the types of disabilities. We analyze the Current Population Survey (CPS) data in the years of presidential elections for the period of 1980-2008. Our analysis shows that the population aged 18-64 with work-preventing disabilities has been persistently less likely to vote compared to the corresponding population without such disabilities. In addition, individuals with cognitive and mobility impairments have the lowest rates of electoral participation. The gap in the likelihood of voting in-person between people with and without disabilities is considerably larger than the gap in the likelihood of voting by-mail, regardless of the types of impairments that they have. The participation gap between people with and without disabilities did not decrease over the last three decades despite the presence of federal laws that aimed at removing barriers for voting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing Voters' Attitudes towards Electronic Voting in Latin America: Evidence from Colombia's 2007 E-Voting Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R. Michael; Katz, Gabriel; Llamosa, Ricardo; Martinez, Hugo E.

    Electronic voting could increase citizens’ electoral participation and trust in countries characterized by fragile democratic institutions and public discredit of the political system such as those in Latin America. This paper examines attitudes towards e-voting among participants in a large scale pilot project conducted in Colombia in 2007, focusing on the perceived reliability and usability of different automated voting technologies. Using a multivariate probit model, we determine the effect of socio-demographic, geographic and technical factors on users’ evaluations of electronic voting vis a vis the traditional paper ballot system. Our results show that users find e-voting not only easier than the current voting system, but also substantially more reliable. While voters’ opinions on usability are driven by technical issues, their trust in the new technologies is strongly affected by individual characteristics. We conclude that e-voting entails a promising opportunity to empower voters and increase confidence in elections in Colombia.

  5. The effect of Voting Advice Applications on political knowledge and vote choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje; Krouwel, Andre; Van de Pol, Jasper; De Vreese, Claes

    2015-01-01

    In many countries with multiparty systems, a decline in class voting has increased volatility and the need for comprehensive information about the political landscape among voters. Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are online tools that match users to political parties and, as such, they hold a prom

  6. The effect of voting advice applications on political knowledge and vote choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamoen, N.; Holleman, B.; Krouwel, A.; van de Pol, J.; de Vreese, C.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries with multiparty systems, a decline in class voting has increased volatility and the need for comprehensive information about the political landscape among voters. Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are online tools that match users to political parties and, as such, they hold a prom

  7. Achieving Learning Objectives through E-Voting Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Matt; Frincke, Deb

    2007-01-01

    The recent explosion in the use of electronic voting machines provides a wonderful opportunity to teach students about computer security. Because voting is the cornerstone of any democracy or republic, the need for secure voting systems is obvious. Further, students are familiar with how to vote. But the complexity of mapping a traditional process of voting using secret ballots to an electronic environment shows the difficulties of implementing secure processes and systems. In this article, we show a high level mapping from selected security and privacy education outcomes into a target ‘case study’ of developing electronic voting machines intended for traditional secret ballot elections. Our intent is to motivate both a set of lessons specifically involving e-voting, as well as illustrating the usefulness of having a mapping from outcomes to simplified case studies.

  8. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  9. Ensemble-based Malware Detection with Different Voting Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Jyoti H. Landage

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s computer security is the field which attempts to keep information on the computer safe and secure. Security means permitting things you do want, while preventing things you don’t want from happening. Malware represents a serious threat to security of computer system. Traditional anti-malware products use the signature-based, heuristic-based detection techniques to detect the malware. These techniques detect the known malware accurately but can’t detect the new, unknown malware. This paper presents a malware detection system based on the data mining and machine learning technique. The proposed method consists of disassemble process, feature extraction process and feature selection process. Three classification algorithms are employed on dataset to generate and train the classifiers named as Ripper, C4.5, IBk. The ensemble method Voting is used to improve the accuracy of results. Here majority voting and veto voting are implemented; the expected output is decided on the basis of majority and veto voting. The decision strategy of veto is improved by introducing the trust-based veto voting. The results of majority voting, veto voting and trust-based veto voting are compared. The experimental results show that the trust-based veto voting can accurately detect known and unknown malware instances better than majority voting and can identify the benign files better than veto voting.

  10. ENSEMBLE-BASED MALWARE DETECTION WITH DIFFERENT VOTING SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti H. Landage

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s computer security is the field which attempts to keep information on the computer safe and secure. Security means permitting things you do want, while preventing things you don't want from happening. Malware represents a serious threat to security of computer system. Traditional anti-malware products use the signature-based, heuristic-based detection techniques to detect the malware. These techniques detect the known malware accurately but can't detect the new, unknown malware. This paper presents a malware detection system based on the data mining and machine learning technique. The proposed method consists of disassemble process, feature extraction process and feature selection process. Three classification algorithms are employed on dataset to generate and train the classifiers named as Ripper, C4.5, IBk. The ensemble method Voting is used to improve the accuracy of results. Here majority voting and veto voting are implemented; the expected output is decided on the basis of majority and veto voting. The decision strategy of veto is improved by introducing the trust-based veto voting. The results of majority voting, veto voting and trust-based veto voting are compared. The experimental results show that the trust-based veto voting can accurately detect known and unknown malware instances better than majority voting and can identify the benign files better than veto voting.

  11. 基于认可度的投票管理系统的设计%Design of Voting Management System Based on Acceptability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许江东

    2011-01-01

    实现多候选人电子投票方案,解决投票中因群体人数失衡导致出现的结果偏向性,结合随机密码登陆机制,为采用投票选优的评价形式提供了公平、公正、安全、便捷的方案支持。%Achieved a multi-candidate electronic voting scheme and solved the voting process due to the imbalance between the numbers of voters led to the result of bias.A random password mechanism was used in this system.It provides a fair,just,safe and convenient scheme.

  12. Research on reliability and security of vote redundancy system%表决冗余系统可靠性与安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙怀义; 刘斌; 曹晓莉

    2011-01-01

    The vote redundancy design technology is a redundancy design technology extending with the development. It is does not need doubt to the reliable enhancement, but compares with the redundancy design technology, in the reliability and secure aspect which one is good and which one is bad, has not seen the correlation conclusion, even also has some misunderstandings. Therefore it is necessary to vote the redundancy very much systematic and the redundant system draws the accurate conclusion in reliable and the secure aspect relations. According to the research and the application experience, the judgment is proposed, that is the redundant system can enhance the reliability compared to the vote system, while the vote system can enhance the security compared to the redundant system. And from mathematical model of the vote redundant system and the redundant system the testify of the judgment is given by mathematics demonstration method. Combining with the examples, the simulation analysis to this judgment is also carried out.%表决冗余设计技术是冗余设计技术的延伸和拓展,对可靠性的提高是无庸置疑的,但与冗余设计技术相比,在可靠性与安全性方面孰优孰劣,未见有相关的定论,甚至于还有一些误解,因此很有必要对表决冗余系统与冗余系统在可靠性与安全性方面的关系作出确切的结论.作者根据自己的研究和应用经验,明确提出了冗余系统比表决系统更能提高系统的可靠性,而表决系统比冗余系统更能提高系统的安全性的论断,并从表决冗余系统和冗余系统的数学模型入手利用数学论证方法给出了关于可靠性论断的证明,并结合实例对该论断进行了仿真分析.

  13. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise......Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification...... implementations that closely correspond to their legal specification, thereby increasing trust....

  14. Control Complexity in Bucklin and Fallback Voting

    CERN Document Server

    Erdélyi, Gábor; Piras, Lena; Rothe, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Electoral control models ways of changing the outcome of an election via such actions as adding/deleting/partitioning either candidates or voters. These actions modify an election's participation structure and aim at either making a favorite candidate win ("constructive control") or prevent a despised candidate from winning ("destructive control"). To protect elections from such control attempts, computational complexity has been used to show that electoral control, though not impossible, is computationally prohibitive. We show that fallback voting, an election system proposed by Brams and Sanver to combine Bucklin with approval voting, is resistant to each of the common types of control except to destructive control by either adding or deleting voters. Thus fallback voting displays the broadest control resistance currently known to hold among natural election systems with a polynomial-time winner problem. We also study the control complexity of Bucklin voting itself and show that it behaves almost as good (p...

  15. Mobile Voting Systems for Creating Collaboration Environments and Getting Immediate Feedback: A New Curriculum Model of a University Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Svetlana; Talmo, Tord

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices can enhance learning and teaching by providing instant feedback and better diagnosis of learning problems, helping design new assessment models, enhancing learner autonomy and creating new formats of enquiry-based activities. The objective of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of mobile voting tools. The authors'…

  16. Mobile Voting Systems for Creating Collaboration Environments and Getting Immediate Feedback: A New Curriculum Model of a University Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Svetlana; Talmo, Tord

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices can enhance learning and teaching by providing instant feedback and better diagnosis of learning problems, helping design new assessment models, enhancing learner autonomy and creating new formats of enquiry-based activities. The objective of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of mobile voting tools. The authors'…

  17. Malware Detection with Different Voting Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Jyoti Landage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A common way of launching the attack in computer system is Malware. It has malicious intent of performing any kind of malicious action to computer system as a result entire system crashes. It comes in different forms like virus, Trojan , Spyware, Scareware, Adware etc. Traditional malware detection techniques viz. signature-based, Heuristic-based and Specification-based detection technique are unable to detect some form of malware and each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. A new methodology is proposed for malware detection that is based on data mining and machine learning techniques to detect known as well as unknown instances of malware. The new methodology uses disassemble process and three pre -processing techniques as part of feature extraction process to produce three different data sets with different configurations; feature selection technique is used to achieve consistent, reduced feature dataset. Three classification algorithms are used to gener ate and train the classifiers named as Ripper, C4.5 and IBk. The ensemble learning algorithm voting is used to improve the accuracy of result. Here majority voting and veto voting is used, the predicted output is decided on the basis of majority vo ting and veto voting. In veto voting the decision strategy of veto is improved by introducing the trust-based veto voting that definitely helps to improve the detection accuracy.

  18. Malware Detection with Different Voting Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Landage

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A common way of launching the attack in computer system is Malware. It has malicious intent of performing any kind of malicious action to computer system as a result entire system crashes. It comes in different forms like virus, Trojan , Spyware, Scareware, Adware etc. Traditional malware detection techniques viz. signature-based, Heuristic-based and Specification-based detection technique are unable to detect some form of malware and each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. A new methodology is proposed for malware detection that is based on data mining and machine learning techniques to detect known as well as unknown instances of malware. The new methodology uses disassemble process and three pre -processing techniques as part of feature ext raction process to produce three different data sets with different configurations; feature selection technique is used to achieve consistent, reduced feature dataset. Three classification algorithms are used to gener ate and train the classifiers named as Ripper, C4.5 and IBk. The ensemble learning algorithm voting is used to improve the accuracy of result. Here majority voting and veto voting is used, the predicted output is decided on the basis of majority vo ting and veto voting. In veto voting the decision strategy of veto is improved by introducing the trust -based veto voting that definitely helps to improve the detection accuracy.

  19. The mathematics of elections and voting

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, W D

    2014-01-01

    The Mathematics of Elections and Voting  takes an in-depth look at the mathematics in the context of voting and electoral systems, with focus on simple ballots, complex elections, fairness, approval voting, ties, fair and unfair voting, and manipulation techniques. The exposition opens with a sketch of the mathematics behind the various methods used in conducting elections. The reader is lead to a comprehensive picture of the theoretical background of mathematics and elections through an analysis of Condorcet’s Principle and Arrow’s Theorem of conditions in electoral fairness. Further detailed discussion of various related topics include: methods of manipulating the outcome of an election, amendments, and voting on small committees. In recent years, electoral theory has been introduced into lower-level mathematics courses, as a way to illustrate the role of mathematics in our everyday life.  Few books have studied voting and elections from a more formal mathematical viewpoint.  This text wi...

  20. Electronic Voting Using Identity Domain Separation and Hardware Security Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Thomas

    E-voting increasingly gains interest in e-Democracy and e-Government movements. Not only the technical security issues of electronic voting systems are of paramount importance, but also the necessity of following an all-embracing approach is challenging and needs to be addressed. This paper discusses e-voting as being a supreme discipline of e-Government. It introduces an innovative e-voting concept using the Internet as the voting channel. The concept introduced is based on Austrian e-Government elements and the Austrian identity management concept in particular. As a result, this paper presents a novel approach of building an e-voting system relying on two core principles: strong end-to-end encryption and stringent identity domain separation.

  1. A Secure Model for Remote Electronic Voting: A Case of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Kimbi

    Full Text Available Tanzania is still using paper ballots system as the only voting channel despite the fact that other countries have already implemented remote electronic voting systems for their general and parliamentary elections. With the rapid evolution of Information ...

  2. Plurality Voting: the statistical laws of democracy in Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Araripe, L E; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2006-01-01

    We explore the statistical laws behind the plurality voting system by investigating the election results for mayor held in Brazil in 2004. Our analysis indicate that the vote partition among mayor candidates of the same city tends to be "polarized" between two candidates, a phenomenon that can be closely described by means of a simple fragmentation model. Complex concepts like "government continuity" and "useful vote" can be identified and even statistically quantified through our approach.

  3. Voting power and Qualified Majority Voting with a "no vote" option

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, enlargement of the European Union has led to increased interest in the allocation of voting weights to member states with hugely differing population numbers. While the eventually agreed voting scheme lacks any strict mathematical basis, the Polish government suggested a voting scheme based on the Penrose definition of voting power, leading to an allocation of voting weights proportional to the square root of the population (the "Jagiellonian Compromise"). The Penrose definition of voting power is derived from the citizens' freedom to vote either "yes" or "no". This paper defines a corresponding voting power based on "yes", "no" and "abstain" options, and it is found that this definition also leads to a square root law, and to the same optimal vote allocation as the Penrose scheme.

  4. LEGAL REGULATION AND PRACTICE OF ELECTRONIC VOTING IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of legal regulation of electronic voting an e-democracy in foreign countries. The possibility of informationalcommunication technologies introduction into the voting process is studied. In the absence of a unified approach to the understanding of the legal nature of edemocratic processes, the authors give the special attention to the analysis of state policy in the sphere of the e-democracy improvement. There were considered the systems of electronic voting system which were used in elections in Estonia, Germany, Austria, UK, Switzerland and Finland. There were analyzed the practice of Internet-voting as a prototype of electronic democracy and problems of identification of voters, calculation of votes, ensuring of secrecy of the ballot. There were marked means the use of electronic voting as positive sides and considerable risks connected with the possibility of interference into the system of electors’ votes and complexity of securing of control of procedure of electronic voting. Authors make conclusions on possibility of the use of positive foreign experience of distant voting during the elections in Russia and on the necessity of working out of legal claims to informational space and given information to increase its quality and credibility

  5. Vote using the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoltner, Anne-Marie

    In an effort to increase the strength of AGU by increasing participation in voting, you will be able to cast your ballot for AGU officers on the Web this year. The Tellers Committee is working with an experienced firm, election.com, to develop procedures for conducting AGU's first electronic election in November and December 2001. You will be able to cast your votes for the officers of your choice, among the 62 candidates, by going to a secure Web site, or by requesting a paper ballot.An amendment to the District of Columbia law now permits non-profit organizations incorporated in Washington, D.C. to conduct elections using electronic voting. AGU was instrumental in getting the amendment adopted by the Council of the District of Columbia in spring 2001.

  6. New Mexico Voting Precincts (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico Voting Precinct Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage for...

  7. 基于TD-SCDMA/CMMB的电子投票系统的设计%Design of the Electronic Voting System Based on TD-SCDMA/CMMB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周帆帆

    2012-01-01

    The developing of e—government should be adapt to the needs of Three—in—One network development, gradually shift to mobile trend. The CMMB and TD—SCDMA is China in the field of mobile communications, which are independent intellectual property rights owned by the two technologies. Under the conditions of today's integration of two technologies. This paper puts forward a electronic voting system based on CMMB and TD-SCDMA. And analysis the object-oriented development system needs, combined with the RSA public key cryptography system in the blind signature protocol, completed the design of the electronic voting system.%电子政务的发展须适应三网合一发展的需要,逐渐向移动化趋势转变.CMMB与TD-SCDMA是我国在移动通讯领域拥用自主知识产权的两项技术,在当今两项技术融合的基础的条件下,提出了基于CMMB和TD-SCDMA的电子投票系统.并根据面向对象开发技术对系统的需求分析,结合RSA公钥密码体系中的盲签名协议,完成了电子投票系统的设计.

  8. Acceptance of voting technology: between confidence and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.

    2006-01-01

    Social aspects of security of information systems are often discussed in terms of “actual security” and “perceived security”. This may lead to the hypothesis that e-voting is controversial because in paper voting, actual and perceived security coincide, whereas they do not in electronic systems. In

  9. Acceptance of voting technology: between confidence and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2006-01-01

    Social aspects of security of information systems are often discussed in terms of “actual security��? and “perceived security��?. This may lead to the hypothesis that e-voting is controversial because in paper voting, actual and perceived security coincide, whereas they do not in electronic systems.

  10. Voting Power : A Generalised Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sreejith

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines an area of Game Theory called Voting Power Theory. With the adoption of a measure theoretic framework it argues that the many different indices and tools currently used for measuring voting power can be replaced by just three simple probabilities. The framework is sufficiently general to be applicable to every conceivable type of voting game, and every possible decision rule.

  11. Vote Points to Kyrgyzstan's Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU GUILING

    2010-01-01

    @@ @@ On June 27, a constitutional referendum was held in Kyrgyzstan. The Central Election Commission announced two days later a new Constitution had been approved. Some 2.72 million people were eligible to vote and the turnout was more than 70 percent. Of those who cast ballots, some 90 percent voted for the new Constitution and only 8 percent voted against it.

  12. Inequalities in the Education System and the Reproduction of Socioeconomic Disparities in Voting in England, Denmark and Germany: The Influence of Country Context, Tracking and Self-Efficacy on Voting Intentions of Students Age 16-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Bryony; Janmaat, Jan Germen; Han, Christine; Muijs, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article performs exploratory research using a mixed-methods approach (structural equation modelling and a thematic analysis of interview data) to analyse the ways in which socioeconomic disparities in voting patterns are reproduced through inequalities in education in different national contexts, and the role of self-efficacy in this process.…

  13. Voting Experiences I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jydebjerg, Camilla; Jakobsen, Tina Mou

    From 2008 to 2010, an EU-project ''My opinion my vote – MOTE'' is implemented. The aim of the project is to increase the political participation among people with learning disabilities. A qualitative interview survey of three rounds among 20 persons with learning disabilities and professional...

  14. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  15. Creating Discussions with Classroom Voting in Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Duncan, Jonathan; Stewart, Ann; Snipes, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of classroom voting in linear algebra, in which the instructors posed multiple-choice questions to the class and then allowed a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion. After each student in the class voted on the correct answer using a classroom response system, a set of clickers, the instructor then guided a…

  16. Voting with Limited Information and Many Alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Chierichetti, Flavio

    2011-01-01

    The traditional axiomatic approach to voting is motivated by the problem of reconciling differences in subjective preferences. In contrast, a dominant line of work in the theory of voting over the past 15 years has considered a different kind of scenario, also fundamental to voting, in which there is a genuinely "best" outcome that voters would agree on if they only had enough information. This type of scenario has its roots in the classical Condorcet Jury Theorem; it includes cases such as jurors in a criminal trial who all want to reach the correct verdict but disagree in their inferences from the available evidence, or a corporate board of directors who all want to improve the company's revenue, but who have different information that favors different options. This style of voting leads to a natural set of questions: each voter has a {\\em private signal} that provides probabilistic information about which option is best, and a central question is whether a simple plurality voting system, which tabulates vo...

  17. Electronic Universal Vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian USCATU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the days of informational society everything is going online. Most aspects of our lives have online components. Since democracy is a big issue, it could not escape this trend. Governments themselves are moving to the online environment for the purpose of improving their internal efficiency and their availability to the citizens, businesses and other parties interested. Since governments are the result of elections, elections have also been touched by the electronic fever. New electronic voting solutions arise and each one brings new debates with many arguments in their favor and against them. Accessibility and ease of use leads the arguments in favor of electronic voting over the internet, while fear of fraud is the main reason people are avoiding electronics and clinging on classic paper ballots.

  18. Retiring from Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2012-01-01

    The Western population is growing older. Nevertheless, few studies examine the manner in which seniors are gradually demobilized from voting, partly because they are difficult to reach with surveys. Using a unique government records dataset of the actual turnout from the 2009 Danish municipal...... elections, we show how turnout for seniors falls more than 30 percentage points between ages 60 and 90. Though declining health matters, it is far from the entire story. Much of the turnout decline can be explained by the disruption of social ties. Withdrawing from the labour market demobilizes people....... Seniors also tend to live alone more often than the general population, meaning that they receive less social encouragement to vote. We also look into why turnout drops faster for women than for men. Women lose their social network earlier than men. They are on average widowed and live alone at an earlier...

  19. Sistem Pemungutan Suara Elektronik Menggunakan Model Poll Site E-Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryati Haryati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available General elections is a regular agenda for a democtaric state, the applied paper based voting has several drawbacks, including spoiled ballots, inaccuracy in the counting of votes and reporting of election results which tends to be slow. Therefore , it needs to develop an electronic voting system that is user friendly for Indonesian people, which will reduce confusion from the previous system changes. Electronic voting aims at increasing participation, accuracy and efficiency of election results. Electrinoc voting has its own challenges to the implementation in Indonesia, ranging from the lack of legal protection, the heterogeneous level of education, culture, soceity and the digital gaps. The model developed in this thesis is the poll site e-voting, based on the rules of General Elections Commision (KPU as the organizer of the elections. In this model, people still go to the pools, using the ID number od ID card as a verification tool and voting at the voting booths provided. The system automatically stores the results in a database option, and after the spesified time will show both the results of the voting and other and other information required by the Commission. Voting system with a model of e-voting poll site is expected to have a good chance an a low level of risk to be applied in Indonesia.   Keywords : E-voting; Poll site; Rule based; Risk.

  20. Empirical study on voting power in participatory forest planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J

    2008-07-01

    Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential.

  1. Improving Remote Voting Security with CodeVoting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquim, Rui; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Paulo

    One of the major problems that prevents the spread of elections with the possibility of remote voting over electronic networks, also called Internet Voting, is the use of unreliable client platforms, such as the voter's computer and the Internet infrastructure connecting it to the election server. A computer connected to the Internet is exposed to viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware, malware and other threats that can compromise the election's integrity. For instance, it is possible to write a virus that changes the voter's vote to a predetermined vote on election's day. Another possible attack is the creation of a fake election web site where the voter uses a malicious vote program on the web site that manipulates the voter's vote (phishing/pharming attack). Such attacks may not disturb the election protocol, therefore can remain undetected in the eyes of the election auditors.

  2. Voting at 16: Turnout and the quality of vote choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus; Johann, David; Kritzinger, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Critics of giving citizens under 18 the right to vote argue that such teenagers lack the ability and motivation to participate effectively in elections. If this argument is true, lowering the voting age would have negative consequences for the quality of democracy. We test the argument using survey data from Austria, the only European country with a voting age of 16 in nation-wide elections. While the turnout levels of young people under 18 are relatively low, their failure to vote cannot be explained by a lower ability or motivation to participate. In addition, the quality of these citizens' choices is similar to that of older voters, so they do cast votes in ways that enable their interests to be represented equally well. These results are encouraging for supporters of a lower voting age. PMID:24850994

  3. Face Recognition as an Authentication Technique in Electronic Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha E. El-Sayad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research a Face Detection and Recognition system (FDR used as an Authentication technique in online voting, which one of electronic is voting types, is proposed. Web based voting allows the voter to vote from any place in state or out of state. The voter’s image is captured and passed to a face detection algorithm (Eigenface or Gabor filter which is used to detect his face from the image and save it as the first matching point. The voter’s National identification card number is used to retrieve and return his saved photo from the database of the Supreme Council elections (SCE which is passed to the same detection algorithm (Eigenface or Gabor filter to detect face from it and save it as second matching point. The two matching points are used by a matching algorithm to check wither they are identical or not. If the results of the matching algorithm are two point match then checks wither this person has the right to vote or not. If he has right to vote then a voting form is presented to him. The result shows that the proposed algorithm capable of finding over 90% of the faces in database and allows their voter to vote in approximately 58 seconds.

  4. Against a Minimum Voting Age

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A minimum voting age is defended as the most effective and least disrespectful means of ensuring all members of an electorate are sufficiently competent to vote. Whilst it may be reasonable to require competency from voters, a minimum voting age should be rejected because its view of competence is unreasonably controversial, it is incapable of defining a clear threshold of sufficiency and an alternative test is available which treats children more respectfully. This alternative is a procedura...

  5. Development of Touch Screen Voting and Display System Based on Authorware%基于Authorware的触摸屏投票展示系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱锦晶

    2011-01-01

    触摸屏作为一种最新的电脑输入设备,是目前最简单、方便、自然的人机交互方式,越来越多的单位开始使用触摸屏。采用Authorware软件开发系统的一套触摸屏投票展示系统,具有视频展示和投票两大功能。%Touch screen as a kind of the latest computer input device,is the most simple,convenient and natural man-machine interactive way,so more and more units started off with touch screen.This paper introduces how to use Authorware software to develop a special touch screen voting demonstration system.

  6. Compulsory voting: a critical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Compulsory voting is sometimes thought to be justified in democracies because it promotes high levels of voting and mitigates inequalities of turnout amongst social groups. Proponents of compulsory voting also argue that it helps to prevent the free-riding of non-voters on voters. This article casts a sceptical eye on both arguments. Democratic citizens do not have a duty to promote their self-interest, and their duties to others do not generally require them to vote, or to attend the polls. ...

  7. Copeland Voting Fully Resists Constructive Control

    CERN Document Server

    Faliszewski, Piotr; Hemaspaandra, Lane A; Rothe, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Control and bribery are settings in which an external agent seeks to influence the outcome of an election. Faliszewski et al. [FHHR07] proved that Llull voting (which is here denoted by Copeland^1) and a variant (here denoted by Copeland^0) of Copeland voting are computationally resistant to many, yet not all, types of constructive control and that they also provide broad resistance to bribery. We study a parameterized version of Copeland voting, denoted by Copeland^alpha where the parameter alpha is a rational number between 0 and 1 that specifies how ties are valued in the pairwise comparisons of candidates in Copeland elections. We establish resistance or vulnerability results, in every previously studied control scenario, for Copeland^alpha, for each rational alpha, 0 system commonly referred to as ``Copeland voting,'' provides full resistance to constructive control. Among the systems with a polynomial-time winner problem, this is the first...

  8. 基于机电一体化的图像处理选票系统实现%Implementation of Voting System for Image Processing Based on Mechatronics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪磊; 吴建国; 胡俐蕊; 杨静

    2013-01-01

      通过分析投票选举系统的系统结构和具体工作流程,利用图像处理和符号识别技术,实现了一套基于机电一体化的投票选举系统。该系统基于OCR技术,采用独特的票箱整体设计,对图像处理算法进行优化,通过定位、分割,提取符号特征,最终识别出√、○、×、╲、-、╱等一些手写符号,并且进行传输、储存和统计,实现选举的完全自动化处理。该选举系统完全实现了选票的自动录入和自动识别功能。该系统使得选票版面可以更复杂、信息量更大,选票制作、保存、涂写更方便,是较为先进的OCR网络投票系统。%By the analysis of voting system structure and the specific voting process,using the technology of image process and symbol recognition,a voting system is implemented based on mechatronics. The system is based on the OCR,adopts the unique overall box de-sign,optimizes the image processing algorithm,through the positioning and segmentation extracts symbol,and finally identifies some handwritten symbols such as√、○、×、╲、-、╱,and carry out transmission,storage and statistics,realize fully automated processing for election. The election system fully implements the function of the automatic entry and automatic identification of votes,which enables the votes layout can be more complicated with a lot of information,make votes producing,saving,scribbling more convenient,is relatively advanced OCR network voting system.

  9. Sincerity in Simple and Complex Voting Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ballester, Miguel Angel; Rey-Biel, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    We discuss sincere voting when voters have cardinal preferences over alternatives. We interpret sincerity as opposed to strategic voting, and thus define sincerity as the optimal behavior when conditions to vote strategically diminish. When voting mechanisms allow for only one message type (simple voting mechanisms) we show that eliminating some conditions for strategic voting, individuals' optimal behavior coincides with an intuitive and common definition of sincerity. In order to obtain a p...

  10. 2010 Election Administration and Voting Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Election Assistance Commission — This dataset contains data about domestic absentee voting, provisional balloting, poll books, polling place, precincts, poll workers, and voting technology used in...

  11. 2008 Election Administration and Voting Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Election Assistance Commission — This dataset contains data about domestic absentee voting, provisional balloting, poll books, polling place, precincts, poll workers, and voting technology used in...

  12. In Canada: Txt the Vote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2004-01-01

    Youth Vote 2004 encouraged students to text message their questions to party leaders and to use their Nokia handsets to vote. Teachers were presented with a rather pitiful set of suggested classroom activities, all of which (naturally) involved text messaging. A statement from a Nokia representative established both the company's selfless…

  13. MuIti-authority E-voting system based on group bIind signature%基于群盲签名的多授权电子投票系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江霄; 李舟军; 刘霞; 冯春辉; 郭华

    2015-01-01

    In single authority E-voting system,it is easy to control the voting result and difficult to assure the privacy.In this pa-per,a double-blind multi-authority E-voting system based Ghadafi’s group blind signature and SP-signature is proposed.The multi-authority is introduced to avoid the control problem of a single authority.The SP-signature is applied to ensure the voter cannot vote with another’s identity.Finally,many features of new E-voting system are analyzed including security,eligibility, privacy,universal verifiability,uncoercibility,unreusability and fairness.%针对单个授权电子投票系统授权者容易控制选票结果,以及无法保证授权者隐私的问题,基于 Ghadafi 群盲签名和 SP (structure-preserving)盲签名,构建了一个双盲的多授权电子投票系统。引入多个授权者,解决了授权者容易控制选票结果的问题。通过 SP 盲签名协议,新系统中投票者无法投其他用户的选票。最后,分析了新电子投票系统的安全性、可认证性、保密性、全局验证性、不可强制性、不可重投性和公平性。

  14. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  15. The fate of the square root law for correlated voting

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Werner

    2012-01-01

    We consider two-tier voting system and try to determine optimal weights for a fair representation in such systems. A prominent example of such a voting system is the Council of Ministers of the European Union. Under the assumption of independence of the voters, the square root law gives a fair distribution of power (based on the Penrose-Banzhaf power index) and a fair distribution of weights (based on the concept of the majority deficit), both given in the book by Felsenthal and Machover. In this paper, special emphasis is given to the case of correlated voters. The cooperative behaviour of the voters is modeled by suitable adoptions of spin systems known from statistical physics. Under certain assumptions we are able to compute the optimal weights as well as the average deviation of the council's vote from the public vote which we call the democracy deficit.

  16. A New Algorithm for Voting in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Saeidi Masine

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to increasing spread of internet in recent years, social networks attracted the attention of many people. A voting system is a set of rules that a community adopts to take collective decision. In this paper we study representative democracy voting and introduce an algorithm for finding a committee who are participated in voting rather than entire social network. In this model we use community detection techniques in order to obtain parties, and D’Hondt rule to clarifying proportion of each party in committee. We finally use analysis links webpages algorithms for finding important users in social network.

  17. Developing a Legal Framework for Remote Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Axel; Heinson, Dennis; Langer, Lucie; Opitz-Talidou, Zoi; Richter, Philipp; Volkamer, Melanie; Buchmann, Johannes

    This paper describes how to legally regulate remote electronic elections. Electronic voting systems have to respect the constitutional election principles. For technological solutions, this translates into security requirements that have to be fulfilled by the operational environment in which the voting takes place. Therefore [26] introduced the concept of providing the technical and organizational implementation of a remote electronic election by a qualified trustworthy third party. This paper adds legal regulation to support this concept. The legal framework addresses the secure operation of remote electronic voting services as well as their accreditation and supervision by an official authority.

  18. What makes a vote, and what does a vote make?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Steffen; Gad, Christopher

    work-in-progress we will focus on one particular ‘problem’ which emerges in light of the project and the current efforts to digitalize electoral processes. That is, the problem of how a vote is constituted and defined as such; how the ways in which a vote works are related to its (potential) material...... of 'the state', ‘citizenship' and ‘democracy’, and what it means if a vote cannot be defined as one exact ‘thing’, but instead may, simultaneously, be many things at once....

  19. The use of electronic voting systems in lectures within business and marketing: a case study of their impact on student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Masikunas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the impact on student learning of introducing an electronic voting system (EVS into large-group lectures for first-year undergraduate students undertaking degrees in marketing and business systems. We discuss the potential for using EVS-style interactive lectures in marketing and business programmes. We then describe how we planned the session and selected and implemented the EVS system. We go on to present an evaluative research project, which was undertaken on the innovation using case-study methodology, and assess its impact on student learning. Data for the evaluation were collected through questionnaire and focus groups with a sample of students. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings show how students perceived the use of EVS in large lectures and how their learning was affected. A ‘threefold typology' emerged that explains how students related to the EVS and how their perceptions of EVS changed over time. The discussion links these findings to the literature on different paradigms of learning and teaching, using Renshaw's framework, and examines how the EVS-style lectures promote deep and active learning within the constructivist, social constructivist and metacognitive learning paradigms identified in Renshaw's model. The conclusions show how the use of a userfriendly EVS in large lectures motivates students, develops students' cognitive and social learning skills, and improves learning effectiveness.

  20. One Share-One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Eklund, Johan E.

    Shares with more voting rights than cash flow rights provide their owners with a disproportional influence that is often found to destroy the value of outside equity. This is taken as evidence of discretionary use of power. However, concentration of power does not necessarily result from control...... enhancing mechanisms; it could also be that some shareholders retain a large block in a one share-one vote structure. In this paper, we develop a methodology to disentangle disproportionality, which allows us to test the effect of deviations from one share-one vote more precisely. Our empirical findings add...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting period. 1230.621 Section 1230.621 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum ...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.613 - Voting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting period. 1280.613 Section 1280.613 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.613 Voting period. The term voting period means a 4-week period to be announced by the Secretary for voting the referendum. Procedures ...

  3. Vulnerability analysis of three remote voting methods

    CERN Document Server

    Enguehard, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses three methods of remote voting in an uncontrolled environment: postal voting, internet voting and hybrid voting. It breaks down the voting process into different stages and compares their vulnerabilities considering criteria that must be respected in any democratic vote: confidentiality, anonymity, transparency, vote unicity and authenticity. Whether for safety or reliability, each vulnerability is quantified by three parameters: size, visibility and difficulty to achieve. The study concludes that the automatisation of treatments combined with the dematerialisation of the objects used during an election tends to substitute visible vulnerabilities of a lesser magnitude by invisible and widespread vulnerabilities.

  4. A Secure Architecture for Voting Electronically (SAVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goler, Jonathan A.; Selker, Edwin J.

    Electronic voting has the potential to be the most reliable, secure and trustworthy form of voting implemented. Digital technology, complete with error correction, robust storage and cryptographic security offers the possibility to record, transmit, store and tabulate votes far more reliably than paper. While current implementations of electronic voting have been susceptible to various failures, electronic voting itself is not fundamentally flawed. The Secure Architecture for Voting Electronically (SAVE) is one proposed architecture for mitigating security and trust issues with the voting process. In addition, the architecture enables academics, small companies and organizations to easily and cheaply build their own modules conforming to the standard.

  5. Electronic voting systems based on homomorphic encryption scheme%基于同态加密策略的电子选举系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓓

    2015-01-01

    An evoting system with high security based on homomorphic encryption for protecting the privacy of voters was proposed. The proposed system employed homomorphic encryption scheme for the calculation of voting and asymmetric cryptography to ensure the data security during transmission for protecting the identity and the will of voters from being exposed.%针对电子选举系统的安全性问题,提出了一种基于同态加密策略保护选民隐私的高安全性的电子选举系统设计方案。该系统采用同态加密策略进行选民的投票结果运算,采用非对称密码算法保证数据信息传输过程中的数据安全,保护选民的身份和意愿不被暴露。

  6. Challenges amp Solutions Of Adoption In Regards To Phone-Based Remote E-Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Ken Jamnadas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Remote Voting Systems has not been universally adopted by most countries for their elections such as in the case of Fiji. Although mobile phones are quite prevalent around the world and the amount of smart phones sold is increasing at a rapid rate there have not been many elections which have capitalized on the use of Mobile Phones as a remote voting tool. This paper is a limited review of previous papers on remote voting systems. The aim was to study challenges of adoption of remote e-voting systems such as through a mobile phone and suggest innovative solutions to those challenges. As such we propose a combination of new policy solutions and technical solutions such as the use of QR code and checksum for vote verification the use of real time facial recognition systems and the leveraging of existing mobile hardware to ensure a secure anonymous and trustworthy remote voting system like it has never been before.

  7. Design and implementation of host software in voting system for election%选举投票系统中主机软件的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俐蕊; 吴建国

    2012-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of voting system for election based on the OCR technology, a design method of system host software is proposed. In this method, the host software and the software of ballot box are considered together. Election information is taken full account of. Ballot is designed according to some position data in paper ballot. Ballot format data are sended to the box. A series of functions are implemented in voting system for election. So, a set of host software is developed. By this method, the ballot layout may be more complicated, and because the software of ballot box is designed based on these ballot format data it has more high speed of locating in the course of recognition. The efficiency of voting system is improved, and this voting system is more comprehensive.%为了提高基于OCR技术的选举投票系统效率,提出了系统主机端软件的设计方法.该方法将主机端软件和票箱端软件统一起来考虑,充分考虑选举信息,利用选票中相关对象的位置数据设计选票,将选票格式数据发送到票箱,实现一系列选举投票系统功能,从而开发出一套主机端软件.该方法使得选票版面可以更复杂、基于选票格式数据而设计的票箱端识别软件定位速度更快,有效提高了系统效率,选举投票系统更加完善.

  8. Vote Bying I: General Elections

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We examine the consequences of vote buying, assuming this practice were al- lowed and free of stigma. Two parties compete in a binary election and may purchase votes in a sequential bidding game via up-front binding payments and/or campaign promises (platforms) that are contingent upon the outcome of the elec- tion. We analyze the role of the parties' and voters' preferences in determining the winner and the payments to voters.

  9. Design and implementation of voting system based on Android mobile phone and Internet%基于Android手机与Internet投票系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 诸叶平; 刘丹; 许金普

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of cumbersome and time-consumption in traditional voting process of paper,a new de-sign approach of voting system based on Android mobile phones and Internet is proposed. A universal environment for mobile phones development was constructed. A voting system based on the hardware of mobile phones with Android system and software which is consist of a server designed by ASP.NET and a mobile phone voting software developed by Eclipse,was developed. The system can be connected with local network through WiFi. It is easy to operate and extend,and has the characteristics of safety and fast statistics. It has a high application value and promotion prospect.%针对传统纸质版投票过程中繁琐费时的问题,提出一种基于Android手机与Internet投票系统的设计方法。搭建了一个通用的手机开发环境,开发出一个以Android手机为硬件基础,以ASP.NET环境设计的服务器以及Eclipse环境开发的手机投票软件为核心的投票系统。该系统通过WiFi连接到局域网,具有操作简易、安全易扩展、统计结果快速高效的特点,有很强的应用价值和推广前景。

  10. Elections: DOD Can Strengthen Evaluation of Its Absentee Voting Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    permitted to cast ballots through an electronic voting system. Initially, the project was to be carried out in the general election for federal office in...results- oriented plan for future electronic voting programs. (GAO, 2007) Partially implemented: To date, FVAP has developed some high-level tasks and...demonstration project under which absent uniformed services voters are permitted to cast ballots through an electronic voting system. Initially, the

  11. Analysing Vote Counting Algorithms Via Logic - And its Application to the CADE Election Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Beckert, Bernhard; Gore, Rejeev

    2013-01-01

    departs from its specification. When we applied our method and system to analyse the vote counting algorithm used for electing the CADE Board of Trustees, we found that it strictly differs from the standard definition of Single Transferable Vote (STV). We therefore argue that “STV” is a misnomer......We present a method for using first-order logic to specify the semantics of preferences as used in common vote counting algorithms. We also present a corresponding system that uses Celf linear-logic programs to describe voting algorithms and which generates explicit examples when the algorithm...

  12. What makes a vote, and what does a vote make?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Steffen; Gad, Christopher

    Digitalizing electoral processes entails substantial changes to the materialities on which such processes rely, and hence to how they are practiced, organized, and, in turn, how they may be analyzed and reflected upon. As researchers in the Danish strategic research project DemTech, which...... work-in-progress we will focus on one particular ‘problem’ which emerges in light of the project and the current efforts to digitalize electoral processes. That is, the problem of how a vote is constituted and defined as such; how the ways in which a vote works are related to its (potential) material...

  13. E-Voting Risk and Risk Management Evaluation using Analytical Hierarchy Process: The Case of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amry, F. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold; to investigate the risks involving with e-voting and to evaluate the risk management of policy of e-voting. In the country of Oman, the Ministry of Interior (MOI has already implemented an e-voting system making use of the e-Authentication technique, which uses the existing National ID Card to authenticate citizens for voting. This new e-voting system will give solutions that shall allow all citizens to come to election points and get authenticated through their National ID Card before proceeding to the vote. The solution shall be hosted within the current National ID System, taking advantage of the electronic authentication of the cards while enhancing these capabilities with functions specific to the election process, ensuring election rights and introducing vote timestamp storage in the cards. However; review and observation within Ministry of Interior (MOI of Oman concluded that there is no documented Risk Management Plan that can foresee risks, estimate impacts, and define responses to issues relating with risks involving voting process in the country of Oman. In the context of e-voting systems, risk management is regarded as the characterization of the e- Voting System in Oman; this consists of defining the system for the risk assessment. This is the assessment of system elements, such as hardware, software, system interfaces, data and information, personnel actions, and the mission of the e- Voting system. This is followed by the Identification Threat Sources, Vulnerability Identification, Controls Analysis, Threat Likelihood, performance of impact Analysis and risk level. It is then followed by the Development of Risk Mitigation Strategies and finally the documentation of Results.

  14. Do Implicit Attitudes Predict Actual Voting Behavior Particularly for Undecided Voters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Malte; Smith, Colin Tucker; Plischke, Thomas; Bluemke, Matthias; Nosek, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of voting behavior of undecided voters poses a challenge to psychologists and pollsters. Recently, researchers argued that implicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for undecided voters whereas explicit attitudes would predict voting behavior particularly for decided voters. We tested this assumption in two studies in two countries with distinct political systems in the context of real political elections. Results revealed that (a) explicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better than implicit attitudes for both decided and undecided voters, and (b) implicit attitudes predicted voting behavior better for decided than undecided voters. We propose that greater elaboration of attitudes produces stronger convergence between implicit and explicit attitudes resulting in better predictive validity of both, and less incremental validity of implicit over explicit attitudes for the prediction of voting behavior. However, greater incremental predictive validity of implicit over explicit attitudes may be associated with less elaboration. PMID:22952898

  15. Tactical Voting in Plurality Elections

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Nuno A M; Herrmann, Hans J; 10.1371/journal.pone.0012446

    2010-01-01

    How often will elections end in landslides? What is the probability for a head-to-head race? Analyzing ballot results from several large countries rather anomalous and yet unexplained distributions have been observed. We identify tactical voting as the driving ingredient for the anomalies and introduce a model to study its effect on plurality elections, characterized by the relative strength of the feedback from polls and the pairwise interaction between individuals in the society. With this model it becomes possible to explain the polarization of votes between two candidates, understand the small margin of victories frequently observed for different elections, and analyze the polls' impact in American, Canadian, and Brazilian ballots. Moreover, the model reproduces, quantitatively, the distribution of votes obtained in the Brazilian mayor elections with two, three, and four candidates.

  16. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...... biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss...... their experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased....

  17. Tax Salience, Voting, and Deliberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    biases consumers' voting on tax regimes, and that experience is an effective de-biasing mechanism in the experimental laboratory. Pre-vote deliberation makes initially held opinions more extreme rather than correct and does not eliminate the bias in the typical committee. Yet, if voters can discuss...... their experience with the tax regimes they are less likely to be biased.......Tax incentives can be more or less salient, i.e. noticeable or cognitively easy to process. Our hypothesis is that taxes on consumers are more salient to consumers than equivalent taxes on sellers because consumers underestimate the extent of tax shifting in the market. We show that tax salience...

  18. California Student Vote 1972; A Brief Analysis of the Student Vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; And Others

    This study of the impact of the student vote in California was based on a comprehensive analysis of 54,000 student votes. The precinct analysis method was utilized to examine the voting returns of precincts which contain very close to 100% student populations. Results of the study encompassed an overview of the student vote; voter turnout;…

  19. Thai Electoral Campaigning: Vote-Canvassing Networks and Hybrid Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyarat Chattharakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence gathered through participant observation, this article illuminates the nature of vote-canvassing, previously a black box in Thai electoral studies. Offering a close-up study of the internal mechanisms of an individual Thai election campaign, this article reveals that vote-canvasser networks are underpinned by long-term dyadic relationships, both hierarchical and horizontal, between the candidate, vote-canvassers and voters. These networks continue to be the most important factor in winning elections. This article documents how candidates draw up an election campaign map and identify voters along residential lines to maximise their vote-canvassing strategy. The findings of this article challenge Anek’s 1996 concept of “two democracies”, which argues that rural voters are influenced by money, local leaders, political factions and corrupt politicians while more well-educated, urban, middle-class voters are more oriented toward the alternative policies offered by competing parties. The case study of Kom’s election campaign showed that the role of the much-vaunted middle-class voters is not decisive, even in suburban areas of Bangkok. While political marketing has grown in importance in Thai elections, it has not displaced traditional electoral practices. Thai society is, in fact, deeply fragmented and diverse – too complex to be divided in such a simplistic manner. This article suggests that rather than undergoing a linear transformation, political hybridisation is a key trend in Thai election campaigns.

  20. One Share - One Vote: The Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The impact of separating cash flow and votes depends on the ownership structure. In widely held firms, one share - one vote is in general not optimal. While it ensures an efficient outcome in bidding contests, dual-class shares mitigate the free-rider problem, thereby promoting takeovers. In the presence of a controlling shareholder, one share - one vote promotes value-increasing control transfers and deters value-decreasing control transfers more effectively than any other vote allocation. M...

  1. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali......The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol...

  2. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.12 Voting incentives. If a converting credit union offers an incentive to encourage members to participate in the vote, including a prize raffle, every...

  3. 12 CFR 708a.13 - Voting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting guidelines. 708a.13 Section 708a.13... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.13 Voting guidelines. A converting credit union must conduct its member vote on conversion in a fair and legal manner. NCUA provides the following...

  4. 7 CFR 1212.102 - Voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Referendum Procedures § 1212.102 Voting. (a... only one ballot in the referendum. (b) Proxy voting is not authorized, but an officer or employee of an... entity may cast a ballot on behalf of such entity. Any individual so voting in a referendum shall certify...

  5. 7 CFR 1206.102 - Voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Referendum Procedures. § 1206.102 Voting. (a) Each eligible first handler and eligible importer of mangos shall be entitled to cast only one ballot in the referendum. (b) Proxy voting is not authorized... voting in a referendum shall certify that such individual is an officer or employee of the eligible...

  6. Vote buying II: legislatures and lobbying

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We examine the consequences of lobbying and vote buying, assuming this prac- tice were allowed and free of stigma. Two "lobbyists" compete for the votes of legislators by offering up-front payments to the legislators in exchange for their votes. We analyze how the lobbyists' budget constraints and legislator preferences determine the winner and the payments.

  7. ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS ON VOTE-POPULARITY FUNCTION FOR ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE-MARIUS JULA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The regional analysis in Romania confirms the hypothesis of a significant correlation between the status of the economy and political behaviour of the electors. The level and the dynamic of the unemployment at regional level have an influence on vote behaviour, as stated by the partisan political business cycle theory: in the areas with a higher unemployment rate there is a voting preference (tendency towards the political left wing. This conclusion is interesting for a political perspective. If the unemployment electors carry their votes toward left, the left wing government in office between 1992-1996 and 2000-2004 promotes an economic policy that outcomes in a diminishing the electoral support for this party: during these periods, the global unemployment rate decreased from 8.2% to 6.6% in first period (1992-1996 and from 12.3% to 6.3% in the second. Moreover, the partisan electoral behaviour hypothesis affirms that the private entrepreneurs and the self-employed vote toward right-wing parties. That means that electoral support for left party in office during the mentioned periods was also reduced by another result of the reform, namely the strong increase in the number of registered companies (large numbers of them are limited liability companies. A political analogous situation was recorded during the 1996-2000 legislatures. The global unemployment rate increased and the business environment became unfavourable, leading to a decrease of the electoral support for the right-wing governmental coalition in office.In Romania, regarding the elections from 2008-2009, a new electoral law was introduced. The main changes concerned the election of chairpersons of county councils by uninominal voting, separating general and presidential elections and the introduction uninominal voting system for parliamentary elections, with a correction of the total number of seats with the total number of votes obtained by each party on national level.

  8. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  9. Voting Power and Shareholder Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Therese; Poulsen, Thomas; Thomsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the development of a voting power theory that is applied to a unique data set on Swedish shareholder meetings. The authors hypothesize that there is a positive relationship between shareholder activism and the largest shareholder's sensitivity to greater participation by small...

  10. Applying Trustworthy Computing to End-to-End Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    "End-to-End (E2E)" voting systems provide cryptographic proof that the voter's intention is captured, cast, and tallied correctly. While E2E systems guarantee integrity independent of software, most E2E systems rely on software to provide confidentiality, availability, authentication, and access control; thus, end-to-end integrity is not…

  11. A Vote for Election Science as an Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the suggestion of Merle S. King, chairman of the department of computer science and information systems at Kennesaw State University and also a director of Kennesaw State's Center for Elections Systems, which has helped establish a uniform statewide voting system in Georgia. On the last day of the conference sponsored by the…

  12. The impact of voting on tax payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Ingrid; Muehlbacher, Stephan; Kirchler, Erich

    2010-02-01

    This study examines whether participating in governmental decisions influences taxpayers' cooperation. The results of experiment 1 show that participants tend to contribute more when they can vote on different rules for a public good game. Experiment 2 reveals that tax payments are lowest in a tax simulation when participants benefit from tax payments and can not vote. However, when the participants did not benefit from tax payments, voting had no impact and cooperation was about the same as when participants benefited and could vote. Furthermore, voting increases procedural fairness and trust mediates the effect of procedural fairness on tax payments.

  13. 任意寿命分布单元表决系统备件需求量的解析算法%Analytical algorithm of spare demand for voting system of any life distribution units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘任洋; 李庆民; 王慎; 李华

    2016-01-01

    The voting structure is widely used in reliability design of equipment.For the computation of spare demand for the voting system is difficult and inaccurate,a method to calculate spare demand for the voting system is proposed based on life distribution equivalence.First,non exponential units are converted to exponen-tial units by R-equivalence.Then the voting system of exponential units is converted to Gamma system and the parameter calculation formulas for the equivalent system are presented.With constrains of availability index,the spare demand results are obtained based on the additive property of Gamma distribution.Finally,in the actual example com-pared with simulation results,the analytical algorithm put forward in this paper owns high precision for exponential units and can also meet precision demands under high availability for non exponential ones.%表决结构广泛存在于装备的可靠性设计中。针对表决系统备件需求计算困难、不准确的问题,提出了一种基于寿命分布等效的表决系统备件需求量计算方法。首先通过 R-等效方法将系统中的非指数单元转化为指数单元;而后将多指数单元表决系统等效为伽马系统并给出等效伽马系统参数的经验计算公式;在此基础上以可用度为保障约束指标,利用伽马分布的可加性得到备件计算结果;最后在实际算例中,通过与仿真结果的比较表明,此解析算法对于指数单元具有较高精度,对于非指数单元,在可用度较高的情况下亦能满足精度要求。

  14. Verifying Privacy-Type Properties of Electronic Voting Protocols: A Taster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaune, Stéphanie; Kremer, Steve; Ryan, Mark

    While electronic elections promise the possibility of convenient, efficient and secure facilities for recording and tallying votes, recent studies have highlighted inadequacies in implemented systems. These inadequacies provide additional motivation for applying formal methods to the validation of electronic voting protocols.

  15. Pool-site E-voting Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Ezeanu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present e-voting procedure describing its advantages and disadvantages. Conventional security measures such as firewalls or SSL communications are necessary but not sufficient to guarantee the specific security requirements of e-voting. Besides these conventional security measures, it is also necessary to implement an additional layer of specialized security technology to address the specific risks posed by electronic voting and guarantee critical security requirements such as voters’ privacy, vote integrity and voter-verifiability. Analyzing the security of Diebold AccuVote-TS voting machine it was observed the vulnerabilities of this machine to different classes of attacks like: vote-stealing attack, Denial-of-Service (DoS attack and injecting attack code.

  16. Stylized Facts in Brazilian Vote Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvão, Angelo Mondaini; Crokidakis, Nuno; Anteneodo, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Elections, specially in countries such as Brazil, with an electorate of the order of 100 million people, yield large-scale data-sets embodying valuable information on the dynamics through which individuals influence each other and make choices. In this work we perform an extensive analysis of data sets available for Brazilian proportional elections of legislators and city councilors throughout the period 1970-2014, which embraces two distinct political regimes: a military regime followed by a democratic one. We perform a comparative analysis of elections for legislative positions, in different states and years, through the distribution p(v) of the number of candidates receiving v votes. We show the impact of the different political regimes on the vote distributions. Although p(v) has a common shape, with a scaling behavior, quantitative details change over time and from one electorate to another. In order to interpret the observed features, we propose a multi-species model consisting in a system of nonlinear differential equations, with values of the parameters that reflect the heterogeneity of candidates. In its simplest setting, the model can not explain the cutoff, formed by the most voted candidates, whose success is determined mainly by their peculiar, intrinsic characteristics, such as previous publicity. However, the modeling allows to interpret the scaling of p(v), yielding a predictor of the degree of feedback in the interactions of the electorate. Knowledge of the feedback is relevant beyond the context of elections, since a similar interactivity may occur for other social contagion processes in the same population.

  17. Electoral Performance and Voting Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the voting behavior of the Czech Parliament members. First, we show that low-dimensionality characterizes conflict in the Czech Parliament. The first, and dominant dimension is the classical left-right dimension, whereas the second dimension, when significant, expresses attitude toward European integration. Second, we document the party development in the Czech Parliament and show evidence of convergence to a Western European type parliamentary democracy. We show that t...

  18. Secure Remote Voting Using Paper Ballots

    CERN Document Server

    Nitschke, Lukasz

    2008-01-01

    Internet voting will probably be one of the most significant achievements of the future information society. It will have an enormous impact on the election process making it fast, reliable and inexpensive. Nonetheless, so far remote voting is considered to be very difficult, as one has to take into account susceptibility of the voter's PC to various cyber-attacks. As a result, most the research effort is put into developing protocols and machines for poll-site electronic voting. Although these solutions yield promising results, they cannot be directly adopted to Internet voting because of secure platform problem. However, the cryptographic components they utilize may be very useful. This paper presents a scheme based on combination of mixnets and homomorphic encryption borrowed from robust poll-site voting, along with techniques recommended for remote voting -- code sheets and test ballots. The protocol tries to minimize the trust put in voter's PC by making the voter responsible for manual encryption of his...

  19. Dominating Manipulations in Voting with Partial Information

    CERN Document Server

    Conitzer, Vincent; Xia, Lirong

    2011-01-01

    We consider manipulation problems when the manipulator only has partial information about the votes of the nonmanipulators. Such partial information is described by an information set, which is the set of profiles of the nonmanipulators that are indistinguishable to the manipulator. Given such an information set, a dominating manipulation is a non-truthful vote that the manipulator can cast which makes the winner at least as preferable (and sometimes more preferable) as the winner when the manipulator votes truthfully. When the manipulator has full information, computing whether or not there exists a dominating manipulation is in P for many common voting rules (by known results). We show that when the manipulator has no information, there is no dominating manipulation for many common voting rules. When the manipulator's information is represented by partial orders and only a small portion of the preferences are unknown, computing a dominating manipulation is NP-hard for many common voting rules. Our results t...

  20. Llull and Copeland Voting Computationally Resist Bribery and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Faliszewski, Piotr; Hemaspaandra, Lane A; Rothe, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    The only systems previously known to be resistant to all the standard control types were highly artificial election systems created by hybridization. We study a parameterized version of Copeland voting, denoted by Copeland^\\alpha, where the parameter \\alpha is a rational number between 0 and 1 that specifies how ties are valued in the pairwise comparisons of candidates. We prove that Copeland^{0.5}, the system commonly referred to as ``Copeland voting,'' provides full resistance to constructive control, and we prove the same for Copeland^\\alpha, for all rational \\alpha, 0 < \\alpha < 1. Copeland voting is the first natural election system proven to have full resistance to constructive control. We also prove that both Copeland^1 (Llull elections) and Copeland^0 are resistant to all standard types of constructive control other than one variant of addition of candidates. Moreover, we show that for each rational \\alpha, 0 \\leq \\alpha \\leq 1, Copeland^\\alpha voting is fully resistant to bribery attacks, and w...

  1. The Ideal Voting Interface: Classifying Usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Mac Namara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a feature-oriented taxonomy for commercial electronic voting machines, which focuses on usability aspects. Based on this analysis, we propose a ‘Just-Like-Paper’  (JLP classification method which identifies five broad categories of eVoting interface. We extend the classification to investigate its application as an indicator of voting efficiency and identify a universal ten-step process encompassing all possible voting steps spanning the twenty-six machines studied. Our analysis concludes that multi-functional and progressive interfaces are likely to be more efficient versus multi-modal voter-activated machines.

  2. An Elaborate Secure Quantum Voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Lei; Xie, Shu-Cui; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    An elaborate secure quantum voting scheme is presented in this paper. It is based on quantum proxy blind signature. The eligible voter's voting information can be transmitted to the tallyman Bob with the help of the scrutineer Charlie. Charlie's supervision in the whole voting process can make the protocol satisfy fairness and un-repeatability so as to avoid Bob's dishonest behaviour. Our scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to achieve voting, counting and immediate supervision. In addition, the program also uses quantum key distribution protocol and quantum one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security.

  3. An Elaborate Secure Quantum Voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Lei; Xie, Shu-Cui; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2017-10-01

    An elaborate secure quantum voting scheme is presented in this paper. It is based on quantum proxy blind signature. The eligible voter's voting information can be transmitted to the tallyman Bob with the help of the scrutineer Charlie. Charlie's supervision in the whole voting process can make the protocol satisfy fairness and un-repeatability so as to avoid Bob's dishonest behaviour. Our scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to achieve voting, counting and immediate supervision. In addition, the program also uses quantum key distribution protocol and quantum one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security.

  4. How Bad is Selfish Voting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Morgenstern, Jamie;

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that strategic behavior in elections is essentially unavoidable; we therefore ask: how bad can the rational outcome be? We answer this question via the notion of the price of anarchy, using the scores of alternatives as a proxy for their quality and bounding the ratio between...... the score of the optimal alternative and the score of the winning alternative in Nash equilibrium. Specifically, we are interested in Nash equilibria that are obtained via sequences of rational strategic moves. Focusing on three common voting rules — plurality, veto, and Borda — we provide very positive...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.602 - Voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting. 1210.602 Section 1210.602 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Referendum Procedures § 1210.602 Voting. (a) Each person who is an eligible producer, handler,...

  6. Managerial Voting Power and Firm Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröcker, M.; Glaser, M.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We use a measure of managerial voting power, derived from cooperative game theory, to show that managerial voting power is negatively related to firm value. We identify this effect by exploiting a German capital gains tax reform which caused an exogenous decrease in non‐managerial blockholdings and,

  7. Do Altruistic Preferences Matter for Voting Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, Daniel Gerszon

    2017-01-01

    and actual votes are analyzed by locating the Danish political parties in a political compass. Altruistic preferences are found to drive votes to the left and away from extreme candidates. A smaller U.S. survey on the 2016 presidential candidates (n = 400) yields similar results. The results suggest...

  8. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    The desired security properties of electronic voting protocols include verifiability, accuracy, democracy and fairness. In this paper we use a static program analysis tool to validate these properties for one of the classical voting protocols under appropriate assumptions. The protocol is formali...

  9. Impartiality, Friendship-networks and Voting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    What is the extent to which a country's political institutions impact aggregate voting behavior in a comparative perspective? More specifically, are citizens in some countries more inclined vote on the basis of ‘quality’ or ‘merit’ over ‘friendship’ or ‘loyalty’, and if so, why? This paper seeks ...

  10. Target Report No. 3. Student Voting Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Dianne, Comp.

    The power of the student vote in 91 Congressional districts where college enrollment exceeds the incumbent's margin of victory in the 1976 elections is presented. The article on student voters included in this report discusses voter registration rates among students, turnout of registered student voters, voting patterns of students, student voting…

  11. Internet voting: a conceptual challenge to democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Trauth, E.M.; Howcroft, D.; Butler, T.; Fitzgerald, B.; DeGross, J.I.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the implications for social inclusion of the advent of Internet voting. Although the issue of social exclusion or social inclusion with regard to technological developments in the voting process is often approached as a matter of either security or turnout, we will take a b

  12. 20 CFR 638.535 - Voting rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voting rights. 638.535 Section 638.535 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.535 Voting rights. The Job...

  13. Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Mitrović, Marija; Fortunato, Santo

    2013-01-01

    Election data represent a precious source of information to study human behavior at a large scale. In proportional elections with open lists, the number of votes received by a candidate, rescaled by the average performance of all competitors in the same party list, has the same distribution regardless of the country and the year of the election. Here we provide the first thorough assessment of this claim. We analyzed election datasets of 15 countries with proportional systems. We confirm that a class of nations with similar election rules fulfill the universality claim. Discrepancies from this trend in other countries with open-lists elections are always associated with peculiar differences in the election rules, which matter more than differences between countries and historical periods. Our analysis shows that the role of parties in the electoral performance of candidates is crucial: alternative scalings not taking into account party affiliations lead to poor results.

  14. Universality in voting behavior: an empirical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab; Fortunato, Santo

    2012-01-01

    Election data represent a precious source of information to study human behavior at a large scale. In proportional elections with open lists, the number of votes received by a candidate, rescaled by the average performance of all competitors in the same party list, has the same distribution regardless of the country and the year of the election. Here we provide the first thorough assessment of this claim. We analyzed election datasets of 15 countries with proportional systems. We confirm that a class of nations with similar election rules fulfill the universality claim. Discrepancies from this trend in other countries with open-lists elections are always associated with peculiar differences in the election rules, which matter more than differences between countries and historical periods. Our analysis shows that the role of parties in the electoral performance of candidates is crucial: alternative scalings not taking into account party affiliations lead to poor results.

  15. Prizes, Groups and Pivotal Voting in a Poisson Voting Game

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Alastair; de Mesquita, Bruce Bueno

    2011-01-01

    We model elections between two parties in a Poisson random population of voters (Myerson 1998, 2000). In addition to offering different policy benefits, parties offer contingent prizes to those identifiable groups of voters that offer the highest level of political support. In large populations, voters are only likely to influence the electoral outcome when the vote share between two parties is perfectly equal and even then their influence on the outcome is small. In contrast voters retain significant influence over the distribution of prizes even in lopsided elections. Equilibrium behavior is driven by voters competing to win preferential treatment for their group and not by policy concerns. The results address variance in turnout in elections, political rewards and the persistence of dominant parties even when they are popularly perceived as inferior.

  16. Single-Target Implicit Association Tests (ST-IAT) Predict Voting Behavior of Decided and Undecided Voters in Swiss Referendums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccuia, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Undecided voters represent a major challenge to political pollsters. Recently, political psychologists have proposed the use of implicit association tests (IAT) to measure implicit attitudes toward political parties and candidates and predict voting behavior of undecided voters. A number of studies have shown that both implicit and explicit (i.e., self-reported) attitudes contribute to the prediction of voting behavior. More importantly, recent research suggests that implicit attitudes may be more useful for predicting the vote of undecided voters in the case of specific political issues rather than elections. Due to its direct-democratic political system, Switzerland represents an ideal place to investigate the predictive validity of IATs in the context of political votes. In this article, I present evidence from three studies in which both explicit and implicit measures were used ahead of the vote on four different referendums. Explicit measures predicted voting better than implicit attitudes for decided voters while implicit and explicit attitudes were equally good predictors among undecided voters. In addition, implicit attitudes predicted voting behavior descriptively, but not significantly better for undecided voters while, also from a descriptive point of view, explicit attitudes predicted voting better for decided respondents. In sum, results suggest that, as argued in previous research, the predictive value of implicit attitudes may be higher in the context of issue-related votes but still not as high as initially hoped-for.

  17. 电子选举中的安全协议%Cryptographic Protocols for Electronic Voting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟江涛; 冯登国; 胡振宇

    2002-01-01

    Electronic Voting has begun to move into the mainstream, with small online votes taking place on the Internet. Electronic Voting investigates how to conduct large-scale electronic Voting securely including various modes of voting. In this paper we will discuss the characteristics of a good Electronic Voting system and explore cryptographic Protocols that can be used to build actual implementations with these characteristics. We mainly study the Electronic Voting protocols as opposed to the Electronic Voting systems. We propose some new taxonomy of the security protocols proposed for Electronic Voting procedures and examine their advantages and shortcomings. The goal of the paper is to impose some order into the multitude of Electronic Voting mechanisms that would lead to a better understanding of challenges in the Electronic Voting field. In the end, we give some advices on Electronic Voting system design.%随着因特网上出现的一些小范围的电子选举,电子选举开始引起人们的关注.而电子选举中的关键技术之一是电子选举协议的设计,特别是在多种投票方式下大规模电子选举协议的安全性问题.讨论了优秀的电子投票系统应该具备的特点,及如何通过密码协议来实现这些特点;对电子选举协议提出了新的分类方法,并考察了其优缺点;并对已有的许多电子选举协议进行了分类整理,有助于人们更好地理解这一领域内所面临的挑战和问题;同时对电子选举系统的设计也给出了一些建议.

  18. E-Voting and Forensics: Prying Open the Black Box

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, M.; Peisert, Sean; Hoke, S. Candice; Graff, Mark; Jefferson, David

    2009-01-01

    Over the past six years, the nation has moved rapidly from punch cards and levers to electronic voting systems. These new systems have occasionally presented election officials with puzzling technical irregularities. The national experience has included unexpected and unexplained incidents in each phase of the election process: preparations, balloting, tabulation, and reporting results. Quick technical or managerial assessment can often identify the cause of the problem, leading to a simple ...

  19. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...... maximization in this setting. With m being the number of alternatives, we exhibit a randomized truthful-in-expectation ordinal mechanism implementing an outcome whose expected social welfare is at least an Omega(m^{-3/4}) fraction of the social welfare of the socially optimal alternative. On the other hand, we...... show that for sufficiently many agents and any truthful-in-expectation ordinal mechanism, there is a valuation profile where the mechanism achieves at most an O(m^{-{2/3}) fraction of the optimal social welfare in expectation. We get tighter bounds for the natural special case of m = 3...

  20. 电子投票匿名性分析%Anonymity Analysis of Electronic Voting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄福人; 屈玉贵

    2011-01-01

    电子投票公布计票结果会影响投票者的匿名性.针对该问题,定义匿名性为投票选择的不确定度,利用熵衡量投票系统的投票者匿名性,比较计票结果公布前后投票者的匿名性变化.分析结果表明,投票规模越小,投票者匿名性在结果公布后受到的损失越大;在小规模电子投票情况下,计票结果应该选择只公布获胜者,不公布具体得票数,以减少投票者匿名的损失.%The disclosure of the number of votes can compromise the voters' anonymity of the electronic voting. Aiming at this problem, this paper defines anonymity by using the uncertainty of the voting choices and measures the anonymity of the whole voting system by entropy. It compares the anonymity after the release of the voting results with that before releasing the voting results. Analysis result shows that the smaller the voting scale is, the more the voters' anonymity loses. In the design of small-scale electronic-voting scheme, releasing the winner instead of the number of votes that candidates gained decreases the loss of anonymity.

  1. The Racial Context of Convenience Voting Cutbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Weaver

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Classic models of democratic political behavior imply that eliminating opportunities to vote early in person (EIP negatively affects the political participation of voters who prefer to use that option. Nevertheless, several U.S. state legislatures recently passed or proposed laws to scale back their EIP voting operations. Such efforts have met with opposition, as both academic researchers and federal courts have found that minority voters, especially African Americans, now utilize EIP voting at significantly higher rates than White voters. Prior to the 2012 presidential election, this argument was central to a federal court’s decision to temporarily block legislation in Ohio that sought to cut several days from the state’s EIP voting period. A post-election legal battle is reconsidering this matter, and the outcome will shape Ohio’s voting rules going forward. This article contributes empirical results to the discourse by estimating EIP voting take-up rates, by race, during the 2008 and 2012 U.S. presidential elections in Ohio’s three largest counties. Ecological inference models reveal that African Americans in all three study areas voted EIP at substantially higher rates than White voters during both elections. These results are supported by decile tables that report early voting behavior for relatively racially homogeneous geographies, and by geovisualizations that depict direct relationships between the spatial distributions of minority persons and EIP voting usage. Collectively, the findings suggest that the potential effects of Ohio’s proposed policy changes would not be equally distributed between racial groups.

  2. Government instability shifts skin tone representations of and intentions to vote for political candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; Balcetis, Emily; Cole, Shana; West, Tessa V; Caruso, Eugene M

    2016-01-01

    Does government stability shift the way White and Black Americans represent and make voting decisions about political candidates? Participants judged how representative lightened, darkened, and unaltered photographs were of a racially ambiguous candidate ostensibly running for political office (Studies 1-3). When the governmental system was presented as stable, White participants who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a lightened photo as more representative of the candidate, and Black participants who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a darkened photo as more representative (Studies 1-3). However, under conditions of instability, both Whites and Blacks who shared (vs. did not share) the candidate's political beliefs rated a lightened photo as more representative (Study 3). Representations of (Studies 2 and 3) and actual differences in (Studies 4a and 4b) skin tone predicted intentions to vote for candidates, as a function of government stability and participants' race. Further evidence suggested that system stability shifted the motivations that guided voting decisions (Study 4a and 4b). When the system was stable, the motivation to enhance one's group predicted greater intentions to vote for lighter skinned candidates among Whites, and greater intentions to vote for darker skinned candidates among Blacks. When the system was unstable, however, lacking confidence in the sociopolitical system predicted intentions to vote for lighter skinned candidates among both Whites and Blacks. Implications for political leadership and social perception are discussed.

  3. 78 FR 37551 - Request for Nominations for Voting and/or Nonvoting Consumer Representatives on Public Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... risks, and (5) evaluate the safety and efficacy of products under review. The consumer representative... Renal Drugs-- 1--Voting July 1, 2013. Knowledgeable in the fields of cardiology, hypertension... epidemiology or statistics. Circulatory System Devices-- 1 Non-Voting July 1, 2013. Knowledgeable in the safety...

  4. 11 CFR 110.18 - Voting age population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting age population. 110.18 Section 110.18... PROHIBITIONS § 110.18 Voting age population. There is annually published by the Department of Commerce in the Federal Register an estimate of the voting age population based on an estimate of the voting age...

  5. Corruption, Competition, and Contracts; A Model of Vote Buying

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In the presence of competing interest groups, this paper examines how the form of votebuying contracts affects policy outcomes. We study contracts contingent upon individual votes, policy outcomes, and/or vote shares. Voters either care about their individual votes, or about the policy outcome. We find that vote buying is cheaper when what can be contracted upon coincides with what voters care about. Vote buying becomes extremely costly, or even impossible, when there is no such coincidence. ...

  6. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  7. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  8. 77 FR 57486 - Federal Voting Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Voting Act (UOCAVA) as modified by the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act. The 2012 election... another Agency; (3) Materially alter the budgetary impact of entitlements, grants, user fees, or loan...

  9. Inefficiency of voting in Parrondo games

    CERN Document Server

    Dinis, L

    2014-01-01

    We study a modification of the so-called Parrondo's paradox where a large number of individuals choose the game they want to play by voting. We show that it can be better for the players to vote randomly than to vote according to their own benefit in one turn. The former yields a winning tendency while the latter results in steady losses. An explanation of this behaviour is given by noting that selfish voting prevents the switching between games that is essential for the total capital to grow. Results for both finite and infinite number of players are presented. It is shown that the extension of the model to the history-dependent Parrondo's paradox also displays the same effect.

  10. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  11. Allegheny County Voting District (2016) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  12. Remote Electronic Voting with Revocable Anonymity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matt; Ritter, Eike

    We present a new remote, coercion-free electronic voting protocol which satisfies a number of properties previously considered contradictory. We introduce (and justify) the idea of revocable anonymity in electronic voting, on the grounds of it being a legal requirement in the United Kingdom, and show a method of proving the validity of a ballot to a verifier in zero knowledge, by extension of known two-candidate proofs.

  13. Agenda Setting and Reciprocal Vote Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Urs Fischbacher; Simeon Schudy

    2010-01-01

    We study the implications of reciprocity on agenda setting in a sequential policy decision. We designed a laboratory experiment in which a committee decides sequentially on three independent bills. Selfish committee members would turn down all bills but reCiprocity allows for implicit vote trading. This mechanism gives power to agenda setters. We find that agenda setters use their power when setting the agenda but are rather generous in the voting decision. Legislators benefiting from the cho...

  14. Vote buying I: legislatures and lobbying

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We examine the consequences of vote buying, assuming this practice were al-lowed and free of stigma. Two parties compete in a binary election and may purchase votes in a sequential bidding game via up-front binding payments and/or campaign promises (platforms) that are contingent upon the outcome of the elec-tion. We analyze the role of the parties.and voters.preferences in determining the winner and the payments to voters.

  15. Internet Voting for Expatriates: The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Germann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Swiss canton introduced internet voting for expatriates, thus initiating the second phase in Switzerland’s piecemeal i-voting roll-out. More cantons soon followed, and as of this writing expatriates from 12 out of the 26 cantons can vote online. This paper focuses on the second phase involving expatriates. We address three questions at the core of the internet voting research agenda. First, the popularity question: to what extent do expatriates make use of the new online channel? Second, the ‘who’ question: what is the profile of the typical expatriate i-voter? Finally, the turnout question: did the extension of internet voting to the expatriates have an effect on electoral mobilization? Our findings indicate that the online channel is very popular among expatriates, both if compared to other trials in Switzerland itself and internationally. On the other hand, known patterns regarding the profile of i-voters and the effect on mobilization seem to be also replicated in the expatriate trials. Expatriate i-voters tend to be young, male, and there is some evidence of an upper-class bias. Thus, usage of the online channel seems driven by the digital divide also among expatriates. Moreover, we find some evidence that i-voting did not affect electoral mobilization, similarly to trials involving residents.

  16. Open your eyes and vote!

    CERN Multimedia

    Rebecca Leam

    The CERN film-making club is organizing the second edition of the CinéGlobe International Short Film Festival and everyone is invited to attend a series of selection screenings in November to vote on which they like and think should be publicly shown in the Globe and at the Forum Meyrin in February 2010.   This year over 700 short films were submitted for three competitions: the majority for the general fiction category for films up to ten minutes in length, and others for science fiction (20 minutes) and science documentary (30 minutes). “In 2007 we had just one competition open to films from any genre. We decided to add the science related competitions to the second edition to make a stronger link with CERN as a physics lab,” explained Quentin King, Chairman of the Selection Committee and member of CERN’s film-making club, Open Your Eyes Films. “The entries are extremely diverse and touch on almost every aspect of life. The creativity of short...

  17. Resurrecting Class : Class voting and cultural voting in postwar western societies (1956-1990)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.J. Achterberg (Peter); D. Houtman (Dick); J. van der Waal (Jeroen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBy means of a re-analysis of the most relevant data source - the international social mobility and politics file - this paper criticizes the newly grown consensus in political sociology that class voting has declined since World War II. An increase of crosscutting cultural voting, rooted

  18. "The Goddamndest, Toughest Voting Rights Bill": Critical Race Theory and the Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The author utilized Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the passage of the US Voting Rights Act (VRA) of 1965 in an effort to disrupt the simplistic, uncritical understandings of the US Civil Rights Movement common to school texts while also arguing for the ongoing importance of the VRA in a time when voting rights for people of color are under…

  19. "The Goddamndest, Toughest Voting Rights Bill": Critical Race Theory and the Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The author utilized Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the passage of the US Voting Rights Act (VRA) of 1965 in an effort to disrupt the simplistic, uncritical understandings of the US Civil Rights Movement common to school texts while also arguing for the ongoing importance of the VRA in a time when voting rights for people of color are under…

  20. E-VOTING EXPERIENCE IN BANGLADESH BY USING ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINES (EVMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mesbahuddin Sarker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting (e-Voting is using in many countries all over the world and has already proven to speed up the counting of votes as well as improve turnout among disabled voters. Bangladesh also has already introduced e-Voting by using Electronic Voting Machine (EVM in different city corporation and municipal elections and as a result, now election commission (EC of Bangladesh is planning to hold next general elections in the country due in 2014 with the help of EVMs. But the use of EVMs generated mixed reactions among the voters and the observers raised questions about the transparency of the process and integrity of the device. This paper presents some suggestions to be taken into account for any future election by using EVMs in order to minimize the public reactions.

  1. State legislators' intentions to vote and subsequent votes on tobacco control legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, B S; Dana, G S; Goldstein, A O; Bauman, K E; Cohen, J E; Gottlieb, N H; Solomon, L J; Munger, M C

    1997-07-01

    The predictive validity of state legislators' behavioral intentions in relation to their votes on tobacco control legislation was assessed by using the theory of planned behavior (I. Ajzen, 1991). Intentions to vote for cigarette tax increases were measured through interviews in the summer of 1994. A bill containing cigarette tax increases was considered about 8 months later. Votes were compared with intentions and were found to be consistent for 78% of these legislators (N = 120). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed a strong independent relationship between intentions and voting and a similar effect of political party; results suggested but did not confirm that votes were predicted by interactions between intentions and perceived control. Legislator surveys that use this conceptual model can provide results relevant to understanding tobacco policy development.

  2. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.

  3. Revealing the Anatomy of Vote Trading

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Omar A

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation in the form of vote trading, also known as logrolling, is central for law-making processes, shaping the development of democratic societies. Empirical evidence of logrolling is scarce and limited to highly specific situations because existing methods are not easily applicable to broader contexts. We have developed a general and scalable methodology for revealing a network of vote traders, allowing us to measure logrolling on a large scale. Analysis on more than 9 million votes spanning 40 years in the U.S. Congress reveals a higher logrolling prevalence in the Senate and an overall decreasing trend over recent congresses, coincidental with high levels of political polarization. Our method is applicable in multiple contexts, shedding light on many aspects of logrolling and opening new doors in the study of hidden cooperation.

  4. The Unconsidered Ballot: How Design Effects Voting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Susan King

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a preliminary study of the effect of ballot interface design on voting behavior. Finds significant problems related to human factors and the organization of information on the ballot on mechanical and electronic voting machines. (RS)

  5. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public goods game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one-shot ...... in a referendum, because voting may facilitate coordination due to signaling and commitment effects. We find that voting does have signaling and commitment effects but they are not strong enough to significantly improve the efficiency of thresholds....

  6. Voting on Thresholds for Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauchdobler, Julian; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2010-01-01

    Introducing a threshold in the sense of a minimal project size transforms a public-good game with an inefficient equilibrium into a coordination game with a set of Pareto-superior equilibria. Thresholds may therefore improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. In our one-shot e...... is approved in a referendum, because voting may facilitate coordination due to signaling and commitment effects. We find that voting does have signaling and commitment effects, but they are not strong enough to significantly improve the efficiency of thresholds....

  7. Measuring Voting Power in Convex Policy Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kurz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical power index analysis considers the individual’s ability to influence the aggregated group decision by changing its own vote, where all decisions and votes are assumed to be binary. In many practical applications we have more options than either “yes” or “no”. Here we generalize three important power indices to continuous convex policy spaces. This allows the analysis of a collection of economic problems like, e.g., tax rates or spending that otherwise would not be covered in binary models.

  8. CodeVoting Protection Against Automatic Vote Manipulation in an Uncontrolled Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim, Rui; Ribeiro,Carlos

    2007-01-01

    One of the major problems that prevent the widespread of Internet voting is the vulnerability of the voter’s computer. A computer connected to the Internet is exposed to virus, worms, spyware, malware and other threats that can endanger the election’s integrity. For instance, it is possible to write a virus that changes the voter’s vote to one predetermined vote on election’s day. It is possible to write such a virus so that the voter would not notice anything wrong with the...

  9. Results and summary of voting among the audience during presentation and discussion of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma clinical guidelines prepared by American Thyroid Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Soderstrom, Folke

    2013-01-01

    , related to the specific aspect, were presented to the audience. The responses from the audience were collected by an AudioResponseSystem (ARS voting system). The results of the voting showed in summary that European expert opinion leaders and an audience of specialists in treatment of Medullary Carcinoma...

  10. Electronic Voting: the Devil is in the Details

    CERN Document Server

    Enguehard, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Observing electronic voting from an international point of view gives some perspective about its genesis and evolution. An analysis of the voting process through its cultural, ontological, legal and political dimensions explains the difficulty to normalize this process. It appears that international organizations are not capable to properly defend the fundamental rights of the citizens. The approach that was taken when DRE voting computers appeared seems to have reoccured with VVAT voting computers and the european e-poll project.

  11. 22 CFR 1300.5 - Quorum and voting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1300.5 Foreign Relations MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE CORPORATION § 1300.5 Quorum and voting requirements. (a) Quorum requirements. A majority of the... the Board. (b) Voting. The Board votes on items of business in meetings conducted pursuant to...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.631 - Challenge of votes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum § 1230.631 Challenge of votes. (a) Challenge period. During the dates of the 3-consecutive day voting period and the 7 business days following... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Challenge of votes. 1230.631 Section...

  13. The Legal Struggles to Gain Americans the Right To Vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamoo, Samia J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the major milestones in the battle for voting rights focusing on the 15th, 19th, 24th, and 26th Amendments and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Considers the future role of direct voting, specifically initiatives and referendums, and questions whether initiatives and referendums will encourage voter turnout. (CMK)

  14. Legal requirements governing proxy voting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The requirements in Danish company law concerning proxy voting in companies whose shares have been accepted for listing on a regulated market have been successively tightened in recent years, and corporate governance principles have also led to the introduction of several requirements concerning...

  15. Personality and Attitude Determinants of Voting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, John C.; Severy, Lawrence J.

    1976-01-01

    Measures of racial attitude, conceptual style, commitment to candidate and electoral process, social-political evaluation, and voting intentions, were administered to white college students (N=320) before the 1972 Presidential election. Prediction of behavioral intentions becomes more powerful as attitudinal measures are made more directly…

  16. Structural and ideological voting in age cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Brug, W.

    2010-01-01

    In most West European countries the effects of long-term determinants of the vote − in particular social class, religion and left-right ideology − have slowly weakened since the late 1980s. This paper first describes differences between the EU member states in the extent of structural and ideologica

  17. SECURED ELECTRONIC VOTING PROTOCOL USING HYBRID CRYPTOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALAICHELVI V

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Voting play a really vital role in the democracy of our life. In this paper, we propose an electronic voting protocol. Our scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the current Internet. This method integrates the Internet convenience and cryptology. In the existing protocol the Tallier has to wait until the decryption key is received from the voter. So it will consume lot of time. But, the proposed protocol is based on the hybrid cryptosystem. In this, the ballot is encrypted using faster secret key algorithm and the digital envelope is encrypted using Tallier’s public key. So, the Tallier will decrypt the digital envelope using his own private key to get the secret key and then the encrypted ballot is decrypted using that secret key. So, comparatively the proposed protocol consumes less time. This paper also analyzes the various security issues involved in an electronic voting like security, privacy, authentication, anonymous, uniqueness, accuracy, fairness, efficiency and uncoercibility.

  18. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.……

  19. 7 CFR 1205.203 - Voting eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... husband or a wife is eligible to vote if he or she shares with his or her spouse in the proceeds of the... rent or share tenant. Thus, if a husband and wife are tenants or sharecropper on a farm, jointly... rental or sharecropping agreement is written, signed by both parties, or oral, provided both husband...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.403 - Voting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from each State to caucus separately for the purpose of electing a State spokesperson for each group. Election of each State spokesperson shall be by simple majority of all individual voters in attendance. In lieu of written ballots, a State spokesperson may be elected by voice vote or a show of hands. The...

  1. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.

  2. Why Young People Don't Vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Curtis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses several reasons for decreasing voter participation in the United States, specifically focusing on lack of voter participation by youth. Highlights recommendations for increasing young voter turnout. Presents three voting activity lesson plans for middle school students and three activities entitled "Increasing Participation in…

  3. Electronic voting in dental materials education: the impact on students' attitudes and exam performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Michele E

    2008-09-01

    Dental materials is an integral part of any undergraduate dental curriculum and is most commonly taught in a traditional didactic, lecture-based format. It suffers from the ignominy of being viewed by many as a dry, factual subject with little to excite or engage the student. In this article, the author presents the experimental use of an electronic voting (eVoting) system in an undergraduate dental materials course. The practical and aspirational aspects of its application are described. The objective was to assess the student perception of the experiment and the impact on end-of-course examination results. The eVoting system proved overwhelmingly popular with the students with 95 percent in favor of its use at the beginning of the course and 91 percent at the end. There was, however, no statistically significant impact on the results of the examination at the end of the course, when compared to the previous year's cohort of students for whom eVoting was not used. eVoting encouraged student interaction and engagement and contributed to student satisfaction but was not seen to affect the outcome measurement (end-of-course examination result).

  4. Implementation of Electronic Voting Machine with Multiple Preferences and Priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya G. P.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional paper based voting procedure was very long and time-consuming process and very much prone to errors. Polling by Electronic Voting Machine (EVM is a simple, safe and secure method that takes minimum of time. Current Electronic Voting Machine (EVMs used in LOK SABHA and ASSEMBLY elections accepts only one vote from each voter. But in elections such as GRAMA PANCHAYATH and COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES, where each voter casts their votes to more than one candidate, available voting machines will not work. The paper presents a PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE that accepts one or more votes depending on requirement. Mode control is included in EVM, through which it is possible to set the EVM to accept more than one vote from each voter depending on the type of elections. The main advantage of this type of EVM is to avoid the invalid votes especially in co-operative society elections where each voter has to cast vote for nine candidates.

  5. An Anonymous Voting Scheme based on Confirmation Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Kazi Md. Rokibul; Tamura, Shinsuke; Taniguchi, Shuji; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a new electronic voting (e-voting) scheme that fulfills all the security requirements of e-voting i.e. privacy, accuracy, universal verifiability, fairness, receipt-freeness, incoercibility, dispute-freeness, robustness, practicality and scalability; usually some of which are found to be traded. When compared with other existing schemes, this scheme requires much more simple computations and weaker assumptions about trustworthiness of individual election authorities. The key mechanism is the one that uses confirmation numbers involved in individual votes to make votes verifiable while disabling all entities including voters themselves to know the linkages between voters and their votes. Many existing e-voting schemes extensively deploy zero-knowledge proof (ZKP) to achieve verifiability. However, ZKP is expensive and complicated. The confirmation numbers attain the verifiability requirement in a much more simple and intuitive way, then the scheme becomes scalable and practical.

  6. Heuristic and exact solutions to the inverse power index problem for small voting bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Power indices are mappings that quantify the influence of the members of a voting body on collective decisions a priori. Their nonlinearity and discontinuity makes it difficult to compute inverse images, i.e., to determine a voting system which induces a power distribution as close as possible to a desired one. This paper considers approximations and exact solutions to this inverse problem for the Penrose-Banzhaf index, which are obtained by enumeration and integer linear programming techniques. They are compared to the results of three simple solution heuristics. The heuristics perform well in absolute terms but can be improved upon very considerably in relative terms. The findings complement known asymptotic results for large voting bodies and may improve termination criteria for local search algorithms.

  7. Towards a Global History of Voting: Sovereignty, the Diffusion of Ideas, and the Enchanted Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gilmartin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests a framework for moving toward a global history of voting and democracy that focuses less on the diffusion of European ideas (however important those ideas were than on embedding the history of voting within a worldwide history of ideas on sovereignty. The article posits a general framework for such a history focusing on a “conundrum of sovereignty” grounding legitimate rule in a space imagined as simultaneously within and outside worldly society. Rooted in a “secular theology” such ideas shaped in the 19th and 20th centuries the establishment of systems of mass voting (including the secret ballot, and the sovereignty of the “people” both in Europe and other parts of the world alike, in the process producing an image of the individual voter as an “enchanted individual.” The article looks at developments within Europe and in India in these terms.1

  8. Adaptive Consensus Voting Algorithm%自适应一致表决算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳城添; 王曦; 郑剑

    2011-01-01

    容错技术已经在许多领域的高可靠控制中得到应用,N版本程序技术是实现容错的基本手段之一.在软件系统中,表决算法可以屏蔽错误的输出结果.冗余技术可以防止错误的结果传递到系统的下一个子模块中,并且提高系统的安全性.许多表决算法在容错技术中得到广泛的应用,其中一致性表决算法同样得到了广泛的应用.但一致表决算法适合输出结果空间基数小的情况,因此更容易产生相同并错误的结果(IAW).针对这个问题,提出一种自适应的一致性表决算法,它将版本历史记录信息应用到一致性表决中,降低了不正确结果通过表决的概率,提高了系统安全性和可靠性.实验证明了所提算法的有效性.%Fault-tolerant technologies have been applied in many high reliability fields. N-version programming technology is one of those Fault-tolerant technologies. In the software system, voting algorithm can mask the error outputs,redundant technology can prevent false results from propagating to the next sub-module in the software system, and enhance the reliability of the system. Many voting algorithms are widely used in fault-tolerant technology, in which Consensus Voting Algorithm are also widely applied,but the consensus voting strategy is particularly effective in small output spaces because it automatically adjusts the voting to the changes in the effective output space cardinality. But the consensus voting algorithm is more prone to cause identical-and-wrong(IAW) results in this case. Therefore,to resolve this problem, this paper proposed an adaptive consensus voting algorithm. The history records information of modules are used to improve the power of consensus voting algorithm, the proposed algorithm reduces the probability of the incorrect results passing the voter and improves the system safety and reliability. Experiments demonstrate the power of our proposed algorithm.

  9. Personality and Self-regulation as Determinants of Rational Decision Making in a Political Voting Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Indina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of self-regulation and personality factors with rational decision making was investigated using an experimental model of political voting. The results revealed different sets of personality characteristics for rational and emotional voters. A self-regulation/personality typology of decision making was then constructed, and traits representing self-regulation, cognition, and personality were examined as predispositions toward rational decision making. As a result, specific connections among these variables were uncovered, through which the primary role of the conscious self-regulation system in the management of rational decision making in a political voting context was established.

  10. Urdu Text Classification using Majority Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Text classification is a tool to assign the predefined categories to the text documents using supervised machine learning algorithms. It has various practical applications like spam detection, sentiment detection, and detection of a natural language. Based on the idea we applied five well-known classification techniques on Urdu language corpus and assigned a class to the documents using majority voting. The corpus contains 21769 news documents of seven categories (Business, Entertainment, Culture, Health, Sports, and Weird. The algorithms were not able to work directly on the data, so we applied the preprocessing techniques like tokenization, stop words removal and a rule-based stemmer. After preprocessing 93400 features are extracted from the data to apply machine learning algorithms. Furthermore, we achieved up to 94% precision and recall using majority voting.

  11. Voting Intention and Choices: Are Voters Always Rational and Deliberative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Eva E; Tsai, Chia-Hung; Yen, Nai-Shing; Chen, Arbee L P; Lin, Wei-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Human rationality--the ability to behave in order to maximize the achievement of their presumed goals (i.e., their optimal choices)--is the foundation for democracy. Research evidence has suggested that voters may not make decisions after exhaustively processing relevant information; instead, our decision-making capacity may be restricted by our own biases and the environment. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which humans in a democratic society can be rational when making decisions in a serious, complex situation-voting in a local political election. We believe examining human rationality in a political election is important, because a well-functioning democracy rests largely upon the rational choices of individual voters. Previous research has shown that explicit political attitudes predict voting intention and choices (i.e., actual votes) in democratic societies, indicating that people are able to reason comprehensively when making voting decisions. Other work, though, has demonstrated that the attitudes of which we may not be aware, such as our implicit (e.g., subconscious) preferences, can predict voting choices, which may question the well-functioning democracy. In this study, we systematically examined predictors on voting intention and choices in the 2014 mayoral election in Taipei, Taiwan. Results indicate that explicit political party preferences had the largest impact on voting intention and choices. Moreover, implicit political party preferences interacted with explicit political party preferences in accounting for voting intention, and in turn predicted voting choices. Ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others were found to predict voting choices, but not voting intention. In sum, to the comfort of democracy, voters appeared to engage mainly explicit, controlled processes in making their decisions; but findings on ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others may suggest otherwise.

  12. Voting Intention and Choices: Are Voters Always Rational and Deliberative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ching Lee

    Full Text Available Human rationality--the ability to behave in order to maximize the achievement of their presumed goals (i.e., their optimal choices--is the foundation for democracy. Research evidence has suggested that voters may not make decisions after exhaustively processing relevant information; instead, our decision-making capacity may be restricted by our own biases and the environment. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which humans in a democratic society can be rational when making decisions in a serious, complex situation-voting in a local political election. We believe examining human rationality in a political election is important, because a well-functioning democracy rests largely upon the rational choices of individual voters. Previous research has shown that explicit political attitudes predict voting intention and choices (i.e., actual votes in democratic societies, indicating that people are able to reason comprehensively when making voting decisions. Other work, though, has demonstrated that the attitudes of which we may not be aware, such as our implicit (e.g., subconscious preferences, can predict voting choices, which may question the well-functioning democracy. In this study, we systematically examined predictors on voting intention and choices in the 2014 mayoral election in Taipei, Taiwan. Results indicate that explicit political party preferences had the largest impact on voting intention and choices. Moreover, implicit political party preferences interacted with explicit political party preferences in accounting for voting intention, and in turn predicted voting choices. Ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others were found to predict voting choices, but not voting intention. In sum, to the comfort of democracy, voters appeared to engage mainly explicit, controlled processes in making their decisions; but findings on ethnic identity and perceived voting intention of significant others may suggest

  13. Computing the nucleolus of weighted voting games

    CERN Document Server

    Elkind, Edith

    2008-01-01

    Weighted voting games (WVG) are coalitional games in which an agent's contribution to a coalition is given by his it weight, and a coalition wins if its total weight meets or exceeds a given quota. These games model decision-making in political bodies as well as collaboration and surplus division in multiagent domains. The computational complexity of various solution concepts for weighted voting games received a lot of attention in recent years. In particular, Elkind et al.(2007) studied the complexity of stability-related solution concepts in WVGs, namely, of the core, the least core, and the nucleolus. While they have completely characterized the algorithmic complexity of the core and the least core, for the nucleolus they have only provided an NP-hardness result. In this paper, we solve an open problem posed by Elkind et al. by showing that the nucleolus of WVGs, and, more generally, k-vector weighted voting games with fixed k, can be computed in pseudopolynomial time, i.e., there exists an algorithm that ...

  14. A Comparison of Three Voting Methods for Bagging with the MLEM2 Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton Cohagan; Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse; Zdzislaw S. Hippe

    2010-03-17

    This paper presents results of experiments on some data sets using bagging on the MLEM2 rule induction algorithm. Three different methods of ensemble voting, based on support (a non-democratic voting in which ensembles vote with their strengths), strength only (an ensemble with the largest strength decides to which concept a case belongs) and democratic voting (each ensemble has at most one vote) were used. Our conclusions are that though in most cases democratic voting was the best, it is not significantly better than voting based on support. The strength voting was the worst voting method.

  15. Ising percolation in a three-state majority vote model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Martínez-Cruz, M. A.; Gayosso Martínez, Felipe; Mena, Baltasar; Tobon, Atalo; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel; Samayoa, Didier

    2017-02-01

    In this Letter, we introduce a three-state majority vote model in which each voter adopts a state of a majority of its active neighbors, if exist, but the voter becomes uncommitted if its active neighbors are in a tie, or all neighbors are the uncommitted. Numerical simulations were performed on square lattices of different linear size with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from a random distribution of active voters, the model leads to a stable non-consensus state in which three opinions coexist. We found that the "magnetization" of the non-consensus state and the concentration of uncommitted voters in it are governed by an initial composition of system and are independent of the lattice size. Furthermore, we found that a configuration of the stable non-consensus state undergoes a second order percolation transition at a critical concentration of voters holding the same opinion. Numerical simulations suggest that this transition belongs to the same universality class as the Ising percolation. These findings highlight the effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors on the critical behavior of models obeying the majority vote rule whenever a strict majority exists.

  16. Ising percolation in a three-state majority vote model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Martínez-Cruz, M.A.; Gayosso Martínez, Felipe [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Tobon, Atalo; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Three-state non-consensus majority voter model is introduced. • Phase transition in the absorbing state non-consensus is revealed. • The percolation transition belongs to the universality class of Ising percolation. • The effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors is highlighted. - Abstract: In this Letter, we introduce a three-state majority vote model in which each voter adopts a state of a majority of its active neighbors, if exist, but the voter becomes uncommitted if its active neighbors are in a tie, or all neighbors are the uncommitted. Numerical simulations were performed on square lattices of different linear size with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from a random distribution of active voters, the model leads to a stable non-consensus state in which three opinions coexist. We found that the “magnetization” of the non-consensus state and the concentration of uncommitted voters in it are governed by an initial composition of system and are independent of the lattice size. Furthermore, we found that a configuration of the stable non-consensus state undergoes a second order percolation transition at a critical concentration of voters holding the same opinion. Numerical simulations suggest that this transition belongs to the same universality class as the Ising percolation. These findings highlight the effect of an updating rule for a tie between voter neighbors on the critical behavior of models obeying the majority vote rule whenever a strict majority exists.

  17. Poverty and vote buying: Survey-based evidence from Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Sandholt; Justesen, Mogens K.

    2014-01-01

    Alongside the spread of democracy in the developing world, vote buying has emerged as an integral part of election campaigns. Yet, we know little about the causes of vote buying in young democracies. In this paper, we analyse the sources of vote buying in sub-Saharan African. Using data from...... the Afrobarometer, we focus on the impact of poverty on vote buying at the individual- and country-level. Results from multilevel regressions show that poor voters are significantly more likely to be targets of vote buying than wealthier voters. This effect increases when elections are highly competitive. Thus......, micro-level poverty seems to be an important source of vote buying in Africa and has major implications for the way electoral democracy operates....

  18. Economic Policy Voting and Incumbency: Unemployment in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dassonneville, Ruth; Michael S. Lewis-Beck

    2013-01-01

    The economic voting literature has been dominated by the incumbency-oriented hypothesis, where voters reward or punish government at the ballot box according to economic performance. The alternative, policy-oriented hypothesis, where voters favor parties closest to their issue position, has been neglected in this literature. We explore policy voting with respect to an archetypal economic policy issue – unemployment. Voters who favor lower unemployment should tend to vote for left parties, sin...

  19. On minimum sum representations for weighted voting games

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Sascha

    2011-01-01

    A proposal in a weighted voting game is accepted if the sum of the (non-negative) weights of the "yea" voters is at least as large as a given quota. Several authors have considered representations of weighted voting games with minimum sum, where the weights and the quota are restricted to be integers. Freixas and Molinero have classified all weighted voting games without a unique minimum sum representation for up to 8 voters. Here we exhaustively classify all weighted voting games consisting of 9 voters which do not admit a unique minimum sum integer weight representation.

  20. Quantum anonymous voting with unweighted continuous-variable graph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Feng, Yanyan; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the revealing topological structures of continuous-variable graph state (CVGS), we investigate the design of quantum voting scheme, which has serious advantages over the conventional ones in terms of efficiency and graphicness. Three phases are included, i.e., the preparing phase, the voting phase and the counting phase, together with three parties, i.e., the voters, the tallyman and the ballot agency. Two major voting operations are performed on the yielded CVGS in the voting process, namely the local rotation transformation and the displacement operation. The voting information is carried by the CVGS established before hand, whose persistent entanglement is deployed to keep the privacy of votes and the anonymity of legal voters. For practical applications, two CVGS-based quantum ballots, i.e., comparative ballot and anonymous survey, are specially designed, followed by the extended ballot schemes for the binary-valued and multi-valued ballots under some constraints for the voting design. Security is ensured by entanglement of the CVGS, the voting operations and the laws of quantum mechanics. The proposed schemes can be implemented using the standard off-the-shelf components when compared to discrete-variable quantum voting schemes attributing to the characteristics of the CV-based quantum cryptography.

  1. 2010 Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Election Assistance Commission — This dataset contains data about military and overseas voting for the 2010 election cycle. The dataset and corresponding report address ballot transmissions to, and...

  2. 2008 Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Election Assistance Commission — This dataset contains data about military and overseas voting for the 2008 election cycle. The dataset and corresponding report address ballot transmissions to, and...

  3. Tribal Hands and Ethnic Votes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic politics is a serious domestic challenge in Iran. Non-Persian communities are mobilizing to claim their rights and to demand representation in a system that activists claim is biased against minorities and the peripheral regions. Yet the inner workings of contemporary Iranian ethnic politics...... are largely understudied. This article explores recent evolutions in the role that ethnicity, regionalism and tribalism plays in Iranian domestic politics. It focuses on how these interconnected factors figured in the 2013 presidential and local council elections in Iran in a particular province that has...

  4. 77 FR 50761 - GWI Voting Trust and R. Lawrence McCaffery, Voting Trustee-Control Exemption-RailAmerica, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ..., they will not be in control of any railroads prior to the stock being placed in the Voting Trust, and... Surface Transportation Board GWI Voting Trust and R. Lawrence McCaffery, Voting Trustee-- Control... (Voting Trustee), (collectively, applicants) have filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire control...

  5. Your Light Switch Is Your Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    primarily on citizen awareness, participation and solidarity in mitigating climate change. In its sister campaign (“Vote Earth”), the discourse of representative democracy was deployed to constitute an imaginary global electorate. The analysis focuses on (a) the intense drive to visualise and spectacularise...... (mediational means) the simple act of switching off the lights and the consequences of such an act; (b) the massive infrastructure of communication to synchronise the collective performance of a global ‘climate public’; (c) the discursive ‘memory work’ to archive and memorialise the hour, eg. on You...

  6. E-voting discourses in the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Haren, van R.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative case study of the e-voting discourses in the UK and the Netherlands was performed based on the theory of strategic niche management. In both countries, eight e-voting experts were interviewed on their expectations, risk estimations, cooperation and learning experiences. The results sho

  7. 25 CFR 217.6 - Method of casting votes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the status quo. At the time they notify the superintendent of the votes cast on an issue, each joint... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of casting votes. 217.6 Section 217.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS MANAGEMENT OF TRIBAL ASSETS...

  8. Internet voting: a monstrous alliance between democracy and technology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Sudweeks, F.; Hrachovec, H.; Ess, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at finding a cultural explanation of the controversy around the introduction of electronic voting, especially Internet voting. In her PhD thesis, Martijntje Smits (2002b) argues that controversies surrounding the introduction of new technologies can often be explained in terms

  9. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  10. Internet voting: a monstrous alliance between democracy and technology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Sudweeks, F.; Hrachovec, H.; Ess, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at finding a cultural explanation of the controversy around the introduction of electronic voting, especially Internet voting. In her PhD thesis, Martijntje Smits (2002b) argues that controversies surrounding the introduction of new technologies can often be explained in terms

  11. Engaging Students Politically Goes beyond the Voting Booth. Carnegie Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The author provides a response to the question of ongoing potential for civic engagement programs such as Carnegie's Political Engagement Project if voting among young adults soars in the upcoming election, and concludes that need for continued efforts will remain strong even if voting among 18-30 year olds shoots up in November. Beaumont…

  12. Comparing Youth Opinions toward Compulsory Voting across Five Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Jessamay T.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a comparative case study design to examine youth (ages 13-20) opinions toward compulsory voting across five democratic countries: Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. Youth responses toward compulsory voting demonstrate how youth come to learn about citizen rights and responsibilities with varied understandings…

  13. Addressing Common Student Errors with Classroom Voting in Multivariable Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Parker, Mark; Zullo, Holly; Stewart, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One technique for identifying and addressing common student errors is the method of classroom voting, in which the instructor presents a multiple-choice question to the class, and after a few minutes for consideration and small group discussion, each student votes on the correct answer, often using a hand-held electronic clicker. If a large number…

  14. Gendering the vote for populist radical-right parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, C.H.B.M.; Zaslove, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Why do more men than women vote for populist radical-right (PRR) parties? And do more men than women still vote for the PRR? Can attitudes regarding gender and gender equality explain these differences (if they exist)? These are the questions that Spierings and Zaslove explore in this article. They

  15. Vote Markets, Latent Opportunism, and the Secret Ballot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens Kamp; Bøttkjær, Louise Thorn; Gates, Scott

    respondents in South Africa conducted in the wake of the 2016 municipal elections. Using these data, we analyze how vote (and turnout) buying affects vote choice for the dominant party – ANC – in South Africa, and how this relationship is shaped by voter confidence in the secret ballot. Our results suggest...

  16. The theory of voting and equilibria in noncooperative games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte

    1993-01-01

    We consider the problem of modeling voting situations, seeking models and equilibrium concepts which are easier to incorporate in large sequential decision games than the models and solution concepts used by the "theory of voting." It is demonstrated that one can avoid using very refined solution...

  17. Vote Centers as a Strategy to Control Election Administration Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Folz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising costs of election administration in an era of fiscal stress have motivated some local officials to test the feasibility of ideas for reducing election costs while enhancing voter convenience and perhaps even increasing voter turnout. One such pilot project in a suburban community in the South involved replacing precinct-based voting on election day with a vote center that all voters could use regardless of their precinct of residence. A comparison of election costs across two municipal elections showed that replacing precinct-based voting with an election day vote center resulted in substantial cost savings. While there was no statistical difference in voter turnout in municipal elections held before and after implementation of the pilot project, voters were highly satisfied with the convenience of the vote center as well as other aspects of their voting experience. The findings suggest that an election day vote center can be a viable strategy to control election costs and enhance voters’ perceptions of the convenience of voting.

  18. A Parallel Voting Scheme for Aspect Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珂; 石川真澄

    1995-01-01

    Recently,a qualitative approach was proposed for 3-D shape recovery based on a hybrid object representation[1].In this approach,aspect recovery is the most important stage which binds regions in the image into meaningful aspects to support 3-D primitive recovery.There is no known polynomial time algorithm to solve this problem.the previous approach dealt with this problem by using a heuristic method based on the conditional probability.Unlike the previous method,this paper presents a novel parallel voting scheme to conquer the problem for efficiency.For this purpose,the previous global aspect representation is replaced with a distributed representation of aspects.Based on this representation,a three-layer parallel voting network for aspect recovery is proposed.For evaluating likelihood,a continuous Hopfield net is employed so that all aspect coverings in decreasing order of likelihood can be enumerated.The paper describes this method in detail and demonstrates its usefulness with simulation.

  19. Did Your Mailed Ballot Count: The Unrecognized Unreliability of Voting By Mail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Yasinsac

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Voting By Mail (VBM was developed to support absentee voters. It was originally intended to handle canonical absentee voters who now fall under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Voting Act (UOCAVA and those with legally acceptable reasons for being unable to appear at the polls on Election Day. Its use slowly expanded to more casual justifications, such as those with planned Election Day travel. More recently, there has been a trend of further expansion to on-demand VBM in many states. As a result, the percentage of VBM ballots has skyrocketed, with little research regarding its impacts on security, privacy, reliability, and accuracy on U. S. elections. In virtually every close election, the outcome must await tabulation of VBM ballots. Yet, VBM may be the least reliable voting approach in wide spread use today. Vote By Mail fraud is recognized by some as possibly the single greatest security vulnerability in U. S. elections. The lack of in-person, at-the-polls accountability makes absentee ballots the tool of choice for those inclined to commit fraud," the Florida Department of Law Enforcement concluded in 1998, after a mayoral election in Miami was thrown out when officials learned that "vote brokers" had signed hundreds of phony absentee ballots.1 Conversely, others recognize theoretical weaknesses in VBM, but generally dismiss its practical impact [1, 2]. Others continue to promote VBM expansion [3, 4]. In this paper, we identify inherent, widespread vulnerability in VBM systems and illustrate their practical impact with numerous examples. We show specifically why VBM systems are not auditable and demonstrate how their unreliability can negatively impact real elections.

  20. Majority-Vote on Directed BARABÁSI-ALBERT Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    On directed Barabási-Albert networks with two and seven neighbours selected by each added site, the Ising model was seen not to show a spontaneous magnetisation. Instead, the decay time for flipping of the magnetisation followed an Arrhenius law for Metropolis and Glauber algorithms, but for Wolff cluster flipping the magnetisation decayed exponentially with time. On these networks the Majority-vote model with noise is now studied through Monte Carlo simulations. However, in this model, the order-disorder phase transition of the order parameter is well defined in this system. We calculate the value of the critical noise parameter qc for several values of connectivity z of the directed Barabási-Albert network. The critical exponentes β/ν, γ/ν and 1/ν were calculated for several values of z.

  1. A Type Theoretic Investigation of the Verification of Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    is correct, and on the other hand we can we trust that the secrecy of the vote is preserved. These seemingly contradictory statements have fuelled new developments in cryptography, but the question remain can we trust these developments? The thesis of my dissertation is that it possible to formalise...... the proofs used to justify both the correctness and security of such cryptographic constructions inside type theory. This requires a theory of probabilities in order to describe the probabilistic algorithms used. My contributions include, using types and type isomorphisms to simplify both specification...... and calculation of probabilities, in particular ∑-types are used as they correspond to summation. Furthermore, I extend the type theory with process algebraic constructions in order to capture attack games as defined by semantic security in cryptography. To type these processes I propose a session type system...

  2. Europhile media and Eurosceptic voting: effects of news media coverage on Eurosceptic voting in the 2009 European Parliamentary elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spanje, J.; de Vreese, C.

    2014-01-01

    Extant research is not very specific about when the media matter for vote choice. In this study, we test multiple theories about the influences of the media on vote choice in 21 countries. The European Parliamentary (EP) election campaign offers a unique research context to test these influences. We

  3. Electoral indifference: reflections on the significance of blank votes, null votes and abstentions in contemporary political theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Novaes Ramos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyses the impact of blank and annulled votes and electoral abstention upon the legitimacy of representative democracies with the help of some classic contemporary political theory authors of the end of the 20th century (specifically liberal authors and their critics. Considering elections are central to present day western democracies, even if they do not overtake politics as a whole, the goal is to understand the meaning of such “non-decisional” events to nowadays representative systems with special emphasis in the interpretations of Giovanni Sartori, Seymour Lipset, Samuel Huntington, Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba on one side, and Carole Pateman, C.B. Macpherson and Pierre Bourdieu on the other.

  4. AVNM: A Voting based Novel Mathematical Rule for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthi, Ankit; Mittal, Namita

    2016-12-01

    In machine learning, the accuracy of the system depends upon classification result. Classification accuracy plays an imperative role in various domains. Non-parametric classifier like K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is the most widely used classifier for pattern analysis. Besides its easiness, simplicity and effectiveness characteristics, the main problem associated with KNN classifier is the selection of a number of nearest neighbors i.e. "k" for computation. At present, it is hard to find the optimal value of "k" using any statistical algorithm, which gives perfect accuracy in terms of low misclassification error rate. Motivated by the prescribed problem, a new sample space reduction weighted voting mathematical rule (AVNM) is proposed for classification in machine learning. The proposed AVNM rule is also non-parametric in nature like KNN. AVNM uses the weighted voting mechanism with sample space reduction to learn and examine the predicted class label for unidentified sample. AVNM is free from any initial selection of predefined variable and neighbor selection as found in KNN algorithm. The proposed classifier also reduces the effect of outliers. To verify the performance of the proposed AVNM classifier, experiments are made on 10 standard datasets taken from UCI database and one manually created dataset. The experimental result shows that the proposed AVNM rule outperforms the KNN classifier and its variants. Experimentation results based on confusion matrix accuracy parameter proves higher accuracy value with AVNM rule. The proposed AVNM rule is based on sample space reduction mechanism for identification of an optimal number of nearest neighbor selections. AVNM results in better classification accuracy and minimum error rate as compared with the state-of-art algorithm, KNN, and its variants. The proposed rule automates the selection of nearest neighbor selection and improves classification rate for UCI dataset and manually created dataset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  5. Ethnic voting in the Andes: how ethnicity and ethnic attitudes shape presidential vote choice

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, S. G. W.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of ethnic politics has been a prominent feature of Latin America’s recent history, particularly in the Andes where much of the population claim some indigenous descent. Prominent politicians use ethnicity to frame important aspects of their political projects and identities, survey data show an emerging ethnic voting gap in several countries, and political protests, debates, and media coverage periodically expose strong ethnic undercurrents. Yet existing scholarship has not examined ...

  6. Your Light Switch Is Your Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    This presentation reports on a study of how discourses of environmental citizenship, sustainability and climate change are communicated and mediated in a global media event. “Earth Hour” began in 2007 in Sydney, Australia, and in 2009 it was proclaimed a successful global event. The event focused...... primarily on citizen awareness, participation and solidarity in mitigating climate change. In its sister campaign (“Vote Earth”), the discourse of representative democracy was deployed to constitute an imaginary global electorate. The analysis focuses on (a) the intense drive to visualise and spectacularise...... (mediational means) the simple act of switching off the lights and the consequences of such an act; (b) the massive infrastructure of communication to synchronise the collective performance of a global ‘climate public’; (c) the discursive ‘memory work’ to archive and memorialise the hour, eg. on You...

  7. Digital herders and phase transition in a voting model

    CERN Document Server

    Hisakado, Masato

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, $C_1$ and $C_2$. We set two types of voters--herders and independents. The voting of independent voters is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of votes. Herders always select the majority of the previous $r$ votes, which is visible to them. We call them digital herders. We can accurately calculate the distribution of votes for special cases. When $r\\geq 3$, we find that a phase transition occurs at the upper limit of $t$, where $t$ is the discrete time (or number of votes). As the fraction of herders increases, the model features a phase transition beyond which a state where most voters make the correct choice coexists with one where most of them are wrong. On the other hand, when $r<3$, there is no phase transition. In this case, the herder's performance is the same as that of the independent voters. At last, from the simple experiments, we recognize the behavior of human beings.

  8. A Electronic Voting Scheme Achieved by Using Quantum Proxy Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Ding, Li-Yuan; Yu, Yao-Feng; Li, Peng-Fei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new electronic voting scheme using Bell entangled states as quantum channels. This scheme is based on quantum proxy signature. The voter Alice, vote management center Bob, teller Charlie and scrutineer Diana only perform single particle measurement to realize the electronic voting process. So the scheme reduces the technical difficulty and increases operation efficiency. It can be easily realized. We use quantum key distribution and one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to guarantee its anonymity, verifiability, unforgetability and undeniability.

  9. Voting in a Stochastic Environment: The Case of Two Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Chebotarev, P Yu; Tsodikova, Ya Yu; Lezina, Z M; Borzenko, V I

    2011-01-01

    Social dynamics determined by voting in a stochastic environment is analyzed for a society composed of two cohesive groups of similar size. Within the model of random walks determined by voting, explicit formulas are derived for the capital increments of the groups against the parameters of the environment and "claim thresholds" of the groups. The "unanimous acceptance" and "unanimous rejection" group rules are considered as the voting procedures. Claim thresholds are evaluated that are most beneficial to the participants of the groups and to the society as a whole.

  10. The influence of the political vote on the results of the parliamentarian Romanian elections: the political discourse, the electoral results and the public management of the victory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Negrescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The 2012 Romanian parliamentarian elections are a novelty in the Romanian political life. For the first time, a political alliance of parties, the Social Liberal Union (USL, managed to comfortably win the elections by getting a high majority of votes. Some analysts tend to put the results on the account of the electoral system, others on the negative vote against the former governmental coalition. Explaining the results of this alliance is therefore very important for the understanding of the Romanian political system. This article is going to evaluate the Romanian uninominal vote by highlighting the impact of the political vote and other variables on the results of the parliamentarian elections and the political discourse.

  11. Teaching voters new tricks: The effect of partisan absentee vote-by-mail get-out-the-vote efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J.G. Hassell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years policy innovators have implemented a variety of new voting reforms aimed at increasing the ways voters can cast their ballot and with it voter turnout. While these efforts have largely suggested that the net effect of these reforms has been minimal, scholars have not analyzed the effectiveness of the use of these methods by partisan campaigns to increase targeted turnout or to change the methods voters use to cast their ballot. In collaboration with a state party organization, I examine the effect of a partisan get-out-the-vote effort using an absentee vote-by-mail push. I find that these get-out-the-vote efforts to target voters using absentee ballot request forms are effective at shifting more voters to vote absentee. However, while pushing absentee vote-by-mail balloting may bank votes for a campaign before Election Day, the overall effect of partisan campaigns’ use of absentee ballot efforts to increase turnout appears limited.

  12. Design of a GSM Based Electronic Voting Machine with Voter Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a GSM based electronic voting machine with voter tracking. The design presented here follows a GSM based approach to send the polling results to a base station via mobile network. Infrared sensors have been used for tracking the information regarding the voters. After the voting process has been over, the results are sent to the base station for various analyses and declaring the verdict. This system is more secured and chances of tampering the results are reduced. The simulation of the system is done on Proteus Professional Software v8.0. The design presented in this paper is more secured and appropriate according to modern day requirements.

  13. Two kinds of Phase transitions in a Voting model

    CERN Document Server

    Hisakado, Masato

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C_1 and C_2. We consider two types of voters--herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase transitions coexist together. We compared our results to the conclusions of experiments and identified the phase transitions in the upper t limit using analysis of human behavior obtained from experiments.

  14. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (Spring 2015 - Spring 2016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  15. Public goods and voting on formal sanction schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Kamei, Kenju

    2011-01-01

    or exacerbating the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. We find that cooperative orientation, political attitude, gender and intelligence have a small but sometimes significant influence on voting....

  16. Public Goods and Voting on Formal Sanction Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Kamei, Kenju

    the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. But despite uniform money payoffs implying common interest in those parameters, voting patterns suggest significant influence of cooperative orientation, political...

  17. Executive compensation, financial performance and say on pay votes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 was passed as a response to the late-2000s recession. A shareholder opt-in executive pay vote was introduced as a solution to the managerial power problem. We examine the results of this recommended solution and prove its viability. We find that there is a stronger association between high CEO pay and low say-on-pay vote support for firms with negative financial performance. We also find the market-to-book ratio is significantly lower for companies that failed say-on-pay votes. Furthermore, regulated industries such as financial services are more likely receive unfavourable say-on-pay votes. We document an increase in the sensitivity of CEO pay to poor performance. Overall, these finds are consistent with calls for less “rewards for failure” that led to the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

  18. Information-Theoretically Secure Voting Without an Honest Majority

    CERN Document Server

    Broadbent, Anne

    2008-01-01

    We present three voting protocols with unconditional privacy and information-theoretic correctness, without assuming any bound on the number of corrupt voters or voting authorities. All protocols have polynomial complexity and require private channels and a simultaneous broadcast channel. Our first protocol is a basic voting scheme which allows voters to interact in order to compute the tally. Privacy of the ballot is unconditional, but any voter can cause the protocol to fail, in which case information about the tally may nevertheless transpire. Our second protocol introduces voting authorities which allow the implementation of the first protocol, while reducing the interaction and limiting it to be only between voters and authorities and among the authorities themselves. The simultaneous broadcast is also limited to the authorities. As long as a single authority is honest, the privacy is unconditional, however, a single corrupt authority or a single corrupt voter can cause the protocol to fail. Our final pr...

  19. Towards A Secure Remote Electronic Voting in Tanzania Organizational Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Kimbi

    Full Text Available This paper discusses organizational challenges that hinder the implementation of secure remote electronic voting in Tanzania and proposes workable solutions to address the identified challenges. The work presented in this paper complements a proposed secu ...

  20. Election Districts and Precincts, vote, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'vote'. Data by this publisher are...

  1. Statistical analysis of NOMAO customer votes for spots of France

    CERN Document Server

    Palovics, Robert; Benczur, Andras; Pap, Julia; Ermann, Leonardo; Phan, Samuel; Chepelianskii, Alexei D; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of votes of customers for spots of France collected by the startup company NOMAO. The frequencies of votes per spot and per customer are characterized by a power law distributions which remain stable on a time scale of a decade when the number of votes is varied by almost two orders of magnitude. Using the computer science methods we explore the spectrum and the eigenvalues of a matrix containing user ratings to geolocalized items. Eigenvalues nicely map to large towns and regions but show certain level of instability as we modify the interpretation of the underlying matrix. We evaluate imputation strategies that provide improved prediction performance by reaching geographically smooth eigenvectors. We point on possible links between distribution of votes and the phenomenon of self-organized criticality.

  2. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (Spring 2017 - present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County.If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  3. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (Fall 2016 - present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  4. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-6 - Proxy voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-6 Proxy voting. If you are an investment adviser registered or required to be registered under section 203 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80b-3), it... section 206(4) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80b-6(4)), for you to exercise voting authority with respect to...

  5. Scaling Roll Call Votes with wnominate in R

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a software package designed to estimate Poole and Rosenthal W-NOMINATE scores in R. The package uses a logistic regression model to analyze political choice data, usually (though not exclusively) from a legislative setting. In contrast to other scaling methods, W-NOMINATE explicitly assumes probabilistic voting based on a spatial utility function, where the parameters of the utility function and the spatial coordinates of the legislators and the votes can all be estimated ...

  6. PERILAKU NON-VOTING DALAM PEMILIHAN KEPALA DAERAH KOTA PADANG PERIODE 2008-2013 (Studi Kasus di Kecamatan Koto Tangah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aina Aina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The direct provincial and mayoral election often witnesses the tendency of low voter turnout, as happened in Padang city mayoral election in 2008. This research seeks to reveal the non-voting behavior and the causes of the behavior in Koto Tangah district, which has the lowest voter turnout; 42.51%. This research is a descriptive-qualitative where data is obtained by using in-depth interview technique and documentation study. Snowball sampling is used to select sample of voters who vote in Padang 2008 election. The data was then analyzed using qualitative method. The result shows that there were two types of non-voting behavior in Koto Tangah community in Padang 2008 mayoral election; (1 did not come to the ballot box; (2 did come to the ballot box but did not cast ballots properly. The behavior was caused by several factors; (1 psychological factor; (2 factor of political system; (3 factor of political trust; and (4 factor of socio-economic status. Psychological factor means non-voters’ characters tend to be apathetic and ignorant of politics. In terms of political system factor, non-voting behavior was driven by dissatisfaction with the government’s performance which showed no change. Political trust factor showed that most non-voters do not believe in the processes and results of the local elections. Meanwhile, in socio-economic status, most non-voters are educated. On the other hand, employment and income also contributed to the non-voting behavior. Key words: direct local election, Padang mayoral election, low voter turnout, non-voting behavior

  7. Evaluating Voting Competence in Persons with Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Tiraboschi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Voting by persons with dementia raises questions about their decision-making capacity. Methods specifically addressing voting capacity of demented people have been proposed in the US, but never tested elsewhere. We translated and adapted the US Competence Assessment Tool for Voting (CAT-V to the Italian context, using it before 2006 elections for Prime Minister. Consisting of a brief questionnaire, this tool evaluates the following decision-making abilities: understanding nature and effect of voting, expressing a choice, and reasoning about voting choices. Subjects' performance was examined in relation to dementia severity. Of 38 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD enrolled in the study, only three scored the maximum on all CAT-V items. MMSE and CAT-V scores correlated only moderately (=0.59; <0.0001 with one another, reflecting the variability of subjects' performance at any disease stage. Most participants (90%, although performing poorly on understanding and reasoning items, scored the maximum on the choice measure. Our results imply that voting capacity in AD is only roughly predicted by MMSE scores and may more accurately be measured by a structured questionnaire, such as the CAT-V. Among the decision-making abilities evaluated by the CAT-V, expressing a choice was by far the least affected by the dementing process.

  8. Voting Places, Voting Districts, Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Voting Places dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2001. It is described...

  9. Voting Places, Voting Polls, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Voting Places dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is described...

  10. Under threat by popular vote: German-speaking immigrants' affect and cognitions following the Swiss vote against mass immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudert, Selma Carolin; Janke, Stefan; Greifeneder, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    A popular initiative in support of regulating future immigration to Switzerland was accepted by the electorate in 2014. Assuming that the initiative acted as an exclusionary threat for current immigrants of Switzerland, we conducted an online survey among a sample of highly-skilled German-speaking immigrants ("expats"). Participants reported having experienced negative affect following the vote. Moreover, having a more left-wing orientation, living in a political constituency that had voted pro-regulation and having proportionally few Swiss friends positively predicted negative affect following the vote. Negative affect was associated with a reported negative change in one's attitudes towards Switzerland, increased considerations to leave the country, and impaired satisfaction with life. In sum, the results suggest that a powerful exclusionary threat such as a national vote may be experienced as distressful by highly-skilled immigrants currently living in the country.

  11. "... Take up thy bed, and vote." Measuring the relationship between voting behaviour and indicators of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Kevin J; Doyle, Orla M

    2007-08-01

    In most countries health policy is an important part of the political agenda. Yet few studies have examined the relationship between the two. This study investigates the association between health and voter turnout in Britain using the National Child Development Study. Self-rated general health, the Malaise Inventory score and indicators of smoking and alcohol consumption, as measured at ages 23, 33 and 42, are regressed on voter turnout in the 1979, 1987 and 1997 general elections. The results indicate that individuals with poor general and mental health and smokers are less likely to vote at election time.

  12. A Novel Line Space Voting Method for Vanishing-Point Detection of General Road Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongsheng Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanishing-point detection is an important component for the visual navigation system of an autonomous mobile robot. In this paper, we present a novel line space voting method for fast vanishing-point detection. First, the line segments are detected from the road image by the line segment detector (LSD method according to the pixel’s gradient and texture orientation computed by the Sobel operator. Then, the vanishing-point of the road is voted on by considering the points of the lines and their neighborhood spaces with weighting methods. Our algorithm is simple, fast, and easy to implement with high accuracy. It has been experimentally tested with over hundreds of structured and unstructured road images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective and can meet the real-time requirements of navigation for autonomous mobile robots and unmanned ground vehicles.

  13. A Novel Line Space Voting Method for Vanishing-Point Detection of General Road Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zongsheng; Fu, Weiping; Xue, Ru; Wang, Wen

    2016-06-23

    Vanishing-point detection is an important component for the visual navigation system of an autonomous mobile robot. In this paper, we present a novel line space voting method for fast vanishing-point detection. First, the line segments are detected from the road image by the line segment detector (LSD) method according to the pixel's gradient and texture orientation computed by the Sobel operator. Then, the vanishing-point of the road is voted on by considering the points of the lines and their neighborhood spaces with weighting methods. Our algorithm is simple, fast, and easy to implement with high accuracy. It has been experimentally tested with over hundreds of structured and unstructured road images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective and can meet the real-time requirements of navigation for autonomous mobile robots and unmanned ground vehicles.

  14. The enhancement of audience participation in telemedicine education by the use of electronic voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D G; Bakewell, M A; Buzila, S M; Duyverman, H; Mitchell, J G; Morris, R S; Robinson, P J

    1999-01-01

    The rotation of trainee registrars in obstetrics and gynaecology to peripheral centres in South Australia was introduced for the first time in January 1998. A pilot study of the use of telemedicine to maintain the trainees' involvement in the established weekly training sessions conducted at the Women's and Children's Hospital (WCH) was also commenced at the same time. Sessions were problem based and required the trainees to be actively involved throughout. An electronic voting system (EVS) was used by the WCH audience, with the results of all responses being seen at the peripheral centres. Initial evaluation of the EVS as an educational tool was sufficiently positive to justify further studies of its use in this environment. The availability of voting units at the peripheral sites, used in conjunction with the main centre, will provide an exciting opportunity for further research.

  15. A Novel Line Space Voting Method for Vanishing-Point Detection of General Road Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zongsheng; Fu, Weiping; Xue, Ru; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Vanishing-point detection is an important component for the visual navigation system of an autonomous mobile robot. In this paper, we present a novel line space voting method for fast vanishing-point detection. First, the line segments are detected from the road image by the line segment detector (LSD) method according to the pixel’s gradient and texture orientation computed by the Sobel operator. Then, the vanishing-point of the road is voted on by considering the points of the lines and their neighborhood spaces with weighting methods. Our algorithm is simple, fast, and easy to implement with high accuracy. It has been experimentally tested with over hundreds of structured and unstructured road images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective and can meet the real-time requirements of navigation for autonomous mobile robots and unmanned ground vehicles. PMID:27347947

  16. Behavioral experiments on biased voting in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Michael; Judd, Stephen; Tan, Jinsong; Wortman, Jennifer

    2009-02-03

    Many distributed collective decision-making processes must balance diverse individual preferences with a desire for collective unity. We report here on an extensive session of behavioral experiments on biased voting in networks of individuals. In each of 81 experiments, 36 human subjects arranged in a virtual network were financially motivated to reach global consensus to one of two opposing choices. No payments were made unless the entire population reached a unanimous decision within 1 min, but different subjects were paid more for consensus to one choice or the other, and subjects could view only the current choices of their network neighbors, thus creating tensions between private incentives and preferences, global unity, and network structure. Along with analyses of how collective and individual performance vary with network structure and incentives generally, we find that there are well-studied network topologies in which the minority preference consistently wins globally; that the presence of "extremist" individuals, or the awareness of opposing incentives, reliably improve collective performance; and that certain behavioral characteristics of individual subjects, such as "stubbornness," are strongly correlated with earnings.

  17. Analysis of Social Voting Patterns on Digg

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    The social Web is transforming the way information is created and distributed. Blog authoring tools enable users to publish content, while sites such as Digg and Del.icio.us are used to distribute content to a wider audience. With content fast becoming a commodity, interest in using social networks to promote and find content has grown, both on the side of content producers (viral marketing) and consumers (recommendation). Here we study the role of social networks in promoting content on Digg, a social news aggregator that allows users to submit links to and vote on news stories. Digg's goal is to feature the most interesting stories on its front page, and it aggregates opinions of its many users to identify them. Like other social networking sites, Digg allows users to designate other users as ``friends'' and see what stories they found interesting. We studied the spread of interest in news stories submitted to Digg in June 2006. Our results suggest that pattern of the spread of interest in a story on the ne...

  18. The Adoption and Challenges of Electronic Voting Technologies Within the South African Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourine Achieng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Literature has shown that countries such as Braziland India have successfully implemented electronicvoting systems and other countries are at various piloting stages to address many challenges associatedwith manual paper based system such ascosts of physical ballot paper and other overheads, electoraldelays, distribution of electoral materials, and general lack of confidence in the electoral process.It is inthis context that this study explores how South African can leverage the opportunities that e-votingpresents. Manual voting is often tedious, non-secure, and time-consuming, which leads us to think aboutusing electronic facilities to make the process more efficient. This study proposes that the adoptionofelectronic voting technologies could perhaps mitigate some of these issues and challengesin the processimproving the electoral process. The study used anon-line questionnaire which was administered to abroader group of voters and an in-depth semi-structured interview with the Independent ElectoralCommission officials. The analysis is based on thematic analysis and diffusion of innovations theory isadopted as a theoretical lens of analysis. The findings reveal that relative advantage, compatibilityandcomplexity would determine the intentions of SouthAfrican voters and the Electoral Management Bodies(IEC to adopt e-voting technologies. Moreover, thefindings also reveal several other factorsthat couldinfluence the adoption process. The study is limited to only voters in Cape Town and these voters wereexpected to have some access to the internet. The sample size limits the generalizability of the findings ofthis study.

  19. Optimized Voting Scheme for Efficient Vanishing Point Detection in General Road Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul H. Mistry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Next generation automobile industries are aiming for development of vision-based driver assistance system and driver-less vehicle system. In the context of this application, a major challenge lies in the identification of efficient road region segmentation from captured image frames. Recent research work suggests that use of a global feature like vanishing point makes the road detection algorithm more robust and general for all types of roads. The goal of this research work is the reduction of computational complexity involved with voting process for identification of vanishing point. This paper presents an efficient and optimized voter selection strategy to identify vanishing point in general road images. The major outcome of this algorithm is the reduction in computational complexity as well as improvement in efficiency of vanishing point detection algorithm for all types of road images. The key attributes of the methodology are dominant orientation selection, voter selection based on voter location and modified voting scheme, combining dominant orientation and distance based soft voting process. Results of a number of qualitative and quantitative experiments clearly demonstrate the efficiency of proposed algorithm.

  20. Enhancing navigation in biomedical databases by community voting and database-driven text classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guettler Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The breadth of biological databases and their information content continues to increase exponentially. Unfortunately, our ability to query such sources is still often suboptimal. Here, we introduce and apply community voting, database-driven text classification, and visual aids as a means to incorporate distributed expert knowledge, to automatically classify database entries and to efficiently retrieve them. Results Using a previously developed peptide database as an example, we compared several machine learning algorithms in their ability to classify abstracts of published literature results into categories relevant to peptide research, such as related or not related to cancer, angiogenesis, molecular imaging, etc. Ensembles of bagged decision trees met the requirements of our application best. No other algorithm consistently performed better in comparative testing. Moreover, we show that the algorithm produces meaningful class probability estimates, which can be used to visualize the confidence of automatic classification during the retrieval process. To allow viewing long lists of search results enriched by automatic classifications, we added a dynamic heat map to the web interface. We take advantage of community knowledge by enabling users to cast votes in Web 2.0 style in order to correct automated classification errors, which triggers reclassification of all entries. We used a novel framework in which the database "drives" the entire vote aggregation and reclassification process to increase speed while conserving computational resources and keeping the method scalable. In our experiments, we simulate community voting by adding various levels of noise to nearly perfectly labelled instances, and show that, under such conditions, classification can be improved significantly. Conclusion Using PepBank as a model database, we show how to build a classification-aided retrieval system that gathers training data from the

  1. A Practical Privacy Preserving E-Voting Scheme with Smart Card Using Blind Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Voting is regarded as one of the most effective methods for individuals to express their opinions to select their democratic leader in the public elections. As the computing, communicating, and cryptographic techniques progress rapidly, increasing emphasis has been placed on developing electronic voting schemes capable of providing more efficient voting services than conventional paper-based voting methods. A receipt-free e-voting scheme based on the virtual voting booth that can be implemented with a smart card. Receipt-freeness is achieved by distributing the voting procedure between the voter and the smart card. By using smart cards to randomize part of content of the ballot, the voter cannot construct a receipt. The voter and the smart card jointly contribute randomness for the encryption of the ballot. To provide convenience to voters, sufficient voting facilities are supplied in sufficient public voting booths.

  2. Analysis of the Voting Method used in the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorata Sosnowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Game theoreticians usually deal with standard voting methods such as plurality voting or approval voting. In reality however, some complicated non-standard voting methods are used. In this paper the voting method and rotation scheme have been presented used by the Governing Council of the European Central Bank (ECB, as it enlarges to accommodate new members of the economic and monetary union. We present game theoretical approaches for analyzing this method and different methods of computing the Shapley value for games connected with voting under such rotation schemes. (original abstract

  3. The social identity voting model: Ideology and community structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Pauls

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social identity voting (SIV is a new model of voting behavior based on the principles of social identity theory. We introduce and use this model to analyze roll call votes for the 35th through 112th US Congresses. Comparing out-of-sample accuracy of SIV and Poole and Rosenthal’s Weighted NOMINAL Three-step Estimation (W-NOMINATE, we find that SIV performs better than the one- or two-dimensional W-NOMINATE model and that generally, W-NOMINATE needs up to 10 dimensions to produce accuracy comparable to that of SIV. The differences between SIV and W-NOMINATE are further clarified in three case studies: first, a longitudinal examination of all Congresses; second, an analysis of the 112th House of Representatives; and third, a study of the Tea Party caucus in the 112th House of Representatives. Each study sheds new light on the potential motivations driving voting behavior, supporting our assertion that the SIV and W-NOMINATE models provide two distinct approaches to understanding voting records. SIV, with its emphasis on political identity derived from group membership, expresses combinations of individual and group preferences which contribute to legislators’ ideological classifications.

  4. Justice blocks and predictability of US Supreme Court votes

    CERN Document Server

    Guimera, Roger; 10.1371/journal.pone.0027188

    2012-01-01

    Successful attempts to predict judges' votes shed light into how legal decisions are made and, ultimately, into the behavior and evolution of the judiciary. Here, we investigate to what extent it is possible to make predictions of a justice's vote based on the other justices' votes in the same case. For our predictions, we use models and methods that have been developed to uncover hidden associations between actors in complex social networks. We show that these methods are more accurate at predicting justice's votes than forecasts made by legal experts and by algorithms that take into consideration the content of the cases. We argue that, within our framework, high predictability is a quantitative proxy for stable justice (and case) blocks, which probably reflect stable a priori attitudes toward the law. We find that U. S. Supreme Court justice votes are more predictable than one would expect from an ideal court composed of perfectly independent justices. Deviations from ideal behavior are most apparent in di...

  5. Socioeconomic inequality in voting participation and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, T A; Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I

    2001-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that disparities in political participation across socioeconomic status affect health. Specifically, the association of voting inequality at the state level with individual self-rated health was examined. A multilevel study of 279,066 respondents to the Current Population Survey (CPS) was conducted. State-level inequality in voting turnout by socioeconomic status (family income and educational attainment) was derived from November CPS data for 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. Individuals living in the states with the highest voting inequality had an odds ratio of fair/poor self-rated health of 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 1.68) compared with individuals living in the states with the lowest voting inequality. This odds ratio decreased to 1.34 (95% CI = 1.14, 1.56) when state income inequality was added and to 1.27 (95% CI = 1.10, 1.45) when state median income was included. The deleterious effect of low individual household income on self-rated health was most pronounced among states with the greatest voting and income inequality. Socioeconomic inequality in political participation (as measured by voter turnout) is associated with poor self-rated health, independently of both income inequality and state median household income.

  6. A Distributed Weighted Voting Approach for Accurate Eye Center Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach for accurate estimation of eye center in face images. A distributed voting based approach in which every pixel votes is adopted for potential eye center candidates. The votes are distributed over a subset of pixels which lie in a direction which is opposite to gradient direction and the weightage of votes is distributed according to a novel mechanism.  First, image is normalized to eliminate illumination variations and its edge map is generated using Canny edge detector. Distributed voting is applied on the edge image to generate different eye center candidates. Morphological closing and local maxima search are used to reduce the number of candidates. A classifier based on spatial and intensity information is used to choose the correct candidates for the locations of eye center. The proposed approach was tested on BioID face database and resulted in better Iris detection rate than the state-of-the-art. The proposed approach is robust against illumination variation, small pose variations, presence of eye glasses and partial occlusion of eyes.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.292-297, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2763

  7. Capacity to Vote in Persons with Dementia and the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Irastorza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to vote in patients with mental illness is increasingly questioned. The objective of this study is to evaluate this capacity in a group of subjects with dementia (Alzheimer's disease and other elderly subjects without dementia. With a sample of 68 subjects with dementia and 25 controls living in a senior residence, a transversal study was carried out over 4 months. Subjects were evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Competence Assessment Tool for voting (CAT-V. The results were more positive for the Doe criteria (as part of the CAT-V, and a correlation was found with the MMSE in subjects with dementia and, to a lesser degree, in the controls. We conclude that the capacity to vote is related to cognitive deterioration and, within that, is more related to understanding and appreciation.

  8. Forecasting the Senate vote on the Supreme Court vacancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Basinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper forecasts current senators’ votes on Merrick Garland’s nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court, in the unlikely case that a vote actually takes place. The forecasts are necessarily conditional, awaiting measurement of the nominee’s characteristics. Nonetheless, a model that combines parameters estimated from existing data with values of some measurable characteristics of senators—particularly their party affiliations, party loyalty levels, and ideological positions—is sufficient to identify potential swing voters in the Senate. By accounting for a more nuanced and refined understanding of the confirmation process, our model reveals that if President Obama were to nominate almost any nominee (conservative or liberal today, that nominee would be rejected if a vote was allowed to take place. So why nominate anyone at all? Obama’s hope for a successful confirmation must come from the stochastic component, that is, from outside the traditional decision-making calculus.

  9. Scaling Roll Call Votes with wnominate in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Poole

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a software package designed to estimate Poole and Rosenthal W-NOMINATE scores in R. The package uses a logistic regression model to analyze political choice data, usually (though not exclusively from a legislative setting. In contrast to other scaling methods, W-NOMINATE explicitly assumes probabilistic voting based on a spatial utility function, where the parameters of the utility function and the spatial coordinates of the legislators and the votes can all be estimated on the basis of observed voting behavior. Building on software written by Poole in Fortran, the new wnominate package in R facilitates easier data input and manipulation, generates bootstrapped standard errors, and includes a new suite of graphics functions to display the results. We demonstrate the functionality of this package by conducting a natural experiment using roll calls -- an experiment which is greatly simplified by the data manipulation capabilities of the wnominate package in R.

  10. Persistence in voting behavior: stronghold dynamics in elections

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Toni; Ramasco, Jose J; Eguíluz, Víctor M

    2015-01-01

    Influence among individuals is at the core of collective social phenomena such as the dissemination of ideas, beliefs or behaviors, social learning and the diffusion of innovations. Different mechanisms have been proposed to implement inter-agent influence in social models from the voter model, to majority rules, to the Granoveter model. Here we advance in this direction by confronting the recently introduced Social Influence and Recurrent Mobility (SIRM) model, that reproduces generic features of vote-shares at different geographical levels, with data in the US presidential elections. Our approach incorporates spatial and population diversity as inputs for the opinion dynamics while individuals' mobility provides a proxy for social context, and peer imitation accounts for social influence. The model captures the observed stationary background fluctuations in the vote-shares across counties. We study the so-called political strongholds, i.e., locations where the votes-shares for a party are systematically hig...

  11. Word of mouth and universal voting behaviour in proportional elections

    CERN Document Server

    Fortunato, S; Castellano, Claudio; Fortunato, Santo

    2006-01-01

    Human societies exhibit many examples of nontrivial collective behaviour generated by the interaction of a large number of individuals. To characterize these emergent phenomena and understand their origin it is crucial to discover regularities in the macroscopic patterns of data describing collective social phenomena. Elections are a prominent example of collective social phenomenon, and a quantitative statistical analysis has begun. Here we show that, in proportional elections, the distribution of the number of votes received by candidates is universal, i.e. it is the same function in different countries and years, when the number of votes is rescaled according to the strength of the party each candidate belongs to. A simple dynamical model for the behaviour of voters, based on the spreading of word of mouth, reproduces well the universal distribution. This finding reveals the existence in the voting process of a general underlying dynamics that does not depend on the specific historical, political and/or ec...

  12. The drastic outcomes from voting alliances in three-party bottom-up democratic voting (1990 $\\rightarrow$ 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, Serge

    2013-01-01

    The drastic effect of local alliances in three-party competition is investigated in democratic hierarchical bottom-up voting. The results are obtained analytically using a model which extends a sociophysics frame introduced in 1986 \\cite{psy} and 1990 \\cite{lebo} to study two-party systems and the spontaneous formation of democratic dictatorship. It is worth stressing that the 1990 paper was published in the Journal of Statistical Physics, the first paper of its kind in the journal. It was shown how a minority in power can preserve its leadership using bottom-up democratic elections. However such a bias holds only down to some critical value of minimum support. The results were used latter to explain the sudden collapse of European communist parties in the nineties. The extension to three-party competition reveals the mechanisms by which a very small minority party can get a substantial representation at higher levels of the hierarchy when the other two competing parties are big. Additional surprising results...

  13. Conditions for exercising residents' voting rights in long-term care residences: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquet, Antoine; El Massioui, Farid; Mahé, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    To assess voting conditions in long-term care settings, we conducted a multicenter survey after the 2009 European elections in France. A questionnaire about voting procedures and European elections was proposed in 146 out of 884 randomized facilities. Sixty-four percent of facilities answered the questionnaire. Four percent of residents voted (national turnout: 40%), by proxy (58%) or at polling places (42%). Abstention related to procedural issues was reported in 32% of facilities. Sixty-seven percent of establishments had voting procedures, and 53% declared that they assessed residents' capacity to vote. Assistance was proposed to residents for voter registration, for proxy voting, and for voting at polling places, respectively, in 33%, 87%, and 80% of facilities. This survey suggests that residents may be disenfranchised and that more progress should be made to protect the voting rights of residents in long-term care facilities.

  14. 78 FR 42761 - Proposed Information Collection-2014 Election Administration and Voting Survey; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE... this proposed information collection (2014 Election Administration and Voting Survey) to the Director... data collection requirements under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA...

  15. 78 FR 78345 - Proposed Information Collection-2014 Election Administration and Voting Survey; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE... this proposed information collection (2014 Election Administration and Voting Survey) to the Director... data collection requirements under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA...

  16. Public Goods and Voting on Formal Sanction Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Kamei, Kenju

    the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. But despite uniform money payoffs implying common interest in those parameters, voting patterns suggest significant influence of cooperative orientation, political......The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support public goods provision has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable both of resolving and of exacerbating...

  17. ELECTRONIC VOTING AS A FORM OF THE ELECTORAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES: FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting is considered in the context of information and communication technologies used during the electoral process. The foreign experience in implementing the e-voting technologies and prospects of its borrowings for use in Ukraine is analized. The basic advantages and disadvantages of electronic voting is underlined.

  18. Does Economic Education Make a Difference in Congress? How Economics Majors Vote on Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Roark, J. Brian

    2012-01-01

    The author of this article expands the background theory of voting to incorporate the undergraduate majors of members of Congress. Examining nine votes on trade across the 109th and 110th Congresses reveals that economics majors are the only category of college major to vote in favor of free trade in a predictable way. Controls for a variety of…

  19. Perspectives: Should Mandatory Voting Laws Be Implemented in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Norman; Stoilov, Vassia

    2011-01-01

    Many countries around the world have compulsory voting laws. In the United States, where voter turnout tends to be lower than in other developed democracies, experts wonder whether voting laws would have a positive impact. In two distinct essays, voting and elections experts Norman Ornstein and Vassia Stoilov debate the implementation of…

  20. Electronic voting to encourage interactive lectures: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Edward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic Voting Systems have been used for education in a variety of disciplines. Outcomes from these studies have been mixed. Because results from these studies have been mixed, we examined whether an EVS system could enhance a lecture's effect on educational outcomes. Methods A cohort of 127 Year 5 medical students at the University of Adelaide was stratified by gender, residency status and academic record then randomised into 2 groups of 64 and 63 students. Each group received consecutive 40-minute lectures on two clinical topics. One group received the EVS for both topics. The other group received traditional teaching only. Evaluation was undertaken with two, 15-question multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQ assessing knowledge and problem solving and undertaken as a written paper immediately before and after the lectures and repeated online 8–12 weeks later. Standardised institutional student questionnaires were completed for each lecture and independent observers assessed student behaviour during the lectures. Lecturer's opinions were assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study. Results Two-thirds of students randomised to EVS and 59% of students randomised to traditional lectures attended. One-half of the students in the EVS group and 41% in the traditional group completed all questionnaires. There was no difference in MCQ scores between EVS and traditional lectures (p = 0.785. The cervical cancer lectures showed higher student ranking in favour of EVS in all parameters. The breast cancer lectures showed higher ranking in favour of traditional lectures in 5 of 7 parameters (p Conclusion In this setting, EVS technology used in large group lectures did not offer significant advantages over the more traditional lecture format.

  1. Early Election Returns and the Voting Behavior of Adolescent Voters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Leon; And Others

    1971-01-01

    High school students participated in a field experiment that tested the effects of exposure to early election returns in a nonpartisan referendum. Students in the brighter classes changed their vote less frequently, but when they changed their preferences they showed a greater bandwagon effect. Students in the classes of lower academic achievement…

  2. Brainstorming: weighted voting prediction of inhibitors for protein targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2011-09-01

    The "Brainstorming" approach presented in this paper is a weighted voting method that can improve the quality of predictions generated by several machine learning (ML) methods. First, an ensemble of heterogeneous ML algorithms is trained on available experimental data, then all solutions are gathered and a consensus is built between them. The final prediction is performed using a voting procedure, whereby the vote of each method is weighted according to a quality coefficient calculated using multivariable linear regression (MLR). The MLR optimization procedure is very fast, therefore no additional computational cost is introduced by using this jury approach. Here, brainstorming is applied to selecting actives from large collections of compounds relating to five diverse biological targets of medicinal interest, namely HIV-reverse transcriptase, cyclooxygenase-2, dihydrofolate reductase, estrogen receptor, and thrombin. The MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR) database was used for selecting known inhibitors for these protein targets, and experimental data was then used to train a set of machine learning methods. The benchmark dataset (available at http://bio.icm.edu.pl/∼darman/chemoinfo/benchmark.tar.gz ) can be used for further testing of various clustering and machine learning methods when predicting the biological activity of compounds. Depending on the protein target, the overall recall value is raised by at least 20% in comparison to any single machine learning method (including ensemble methods like random forest) and unweighted simple majority voting procedures.

  3. Majority-vote model with heterogeneous agents on square lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, F W S

    2013-01-01

    We study a nonequilibrium model with up-down symmetry and a noise parameter $q$ known as majority-vote model of M.J. Oliveira 1992 with heterogeneous agents on square lattice. By Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling relations the critical exponents $\\beta/\

  4. Comments on "Getting out the Vote with Evaluative Thinking"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gary T.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, Gary Henry explains that the Danes have got it right, again. Not only is their voter turnout high to begin with, but they are evaluating ways to increase voter turnout with "random variation" to accurately assess the effects of the innovations. In the Danish 2009 municipal elections, 65.8% turned out to vote, which…

  5. Congress: House Votes Veto Power on All NSF Research Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Deborah

    1975-01-01

    The House of Representatives voted that the National Science Foundation (NSF) must submit a list of all proposed grant awards to Congress every 30 days as well as justifications for them. The award of any grant can be vetoed by either house within 30 days. This supplants the current method of peer reviews of grant applications. (MLH)

  6. Strategic voting in heterogeneous electorates: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tyszler; A. Schram

    2013-01-01

    We study strategic voting in a setting where voters choose from three options and Condorcet cycles may occur. We introduce in the electorate heterogeneity in preference intensity by allowing voters to differ in the extent to which they value the three options. Three information conditions are tested

  7. The Underexplored Species: Selective Participation in Direct Democratic Votes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciarini, P.; Cappelletti, F.; Goldberg, A.C.; Lanz, S.

    While electoral research usually distinguishes voters from abstainers, in the Swiss direct democratic context one needs to take into account a third category of citizens, the selective voters, who decide anew at each vote whether they will participate or not. This article offers an investigation of

  8. "All in Favour, Say Aye!" Voting in Pupils' Collaborative Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council and British Telecom-funded project which explored the teaching of collaborative talk in the secondary English classroom. During the analysis of the video data collected, voting was observed as a strategy in pupils' collaborative decision-making. Converse to its democratic…

  9. Citizens’ Readiness for Remote Electronic Voting in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Kimbi

    Full Text Available Remote electronic voting through Internet or mobile phones can potentially increase citizens' electoral participation in countries with low voter turnout such as those in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper measures citizen’s readiness for remote electronic vo ...

  10. 7 CFR 1280.626 - Certification and voting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.626... or her business. Forms obtained via the Internet will be located at www.ams.usda.gov... final day of the voting period and must be received in the county FSA office on the 5th business...

  11. Majority-vote model on Opinion-Dependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, F W S

    2013-01-01

    We study a nonequilibrium model with up-down symmetry and a noise parameter $q$ known as majority-vote model of M.J. Oliveira $1992$ on opinion-dependent network or Stauffer-Hohnisch-Pittnauer networks. By Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling relations the critical exponents $\\beta/\

  12. Weekly Fluctuations in Risk Tolerance and Voting Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jet G Sanders

    Full Text Available Risk tolerance is fundamental to decision-making and behaviour. Here we show that individuals' tolerance of risk follows a weekly cycle. We observed this cycle directly in a behavioural experiment using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002; Study 1. We also observed it indirectly via voting intentions, gathered from 81,564 responses across 70 opinion polls ahead of the Scottish Independence Referendum of 2014 (Study 2 and 149,064 responses across 77 opinion polls ahead of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum of 2016 (Study 3. In all three studies, risk-tolerance decreased from Monday to Thursday before returning to a higher level on Friday. This pattern is politically significant because UK elections and referendums are traditionally held on a Thursday-the lowest point for risk tolerance. In particular, it raises the possibility that voting outcomes in the UK could be systematically risk-averse. In line with our analysis, the actual proportion of Yes votes in the Scottish Independence Referendum was 4% lower than forecast. Taken together, our findings reveal that the seven-day weekly cycle may have unexpected consequences for human decision-making. They also suggest that the day on which a vote is held could determine its outcome.

  13. Weekly Fluctuations in Risk Tolerance and Voting Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jet G; Jenkins, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Risk tolerance is fundamental to decision-making and behaviour. Here we show that individuals' tolerance of risk follows a weekly cycle. We observed this cycle directly in a behavioural experiment using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002; Study 1). We also observed it indirectly via voting intentions, gathered from 81,564 responses across 70 opinion polls ahead of the Scottish Independence Referendum of 2014 (Study 2) and 149,064 responses across 77 opinion polls ahead of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum of 2016 (Study 3). In all three studies, risk-tolerance decreased from Monday to Thursday before returning to a higher level on Friday. This pattern is politically significant because UK elections and referendums are traditionally held on a Thursday-the lowest point for risk tolerance. In particular, it raises the possibility that voting outcomes in the UK could be systematically risk-averse. In line with our analysis, the actual proportion of Yes votes in the Scottish Independence Referendum was 4% lower than forecast. Taken together, our findings reveal that the seven-day weekly cycle may have unexpected consequences for human decision-making. They also suggest that the day on which a vote is held could determine its outcome.

  14. 12 CFR 1261.5 - Determination of member votes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of member votes. 1261.5 Section 1261.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.5 Determination...

  15. The role of remote voting in encouraging return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Stefanovic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Once there is a genuine possibility of going home, what influences a forced migrant’s decision to return to a pre-conflict residence, often in the face of very difficult conditions? What role can remote voting play?

  16. Class voting, social changes and political changes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Giedo; de Graaf, Nan Dirk; Need, Ariana

    2011-01-01

    To what extent can the decline of class voting in the Netherlands be explained by sociological factors (compositional changes, the evolution of the class structure and economic progressivism) and political factors (a party-merger and changing party positions)? Multinomial logit (MNP) and conditional

  17. Senate health bill lacks 50 votes needed to proceed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore NS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Yesterday (7/17, two additional Senators – Sen. Roberts (R-KS and Sen. Lee (R-NE joined Senators Paul (R-KY and Collins (R-ME in announcing their intention to vote “no” on the motion to proceed on considering the Senate ACA repeal and replace legislation – effectively blocking Senate consideration of the current Senate Republican health care bill. Senators Paul, Lee and Roberts opposed the bill for not going far enough, while Senator Collins expressed her concern the bill goes too far. With the 4 publicly announced NO votes – Senator Majority Leader Mitch McConnell does not have the 50 votes needed to begin debate on the bill, let alone assure final passage. Speculation now turns to what happens next. President Trump has tweeted his preference to let Obamacare fail as a way to force Democrats to negotiate new legislation. Senator McConnell has suggested a series of symbolic votes on full repeal with multi-year delay to work …

  18. The Black Vote: Racial Intolerance or the Politics of Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard R.

    Voting behavior of blacks is examined with specific regard to racial intolerance. Factors studied include racial identification, amount of interracial contact, and the black candidate's job performance. In 1969, interviewers collected data on 400 black respondents' attitudes about Carl Stokes (the black incumbent mayoralty candidate), the other…

  19. Comments on "Getting out the Vote with Evaluative Thinking"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gary T.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, Gary Henry explains that the Danes have got it right, again. Not only is their voter turnout high to begin with, but they are evaluating ways to increase voter turnout with "random variation" to accurately assess the effects of the innovations. In the Danish 2009 municipal elections, 65.8% turned out to vote, which…

  20. The Voting Rights Act--An Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, Bayard; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This address to the morning session of the Southern Policy Conference on the Voting Rights Act of 1965 puts the Act in an historical perspective in which its importance is clearly perceived; also includes is a discussion of the address by Nicholas Katzenbach, Vernon Jordan, James P. Turner, and George H. Esser, persons who either were involved in…

  1. The fluctuating female vote: politics, religion, and the ovulatory cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Kristina M; Rae, Ashley; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2013-06-01

    Each month, many women experience an ovulatory cycle that regulates fertility. Although research has found that this cycle influences women's mating preferences, we proposed that it might also change women's political and religious views. Building on theory suggesting that political and religious orientation are linked to reproductive goals, we tested how fertility influenced women's politics, religiosity, and voting in the 2012 U.S. presidential election. In two studies with large and diverse samples, ovulation had drastically different effects on single women and women in committed relationships. Ovulation led single women to become more liberal, less religious, and more likely to vote for Barack Obama. In contrast, ovulation led women in committed relationships to become more conservative, more religious, and more likely to vote for Mitt Romney. In addition, ovulation-induced changes in political orientation mediated women's voting behavior. Overall, the ovulatory cycle not only influences women's politics but also appears to do so differently for single women than for women in relationships.

  2. Education's impact on explanations of radical right-wing voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.; Tolsma, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the reactions to the large demographic changes in Europe due to migration has been the rise of radical right-wing parties. Previous research has shown that education is one of the most relevant explanations of this voting behaviour. By pooling the European Social Surveys from 2002, 2004, 2006

  3. The Vector-Ballot Approach for Online Voting Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiayias, Aggelos; Yung, Moti

    Looking at current cryptographic-based e-voting protocols, one can distinguish three basic design paradigms (or approaches): (a) Mix-Networks based, (b) Homomorphic Encryption based, and (c) Blind Signatures based. Each of the three possesses different advantages and disadvantages w.r.t. the basic properties of (i) efficient tallying, (ii) universal verifiability, and (iii) allowing write-in ballot capability (in addition to predetermined candidates). In fact, none of the approaches results in a scheme that simultaneously achieves all three. This is unfortunate, since the three basic properties are crucial for efficiency, integrity and versatility (flexibility), respectively. Further, one can argue that a serious business offering of voting technology should offer a flexible technology that achieves various election goals with a single user interface. This motivates our goal, which is to suggest a new "vector-ballot" based approach for secret-ballot e-voting that is based on three new notions: Provably Consistent Vector Ballot Encodings, Shrink-and-Mix Networks and Punch-Hole-Vector-Ballots. At the heart of our approach is the combination of mix networks and homomorphic encryption under a single user interface; given this, it is rather surprising that it achieves much more than any of the previous approaches for e-voting achieved in terms of the basic properties. Our approach is presented in two generic designs called "homomorphic vector-ballots with write-in votes" and "multi-candidate punch-hole vector-ballots"; both of our designs can be instantiated over any homomorphic encryption function.

  4. The Effect of Membership Rules and Voting Schemes on the Success of International Climate Agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finus, M. [Department of Economics Institute of Economic Theory, Hagen University, Hagen (Germany); Altamirano-Cabrera, Juan-Carlos; Van Ierland, E. [Department of Social Sciences Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We empirically test the role of membership rules and voting schemes for climate change coalitions with the STAbility of COalitions model (STACO). The model comprises twelve world regions and captures long-run effects of greenhouse gas accumulation. We apply three stability concepts that capture the notion of open membership and exclusive membership with majority and unanimity voting. We show that exclusive membership leads to superior outcomes than open membership and that unanimity voting is preferable to majority voting in welfare and environmental terms. Our results suggest restricting membership in future international environmental agreements and they provide a rationale for unanimity voting as applied in many international organizations.

  5. PHP设计在线投票系统%Designing Online Voting with PHP Programming Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春艳

    2014-01-01

    The voting system is very popular in on survey.The article introduce the way and the realized thread with php pro⁃gramming language,and it provides the detailed codes.%在线投票是目前做网上调查时非常实用的功能。该文介绍了PHP设计投票管理系统的设计方法和实现思路,并给出了具体的实现代码。

  6. Simplification and analysis of a model of social interaction in voting

    CERN Document Server

    Lafuerza, Luis F; Edmonds, Bruce; McKane, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    A recently proposed model of social interaction in voting is investigated by simplifying it down into a version that is more analytically tractable and which allows a mathematical analysis to be performed. This analysis clarifies the interplay of the different elements present in the system --- social influence, heterogeneity and noise --- and leads to a better understanding of its properties. The origin of a regime of bistability is identified. The insight gained in this way gives further intuition into the behaviour of the original model.

  7. Simplification and analysis of a model of social interaction in voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuerza, Luis F.; Dyson, Louise; Edmonds, Bruce; McKane, Alan J.

    2016-06-01

    A recently proposed model of social interaction in voting is investigated by simplifying it down into a version that is more analytically tractable and which allows a mathematical analysis to be performed. This analysis clarifies the interplay of the different elements present in the system - social influence, heterogeneity and noise - and leads to a better understanding of its properties. The origin of a regime of bistability is identified. The insight gained in this way gives further intuition into the behaviour of the original model.

  8. Tensor Voting A Perceptual Organization Approach to Computer Vision and Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mordohai, Philippos

    2006-01-01

    This lecture presents research on a general framework for perceptual organization that was conducted mainly at the Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Systems of the University of Southern California. It is not written as a historical recount of the work, since the sequence of the presentation is not in chronological order. It aims at presenting an approach to a wide range of problems in computer vision and machine learning that is data-driven, local and requires a minimal number of assumptions. The tensor voting framework combines these properties and provides a unified perceptual organiza

  9. District Magnitude and Representation of the Majority?s Preferences: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Popular and Parliamentary Votes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Members of parliament have more effective incentives to cater for the majority?s preferences when they are elected in districts with few seats in parliament rather than in districts with many seats. We empirically investigate this hypothesis by matching voting behavior on legislative proposals of Swiss members of parliament with real referenda outcomes on the same issues for the years 1996 to 2008. This quasi-experimental data allows us to identify the impact of electoral systems through dist...

  10. Voting by Hands Promotes Institutionalised Monitoring in Indirect Reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity based on reputation is a leading mechanism driving human cooperation, where monitoring of behaviour and sharing reputation-related information are crucial. Because collecting information is costly, a tragedy of the commons can arise, with some individuals free-riding on information supplied by others. This can be overcome by organising monitors that aggregate information, supported by fees from their information users. We analyse a co-evolutionary model of individuals playing a social dilemma game and monitors watching them; monitors provide information and players vote for a more beneficial monitor. We find that (1) monitors that simply rate defection badly cannot stabilise cooperation---they have to overlook defection against ill-reputed players; (2) such overlooking monitors can stabilise cooperation if players vote for monitors rather than to change their own strategy; (3) STERN monitors, who rate cooperation with ill-reputed players badly, stabilise cooperation more easily than MILD ...

  11. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps. PMID:26090515

  12. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Gallegos-Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC, which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE. With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI. Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.

  13. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.

  14. E-Voting Solutions for Digital Democracy in Knowledge Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STOICA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent technologies specific to current information and knowledge society, and social networks influence every aspect of our existence, from lucrative activities to recreational ones. There is no part of our life that is not influenced by the explosive development of general information and communication technologies. We witness a spectacular and until recently unimagined metamorphoses of work nature, business process reengineering, controversial evolution of social networks and new directions of electronic government. Over this background of changes, we take on the tasks of deepening the understanding of field that is largely unexplored, namely the electronic vote in digital democracy, without taking any side, pro or against this type of casting our electoral options. The current context encompasses technological, legislative, political, economic and social aspects. Even more, the context of electronic voting in digital democracy involves aspects regarding globalization, technical challenges concerning interoperability, data standardization and security.

  15. A continuous rating method for preferential voting. The incomplete case

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Rosa; Saumell, Laia

    2009-01-01

    A method is given for quantitatively rating the social acceptance of different options which are the matter of a preferential vote. In contrast to a previous article, here the individual votes are allowed to be incomplete, that is, they need not express a comparison between every pair of options. This includes the case where each voter gives an ordered list restricted to a subset of most preferred options. In this connection, the proposed method (except for one of the given variants) carefully distinguishes a lack of information about a given pair of options from a proper tie between them. As in the complete case, the proposed method is proved to have certain desirable properties, which include: compliance with a majority principle, clone consistency, and continuity of the rates with respect to the data.

  16. Class Is Not Dead! It Has Been Buried Alive : Class Voting and Cultural Voting in Postwar Western Societies (1956-1990)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.J. Achterberg (Peter); D. Houtman (Dick); J. van der Waal (Jeroen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBy means of a reanalysis of the most relevant data source—the International Social Mobility and Politics File—this article criticizes the newly grown consensus in political sociology that class voting has declined since World War II. An increase in crosscutting cultural voting, rooted in

  17. A Multivariate Comparison of Elderly African Americans and Caucasians Voting Behavior: How Do Social, Health, Psychological, and Political Variables Effect Their Voting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Mohsen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used data from Aging in the Eighties national survey to examine impact of health rating and life satisfaction as well as other socio-psychological characteristics on voting turnout among elderly Caucasian and African Americans. For Caucasians, self-assessment of health was significantly related to voting behavior; whereas among African Americans,…

  18. Essays in Political Economics and Voting Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gulino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two papers. The first paper ``Do Electoral Systems Affect the Incumbent Probability of Re-election? Evidence from Italian Municipalities'' empirically investigates how electoral systems affect the incumbent likelihood of re-election in Italian municipalities. It also sheds light on the mechanism through which the electoral system affects the re-election probability. The overarching goal of the paper is to connect different aspects of the issue. I provide new insi...

  19. 基于自检测的自适应一致表决算法%Adaptive consensus voting algorithm based on self-test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞功兵; 王俊峰

    2012-01-01

    为了解决自适应大数表决算法无法容忍表决周期发生瞬时错误的问题,提出了基于自检测的自适应一致表决算法。该算法通过插入检测代码实时搜集瞬时错误信息,进而屏蔽发生瞬时错误的软件冗余模块参与表决,并将各软件冗余模块历史记录信息有效地应用到表决系统。在此算法的基础上,设计了能实现上述功能的表决系统结构图。最后通过仿真实验证明了所提算法的有效性。%In order to resolve the problem that is the adaptive majority voting algorithm can't tolerate the transient errors during a voting cycle, this paper develops the adaptive consensus voting algorithm based on self-test. According to the self-test codes inserted into the task codes, the algorithm records transient errors information and shields the redundant modules which have taken place the transient errors to participate in voting. Furthermore, the history records information of redundant module is applied to the voting system effectively. On the basis of this algorithm, the author devises a voting system structure which can actualize the functions listing. At last, simulation experiment demonstrates the power of this algorithm.

  20. Sincere-Strategy Preference-Based Approval Voting Fully Resists Constructive Control and Broadly Resists Destructive Control

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelyi, Gabor; Rothe, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    We study sincere-strategy preference-based approval voting (SP-AV), a system proposed by Brams and Sanver [Electoral Studies, 25(2):287-305, 2006], with respect to procedural control. In such control scenarios, an external agent seeks to change the outcome of an election via actions such as adding/deleting/partitioning either candidates or voters. SP-AV combines the voters' preference rankings with their approvals of candidates, and we adapt it here so as to keep its useful features with respect to approval strategies even in the presence of control actions. We prove that this system is computationally resistant (i.e., the corresponding control problems are NP-hard) to 19 out of 22 types of constructive and destructive control. Thus, SP-AV has more resistances to control, by three, than is currently known for any other natural voting system with a polynomial-time winner problem. In particular, SP-AV is (after Copeland voting, see Faliszewski et al. [AAIM-2008, Springer LNCS 5034, pp. 165-176, 2008]) the secon...

  1. Do Online Voting Patterns Reflect Evolved Features of Human Cognition? An Exploratory Empirical Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Priestley

    Full Text Available Online votes or ratings can assist internet users in evaluating the credibility and appeal of the information which they encounter. For example, aggregator websites such as Reddit allow users to up-vote submitted content to make it more prominent, and down-vote content to make it less prominent. Here we argue that decisions over what to up- or down-vote may be guided by evolved features of human cognition. We predict that internet users should be more likely to up-vote content that others have also up-voted (social influence, content that has been submitted by particularly liked or respected users (model-based bias, content that constitutes evolutionarily salient or relevant information (content bias, and content that follows group norms and, in particular, prosocial norms. 489 respondents from the online social voting community Reddit rated the extent to which they felt different traits influenced their voting. Statistical analyses confirmed that norm-following and prosociality, as well as various content biases such as emotional content and originality, were rated as important motivators of voting. Social influence had a smaller effect than expected, while attitudes towards the submitter had little effect. This exploratory empirical investigation suggests that online voting communities can provide an important test-bed for evolutionary theories of human social information use, and that evolved features of human cognition may guide online behaviour just as it guides behaviour in the offline world.

  2. Mobile phone voting for participation and engagement in a large compulsory law course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Habel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action-research project designed to investigate the effect of a technological intervention on the complex interactions between student engagement, participation, attendance and preparation in a large lecture delivered as part of a compulsory first-year law course, a discipline which has not been the focus of any previous study. The technology used was VotApedia, a form of mobile phone voting, and it was implemented in tandem with constructivist pedagogies such as explicit pre-reading and a prior context of interactive lecturing. Data were collected through observation, via mobile phone voting in class and by an online survey designed to specifically explore the relationship between attendance at VotApedia lectures and factors such as self-reported engagement, attendance and preparation. The findings indicated that student response systems (SRSs are just as applicable to more Humanities-style disciplines which require divergent questioning, and supported complex interactions between engagement, attendance and preparation. Preliminary findings indicated that, although more work needs to be done, especially on the types of students who prefer to use these systems, there is a clear potential to increase student engagement in large law lectures through the use of SRSs.

  3. Three-dimensional shape measurement using improved binary spatio-temporal encoded illumination and voting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kang; Li, Yong; Lu, Shijiang; Chen, Liangfeng

    2011-10-01

    Some regions of objects will be measured incorrectly or cannot be measured in optical three-dimensional (3D) measurement system based on coded structured light, due to occlusion, shadow, transfer function of measurement system, and noise. To obtain 3D data as much as possible and as correctly as possible, we proposed a method using improved binary spatio-temporal encoded illumination and voting algorithm. Firstly, the binary spatio-temporal encoded (BSE) pattern is improved with a redundancy encoding method. One code is assigned to two adjacent sections and distinguished with their temporal coordinates. The redundancy encoding method provides more cues for code correcting and retrieving. Secondly, symbols are estimated according to four coding cues--code redundancy, continuity of stripes, intensity variation in temporal direction, and neighbor symbols in sequence. Finally, a voting algorithm is adopted to obtain final symbols. A plaster model of a human head was measured to validate the method. The experimental results reveal that more valid points can be obtained and the reliability of the decoding results is improved.

  4. Voting Alone? The Political and Cultural Consequences of Commercial TV

    OpenAIRE

    Durante, Ruben; Pinotti, Paolo; Tesei, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the long-term impact of early exposure to Berlusconi’s commercial TV network, Mediaset, on voting behavior and civic engagement in Italy. To do so, we exploit differences in Mediaset signal reception across Italian municipalities due to the network’s staggered introduction over the national territory and to idiosyncratic geomorphological factors. We find that municipalities exposed to Mediaset prior to 1985 exhibit greater electoral support for Berlusconi’s party in 1994, wh...

  5. Voting over Selective Immigration Policies with Immigration Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The claim that "skilled immigration is welcome" is often associated to the increasing adoption of selective immigration policies. I study the voting over differentiated immigration policies in a two-country, three-factor general equilibrium model where there exist skilled and unskilled workers, migration decisions are endogenous, enforcing immigration restriction is costly, and natives dislike unskilled immigration. According to my findings, decisions over border closure are made to protect t...

  6. Electronic voting to encourage interactive lectures: a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic Voting Systems have been used for education in a variety of disciplines. Outcomes from these studies have been mixed. Because results from these studies have been mixed, we examined whether an EVS system could enhance a lecture's effect on educational outcomes. Methods A cohort of 127 Year 5 medical students at the University of Adelaide was stratified by gender, residency status and academic record then randomised into 2 groups of 64 and 63 students. Each group received consecutive 40-minute lectures on two clinical topics. One group received the EVS for both topics. The other group received traditional teaching only. Evaluation was undertaken with two, 15-question multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQ) assessing knowledge and problem solving and undertaken as a written paper immediately before and after the lectures and repeated online 8–12 weeks later. Standardised institutional student questionnaires were completed for each lecture and independent observers assessed student behaviour during the lectures. Lecturer's opinions were assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study. Results Two-thirds of students randomised to EVS and 59% of students randomised to traditional lectures attended. One-half of the students in the EVS group and 41% in the traditional group completed all questionnaires. There was no difference in MCQ scores between EVS and traditional lectures (p = 0.785). The cervical cancer lectures showed higher student ranking in favour of EVS in all parameters. The breast cancer lectures showed higher ranking in favour of traditional lectures in 5 of 7 parameters (p lecturer-students interactions were increased in the EVS lecture for one lecturer and reduced for the other. Both lecturers felt that the EVS lectures were difficult to prepare, that they were able to keep to time in the traditional lectures, that the educational value of both lecture styles was similar, and that they were neutral-to-slightly favourably disposed

  7. Electronic voting to encourage interactive lectures: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Paul M; Palmer, Edward; Devitt, Peter

    2007-07-27

    Electronic Voting Systems have been used for education in a variety of disciplines. Outcomes from these studies have been mixed. Because results from these studies have been mixed, we examined whether an EVS system could enhance a lecture's effect on educational outcomes. A cohort of 127 Year 5 medical students at the University of Adelaide was stratified by gender, residency status and academic record then randomised into 2 groups of 64 and 63 students. Each group received consecutive 40-minute lectures on two clinical topics. One group received the EVS for both topics. The other group received traditional teaching only. Evaluation was undertaken with two, 15-question multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQ) assessing knowledge and problem solving and undertaken as a written paper immediately before and after the lectures and repeated online 8-12 weeks later. Standardised institutional student questionnaires were completed for each lecture and independent observers assessed student behaviour during the lectures. Lecturer's opinions were assessed by a questionnaire developed for this study. Two-thirds of students randomised to EVS and 59% of students randomised to traditional lectures attended. One-half of the students in the EVS group and 41% in the traditional group completed all questionnaires. There was no difference in MCQ scores between EVS and traditional lectures (p = 0.785). The cervical cancer lectures showed higher student ranking in favour of EVS in all parameters. The breast cancer lectures showed higher ranking in favour of traditional lectures in 5 of 7 parameters (p higher-order lecturer-students interactions were increased in the EVS lecture for one lecturer and reduced for the other. Both lecturers felt that the EVS lectures were difficult to prepare, that they were able to keep to time in the traditional lectures, that the educational value of both lecture styles was similar, and that they were neutral-to-slightly favourably disposed to continue with

  8. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai UNGUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  9. Strategic Voting in Heterogeneous Electorates: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tyszler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We study strategic voting in a setting where voters choose from three options and Condorcet cycles may occur. We introduce in the electorate heterogeneity in preference intensity by allowing voters to differ in the extent to which they value the three options. Three information conditions are tested: uninformed, in which voters know only their own preference ordering and the own benefits from each option; aggregate information, in which in addition they know the aggregate realized distribution of the preference orderings and full information, in which they also know how the relative importance attributed to the options are distributed within the electorate. As a general result, heterogeneity seems to decrease the level of strategic voting in our experiment compared to the homogenous preference case that we study in a companion paper. Both theoretically and empirically (with data collected in a laboratory experiment, the main comparative static results obtained for the homogenous case carry over to the present setting with preference heterogeneity. Moreover, information about the realized aggregate distribution of preferences seems to be the element that best explains observed differences in voting behavior. Additional information about the realized distribution of preference intensity does not yield significant further changes.

  10. Voting strategy for artifact reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Moore, Richard H; Kopans, Daniel B

    2006-07-01

    Artifacts are observed in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) reconstructions due to the small number of projections and the narrow angular range that are typically employed in tomosynthesis imaging. In this work, we investigate the reconstruction artifacts that are caused by high-attenuation features in breast and develop several artifact reduction methods based on a "voting strategy." The voting strategy identifies the projection(s) that would introduce artifacts to a voxel and rejects the projection(s) when reconstructing the voxel. Four approaches to the voting strategy were compared, including projection segmentation, maximum contribution deduction, one-step classification, and iterative classification. The projection segmentation method, based on segmentation of high-attenuation features from the projections, effectively reduces artifacts caused by metal and large calcifications that can be reliably detected and segmented from projections. The other three methods are based on the observation that contributions from artifact-inducing projections have higher value than those from normal projections. These methods attempt to identify the projection(s) that would cause artifacts by comparing contributions from different projections. Among the three methods, the iterative classification method provides the best artifact reduction; however, it can generate many false positive classifications that degrade the image quality. The maximum contribution deduction method and one-step classification method both reduce artifacts well from small calcifications, although the performance of artifact reduction is slightly better with the one-step classification. The combination of one-step classification and projection segmentation removes artifacts from both large and small calcifications.

  11. Do authoritarians vote for authoritarians? Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie J. Cohen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2016 presidential election campaign in the United States, scholars argued that authoritarian visions of the family are associated with support for Donald Trump, a candidate also noted to exhibit authoritarian or illiberal tendencies. Though it is plausible that “authoritarian” citizens (defined by parenting attitudes vote for “authoritarian” candidates (defined by disrespect for democratic institutions, past research provides relatively little guide regarding this relationship. One reason is that few US candidates announce overtly authoritarian views. Latin America, by contrast, has had many such candidates. We take advantage of this variation using the 2012 AmericasBarometer, which applied a battery of authoritarian parenting attitudes. We first describe mass authoritarianism across Latin America, showing it is associated with many social attitudes. We then examine authoritarians’ voting behavior, distinguishing between support for “mano dura” (“strong arm” candidates, who are usually rightists, and for candidates threatening violations of general civil liberties, who are often leftists in Latin America. We find that authoritarians tend to vote for right-wing authoritarian candidates, while authoritarianism boosts support for candidates threatening civil liberty violations only among citizens identifying on the ideological right. Education is the most consistent determinant reducing support for both leftist and rightist authoritarian candidates.

  12. Voting Patterns on Hungarian Parliamentary Elections in 2002–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabás Rácz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post–communist transitional era, Hungarian elections show diverse results among various areas, raising the question if there are firmly embedded differences between some parts of the country. In the light of the election returns between 1985–2006, it appears that there is a more or less definite pattern. This study will examine the 2006 legislative returns and compare the results with the previous trends and especially the 2002 data, testing the validity of the findings indicating the presence of some fairly constant regional standards of voting. As a main indicator of past trends we use mostly the territorial (party lists which provide more accurate picture of voting preferences that individual districts which in runoffs carry an indirect distortion of voters’ primary preferences by other considerations.2 For a deeper analysis of the recent 2002 and 2006 elections, we will compare the first run individual district voting outcomes, as they give the more accurate picture of the voters’ real preferences.

  13. Resilient Voting Mechanisms for Mission Survivability in Cyberspace: Combining Replication and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Kamhoua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While information systems became ever more complex and the interdependence of these systems increased, mission-critical services should be survivable even in the presence of cyber attacks or internal failures. Node replication can be used to protect a mission-critical system against faults that may occur naturally or be caused by malicious attackers. The overall reliability increases by the number of replicas. However, when the replicas are a perfect copy of each other, a successful attack or failure in any node can be instantaneously repeated in all the other nodes. Eventually, the service of those nodes will discontinue, which may affect the system’s mission. Therefore, it becomes evident that there must be more survivable approach with diversity among the replicas in mission-critical systems. In particular, thisresearch investigates the best binary voting mechanism among replicas. Furthermore, with experimental results, we compare the simple majority mechanism with hierarchical decision process and discuss theirtrade-offs.

  14. When votes depend on who's listening: Voters' intragroup status and voting procedure predict representative endorsement in intergroup contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Catia P; Demoulin, Stephanie; Yzerbyt, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Three experiments investigated whether the selection of a representative in intergroup interdependence settings can reflect group members' strategic behaviour. We tested the impact of an individual's intragroup status (normative vs. pro-out-group deviant, Experiments 1-3) and of voting procedure (Experiments 2 and 3) on the choice of an in-group representative. Experiment 1 shows that normative members prefer normative representatives, whereas pro-out-group deviant members equally like normative and pro-out-group deviant representatives. Experiment 2 extends these results and shows that voting procedure (private vs. in-group audience) moderates this effect. Pro-out-group deviant members' preferences and behaviours appear more strategic and context-sensitive than normative ones. Specifically, pro-out-group deviants vote more for normative representatives than for pro-out-group deviants when facing an in-group audience, whereas the reverse pattern emerges in private. Experiment 3 shows that this moderation effect is specific to in-group audiences compared to out-group ones, reinforcing the idea that normative members 'stick to their guns'. Implications of these findings for leader endorsement and intergroup relations are discussed.

  15. Dynamic weighted voting for multiple classifier fusion: a generalized rough set method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Liang; Han Chongzhao

    2006-01-01

    To improve the performance of multiple classifier system, a knowledge discovery based dynamic weighted voting (KD-DWV) is proposed based on knowledge discovery. In the method, all base classifiers may be allowed to operate in different measurement/feature spaces to make the most of diverse classification information. The weights assigned to each output of a base classifier are estimated by the separability of training sample sets in relevant feature space. For this purpose, some decision tables (DTs) are established in terms of the diverse feature sets. And then the uncertainty measures of the separability are induced, in the form of mass functions in Dempster-Shafer theory (DST), from each DTs based on generalized rough set model. From the mass functions, all the weights are calculated by a modified heuristic fusion function and assigned dynamically to each classifier varying with its output. The comparison experiment is performed on the hyperspectral remote sensing images. And the experimental results show that the performance of the classification can be improved by using the proposed method compared with the plurality voting (PV).

  16. Experimentation Using Short-Term Spectral Features for Secure Mobile Internet Voting Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a secure mobile Internet voting architecture based on the Sensus reference architecture and report the experiments carried out using short-term spectral features for realizing the voice biometric based authentication module of the architecture being proposed. The short-term spectral features investigated are Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs, Mel-Frequency Discrete Wavelet Coefficients (MFDWC, Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC, and Spectral Histogram of Oriented Gradients (SHOGs. The MFCC, MFDWC, and LPCC usually have higher dimensions that oftentimes lead to high computational complexity of the pattern matching algorithms in automatic speaker recognition systems. In this study, higher dimensions of each of the short-term features were reduced to an 81-element feature vector per Speaker using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG algorithm while neural network ensemble was utilized as the pattern matching algorithm. Out of the four short-term spectral features investigated, the LPCC-HOG gave the best statistical results with R statistic of 0.9127 and mean square error of 0.0407. These compact LPCC-HOG features are highly promising for implementing the authentication module of the secure mobile Internet voting architecture we are proposing in this paper.

  17. Retrospective voting and party support at elections: credit and blame for government and opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Carolina; Kritzinger, Sylvia

    2017-04-03

    Retrospective voting is arguably one of the most important mechanisms of representative democracy, and whether or not the public holds the government accountable for its policy performance has been extensively studied. In this paper, we test whether retrospective voting extends to parties in the opposition, that is whether and how parties' past performance evaluations affect their vote, regardless of whether they were in government or in opposition. Taking advantage of a rich set of questions embedded in a representative German national elections panel, we update our knowledge on the retrospective voting mechanism by modeling retrospective voting at the party level. The findings indicate that the incumbent status is not the only criterion for retrospective voting, ultimately suggesting that both government and opposition parties can expect credit and blame for their conduct and this should provide some impetus for responsive performance of all parties.

  18. Indigenous Adoption of Internet Voting: A Case Study of Whitefish River First Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Gabel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities and organizations are increasingly using digital technologies to build community capacity, strengthen community consultation, and improve political participation. In particular, Internet voting is a type of technology to which First Nations have been drawn. This article explores Whitefish River First Nation's (WRFN experience introducing Internet voting in the course of ratifying a new matrimonial real property law (MRP. Specifically, we examine the implications of Internet voting for political participation and electoral administration at the community level. Although community members’ uptake of Internet voting was very modest, we find the experience of adoption had other subtle impacts on community capacity, specifically in terms of empowering the community to pass its own laws and connecting youth and elders. With respect to administration, Internet voting provided an opportunity to connect with community members using technology, to modernize voting processes, and to better accommodate community members needs.

  19. Election 2000: Voting Issues and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the many issues that the close 2000 presidential election brought to the forefront, such as: problems with the punch card systems, the need for convenient registration, the topic of provisional ballots, and the relevance of the Electoral College. (CMK)

  20. Partisanship, candidate evaluations, and prospective voting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosema, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that in Europe partisanship is best conceptualised in terms of evaluation instead of identification. This follows in part from the fact that the position of partisanship in the funnel of causality differs between parliamentary and presidential systems. Moreover, the conceptualisa

  1. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  2. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  3. Looking at Ankara from Strasbourg: An Empirical Assessment of MEPs' Voting on and Framing of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    this article examines the way in which the Members of the European Parliament (MEPS) frame Turkey and how this affects their voting stance towards Ankara in the parliamentary debates. Recent studies (Baldwin and Widgrén 2005; Braghiroli 2012; Canan-Sokullu 2011) have demonstrated that the debate on Turkey’s European Union (EU) membership produces a very divisive impact on the voting dynamics and voting alignments in the European Parliament (EP) in the light of its nationa...

  4. Anut Grubyuk in the Voting Process: The Neglected Explanation of Javanese Voters (Preliminary Findings)

    OpenAIRE

    Wawan, Sobari

    2016-01-01

    The "Javanese factor" is a strategic consideration in Indonesian electoral politics, as the Javanese are Indonesia's most numerous inhabitants. However, seminal masterpieces such as those by Geertz (1960) and Gaffar (1992) apply only a limited and individual-based voting approach in their efforts to explain Javanese voting behavior. Recent qualitative case studies explore anut grubyuk (fitting in) as a unique form of grouped rural Javanese voting behavior, rooted in the Javanese communal phil...

  5. A Secure Anonymous Internet Electronic Voting Scheme Based on the Polynomial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; CAO Zhenfu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we use the polynomial function and Chaum's RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) blind signature scheme to construct a secure anonymous internet electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, each vote does not need to be revealed in the tallying phase. The ballot number of each candidate gets is counted by computing the degrees of two polynomials' greatest common divisor. Our scheme does not require a special voting channel and communication can occur entirely over the current internet.

  6. Receipt-Free K-out-of-L Voting Based on ElGamal Encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Martin

    We present a K-out-of-L voting scheme, i.e., a voting scheme that allows every voter to vote for (up to) K candidates from a set of L candidates. The scheme is receipt-free, which means that even a malicious voter cannot prove to anybody how he voted. Furthermore, the scheme can be based on any semantically secure homomorphic encryption scheme, in particular also on the modified ElGamal encryption scheme which does not allow for efficient decryption of arbitrary large messages (but is more efficient than Paillier's encryption scheme).

  7. Real-Time Straight-Line Detection for XGA-Size Videos by Hough Transform with Parallelized Voting Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Guan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hough Transform (HT is a method for extracting straight lines from an edge image. The main limitations of the HT for usage in actual applications are computation time and storage requirements. This paper reports a hardware architecture for HT implementation on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA with parallelized voting procedure. The 2-dimensional accumulator array, namely the Hough space in parametric form (ρ, θ, for computing the strength of each line by a voting mechanism is mapped on a 1-dimensional array with regular increments of θ. Then, this Hough space is divided into a number of parallel parts. The computation of (ρ, θ for the edge pixels and the voting procedure for straight-line determination are therefore executable in parallel. In addition, a synchronized initialization for the Hough space further increases the speed of straight-line detection, so that XGA video processing becomes possible. The designed prototype system has been synthesized on a DE4 platform with a Stratix-IV FPGA device. In the application of road-lane detection, the average processing speed of this HT implementation is 5.4ms per XGA-frame at 200 MHz working frequency.

  8. The 'Snap Vote' of 462/1 BCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian Ammitzbøll

    2014-01-01

    Two events in Athenian history are usually associated with the year 462/1 BCE. One was a military expedition to the Peloponnese to help the Spartans overcome a helot rebellion, the other the so-called ‘Reforms of Ephialtes’. According to older scholarship the two were in fact related and orthodoxy...... still holds that the absence of 4,000 politically conservative hoplites under the leadership of Kimon paved the way for radical democratic reform - championed by Ephialtes and voted through the Athenian assembly in a ‘snap vote’ by the mass of democratic rowers who remained in the city. This note re...

  9. General Election 2004: Empirical Validation of Voting Pattern in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Arabi Idid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test the effects of the politically related socio-economic issues, personality of the new Prime Minister and the perceived strength of the ruling party, Barisan Nasional (BN, in influencing the outcomes of elections. It uses the data from the Star-IIUM Survey 2004 and the official election results of general election 2004 for the three northern states of Malaysia and applies the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The study found that the personal attributes of the Prime Minister, the strength of the ruling party and the campaign issues positively influenced the popular votes secured by the BN candidates.

  10. CEO Pay and Voting Dissent Before and After the Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory-Smith, I.; Thompson, S.; Wright, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Say on pay’ – that is empowering shareholders to vote on the remuneration arrangements of their firm's senior executives – has become an international policy response to the perceived explosion in rewards for top management. In this study, we examine the operation of say in pay in the UK, the country which pioneered its adoption, using the population of non-investment trust companies in the FTSE 350 over the period 2003–12. We find that executive remuneration and dissent on the remuneration ...

  11. Assessment of Voting Assistance Programs for Calendar Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    TEXT 210 VOTER REGISTRATION PROGRAM Functional Area Manager: MRP -4 Point of Contact: MR. ROBERT WAGNER (DSN) 278-9511 (COML) (703) 784-5972 E-mail...2) 210 01 002 Did the MCVO subm[t a copy of his/her appointment letter to HQMC ( MRP -4)? Reference MCO 1742.1A W/CH 1-2, PAR 50 (1) 210 01 003...subordinate IVAO voting .assistance reports and submit one report to HQMC ( MRP -4) no later than 15 January of each year?’ Reference MCO 1742.1A W

  12. The Context of Voting: Does Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity Affect Turnout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Danckert, Bolette; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    (mobilization theory), diminishes social cohesion that in turn makes voters likely to withdraw from voting (marginalization theory), or does not impact turnout at all. This study is one of the first to investigate the question using individual-level longitudinal data, which adds substantially to the causal...... leverage of the analysis. In particular, we use a panel dataset with validated turnout data for 1.9 million Danish voters combined with detailed data regarding the ethnic composition of individuals’ proximate residential neighborhood. The results suggest that increasing shares of immigrants does not affect...

  13. A continuous rating method for preferential voting. The complete case

    CERN Document Server

    Camps, Rosa; Saumell, Laia

    2009-01-01

    A method is given for quantitatively rating the social acceptance of different options which are the matter of a complete preferential vote. Completeness means that every voter expresses a comparison (a preference or a tie) about each pair of options. The proposed method is proved to have certain desirable properties, which include: compliance with a majority principle, clone consistency, and continuity of the rates with respect to the data. One can view this method as a quantitative complement for a qualitative method introduced in 1997 by Markus Schulze. It is also related to certain methods of one-dimensional scaling or cluster analysis.

  14. Voting Places, Lyon County Voting Places, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Voting Places dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It is described as 'Lyon...

  15. Are People More Inclined to Vote at 16 than at 18? Evidence for the First-Time Voting Boost Among 16- to 25-Year-Olds in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglovits, Eva; Aichholzer, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Potential consequences of lowering voting age to 16 have been discussed in recent scientific and public debates. This article examines turnout of young voters aged 16 to 17 in Austria, the first European country that lowered the general voting age to 16. For this purpose we use unique data taken from electoral lists of two recent Austrian regional elections. The results support the idea that the so-called “first-time voting boost” is even stronger among the youngest voters as turnout was (a) higher compared to 18- to 20-year-old first-time voters and (b) not substantially lower than the average turnout rate. We conclude that our findings are encouraging for the idea of lowering voting age as a means to establish higher turnout rates in the future. PMID:27226806

  16. 76 FR 37314 - Estimates of the Voting Age Population for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Estimates of the Voting Age Population for 2010 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Commerce. ACTION: General Notice Announcing Population Estimates. SUMMARY: This notice announces the voting age population estimates as of July 1, 2010, for each state and the District of Columbia. We are...

  17. 77 FR 4000 - Estimates of the Voting Age Population for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Office of the Secretary Estimates of the Voting Age Population for 2011 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Commerce. ACTION: General Notice Announcing Population Estimates. SUMMARY: This notice announces the voting age population estimates as of July 1, 2011, for each state and the District of Columbia. We are...

  18. 75 FR 4343 - Estimates of the Voting Age Population for 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Estimates of the Voting Age Population for 2009 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Commerce. ACTION: General Notice Announcing Population Estimates. SUMMARY: This notice announces the voting age population estimates as of July 1, 2009, for each state and the District of Columbia. We are...

  19. 78 FR 6289 - Estimates of the Voting Age Population for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Office of the Secretary Estimates of the Voting Age Population for 2012 AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Commerce. ] ACTION: General notice announcing population estimates. SUMMARY: This notice announces the voting age population estimates as of July 1, 2012, for each state and the District of Columbia. We are...

  20. Voting Behavior among Low-Income Black Elderly: A Multielection Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Mohsen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined voting behavior among 370 low-income older African Americans by assessing impact of various predictors on electoral participation in 7 elections. Elders who were active in community, with strong sense of citizen duty, who identified as strong Democrats, and with higher levels of education were more likely to vote. (Author/NB)

  1. Clickers and Classroom Voting in a Transition to Advanced Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Shannon R.; Metcalf, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Clickers and classroom voting are used across a number of disciplines in a variety of institutions. There are several papers that describe the use of clickers in mathematics classrooms such as precalculus, calculus, statistics, and even differential equations. This paper describes a method of incorporating clickers and classroom voting in a…

  2. Solving Weighted Voting Game Design Problems Optimally: Representations, Synthesis, and Enumeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, B. de; Klos, T.B.; Zhang, Y.Q.

    2012-01-01

    We study the inverse power index problem for weighted voting games: the problem of finding a weighted voting game in which the power of the players is as close as possible to a certain target distribution. Our goal is to find algorithms that solve this problem exactly. Thereto, we study various subc

  3. Solving Weighted Voting Game Design Problems Optimally: Representations, Synthesis, and Enumeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Keijzer (Bart); T.B. Klos (Tomas); Y. Zhang (Yingqian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe study the inverse power index problem for weighted voting games: the problem of finding a weighted voting game in which the power of the players is as close as possible to a certain target distribution. Our goal is to find algorithms that solve this problem exactly. Thereto, we study

  4. Policy voting, projection, and persuasion: an application of balance theory to electoral behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Max

    1994-01-01

    In this article differences between rational, policy-based, and rationalized voting are discussed, and it is argued that these forms of electoral decision making are not properly analyzed in existing electoral studies. Policy voting, persuasion, and projection are then redefined as three possible wa

  5. Cognitive ability rivals the effect of political sophistication on ideological voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of cognitive ability on ideological voting. We find, using a US sample and a Danish sample, that the effect of cognitive ability rivals the effect of the traditionally strongest predicter of ideological voting political sophistication. Furthermore, the results...

  6. More evidence of the effects of voting technology on election outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Kooreman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Using two different data sources-municipal level data and individual data-we consider several hitherto unexplored aspects of the relationship between voting technology and election outcomes. We distinguish between introductory and permanent effects of electronic voting, and between national and muni

  7. Temptations of turnout and modernisation: e-voting discourses in the UK and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Haren, van R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the research described was to identify reasons for differences between discourses on electronic voting in the UK and The Netherlands, from a qualitative point of view. Design/methodology/approach – From both countries, eight e-voting experts were interviewed on their expectation

  8. Electronic Voting in the Netherlands: From Early Adoption to Early Abolishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.P.F.; Pieters, W.; Aldini, A.; Barthe, G.; Gorrieri, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how electronic voting was implemented in practice in the Netherlands, which choices were made and how electronic voting was finally abolished. This history is presented in the context of the requirements of the election process, as well as the technical options that are availabl

  9. 7 CFR 1230.625 - Time and place of registration and voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Referendum § 1230.625 Time and place of registration and voting. (a) Producers. The referendum shall be held for 3... provided producers for in-person and absentee voting in the referendum. The referendum shall be conducted...

  10. 75 FR 32920 - Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance... Vote Act (HAVA), Public Law 107-252, the U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) hereby causes to be...: Bryan Whitener, Telephone 202-566-3100 or 1-866-747-1471 (toll-free). Submit Comments: Any...

  11. 78 FR 77110 - Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Publication of State Plan Pursuant to the Help America Vote Act AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance... Vote Act (HAVA), Public Law 107-252, as amended by Section 622 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act... implementation of the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act (MOVE Act). In accordance with HAVA Section...

  12. 21 CFR 14.82 - Nominations of voting members of standing advisory committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Nominations of voting members of standing advisory committees. (a) The Commissioner will publish one or more... standing advisory committees. The notice will invite the submission of nominations for voting members from... one or more qualified persons to an advisory committee. Nominations will specify the...

  13. Estimating the Preferences of Central Bankers : An Analysis of Four Voting Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Mahieu, R.J.; Raes, L.B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyzes the voting records of four central banks (Sweden, Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic) with spatial models of voting. We infer the policy preferences of the monetary policy committee members and use these to analyze the evolution in preferences over time and the diff

  14. More evidence of the effects of voting technology on election outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Kooreman, Peter

    Using two different data sources-municipal level data and individual data-we consider several hitherto unexplored aspects of the relationship between voting technology and election outcomes. We distinguish between introductory and permanent effects of electronic voting, and between national and

  15. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Teaching Students about the Voting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernan, Courtney; Green, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Voter apathy is at an all-time high in the United States. Important decisions and policies are being determined through disappointing turnouts at the voting polls. In a democratic society, this is unconscionable! Voter turnout needs to improve, but what part can teachers play, besides voting, in helping to change voter apathy? Today's students…

  16. Electronic Voting in the Netherlands: From Early Adoption to Early Abolishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.P.F.; Pieters, Wolter; Aldini, A.; Barthe, G.; Gorrieri, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how electronic voting was implemented in practice in the Netherlands, which choices were made and how electronic voting was finally abolished. This history is presented in the context of the requirements of the election process, as well as the technical options that are availabl

  17. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Teaching Students about the Voting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernan, Courtney; Green, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Voter apathy is at an all-time high in the United States. Important decisions and policies are being determined through disappointing turnouts at the voting polls. In a democratic society, this is unconscionable! Voter turnout needs to improve, but what part can teachers play, besides voting, in helping to change voter apathy? Today's students…

  18. Workplace characteristics and working class vote for the old and new right

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of plant size for working class vote. We argue that workplace size does matter for political behaviour. Workers in smaller plants are less unionized and therefore base their voting decisions more strongly on their cultural attitudes, which undermine the support fo...

  19. Clickers and Classroom Voting in a Transition to Advanced Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Shannon R.; Metcalf, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Clickers and classroom voting are used across a number of disciplines in a variety of institutions. There are several papers that describe the use of clickers in mathematics classrooms such as precalculus, calculus, statistics, and even differential equations. This paper describes a method of incorporating clickers and classroom voting in a…

  20. Meta-analysis: why do citizens vote (or abstain) in national elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, C.T.; Smets, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The question why people choose to vote or abstain in national elections has been extensively researched in the past decades. Yet, disagreement over what drives citizens to the polls persists. Literally, over a 100 different explanatory factors have been linked to the individual's decision to vote or

  1. Effects of news media coverage on Eurosceptic voting: evidence from the 2009 European Parliamentary elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spanje, J.; de Vreese, C.

    2012-01-01

    Extant research is not very specific about when campaigns matter for vote choice. In this paper, we assess multiple influences of the media on vote choice in several countries based on European Parliamentary (EP) election campaign data from 21 countries. We rely on a two-wave panel voter survey (N=3

  2. The Vote of the Mexican Immigrants. An Analysis of the Results of the 2006 Presidential Election, to the light of political behavior theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgt. Octavio Adolfo Pérez Preciado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2 of July of the 2006, the Mexican residents abroad could for the first time voted in a presidential election. According to the results given by the electoral federal institute (IFE, Felipe Calderon, candidate by the National Action Party (PAN of right oriented, was the one that obtained the majority of these suffrages, followed by Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, candidate of the “alliance for the good of the people,” of leftist orientation. These was the most competitive election ever take place in Mexico. In the essay, electoral results of this election are analyzed to the light of different theories about the voting behavior of the emigrants. We concludes the vote of the Mexicans abroad reproduces and reflects so much the way in which the emigrants in their native place vote, as well as the political and cultural influence that exerts the conduct of the voter the political and electoral system of the new country of residence.

  3. Affinity communities in United Nations voting: Implications for democracy, cooperation, and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Scott D.; Cranmer, Skyler J.

    2017-10-01

    A network oriented examination of the co-voting network of the United Nations (UN) provides powerful insights into the international alignment of states, as well as normatively important processes such as democracy, defensive cooperation, and armed conflict. Here, we investigate the UN co-voting network using the tools of community detection and inductively identify ;affinity communities; in which states articulate similar policy preferences through their voting patterns. Analysis of these communities reveals that there is more information contained in UN voting and co-voting patterns than has previously been thought. Affinity communities have complex relationships with some of the most normatively important international outcomes: they reflect transitions to democracy, have a feedback loop with the formation of defensive alliances, and actively help states avoid armed conflict.

  4. Satellite Fault Diagnosis Using Support Vector Machines Based on a Hybrid Voting Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The satellite fault diagnosis has an important role in enhancing the safety, reliability, and availability of the satellite system. However, the problem of enormous parameters and multiple faults makes a challenge to the satellite fault diagnosis. The interactions between parameters and misclassifications from multiple faults will increase the false alarm rate and the false negative rate. On the other hand, for each satellite fault, there is not enough fault data for training. To most of the classification algorithms, it will degrade the performance of model. In this paper, we proposed an improving SVM based on a hybrid voting mechanism (HVM-SVM to deal with the problem of enormous parameters, multiple faults, and small samples. Many experimental results show that the accuracy of fault diagnosis using HVM-SVM is improved.

  5. Transnational Political Rights and Electoral Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen

    in electoral system design in order to cater for the special interests of diaspora voters. Most countries allowing voting from abroad simply includes the votes coming from out-of-country among the votes cast in-country, so no special electoral system has been invented or implemented. But at least 14 countries......Voting from abroad is possible in slightly more than half of all countries, even though it may not be an option for all a country’s citizens permanently or temporarily out-of-country. This paper looks at the special electoral systems created for this purpose as it focuses on changes and innovations...... have created exterritorial constituencies, where they in most cases basically use the same electoral system as they do for the ordinary in-country voting. The conclusion is that the creation of new electoral systems for voting from abroad has not – at least not so far – attracted a lot of interest from...

  6. Towards a weighted voting system for Q&A sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.; Pinzger, M.

    2013-01-01

    Version: Accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Maintenance (ICSM), 2013, IEEE Computer Society. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICSM.2013.49 Q&A sites have become popular to share and look for valuable knowledge. Users can easily and quickly access h

  7. The political gender gap: gender bias in facial inferences that predict voting behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y Chiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our

  8. Voting in European Union referendums: A Neighbour’s Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Referendums on European Union (EU)-related issues have occurred in a number of Member States since the foundation of the project, and may be considered highly salient in value in the eyes of voters. While political events such as referendums on EU questions have not featured prominently...... for the United Kingdom in the recent past, for the first time in decades, before the end of 2017, the United Kingdom will vote on a referendum with options of either remaining in the EU, or choosing to voluntarily leave. This second referendum on the EU, after the previous ballot in 1975, can be traced...... in numerous political variables. The evolving nature of the EU from the initial internal market, to being a more encompassing actor covering a wider breath of public policies, linked with the rise of popular Euroscepticism, has led to increased scenarios where referendums are availed of in many Member States...

  9. Enhanced Voting based Secure Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Nirmala

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of location estimation algorithms with improvement in location precision with lower cost, less energy consumption and less hardware support has become more important for many applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. This paper addresses the problem of secure location determination, known as secure localization in WSNs using voting based technique which gives a search region in presence of anchor nodes. From the obtained search region trilateration is applied to know the position of sensor nodes. To avoid the involvement of sensor nodes in further location estimation process, bilateration is applied. Experimental analysis shows that the maximum number of nodes can be localized and accurate location of a node can be determined efficiently with low estimation error. To avoid the attacks and involvement of malicious nodes in the localization process, we implement an improved authentication and security algorithm. Using few location reference points in the localization process reduces the communication cost. The proposed scheme also provides very good localization accuracy.

  10. Electronic Voting by Means of Digital Terrestrial Television: The Infrastructure, Security Issues and a Real Test-Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldelli, Roberto; Becarelli, Rudy; Filippini, Francesco; Picchioni, Francesco; Giorgetti, Riccardo

    Electronic voting has been largely studied in different forms and applications. Typical objectives of electronic voting are to enhance security and to grant easy accessibility. Security can be pursued by means of several strategies oriented to secrete the vote, to check the voter identity, to decouple the voter from his choice and to allow the ballot to be audited. On the other hand, accessibility too can be greatly improved by providing the opportunity to vote remotely or by using voting machines, located at polling stations, equipped with appropriate interfaces for disabled people.

  11. Diverging Life Expectancies and Voting Patterns in the 2016 US Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob

    2017-10-01

    To assess whether voting patterns in the 2016 US presidential election were correlated with long-run trends in county life expectancy. I examined county-level voting data from the 2008 and 2016 presidential elections and assessed Donald Trump's share of the 2016 vote, change in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016, and changes in absolute numbers of Democratic and Republican votes. County-level estimates of life expectancy at birth were obtained for 1980 and 2014 from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Changes in county life expectancy from 1980 to 2014 were strongly negatively associated with Trump's vote share, with less support for Trump in counties experiencing greater survival gains. Counties in which life expectancy stagnated or declined saw a 10-percentage-point increase in the Republican vote share between 2008 and 2016. Residents of counties left out from broader life expectancy gains abandoned the Democratic Party in the 2016 presidential election. Since coming to power, the Trump administration has proposed cuts to health insurance for the poor, social programs, health research, and environmental and worker protections, which are key determinants of population health. Health gaps likely will continue to widen without significant public investment in population health.

  12. Exact Scale Invariance in Mixing of Binary Candidates in Voting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shintaro; Hisakado, Masato

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a voting model and discuss the scale invariance in the mixing of candidates. The Candidates are classified into two categories μ\\in \\{0,1\\} and are called as “binary” candidates. There are in total N=N0+N1 candidates, and voters vote for them one by one. The probability that a candidate gets a vote is proportional to the number of votes. The initial number of votes (“seed”) of a candidate μ is set to be sμ. After infinite counts of voting, the probability function of the share of votes of the candidate μ obeys gamma distributions with the shape exponent sμ in the thermodynamic limit Z0=N1s1+N0s0\\to ∞. Between the cumulative functions \\{xμ\\} of binary candidates, the power-law relation 1-x1 ˜ (1-x0)α with the critical exponent α=s1/s0 holds in the region 1-x0,1-x1≪ 1. In the double scaling limit (s1,s0)\\to (0,0) and Z0 \\to ∞ with s1/s0=α fixed, the relation 1-x1=(1-x0)α holds exactly over the entire range 0≤ x0,x1 ≤ 1. We study the data on horse races obtained from the Japan Racing Association for the period 1986 to 2006 and confirm scale invariance.

  13. Mental illness and the right to vote: a review of legislation across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Gosavi, Chetna; Ventriglio, Antonio; Torales, Julio; Castaldelli-Maia, João; Tolentino, Edgardo Juan L; Ng, Roger

    2016-08-01

    The right to vote is an important right signifying freedom of thought as well as full citizenship in any setting. Right to vote is enshrined and protected by international human rights treaties. The right of 'everyone' to take part in the political process and elections is based on universal and equal suffrage. Although these International Conventions have been ratified by the large majority of United Nations Member States, their application across the globe is by no means universal. This study sets out to examine the domestic laws of UN Member States in order to explore whether individuals with mental health problems have the right to vote in actuality and, thu,s can participate in political life. Through various searches, electoral laws and Constitutions of 193 Member States of the United Nations were studied. The authors were able to find legislation and/or Constitutional provisions in 167 of the 193 Member States. Twenty-one countries (11%) only placed no restrictions on the right to vote by persons with mental health problems. Over one third of the countries (36%) deny all persons with any mental health problems a right to vote without any qualifier. Some of these discriminatory attitudes are reflected in the multiplicity of terms used to describe persons with mental health problems. Another 21 countries (11%) denied the right to vote to detained persons; of these, nine Member States specifically denied the right to vote to persons who were detained under the mental health law, while the remainder denied the right to vote to all those who were interdicted or judicially interdicted. It would appear that in many countries the denial of voting rights is attributed to a lack of ability to consent by the individuals with mental illness. Further exploration of explanation is required to understand these variations, which exist in spite of international treaties.

  14. Brief implicit association test: Validity and utility in prediction of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Maša D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed the Brief Implicit Association Test (a recently developed short version of IAT to measure implicit political attitudes toward four political parties running for Serbian parliament. To test its criterion validity, we measured voting intention and actual voting behavior. In addition, we introduced political involvement as a potential moderator of the BIAT’s predictive and incremental validity. The BIAT demonstrated good internal and predictive validity, but lacked incremental validity over self-report measures. Predictive power of the BIAT was moderated by political involvement - the BIAT scores were stronger predictors of voting intention and behavior among voters highly involved in politics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  15. Can governments use Get Out The Vote letters to solve Europe’s turnout crisis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2017-01-01

    Declining levels of turnout are a problem in European elections. Are Get Out The Vote campaigns the solution to the problem? While many studies have investigated such campaigns in the US, little is known about their effect in Europe. The article presents a field experiment in which encouragement...... to vote in an upcoming Danish election is delivered to more than 60,000 first-time voters using direct personal letters. Eight different letters are designed, based on the calculus of voting and prospect theory. The sample is randomly divided into treatment groups or the control group. Using validated...

  16. Results and summary of voting among the audience during presentation and discussion of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma clinical guidelines prepared by American Thyroid Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Soderstrom, Folke

    2013-03-14

    The one-day ETA-CRN meeting, preceding the ETA meeting in Lisbon, was planned in advance to provide a thorough assessment of the European response to the published American Thyroid Association MTC guidelines. During the meeting, following each of the European speakers, a series of questions, related to the specific aspect, were presented to the audience. The responses from the audience were collected by an AudioResponseSystem (ARS voting system). The results of the voting showed in summary that European expert opinion leaders and an audience of specialists in treatment of Medullary Carcinoma welcomes the American Guidelines on the management of MTC, but simultaneously only partially agrees with some of the statements in the guidelines.

  17. A New Approach to Segment Both Main and Peripheral Retinal Vessels Based on Gray-Voting and Gaussian Mixture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peishan; Luo, Hanyuan; Sheng, Hanwei; Zhao, Yali; Li, Ling; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Yuqian; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Vessel segmentation in retinal fundus images is a preliminary step to clinical diagnosis for some systemic diseases and some eye diseases. The performances of existing methods for segmenting small vessels which are usually of more importance than the main vessels in a clinical diagnosis are not satisfactory in clinical use. In this paper, we present a method for both main and peripheral vessel segmentation. A local gray-level change enhancement algorithm called gray-voting is used to enhance the small vessels, while a two-dimensional Gabor wavelet is used to extract the main vessels. We fuse the gray-voting results with the 2D-Gabor filter results as pre-processing outcome. A Gaussian mixture model is then used to extract vessel clusters from the pre-processing outcome, while small vessels fragments are obtained using another gray-voting process, which complements the vessel cluster extraction already performed. At the last step, we eliminate the fragments that do not belong to the vessels based on the shape of the fragments. We evaluated the approach with two publicly available DRIVE (Staal et al., 2004) and STARE (Hoover et at., 2000) datasets with manually segmented results. For the STARE dataset, when using the second manually segmented results which include much more small vessels than the first manually segmented results as the "gold standard," this approach achieved an average sensitivity, accuracy and specificity of 65.0%, 92.1% and 97.0%, respectively. The sensitivities of this approach were much higher than those of the other existing methods, with comparable specificities; these results thus demonstrated that this approach was sensitive to detection of small vessels.

  18. A New Approach to Segment Both Main and Peripheral Retinal Vessels Based on Gray-Voting and Gaussian Mixture Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peishan Dai

    Full Text Available Vessel segmentation in retinal fundus images is a preliminary step to clinical diagnosis for some systemic diseases and some eye diseases. The performances of existing methods for segmenting small vessels which are usually of more importance than the main vessels in a clinical diagnosis are not satisfactory in clinical use. In this paper, we present a method for both main and peripheral vessel segmentation. A local gray-level change enhancement algorithm called gray-voting is used to enhance the small vessels, while a two-dimensional Gabor wavelet is used to extract the main vessels. We fuse the gray-voting results with the 2D-Gabor filter results as pre-processing outcome. A Gaussian mixture model is then used to extract vessel clusters from the pre-processing outcome, while small vessels fragments are obtained using another gray-voting process, which complements the vessel cluster extraction already performed. At the last step, we eliminate the fragments that do not belong to the vessels based on the shape of the fragments. We evaluated the approach with two publicly available DRIVE (Staal et al., 2004 and STARE (Hoover et at., 2000 datasets with manually segmented results. For the STARE dataset, when using the second manually segmented results which include much more small vessels than the first manually segmented results as the "gold standard," this approach achieved an average sensitivity, accuracy and specificity of 65.0%, 92.1% and 97.0%, respectively. The sensitivities of this approach were much higher than those of the other existing methods, with comparable specificities; these results thus demonstrated that this approach was sensitive to detection of small vessels.

  19. Voting Places, GIS layer on our website, Published in 2008, Sauk County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Voting Places dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'GIS layer on our website'. Data by this publisher are...

  20. Election Districts and Precincts, VotingDistricts, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'VotingDistricts'. Data by this...