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Sample records for votian folk belief

  1. Folk beliefs of cultural changes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1) rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2) rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3) enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism.

  2. Folk Beliefs of Cultural Changes in China

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    Yi eXu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gauge each belief’s level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1 rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2 rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3 enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism.

  3. Votian Village Feasts in the Context of Russian Orthodoxy

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    Ergo-Hart Västrik

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Votian village feasts that evidently belong to the sphere of Christian folk religion. Village feasts are analysed as expressions of collective activity in pre-industrial rural society that enclosed certain religious, social and economic functions. This phenomenon of celebrating collectively certain days of church calendar, which included ritual activities in village chapels or other local sanctuaries, common meals and heavy drinking as well singing and dancing in the course of 3–4 days, was a part of common Russian Orthodox tradition shared by several ethnic groups throughout North-West Russia in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Despite the fact that this phenomenon was familiar to the wider community of Russian Orthodox believers, there were obviously certain local characteristics and variation typical to Votian tradition. However, Votain village feasts are studied in the article in the context of Russian Orthodoxy, without favouring assumed pre-Christian elements of the Finno-Ugric religions.

  4. Votian Village Feasts in the Context of Russian Orthodoxy

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    Ergo-Hart Västrik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Votian village feasts that evidently belong to the sphere of Christian folk religion. Village feasts are analysed as expressions of collective activity in pre-industrial rural society that enclosed certain religious, social and economic functions. This phenomenon of celebrating collectively certain days of church calendar, which included ritual activities in village chapels or other local sanctuaries, common meals and heavy drinking as well singing and dancing in the course of 3–4 days, was a part of common Russian Orthodox tradition shared by several ethnic groups throughout North-West Russia in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Despite the fact that this phenomenon was familiar to the wider community of Russian Orthodox believers, there were obviously certain local characteristics and variation typical to Votian tradition. However, Votain village feasts are studied in the article in the context of Russian Orthodoxy, without favouring assumed pre-Christian elements of the Finno-Ugric religions.

  5. Folk belief, illness behavior and mental health in Taiwan.

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    Wen, J K

    1998-03-01

    In this paper, an overview of the literature relevant to the issues of illness behavior and help-seeking behavior in relation to mental health and illness, focusing on the Taiwan area is presented. Arguments for the prioritization and appreciation of the folk perspective of mental illness and health are addressed. The traditional medical beliefs in the Chinese culture that emphasize integration and continuity, instead of differentiation, of/between body and mind, person and nature, nature and super-nature, the visible (with form) and the invisible (without form), and yang and yin, have laid the basis for the theoretical framework of somatization as normative illness behavior rather than psychologization, and also dissociation as normative illness behavior rather than repression. A case report on folk psychotherapy is given here to illustrate the argument. The continuum models illustrated in this paper, either the shen-kuei syndrome in its broad sense extending from koro to neurasthenia, frigophobia or the spirit possession syndrome in its broad sense extending from the pathological and peripheral (Hsieh-ping) to the normative and ritual (shamanism), could well remind us of the powerful influence of the folk and popular contexts of culture that underlie illness behavior in relation to mental health in Taiwan.

  6. Red in Estonian popular belief and folk costume

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    Barrett, S.; Roper, J.

    2006-06-01

    A visit by one of the authors to Estonia, and the discovery that the term 'red' was used locally for the colour 'orange', led to a detailed study of the colour red in Estonian belief and culture. The study is reported here, together with an interpretation of the red/orange substitution based on Berlin and Kay's model of colour term development in language.

  7. Flower Power: Desire, Gender, and Folk Belief in the Joycean Mary Garden

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    Christin Mulligan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Robert Brazeau and Derek Gladwin’s Eco-Joyce (2014 largely overlooks a historical basis for ecocritical thought. The absence of a historicist view requires consideration not only of the natural world but folk botany, such as the Mary Garden that is a phantom presence in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man as well as in “Nausicaa” and “Penelope” in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. The undergrowth of the garden reconfigures human action and subtly predicts it with its compendium of theological and devotional meanings for the burgeoning sexuality expressed by Gerty MacDowell and Issy Earwicker as well as the mature longing of Molly Bloom. This essay will establish a fresh Deleuzian paradigm of Becoming-Flower to demonstrate how the Mary Garden blooms to present new perspectives on Catholicism, eros, and gender identity in Joyce’s major works.

  8. Nordic influence on Saami folk belief: the "Buttercat" (Smörkatt

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    Magdalena Tatár

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is a Saami superstitious belief, namely the smørkatt "buttercat", which is without doubt a Nordic loan in Saami tradition. In olden days there were people who sold themselves or half of their souls to the devil for a considerable sum of money. They made a "butter cat" in order to get more milk. The "butter cat" looked like a ball of yarn. It stole cream and butter from the neighbour. The neighbour could not understand what had become of his butter. But he soon discovered that people who had only a few cows had a lot of butter. He chased after the "butter cat" and if he could capture it, the person who had sold his soul to the devil would die. This tradition existed among both the mountain Saamis and the Saamis who had settled down in the villages, but it was unknown among Norwegian people. The form and function of the "smørkatt" together with the way in which it could be disabled is in line with the Nordic tradition. This milk-stealing creature, which might be a hare or any other animal, is often a cat, particularly in northern Norway. It is a common Nordic tradition, too, that the animal is identical with its master, and because of that the master must die when the animal is killed. This link between the master and the animal is closer in northern Norway than anywhere else. Woman, animal and devil are linked to each other in the Nordic tradition, too, but the tradition that the master sells his soul to the devil is found only in Karasjok. It is clear, however, that people must pay for the devil's assistance. This theme is well-known in Europe in other connections.

  9. The case of curers, noncurers, and biomedical experts in Pichátaro, Mexico. Resiliency in folk-medical beliefs.

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    Ross, Norbert; Timura, Catherine; Maupin, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    We explore potential conceptual and cultural change in folk-medical models within a Mexican community that may have taken place over the past 30 years. Building on a study from the 1970s, we explore the effects a government-supported biomedical clinic had on the content and distribution of folk-medical concepts. Surprisingly, we find that despite a dramatic increase in access to biomedicine and a host of socioeconomic shifts opening access to new medical ideas, folk-medical knowledge in Pichátaro, Michoacán, Mexico has remained largely unchanged with respect to its distribution and content. Curers and noncurers not only agree with one another but also continue to agree with a general model held in the 1970s. It is the medical models of clinic personnel that stand out as odd within the community. Yet, despite these conceptual differences, the biomedical facilities of the town are well attended.

  10. Critter Folk

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    Hubbard, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an exhibit entitled "Critter Folk" for the Betty Foy Sanders department of art at Georgia Southern University. The theme of the exhibit is folk art "critters"--crocodiles, chickens, cows, snakes, elephants, cats--from the Smith Callaway Banks Southern Folk Art Collection. The organizers invited two…

  11. SEMIOTIC NATURE OF FOLK TALE DISCOURSE

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    Plakhova, O.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews existing approaches to folk tale discourse study defining it either in terms of process or result or their interaction. As a linguo-semiotic phenomenon folk tale discourse comprises folk texts of related genres (folk tales, legends, nursery tales, historical and local tales which are united by the common category of fabulousness (skazochnost’ with the miraculous as its central component and accumulate mythological beliefs shared by society in the system of verbal and nonverbal signs. Mythological configurations are transformed in folk tale discourse into specific folk tale signs – folk tale images functioning as folk tale names, events and expressions. Interactions of folk tale discourse with other discourse types bring out clearly its semiotic nature.

  12. Macedonian Folk Constellations

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    Cenev, G.

    2008-10-01

    Ethno-astronomical researches started to be performed on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia in 1982 and since then they are constantly carried out. Information gathered directly from the elderly inhabitants of around 130 villages all over the country, enlighten the folk presentation of sky, division of the stars and constellations, but also provided a vast scope of myths, beliefs and rituals linked to the sky, stars, and constellations. More in-depth analyses of the gathered data lead to the reconstruction of the ancient stars map of the Macedonian people. Due to the fact that in the past people recognized only two seasons, most of the stars and constellations are presented on the so-called winter and summer sky. People were also familiar with the part of the sky around the Polaris and knew about the constellations that did not rise and set, but are special part of the folk sky map. The mentioned study provides a comparative analysis of the folk constellations known among the Macedonian people and folk constellations know among the others, mos tly neighbouring people living on the Balkan Peninsula.

  13. Tongue Twisters and Local Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis bzang po

    2009-01-01

    O rgyan dban phyugs provides examples of tongue twisters and discusses local folk beliefs This collection of 77 audio files focuses on weddings and weddings speeches but also contains: folk tales, folk songs, riddles, tongue twisters, and local history from Bang smad Village and Ri sne Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County World Oral Literature Project

  14. Individual Folk Anthology.

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    Griffin, Jean L.

    An individual folk anthology unit covering eight topics is described in this paper. The eight topics include (1) I have an identity, (2) my interesting name, (3) mandalas and sentences, (4) rhythms and rhymes of old times, (5) myths of my childhood, (6) folk legends/old and new, (7) aspects of folklore, and (8) slang. The activities accompanying…

  15. Fischer's Plants in folk beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland.

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    Kujawska, Monika; Klepacki, Piotr; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2017-03-23

    Historical ethnobotanical studies are useful starting points for further diachronic analysis. The aim of this contribution is to present archival data from the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland, which were collected by Adam Fischer, a Polish ethnographer from Lviv, in the 1930s. These data were originally gathered for publication in the first part of the Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs, dedicated to plant uses in traditional Slavonic culture. It was intended to be a joint international enterprise, but was never actually fulfilled. In this article we used information from historical Lithuania (the Great Duchy of Lithuania), nowadays a border region between Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. We applied cultural importance indices such as Use Value, Relative Importance value and Sørensen similarity coefficient, in order to compare our data with a western Ukraine data set from the same research framework. In total, 153 plant taxa were registered as used in peasant culture in the Polish-Lithuanian-Belarusian borderland in the 1930s. The species which achieved the highest Use Values were: Calendula officinalis, Cyanus segetum, Helichrysum arenarium, Betula sp., Prunella vulgaris, and Nuphar lutea or Lilium sp. The most salient use categories were medicinal, followed by food and home garden plants. The overall similarity to plants recorded in western Ukraine within the same project of Fischer's is quite low (46%), which may be explained by the partly different flora found in the regions, and a cultural discontinuity, revealed by the difference in species with the highest UV. Moreover, the field collaborators were different in the two regions and may have paid attention to different cultural spheres of use. The presented ethnobotanical data are a valuable contribution to the ethnobotany of Eastern Europe as a whole. In particular, the presented list of plants may be a rich source for future studies on the ethnobotany of the Polish diaspora in Lithuania, and

  16. The Moon in Lithuanian Folk Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Vaiškūnas

    2006-01-01

    The paper is an attempt to summarize the available Lithuanian folkknowledge about the Moon. The ethnoastronomical materials that have been collected during expeditions since 1988 as well as ethnographic and folklore archive data in written sources are used in this work. Lithuanian ethnographical material gives far more information about the Moon (terms,narratives, folklore, ethnocosmography, popular meteorology, relics of lunar calendar, folk belief, etc.) than about other heavenly bodies.

  17. Creativity and folk art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2013-01-01

    This article explores creativity in craftwork using the case of Easter egg decoration, a folk art chosen for its traditional roots and diversity of artistic outcomes. This research contributes to the literature at (a) a theoretical level, by conceptualizing a pragmatist-inspired framework...... of creative activity; (b) a methodological level, by using, beside observation and interview, subjective cameras to record activity; and (c) an empirical level, considering the fact that creativity in folk art has often been a neglected topic. A total of 20 egg decorators of various ages from the village...... for, particularly in terms of expert–novice differences. These studies revealed the many ways in which creativity is intrinsic to Easter egg decoration, and the final discussion of the article summarizes them with reference to processes of combination and change, copying and translation, personal...

  18. The Celebration of Death: Two Folk Tales about DEath. Mini-Module.

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    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This module contains two African folk tales about death, two descriptions of African funerals, a lesson plan with 11 questions exploring the finality of and customs surrounding death, and a bibliography of five books which deal with African religious beliefs. The folk tales present concepts of death and immortality of the soul. The descriptions of…

  19. Self-Deception, Delusion and the Boundaries of Folk Psychology*

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    Bortolotti, Lisa; Mameli, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    To what extent do self-deception and delusion overlap? In this paper we argue that both self-deception and delusions can be understood in folk-psychological terms. “Motivated” delusions, just like self-deception, can be described as beliefs driven by personal interests. If self-deception can be understood folk-psychologically because of its motivational component, so can motivated delusions. Non-motivated delusions also fit (to a large extent) the folk-psychological notion of belief, since they can be described as hypotheses one endorses when attempting to make sense of unusual and powerful experiences. We suggest that there is continuity between the epistemic irrationality manifested in self-deception and in delusion. PMID:22662292

  20. Folk Literature of South Asia.

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    Wadley, Susan S., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The collection of articles in this volume focuses on different kinds of folk literature from Bengal, Tamilnad, Bihar, Hindi-speaking North India, and Nepal. An introductory article by S.S. Wadley discusses types of folk literature in Karimpur. The remaining articles are organized according to cultural themes: "The Lustful Stepmother in the…

  1. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

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    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  2. Revisiting Folk Moral Realism.

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    Pölzler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al., Nichols, and Nichols and Folds-Bennett) indeed seem to suggest a tendency towards realism. My aim in this paper is to provide a detailed internal critique of these four studies. I argue that, once interpreted properly, all of them turn out in line with recent research. They suggest that most ordinary people experience morality as "pluralist-" rather than realist-seeming, i.e., that ordinary people have the intuition that realism is true with regard to some moral issues, but variants of anti-realism are true with regard to others. This result means that moral realism may be less well justified than commonly assumed.

  3. Is Psychoanalysis a Folk Psychology?

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    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879

  4. What We Should Teach Deaf Children: Deaf Teachers' Folk Models in Britain, the USA and Mexico

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    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Ramsey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Deaf teachers around the world have folk models and beliefs that reflect their understanding of what deaf children need to learn in order to develop healthy identities as deaf people. In this research we report what teachers from England, the USA and Mexico have told us about using creative signing with deaf children. Themes emerging from our data…

  5. Results of contemporary research of Serbian folk religion: A general overview

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    Todorović Ivica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian folk religion represents a complex phenomenon, which can be defined and perceived at many different ways. The done research and published studies justify the right to provide a brief synthesis of dynamic processes typical for Serbian folk religion in the contemporary context. The general tendencies and processes, in the contemporary context, and seen as a part of a unique dynamic system, reveal ways or transfer, creation and changes in the traditional heritage. At the basic level, these processes are characterized by a mutual dependency, that is, they are present in binary complementary-opposite code, that is, they are twofold directed (both affirmatively and negatively; towards reduction but also towards complexity of the contents etc, forming together a model for changes. In terms of the contemporary dynamic pattern, which forms the context of folk beliefs and practice of Orthodoxy- the general tendency (in relation with the relationship of 'folk' and 'church' model is an approach of folk images towards the official, church teachings, hence, we could expect additional alterations of folk Orthodoxy in this direction.

  6. The Role and Characteristics of Collections of Folk Recepies in the Folk and Traditional Medicine of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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    Skrbo, Armin; Masic, Izet

    2017-09-01

    Folk medicine represents part of the folk culture, when we first think about the rural culture with characteristic of the rural population in the pre-industrial period. The difference between official and folk medicine is manifested in the education, knowledge and social status of those practicing folk medicine as well as their patients. The most common ways of treating were the treatment by use of herbs, magic and treatments based on religious beliefs. So, it is of no surprise that folk medicine was the main form of treatment for the inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the past. In addition to many herbalists, quacks and religious officials who treated the patients with records, there were also spells, i.e. women who, by pronouncing various magic formulas, treated the patients. Each village had at least one person who practiced this type of treatment. Numerous, original documents and records have been stored in the archives of the monastery throughout B&H, including very valuable literature in the field of medicine and pharmacy, which testifies of the very important role of Franciscans in the treatment of the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The most extensive health service of the Franciscans since their arrival in Bosnia in 1291 was the decadent era of Turkish rule, mostly from the 17 th century until the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1978. In the sources of national thought, and on the basis of professional medical books, the Franciscans created recipes for the treatment of certain diseases, which they then collected in so-called "Ljekaruse" (Collections of folk recipes), and over time there was a lot of them. Most of the ljekarusa are hand-printed booklets, for some it is known the time and place of creation, and less often the author of the text. Ljekarusa is a very important source of information about our medical past. Some of them were processed and recorded, while a significant part of these manuscripts remained

  7. Folk Culture Resources as a Component of Tourism Space

    OpenAIRE

    Mokras-Grabowska, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    The paper concerns folk tourism - describes the mutual relations between folk culture and tourism and the main mechanisms of the commercialization of cultural heritage. Moreover it locates folk culture resources in tourism space and includes hospitality.

  8. Folk musical dramas portray population issues. Gurgaon.

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    1994-01-01

    The State Population Education Cell of the State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) is now testing the use of folk musical dramas in promoting population messages. Being the language of the hearts, it is expected that about 50,000 students, teachers and members of the community will be oriented about the problems arising from rapid population growth through folk musical dramas. These musical dramas are innovative vehicles adopted under the Village Adoption and Population Education Laboratory Schools by the SCERT. It follows three phases. The first phase required poet teachers to develop three folk musical dramas on the themes of status of women and gender disparity, importance of small family and population growth and its impact on environment. The second phase saw the staging of these folk musical dramas in two adopted schools. The presentations were video taped and recorded into audio-video cassettes. For the last phase, another workshop will be organized to convene teacher poets to develop more folk musical dramas on the themes of adolescent problem, aging problem, mother and child care, delayed marriage, status of women and population growth and environment. The video cassettes produced previously will be used in the training of teachers, students and heads of schools on the development of folk musical dramas. After editing these dramas, they will be published in the form of booklets to promote wider dissemination to schools, which can stage these ready-made folk musical dramas during school celebrations and during the Population Education Week. full text

  9. A folk theory of meetings -- and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2013-01-01

    with managers and employees we extracted six common assumptions about meetings, termed a folk theory of meetings, which most office workers seem to carry in the back of their minds. Findings This folk theory holds meetings to be places for excessive talk, whether by a domineering leader or highly vocal...... training, this view of meetings—and the widely available facilitation tools that go with it—may render meetings at work the subject of conscious organizational development. Originality/value The proposed "folk theory of meetings" is novel, as is the contrast provided with the facilitation approach...

  10. ECOLOGICAL BASES OF FOLK ART

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    R. M. Abakarova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Esthetic bases of natural in national culture is defined in the paper. On the example of construction and internal furniture of dwellings of peoples of Dagestan communication of microcosm and macrocosm in consciousness of people is shown. Architectural monuments of national culture kept features of adaptive-adapting function of ecological thinking of the people.Aim of the research is to define ecological bases of national architecture, to show features of natural and esthetic dwelling in the mountain regions of Dagestan.Methods of carrying out work represent interdisciplinary research of folk art in a context of cultural science, cultural history, and an esthetics. The complex of methods was used: diachronic, synchronic, functional, psychological.Main conclusions. National creativity is closely connected with the nature of the native land. So, lullabies and lyrical songs, games, signs, labor and ceremonial songs, and also architecture and painting reflected features of perception of nature by people, their attitude towards her, use of natural resources. In national creativity regional features of relationship of people and nature are most fully and authentically traced. In art of the people its spiritual wealth, the internal ecological environment is reflected.

  11. Misrepresenting Chinese Folk Happiness: A Critique of a Study

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    Ip, Po-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…

  12. Folk Astronomy and Calendars in Yemen

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    Varisco, Daniel Martin

    A rich folk tradition of star lore evolved in the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, especially during the Islamic era. Some of this lore was recorded in Yemeni Arabic texts, especially during the 13th and 14th centuries. Among the calendars in use are solar, lunar, and stellar varieties. The most significant folk calendars are the system of agricultural marker stars, often correlated with the 28 lunar stations, and the Pleiades conjunction calendar.

  13. Syncretism in Nordic folk medicine: critical periods during pregnancy

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    Lily Weiser-Aall

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the traditions concerning the critical periods during pregnancy when the foetus is exposed to the risk of suffering serious injuries. There is a good deal of such traditions in more recent Nordic and European folklore. But these popular conceptions have merely been recorded without having ever been investigated as to their provenance. In studies of various details in recent Nordic tradition it is possible to establish a striking correspondence between, on the one hand, folk tradition and, on the other, learned publications and popular accounts in books on healing and midwifery. This actualizes an interest to investigate the beliefs about critical periods by a comparison with the theories of the learned tradition.

  14. Investigation of Burdur Region Folk Dances

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    Nurgül M I H L A N D I Z

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim for the research which is called "Investigation of Burdur Region Folk Dancing" by searching the dancing related to Burdur District, which is danced with special music and clothes is a kind of heritage should be handed down to the next generation.Our study is cultural.Culture is one of the basic key Stone of folklore. In our study, some dances such as Gabaardıç, zeybek, and teke zortlatması are called folk dances and their specialists like music,play and clothes are stud ied thoroughly. In this search, the techniques of master of sphere and resource people were carried out. Visual and audial knowledges from the study were transferred into digital context as video, photos and voice files. The main sphere of this study is Te ke district which reflects the cultural specialist of Burdur province. The examples of our study are folk dances played specifically in Burdur province. In these folk dances, clothes, musics and plays used for dancing were detected and studied so as to upd ate. When you think about Burdur, the dances which come to mind are identified. These dances are the signs of background knowledges, the nature and people who live in. Gabardıç, teke zortlatması, Alyazma zeybeği, Avşar zeybeği, Serenler zeybeği, kadın zey beği, top şeker, sürütmeli kadın oyunu, çek deveci and kırık oyun are the examples of folk dancing played in Burdur province. Consequently, our study called "Investigation of Burdur Region Folk Dancing" shows to us that Teke district is a fertile land so as to search academically for the study. The events such as the kind and changes of folk dancing should be recorded according to their changes of historical, economy, socially and politically.

  15. Methods in (Applied) Folk Linguistics: Getting into the Minds of the Folk

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    Preston, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with data gathering and interpretation in folk linguistics, but, as the parenthetical title suggests, it is not limited to any prejudged notion of what approaches or techniques might be most relevant to the wide variety of concerns encompassed by applied linguistics. In this article, the author conceives of folk linguistics…

  16. Brazil Recordings in the Archive of Folk Culture. LC (Library of Congress) Folk Archive Finding Aid.

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    Eisenhood, Elizabeth D.; And Others

    An aid for finding recordings from Brazil in the Archive of Folk Culture of the Library of Congress (LC) is presented. Brief descriptions of the recordings are accompanied by identification numbers. Information about listening to or ordering any of the listed recordings is available from the Archive of Folk Culture. (DB)

  17. Patterned Woven Fabrics in Lithuanian Folk Skirts

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    Eglė KUMPIKAITĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article 258 Lithuanian folk skirts from National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art and 85 skirts from Lithuanian Open Air Museum are investigated. The weaves and plans of weave of skirts fabrics are made. Also the composing of plans of weave is analysed in aspect of segment, ornament and symmetry group of patterned fabric weave. Also the symmetry groups of Lithuanian folk skirts fabrics and their distribution according to the fabric weave are analysed. The tendencies of symmetry groups and peculiarities of composing of plans of weave can help to recreate the reconstructions of authentic folk fabrics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.2.1950

  18. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  19. Folk and biological perceptions of dementia among Asian ethnic minorities in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Rika; Goebert, Deborah; Ahmed, Iqbal; Lu, Brett

    2015-06-01

    To study if Asian ethnic groups in Hawaii today maintain folk-based beliefs about dementia, have inadequate biomedical understanding of dementia, and differ among each other regarding perceptions of dementia. The study adapts and expands a 2004 survey of ethnic groups on perceptions of Alzheimer disease demonstrating that ethnic minority groups hold more folk perceptions and less biomedical perceptions of dementia than Caucasians. This study surveys particular ethnic minority family members of elders admitted to four long-term care and inpatient facilities in Hawaii. Seventy-one family members completed surveys, including 23 Chinese, 18 Filipino, and 30 Japanese participants. Elders may or may not have had the diagnosis of dementia, though an estimated half of elders in all four facilities already held the diagnosis of dementia. Findings indicated that Japanese and Chinese respondents in this study held perceptions about dementia that were more consistent with current biomedical understanding compared with their Filipino counterparts (mean differences/percent correct for Japanese: 57%, Chinese: 56% versus Filipino: 38%; F = 6.39, df = 2,55, p = 0.003). Filipino respondents were less likely than Japanese and Chinese respondents to report that persons with dementia can develop physical and mental problems-97% of Japanese participants and 82% of Chinese participants responded correctly compared with 63% of Filipino participants (Fisher's Exact test p = 0.009). With regard to folk beliefs about dementia, variation occurred with no consistent trend among the groups. Low levels of biomedical understanding of dementia were reflected by all three subgroups of Asians living in Hawaii with less prominence of folk beliefs compared with prior studies of ethnic minority perceptions. Education did not predict variability in dementia perceptions among the groups. Lower levels of acculturation, suggested by primary home language other than English, may correlate with a perception

  20. Folk Etymology (In English and Elsewhere).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poruciuc, Adrian

    Folk etymology is defined as a change in word or phrase form resulting from an incorrect popular idea of its origin or meaning. Irregular phonetic-semantic shifts are produced by inter-language borrowing or by intra-language passage from one period to another. These shifts are more common in periods when there are no, or few, normative factors…

  1. Probabilistic Segmentation of Folk Music Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciril Bohak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel method for automatic segmentation of folk music field recordings. The method is based on a distance measure that uses dynamic time warping to cope with tempo variations and a dynamic programming approach to handle pitch drifting for finding similarities and estimating the length of repeating segment. A probabilistic framework based on HMM is used to find segment boundaries, searching for optimal match between the expected segment length, between-segment similarities, and likely locations of segment beginnings. Evaluation of several current state-of-the-art approaches for segmentation of commercial music is presented and their weaknesses when dealing with folk music are exposed, such as intolerance to pitch drift and variable tempo. The proposed method is evaluated and its performance analyzed on a collection of 206 folk songs of different ensemble types: solo, two- and three-voiced, choir, instrumental, and instrumental with singing. It outperforms current commercial music segmentation methods for noninstrumental music and is on a par with the best for instrumental recordings. The method is also comparable to a more specialized method for segmentation of solo singing folk music recordings.

  2. Thematic Units for EFL Teachers: Folk Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Ho

    A thematic unit on folk literature designed for middle school English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) instruction, for students with beginner to intermediate level skills, is presented. The intention in introducing literature at these levels is to provide positive experiences with literature in the target language, and to introduce the target culture.…

  3. Folk Phenomenology and the Offering of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    This article will move in five parts. It begins with some priming notes on the relationship between philosophy of education and curriculum theory. Then it rehearses a collage of selected passages from a recent book, "Folk Phenomenology: Education, Study, and the Human Person" (Rocha, 2015a). Then the author works in a more speculative…

  4. 70th birthday of Reinhard Folk

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    Editorial Board

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On April 29, 2015 Reinhard Folk - member of the Editorial Board of "Condensed Matter Physics", renowned expert in the fields of condensed matter physics, phase transitions and critical phenomena - celebrated his 70th birthday. Reinhard Folk was born in Neuendettelsau, Germany. He studied at the University of Vienna, where in 1973 he defended his doctoral thesis "Hydrodynamic Equations of Dielectric Crystals" (under supervision of Franz Schwabl. In the same year he started working at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Kepler University in Linz, at first as assistant, later as an associate professor, then as extraordinary professor, and finally as Director of the research group "Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena". His research interests cover various fields of condensed matter physics. In particular, he obtained important results in the theory of ferroelectrics, quantum liquids, critical phenomena in magnets and random systems, spin liquids, superconductors, and neural networks. Reinhard Folk and his collaborators performed a series of studies that became the basis for understanding and quantitative description of phenomena occurring in many systems. Included amongst these are the description of the thermodynamic properties of matter in the vicinity of Lifshitz points, the description of critical dynamics in systems with different types of conservation laws, the analysis of effective (non-asymptotic critical behaviour, and generalized hydrodynamics of many-particle systems. Computing algorithms, resummation methods of asymptotic perturbation series proposed by Reinhard Folk and his collaborators, cover a wide range of applications. In 1982 (together with Volker Dohm he was awarded the Walter Schottky Prize of the German Physical Society for his studies of the critical dynamics of helium-4 . Those of us who were fortunate to know Reinhard Folk closer, are aware of his interests in the history of culture and the history of

  5. The Challenge and Benefit of Evaluating Folk Dancing Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhone, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    The physical, social, and music attributes inherent to folk dancing make it an ideal component of music education curricula. The communal experience of folk dancing is unprecedented for many adults and children. These experiences are unique because folk dancing can foster individual and group learning through music, and noncompetitive play. There…

  6. A Folk Tale of a Girl and a Pauper

    OpenAIRE

    Bkra shis bzang po

    2009-01-01

    In this folk tale, a girl helps a pauper, who eventually becomes very rich This collection of 77 audio files focuses on weddings and weddings speeches but also contains: folk tales, folk songs, riddles, tongue twisters, and local history from Bang smad Village and Ri sne Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County World Oral Literature Project

  7. Folk hero modeling therapy for Puerto Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, G; Malgady, R G; Rogler, L H

    1988-06-01

    Puerto Ricans are concentrated in the Northeastern United States in predominantly low socioeconomic status, urban Hispanic communities. Due to a constellation of stressors associated with their minority status, bilingualism and bicultural conflicts, Puerto Rican adolescents are at high risk of mental disorder. Research has shown that factors such as migration experiences, low socioeconomic status, and Hispanic values conflicting with Anglo culture (e.g., familism, spiritualistic and folk beliefs, orientation to time) are associated with higher rates of psychiatric symptomatology in the Hispanic population. Community mental health resources are under utilized, and traditional therapy modalities have had limited success in remedying the emotional and behavioural problems of Hispanics. This paper reviews several approaches to the delivery of culturally sensitive mental health services to Hispanic populations and describes the development of a new modality for Puerto Rican adolescents. The modality presents Puerto Rican folk heroes and heroines in a modelling therapy targeted towards enhancing adolescents' pride in their ethnic heritage, self-esteem, and adaptive coping with stress. The therapy was implemented on a small-group basis with 21 Puerto Rican adolescents, some of whom participated with their mothers. A clinical evaluation of the therapy was conducted by summarizing therapists' progress reports on each participant and by interviewing the participants about their impressions of the therapy experience. Progress reports and participants' self-reports indicated that the adolescents increased in self-disclosure and self-confidence; they gained pride in being Puerto Rican; they learned adaptive mechanisms for coping with stress; and they enjoyed learning about famous Puerto Ricans and their culture.

  8. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409: Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

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    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the dissemination area of the tale, which remains outside Western Europe: apart from the Estonian versions there are Sami, Karelian, Vepsian, Livonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian versions. While in almost all the Estonian versions the main protagonist is transformed into a wolf, in most of the versions written down in other areas and ethnic groups, another animal or bird replaces the wolf. The author is of the opinion that the Finnic area is central to the distribution of the folk tale The Woman as Wolf. The animal the woman is transformed into in the plot would not have been a wolf in earlier times. The article provides an explanation why the wolf is predominant in Estonian written sources. For that purpose the ways in which the wolf and werewolf were perceived in earlier Estonian folk belief are introduced. At the end of the article interpretation of the folk tale is provided. The author states that the plot and some of the motifs found in this folk tale reflect the difficulties women had in submitting to the norms and values of patriarchal order within their society.

  9. A monograph of the Serbian folk literature

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    Bojović Jovana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the oral tradition of the Serbian people. The author focuses upon the richness of the motives in the oral lyrics, epics and folk tales, pointing out the influences and conditions related to the development of this kind of literature. The results of all classifications referring to the oral literature are demonstrated, as well as the issues of the language, versification and style. The attention is also paid to some of the most beautiful scenes of spiritual life of our people in the past centuries. The content of all the chapters of the monograph entitled 'Serbian folk literature' by Vladimir Bovan is systematically presented as well.

  10. Peruvian Children's Folk Taxonomy of Marine Animals

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    José Pizarro-Neyra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.

  11. THE PLACE OF GRAPE IN TURKISH FOLK CULTURE AND IN CONTEXT OF MYTHOLOGY / TÜRK HALK KÜLTÜRÜNDE VE MITOLOJIK BAĞLAMDA ÜZÜMÜN YERI

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    Dr. Ebru ŞENOCAK

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The grape grown since the pre-historic eras has adistinct part within the verbal cultural tradition as wellas being an important health source meeting thenutrition need in Turkish folk culture. The grape thatwas the theme of folk songs, riddles, proverbs, idioms,tales and legends in folk literature was also used with itsboth curing and symbolic meanings in having a child,marriage and wedding customs, drinking wine, dowrytradition, folk beliefs and folk medicine in our folklore. In the researches carried out depending on the factthat the grape, raw material of the wine, is accepted asthe drink of the Gods in mythology and it is mentioned inTorah, Bible and the Psalms of David as the sacred drink,it was determined that in Turkish culture and mythology,the grape is the symbol of beauty, fertility, blood, soul,love and health.

  12. An automatic composition model of Chinese folk music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaomei; Li, Dongyang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Lin; Gao, Yanyuan; Zhu, Yuanyuan

    2017-03-01

    The automatic composition has achieved rich results in recent decades, including Western and some other areas of music. However, the automatic composition of Chinese music is less involved. After thousands of years of development, Chinese folk music has a wealth of resources. To design an automatic composition mode, learn the characters of Chinese folk melody and imitate the creative process of music is of some significance. According to the melodic features of Chinese folk music, a Chinese folk music composition based on Markov model is proposed to analyze Chinese traditional music. Folk songs with typical Chinese national characteristics are selected for analysis. In this paper, an example of automatic composition is given. The experimental results show that this composition model can produce music with characteristics of Chinese folk music.

  13. Rethinking Folk Culture in Twentieth-Century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Research on folk culture in twentieth-century Britain has focused on elite and transgressive political episodes, but these were not its mainstream manifestations. This article re-evaluates the place of folk culture in twentieth-century Britain in the context of museums. It argues that in the modern heritage landscape folk culture was in an active dialogue with the modern democracy. This story begins with the vexed, and ultimately failed, campaign for a national English folk museum and is traced through the concurrent successes of local, regional, and Celtic 'first wave' folk museums across Britain from the 1920s to the 1960s. The educational activities of these museums are explored as emblematic of a 'conservative modernity', which gave opportunities to women but also restricted their capacity to do intellectual work. By the 1970s, a 'second wave' folk museology is identified, revealing how forms of folk culture successfully accommodated the rapid social change of the later twentieth century, particularly in deindustrializing regions. From this new, museums' perspective, folk culture appears far less marginal to twentieth-century British society. In museums folk culture interacted with mainstream concerns about education, regionalism, and commercialization. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekbib Firew

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations. Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.

  15. Synchronic Etymologies of Ethnonyms as Cause of the Traditional Belief in Monstrous Races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlin, Curt J.

    A psychological basis for belief in human monsters is provided by the possibility of human aberrations, instinctive human fear and fascination for such prodigies, and the existence of barbaric tales ridiculing foreigners. The role of language as a cause for such belief is investigated, specifically in terms of folk etymologies for more or less…

  16. Illness Beliefs regarding the Causes of Diabetes among Latino College Students: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvia J.; Hurtado-Ortiz, Maria T.; Sneed, Carl D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the validity of the Klonoff and Landrine Illness-Belief Scale when applied to Latino college students (n = 156; 34% male, 66% female) at high risk for future diabetes onset. Principal factor analysis yielded four significant factors--emotional, folk beliefs, punitive, gene/hereditary--which accounted for 64.5% of variance and…

  17. Historical and Cultural Context of Folk Opera Development in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analyzes Saka Acquaye's 'The Lost Fishermen,'—the most popular folk opera in Ghana, to illustrate the genre's form as well as the depth of appropriations from indigenous theatre resources for the above stated purposes. The paper establishes that despite the obvious Western influences in folk opera, it is ...

  18. Folklore and Folk Songs of Chittagong: A Critical Review

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    Amir Mohammad Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Folk Songs stems from Folklore are very rich in the southern region of Chittagong. In this part of the world Folk Songs play pivotal role in the lifestyle of people as a heart-touching and heavenly connection exists between human, nature and Folk Songs. Folk Songs in this area are special because we found the theme of Nature Conservation in them. We took the southern part of Chittagong (Lohagara, Satkania, Chandanaish and Patiya as our research area, selected a village namely Chunati in the systematic sampling and more than 100 people were interviewed through focus group discussion and key informant interviews. The sufficient literature review is also done. People in this area love nature a lot. Here music personnel were born from time to time who not only worked for the musical development but also created consciousness among people to love nature and save it. We discussed about the origin of Folk Songs, pattern of Folk Songs to clarify the importance of Folk Songs of Chittagong for its connection to Folklore and at the same time for promoting the idea of Nature Conservation. Of course, this part of studies deserves more attention in the field of research. Our ultimate goal should be to conserve and promote Folk Songs of Chittagong with yearlong heritage that automatically will later enrich Folklore and Nature Conservation.

  19. Modulated neural processing of Western harmony in folk musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Tupala, Tiina; Glerean, Enrico; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-07-01

    A chord deviating from the conventions of Western tonal music elicits an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in inferofrontal brain regions. Here, we tested whether the ERAN is modulated by expertise in more than one music culture, as typical of folk musicians. Finnish folk musicians and nonmusicians participated in electroencephalography recordings. The cadences consisted of seven chords. In incongruous cadences, the third, fifth, or seventh chord was a Neapolitan. The ERAN to the Neapolitans was enhanced in folk musicians compared to nonmusicians. Folk musicians showed an enhanced P3a for the ending Neapolitan. The Neapolitan at the fifth position was perceived differently and elicited a late enhanced ERAN in folk musicians. Hence, expertise in more than one music culture seems to modify chord processing by enhancing the ERAN to ambivalent chords and the P3a to incongruous chords, and by altering their perceptual attributes. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Suppressed Belief

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    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  1. Sleep quality among residents of an old folk?s home in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Abdul; Ong, Eng Keat; Yi Wong, Eleanor Shu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep is an essential part of life. Lack of sleep has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the sleep quality of older adults residing in a private elderly care institution in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted among consenting residents of a 200-bed non-governmental charity old folks home in Penang, Malaysia. The sleep quality of the respondents was measured using the Pittsburgh Slee...

  2. The stellar sky in Bulgarian folk tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, D.; Koleva, V.

    The authors present the names of and some myths and beliefs connected with the most popular among the Bulgarian people stars and constellations. Only the names of "key" objects that are, due to their position and seasonal visibility, of great importance for the economic calendar and social life have been preserved in people's memory. This importance is illustrated by the legends and the calendar practices of the old Bulgarians. The most impressive are the beliefs connected with the Pleiades, the Great Bear, Orion, Lyra and the Milky Way as well. The authors suppose, and make an attempt to show this, that the roots of some of the preserved astronomical beliefs can be found in the very ancient times (up to 11th - 13th millennia BC).

  3. Folk Knowledge of an Individual Plant Specimen: The Case of the Royal Fern (Osmunda regalis L. in Virestad Parish, Småland, Sweden

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    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobiological studies of local economic or folk religious uses of plants often rely on the assumption that plant use relates to folk knowledge about specific taxa. However, in some cases, folk knowledge is more about beliefs concerning an individual plant. When Carl Linnaeus traveled in 1749 through his native province of Småland, Sweden, he observed a striking specimen of a royal fern (Osmunda regalis L., which was being used by a local healer. The appearance and unusually large size of this individual plant specimen were possibly responsible for its use. This species has not been used elsewhere in Sweden and historical data refer only to the single specimen observed by Linnaeus.

  4. The use of the head louse as a remedy for jaundice in Spanish folk medicine: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Spain, head lice are considered a therapeutic resource for the treatment of jaundice. All folk remedies based on the ingestion of these insects meet in the present document, previously dispersed among a large number of references. Methods An overview of the Spanish literature has been carried out. The most important databases have been consulted. All related works have been examined. Results Although the method of preparation is diverse and the dose varies, the primary recommendation is a transference ritual consisting of taking nine live lice for nine days on an empty stomach without the patient’s knowledge. This traditional knowledge survives in Spanish society, and constitutes an example of the interrelation between Spanish and Latin American folk medicines. Conclusions The survival of this therapy in the worldview of certain rural communities suggests the need to take into account the beliefs, ideas and behaviour patterns of popular culture in relation to health and disease. PMID:23876126

  5. Slav beliefs on changelings

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    Radenković Ljubinko R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs and legends that certain mythological creatures - fairies, witches, the devil, (vile, veštice, đavo, boginka, mamuna, baenik, domovoj, leshi etc. can take away the child from the mother and exchange it for its own in the image of the abducted child, are widespread with the West and East Slavs, while with the South Slavs they are found only in the northern parts, in Pannonia. Such demonic child is most often called: podmeče (with the Serbs, podvršće (with the Croats, podmenek (with the Slovenians, odmienjec (with the Poles, odminok (with the Ukrainians, obmen (with the Russians, etc. According to the folk beliefs, a changeling differs from the other children by its sluggish growth, voraciousness, and persistent desire to harm or spite other members of the household. Slav legends mention the ways of stealing the human and planting the demonic child (a, recognizing the demonic child (b, and disposing of it and restoring the rightful child (c. In order to prevent the demon from exchanging her child, the mother must observe certain rules of conduct during pregnancy and in the 40 days following the childbirth. Certain measures of magical protection are also undertaken, as: placing sharp iron objects near the nursing woman, then brooms, leaving the candle to burn all night, burning frankincense in her presence, sprinkling her with holy water, etc. The legends on changelings were most probably adopted by the Slavs from the neighboring western peoples (Germans, and included in the already present beliefs that the birth of a child is a gift from the other world, and that the mother must take great care of the gift and be grateful for it. Otherwise, the one bestowing the gift may take it away as well.

  6. From Folk Morality to Moral Philosophy

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    J Peikani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to our terminology, the mechanism people follow in moral judgments, which is far from the sayings and rules of moral philosophers, is folk morality. Above all, people in moral judgments regard human moral capacity and do not expect full morality of any one. People suppose that perfect moral life is an ideal which is beyond human abilities. This hidden presupposition forms the foundation of human moral behavior. On the other hand, it seems that the moral systems originating from moral philosophy have been constructed a priori and, assuming a perfect man, they expect people to become such a person. It seems that it is necessary for moral philosophers to change their way and begin speculation with respect to people’s moral capacities. In this paper, we argue that minimal ethical speculation increases the level of morality in society. The basis of this turn is new progresses and findings in the field of psychology and the connection between psychology and moral philosophy a connection which will be more and more important for moral philosophers parallel to scientific progresses. Of course, this is an immature idea and therefore confronts with some critiques.

  7. Natural versus Artificial Translation: A Case for Folk Etymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Olugoyega

    1981-01-01

    Uses examples of English-Yoruba translation to show that borrowing is a natural way of translating new concepts from source language into target language. Stresses importance of folk etymology in natural translation. (Author/BK)

  8. Bringing the banjo back to life: The field of dutch independent folk music as participatory culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Poecke (Niels); J.M. Michael (Janna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate factors underlying the production of independent folk music (indie folk) in the Netherlands. By studying the creation, distribution and reception of indie folk music through in-depth interviewing, we argue that the social production of indie folk music is

  9. THE SOURCE OF RUSSIAN THEATER IN FOLK CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ucar, Seyhan

    2015-01-01

    The folk culture, which is the foundation of contemporary values, provides to societies distinctive creativity duration by effecting artistic expression forms. On the other hand, the theater, as both a visual and literary genre, has become a cultural system by presenting ways for understanding and transmission of the events in versatile ways. Within this context, it can be said that the folk culture has had an encouraging effect on the turning theatrical art into a generic form and on the mov...

  10. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available to logic-based belief change, with a particular emphasis on classical propositional logic as the underlying logic in which beliefs are to be represented. Their intention is to provide the reader with a basic introduction to the work done in this area over...

  11. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  12. Desire, envy and punishment: a Matsigenka emotion schema in illness narratives and folk stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Carolina; Johnson, Allen

    2007-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that folktales in some societies are characterized by a culturally constructed underlying emotional structure, or Cultural Emotion Schema. In this paper we argue that Matsigenka illness narratives and folk stories share an underlying emotion schema, in which death and suffering result from conflicts between strong-willed individuals prompting anger and aggression. Analysis of illness narratives collected by Izquierdo in the Matsigenka community of Kamisea in the Peruvian Amazon between 1996 and 1999 reveals a common pattern in which envy and frustration lead to the belief in sorcery as the main cause of illness and death. This pattern contrasts with the typical stories of a previous generation collected by the Johnsons among the Matsigenka of Shimaa and other Matsigenka researchers, where sorcery beliefs were virtually absent. Our argument is that important changes in ecology, community, politics, and religion have led to a systematic rise in feelings of envy and frustration, and that these have increased the likelihood that sorcery accusations will occur. We explore the likelihood that such beliefs increase as egalitarian peoples become more crowded into settlements where they are likely to experience greater inequality, more competition for resources and increased societal and personal stress.

  13. TÜRK HALK KÜLTÜRÜNDE GELENEKSEL HALK HEKİMLİĞİ TRADITIONAL FOLK MEDICINE IN THE TURKISH FOLK CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar UĞURLU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Geleneksel Türk halk hekimliği binlerce yıllık bir geçmişe sahiptir.İslamdan önce ortaya çıkan bu gelenek İslamdan sonra da yaşamayadevam etmiştir. Bu nedenle günümüzde eski geleneksel iyileştirmepratikleri geçmişin inanç ve inanış unsurları ile birlikte uygulanmayadevam etmektedir. Bu gelenek eski din ve geleneksel ortamda şaman yada kamlar tarafından uygulanmıştır ki şamanlar eski gelenekte dinadamları olarak kabul edilmektedir. Yine kocakarılar, halk hekimleri veocaklılar (bir çeşit halk hekimi da yeni dinde ve gelenekte bu geleneğinyürütücüleridirler. Iyileştirme geleneğinde bazı uygulamalar günümüzmodern tıbbına ters olmasına rağmen, modern tıp ile uyuşanuygulamalara da rastlanmaktadır. Eski geleneğin halk hekimlerihastaları iyileştirmek ya da ilaç yapmak için doğadan faydalanırlardı. Budurum günümüz geleneğinde de değişmeden devam etmektedir. Bütünbunlara ek olarak bir halk eczacılık geleneği ilaç yapımında hayvanparçalarının ve çeşitli bitkilerin kullanılmasıyla ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu türhasta iyileştirme pratikleri ve ilaç yapım uygulamaları geleneksel aktarımyolları ile günümüze kadar ulaşmıştır. The traditional Turkish folk medicine has a history of thousands years. This tradition existed before Islam, has continued to live then.Therefore, nowadays, old-traditional healing practices continued to beapplied, contains marks of faith and beliefs of past. This traditionexecuted by shamans and kams, in the ancient religion and tradition, ismaintained by religion men, big wives, folk healers and ocaks (that is akind of folk healer in the new religion and culture around. Even thoughpresent-day practices of healing tradition are reverse of modern medicine,in this tradition there are also many practices overlapping with themodern medicine. Folk healers of old tradition have benefited from naturein order to make the drugs or heal patients. This

  14. METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMING REPERTOIRE OF STUDENTS’ FOLK INSTRUMENTAL ORCHESTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Pshenychnykh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects of forming future music teachers’ professional competence, connected with mastering professional musical and performing skills in the course “Orchestra Class” and realized in the activity of students’ performing group, is revealed. Nowadays the problem of creative personality development is relevant, as creative future music art teachers freely orient themselves and guide pupils students in today's cultural environment, music and media space, have a strong musical taste and aesthetic guidelines. The music genre groups have been characterized in the article. It is thought that these groups are the traditional components of repertoire of folk and orchestra student groups: arrangements of folk tunes; works of Ukrainian and world classics, orchestrated for the folk groups, taking into account each orchestra performing possibilities; works by contemporary authors, written specifically for the orchestra of folk instruments. The main methodological principles of selecting the repertoire for the student orchestra of folk instruments are disclosed, including: technical, artistic and performing capabilities of student groups; involvement of works of different genres into the repertoire; correspondence of orchestra scores to instrumental composition of the student orchestra, and their correction if it is necessary; selecting works, whose performing arouses interest of the student audience; using the experience of the leading professional ensembles of folk instruments; constant updating the orchestra's repertoire. In the conclusion the author emphasizes that taking into account the methodological tips helps solve the main tasks within the course of “Orchestra Class”. These tips are the following: students’ acquaintance with the history of foundation, composition, ways of musicianship, technique of playing the instrument of folk instrument orchestra and acquaintance with specific orchestral music; development of all

  15. Folk knowledge of invertebrates in Central Europe - folk taxonomy, nomenclature, medicinal and other uses, folklore, and nature conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulicsni, Viktor; Svanberg, Ingvar; Molnár, Zsolt

    2016-10-11

    There is scarce information about European folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. We have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in Romania, Slovakia and Croatia. We provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation. We collected data among Hungarian-speaking people practising small-scale, traditional agriculture. We studied "all" invertebrate species (species groups) potentially occurring in the vicinity of the settlements. We used photos, held semi-structured interviews, and conducted picture sorting. We documented 208 invertebrate folk taxa. Many species were known which have, to our knowledge, no economic significance. 36 % of the species were known to at least half of the informants. Knowledge reliability was high, although informants were sometimes prone to exaggeration. 93 % of folk taxa had their own individual names, and 90 % of the taxa were embedded in the folk taxonomy. Twenty four species were of direct use to humans (4 medicinal, 5 consumed, 11 as bait, 2 as playthings). Completely new was the discovery that the honey stomachs of black-coloured carpenter bees (Xylocopa violacea, X. valga) were consumed. 30 taxa were associated with a proverb or used for weather forecasting, or predicting harvests. Conscious ideas about conserving invertebrates only occurred with a few taxa, but informants would generally refrain from harming firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus), field crickets (Gryllus campestris) and most butterflies. We did not find any mythical creatures among invertebrate folk taxa. Almost every invertebrate species was regarded as basically harmful. Where possible, they were destroyed or at least regarded as worth eradicating. However, we could find no evidence to suggest any invertebrate species had suffered population loss as a result of conscious destruction. Sometimes knowledge pertaining to the taxa could have more

  16. Degrees of Belief

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of three kinds of degree of belief: subjective (credal) probability, degree of belief in the maximizing sense (expected epistemic utility) and degree of belief in the satisficing sense (Shackle type degrees of belief). The relations between these concepts and full belief (absolute certainty) and other qualitative assessments of belief (mere belief or plain belief) will be considered.

  17. THE SOURCE OF RUSSIAN THEATER IN FOLK CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan UCAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The folk culture, which is the foundation of contemporary values, provides to societies distinctive creativity duration by effecting artistic expression forms. On the other hand, the theater, as both a visual and literary genre, has become a cultural system by presenting ways for understanding and transmission of the events in versatile ways. Within this context, it can be said that the folk culture has had an encouraging effect on the turning theatrical art into a generic form and on the movement of the theater art with different adaptations. In Russia, primitive theatrical signs with regards to folk culture are seen in the period before the organisation of the first governmental theater. In that period especially the feast days, plays, skomorokhi (wandering minstrel-clowns and puppet theater made a significant contribution to the theater art and moved it to the professional stage. In this article, it is aimed to discuss the theatrical importance of the factors belonging to the folk culture and the developments, composing the basics of the Russian theater, through the ceremonies, folk dances, weddings, feast days, pagan rituals and the travel notes.

  18. Bringing the "Folk" into Applied Linguistics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilton, Antje; Stegu, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As applied linguistics is mainly concerned with solving the language-related problems of laypeople, the examination of folk views constitutes an important research field and its relevance is illustrated in this issue of the AILA review. In this introductory article, we address some of the more general aspects that need to be considered in the…

  19. Folk Medicinal Uses of Verbenaceae Family Plants in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of ...

  20. Survey of lactation instructors on folk traditions in breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffir, Jonathan; Czapla, Cheryl

    2012-08-01

    Women who choose to breastfeed are given advice from a variety of sources: some well researched and empirical, and some folkloric and rooted in oral tradition. This study aims to identify which folk practices are being discussed in the breastfeeding community and which have been adopted by lactation educators. An Internet-based questionnaire was sent to certified lactation consultants affiliated with U.S. medical centers identified through an online database. Participants were asked to provide demographic information as well as open responses about the types of recommendations they had heard and that they provide to clients. One hundred twenty-four responses were received out of 293 surveys sent (42% response rate). Eighty-six lactation consultants (69%) reported hearing of folk remedies, and 80 (65%) recommended at least one of these methods. The most commonly recommended remedies fell into the categories of promoting lactation (58%), reducing pain (41%), and avoiding substances with adverse infant effects (19%). Specifically, the most common folk traditions recommended were fenugreek (57 responses) and blessed thistle (28 responses) for lactation and cabbage leaves (36 responses) for pain relief. Practitioners who made such recommendations were similar to those who did not in age, education, length of career, and location. Folk traditions are commonly communicated in breastfeeding education. The fact that experienced practitioners are promoting the use of traditional methods suggests that further research is necessary to prove the efficacy of methods whose success previously has been anecdotal.

  1. A GRIPHOS Application of Bartok's Turkish Folk Music Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchoff, Benjamin

    Bela Bartok's study of Turkish folk music classification was analyzed using permuted indices by means of GRIPHOS computer programs. A data base was constructed which would allow retrieval of information in terms of theme locater and first text-line indices. Data bases of tabulations much like the kind Bartok manually assembled were created to test…

  2. Extent of livelihood diversification among artisanal fisher-folks in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the extent of livelihood diversification among fisher-folks in communities around Ikere gorge dam. Livelihood activities may vary from one rural area to another depending on the available resources, infrastructure and climate conditions of the environment. This informs the investigation of the extent of ...

  3. Folk music for children's choirs: the challenges and benefits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we investigate 'folk' music in the choral repertoire of children's choirs as a way of building bridges between diverse cultures within the context of regional children's choirs, with specific reference to the University of Pretoria Jacaranda Children's Choir, which performs under the auspices of the University of ...

  4. "Folk" Understandings of Quality in UK Higher Hospitality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of "folk" understandings of quality in higher hospitality education and the consequent implications of these understandings for current quality concerns in the field. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a historical survey of the stated topic…

  5. Pop, Rock, and Folk Music: An Overlooked Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Fraida

    1975-01-01

    Proposes the use of pop, rock, and folk music as material far removed from the traditional and attuned to the learners' interests. Typical examples are analyzed with respect to phonology, grammar and semantics. A final category, "overall idea songs," linguistically unclassifiable, is found to be attractive and highly motivating. (IFS/WGA)

  6. Perceptions of physical education and sports teachers towards folk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of physical education and sports teachers towards folk dance in Turkey. ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... The consensus among the Physical Education and Sports teacher participants was that dance teaching was not a duty they should fulfil at schools.

  7. Women's preference for folk/modern media in disseminating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated women's preference for folk/modern media in disseminating HIV/AIDS information in a rural community in Nigeria. Survey research design was employed in carrying out the study. A rural community was purposively selected in Oyo State, Nigeria. Snowball sampling technique was employed in ...

  8. My Heart Made Me Do It: Children's Essentialist Beliefs about Heart Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Meredith; Gelman, Susan A.; Roberts, Steven O.; Leslie, Sarah-Jane

    2017-01-01

    Psychological essentialism is a folk theory characterized by the belief that a causal internal essence or force gives rise to the common outward behaviors or attributes of a category's members. In two studies, we investigated whether 4- to 7-year-old children evidenced essentialist reasoning about heart transplants by asking them to predict…

  9. Motivational Underpinnings of Estonian Folk Dance Practices among the Estonian Diaspora over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Eha Rüütel; Iivi Zajedova; Angela Arraste

    2013-01-01

    This article is a part of a wider research on Estonian folk dance, aiming to map the emergence of folk dance groups and to study the practices and role of folk dance among the Estonian diaspora. The article sets out to explore incentives contributing to intergenerational transmission of Estonian folk dance tradition. 54 interviews (21 men and 33 women aged 38 to 87) were carried out with Estonians living in Australia, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Sweden and the United States. The analysis ...

  10. teachers beliefs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. The major purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and actual classroom practices of .... Solving: According to Thompson (1992), teachers' classroom practice of mathematics problem solving is a critical factor in determining students' problems ... inquiry and creativity (Micintosh, 2000). To foster critical ...

  11. teachers beliefs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The major purpose of this study was to examine teachers' beliefs and actual classroom practices of problem-solving teaching in ... their actual practices in the classroom. Out of nine high schools found in Awi Zone, five of them were randomly selected. In ..... To foster critical thinking and creative mind in the students through ...

  12. Evaluation of optimal educational model related to folk music in China with fuzzy preference relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rong Chen

    2016-01-01

    ... case to demonstrate its applicability. Keywords: fuzzy preference relations, optimal educational model, folk music 1.Introduction Now, music cultural diversity has become a mainstream trend in the existing social music culture development. Folk music is an important aspect of culture diversity. To inherit folk music is a good way to develop and i...

  13. The Place of Igbo Folk Songs in Peace Building and Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper among other things tries to examine the impact of folk music In Igbo culture, the place of music in the promotion of sustainable rural development. Selected Igbo folk songs with subject matters geared towards maintenance of peace in Igbo societies were also analyzed. Key words: Igbo Culture, Folk Music, Peace, ...

  14. The Spanish Influence on the Mestizo Folk Dance of Yucatan, Veracruz, and Jalisco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Lawrence Alan

    Folk dances from three regions of Mexico (Yucatan, Veracruz, and Jalisco) are examined. Emphasis is placed on the ways in which these folk dances reflect the history and cultural attitudes of the Mexican people and, particularly, on the influence of Spanish culture and history on Mexican folk dances. For the dances of each of these areas,…

  15. The Degree and Cost Adjusted Folk Solution for Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper two cost sharing solutions for minimum cost spanning tree problems are introduced, the degree adjusted folk solution and the cost adjusted folk solution. These solutions overcome the problem of the classical reductionist folk solution as they have considerable strict ranking

  16. Visual-emotional elements of folk dance in the structure of pupils' writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Familiarizing the pupils with the concept of folk dance. Folk dance as a part of folk lore. The elements of folk dance (music, song, costume, coreography. Observing integral elements. Syncretism. Describing observed and experienced phenomena. Description of dynamic artistic image. Description of folk dance introduces pupils for observation and appreciation. First to be described are easily observable, dominant elements, to be followed by other details which can be observed by pupils and which are conditional on their psychical and emotional abilities.

  17. Using automatic generation of Labanotation to protect folk dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaji; Miao, Zhenjiang; Guo, Hao; Zhou, Ziming; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Labanotation uses symbols to describe human motion and is an effective means of protecting folk dance. We use motion capture data to automatically generate Labanotation. First, we convert the motion capture data of the biovision hierarchy file into three-dimensional coordinate data. Second, we divide human motion into element movements. Finally, we analyze each movement and find the corresponding notation. Our work has been supervised by an expert in Labanotation to ensure the correctness of the results. At present, the work deals with a subset of symbols in Labanotation that correspond to several basic movements. Labanotation contains many symbols and several new symbols may be introduced for improvement in the future. We will refine our work to handle more symbols. The automatic generation of Labanotation can greatly improve the work efficiency of documenting movements. Thus, our work will significantly contribute to the protection of folk dance and other action arts.

  18. Pediatric lead poisoning from folk prescription for treating epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Jian; Markowitz, Morri; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2016-10-01

    A case of lead poisoning resulting from the ingestion of a folk remedy for treating epilepsy is reported. The initial blood lead concentration of this 6-y-old boy was 63.6μg/dl upon admission. He presented with abdominal pain, constipation, and irritability. The patient's liver function tests were significantly increased. Through chelation therapy, the blood lead concentration dropped markedly and clinical symptoms greatly improved. His blood and urine samples were collected for the kinetic analysis of lead elimination. Folk prescriptions for epilepsy should be considered as potential sources of lead intoxication. Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration for unknown causes of abdominal pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Revolt of Grannies: The Bursylysyas Komi Folk Orthodox Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Koosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the role of women in the Bursylysyas Komi folk orthodox movement. Throughout the history of the movement, women have gradually gained more authority in this religious community. The initial stage of communist rule and the final phase of the Soviet Union were periods in which women’s domination in local religious life was most obvious. We argue that men lost their leadership in the movement because their way of execution of religious power was public and thus they became targets for Soviet repression. Komi women continued to keep the Bursylysyas faith alive, although they did so in a more domestic, hidden way. This enabled women to lead local religious practise throughout the Soviet period. In addition, the peculiar ecstatic practices of Bursylysyas, most fully developed during the initial period of Soviet rule, were more suitable for women in the framework of Komi traditional folk religiosity.

  20. Revolt of Grannies: The Bursylysyas Komi Folk Orthodox Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Koosa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the role of women in the Bursylysyas Komi folk orthodox movement. Throughout the history of the movement, women have gradually gained more authority in this religious community. The initial stage of communist rule and the final phase of the Soviet Union were periods in which women’s domination in local religious life was most obvious. We argue that men lost their leadership in the movement because their way of execution of religious power was public and thus they became targets for Soviet repression. Komi women continued to keep the Bursylysyas faith alive, although they did so in a more domestic, hidden way. This enabled women to lead local religious practise throughout the Soviet period. In addition, the peculiar ecstatic practices of Bursylysyas, most fully developed during the initial period of Soviet rule, were more suitable for women in the framework of Komi traditional folk religiosity.

  1. Climate change adaptation strategy for the Folk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Al-Pavel, Muha.; Khan, Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin; Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    2013-01-01

    In Bangladesh, impacts on agriculture from extreme climate are increasingly vulnerable. On the other hand, folk communities are intensely depending on agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate change has already negatively affected the vegetable production by annual recurrent flood in Bangladesh....... This study is an assessment of the new vegetable production system that could adopt in a changing climatic condition. With the popular eight vegetable species, the field experiment consisted of four treatments which were conducted in the bags. However, treatment (TD) which consisted of Coriander (Coriander...... of this study might be helpful for the flood affected folk communities produce vegetables for their own consumption and income. Likewise, new experiments with altered technique and vegetable species are recommended to conclusively develop climate change adaptation strategies for flood prone areas....

  2. Creativity and personality in classical, jazz and folk musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Benedek, Mathias; Borovnjak, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Kruse-Weber, Silke

    2014-01-01

    The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more fre...

  3. Hvor bosætter folk sig i Kumasi, Ghana?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Andreasen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    overklassen. Det forunderlige og besynderlige er fraværet af store slumråder som ellers ses overalt i den 3 Verdens storbyer. Der er en del slum i den indre del af byen og der bor mange fattige folk i de såkaldte gårdhuse som er så karakterisek for regionen, men det store spørgsmål er hvor den stadige vækst...

  4. Queer as Folk and the trouble with slash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra Hunting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Showtime TV series Queer as Folk (2000–2005 brought same-sex relationships and sex scenes to prime-time television, putting the stuff of slash up on the small screen. Despite incorporating many slash tropes into the canonical text, Queer as Folk troubles many of the traditional assumptions about how fan fiction and slash operate, particularly the association of slash with subversion. The intertextual relationship between canonically queer texts and their attendant fandoms requires new frameworks for exploring traditional fan fiction subgenres such as slash. When the canonical text itself is queer, gestures and genres that have generally been considered subversive can in fact be more conservative than the canonical text itself. When the political stakes of a canonical series are clear and explicitly progressive, the intertextual relationship between canon and fandom can be particularly important and uniquely problematic, as this case study of Queer as Folk demonstrates in its assessment of the complexities that arise when the canon itself is queer.

  5. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  6. Belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available and the area of nonmonotonic reasoning, while Section 8 takes a brief look at recent developments in belief change. Finally, we conclude in Section 9. 2 Preliminaries First the logical framework. We start with a quite abstract formulation (L,Cn), where we... just have a set L whose elements are the sentences, together with a consequence operator Cn which takes sets of sentences B ? L to sets of sentences Cn(B) which intuitively represents all the sentences which are entailed by B. Cn is assumed to be a...

  7. IDENTIFICATION, QUANTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE ETHNOGRAPHIC POTENTIAL OF FOLK SONGS SPECIFIC TO BIHOR, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore Vasile HERMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to identify, quantify and analyse the tourism potential offered by folk songs specific to Bihor, or by the triad folk music - folk ensemble - specific event. This approach is necessary in the context of the evolution and rise of tourism in the last period, together with the needs and expectations of tourists to spend their time in a more pleasant and also active way, integrated in the life of host communities.

  8. Conservation and Development of Central Thai Folk Music for Cultural Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Thipsuda Imjai; Ying Keeratiburana; Marisa Koseyayothin

    2013-01-01

    Folk music of Central Thailand is an artistic performance and an important cultural heritage of Thais that is in need of conservation, revitalization and development. The performance factors of all 5 folk music bands studied in the research were similar in areas of 1) performance stages. 2) Similar traditional clothing. 3) Music instruments. 4) Light and sound. 5) The amount of performers was selected according to appropriateness. The difficulties of Central Thailand folk music are 1) Declini...

  9. Using point-set compression to classify folk songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    on the discovery of translational equivalence classes (TECs) of maximal translatable patterns (MTPs) in point-set representations of the melodies. The twelve algorithms consisted of four variants of each of three basic algorithms, COSIATEC, SIATECCompress and Forth’s algorithm. The main difference between...... similarity between folk-songs for classification purposes is highly dependent upon the actual compressor chosen. Furthermore, it seems that compressors based on finding maximal repeated patterns in point-set representations of music show more promise for NCD-based music classification than general...

  10. The 'L' Word & Queer as Folk: uma leitura queer DOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Makino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a relação entre a heteronormatividade e a produção midiática voltada para públicos aos quais aquela é um tema especialmente sensível.Os seriados selecionados são The ‘L’ Word, voltado principalmente para o público lésbico, e Queer as Folk, para o público gay. Discute-se como os seriados lidam com questões como homoparentalidade, estereótipos, militância em torno da causa, relações familiares, entre outros.

  11. Neurological implications and neuropsychological considerations on folk music and dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Vittorio A; Riva, Michele A

    2015-01-01

    Neurological and neuropsychological aspects of folk music and traditional dance have been poorly investigated by historical and scientific literature. Some of these performances could be indeed the manifestation of latent pathological conditions or the expression of liberation rituals. This chapter aimed at analyzing the relationships between traditional dance, folk music, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. Since ancient times, dance has been used in the individual or collective as treatment of some diseases, including epilepsy and movement disorders (dyskinesia, chorea, etc.). Dionysia in Ancient Greece, St. Vitus dance in the Middle Age, tarantism and other traditional dances of southern Italy and of non-Western countries might be credited as curative rituals of these neurological and psychiatric conditions. During the nineteenth century, dance was also used for the treatment of psychiatric patients; the relationship between dance and insanity could also be reflected in classical ballets and music of that period. Nowadays, neuropsychiatric manifestations could also be evidenced in modern dances (mass fainting at rock concerts, flash mobs); some ballroom dances are commonly used for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. Interdisciplinary research on these subjects (ethnomusicology and cultural anthropology, clinical neurology and dynamic psychology, neuroradiology and neurophysiology, and socioneurology and neuromusicology) should be increased. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. FOLK DWELLING IN THE NOVEL OF IVAN BAHRIANYI "TYHROLOVY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGUSLAVSKAYA L. G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The image of the national home contains a number of basic characteristics on the basis of which can be traced specifically to the national vision and principles of human connections with the material world. In the novel "Tyhrolovy" the uniqueness of this play lies in the fact that the “Ukrainian Khata” consolidated among the "alien" space. On the pages of the novel takes place already well-established, self-sufficient and organized life of an Ukrainian family that not only survived, but also learned new vital dimension. Folk housing in the context appears as the main object of maintaining tribal affiliation to the Ukrainian land. The purpose of the article. To perform the folk characteristic properties at home in the works of Ivan Bahrianyi. Conclusions. Roman "Tyhrolovy" Ivan Bahrianyi contains a number of significant parts filled with the symbols of tribal affiliation to the Ukrainian world. In particular, fully preserved and carefully restored in the family home of Sirko the guard function of these important components of the domestic home space, like images, embroidered towels, oven painted with flowers, carved cupboard. A combination feature of former agricultural world with the world of game is transmitted via the zoomorphic elements of the painting ovens ( former peace doves have become falcons and deploying a visual of the number of images that are typical for Ukrainian dwelling as the basic form of fixation of life and family development.

  13. Unconventional therapists and their patients in Polish traditional folk medicine

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    Piątkowski Włodzimierz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Folk medicine is a clearly distinct, comparatively homogeneous and closed system which has arisen from many centuries of isolation and self-sufficiency of the people of the Polish countryside. A feature of this special system involved tradition and relatively consistent illness behaviors, resistant to broader influences of the global society, despite the gradually growing role of modernization factors. An inherent feature of folk culture that impacted behaviors and attitudes of the rural population towards illness was the co-occurrence and overlapping of mystical-magical and religious elements. These applied both to the views on etiology, prevention, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment. Special functions in healing activities in the countryside were performed by the elderly. The matters related to health and illness were the province of the elderly as they were respected and revered for their life’s wisdom and life experience. The purpose of the article is to show the specificity of non-medical treatment in the context of social and cultural determinants, placing special emphasis on the role and importance of the elderly in exercising treatment roles.

  14. The case of "A cat and dog in a well": motifs, folk inquiry and metafolkloristic interpretation (on Udmurtian folk beliefs) / Tatyana Minniyakhmetova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Minnijahmetova, Tatjana, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Juhtumist ühes udmurdi külas Bashkiirias 1984. aastal, kui kahe perekonna kasutatavasse kaevu olid kukkunud surnud kass ja koer. Sellele järgnenud sündmustest, mida rahvauskumuste kohaselt seletati nõidusega

  15. Hispanic mothers' beliefs and practices regarding selected children's health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, B I

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the Hispanic mothers' initial sources of advice and help with children's illnesses; beliefs about the etiology and seriousness of certain children's illnesses, namely, fever, cough, diarrhea, vomiting, conjunctivitis, skin rash, minor wounds, and burns; practices for the management of these children's health problems, including the use of home remedies, if any. Interviews were conducted with 100 women of Hispanic origin who had at least one child age 5 years or less and who were attending a community clinic in a rural area of central California. Mothers' beliefs about problem etiologies varied widely and revealed several misconceptions, folk beliefs, and lack of knowledge. The findings also revealed that only 32% of the mothers used or would use health professionals as the initial source of advice or help with children's problems. The majority of the subjects (81%) admitted to using home remedies to manage children's problems; 17% sought the help of a folk healer (mainly for the treatment of empacho). The various types of home remedies used by mothers were described and included the ingestion or application of certain foods, fluids, herbal teas, or other materials as well as methods to eliminate the perceived causes of the problems. It is important to note that 11% of the mothers had used azarcon or greta (substances containing lead) for treating empacho and other stomach problems in children. The need for culturally responsive and sensitive health care is discussed.

  16. Evolution of Religious Beliefs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Humans may be distinguished from all other animals in having beliefs about the causal interaction of physical objects. Causal beliefs are a developmental primitive in human children; animals, by contrast, have very few causal beliefs. The origin of human causal beliefs comes from the evolutionary advantage it gave in relation to complex tool making and use. Causal beliefs gave rise religion and mystical thinking as our ancestors wanted to know the causes of events that affected their lives.

  17. Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? Confronting Wife Abuse through Folk Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucko, Lenora Greenbaum

    1991-01-01

    Notes development of techniques to use folk stories as aid in redefining problems faced by battered women, increasing self-esteem, decreasing resistance, and encouraging alternative solutions to difficult situations. Presents case study of use of story in battered women's support group session to illustrate value of folk stories in counseling…

  18. Authenticity Revisited : the production, distribution, and consumption of independent folk music in the Netherlands (1993-present)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Poecke (Niels)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn ways similar to the 1960s ‘urban folk revival’ – that is, through live performance, mass mediation and sales successes – the genre of folk music rose the surface of the global music industry once more during the first decade of the new millennium. The new labels are hyphenated, as in

  19. Folk Dance. A Supplement to the K-12 Physical Education Curriculum Guide. Curriculum Support Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Lanny; Gregory, Kerri

    This resource package has been designed to assist elementary and secondary school teachers in incorporating folk dancing into physical education programs as well as into other classroom subjects. The first section supplies a "Folk Dance Scope and Sequence Chart" which lists the dances and grade levels appropriate to each. The second section is…

  20. Research on the Boost of Development on Young Children's Fine Motor by Folk Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xia

    2016-01-01

    As Chinese traditional folk culture, folk games have unique educational value which can boost the development of young children's fine motor. Based on previous investigation of fine motor skill of children in Nanchong, Sichuan Province, the researcher chose a middle class in public city kindergarten A with lower survey score as the study object.…

  1. Comparison of Movement Notation (Laban) and Traditional Methodological Learning Success in Teaching Folk Dances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyagutu, Dilek Cantekin; Hazar, Muhsin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, Movement Notation (Laban) and Traditional Method in Folk dance Teaching were compared in terms of learning success. Movement notation group (n = 14) and Traditional group (n = 14) consisting of students from the S.U. State Conservatory Turkish Folk Dance Department were formed. During the 14-week-long study, the symbols of the…

  2. Socio-economic activities of fisher folk in Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic activities and potentials of rural fisher folk in Niger Delta, Nigeria. One thousand and two hundred (1,200) structured questionnaires were administered to fisher folks in one hundred (100) fishing communities, and only one thousand (1000) were retrieved. The questionnaires dealt ...

  3. Socio-economic analysis of artisanal fisher folks in arid zone of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic analysis of artisanal fisher folks in arid zone of Nigeria: a case study of Katsina State. ... African Journal of Livestock Extension ... This study was undertaken to establish the socio-economic characteristics of artisanal fisher folks in the arid zone of Nigeria to provide a much-needed base-line of information ...

  4. Using Folk Dance and Geography to Teach Interdisciplinary, Multicultural Subject Matter: A School-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovegno, Inez; Gregg, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    Background: Many scholars have called for physical education to be part of interdisciplinary units at the elementary level. The study of Native American cultures is required in most North American elementary schools. Folk dance, however, has traditionally included Western European folk dances, square dance, and, more recently, line dancing. In our…

  5. Folk Linguistics and Language Teaching Education. A Case Study in an Italian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santipolo, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    This paper, after shortly introducing "Folk Linguistics" by defining its domain of competence [cf. Preston, Dennis R., ed. 1999. "Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology." Amsterdam: John Benjamins; Niedzielski, Nancy A., and Dennis R. Preston. 2003. "Folk Linguistics." Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter], attempts to draw an…

  6. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

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    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  7. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Tagarelli, Antonio; Piro, Anna

    2010-09-18

    In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy).The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  8. Folk medicine used to heal malaria in Calabria (southern Italy

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    Tagarelli Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy. The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria.

  9. Folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpert, Mateja; Kreft, Samo

    2017-02-23

    Information on the use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci is not available in the literature, but collection of plants is still an important and widespread practice in these regions. Karst and Gorjanci are two remote regions in Slovenia that are only 120 km apart but have different climates; one region is close to the Italian border, and the other is near the Croatian border. Our aim was to report and compare the use of medicinal plants in both regions. From October 2013 to September 2014, 25 informants each in Karst and Gorjanci were interviewed during field research. The age of the informants ranged from 33 to 89 years, with an average age of 61 years in Karst and 69 years in Gorjanci. The main question was "Which plants do or did you collect from nature and use?" Plants of medicinal, nutritive, veterinary or cosmetic use were considered. A total of 78 and 82 taxa were reported in Karst and Gorjanci, respectively; 65 taxa were reported in both regions. Approximately 64% of the plants in each region were distinctive for only a few informants (fewer than 7). The remaining plants were considered important, and the majority were mutual to both regions. Few reported plants were typical for just one region. Differences in the use of some common medicinal plants were observed, e.g., Matricaria chamomilla was used mostly for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections and sore eyes in Gorjanci but as a calmative in Karst. Altogether, 15 different oral and 15 different topical medicinal preparations were reported. Folk knowledge was found to be influenced by the media, particularly popular books about medicinal plants that were published in the 20th century. The present research documents the folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia. This rapidly changing practice needs to be documented before it disappears or changes.

  10. The main sacrifice: Sacrificing own children in Slavic folk literature

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    Đapović Lasta S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the work of M. Dragomanov "Slavs fables about sacrificing own children." These fables are divided into three groups whereas the second group is discussed here. This particular group includes fables on sacrificing one's own child (a son out of pity for the poor, a few tales from the Ukraine, Bulgaria, and two Serbian folk songs: Deacon Stefan and two angels, and True ordeal of the two God's angels. The analysis shows that all fables encourage merciful behavior. Bad behavior toward the poor, on the other hand, is always punished, and good, desirable behavior even if it includes sacrificing one's own child in order to cure the sick is always rewarded, whereas the sacrificed child becomes resurrected. Serbian folk songs also contain the motif of one's own child sacrifice in order to cure blind or mute people, and here the child gets resurrected too. However, these songs differ greatly from the fables. Namely, they encourage in the name of mercy, the breakdown of certain norms of socially desirable behaviors; like for example, work restrictions on Sundays-and this encouraged breakdown represents the main point of the songs. A request for sacrificing one's own child could have, in addition to altruism, other hidden meanings, for instance, a possible punishment due to the breakdown of religious norms. The songs have multiple layers and meanings. In a nutshell all documents assert the highest ethical principles of Christianity. Nonetheless, human sacrifice, which seems in opposition with Christian values, creates confusion and gives at the same time, a pagan note to these texts. However the author argues that all cited fables contain the connection: sacrifice-salvation-resurrection, which could point out to Christ's own sacrifice.

  11. Folk Remedies and Child Abuse: A Review with Emphasis on Caida de Mollera and Its Relationship to Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karen Kirhofer

    1998-01-01

    Reviews a variety of folk remedies such as coining (Southeast Asia), cupping (primarily Russia), and moxibustion (Asia), which may be confused with child abuse. It especially considers the Hispanic folk illness "caida de mollera" (fallen fontanelle) but rejects the idea in the literature that folk treatment can cause the injuries seen in…

  12. A pragmatic belief system in family meaning-making after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K; Santanello, Holly R; Rubinstein, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored a sample of families' beliefs concerning creation of meaning in the recent death of the elderly husband and father and his existence in an afterlife. Data were collected through qualitative inquiry. Family members from 34 families were asked about their reaction to their loved one's death. Three themes emerged from participants' responses (a) the significance of context in the father and husband's life and death; (b) family members' folk beliefs; and (c) recalling the after-death ritual. The themes interpenetrate at the point where family members, although doubtful, hoped their loved one continues in an afterlife.

  13. Belief and Its Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewersdorf, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The role of experience for belief revision is seldom explicitly discussed. This is surprising as it seems obvious that experiences play a major role for most of our belief changes. In this work, the two most plausible views on the role of experience for belief change are investigated: the view that

  14. Economical aspects of folk culture as an element of balanced regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Ciążkowska-Gaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Folk culture holds a significant position in social and scientific interests. Except for economy, it covers a wide range of scientific concepts. However, the lack of economical empirics does not mean, that peasant’s culture has not been observed from the economical point of view. Capitalism, and later Poland’s entering the European Union imposed and somehow forced on folk creators the need of creating enterprising behaviour. Thesis below is only a key to the gate of the garden of broader research and constitutes an introduction on tricky ground of economic ground of folk culture.

  15. Traditional Ukrainian songs as performed by folk choirs of ‘Sloboda’ Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada Rusina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the worldwide globalization processes the issues pertaining to the quest for national identity acquire a particular signifi cance. This is true in the case of Ukraine as a newly independent state in the establishment and consolidation phase. In the conditions marked by a general obliteration of folk customs and traditions it is folk amateur choirs/gatherings (hurts that often become vehicles of folk culture. This study presents rare records of traditional Ukrainian songs, some of them dating back to the 19th century, which the author made in the course of several field trips.

  16. The Relationships among Sources of Teacher Pedagogical Beliefs, Teaching Experiences, and Student Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mellati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ beliefs are derived from various sources such as experiences and personality (Kennedy, 1997; Donaghue, 2003; Ellis, 2008, childhood learning experiences (Rokeach, 1968, teaching experiences (Zeichner and Tabachnick, 1981, and folk pedagogy (Bruner, 1996. The relationship of these sources and learners’ outcomes are under question; therefore, this study investigated the relationships among sources of teacher pedagogical beliefs, teaching experiences, and student outcomes. The researchers classified these sources into two categories “Experienced Pedagogical Beliefs” and “Educational Pedagogical Beliefs”. To conduct this study, 150 Iranian ELT instructors had been chosen randomly. Their students’ scores were also used in data analysis. A beliefs’ questionnaire and interview were employed to elicit instructors’ sources of pedagogical beliefs. The results suggested that a significant proportion of the total variations in learners’ outcomes were predicted by teachers’ sources of pedagogical beliefs and teachers’ teaching experiences. The implications for improving the quality of teacher education programs were also discussed.

  17. Strategic Belief Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects....... The capability to manage beliefs will increasingly be a strategic one, a key source of wealth creation, and a key research area for strategic organization scholars.......While (managerial) beliefs are central to many aspects of strategic organization, interactive beliefs are almost entirely neglected, save for some game theory treatments. In an increasingly connected and networked economy, firms confront coordination problems that arise because of network effects...

  18. Weaves and Colours of Lithuanian Folk Skirts Fabrics

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    Eglė KUMPIKAITĖ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article weaves and colours of Lithuanian folk skirts fabrics are analysed. The investigation objects are the skirts from funds of three Lithuanian Museums: 258 skirts from National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art, 85 skirts from Lithuanian Open Air Museum and 16 skirts from A. and A. Tamošaitis gallery “Židinys”. Distribution of skirts fabrics according to weaves was estimated, and it shows, that fabrics of plain weave are most widespread (53 %, combined and twill weaves are less popular (19 % and 18 %, respectively. The weaves of fabrics are determined during investigation and plans of weave were made proposing recommendations for manufacturing of similar fabrics. Also distribution of colours and number of colours in the fabrics were analysed. The biggest number of colours is in fabrics of simple weaves (plain and twill, and the most characteristic are green, red, black and blue colours. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5240

  19. Weaves and Colours of Lithuanian Folk Skirts Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė KUMPIKAITĖ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article weaves and colours of Lithuanian folk skirts fabrics are analysed. The investigation objects are the skirts from funds of three Lithuanian Museums: 258 skirts from National M. K. Čiurlionis Museum of Art, 85 skirts from Lithuanian Open Air Museum and 16 skirts from A. and A. Tamošaitis gallery “Židinys”. Distribution of skirts fabrics according to weaves was estimated, and it shows, that fabrics of plain weave are most widespread (53 %, combined and twill weaves are less popular (19 % and 18 %, respectively. The weaves of fabrics are determined during investigation and plans of weave were made proposing recommendations for manufacturing of similar fabrics. Also distribution of colours and number of colours in the fabrics were analysed. The biggest number of colours is in fabrics of simple weaves (plain and twill, and the most characteristic are green, red, black and blue colours. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.5240

  20. Creativity and personality in classical, jazz and folk musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Borovnjak, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Kruse-Weber, Silke

    2014-06-01

    The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more frequently engaged in extracurricular musical activities, and also complete a higher number of creative musical achievements. Additionally, jazz musicians show higher ideational creativity as measured by divergent thinking tasks, and tend to be more open to new experiences than classical musicians. This study provides first empirical evidence that jazz musicians show particularly high creativity with respect to domain-specific musical accomplishments but also in terms of domain-general indicators of divergent thinking ability that may be relevant for musical improvisation. The findings are further discussed with respect to differences in formal and informal learning approaches between music genres.

  1. Suicide in Old Norse and Finnish folk stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Majeed, Zainab Abd

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the folk stories of Norway, Iceland and Finland with a view to discovering accounts of suicide as an escape option from intolerable predicaments, and to compare any such accounts with material from Southern Europe. The Poetic Edda (Norway/Iceland) and The Kalevala (Finland) were examined for accounts of suicide, and evidence regarding the influence of these texts and individual accounts was collected. The Poetic Edda provided one account and The Kalevala three accounts of suicide performed as a means of escaping intolerable situations. Both the Poetic Edda and The Kalevala are in public awareness and have influenced the politics and culture of their respective regions. The individual suicides have been depicted in literature, music and the visual arts, from the distant past to the present time. Suicide as a means of escape from intolerable predicaments has been public knowledge in these regions for a millennium. This is consistent with findings from Southern Europe and substantiates that intolerable predicaments may lead to suicide.

  2. Brazilian Folk Art as a possibility of multicultural teaching of the visual arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cristina Figueira Bastos de Melo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article establishes an overview of the relationship between culture and the teaching of Art in Brazil, reflecting about multiculturalism in the teaching of Visual Arts through Folk Art. It is based on a literature review, analysis of works of art and their relation to multicultural issues. The study highlights the importance of Folk Art as a source of multicultural studies, as well as the need to deal with these issues within the school environment. There has not been much discussion about the topic, especially regarding Folk Art. The research concludes that it is possible to teach multicultural Art through an approach of the Folk Art, as it enables a better approximation to the learners’ universe and contribute for the development of their critical, reflexive and esthetic abilities.

  3. The Fairy-Folk Tale in Media Art: Reflections of Disney and Duvall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Toni

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on Walt Disney and Shelley Duvall, mass media producers who furnish children with fairy-folklore. Compares and contrasts what Disney and Duvall do and do not convey through their fairy-folk tales. (MS)

  4. Folk national culture as a means of forming norms of communication in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernushevich V. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The best carriers of playing culture are children, who possess and enjoy it. Destroyed social kids’ structures, territorial kids’ associations (family, yard, village, street communities of children interrupted generally the process of culture transmission, reproduction and passing of communication tradition. And there is a need in social-state “revivification” (recovering folk games list and its’ players, enough for folk games reproduction process. Folk game includes particular properties of relations on the levels of physical and emotional, vocal interaction, imagery-symbolic filling, special features of clothes (all aspects of communication that constitute features of national culture of the nation and make from the nation the community of people very special and different from other communities and nations. Studying of correctional possibilities of folk games within the frames of playing agendas showed that their psychological and emotional resources provide the conditions for adoption by children the norms of communication.

  5. Folk toys in Central Thailand: Product development for a creative economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Pichetpruth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Folk toys in Central Thailand are a part of local Thai local wisdom. Creative folk toys are a part of cultural heritage and Thai creative and sustainable economic development. So, this research aimed to study 1 the indigenous folk toys in central Thailand, 2 the toy production problems and solution guidelines, and 3 the toy product development for the creative economy. The study employed a qualitative research method. The target group consisted of the selected communities in Nonthaburi Province, Ayutthaya Province and Suphanburi Province and folk toy sources. The informants were: 15 folk toy enterprise presidents, government officers and local experts as the key informants, 45 folk toy enterprise members as the causal informants and 45 customers as the general informants. Data were collected by means of interview, observation, focus group discussion and workshop from field study. Qualitative data were analyzed by inductive analysis method with triangular verification and the research results were presented by a descriptive analysis method. The research results revealed that folk toys in Central Thailand were derived from local indigenous knowledge that was created and transmitted through the generations for at least 700 years. Most of the folk toys in Central Thailand were produced by natural, local and easily found materials, using natural colors. The beauty, styles and quality of natural and man-made children’s toys were based on parental competency. Moreover, creation of folk toys is a form of Thai handicraft. Thai people truly believe that toys are symbols of parental love and attention and the tools to build up children’s growth in terms of lifestyle and creative mind. The findings show that folk toys in Central Thailand are made of special soil, wood, bamboo, lan leaf, tan leaf and coconut shell. Folk toys are categorized in four groups: 1 fun toys, such as krataewien, explosive bamboo, king drum, nangkop drum, rhythm coconut shell

  6. Ronald D. Cohen, Depression Folk: Grassroots Music and Left-Wing Politics in 1930s America

    OpenAIRE

    Blatanis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Ronald D. Cohen, Depression Folk: Grassroots Music and Left-Wing Politics in 1930s America Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2016. Pp. 201. ISBN: 9781469630465. Konstantinos Blatanis National and Kapodistrian University of Athens This most recent installment of Ronald D. Cohen’s authoritative research career in American folklore history provides readers with a detailed account of the course folk music followed during the years of the Great Depression. The author’s wide exp...

  7. Effect of Folk Dance Training on Blood Oxidative Stress Level, Lipids, and Lipoproteins

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    Okdan Bora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folk dance is a form of physical activity which helps develop the ability to use the whole body in a coordinated way with music, and folk dancers’ characteristics vary according to the particular type of dance practised in a given geographic region. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of 12-week folk dance training on blood oxidative stress level, lipids, lipoproteins, as well as muscle damage markers and to define some physical and physiological properties of folk dancers. Material and methods. Thirty-eight healthy male folk dancers aged 21-28 years having an average of 11 years of dance training experience voluntarily participated in the study. All of the physical and physiological measurements and the blood analysis were performed twice, before and after the training period which focused on different regional dances (Caucasus, Bar, Zeybek, Spoon Dance, Thracian dances, and Horon. The training was done 2 hours per day (a total of 10 hours a week, during a 12-week-long period. Results. All the blood parameters were found to be within the specified reference ranges. The training programme had no significant effect on the blood lipid profile, whereas it was found to have positive effects on body fat (p ≤ 0.012, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak; p = 0.000, muscle damage markers (creatine kinase, Δ% = −19.6, and total antioxidant capacity (p ≤ 0.002. Conclusions. Regular folk dance training was found to have positive effects on body fat, VO2peak, blood total antioxidant capacity, and muscle damage markers. Based on these results, the community should be encouraged to perform folk dance as a recreational physical activity, and public awareness should be raised about the health benefits of practising folk dances.

  8. Development of an adverse events reporting form for Korean folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Sun-Mi; Moon, Sujeong; Kim, Sungha; Kim, Boyoung; Kim, Min-Kyeoung; Lee, Sanghun

    2017-05-01

    We developed an adverse events (AEs) reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The first version of the form was developed and tested in the clinical setting for spontaneous reporting of AEs. Additional revisions to the reporting form were made based on collected data and expert input. We developed an AEs reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The items of this form were based on patient information, folk medicine properties, and AEs. For causality assessment, folk medicine properties such as classification, common and vernacular names, scientific name, part used, harvesting time, storage conditions, purchasing route, product licensing, prescription, persons with similar exposure, any remnant of raw natural products collected from the patient, and cautions or contraindications were added. This is the first reporting form for AEs that incorporates important characteristics of Korean folk medicine. This form would have an important role in reporting adverse events for Korean folk medicine. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Development of an adverse events reporting form for Korean folk medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Sun‐Mi; Moon, Sujeong; Kim, Sungha; Kim, Boyoung; Kim, Min‐Kyeoung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose We developed an adverse events (AEs) reporting form for Korean folk medicine. Methods The first version of the form was developed and tested in the clinical setting for spontaneous reporting of AEs. Additional revisions to the reporting form were made based on collected data and expert input. Results We developed an AEs reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The items of this form were based on patient information, folk medicine properties, and AEs. For causality assessment, folk medicine properties such as classification, common and vernacular names, scientific name, part used, harvesting time, storage conditions, purchasing route, product licensing, prescription, persons with similar exposure, any remnant of raw natural products collected from the patient, and cautions or contraindications were added. Conclusions This is the first reporting form for AEs that incorporates important characteristics of Korean folk medicine. This form would have an important role in reporting adverse events for Korean folk medicine. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27501410

  10. Salmonella arizona arthritis and septicemia associated with rattlesnake ingestion by patients with connective tissue diseases. A dangerous complication of folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, A; Guerra-Bautista, G; Alarcón-Segovia, D

    1991-09-01

    Snakes constitute the main reservoir of Salmonella arizona, which are opportunistic pathogens in patients with serious underlying diseases. The 2 may meet when such patients ingest uncooked snake flesh, most often as a folk remedy for arthritis or other conditions. We have seen 11 patients in whom Salmonella arizona infection was documented. Six had systemic lupus erythematosus and another had dermatomyositis and are described in detail. All 7 had received prednisone, which was combined with azathioprine in 3. Five developed septic arthritis, including the site of a hip prosthesis in one patient. A history of dessicated rattlesnake ingestion as a "natural" remedy in either capsule or powder form was obtained in all but one of the 7 patients. Patients often think that if natural or folk remedies are not helpful they also are not harmful and, therefore, safe and worth trying. We disprove that belief and call attention to the perils of one such remedy: dessicated rattlesnake, particularly when ingested by patients with connective tissue diseases who may be immunocompromised.

  11. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estrada, Harold; Díaz-Castillo, Fredyc; Franco-Ospina, Luís; Mercado-Camargo, Jairo; Guzmán-Ledezma, Jaime; Medina, José Domingo; Gaitán-Ibarra, Ricardo

    2011-09-22

    Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the

  12. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Crescentia cujete L. (flu, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough, Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation, Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq. Kunth (pruritic ailments, Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation, Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic Mentha sativa L. (nervousness, Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites, Origanum vulgare L. (earache, Plantago major L. (inflammation and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation. The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study

  13. Tales of the Supernatural: A Selected List of Recordings Made in the United States and Placed in the Archive of Folk Culture. Folk Archive Finding Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcambre, Angie C., Comp.; And Others

    This finding aid is a selected list of supernatural-related narratives recorded in the United States and held in the Archive of Folk Culture of the Library of Congress. Brief descriptions of the recordings are accompanied by identification numbers. Information about listening to or ordering any of the listed recordings is available from the…

  14. Rare tradition of the folk medicinal use of Aconitum spp. is kept alive in Sol?avsko, Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Pov?nar, Marija; Ko?elj, Gordana; Kreft, Samo; Lumpert, Mateja

    2017-01-01

    Background Aconitum species are poisonous plants that have been used in Western medicine for centuries. In the nineteenth century, these plants were part of official and folk medicine in the Slovenian territory. According to current ethnobotanical studies, folk use of Aconitum species is rarely reported in Europe. The purpose of this study was to research the folk medicinal use of Aconitum species in Sol?avsko, Slovenia; to collect recipes for the preparation of Aconitum spp., indications for...

  15. Constructivism, Factoring, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauff, James V.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses errors made by remedial intermediate algebra students in factoring polynomials in light of student definitions of factoring. Found certain beliefs about factoring to logically imply many of the errors made. Suggests that belief-based teaching can be successful in teaching factoring. (16 references) (Author/MKR)

  16. Bisimulation and expressivity for conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Birkegaard; Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Plausibility models are Kripke models that agents use to reason about knowledge and belief, both of themselves and of each other. Such models are used to interpret the notions of conditional belief, degrees of belief, and safe belief. The logic of conditional belief contains that modality and also...

  17. Taking Newton on tour: the scientific travels of Martin Folkes, 1733-1735.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2017-12-01

    Martin Folkes (1690-1754) was Newton's protégé, an English antiquary, mathematician, numismatist and astronomer who would in the latter part of his career become simultaneously president of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. Folkes took a Grand Tour from March 1733 to September 1735, recording the Italian leg of his journey from Padua to Rome in his journal. This paper examines Folkes's travel diary to analyse his Freemasonry, his intellectual development as a Newtonian and his scientific peregrination. It shows how, in this latter area, how he used metrology to understand not only the aesthetics but also the engineering principles of antique buildings and artefacts, as well as their context and place in the Italian landscape. Using Folkes's diary, his account book of his journey in the Norwich archives, and his correspondence with other natural philosophers such as Francesco Algarotti (1712-1764), Anders Celsius (1701-1744) and Abbé Antonio Schinella Conti (1667-1749), this paper will also demonstrate to what extent Folkes's journey established his reputation as an international broker of Newtonianism, as well as the overall primacy of English scientific instrumentation to Italian virtuosi.

  18. On Nash Equilibrium and Evolutionarily Stable States That Are Not Characterised by the Folk Theorem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Li

    Full Text Available In evolutionary game theory, evolutionarily stable states are characterised by the folk theorem because exact solutions to the replicator equation are difficult to obtain. It is generally assumed that the folk theorem, which is the fundamental theory for non-cooperative games, defines all Nash equilibria in infinitely repeated games. Here, we prove that Nash equilibria that are not characterised by the folk theorem do exist. By adopting specific reactive strategies, a group of players can be better off by coordinating their actions in repeated games. We call it a type-k equilibrium when a group of k players coordinate their actions and they have no incentive to deviate from their strategies simultaneously. The existence and stability of the type-k equilibrium in general games is discussed. This study shows that the sets of Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable states have greater cardinality than classic game theory has predicted in many repeated games.

  19. Bulgarian wedding music between folk and chalg: Politics, markets and current directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Kerol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the performative relationship among folklore, the market, and the state through an analysis of the politics of Bulgarian wedding music. In the socialist period wedding music was condemned by the state and excluded from the category folk but was adored by thousands of fans as a counter-cultural manifestation. In the post-socialist period wedding music achieved recognition in the West but declined in popularity in Bulgarian as fusion music's, such as chalga (folk/pop, arose and as musicians faced challenges vis-à-vis capitalism. As the state withdrew and became weaker private companies with profit-making agendas arose. Although it inspired chalga, wedding music began to be seen in contrast to it, as folk music. Recently, fatigue with chalga and nationalistic ideologies are revitalizing wedding music.

  20. On Nash Equilibrium and Evolutionarily Stable States That Are Not Characterised by the Folk Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Kendall, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In evolutionary game theory, evolutionarily stable states are characterised by the folk theorem because exact solutions to the replicator equation are difficult to obtain. It is generally assumed that the folk theorem, which is the fundamental theory for non-cooperative games, defines all Nash equilibria in infinitely repeated games. Here, we prove that Nash equilibria that are not characterised by the folk theorem do exist. By adopting specific reactive strategies, a group of players can be better off by coordinating their actions in repeated games. We call it a type-k equilibrium when a group of k players coordinate their actions and they have no incentive to deviate from their strategies simultaneously. The existence and stability of the type-k equilibrium in general games is discussed. This study shows that the sets of Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable states have greater cardinality than classic game theory has predicted in many repeated games. PMID:26288088

  1. Tuning Features of Chinese Folk Song Singing: A Case Study of Hua'er Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham; Sundberg, Johan; Himonides, Evangelos

    2015-07-01

    The learning and teaching of different singing styles, such as operatic and Chinese folk singing, was often found to be very challenging in professional music education because of the complexity of varied musical properties and vocalizations. By studying the acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study identified distinctive tuning characteristics of a particular folk music in China-Hua'er music-to inform the ineffective folk singing practices, which were hampered by the neglect of inherent tuning issues in music. Thirteen unaccompanied folk song examples from four folk singers were digitally audio recorded in a sound studio. Using an analyzing toolkit consisting of Praat, PeakFit, and MS Excel, the fundamental frequencies (F0) of these song examples were extracted into sets of "anchor pitches" mostly used, which were further divided into 253 F0 clusters. The interval structures of anchor pitches within each song were analyzed and then compared across 13 examples providing parameters that indicate the tuning preference of this particular singing style. The data analyses demonstrated that all singers used a tuning pattern consisting of five major anchor pitches suggesting a nonequal-tempered bias in singing. This partly verified the pentatonic scale proposed in previous empirical research but also argued a potential misunderstanding of the studied folk music scale that failed to take intrinsic tuning issues into consideration. This study suggests that, in professional music training, any tuning strategy should be considered in terms of the reference pitch and likely tuning systems. Any accompanying instruments would need to be tuned to match the underlying tuning bias. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expertise in folk music alters the brain processing of Western harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, M; Tupala, T; Brattico, E

    2012-04-01

    In various paradigms of modern neurosciences of music, experts of Western classical music have displayed superior brain architecture when compared with individuals without explicit training in music. In this paper, we show that chord violations embedded in musical cadences were neurally processed in a facilitated manner also by musicians trained in Finnish folk music. This result, obtained by using early right anterior negativity (ERAN) as an index of harmony processing, suggests that tonal processing is advanced in folk musicians by their long-term exposure to both Western and non-Western music. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Belief and Surprise - A Belief-Function Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hsia, Yen-Teh

    2013-01-01

    We motivate and describe a theory of belief in this paper. This theory is developed with the following view of human belief in mind. Consider the belief that an event E will occur (or has occurred or is occurring). An agent either entertains this belief or does not entertain this belief (i.e., there is no "grade" in entertaining the belief). If the agent chooses to exercise "the will to believe" and entertain this belief, he/she/it is entitled to a degree of confidence c (1 > c > 0) in doing ...

  4. Effects of a Westernized Korean Folk Music Selection on Students' Music Familiarity and Preference for Its Traditional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of Westernized arrangements of traditional Korean folk music on music familiarity and preference. Two separate labs in one intact class were assigned to one of two treatment groups of either listening to traditional Korean folk songs (n?=?18) or listening to Western arrangements of the same…

  5. Pedagogical Challenges in Folk Music Teaching in Higher Education: A Case Study of Hua'er Music in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the pedagogical conventions of formal music education. Whilst several recent studies have tended to define these non-classical-music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk music that was recently introduced…

  6. Belief and bounded rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Jago, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Predictive accounts of belief ascription, either following the principle of charity or Dennett's intentional stance, have proved popular recently. However, such accounts require us first to treat agents as perfectly rational agents and then revise this assumption as appropriate. I argue that such downwards revision is no easy task and that several proposed accounts are not satisfactory. I propose a way of characterising agent's belief states which shares Dennett's approach but avoids treating...

  7. Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices of Albanian Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhihani, Blerina; Rainchuso, Lori; Smallidge, Dianne; Dominick, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates a high prevalence of oral disease among Albanians. There is a lack of evidence regarding oral health beliefs and practices among Albanian immigrants in the United States and abroad. This research seeks to better understand the oral health beliefs, attitudes, and practices among Albanian immigrants living in the United States. A descriptive study was employed with a purposive sample (n = 211) of Albanian adult immigrants. A cross-sectional validated questionnaire was provided in both English and Albanian, with a response rate of 66 %. Results revealed a high use of dental services among respondents, with 68 % reported as having a dental visit and cleaning within the past year. Although 25 % of participants stated their parents and grandparents have used folk remedies, 88 % of them stated that use of folk remedies did not influence their decision to seek professional dental care. Increasing age was inversely associated with the belief in the importance of retaining natural teeth, as older respondents were less likely to agree with the prior statement; older respondents were more likely to agree with the statement "bleeding gums are normal." Low oral health care access and utilization was not a factor among the majority of the Albanian immigrants studied. Focusing on providing age appropriate oral health education and behavioral strategies could increase oral health knowledge and potentially improve poor oral health status among this population.

  8. Italian folk plant-based remedies to heal headache (XIX-XX century).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Rosalucia; De Marco, Elvira V; Gallo, Olivier; Tagarelli, Giuseppe

    2018-01-10

    Headache has been recognized since antiquity. From the late nineteenth to the early to mid-twentieth century, Italian folk remedies to treat headache were documented in a vast corpus of literature sources. The purpose of this paper is to bring to light the plant-based treatments utilized by Italian folk medicine to heal headache in an attempt to discuss these remedies from a modern pharmacological point of view. Moreover, we compare the medical applications described by Hippocrates, Pliny the Elder, Dioscorides, Galen and Serenus Sammonicus with those utilized by Italian folk medicine to check if they result from a sort of continuity of use by over two thousand years. A detailed search of the scientific data banks such as Medline and Scopus was undertaken to uncover recent results concerning the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and analgesic activities of the plants. Fifty-eight (78.4%) plant-based remedies have shown in vivo, in vitro or in human trials a large spectrum of anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and analgesic activities. Moreover, thirty-one of remedies (41.9%) were already included in the pharmacopoeia between the 5th century BC and the 2nd century AD. Italian folk medicine could be a promising source of knowledge and could provide evidences for active principles that have not as of yet been fully used for their potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Arranged Bursa Folk Songs for Fourhands Piano and Their Practice in Music Education Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Sirin Akbulut

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study carried out within the scope of a project entitled, "Arranged Bursa Folk Songs for Fourhands Piano Extended Piano Techniques and Teaching in Music Education Departments." It is number KUAP (E)-2014/28 of the Uludag University Scientific Research Projects Unit and was supported by the Bursa…

  10. Worshipping Satan: Witchcraft and Folk Superstitions in Massachusetts and New France 1692 to 1760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Salem witchcraft trials as a reflection of the social and moral values of colonial Massachusetts and New France. Traces the history of the trials. Describes other instances of witchcraft and folk superstitions during that same historical period. Provides primary sources of a picture, map, and excerpts from letters pertaining to the…

  11. Yerbas Medicinales y Curanderismo = Medicinal Herbs and Folk Healing. A Teaching Module on Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    "Curanderismo," or folk healing is seen as an important part of Mexican and Mexican-American culture, and continues to have significant influence in South Texas. A teaching unit, as well as lectures and various publications on curanderismo have been developed, based on research and interviews with practitioners. The practice of…

  12. Finding Occurrences of Melodic Segments in Folk Songs Employing Symbolic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.; Volk, A.

    2017-01-01

    Much research has been devoted to the classification of folk songs, revealing that variants are recognised based on salient melodic segments, such as phrases and motifs, while other musical material in a melody might vary considerably. In order to judge similarity of melodies on the level of melodic

  13. Finding occurrences of melodic segments in folk songs employing symbolic similarity measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Berit; van Kranenburg, P.; Volk, A.

    2017-01-01

    Much research has been devoted to the classification of folk songs, revealing that variants are recognised based on salient melodic segments, such as phrases and motifs, while other musical material in a melody might vary considerably. In order to judge similarity of melodies on the level of melodic

  14. The Effects of Folk Dance Training on 5-6 Years Children's Physical and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…

  15. A Survey on Weifang Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Chinese Folk Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruochen; Leung, Bo Wah

    2017-01-01

    In mainland China, the implementation of the junior secondary school's music curriculum is highly dependent on music teachers' attitudes towards music and music education. This study investigated the possible relationship between teachers' attitudes towards teaching Chinese folk music and their music teaching practice in junior secondary schools…

  16. Hispanic Folk Arts and the Environment: An Interdisciplinary Curriculum Guide. A New Mexican Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alejandro

    This interdisciplinary, bilingual curriculum resource, contains a 29-minute videotape program, 20 colorplate posters, and a curriculum guide. The resource presents an examination of the folklife and folklore expressions of the Hispanic people of New Mexico. The focus of the curriculum is the relationship of survival-based folk activities to the…

  17. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend...

  18. Ghanaian Folk Songs: Training Ground for Music and Social Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Geoffrey

    2005-01-01

    The article considers Ghanaian folk songs as a training ground for music and social skill development. The U.S. is in cultural transition. Such changes have brought about reforms in educational policy including how teachers and school boards address ethnic diversity. The music of Africa is as diverse as its geography and its numerous ethnic…

  19. Analysis of Folk Tales for Prosocial Behavior among Slaves: Exploration of a Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Algea Othella

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the methodological problems in using a content analysis of slave folk tales as a source for incidences of prosocial behaviors. Forty tales taken from four collections of black folktales will be included in this study. The categories for scoring prosocial behavior include cooperativeness, altruism,…

  20. Folk in the History Classroom: Using the Music of the People to Teach Eras and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovorn, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Social studies content is more meaningful to students when they can empathize with the people they study. Such empathy can be fostered via content material that is presented in a relevant, emotional, intimate, and even entertaining manner. Folk music offers this type of creative and constructive approach. The elementary school classroom is the…

  1. Teaching the Korean Folk Song ("Arirang") through Performing, Creating, and Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyesoo; Kang, Sangmi

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a pedagogical approach to teaching one of the renowned Korean folk songs ("Arirang") based on the comprehensive musicianship approach and the 2014 Music Standards (competencies in performing, creating, and responding to music). The authors provide in-depth information for music educators to help their students…

  2. Folk Tale as a Tool for the Teaching of French Grammar: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from the use of songs, teaching aids and text books in a French language teaching class, folk tale could be used to teach grammar, composition or any aspect of the French language. It makes for easy understanding of the language and improves the students' fluency in class. Bruno sees it as an alphabet primer ...

  3. MOMFER: A Search Engine of Thompson's Motif-Index of Folk Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsdorp, F.B.; van der Meulen, Marten; Meder, Theo; van den Bosch, Antal

    2015-01-01

    More than fifty years after the first edition of Thompson's seminal Motif-Indexof Folk Literature, we present an online search engine tailored to fully disclose the index digitally. This search engine, called MOMFER, greatly enhances the searchability of the Motif-Index and provides exciting new

  4. Folk music style modelling by recurrent neural networks with long short term memory units

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Bob,; Santos, João Felipe; Korshunova, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate two generative models created by training a recurrent neural network (RNN) with three hidden layers of long short-term memory (LSTM) units. This extends past work in numerous directions, including training deeper models with nearly 24,000 high-level transcriptions of folk tunes. We discuss our on-going work.

  5. Identification of the mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant, Jatropha curcas, was performed to specifically identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil as a whole. Jatropha curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and part of Africa to repel biting insect...

  6. Multi-dimensionality and variability in folk classification of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Fernando; Hilgert, Norma I

    2015-05-23

    Not long ago Eugene Hunn suggested using a combination of cognitive, linguistic, ecological and evolutionary theories in order to account for the dynamic character of ethnoecology in the study of folk classification systems. In this way he intended to question certain homogeneity in folk classifications models and deepen in the analysis and interpretation of variability in folk classifications. This paper studies how a rural culturally mixed population of the Atlantic Forest of Misiones (Argentina) classified honey-producing stingless bees according to the linguistic, cognitive and ecological dimensions of folk classification. We also analyze the socio-ecological meaning of binomialization in naming and the meaning of general local variability in the appointment of stingless bees. We used three different approaches: the classical approach developed by Brent Berlin which relies heavily on linguistic criteria, the approach developed by Eleonor Rosch which relies on psychological (cognitive) principles of categorization and finally we have captured the ecological dimension of folk classification in local narratives. For the second approximation, we developed ways of measuring the degree of prototypicality based on a total of 107 comparisons of the type "X is similar to Y" identified in personal narratives. Various logical and grouping strategies coexist and were identified as: graded of lateral linkage, hierarchical and functional. Similarity judgments among folk taxa resulted in an implicit logic of classification graded according to taxa's prototypicality. While there is a high agreement on naming stingless bees with monomial names, a considerable number of underrepresented binomial names and lack of names were observed. Two possible explanations about reported local naming variability are presented. We support the multidimensionality of folk classification systems. This confirms the specificity of local classification systems but also reflects the use of grouping

  7. Articulating Armenian folk music characteristics in Tigran Mansurian's Havik for viola and percussion (1998), as mediated by the work of Komitas Vardapet

    OpenAIRE

    Burslem, Megan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the characteristics of Armenian folk music and discusses the external factors that have influenced the development of the Armenian folk music tradition. In particular the thesis focuses on the work of Komitas Vardapet, ethnomusicologist, composer and folk music collector, and how his voice recording of the folk song Havik (recorded in 1912) influenced the composition of the same name, by Armenian composer Tigran Mansurian. Havik for viola and percussion (19...

  8. Conceptual Analysis and Variation in Belief Tradition: A Case of Death-Related Beings

    OpenAIRE

    Kaarina Koski

    2008-01-01

    The article focuses on the popular conceptualisation of a death-related agent which is known in Finnish folk belief and narratives by the name churchyard-väki (väki means ‘crowd’, but also ‘power’ in Finnish). Natural conceptualisation is economical and distinctions are only made when found relevant enough. Verbal descriptions of churchyard-väki’s appearance and actions towards people vary remarkably according to the narrative context. Rather than a clearly defined supernatural agent, churchy...

  9. MATERNAL BELIEFS.CDR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infant teething. Maternal beliefs. Lagos. Nigeria now accurately diagnosed as specific clinical entities, the enigma of teething continues, especially when a cause cannot be found for ... continues until the baby is about 3 years old . Teething myths .... children by market women in Enugu state, Nigeria, teething was perceived ...

  10. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    relevance of hedging effects in the lab. We find no evidence for hedging, comparing the standard 'hedging-prone' belief elicitation treatment to a 'hedging-proof' design in a sequential prisoners' dilemma game. Our findings are strengthened by the absence of hedging even in an additional non...

  11. Patient Belief in Miracles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    medical treatment on the basis of their belief in Divine intervention. On the other hand, faith in miracles forms an important part of a well-integrated religiosity by inspiring hope and so helping patients to find meaning and initiative in situations in which they might otherwise be tempted to give up...

  12. Probabilistic dynamic belief revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the discrete (finite) case of the Popper-Renyi theory of conditional probability, introducing discrete conditional probabilistic models for knowledge and conditional belief, and comparing them with the more standard plausibility models. We also consider a related notion, that of safe

  13. Teachers’ Beliefs and Intercultural Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Leutwyler Bruno; Mantel Carola

    2015-01-01

    Teachers play a key role in dealing appropriately with culturally diverse classrooms. Research on teacher competences highlights the important function of teachers’ beliefs. However hardly any evidence addresses the crucial question of what actually shapes the beliefs about intercultural education and how these beliefs might be developed. Against this background the present contribution suggests a conceptual approach to understand teachers’ beliefs about intercultural education. By drawing on...

  14. Lost in scales: Balkan folk music research and the ottoman legacy

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    Pennanen Risto Pekka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan folk music researchers have articulated various views on what they have considered Oriental or Turkish musical legacy. The discourses the article analyses are nationalism, Orientalism, Occidentalism and Balkanism. Scholars have handled the awkward Ottoman issue in several manners: They have represented 'Oriental' musical characteristics as domestic, claimed that Ottoman Turks merely imitated Arab and Persian culture, and viewed Indian classical raga scales as sources for Oriental scales in the Balkans. In addition, some scholars have viewed the 'Oriental' characteristics as stemming from ancient Greece. The treatment of the Segâh family of Ottoman makams in theories and analyses reveals several features of folk music research in the Balkans, the most important of which are the use of Western concepts and the exclusive dependence on printed sources. The strategies for handling the Orient within have meandered between Occidentalism and Orientalism, creating an ambiguity which is called Balkanism.

  15. Absolute Pitch in Oral Transmission of Folk Tunes as Constrained Random Walks

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    Klaus Frieler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, I would like to add a few of our own, still unpublished, empirical observations concerning the possible role of absolute pitch memory (APM in the oral transmission of folksongs. This empirical data poses some questions about the likelihood of the observed inter-recording tonic pitch consistency of Olthof, Janssen & Honing (2015 and how these observations could come about. Based on simulations of absolute pitch class of tonics during oral transmission of folk songs, I argue that the interplay of melodic range and vocal range might actually be the main reason for the observed non-uniformity, in contrast to the conclusions presented in Olthof et al. (2015. However, this does not invalidate the therein-presented evidence, but makes the case more puzzling, consequently calling for more empirical research on the interaction of melodic and vocal range and latent APM as well as for more detailed modeling of oral transmission of folk songs.

  16. Antibacterial efficiency of the Sudanese Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), a famous beverage from Sudanese folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Emad Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant native to tropical Africa and intensively cultivated in Sudan. Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine. The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were subjected to soak in 80% v/v methanol to get the methanolic extract, which was tested against five Gram-negative and three Gram-positive referenced bacterial strains using disc diffusion method. Selected bioactive phytochemical compounds were also investigated using qualitative methods. The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect. The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents.

  17. Meaning of folk and artistic knowledge for education in biodiversity preservation

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    Marisela Guerra Salcedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical background to the meaning of folk and artistic knowledge for education in biodiversity preservation, from natural and agricultural sciences, and its effect on teacher training in these specialties. The theoretical methods used helped set up the arguments presented. The significance of such knowledge in dealing with the contents of Biodiversity is supported, in order to offer significant knowledge with a personal sense, which can bring personal motivation and awareness concerning this natural resource, and the need for protection and sustainable use. It provides elucidation and productive creation of meanings in terms of biodiversity, that will lead to students´ cultural improvements as future environmental educators. Folk and artistic knowledge is defined.

  18. Teacher Beliefs and Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, ChanMin; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Chiajung; Spector, J. Michael; DeMeester, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to investigate how teacher beliefs were related to technology integration practices. We were interested in how and to what extent teachers' (a) beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning, (b) beliefs about effective ways of teaching, and (c) technology integration practices were…

  19. Trust-based belief change

    OpenAIRE

    Lorini, Emiliano; Jiang, Guifei; Perrussel, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We propose a modal logic that supports reasoning about trust-based belief change. The term trust-based belief change refers to belief change that depends on the degree of trust the receiver has in the source of information.

  20. 'Do We Look Like Boy Racers?' the Role of the Folk Devil in Contemporary Moral Panics

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Lumsden

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the failure of studies concerning moral panics to take into account the reaction of those individuals who are the subject of social anxiety. It responds to the suggestion by McRobbie and Thornton (1995) that studies of moral panic need to account for the role played by the 'folk devils' themselves, for a moral panic is a collective process (Young, 2007). The paper presents findings from ethnographic fieldwork with the 'boy racer' culture in Aberdeen, qualitative intervi...

  1. Recent Periodicals: Local History, Family and Community History, Cultural Heritage, Folk Studies, Anthropology - A Review (2016

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    R. Vladova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An annual bibliography of papers in the field of local history, family and community history, cultural heritage, folk studies and anthropology, published in 2016, is collected. The inspected journals are: Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy, Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education, Current Anthropology, Family and Community History, Folklore, History and Memory, Journal of Family History, Journal of Folklore Research, Past & Present, Winterthur Portfolio. Many of those journals are available at us under subscription.

  2. Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Folk Music Analysis, 15-17 June, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Beauguitte, Pierre; Duggan, Bryan; Kelleher, John

    2016-01-01

    The Folk Music Analysis Workshop brings together computational music analysis and ethnomusicology. Both symbolic and audio representations of music are considered, with a broad range of scientific approaches being applied (signal processing, graph theory, deep learning). The workshop features a range of interesting talks from international researchers in areas such as Indian classical music, Iranian singing, Ottoman-Turkish Makam music scores, Flamenco singing, Irish traditional music, Georgi...

  3. The dangers of dancing: foreign vs. folk dances and the politics of culture in the Netherlands, 1918-1955

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, R.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with cultural confrontations and ideological contestations concerning the perception and reception of foreign 'modern' and domestic folk dances in the Netherlands between 1918 and 1955. Many contemporary intellectuals were cultural pessimists who regretted the demise of 'organic'

  4. Predicting Variation of Folk Songs: A Corpus Analysis Study on the Memorability of Melodies

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    Berit Janssen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a hypothesis-driven study on the variation of melody phrases in a collection of Dutch folk songs. We investigate the variation of phrases within the folk songs through a pattern matching method which detects occurrences of these phrases within folk song variants, and ask the question: do the phrases which show less variation have different properties than those which do? We hypothesize that theories on melody recall may predict variation, and as such, investigate phrase length, the position and number of repetitions of a given phrase in the melody in which it occurs, as well as expectancy and motif repetivity. We show that all of these predictors account for the observed variation to a moderate degree, and that, as hypothesized, those phrases vary less which are rather short, contain highly expected melodic material, occur relatively early in the melody, and contain small pitch intervals. A large portion of the variance is left unexplained by the current model, however, which leads us to a discussion of future approaches to study memorability of melodies.

  5. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy

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    Guarrera Paolo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy, as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1% and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%; most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses. Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red are previously unpublished.

  6. Predicting Variation of Folk Songs: A Corpus Analysis Study on the Memorability of Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Berit; Burgoyne, John A; Honing, Henkjan

    2017-01-01

    We present a hypothesis-driven study on the variation of melody phrases in a collection of Dutch folk songs. We investigate the variation of phrases within the folk songs through a pattern matching method which detects occurrences of these phrases within folk song variants, and ask the question: do the phrases which show less variation have different properties than those which do? We hypothesize that theories on melody recall may predict variation, and as such, investigate phrase length, the position and number of repetitions of a given phrase in the melody in which it occurs, as well as expectancy and motif repetivity. We show that all of these predictors account for the observed variation to a moderate degree, and that, as hypothesized, those phrases vary less which are rather short, contain highly expected melodic material, occur relatively early in the melody, and contain small pitch intervals. A large portion of the variance is left unexplained by the current model, however, which leads us to a discussion of future approaches to study memorability of melodies.

  7. Structuring Knowledge of Subcultural Folk Devils through News Coverage: Social Cognition, Semiotics, and Political Economy

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    J. Patrick Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The folk devil concept has been well used in subcultural studies, yet its importance might be better served by distinguishing among multiple conceptual frames through which it is articulated. In this article, I clarify how folk devils are made possible through the interaction of three concepts used by sociologists to study everyday life. The first is the process of social cognition, where producers and consumers of news construct and propagate a shared definition of who subcultural youths are and why they should be the object of fear. The second are the semiotic structures of genre and narrative, which narrow the interpretive process of producers and receivers alike and sustain discourses that limit how subcultural youths can be understood in the news. The third has to do with political economy, where the ideological features of mass mediated news-making keep the news industry in relative control of meaning making. Social cognition, semiotics, and the political economy dialectically produce the phenomenon of the subcultural folk devil and support its objective effects. I review several studies of market and state-controlled media societies and note that, in both types, the objective effects on youths are similar and significant. In studying how subcultural youths are framed in the media output of transitional states and societies, the conceptual value of social cognition, semiotics, and political economy should be recognised.

  8. Use of complementary and alternative medicine and folk medicine in Medellín, 2005

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    Luz Stella Alvarez C

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to explore health resources chosen by Medellín’s residents when they feel ill and the reasons why they decide to use Colombian folk medicine and Complementary and Alternative Medicine resources. Methods: this research was based on the premises shared by the majority of the qualitative methods, and specially by two methodologies: the Grounded Theory (GT and Rapid Assessment Process (RAP. Forty-six people from various social classes, who were affiliated with different health insurance companies as well as uninsured were interviewed. Interviews were carried out from July to September 2005. Results: the study found that many people, especially those with low or very low income seek Colombian folk medicine practices resources when they feel sick. These practices and their practitioners have taken new names to adapt themselves to new tendencies in medicine but they actually keep the traditional characteristics of Colombian folk medicine. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies such as acupuncture, homeopathy, and bioenergetics exercised by physicians licensed from certified universities are sought mostly by middle and upper class people, especially by those with a high educational level. These patients have in common that they feel discomfort with the biologist emphasis of Western medicine so they seek an integral treatment integrating body, mind, and spirit.

  9. Linking social capital, cultural capital and heterotopia at the folk festival

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    Linda Wilks

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of folk festivals in transforming interconnections between people, space and culture. It interlinks three sets of theoretical ideas: social capital, cultural capital and heterotopia to suggest a new conceptual framework that will help to frame a deeper understanding of the nature of celebration. Qualitative data were collected at two long-established folk festivals, Sidmouth Folk Festival in southern England and the Feakle Traditional Music Festival in western Ireland, in order to investigate these potential links. Although Foucault did not fully develop the concept of heterotopia, his explanation that heterotopias are counter-sites, which, unlike utopias, are located in real, physical, space-time, has inspired others, including some festival researchers, to build on his ideas. This study concludes that the heterotopian concept of the festival as sacred space, with the stage as umbilicus, may be linked to the building of social capital; while it is suggested that both social capital and appropriate cultural capital are needed to gain full entry to the heterotopia.

  10. Turbo-folk and ethnicity in the mirror of the perception of the youtube users

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    Blagojević Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Popular music played in the second half of the 20th century on the territory of former Yugoslavia became known as the newly composed music. During the 1990s wars, music genre known as turbo folk was especially popular in Serbia. Research has shown that this music contains Oriental, most of all Ottoman, influences. Even though it is very popular, this kind of music has been subjected to severe criticism, which may be divided into two main groups. According to some, turbo-folk has been criticized because it was associated with war, nationalism and crime. In the second group are those who are nationalistically terrified of foreign influences in the music, feeling that this music leads to the "tehranization" of Serbia. In addition, critics think that it is kitsch, which favors immorality. The focus of this research is on the perception of turbo folk by You Tube users. The material from this Internet page for video exchange is available in the whole world. Many users from the territory of Former Yugoslavia leave their often nationalistic and political comments about songs. This work deals with the way listeners view their own connection with Ottoman past. What they experience as Turkish and as their own in those songs and what the value system is like. Apart from this, social influence of Internet culture is viewed, in this case on You Tube example. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multiethnicity, Multiculturalism, migrations - contemporary process

  11. The creation of folk music program on Radio Belgrade before World War Two: Editorial policies and performing ensembles

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    Dumnić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the establishing of the organizing models, on one side, and with folk music and its aesthetic characteristics in the interwar period, on the other. This problem significantly contributed to the present meaning of the term “folk music” (“narodna muzika”. The program of Radio Belgrade (founded in 1929 contained a number of folk music shows, often with live music. In order to develop folk music program, numerous vocal and instrumental soloists were hired, and different bands accompanied them. During that time, two official radio ensembles emerged - the Folk Radio Orchestra and the Tambura Radio Orchestra - displacing from the program the ensembles that were not concurrent to their technical and repertoire level. The decisive power in designing the program concept and content, but also in setting standards for the aesthetic values, was at the hands of music editorship of Radio Belgrade. The radio category of folk music was especially influenced by Petar Krstić (folk music editor in the period from 1930 to 1936 and his successor Mihajlo Vukdragović (1937-1940, who formally defined all of the aforementioned characteristics, but in rather different ways. A general ambivalence in the treatment of the ensembles that performed at the radio reflects the implementation of their policies. In comparison to the official orchestras, the tavern singers and players received poor reviews in the editors’ reports, despite their strong presence on the program. On the other side, the official orchestras were divided according to the regional folklore instrumentarium, but also according to the quality of playing. The Folk Radio Orchestra probably had double leadership, so it was possible to observe different approaches to the music folklore, which eventually resulted in a unique tendency towards cherishing folk music. This paper represents an attempt to show how the media term “folk music” was constructed and where it currently

  12. Use of Folk Therapy in Taiwan: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey of Prevalence and Associated Factors

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    Chun-Chuan Shih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with users of folk therapy in Taiwan. Methods. Using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 16,750 adults aged 20 years and older. Sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, medical utilization, and health behaviors were compared between people using and not using folk therapy. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of factors associated with folk therapy were analyzed. Results. The one-month prevalence of folk therapy use was 6.8%, which was significantly associated with ages of 30–59 years (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.49–2.63, women (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.40–1.90, nonindigenous population (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.14–3.17, having two or more unhealthy lifestyle habits (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.26–1.81, high density of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM physicians (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.20–1.62, and being ill without receiving medical care in past six months (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.76–2.53. Medical care utilization of TCM and Western medicine were also associated factors for folk therapy. Conclusions. The use of folk therapy is correlated with sociodemographics, lifestyle and health behaviors.

  13. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuhwa, Donatha Damian

    2012-09-21

    Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely affected by wild animals. In order

  14. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibuhwa Donatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Methods Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Results Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7% as an alternative

  15. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1

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    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Cucurbitaceae family comprising about 125 genera and 960 species is a family that is further characterized by commonly having five-angled stems and coiled tendrils and is also known as gourd family of flowering plants. Plant species belonging to this family have a worldwide distribution, but most species can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. A number of the plants belonging to this family have reported important pharmacological activities. Cucurbitaceae family plants are also in use in the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh-a traditional medicinal system, which mainly relies on medicinal plants for treatment of diverse ailments. Aims: Since folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health care in Bangladesh, the objective of this study was to conduct ethnomedicinal surveys among 75 folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes practicing among the mainstream Bengali-speaking population of randomly selected 75 villages in 64 districts of Bangladesh and 8 tribal practitioners (1 each from 8 major indigenous communities or tribes, namely, Bede, Chakma, Garo, Khasia, Marma, Murong, Santal, and Tripura of the country. Materials and Methods: Surveys were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: It was observed that the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners use a total of 19 Cucurbitaceae family species for treatment of ailments such as dysentery, diabetes, edema, skin disorders, leukoderma, hypertension, jaundice, typhoid, spleen disorders, respiratory problems, leprosy, rheumatoid arthritis, chicken pox, and cancer. The 19 species of Cucurbitaceae family plants in use were Benincasa hispida, Bryonopsis laciniosa, Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus lanatu, Coccinia grandis, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, Hodgsonia macrocarpa, Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula, Luffa cylindrica, Momordica charantia, Momordica

  16. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...

  17. Wild plant folk nomenclature of the Mongol herdsmen in the Arhorchin National Nature Reserve, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyolt; Galsannorbu; Yongping; Wunenbayar; Liu, Guohou; Khasbagan

    2013-04-24

    Folk names of plants are the root of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. In pace with social change and economic development, Mongolian knowledge concerning plant diversity is gradually vanishing. Collection and analysis of Mongolian folk names of plants is extremely important. During 2008 to 2012, the authors have been to the Arhorchin National Nature Reserve area 5 times. Fieldwork was done in 13 villages, with 56 local Mongol herdsmen being interviewed. This report documents plant folk names, analyzes the relationship between folk names and scientific names, looks at the structure and special characteristics of folk names, plant use information, and comparative analysis were also improved. Ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires were used. Ethnobotanical interview and voucher specimen collection were carried out in two ways as local plant specimens were collected beforehand and then used in interviews, and local Mongol herdsmen were invited to the field and interviewed while collecting voucher specimens. Mongolian oral language was used as the working language and findings were originally recorded in Mongolian written language. Scientific names of plants are defined through collection and identification of voucher specimens by the methods of plant taxonomy. A total of 146 folk names of local plants are recorded. Plant folk names corresponded with 111 species, 1 subspecies, 7 varieties, 1 form, which belong to 42 families and 88 genera. The correspondence between plant folk names and scientific names may be classified as one to one correspondence, two or three to one correspondence, and one to multitude correspondence. The structure of folk names were classified as primary names, secondary names and borrowed names. There were 12 folk names that contain animal names and they have correspondence with 15 species. There are nine folk names that contain usage information and they have correspondence with 10 species in

  18. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Investigation of Talisman and Breaking the Talisman in Three Persian Folk Tales (Samak ‘ayar, Husein Kurd and Amir Arsalan Namdar

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    aa Azizifar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of elements such as sorcery, magic and talisman in tales which may be considered nowadays as superstitions and primitive beliefs of ancient man. To explain different aspects of talismans and how they are opened, three famous works out of masterpieces of written tales have been selected in this study in order to find out the relation between such elements. The aim of this article is to explore the manifestation of talisman among Iranians and the famous Persian folk tales. The results of this research show the closeness of some talismans to the extent that in several stories like Husein Kurd and Amir Arsalan, the breaking of talisman is represented in the same way which shows the temporal approximation of the two stories. Fire is the main axis of talismans and this shows clearly the influence of Islamic teachings about the role of fire in the creation of demons and jinns. Talisman and talisman-makers live in the countries other than Iran and such satanic actions are not seen in the divine land of Iran.

  20. Home Price Beliefs in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Callan Windsor; Gianni La Cava; James Hansen

    2014-01-01

    We document some new stylised facts about how Australian homeowners value their homes using household panel data and unit-record data on home sale prices. We find that homeowners' price beliefs are unbiased at the postcode level, on average, although there is considerable dispersion in the difference between beliefs and prices across postcodes. Household characteristics, such as age and tenure, and the regional unemployment rate are correlated with differences between beliefs and prices. We a...

  1. Some Chinese folk prescriptions for wind-cold type common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Long, Zhai; Shimin, Chen; Yalan, Lu

    2015-07-01

    Although self-limiting, the common cold (gǎn mào) is highly prevalent. There are no effective antivirals to cure the common cold and few effective measures to prevent it, However, for thousands years, Chinese people have treated the common cold with natural herbs, According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory ( zhōng yī lǐ lùn), the common cold is considered as an exterior syndrome, which can be further divided into the wind-cold type ( fēng hán xíng), the wind-heat type ( fēng rè xíng), and the summer heat dampness type ( shǔ rè xíng). Since the most common type of common cold caught in winter and spring is the wind-cold type, the article introduced some Chinese folk prescriptions for the wind-cold type common cold with normal and weak physique, respectively. For thousands of years, Chinese folk prescriptions for the common cold, as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué), have been proven to be effective, convenient, cheap, and most importantly, safe. The Chinese folk prescriptions ( zhōng guó mín jiān chǔ fāng) for the wind-cold type common cold are quite suitable for general practitioners or patients with the wind-cold type common cold, to treat the disease. Of course, their pharmacological features and mechanisms of action need to be further studied.

  2. Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliacea (Anamu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, L S; Au, W W; Heo, M Y; Morris, D L; Legator, M S

    1992-07-01

    Crude extract from a plant known as Petiveria alliacea (Anamu) is used extensively as folk medicine in developing countries like Colombia, South America. Although the plant is known to contain toxic ingredients potential adverse health effects from its use have not been adequately evaluated. We investigated its genotoxic activities by conducting a sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay using cells in vitro and in vivo. Lymphocytes from humans were treated at 24 h after initiation of culture for 6 h with alcohol extract from the folk medicine. Concentrations of 0, 10, 100, 250, 275, 500, 750, and 1000 micrograms/ml of the extract were used. Significant dose-dependent increase of SCE (3.7-7.4 SCE per cell) were observed (analysis of variances, p less than 0.01). Delay in cell proliferation but not inhibition of mitosis was also observed. In another experiment, mice were exposed once orally to 1x, 200x, 300x and 400x the human daily consumption dose of Anamu. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges in bone marrow cells were investigated. We observed a significant dose dependent increase of SCE compared with the saline control (2.15-4.53; p less than 0.01) and compared with the solvent control (3.04-4.53; p less than 0.01). Our data suggest, therefore, that the folk medicine contains mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic agents although the medicine is not a potent mutagen. Individuals who consume large amounts of this drug may be at risk for development of health problems. Further studies with cells from exposed individuals and from experimental animals should be conducted to provide a better evaluation of health risk from the use of this drug.

  3. Medicinal plants used for hypertension treatment by folk healers in Songkhla province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Komonhiran, Panadda; Boonming, Kamonvadee

    2018-03-25

    Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers. Field surveys and semi-structured interviews about theories of disease, principles of healing, and herbal usage (plant species, parts used, preparation, and application methods) were gathered. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics. The literatures regarding medicinal plants used in any traditional medicine, antihypertension activity, and toxicity was reviewed. Most healers believed that hypertension was caused by the disorder of fire and wind elements in the body. The medicinal plants containing hot and mild tastes, which had the potential for treating problems in the wind element, were applied. A total of 62 species were used for hypertension treatment. Most plants were in the Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Rutaceae, or Zingiberaceae family (4 species each). Herbal medicines were preferred to be prepared by boiling (78%) and consumed by drinking 1 teacup before 3 meals each day (26%). Piper retrofractum and Cleome viscosa had the greatest Frequency of Citation (FC = 6, n = 14). Thirty-seven species have been reported for use in traditional medicine. Twenty-four and 46 species have already been investigated for antihypertension activity and toxicity, respectively. Identifying medicinal plants that have been tested by experienced folk doctors would provide an opportunity for people to choose and consume local herbs that are easy to access in their local area. However, the remaining plants that have not been studied for antihypertension activity and

  4. Traditional beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemley, Megan; Spies, Lori A

    2015-04-01

    To describe selected common health beliefs and practices among Mexican American immigrants with type II diabetes. Selected clinical trials, qualitative studies, and systematic reviews. The Hispanic folk illness belief susto refers to an episode of severe fright, and Mexican American immigrants hold varying views on its relation to diabetes. Culturally and in the research, susto has also been linked with depression. Sabila (aloe vera) and nopal (prickly pear cactus) are herbal remedies that have had widespread, longstanding use in Mexican culture and while this is not the gold standard of research, it does provide ample evidence and a strong cultural belief that these therapies work. There is some evidence in the literature to support their efficacy as glucose-lowering agents, but lack of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, potential side effects, and a dearth of rigorous clinical trials preclude aloe vera and nopal from being recommended therapy. Awareness about susto beliefs, commonly used herbal remedies, and development of culturally sensitive communication skills are essential for nurse practitioners to effectively assist patients in this population achieve their glycemic goals. Research on the effects of nopal and aloe vera on diabetes is needed to guide clinical decisions. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Wavelet-filtering of symbolic music representations for folk tune segmentation and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velarde, Gissel; Weyde, Tillman; Meredith, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a machine-learning method in which symbolic representations of folk songs are segmented and classified into tune families with Haar-wavelet filtering. The method is compared with previously proposed Gestalt based method. Melodies are represented as discrete...... coefficients’ local maxima to indicate local boundaries and classify segments by means of k-nearest neighbours based on standard vector-metrics (Euclidean, cityblock), and compare the results to a Gestalt-based segmentation method and metrics applied directly to the pitch signal. We found that the wavelet...

  6. Ethnobotanics used in folk medicine of Tamil culture in Sri Lanka: a scientific review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesuthasan, Anternite Shanthi; Uluwaduge, Deepthi Inoka

    2017-01-01

    Tamil culture has recognized the potential use of plant herbs for prevention and treatment of different diseases. These folk remedies have been practiced by Sri Lankan Tamils even after modernization. This review focuses on frequently used medicinal plants among Sri Lankan Tamil communities, such as Cuminum cyminum, Azadirechta indica, Coriandrum sativum, Sesamum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Plectranthus amboinicus, Allium sativum and Curcuma longa, for their documented medicinal properties, which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and diuretic effects.

  7. Folk Dance Pattern Recognition Over Depth Images Acquired via Kinect Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapadakis, E.; Grammatikopoulou, A.; Doulamis, A.; Grammalidis, N.

    2017-02-01

    The possibility of accurate recognition of folk dance patterns is investigated in this paper. System inputs are raw skeleton data, provided by a low cost sensor. In particular, data were obtained by monitoring three professional dancers, using a Kinect II sensor. A set of six traditional Greek dances (without their variations) consists the investigated data. A two-step process was adopted. At first, the most descriptive skeleton data were selected using a combination of density based and sparse modelling algorithms. Then, the representative data served as training set for a variety of classifiers.

  8. FOLK DANCE PATTERN RECOGNITION OVER DEPTH IMAGES ACQUIRED VIA KINECT SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Protopapadakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of accurate recognition of folk dance patterns is investigated in this paper. System inputs are raw skeleton data, provided by a low cost sensor. In particular, data were obtained by monitoring three professional dancers, using a Kinect II sensor. A set of six traditional Greek dances (without their variations consists the investigated data. A two-step process was adopted. At first, the most descriptive skeleton data were selected using a combination of density based and sparse modelling algorithms. Then, the representative data served as training set for a variety of classifiers.

  9. Béla Bartók, Concerto for Orchestra, and Affinities with Korean Folk Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Kwangsun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONVolume IBéla Bartók, Concerto for Orchestra, and Affinities with Korean Folk MusicVolume IIKorean Rhapsody for OrchestraByKwangsun HwangDoctor of Philosophy in MusicUniversity of California, Los Angeles, 2014Professor Paul Chihara, Co-ChairProfessor Ian Krouse, Co-ChairWhen I realized that both Hungary and Korea belong to the same Ural-Altaic language region, I began to ask whether there is any connection or similarity between Béla Bartok's music and Korean music. ...

  10. Indian Folk Music and ‘Tropical Body Language’: The Case of Mauritian Chutney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Servan-Schreiber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mauritius, the meeting between Indian worlds and Creole worlds, through the migration of the indentured labour which followed the abolition of slavery in 1834, gave birth to a style of music called ‘chutney’. As a result of the African influence on an Indian folk genre, chutney music embodies the transformation of a music for listening into a music for dancing. In this article, the innovations brought into the choreographical dimension of the chutney groups will be taken as a key to understanding the adaptation of Indian rural migrants to a new ‘Indian-oceanic’ way of life through the experience of diaspora.  

  11. GELBART, The Invention of "Folk Music" and "Art Music" : compte-rendu

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, François; Koprivica, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The book demonstrates three fundamental ideas:there is no distinction between folk music / art music before its invention in 1780 Europe.the idea that Scottish, Irish, Britonnish music are pentatonic in the same way like Chinese music appeared only during the turn of 19th century, and affected its perception since.Germany, Italy and France agreed to declare themselves as having the only universal music.; Cet ouvrage apporte des éléments fondamentaux sur trois domaines essentiels : ch. I, 2, 3...

  12. TRANSFER OF EMBROIDERY ELEMENTS FROM BULGARIAN NATIONAL FOLK COSTUME TO THE CONTEMPORARY FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatin Zlatev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is the analysis of two dimensional images of embroidery elements and the development of techniques for shape and color segmentation in the automation of embroidery designs. A document camera is used as a tool for obtaining of color digital images of embroidery elements from Bulgarian national folk costume. Also are devised some techniques for color restoration of elements and their skeletons. Files for embroidery machines are described and obtained then the results are checked with commercial software. A website is created for presentation of the results of this work

  13. Using of Folk Art to Enhance Learning at English Lessons in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Blyznyuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s multicultural space we can feel reassessment of existing paradigms of education in view of globalization changes, interstate cooperation in cultural and educational spheres. The article highlights the problem of human adaptation to foreign cultural environment, the contents of ethnographic knowledge, the needs of modern European and global integration. So the paper analyzes and interprets the urgent the idea of using ethnographic materials, including folk art, in teaching humanities and arts subjects in primary school, particularly in native and foreign languages, reading, science, music, manual work, etc.

  14. [Phytochemical and pharmacological progress on peeled stem of Syringa pinnatifolia, a Mongolian folk medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guo-zhu; Chen, Jie; Cao, Yuan; Bai, Rui-feng; Chen, Su-yi-le; Tu, Peng-fei; Chai, Xing-yun

    2015-11-01

    The peeled stem of Syringa pinnatifolia is a Mongolia folk medicine, mainly distributed in Helan mountain, inner Mongolia and Ningxia provinces of China. It has been used for the treatment of cardiopalmus, angina pectoris, and cardiopulmonary diseases for a long history. Contemporary research revealed the presence of major lignans, sesquitepenes, and essential oils, and showed myocardial ischemia related diseases. This review summarizes the plant origins, taxonomic disputes, phytochemical and pharmacological research progress, hopefully to provide reference for full medicinal utilization, clarification of biological effective substance, and drug development.

  15. Belief in a Just World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kilinc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Belief in a just world hypothesis is defined as the belief that the world is a just place where people generally get what they deserve. It states that individuals have a need to believe that they live in a just world; they believe in a world where people get what they deserve and where people deserve what they get. Individuals believe that who work hard or who perform good acts obtain rewards for their actions, while the sinners and the laggards receive punishments instead. Similarly, individuals want to believe that positive outcomes, whether money, success, or happiness, are obtained only by good people and, conversely, that negative outcomes only happen to bad persons. Justice beliefs have been hypothesized as adaptive for dealing with day-to-day stres. Just world beliefs protect individuals from the daily negative psychological consequences of living in what is realistically an unjust world. In addition, just world beliefs are thought to enhance feelings of security to the extent that if the individual satisfies the conditions for being "good," he or she is protected from injustice. The belief in a just world, like other positive illusions, should contribute to the maintenance of one's mental health. Belief in a just world's is discussed in two ways: personal belief in a just world's answers the question “how much justly is the world to me?”, whereas the belief in a just world's in general answers the question “how much justly is the world?”

  16. Political Practice and Its Implication on Folk Art Marginalization (Case Study of Wayang Orang/ Human Puppet Ngesti Pandhowo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restu Lanjari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The government, political practice, both reflected in the government, politics, policies and the attitude of the public figure, influences the existence of folk art that is overshadowed by changes as the results of modernization and industrialization. The aim of this research is to find out the marginalization of folk art because of political practice. This research was done using a qualitative approach while the subject of this research was Ngesti Pandhawa Human Puppet Group. The result of this research showed that folk art could be marginalized because of the influence of the changes in economic and politic that was formulated inside the modernization waves and technology development that offered new values. The attention of the government on the existence of folk art was still being questioned because of politic budget. The budget for art was extremely small compared to the budget for sport. The existence of folk art depended on the favor and interest of the local leaders, especially political interest.

  17. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does it in...

  18. Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Belief Change in an Intercultural Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li

    SUMMARY Teacher belief has been considered crucial for teachers’ classroom behaviors, their learning and development as well as students’ outcomes. This PhD study has provided a better understanding of the factors and forces shaping teacher belief and how this changes during their course...... in an intercultural context in relation to the factors shaping teacher belief and how belief is changed to better suit the context. It also gives inspiration for the design of effective teacher preparation, development and training programs for CFL teachers in global contexts by addressing their prior experience...... of teaching in a new context and in their early years of the teaching careers of CFL teachers in the Danish context. It has been shown that the multifaceted beliefs that CFL teachers hold are based on their personal experience, shaped by context, and mediated by their classroom practices. The educational...

  19. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels., a novel therapeutic agent for diabetes: folk medicinal and pharmacological evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyanar, Muniappan; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2013-06-01

    During the past few decades numerous folk medicinal and scientific investigations on the antidiabetic effects of jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) have been reported. However no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Hence this review was aimed to summarize the antidiabetic effects of different parts and active principles of jambolan. The review is based on the available electronic literature indexed in the PubMed. The search terms were: Syzygium cumini, Eugenia jambolana, jambolan, jamun, and java plum with and without antidiabetic effect. Based on experimental studies and folk medicinal evidences, we summarized an up to date and comprehensive report on the antidiabetic activity of jambolan. The mode of action of some of the parts and active principles is also included. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that, different parts of this plant especially fruits, seeds and stem bark were reported for promising activity against diabetes. Till date no review is available for the evidence based preclinical/clinical study of jambolan with its antidiabetic effect. There is an immediate attention need for detailed analysis to identify its active principles. It could be used to produce safer drugs to treat diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, A

    2000-06-01

    An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed.

  1. A survey of folk remedies for gastrointestinal tract diseases from Thailand's three southern border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Tuwaemaengae, Tuwaeyah; Bensulong, Fatin; Asae, Asma; Mosamae, Kholeel

    2012-10-31

    Gastrointestinal tract diseases commonly occur in Thailand. However, surveying for finding out traditional drugs has never been done. To quantify and categorize the folk medicinal remedies that are used for healing the gastrointestinal tract by the traditional healers living in Thailand's three southern border provinces. The Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat provinces were selected. Semi-structured interviews of nine healers were conducted to collect information that included the remedy names, herbal ingredients, plant parts used, preparation, properties and treatment methods. The data were then further analyzed. The results revealed that 39 multi-species remedies and 36 single-species remedies were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 103 plant species and 5 other materia medica were used as therapeutics. Most of the plants used were of the Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae families. Furthermore, it was found that although most of the healers used different remedies for a particular disease, some of the ingredients might have been similar. For example, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. was an ingredient used for parasitic disease remedies, and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. was used for constipation remedies. A review of the literature revealed 57 plant species and 2 other materia medica that have already been tested for their biological activities, whereas 46 plant species and 3 materia medica have never been tested. Consequently, research should be performed to confirm the pharmacological properties of folk remedies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Traditional healing practice and folk medicines used by Mishing community of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assam and Arunachal Pradesh have very rich tradition of herbal medicines used in the treatment of various ailments. Tribal communities practice different types of traditional healing practices. Enough documentation is available on the healing practices in other tribal communities except Mishing community of Assam and foot hill of East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh hence the attempt was made for the same. A survey on folk medicinal plants and folk healers of Mishing tribe was conducted in few places of Lakhimpur and Dhemaji district of Assam and East Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh, where this ethnic group is living since time immemorial. All information was collected based on interview and field studies with local healers within the community. The identification of medicinal plants collected with help of indigenous healers was done. Such medicines have been shown to have significant healing power, either in their natural state or as the source of new products processed by them. This study is mainly concentrated with plants used to cure diseases and to enquire about different healing systems. Detail note on the method of preparation of precise dose, the part/parts of plants used and method of application is given.

  3. Possibility of fighting food borne bacteria by egyptian folk medicinal herbs and spices extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F

    2009-01-01

    Phytotherapy (herbal medicine) have a long-standing history in Egypt. Current study investigated the antimicrobial potentialities of twenty five herbs and spices which are widely used in folk medicine by Egyptian housewives to treat gastrointestinal disorders against seven bacterial strains, mostly food borne including pathogens. They were tested by using paper disc diffusion technique as qualitative assay and agar dilution method for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of herbs extracts. Among screened plants, basil, cardamom, cinnamon, clove, lemon grass, mustard, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme extracts exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against most of the tested strains. Cinnamon extract was the most inhibitor followed by clove, whereas extracts of chamomile, rose of Jericho, safflower and turmeric showed weak antibacterial activities against most of the tested strains. The most sensitive strain to plant extracts was B. subtilis and the most resistant strain was Ps. fluorescens. herbs and spices extracts -used in Egyptian folk medicine for treating many gastrointestinal disorders - could be successfully applied as natural antimicrobials for elimination of food borne bacteria and pathogens growth.

  4. Screening of anti-Helicobacter pylori herbs deriving from Taiwanese folk medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang

    2005-02-01

    In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity.

  5. THE CRAFT MASTERY OF FOLK ARTISANS IN ROMANIA BEFORE AND AFTER 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIN CONSTANTIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a series of aspects defining the “craftwork” process as a technical and artistic effort among the contemporary representatives of the peasant traditions in Romania. With respect to the craftsmanship from several Romanian ethnographic areas, three main chapters organize the present text as regards the origin of the artisans’ knowledge and skills, their craft techniques, and the folk art thus inherited, performed, and transmitted. As will be seen, “mastery” (in this case may reflect various but also interdependent phenomena like dexterity, “gift”, handwork, “the craft theft”, the management of raw materials and their properties, the imagining of an artifact and creativity in its execution, etc. Since all these facts (among others as well are difficult to encompass in a single referential term, choosing the word mastery meets at the same time exigencies of etymology (lat. magister, semantics (mastery as “skillfulness”, “ingenuity”, “ability”… and ethnography (pasărea măiastră, in Romanian “fantastic bird” as a folk artifact

  6. V. Amygdalina: Folk Medicine, Analysis, and Potential Application for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izevbigie, Ernest B; Howard, C B; Lee, K S

    Folk medicine (FM) is practiced by people without access to conventional medical services; it usually involves the use of natural remedies such as herbs or vegetable substances. Before the use of pharmaceutical drugs, and surgical procedures, these healing methods were used, and are still in use today. It is estimated that twenty five percent of all therapeutic drugs trace their origins to plants, and almost two-thirds of the people of the world rely on their healing powers. One hundred years ago, health care in the U.S. was provided by a highly competitive medical sect, and quite infrequently, folk medicine practitioners were patronized. However, FM usage in the U.S. has increased drastically during the past decade. National surveys of adults (18 years of age or older) show that one in three adults use unconventional therapies or Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in the U.S. The rate of CAM usage is more than eighty percent among cancer patients. Vernonia amygdalina (VA) is well known for its medicinal importance. Fractionation of the VA extracts with solvents of varying polarities, by silica gels analyses, UV Spectrophotometer, HPLC, TLC and NMR techniques have yielded some biologically-active fractions.

  7. Hierarchical Structure of Memory Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Everett V., Jr.; Brown, Scott W.; Silver, Bethany B.; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth

    Beliefs about memories and about the ability to recall memories may affect the individual's recollection of facts and "events." What people believe about memory is investigated using previously analyzed and reported responses to the Beliefs about Memory Survey (BMS). The survey sample (N=1046) was randomly divided for calibration and…

  8. Beliefs dynamics in communication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azomahou, T.T.; Opolot, D.

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of individual beliefs and information aggregation when agents communicate via a social network. We provide a general framework of social learning that captures the interactive effects of three main factors on the structure of individual beliefs resulting from such a dynamic

  9. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  10. Bulimic Beliefs: Food for Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Barbara G.; Anderson, Wayne P.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that individuals suffering from bulimia nervosa share characteristic pattern of thinking which must be understood if effective treatment is to take place. Presents these beliefs, gathered by clinical experience and literature review, in format describing each belief, discussing common causes for its development, and suggesting therapeutic…

  11. Equilibria in social belief removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of multi-agent interaction, especially in game theory, the notion of equilibrium often plays a prominent role. A typical scenario for the belief merging problem is one in which several agents pool their beliefs together to form a...

  12. Dynamic Logics of Belief Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Smets, S.; van Ditmarsch, H.; Halpern, J.; van der Hoek, W.; Kooi, B.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of current dynamic logics that describe belief update and revision, both for single agents and in multi-agent settings. We employ a mixture of ideas from AGM belief revision theory and dynamic-epistemic logics of information-driven agency. After describing the basic

  13. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eMogi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi. Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs.

  14. Free will and paranormal beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Free will is one of the fundamental aspects of human cognition. In the context of cognitive neuroscience, various experiments on time perception, sensorimotor coordination, and agency suggest the possibility that it is a robust illusion (a feeling independent of actual causal relationship with actions) constructed by neural mechanisms. Humans are known to suffer from various cognitive biases and failures, and the sense of free will might be one of them. Here I report a positive correlation between the belief in free will and paranormal beliefs (UFO, reincarnation, astrology, and psi). Web questionnaires involving 2076 subjects (978 males, 1087 females, and 11 other genders) were conducted, which revealed significant positive correlations between belief in free will (theory and practice) and paranormal beliefs. There was no significant correlation between belief in free will and knowledge in paranormal phenomena. Paranormal belief scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, with corresponding significant (albeit weaker) difference in belief in free will. These results are consistent with the view that free will is an illusion which shares common cognitive elements with paranormal beliefs. PMID:24765084

  15. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  16. Beliefs and Bayesian reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew L; Sidlowski, Sara; Staub, Adrian

    2017-06-01

    We examine whether judgments of posterior probabilities in Bayesian reasoning problems are affected by reasoners' beliefs about corresponding real-world probabilities. In an internet-based task, participants were asked to determine the probability that a hypothesis is true (posterior probability, e.g., a person has a disease, given a positive medical test) based on relevant probabilities (e.g., that any person has the disease and the true and false positive rates of the test). We varied whether the correct posterior probability was close to, or far from, independent intuitive estimates of the corresponding 'real-world' probability. Responses were substantially closer to the correct posterior when this value was close to the intuitive estimate. A model in which the response is a weighted sum of the intuitive estimate and an additive combination of the probabilities provides an excellent account of the results.

  17. "It feels more like a parody": Canadian Queer as Folk viewers and the show they love to complain about.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    The nighttime television series Queer as Folk (U.S.) was set in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, but was filmed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Beginning with a brief textual analysis of the representation of lesbians on Queer as Folk, this audience reception study outlines how Canadian viewers who claimed a wide range of sexualities interpreted the representations of lesbians on the series in vastly different ways. While some viewers described the lesbian characters, Melanie and Lindsay, as "an embarrassment" and "more like a parody of lesbians," others enjoyed the "accuracy" and "realism" of these characters.

  18. Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Aiyana K; Norenzayan, Ara

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive theories of religion have postulated several cognitive biases that predispose human minds towards religious belief. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested simultaneously and in relation to each other, using an individual difference approach. We used a path model to assess the extent to which several interacting cognitive tendencies, namely mentalizing, mind body dualism, teleological thinking, and anthropomorphism, as well as cultural exposure to religion, predict belief in God, paranormal beliefs and belief in life's purpose. Our model, based on two independent samples (N=492 and N=920) found that the previously known relationship between mentalizing and belief is mediated by individual differences in dualism, and to a lesser extent by teleological thinking. Anthropomorphism was unrelated to religious belief, but was related to paranormal belief. Cultural exposure to religion (mostly Christianity) was negatively related to anthropomorphism, and was unrelated to any of the other cognitive tendencies. These patterns were robust for both men and women, and across at least two ethnic identifications. The data were most consistent with a path model suggesting that mentalizing comes first, which leads to dualism and teleology, which in turn lead to religious, paranormal, and life's-purpose beliefs. Alternative theoretical models were tested but did not find empirical support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Contemporary Challenges in Learning and Teaching Folk Music in a Higher Education Context: A Case Study of Hua'er Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the conventions of formal music education. Whilst many recent studies have tended to define these non-classical music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk transmission music appears to be much more complex…

  20. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  1. The Relationship among Pre-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning, Pedagogical Beliefs, and Beliefs about ICT Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayati, Dian; Emaliana, Ive

    2017-01-01

    This paper elucidates the relationship among pre-service teachers' beliefs about language learning, pedagogical beliefs, and beliefs about ICT Integration through survey methodology. This study employed a quantitative approach, particularly a correlational relationship to investigate the relationships among beliefs about language learning,…

  2. ARCHAIC WORDS IN FOLK SONGS TÜRKÜLERDE ESKİ (ARKAİK SÖZLER

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    Vahit TÜRK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigated the meanings of some archaic words and grammatical elements which are mentioned in the oldest texts of Turkish language but are not used in written language of Turkey’s Turkish and we determined that they are still used in folk songs. Bu yazıda Türkçenin en eski ürünlerinde geçen ancak Türkiye Türkçesi yazı dilinde kullanılmayan bazı arkaik kelimelerin ve gramer unsurlarının halk türkülerinde yaşadığı gösterilmiş ve adı geçen unsurların anlamları üzerinde durulmuştur.

  3. Elite Vs. Folk Bilingualism: The Mismatch between Theories and Educational and Social Conditions

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    Carmen Helena Guerrero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at contributing to the ongoing discussion about how bilingualism is understood in the current National Bilingualism Plan (PNB for its initials in Spanish. Based on previous research and discussions held at academic events, it is evident that the promoters of the PNB use the term “bilingualism” in a rather indiscriminate way, without adopting a clear approach or definition. This ambiguity in conceptualization has serious consequences in the way the PNB is implemented around the country. The main contribution of this reflection article is, then, to explore from a theoretical perspective two opposite types of bilingualism: elite/folk bilingualism to show that even though on the surface the PNB seems to aim at an elite bilingualism, the educational and social conditions show otherwise.

  4. Comparative pharmacobotanic study and ethnopharmacological uses of the "Botones de oro" from Argentinean folk medicine

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    María A. Gette

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of six Argentinean plants - commonly known as "botones de oro"- are indistinctly used either in folk medicine or to obtain herbal remedies and phytotherapics. However, these entities belong to three different genera of the Tribe Helenieae (Asteraceae: Gaillardia, Helenium and Hymenoxys, being the most used species Gaillardia megapotamica var. megapotamica (Spreng. Bak.; G. megapotamica var. scabiosoides (Arn. Bak.; G. megapotamica var. radiata (Griseb. Bak.; Helenium donianum (Hook. & Arn. Seckt; H. argentinum Ariza and Hymenoxys anthemoides (Juss. Cass. In this work, we studied the relationships between the mentioned taxa from the morphological point of view, their coexistence in natural populations and their reputed pharmacological actions. Their histological features are described and illustrated, in order to obtain an accurate botanical identification of the products found in the market so as to guarantee their quality, especially because the samples are often already powdered or grounded.

  5. Traditional folk event with national importance: The impact of visitors’ age

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    Petra Solarová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the cultural tourism, this paper focuses on the traditional folk event with national importance that is held in the Czech Republic and its name is Porta. The aim is to assess characteristic traits and satisfaction of two age categories of Porta´s visitors. Through the realised research among visitors, the importance of segmentation was proved. Hence, it is crucial to focus on getting to know the visitors and their motivation. In addition to that, cultural events are also important for local government. According to the officials of local government, where this event is held, such events are able to attract visitors to the particular locality. However, they have only limited opportunities how to support these events (especially from the financial viewpoint.

  6. Ethnomusicological biography of the traditional folk musician: Biography of the gusle-player

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    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of ethnomusicology from a comparative discipline to an anthropologically oriented science there has been an increase in the significance of the biography of folk musicians as scientific sources. The intention of the anthropological thought to accept and theoretically consider human nature as open and dynamic, has been realized in the ethnomusicological plane through the understanding of music as a product of thinking and behaviour of a particular musician in given circumstances. The concept of an artist is especially complex in the field of oral music culture, where creation and performance are connected in one person and the transferring process involves direct communication. The attempt to overcome the dichotomy of the musicological and sociological, i. e. anthropological attitude in ethnomusicology by synthesizing concepts which involve music, culture and man has brought particular importance to the relations between individual biographies and 'biographies of the collective' - relevant historical ethnological, anthropological, sociological, culturological, religion ideological and other types of data. Observations enlightening the social side of the folk musician's personality make the necessary 'frame' for the biography: from 'objective' social circumstances which modelled it to the opinion of the cultural environment about his performing. The folk musician's biography oriented towards ethnomusicology involves the result of a critical evaluation of the picture based on the emic and ethic vision autobiographical data and the observations of others, primarily researchers. The complexity of a biographical discourse in ethnomusicology can be perfectly seen in the example of the gusle-player's biography, as a genre-determined solo role in the tradition. For studying the relation between a person and a style of music expression, concerning gusle-players it is important to bear in mind the change in the profile of gusle

  7. FCJ-183 iHootenanny: A Folk Archeology of Social Media

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    Henry Adam Svec

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper excavates two models of communication that can be found littered across the intertwining histories of folk revivalism and digital culture in the United States. First I examine the Hootenanny, initially a form of rent party made popular in New York City in the 1940s by the group the Almanac Singers, which constituted a complex site of convergence of a range interests, styles, media, and performance genres. Second, I explore how the utopian vision of a community joined in song has been taken up recently by ‘social music’ iPhone apps made by the developer Smule. I will ultimately consider how the mediation idealised by the Almanacs has trickled down to a narcissistic will-to-be-‘in touch’ in mainstream digital culture, making the Hootenanny a virtual path untaken in the history of mobile communication.

  8. [Folk-dancing and walking: a comparative study of college students' calorific output].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Nunes, Solange Maria; Aurinice Sampaio, Irene-Monte; Ferreira-Emygdio, Rogério; Knackfuss, Maria Irany

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at performing a comparative analysis of undergraduates' calorie output during folk-dancing and walking. This was a descriptive study of the calorific output of 35 volunteer students belonging to the Universidade Estadual do Piauí's Dance Company (Teresina, Brazil) ranging in age from 19 to 34, including people from both genders allocated to two groups (dancers and walkers). A Filizola balance was used for estimating body mass, a Sanny metric scale for measuring height and a Caltrac accelerometer 100/100 Plan for measuring energy output. Student t-test and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical analysis (pDancing was seen to be equal to walking as physical activities in terms of calorific output. A significant correlation was found between calorie output levels in both dancing and walking (even though no significant differences between them were verified).

  9. LEXICOGRAPHICAL TREATMENT OF FOLK TAXONOMIES, WORKPAPER FOR CONFERENCE ON LEXICOGRAPHY, INDIANA UNIVERSITY, NOVEMBER 11-12, 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONKLIN, HAROLD C.

    THIS REPORT DISCUSSES LEXICOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF FOLK TERMS. THE CONCERNS OF SUCH CLASSIFICATION ARE DESCRIBED AS (1) IDENTIFYING RELEVANT SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES, (2) IDENTIFYING FUNDAMENTAL SEMANTIC UNITS IN SPECIFIC CONTEXTS, (3) DELINEATING SIGNIFICANT SETS OF SEMANTIC UNITS IN PARTICULAR DOMAINS, AND (4) TRANSLATING AND MARKING THE…

  10. Exploring the Old Town School of Folk Music's Beck "Song Reader" Ensemble: An Interview with Nathaniel Braddock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    This column presents an interview with Nathaniel Braddock, who created and teaches an ensemble devoted to Beck's "Song Reader" at the Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, Illinois. "Song Reader" is a collection of 20 compositions published as sheet music for musicians to record and release, with over 17,000 versions…

  11. Folk High Schools and Dropouts from Upper Secondary School: Effects of Non-Academic Investments in Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Solveig T.; Borgen, Nicolai T.

    2015-01-01

    High dropout rates from upper secondary school are related to substantial societal costs, and are hence a major policy concern. The Norwegian folk high schools provide a non-academic education in an intimate and nurturing environment where interpersonal and social skills are emphasised, and where individuals grow in sense of self-esteem and sense…

  12. That Which We Call a Rose by Any Other Name Would Sound as Sweet: Folk Perceptions, Status and Language Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Robert M.; Osthus, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Folk perceptions of language diversity often differ from the criteria laid out by linguists and have particular implications for applied/sociolinguists since the collective identification of language diversity largely determines the ways in which individuals regard the categorisation of their own (and others) linguistic uses as belonging to a…

  13. THE SEMANTIC STRUCTURE OF LANDSCAPE TERMS IN GERMAN FOLK TEXTS (A CASE STUDY OF FAIRY TALES, PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

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    Rakitina Olga Nikolaevna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available German folk landscape lexis, its functioning and text components' influence are studied in the aspect of interaction of some factors, such as a key role of denotative components while conceptualizing landscape's objects and their material characteristics; folk genre's purpose while actualizing its connotative features of social space; the influence of text units (actualizators and their semantics on 'expansion' of meanings in landscape term structures. Due to the analysis of functional features of these words, two main features of the space have been determined – representation of landscape's objects and their material characteristics (size, length, quantity, material, stuff and realization of their social features ('safe/unsafe', 'unavailable/available', 'useless/useful', etc.. The dominance of the material component in the semantic structure of landscape terms is noted in the designations of mountainous terrain. The social characteristics are presented with subjective interpretation of individual properties and elements of the relief. The conditions of interaction between the members and the landscape contexts are disclosed in the analysis of phrases in which the social characteristics of the complexes express meanings ('size', 'unavailable', 'safe', etc.. The study shows that folk texts of different genres (fairy tales, proverbs and sayings is a valuable source of lexical material, as they reflect the stable interactions between connotative components and the semantics of fairy tales texts, proverbs and sayings. Thus, they should be taken into consideration while translating German folk texts to Russian language.

  14. The potential of folk tabletop games in the development of the intelligence and creativity of children

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    Mariia Baisheva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern education is dominantly targeted at the left hemisphere. It draws insufficient attention to the harmonization of the functioning of both brain hemispheres. This has a negative impact on the development of the abilities of children and is especially detrimental to boys and those children who are brought up in the natural environment. In this regard, one of the solutions is folk tabletop games, but their potential in the development of the intelligence and creativity of children has been insufficiently explored. The goal of the research is to identify and substantiate the potential of the Sakha’s tabletop games for the development of the intellectual and creative abilities of children aged 5-7 years. The scientific novelty of the research consists in the fact that the problem under study enriches the theoretical and methodological bases of using tabletop games in the intellectual development of children in preschool education. The study was carried out longitudinally. The following was studied: the influence of games on the development of intellectual, creative, and insight abilities of children aged 5-7 years, as well as their interconditionality. The obtained results are discussed from the point of view of their correspondence with both the data available in science and the hypothesis of the study. The discussion emphasizes that the tabletop games of the Sakha are the most meaningfully represented in the study as the functional space for the development of intellectual and creative abilities of children. In the conclusion, it is emphasized that folk tabletop games are the means for qualitative enrichment of all the basic factors of intelligence in operations, contents, and final products of thinking. The study has proven the idea of treating tabletop games as a substantial source of development of the harmonious activity of both brain hemispheres.

  15. Naïve realism: folk fallacies in the design and use of visual displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman, Harvey S; Cook, Maia B

    2011-07-01

    Often implicit in visual display design and development is a gold standard of photorealism. By approximating direct perception, photorealism appeals to users and designers by being both attractive and apparently effortless. The vexing result from numerous performance evaluations, though, is that increasing realism often impairs performance. Smallman and St. John (2005) labeled misplaced faith in realistic information display Naïve Realism and theorized it resulted from a triplet of folk fallacies about perception. Here, we illustrate issues associated with the wider trend towards realism by focusing on a specific current trend for high-fidelity perspective view (3D) geospatial displays. In two experiments, we validated Naïve Realism for different terrain understanding tasks, explored whether certain individuals are particularly prone to Naïve Realism, and determined the ability of task feedback to mitigate Naïve Realism. Performance was measured for laying and judging a concealed route across realistic terrain shown in different display formats. Task feedback was either implicit, in Experiment 1, or explicit in Experiment 2. Prospective and retrospective intuitions about the best display formats for the tasks were recorded and then related to task performance and participant spatial ability. Participants generally intuited they would perform tasks better with more realism than they actually required. For example, counter to intuitions, lowering fidelity of the terrain display revealed the gross scene layout needed to lay a well-concealed route. Individuals of high spatial ability calibrated their intuitions with only implicit task feedback, whereas those of low spatial ability required salient, explicit feedback to calibrate their intuitions about display realism. Results are discussed in the wider context of applying perceptual science to display design, and combating folk fallacies. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. THE RING IN THE FOLK STORIES-HALK ANLATILARINDA YÜZÜK

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    Yaprak Pelin Uluışık

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A ring is not just a piece of jewelry that indicates commitment, endless unity and loyalty; it is a symbol that has a chain of common meanings intertwined with similar features in different geographies. It is seen that rings in myths, epics, legends, fairy tales and folk stories provide features such as power, control, wisdom, youth, earthly and spiritual prosperity, good fortune, invisibility, shape changing, talking with plants and animals. Heroes wearing these rings that protect the human soul from the evil will not suffer in any way. In the stories of the west, it is often mentioned about cursed rings that effects its owner in a bad manner and brings only bad luck. These rings, located in places that can be associated with the underground such as the ground, the hole, the cave and the water bed, are given to the heroes by supernatural beings or wise men. Supernatural beings, such as demons or giants, are trapped in these rings, many of which are magical, as slaves of the rings at an unknown time. When the hero rubs his ring, reverses it, puts it in his mouth; when he hits the ring or whistles to it, the slave of the ring comes out and asks the hero for his wish. This wish is carried out by the slave right after the hero tells the slave what he wishes. In this article, many examples from the Chinese myths to the Arabic tales, from the Babylonian Talmud to the descriptions of Scandinavian, Celtic, Welsh, French and Spanish culture have been examined in order to determine the characteristics of the rings mentioned in folkloric tales. In addition, many examples of Turkish folk literature from Dede Korkut to Anatolian tales were also discussed.

  17. 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fita, Dídac S; Costa Neto, Eraldo M; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2010-03-26

    This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity.

  18. 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiavetti Alexandre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity.

  19. 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity. PMID:20346120

  20. Components of the Belief Gap

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    Cecilie Gaziano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge gap research focuses on education as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES. Belief gap research centers on ideology as potentially more powerful than education in comparing sociopolitical groups with scientifically established knowledge and groups with opposing beliefs accepted on faith. This study examined the relationship between education and ideology to understand belief gaps better. The study used 2008 American National Election Study (ANES data to compare conservatives, moderates, and liberals by education on religiosity, child rearing values, opinionation, need for cognition, orientation toward politics, and mass media access and use. Although liberals tended to be more educated than conservatives overall, better-educated conservatives had the highest household incomes and were a much larger group. No known knowledge gap studies have reported results on one group characterized by high education and an opposing group distinguished by a different indicator of SES. Reformulations of the belief gap hypothesis are offered.

  1. Young Adolescents' Beliefs Concerning Menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)

  2. Traditional medicine and childcare in Western Africa: mothers' knowledge, folk illnesses, and patterns of healthcare-seeking behavior.

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    Alexandra M Towns

    Full Text Available In spite of the strong role of traditional medicine in childcare in the pluralistic healthcare system in Western Africa, little information is known on mothers' domestic plant knowledge. Identifying local perspectives and treatments of children's illnesses, including folk illnesses, is essential to having a comprehensive understanding of how mothers make healthcare treatment decisions. We aimed to identify which infant illnesses Beninese and Gabonese mothers knew to treat with medicinal plants and for which illnesses they sought biomedical care or traditional healers.We conducted 81 questionnaires with mothers in Bénin and Gabon and made 800 botanical specimens of cited medicinal plants. We calculated the number of species cited per illness and the proportion of participants knowledgeable on at least one herbal remedy per illness. Using qualitative data, we described folk illnesses in each country and summarized responses on preferences for each of the three healthcare options.Participants from both countries were most knowledgeable on plants to treat respiratory illnesses, malaria, diarrhea, and intestinal ailments. Mothers also frequently mentioned the use of plants to encourage children to walk early, monitor the closure of fontanels, and apply herbal enemas. Major folk illnesses were atita and ka in Bénin and la rate and fesses rouges in Gabon. Traditional healers were reported to have specialized knowledge of cultural bound illnesses. Malaria was frequently cited as an illness for which mothers would directly seek biomedical treatment.Mothers largely saw the three systems as complementary, seamlessly switching between different healing options until a remedy was found. Folk illnesses were found to give insight into local treatments and may reveal important neglected diseases. Due to high reported levels of knowledge on treating top statistical causes of infant mortality and folk illnesses, mothers' medicinal plant knowledge should be

  3. Indigenous knowledge for plant species diversity: a case study of wild plants' folk names used by the Mongolians in Ejina desert area, Inner Mongolia, P. R. China

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    Soyolt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Folk names of plants are the roots of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. This paper mainly records and analyses the wild plant folk names of the Mongolians in the Ejina desert area based on a field survey for collection and identification of voucher specimens. The results show that a total of 121 folk names of local plants have correspondence with 93 scientific species which belong to 26 families and 70 genera. The correspondence between plants' Mongol folk names and scientific species may be classified as one to one correspondence, multitude to one correspondence and one to multitude correspondence. The Ejina Mongolian plant folk names were formed on the basis of observations and an understanding of the wild plants growing in their desert environment. The high correspondence between folk names and scientific names shows the scientific meaning of folk botanical nomenclature and classification. It is very useful to take an inventory of biodiversity, especially among the rapid rural appraisal (RRA in studying biodiversity at the community level.

  4. Metacognitive beliefs, beliefs about voices and affective symptoms in patients with severe auditory verbal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, B.; Krabbendam, L.; Smeets, G.; van der Gaag, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study explores associations between metacognitive beliefs and beliefs about voices in patients with severe auditory verbal hallucinations, and their hypothesized relationship with levels of depression and anxiety. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that metacognitive beliefs are

  5. The ecology of religious beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A.; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R.; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C.; Gray, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species. PMID:25385605

  6. The ecology of religious beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Carlos A; Gardner, Beth; Kirby, Kathryn R; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gavin, Michael C; Gray, Russell D

    2014-11-25

    Although ecological forces are known to shape the expression of sociality across a broad range of biological taxa, their role in shaping human behavior is currently disputed. Both comparative and experimental evidence indicate that beliefs in moralizing high gods promote cooperation among humans, a behavioral attribute known to correlate with environmental harshness in nonhuman animals. Here we combine fine-grained bioclimatic data with the latest statistical tools from ecology and the social sciences to evaluate the potential effects of environmental forces, language history, and culture on the global distribution of belief in moralizing high gods (n = 583 societies). After simultaneously accounting for potential nonindependence among societies because of shared ancestry and cultural diffusion, we find that these beliefs are more prevalent among societies that inhabit poorer environments and are more prone to ecological duress. In addition, we find that these beliefs are more likely in politically complex societies that recognize rights to movable property. Overall, our multimodel inference approach predicts the global distribution of beliefs in moralizing high gods with an accuracy of 91%, and estimates the relative importance of different potential mechanisms by which this spatial pattern may have arisen. The emerging picture is neither one of pure cultural transmission nor of simple ecological determinism, but rather a complex mixture of social, cultural, and environmental influences. Our methods and findings provide a blueprint for how the increasing wealth of ecological, linguistic, and historical data can be leveraged to understand the forces that have shaped the behavior of our own species.

  7. Belief Revision and Argumentation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falappa, Marcelo Alejandro; Kern-Isberner, Gabriele; Simari, Guillermo Ricardo

    Belief revision is the process of changing beliefs to adapt the epistemic state of an agent to a new piece of information. The logical formalization of belief revision is a topic of research in philosophy, logic, and in computer science, in areas such as databases or artificial intelligence. On the other hand, argumentation is concerned primarily with the evaluation of claims based on premises in order to reach conclusions. Both provide basic and substantial techniques for the art of reasoning, as it is performed by human beings in everyday life situations and which goes far beyond logical deduction. Reasoning, in this sense, makes possible to deal successfully with problems in uncertain, dynamic environments and has been promoting the development of human societies.

  8. Beliefs about Drinking Problem Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bullers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that “internal” or personal attributions about the causes of problem drinking increase the likelihood of seeking treatment and treatment efficacy, while “external” attributions, such as environmental, social or cultural causations, may hinder treatment efforts. Results of survey data from a sample of 152 US college students found three main causation belief factors, which were differentially associated with age, heavy drinking, protestant religion, and exposure to problem drinkers. The "Social Cause" factor was the most strongly endorsed belief suggesting external, but surmountable attributions for problem drinking. Implications of attributions for treatment efficacy are discussed.

  9. Musicological issues in the new book by Zoya Kyzgys “Tuvan folk songs and ritual poetry”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayasmaa D.-B. Baranmaa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of a new book by prominent researcher of Tuvan musical folklore Z.K. Kyrgys “Tuvan folk songs and ritual poetry” (Novosibirsk, 2015, published in Russian and Tuvan languages. This publication is of huge social significance, since it contains a number of musical examples of folk songs and ritual poetry. The last of this type of publication was released as far back as in 1970s. We focus specifically on the musicological sections of the book and specimens of musical notation, some of which were published for the first time ever. Also noted are what we believe to be the weaknesses of the publication, such as  a number of misprints which make the understanding and performing of the pieces more difficult.

  10. Toxicants in folk remedies: Implications of elevated blood lead in an American-born infant due to imported diaper powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13–18 mcg/dL, reference level blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.

  11. Effect of motor abilities on performing the Hvar folk dance cicilion in 11-year-old girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srhoj, Lj

    2002-12-01

    A battery of 21 motor tests as predictor variables and evaluation of motor performance of cicilion, a Croatian folk dance from the island of Hvar as a criterion variable, were used in a sample of 101 female fifth-grade students aged 11 years. Regression analysis showed the changed group of motor variables to be a good predictor of success in performing the cicilion folk dance with multiple correlation of 0.63. The flexibility variable of astride trunk bending forwards and frequency variable of hand tapping had greatest impact on the criterion. A considerable favorable impact was also recorded for the variables for assessment of rhythmic coordination, balance, agility on ground, and repetitive strength of the trunk.

  12. The ``Folk Theorem'' on effective field theory: How does it fare in nuclear physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Mannque

    2017-10-01

    This is a brief history of what I consider as very important, some of which truly seminal, contributions made by young Korean nuclear theorists, mostly graduate students working on PhD thesis in 1990s and early 2000s, to nuclear effective field theory, nowadays heralded as the first-principle approach to nuclear physics. The theoretical framework employed is an effective field theory anchored on a single scale-invariant hidden local symmetric Lagrangian constructed in the spirit of Weinberg's "Folk Theorem" on effective field theory. The problems addressed are the high-precision calculations on the thermal np capture, the solar pp fusion process, the solar hep process — John Bahcall's challenge to nuclear theorists — and the quenching of g A in giant Gamow-Teller resonances and the whopping enhancement of first-forbidden beta transitions relevant in astrophysical processes. Extending adventurously the strategy to a wild uncharted domain in which a systematic implementation of the "theorem" is far from obvious, the same effective Lagrangian is applied to the structure of compact stars. A surprising, unexpected, result on the properties of massive stars, totally different from what has been obtained up to day in the literature, is predicted, such as the precocious onset of conformal sound velocity together with a hint for the possible emergence in dense matter of hidden symmetries such as scale symmetry and hidden local symmetry.

  13. Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants (N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  14. Free radical scavenging, in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of folk medicine Trichodesma sedgwickianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta S. Saboo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichodesma sedgwickianum has been used in folk medicine possessing anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity. This led us to investigate for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential. Different polarities extracts were subjected to polyphenolic estimation and in vitro antioxidant activity. The potential extract was tested for in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity, assessed by carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress in rats. Phytochemical identification of major constituents has been carried out by HPLC, GC-MS, 1HNMR and 13C NMR. Amongst the extracts, successive ethanol extract showed higher concentration of polyphenols (25.4 ± 0.1% w/w and in vitro antioxidant property. The in vivo antioxidant efficiency was confirmed by comparing the enzymatic level, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and MDA in test group with the standard and control. Hepatoprotective effect was observed by changes in the serum enzyme level which were further supported by histological examination. Phytochemically ethanol extract contains gallic acid and catechin along with other constituents. Thus present study provides a scientific rationale for their traditional use.

  15. Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies: from past to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Katrin; Jürisoo, Kadi; Raal, Ain

    2014-07-01

    Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advancements, the burden of cancer is still increasing worldwide. Toxicity of current chemotherapeutics to normal cells and their resistance to tumor cells highlights the urgent need for new drugs with minimal adverse side effects. The use of natural anticancer agents has entered into the area of cancer research and increased efforts are being made to isolate bioactive products from medicinal plants. To lead the search for plants with potential cytotoxic activity, ethnopharmacological knowledge can give a great contribution. Therefore, the attention of this review is devoted to the natural remedies traditionally used for the cancer treatment by Estonian people over a period of almost 150 years. Two massive databases, the first one stored in the Estonian Folklore Archives and the second one in the electronic database HERBA ( http://herba.folklore.ee/ ), containing altogether more than 30 000 ethnomedicinal texts were systematically reviewed to compile data about the Estonian folk traditional experiences on natural anticancer remedies. As a result, 44 different plants with potential anticancer properties were elicited, 5 of which [Angelica sylvestris L. (Apiaceae), Anthemis tinctoria L. (Asteraceae), Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae), Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae), and Prunus padus L. (Rosaceae)] have not been previously described with respect to their tumoricidal activities in the scientific literature, suggesting thus the potential herbal materials for further investigations of natural anticancer compounds.

  16. A Reconciliation for the Future of Psychiatry: Both Folk Psychology and Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutto, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Philosophy of psychiatry faces a tough choice between two competing ways of understanding mental disorders. The folk psychology (FP) view puts our everyday normative conceptual scheme in the driver's seat - on the assumption that it, and it only, tells us what mental disorders are (1). Opposing this, the scientific image (SI) view (2, 3) holds that our understanding of mental disorders must come, wholly and solely, from the sciences of the mind, unfettered by FP. This paper argues that the FP view is problematic because it is too limited: there is more to the mind than FP allows; hence, we must look beyond FP for properly deep and illuminating explanations of mental disorders. SI promises just this. But when cast in its standard cognitivist formulations, SI is unnecessarily and unjustifiably neurocentric. After rejecting both the FP view, in its pure form, and SI view, in its popular cognitivist renderings, this paper concludes that a more liberal version of SI can accommodate what is best in both views - once SI is so formulated and the FP view properly edited and significantly revised, the two views can be reconciled and combined to provide a sound philosophical basis for a future psychiatry.

  17. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome using a selected herbal combination of Iraqi folk medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahib, Ahmed Salih

    2013-07-30

    Mentha longifolia, Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale are widely used in Iraqi traditional medicine for the treatment of multiple gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a combination of three herbal agents that are widely used in folk medicine in Iraq for the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A prospective randomised clinical study was carried out on 40 patients of both sexes between 25 and 60 years of age who had been diagnosed with IBS for 5-10 years. The patients were allocated to one of two groups, each consisting of 20 patients. Group A was treated with mebeverine, and Group B was treated with a capsule containing a combination of the following three herbs prepared as fine powders: Mentha longifolia, Cyperus rotundus and Zingiber officinale. IBS symptoms were assessed before and after 8 weeks of treatment. Treatment of IBS patients with the herbal combination resulted in improvements in all of their IBS symptoms after 8 weeks, as revealed by increase in their individual symptom scores and in their mean total improvement percentages. These results were comparable to those produced by the standard agent mebeverine. Patients with IBS showed significant improvements in their IBS symptoms after 8-weeks of treatment with the herbal combination and did not report any adverse effects during their treatment. These results support the efficacy and safety of the herbal combination for the treatment of IBS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High blood lead levels in ceramic folk art workers in Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, G O; Martinez, R R; Fortoul, T I; Palazuelos, E

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic folk art workers are at risk for developing lead intoxication. These workers live in small settlements, which often lack sanitation services, and these individuals work with ceramics in their homes. The study population comprised individuals of all ages from three rural communities in central Michoacan (Tzintzuntzan, Tzintzunzita, and Colonia Lazaro Cardenas). A survey questionnaire, which was provided to each individual, included questions about household characteristics, presence of a clay oven in the home, and use of lead oxide ("greta") and other hazardous products. Venous blood samples were obtained from the workers. We found lead exposure to be reduced if the home floor was covered and if the house had been painted < or =1 y prior to study. Blood lead levels exceeded the maximum level permitted, but the levels were lower than those found in the 1970s, during which time study techniques for analyzing samples differed from those used in the present study. In addition, activity patterns of the populations differed during the two studies.

  19. Sleep quality among residents of an old folk's home in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Ong, Eng Keat; Yi Wong, Eleanor Shu

    2012-11-01

    Sleep is an essential part of life. Lack of sleep has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the sleep quality of older adults residing in a private elderly care institution in Malaysia. This cross sectional study was conducted among consenting residents of a 200-bed non-governmental charity old folks home in Penang, Malaysia. The sleep quality of the respondents was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), their attitude to ageing (AAQ), Barthel index (Activities of Daily Living) and body mass index were also measured. Data was analysed using PASW. The PSQI score ranged from 0 to 16 with a mean score of 7.1 (SD 3.4) and 76.8% (116) had scores ≥ 5. The differences in the mean score for chronic illness (t = 0.14/P = 0.04), the people that could be counted on for help (t = 4.09/P = 0.02) and the feasibility of getting practical help from fellow residents (t = 4.41/P = 0.01) were statistically significant. There was a negative correlation between the PSQI score and the WHOQOL-BREF score (-0.318/0.00) and AAQ score (-0.332/0.00). Staff working in an elderly care institution should understand the important relationship of illnesses, social support and sleep hygiene in the wellbeing of the residents.

  20. Evaluation of the use of Cocos nucifera as antimalarial remedy in Malaysian folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Amran, Adel A; Mahmud, Rohela

    2011-04-12

    White flesh extract of Cocos nucifera (coconut) was studied to ascertain the ethnopharmacological standing of its antimalarial usage in Malaysian folk medicine. The crude methanol extract was investigated for phytochemical constituents and acute oral toxicity. Antimalarial activity of different extract doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg were investigated in vivo against Plasmodium berghei (NK65) infections in mice during early, established and residual infections. Chloroquine (20mg/kg) and pyrimethamine (1.2mg/kg) were used as reference drugs. The results revealed that the extract contained some phytochemical constituents and is toxicologically safe by oral administration. The extract significantly reduced the parasitaemia by the 200 and 400mg/kg doses in the all three in vivo assessment assays. However, the extract did not significantly increase the survival time of the infected mice. The observed pharmacological activities suggest that the Malaysian folkloric medicinal application of Cocos nucifera has a pharmacological basis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Reconciliation for the Future of Psychiatry: Both Folk Psychology and Cognitive Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Douglas Hutto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of psychiatry faces a tough choice between two competing ways of understanding mental disorders. The folk psychology or FP view puts our everyday normative conceptual scheme in the driver’s seat – on the assumption that it, and it only, tells us what mental disorders are (Graham 2009. Opposing this, the scientific image or SI view (Murphy 2006, Gerrans 2014 holds that our understanding of mental disorders must come, wholly and solely, from the sciences of the mind, unfettered by FP. This paper argues that the FP view is problematic because it is too limited: there is more to the mind than FP allows, hence we must look beyond FP for properly deep and illuminating explanations of mental disorders. SI promises just this. But when cast in its standard cognitivist formulations SI is unnecessarily and unjustifiably neurocentric. After rejecting both the FP view, in its pure form, and SI, in its popular cognitivist renderings, this paper concludes that a more liberal version of SI can accommodate what is best in both views – once SI is so formulated and the FP view properly edited and significantly revised, the two views can be reconciled and combined to provide a sound philosophical basis for a future psychiatry.

  2. Examining the Pre - competition Anxiety Levels of Sportsmen Participating in a Folk Dance Branch in Terms of Some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan HACICAFEROĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with in order to determine the pre - competition anxiety levels of sportsmen participating in the Turkish Folk Dance branch in terms of some variables. The population of the study, which was carried out using a general screening model, consisted of 253 sportsmen, partici pated with the local halay dance in the group competition, organized by the Turkish Folk Dance Federation in city of Malatya , and its sampling consisted of 187 sportsmen chosen from the population by a random method. State (instantaneous Anxiety part of t he State - Trait Continuous Anxiety Scale was used in the study. In analyzing the data, frequency, percentage, standard deviation, arithmetic mean, t - test and one - way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test were used in the study to find the source of the difference. As the result of the study, it has been determined that the ove rall arithmetic mean of the pre - competition instantaneous anxiety state felt by the sportsmen, statistically was 2. 34. A statistically significant difference was found in the r esearch in terms of pre - competition instantaneous anxiety state of feeling of the sportsmen, depending on the variables of gender, age and folk playing time. Nonetheless, depending on the gender, it was determined in the research, that the sportsmen of 2 0 - 22 and 17 - 19 age groups, in favour of the female athletes and according to the age variable, the sportsmen who played folk dances less than a year according to the dancing time variable, felt more pre - competition instantaneous anxiety compared to the sportsmen of other groups.

  3. The Nyali, Bamburi And Marina Fisher Folk Environmental Awareness Workshop, 6-7th February 2008, Milele Beach,Mombasa.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuda, Arthur; Mutiso, Josphine

    2008-01-01

    The fisher folk environmental awareness workshop took place on th~. 6th -7th February 2008 at the Milele Beach Hotel. The workshop comes as a follow up of the I Exchange and Exposure workshop on Marine Ecosystems and Sustainable Management held in July 2007 in Mombasa. Some of the key issues that this awareness workshop intended to address are use unsustainable fishing gear, Marine reserve legislation and conflict of legislations, relationship between KWS and the fishing community and institu...

  4. FORMING PROSPECTIVE PRIMAPY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ NATIONAL SELF-IDENTIFICATION IN THE COURSE “FOLK DANCE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kotov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the urgent problem of contemporary art pedagogy – involvement to training future professional choreographic traditions of different nations. Addressing to this problem is caused by a number of socio-political events in Ukraine, mainstreaming of national and international education, integration of Ukrainian education with the European educational space, intensive development of domestic students’ intercultural communication with young people from different countries, which is the basis for updating national art education. Prospective choreographers, who are being training at pedagogical universities to manage children's dance groups, should actively be involved into creating their own productions of folk dance various genres. It promotes the formation of choreographers’ professional competence and pedagogical skills. The development of Ukrainian dance “Opryshky” is proposed – a joint creative work of the teacher and students who get higher education degree in SHEE “Donbass State Pedagogical University” (Bachelor's Degree. Development of the dance contains schematic drawings of dance figures, it is recommended for use in forming choreographers’ professional skills while studying the course "Folk Dance Theory and Methodology". The author admits that folklore material requires a cautious, respectful attitude. Therefore, modern folk stage dances are integrally to combine traditional choreographic manner with its new interpretations. The author believes the actual capture of different nations’ choreographic culture improves intercultural youth communication; involves future professionals into the traditions of different nations; form professional skills of managers of children’s dance groups. The author concluded that a dance always reflects consciousness of different nations; future choreographers should be aware of characteristic features of dances of different world nations so that on the basis of

  5. THE ROLE OF FOLK ARTS AND CRAFTS OF DAGESTAN IN CONSOLIDATING AND EXPANDING THE TOURIST-EXCURSION ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Gazimagomedov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to create and represent the tourist routes in the places of the traditional folk arts and crafts in the Republic of Dagestan.Research Methodology. In the first stage of the study, according to the register and public materials we identified and studied traditional places of folk arts and crafts; carried out monitoring of existing tourist routes and programs. Developed routes are included in the tourist route map.Findings and discussion. We developed five radial exit routes from the city of Makhachkala, characteristics of which are presented below. Folk arts and crafts of Dagestan are a unique part of the artistic culture and at the same time, it is a branch of industry with a high level of tourist attractiveness. Today, Dagestan is one of the few areas in the modern world where traditional folk art is naturally a part of a contemporary social life having the rights of the dominant cultural unity due to the peculiarities of its historical development. Archaeological studies show that due to the geographical position, in Dagestan, there has been an interaction of significant aspects of cultural phenomena relating to the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean, Western, Central and Eastern Europe, on the one hand, and the development of cultures of different regions of Asia, on the other hand. Coupled with the traditions of the ancient population of the Caucasus, they formed complex and varied artistic conglomerate.Conclusion. The study revealed the basic centers of traditional arts and crafts of the Republic of Dagestan, hiving a high tourism potential. On this basis, we developed five tourist-excursion routes. These routes are included in the information booklet, which has a marketing and information value. 

  6. [Minna Ahokas. Valistus suomalaisessa kirjakulttuurissa 1700-luvulla. Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk 188] / Tuija Laine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laine, Tuija, 1964-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Minna Ahokas. Valistus suomalaisessa kirjakulttuurissa 1700-luvulla. Bidrag till kännedom av Finlands natur och folk 188. Diss. Sasatamala : Finska Vetenskaps-societeten. (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2011)

  7. Proverbes et contes populaires : le sexe de l'hyperénonciateur/Proverbs and folk-tales: the gender of the hyperenunciator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dominique Maingueneau

    2016-01-01

    .... This article aims to enrich this concept from an ethnolinguistic perspective. It compares the hyperenunciators of two distinct kinds of Thesaurus, proverbs and folk tales, via a reflection on their gender identity...

  8. Injuries caused by venomous animals and folk medicine in farmers from Cuité, State of Paraiba, Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Hellyson Fidel Araujo; da Costa, Cristiane Francisca; Sassi, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Injuries caused by venomous animals reported by the agricultural workers from the municipality of Cuité, Curimataú region of Paraiba State, Northeast of Brazil, and the practices of folk medicine which they use to treat these cases were studied in this work from June to August 2010. The farmers studied aged from 11 to 90 years. The number of people who reported cases of injury by these animals in their families was high (89.3%). Scorpions, wasps, bees and snakes were the most cited and the extremities of the body (hands, feet, legs and head) were the most affected. The practice of folk medicine to treat these injuries includes various procedures ranging from ritualistic treatments, use of animals or parts of them, and some herbal preparations. The folk treatment was reported as effective by most of the workers injured (63.9%). Body parts of dead snakes are used in various zootherapic treatments. In the imaginary of the agricultural workers the venomous animals are considered hazardous (48.7%) or disgusting (11.3%), and several parts of such animals as the rattle, bee sting or snake leather are used as amulet. Several legends have also been reported about snakes, scorpions and bees. The need for educational activities that aim to clarify these workers about the dangers of such practices is urgent.

  9. The Relationships among Chinese Practicing Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs, Pedagogical Beliefs and Their Beliefs about the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lee, Min-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships among practicing teachers' epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT through survey methodology. Participants were 396 high school practicing teachers from mainland China. The path analysis results analyzed via structural equation modelling technique indicated…

  10. Belief Systems and Language Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Bertram C.

    The paper discusses some of the "belief systems knowledge" used in language understanding. It begins with a presentation of a theory of personal causation. The theory supplies the tools to account for purposeful behavior. Using primitives of the theory, the social aspect of an action can be described. The social aspect is that which depends on…

  11. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  12. Aggregation of Information and Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    In a binary prediction market in which risk-neutral traders have heterogeneous prior beliefs and are allowed to invest a limited amount of money, the static rational expectations equilibrium price is demonstrated to underreact to information. This effect is consistent with a favorite-longshot bias...

  13. Consensus Theory and Religious Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bineham, Jeffery L.

    1989-01-01

    Refutes David Tukey's argument that the consensus theory of epistemic rhetoric reduces spiritual experience to a social construct which denies the possibility of a divine reality. Examines Walter Rauschenbusch's "A Theology for the Social Gospel" to prove that consensus theory accounts for religious beliefs, providing a useful framework…

  14. Literary symbols and religious belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Linnér

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of the modern situation is the lack of any distinction between the languages of belief and non-belief. Thus, over a wide area, a believer on the one hand may use symbols which are in no way recognisable as specifically Christian, and may do so even when he wishes to portray experiences of a profoundly religious character; as reader, he can also recognise such experiences in the symbolism of the non-believer. A non-believer, on the other hand, may use Christian symbols without enabling us to attribute to him any conversion to faith. How then is one to describe the difference between believing and expressing a belief one does not share? The essential difference should be seen as resting in the attitude towards the truth of the symbol or statement of belief. In addition, at least as far as the Christian faith is concerned, there is also a moral obligation which is a consequence of faith. Furthermore, there is the sense of communion with those who embrace the same faith.

  15. Intuition, affect, and peculiar beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, M.T.; Berenbaum, H.; Topper, M.

    2012-01-01

    Research with college students has found that intuitive thinking (e.g., using hunches to ascribe meaning to experiences) and positive affect interactively predict ideas of reference and odd/magical beliefs. We investigated whether these results would generalize to a diverse community sample of

  16. Heterogeneous Beliefs and Climate Catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study how heterogeneous beliefs about the causes and extent of global warming affect local mitigation and adaptation strategies and therefore global climate dynamics. Local policies are determined by expectations of policy makers about future climate. There are three types of expectations: strong

  17. Escaping the Tyranny of Belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswell, Albert K.; Wells, C. Leanne

    2004-01-01

    This study describes an action research case study through which the dynamics of identifying and changing strongly held assumptions illustrate the differences between experiences that serve to strengthen beliefs from those that lead to learning. Theoretical considerations are presented linking cognitive schema, action science, attribution theory,…

  18. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  19. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Orosz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theory (CT beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813: exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs.

  20. Changing Conspiracy Beliefs through Rationality and Ridiculing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Krekó, Péter; Paskuj, Benedek; Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Conspiracy theory (CT) beliefs can be harmful. How is it possible to reduce them effectively? Three reduction strategies were tested in an online experiment using general and well-known CT beliefs on a comprehensive randomly assigned Hungarian sample (N = 813): exposing rational counter CT arguments, ridiculing those who hold CT beliefs, and empathizing with the targets of CT beliefs. Several relevant individual differences were measured. Rational and ridiculing arguments were effective in reducing CT, whereas empathizing with the targets of CTs had no effect. Individual differences played no role in CT reduction, but the perceived intelligence and competence of the individual who conveyed the CT belief-reduction information contributed to the success of the CT belief reduction. Rational arguments targeting the link between the object of belief and its characteristics appear to be an effective tool in fighting conspiracy theory beliefs. PMID:27790164

  1. Rare tradition of the folk medicinal use of Aconitum spp. is kept alive in Solčavsko, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povšnar, Marija; Koželj, Gordana; Kreft, Samo; Lumpert, Mateja

    2017-08-08

    Aconitum species are poisonous plants that have been used in Western medicine for centuries. In the nineteenth century, these plants were part of official and folk medicine in the Slovenian territory. According to current ethnobotanical studies, folk use of Aconitum species is rarely reported in Europe. The purpose of this study was to research the folk medicinal use of Aconitum species in Solčavsko, Slovenia; to collect recipes for the preparation of Aconitum spp., indications for use, and dosing; and to investigate whether the folk use of aconite was connected to poisoning incidents. In Solčavsko, a remote alpine area in northern Slovenia, we performed semi-structured interviews with 19 informants in Solčavsko, 3 informants in Luče, and two retired physicians who worked in that area. Three samples of homemade ethanolic extracts were obtained from informants, and the concentration of aconitine was measured. In addition, four extracts were prepared according to reported recipes. All 22 informants knew of Aconitum spp. and their therapeutic use, and 5 of them provided a detailed description of the preparation and use of "voukuc", an ethanolic extract made from aconite roots. Seven informants were unable to describe the preparation in detail, since they knew of the extract only from the narration of others or they remembered it from childhood. Most likely, the roots of Aconitum tauricum and Aconitum napellus were used for the preparation of the extract, and the solvent was homemade spirits. Four informants kept the extract at home; two extracts were prepared recently (1998 and 2015). Three extracts were analyzed, and 2 contained aconitine. Informants reported many indications for the use of the extract; it was used internally and, in some cases, externally as well. The extract was also used in animals. The extract was measured in drops, but the number of drops differed among the informants. The informants reported nine poisonings with Aconitum spp., but none of

  2. The moderating role of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and posttraumatic stress symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) assumes that rational beliefs act as cognitive protective factors against the development of psychopathology; however little empirical evidence exists regarding the nature of the possible protective effects that they offer. The current study investigates whether rational beliefs moderate the impact of irrational beliefs on posttraumatic stress symptomology (PTS). Three hundred and thirteen active law enforcement, military, and related emergency service personnel took part in the current study. Sequential moderated multiple regression analysis was employed to investigate: (i) the direct impact of irrational beliefs on PTS; (ii) the direct impact of rational beliefs on PTS; (iii) the moderating effects of rational beliefs in the relationship between irrational beliefs and PTS. The irrational beliefs predicted by REBT theory emerged as critical predictors of PTS symptomology, in particular Depreciation beliefs. Rational beliefs (Preferences, and Acceptance beliefs) had a direct, negative impact on levels of PTS, and Acceptance beliefs moderated the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs on PTS. Irrational beliefs are important cognitive vulnerability factors in symptoms of PTS, while rational beliefs (Acceptance) appear to have a protective role in the emergence of PTS symptoms, both directly and by moderating the impact of Catastrophizing beliefs.

  3. Loneliness and Irrational Beliefs among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglund, Collette L.; Collison, Brooke B.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship between loneliness and irrational beliefs among 236 college students who completed the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale and the Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT). Results revealed three specific irrational beliefs (Dependency, Anxious Overconcern, and Frustration Reactivity) to be predictive of…

  4. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  5. Changing Preservice Teachers' Beliefs about Motivating Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sarah; Schreiber, Jim; Moss, Connie

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of an educational psychology course on students' beliefs about motivating students. After providing opportunities to engage in systematic intentional inquiry of their beliefs about teaching and learning, we expected that students' beliefs would become more soundly based in theory and research. Following several classes on…

  6. Revising incompletely specified convex probabilistic belief bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for an agent to revise its incomplete probabilistic beliefs when a new piece of propositional information is observed. In this work, an agent’s beliefs are represented by a set of probabilistic formulae – a belief base...

  7. Between orality and literacy: parallelism and repetition in Russian folk epics and their challenge to translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Moroni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0mm 5.4pt 0mm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0mm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Oral narratives have been relatively neglected by Translation studies, for the oral as such is hard to capture in writing without losing significant elements. In this paper I will focus on certain aspects and features of oral composition displayed as signs of the complex relationship between orality and literacy. In particular, I will present a series of problems involved in the translation of Russian oral epics in English and Italian. I will explore the specific kind of interference the style of the Russian folk poems (meant to be performed has created in the translated texts. The relationship between these two semiotic systems – oral and written – produces an intricate connection of different stylistic norms in the translation, resulting in a transfer of oral devices into the translated written text. Through an analysis of translations of Russian epics in Italian and English, I will show how this transfer is realized in English and Italian, and how orality has influenced translation strategies.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of four medicinal plants widely used in Persian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Commiphora habessinica (O.Berg Engl. (Burseraceae, Boswellia sacra Flueck (Burseraceae, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae, and Doronicum glaciale (Wulfen Nyman (Asteraceae are of ethnomedicinal importance in Persian folk medicine and are widely used to treat infectious diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of these herbal medicines to prevent misadministration. Methods: Antifungal and antibacterial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative activities of the petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol fractions obtained from oleo-gum-resin of C. habessinica and B. sacra, spathe of P. dactylifera and roots of D. glaciale were evaluated against standard species and clinical antibiotic resistant isolates using broth microdilution method. The fractions were tested at concentrations of 0.5 to 256 µg/mL.Results: The petroleum ether fraction of C. habessinica oleo-gum-resin exhibited the most anti-Candida activity with MIC50 of 0.5-16 µg/mL. The growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis was inhibited by the ethanol fraction of C. habessinica oleo-gum-resin with MIC50 of 1-16 μg/mL. C. glabrata was the most susceptible species. Among the tested fractions, only the petroleum ether fraction of C. habessinica oleo-gum-resin had an inhibitory effect on Aspergillus spp. with a MIC50 of 8-32 µg/mL. None of the fractions exhibited antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at concentrations of 0.5 to 256 µg/mL. Conclusions: The sensitivity of fungi and bacteria to natural antimicrobials varies widely within species and it is essential to consider the sensitivity of the strains to prevent resistance.

  9. Interaction of folk medicinal plant extracts with human alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Ammar; Engström, Mia; Wurster, Siegfried; Savola, Juha-Matti; Pihlaja, Kalevi

    2002-01-01

    Forty-two extracts of folk medicinal plant organs from Pakistan were tested in competition binding assays for their interaction with the specific ligand recognition sites on the human alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes alpha2A, alpha2B and alpha2C Strong binding of the extracts (40 mg/ml) from Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile leaves (88-98% displacement of radiolabel) and Peganum harmala seeds (89-96% displacement) on three subtypes prompted us to extract these plant materials with 40% and 80% methanol, ethanol, and acetone. The extraction results indicated an absence of alpha2-adrenoceptor binding activity in the stalk of A. nilotica and A. tortils, whereas the leaves of both plants contained activity. The extracts of A. nilotica leaves showed a slight, but consistent, preference for the alpha2C-adrenoceptor, whereas the leaves of A. tortils were slightly more active on the alpha2B subtype. The extract of P. harmala stalks was less active than that of its seeds. The binding activities of A. nilotica leaves and P. harmala seeds were mainly concentrated in the water and 30% methanol fractions and further sub-fractions. In a functional activity assay, the active fractions inhibited epinephrine-stimulated 35S-GTPyS binding, thus indicating a predominantly antagonistic nature of the compounds with alpha2-adrenoceptor affinity in these fractions. Among the known major alkaloids of P. harmala (demissidine, harmaline, harmine, 6-methoxyharmalan, and norharmane), only 6-methoxyharmalan showed moderate affinity (dissociation constant (Ki) of 530 +/- 40 nm for alpha2A subtype). This study is a first systematic attempt towards the discovery of potential drug candidates from these plant materials for treating alpha2-adrenoceptor related diseases.

  10. Some Phonetic Phenomena in the Central Podillia Dialect (Based on the Terminology of Traditional Folk Crafts

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    Kraievska Hanna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the reviewed paper we attempted to investigate the phonetic variation of the Central Podillia dialect on the example of some linguistic phenomena. We found out that many linguists studied the phonetic variation based on the Ukrainians' dialect speech. However, they did not study the terminology of folk crafts of the Central Podillia dialects, that's why we aim to describe the sound differences of the lexical units of this area. Purpose: The purpose of the analysis is to determine some phonetic phenomena of the Central Podillia dialect. First of all, there are changes within the stable word length (metathesis, substantive changes of one sound in the stable surround sound, and changes, accompanied by the word elongation or contraction (prosthesis, epenthesis, elision. Results: The analyzed dialects widely present the consonant changes within the stable word length (г → ґ, т → д, с → ш, з → ж…. The performed study characterizes the Central Podillia dialects by the vowel change within a stable word length – 5 cases. Sound changes are typical for the analyzed dialects affecting the dynamics of the word length (prosthetic sounds - [г], [в], [й], [і], [и]. In opposition to the phonetic processes that help to increase the length of the word, we observe the loss of the sound in the middle of the word in the Central Podillia dialects (reduction – [o], [й], [в]. Discussion: The analysis of some phonetic phenomena of the Central Podillia dialects proved the existence of phonetic features typical for the South-Western dialect. However, we determined the local sound differences of this area, which confirm the identity of the language of this region.

  11. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF GIFTED STUDENTS FROM CARPATHIAN MOUNTAIN AREAS BY MEANS OF FOLK ART CRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kozlovska

    2015-04-01

    talents is important for everyone who may take a little thought about the prospect of human development. The practicability of folk art crafts, as a means of developing skills and creativity of students, use is substantiated.

  12. Belief in complementary and alternative medicine is related to age and paranormal beliefs in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bulck, Jan; Custers, Kathleen

    2010-04-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread, even among people who use conventional medicine. Positive beliefs about CAM are common among physicians and medical students. Little is known about the beliefs regarding CAM among the general public. Among science students, belief in CAM was predicted by belief in the paranormal. In a cross-sectional study, 712 randomly selected adults (>18 years old) responded to the CAM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ) and a paranormal beliefs scale. CAM beliefs were very prevalent in this sample of adult Flemish men and women. Zero-order correlations indicated that belief in CAM was associated with age (r = 0.173 P belief (r = 0.365 P beliefs. Support for CAM increased with age (regression coefficient: 0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.006 to 0.014), but the strongest relationship existed between support for CAM and beliefs in the paranormal. Paranormal beliefs accounted for 14% of the variance of the CAM beliefs (regression coefficient: 0.376; 95%: CI 0.30-0.44). The level of education (regression coefficient: 0.06; 95% CI: -0.014-0.129) and social desirability (regression coefficient: -0.023; 95% CI: -0.048-0.026) did not make a significant contribution to the explained variance (beliefs were strongly associated with paranormal beliefs.

  13. [Icelanders' beliefs about medicines. Use of BMQ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsdottir, Hlif; Johannsson, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    To study beliefs held by the general public in Iceland about medicines. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire was used to explore Icelanders' beliefs about medicines. A sample of 1500 Icelandic citizens, aged 18-75, obtained from the Social Science Research Insti-tute was given The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. The response rate was 61.6%. Most Icelanders have positive beliefs about their medication as well as general trust. Those who suffer from chronic diseases are more positive towards medicines than others and less inclined to view them as excessively used and harmful. Higher level of education predicts more positive beliefs towards medication - and vice versa. Gender and age do not seem to affect such beliefs. Gaining a better understanding of people´s beliefs about medicines and what determines these beliefs can be of considerable value in the search for ways to improve therapy and adherence, espe-cially for those suffering from chronic diseases. Promoting education for the general public about medicines might result in less mis-understanding among patients and subsequently better grounded -beliefs and more adequate therapeutic adherence. Key words: beliefs, medicines, Icelanders, BMQ, survey. Correspondence: Hlif Vilhelmsdottir, hlif84@gmail.com.

  14. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrear, Siba E; Birch, Susan A J; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or 'theory of mind (ToM).' Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan.

  15. Outcome knowledge and false belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siba eGhrear

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind’. Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge. In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of theory of mind. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan.

  16. Belief bias and relational reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maxwell J; Sykes, Elizabeth D A

    2003-01-01

    When people evaluate categorical syllogisms, they tend to reject unbelievable conclusions and accept believable ones irrespective of their validity. Typically, this effect is particularly marked for invalid conclusions that are possible, but do not necessarily follow, given the premises. However, smaller believability effects can also be detected for other types of conclusion. Three experiments are reported here, in which an attempt was made to determine whether belief bias effects can manifest themselves on the relational inference task. Subjects evaluated the validity of conclusions such as William the Conqueror was king after the Pyramids were built (temporal task) or Manchester is north of Bournemouth (spatial task) with respect to their premises. All of the major findings for equivalent categorical syllogism tasks were replicated. However, the overall size of the main effect of believability appears to be related to task presentation, a phenomenon not previously identified for categorical syllogisms and which current theories of belief bias have difficulty explaining.

  17. Names in Estonian Folk Astronomy - from 'Bird's Way' to 'Milky Way'

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Kuperjanov

    2002-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the different names for the Milky Way and the accompanying beliefs and myths, based on the material in the Estonian Folklore Archives. Astronomically speaking, the Milky Way is a big stellar system – a galaxy. All stellar systems of similar type are called galaxies. Our sun is a fairly common star, lying at the outskirts of the Galaxy. The core of the Galaxy is located in the Sagittarius Constellation where the Milky Way is widest and brightest, but i...

  18. Instrumenting Beliefs in Threshold Public Goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Angela C M; Spraggon, John M; Denny, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal impact of beliefs on contributions in Threshold Public Goods (TPGs) is particularly important since the social optimum can be supported as a Nash Equilibrium and best-response contributions are a function of beliefs. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of beliefs on behavior are plagued with endogeneity concerns. We create a set of instruments by cleanly and exogenously manipulating beliefs without deception. Tests indicate that the instruments are valid and relevant. Perhaps surprisingly, we fail to find evidence that beliefs are endogenous in either the one-shot or repeated-decision settings. TPG allocations are determined by a base contribution and beliefs in a one shot-setting. In the repeated-decision environment, once we instrument for first-round allocations, we find that second-round allocations are driven equally by beliefs and history. Moreover, we find that failing to instrument prior decisions overstates their importance.

  19. Outcome knowledge and false belief

    OpenAIRE

    Siba eGhrear; Susan eBirch; Daniel eBernstein

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind’. Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of theory of mind. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closi...

  20. Combining partially independent belief functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chebbah, Mouna; Martin, Arnaud; Ben Yaghlane, Boutheina

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The theory of belief functions manages uncertainty and also proposes a set of combination rules to aggregate opinions of several sources. Some combination rules mix evidential information where sources are independent; other rules are suited to combine evidential information held by dependent sources. In this paper we have two main contributions: First we suggest a method to quantify sources' degree of independence that may guide the choice of the more appropriate set ...

  1. Time, the multiverse and belief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elaine; Donegan, D. P.; Jeynes, Chris

    2009-10-01

    I read with interest Leonard Susskind's article on "Darwin's legacy" (July pp42-45) and how these ideas relate to cosmology. I agree with Susskind that the idea of a "cosmic watchmaker" is not science - it is faith and belief expressed via religion. However, it seems to me that a multiverse of mutating universes is not strictly science either, because it is, and probably always will be, untestable.

  2. Information integration using belief functions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A. G. (Alyson G.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the use of belief functions (also known as Dempster-Shafer methods) in statistical reliability problems. Starting from the standard Bayesian model for estimating the survival probability in a binomial model, the problem is changed slightly to introduce indirect information. A Bayesian and a Dempster-Shafer approach are proposed for the new problem. The basic properties of the Dempster-Shafer method are discussed, along with connections to the theory of random sets.

  3. Plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in Norway and some other European countries: xenophobic tales or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2015-10-05

    In their quest to understand and interpret nature, people have frequently sought religious or divine origins for plant species and their characteristics. Less often, historical events or persons are involved. This study comprises eleven cases of the latter kind, all claiming that plant species have been introduced by foreigners or at least from foreign lands. Based on literature data and a few cases recorded during my own ethnobotanical field work, eleven European examples of pseudo-historical plant origins are presented here, including Cakile maritima, Cicuta virosa, Lathyrus japonicus, Leymus arenarius, Primula vulgaris, and Scopolia carniolica in Norway, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum in Denmark, Phoenix dactylifera and P. theophrastii in Greece, and Jacobaea vulgaris in Scotland. The only common trait in these stories is that foreigner or at least foreign lands are claimed as sources of the plant species. In most cases, the "historical" explanations given in folk tradition are demonstrably at odds with reality. In those cases that involve poisonous or potentially harmful species (Cicuta virosa, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum, Jacobaea vulgaris), or the "useless" Phoenix theophrastii, with its inedible fruits, the stories may be interpreted as xenophobic, blaming foreigners for introducing dangerous or worthless species. The remaining examples merely suggest a search for exotic and seemingly rational, if erroneous, origins for plant species and stands that people considered strange and unusual. The spreading vectors assumed in folk tradition are correct and well documented, e.g. ship cargos (including goods and packing materials), which are responsible for introducing ballast plants and other anthropochores, and wartime activities, introducing a broad range of species (polemochores). They do not, however, apply to the species included in this study, which are either indigenous plants or introduced ornamentals. The foreigners appearing

  4. The Woman as Wolf (AT 409): Some Interpretations of a Very Estonian Folk Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Merili Metsvahi

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses tale type The Woman as Wolf, which is one of the most popular folk tales in the Estonian Folklore Archives and is represented there both in the form of a fairy tale and in the form of a legend. The vast majority of the versions of The Woman as Wolf were written down in the first part of the 20th century within Estonia and where recorded from Estonians. The article introduces the content of the tale, the origin of the first records from the early 19th century, and the diss...

  5. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Raynner R D; Souto, Wedson de M S; Mourão, José da S

    2007-09-07

    The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary) by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings) as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years) although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries), pigs (Sus scrofa), cattle (Bos taurus), and foxes (Cerdocyon thous) were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even mentioned. Fat from various animals constituted

  6. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da S Mourão José

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries, pigs (Sus scrofa, cattle (Bos taurus, and foxes (Cerdocyon thous were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana, chickens (Gallus domesticus, and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even

  7. ”Elveland” – Irony and Laughter as Power Media in Sea Sámi Folk-Song Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lill Tove Fredriksen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a literary analysis of the satirical Sámi folk-song ”Elveland”. The song about about the road man, forester and river attendant Elveland on the west side of the municipality of Porsanger was made in the beginning of the 1900s, as a form of revenge on the part of the local community because he would not let them cut as much firewood as they needed. With irony as an important device, the text serves as a meeting point for dialogues between different voices, and where power relations and the political nature of cultural identity is revealed.

  8. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  9. Christian Belief and Religious Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN ROŞCA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This section of the Osica de Sus commune monograph - Puterea rădăcinilor - The Roots Power, authors: Constantin Roşca - university profesor (coordinator, Ion Sîrbu - preuniversitary teacher, and Ion Paul Popescu - sociologist et al., Craiova, Editura Universitaria, 2009, emphasizes the main elements which characterize Christian belief, religious spirit and the religious feelings of the people in the commune. It underlines the religious traditions, the Christian customs and festivities and presents the worship places (churches and distinct religious communities, such as the Adventist community in the commune.

  10. Graduates beliefs about career management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Lepa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Career management is increasingly becoming an individuals' matter, despite the various activities organized by the different institutions to support career development and planning. An exploratory survey was conducted to determine what kind of beliefs graduates have about career management. Results indicate that graduates are aware of the importance of university knowledge for getting a job, the importance of knowledge and investment in education for positioning in the labor market, so they give priority to development opportunities that business brings opposed to the material rewards.

  11. INVESTIGATING GENDER INFLUENCE ON LANGUAGE LEARNING BELIEFS

    OpenAIRE

    Sajid Iqbal; Liu Yongbing

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that examines undergraduate English as second language (ESL) students’ English learning beliefs, language anxiety and learning outcome in a university of Pakistan. As a pilot of the study, this paper uses Horwitz’s Belief about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) to collect data from 404 undergraduate ESL students, and explores the effects of gender on Pakistani undergraduate ESL students’ English language learning beliefs. The results indicate that males an...

  12. Jinn and psychiatry: Beliefs among (muslim) doctors

    OpenAIRE

    Uvais, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The belief that jinn can cause mental illness in human through afflictions or possession is widely accepted among Muslims. Belief about jinn in Muslim medical professionals, especially medical doctors has not been studied till date. Aim: To explore the belief among Muslim doctors regarding jinn and psychiatry. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among Muslim doctors using a study questionnaire. Results: Majority of the participants believed in the existence...

  13. Toxicants in folk remedies: implications of elevated blood lead in an American-born infant due to imported diaper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Mateusz P; Morman, Suzette A; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D

    2017-10-01

    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13-18 mcg/dL, reference level powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant's venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.

  14. Belief Contexts and Epistemic Possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hylarie Kochiras

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although epistemic possibility figures in several debates, those debates have had relatively little contact with one another. G. E. Moore focused squarely upon analyzing epistemic uses of the phrase, ‘It’s possible that p’, and in doing so he made two fundamental assumptions. First, he assumed that epistemic possibility statements always express the epistemic position of a community, as opposed to that of an individual speaker. Second, he assumed that all epistemic uses of ‘It’s possible that p’ are analyzable in terms of knowledge, not belief. A number of later theorists, including Keith DeRose, provide alternative accounts of epistemic possibility, while retaining Moore’s two assumptions. Neither assumption has been explicitly challenged, but Jaakko Hintikka’s analysis provides a basis for doing so. Drawing upon Hintikka’s analysis, I argue that some epistemic possibility statements express only the speaker’s individual epistemic state, and that contra DeRose, they are not degenerate community statements but a class in their own right. I further argue that some linguistic contexts are belief- rather than knowledge-based, and in such contexts, what is possible for a speaker depends not upon what she knows, but upon what she believes.

  15. Pre-Service Teachers' Personal Epistemic Beliefs and the Beliefs They Assume Their Pupils to Have

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Karin; Schloemer, Tobias; Berding, Florian; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In their workaday life, teachers are faced with multiple complex tasks. How they carry out these tasks is also influenced by their epistemic beliefs and the beliefs they assume their pupils hold. In an empirical study, pre-service teachers' epistemic beliefs and those they assume of their pupils were investigated in the setting of teacher…

  16. "Are All Beliefs Equal?" Investigating the Nature and Determinants of Parental Attitudinal Beliefs towards Educational Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosu, Edward M.; Rydzewska, Ewelina

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the nature of parental attitudinal beliefs towards educational inclusion and the factors that determine these beliefs. Participants were drawn from the Growing Up in Scotland Survey (N = 2200). Results indicate that majority of parents held positive generalised belief towards including children with additional support needs…

  17. Bartók’s Attempt at Cooperation with the State Institute for Folk Song in Czechoslovakia and Its Political Connotations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Jarmila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2016), s. 73-90 ISSN 0018-7003 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Béla Bartók (1881-1945) * Leoš Janáček (1854-1928) * Jiří Horák (1884-1975) * State Institute for Folk Song (Státní ústav pro lidovou píseň) * collecting folk music * politics in music * Czech - Hungarian culture and political relations Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. Criminalising defamation of religion and belief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorloos, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the role of criminal law in dealing with defamatory expressions about religion or belief. Defamation of religion and belief is a form of indirect defamation ‘via identification’ which, as the discussion about the Dutch group defamation law shows, stretches up the notion of

  19. Are Teacher Beliefs Gender-Related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker - de Pauw, Emmy; van Wesel, F.; Verwijmeren, Thijs; Denessen, Eddie; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  20. Beliefs and perceptions about Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has assumed a disease of epidemic dimension both in Nigeria's rural and urban communities. Different people have varying knowledge and beliefs about this disease. This study was designed to assess the beliefs and perceptions of the people of Ihugh community in that ...

  1. Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden

    The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

  2. Beliefs and Emotions in Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragao, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    From the argument that in languaging worlds are created (Aragao, 2005; Kalaja, 1995, 2003; Maturana and Varela, 2001; Nunez, 1997), this article aims at reflecting about the relationship between emotions and beliefs in foreign language learning. It is argued that beliefs and emotions in language learning/teaching are inter-related and can be…

  3. Are teacher beliefs gender-related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker-Pauw, E. de; Wesel, F. van; Verwijmeren, T.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Krabbendam, L.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  4. The role of beliefs in teacher agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesta, Gert; Priestley, Mark; Robinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    that beliefs play an important role in teachers’ work, an apparent mismatch between teachers’ individual beliefs and values and wider institutional discourses and cultures, and a relative lack of a clear and robust professional vision of the purposes of education indicate that the promotion of teacher agency...

  5. A new approach to probabilistic belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One way for an agent to deal with uncertainty about its beliefs is to maintain a probability distribution over the worlds it believes are possible. A belief change operation may recommend some previously believed worlds to become impossible and some...

  6. Teachers' Beliefs and Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Siebrich; van de Grift, Wim J. C. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Teachers' continuing professional development (CPD) should improve teacher quality and teaching practices, though teachers vary in the extent to which they participate in CPD activities. Because beliefs influence working and learning, and teachers' beliefs about learning and teaching influence their instructional decisions, this study…

  7. Rationality and Belief in Learning Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that rationality and belief are mutually formative dimensions of school mathematics, where each term is more politically embedded than often depicted in the field of mathematics education research. School mathematics then presents not so much rational mathematical thought distorted by irrational beliefs but rather a particular…

  8. Does Education Cause Spiritual Belief Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, D. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Currently, little is known about the influence classroom learning has on the spiritual beliefs of students. Despite this fact, decisions on educational policy, parental home schooling, and even whether to bring legal actions against school districts, often rest on the assumption that education can induce spiritual belief change. To begin the…

  9. Investigating Teachers' Personal Visions and Beliefs: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Visions and beliefs are assumed to always shape his/her perception, attitude, focus and performance. The growing influence of constructivism in teacher education and the increase in the amount of research into teacher cognition has put the notion of beliefs and vision into central focus such that it is fast becoming a ...

  10. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....

  11. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways...

  12. Empowering Student Leadership Beliefs: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Kadolph, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    Leadership beliefs contribute to behaviors and attitudes. The purposes for conducting this study were 1) to gain an understanding of undergraduate students' leadership beliefs, 2) to implement three distinct leadership modules into an introductory textiles and clothing course, and 3) to assess the modules' effectiveness in promoting empowering…

  13. Non-Scientific Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2012-01-01

    A survey of over 11 000 undergraduate students' knowledge and attitudes related to science and technology over a 22-year period included statements that probed faith-based beliefs and various aspects of pseudoscience belief and superstition. The results reveal that nonscientific ways of thinking are resistant to formal instruction, changing…

  14. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  15. Advanced EFL Learners' Beliefs about Pronunciation Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Sharif M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores EFL learners' beliefs about English pronunciation teaching and aims to provide insights into current teaching practices of English pronunciation at both college and university levels. To this end, the study sought to elicit the beliefs of a group of 71 third- and fourth-year EFL learners majoring in English at a university…

  16. Equilibria in social belief removal [Journal article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In studies of multi-agent interaction, especially in game theory, the notion of equilibrium often plays a prominent role. A typical scenario for the belief merging problem is one in which several agents pool their beliefs together to form a...

  17. Belief in an Afterlife: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Bolin, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    Examined factors affecting belief in afterlife. Data from 1978 subfile on National Opinion Research Center's General Social Survey showed that, controlling on frequency of church attendance and religious intensity, Protestants had highest incidence of belief in life after death, followed by Catholics, and then by Jews. Race, religion, and church…

  18. The Hot Hand Belief and Framing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport--where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance--indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and…

  19. Double preference relations for generalised belief change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many belief change formalisms employ plausibility orderings over the set of possible worlds to determine how the beliefs of an agent ought to be modified after the receipt of a new epistemic input. While most such possible world semantics rely on a...

  20. Horn belief change: A contraction core

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors show that Booth et al.’s Horn contraction based on infra-remainder sets corresponds exactly to kernel contraction for belief sets. This result is obtained via a detour through Horn contraction for belief bases, which supports...

  1. Cultural Beliefs about Autism in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riany, Yulina Eva; Cuskelly, Monica; Meredith, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Cultural beliefs about parenting have an important influence on parenting behaviours, including considerations about appropriate ways to parent children with autism. Although Indonesia has one of the largest and most ethnically diverse populations in the world, little is known about cultural beliefs regarding children with autism within Indonesian…

  2. Using Bayesian belief networks in adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Nyberg; B.G. Marcot; R. Sulyma

    2006-01-01

    Bayesian belief and decision networks are relatively new modeling methods that are especially well suited to adaptive-management applications, but they appear not to have been widely used in adaptive management to date. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) can serve many purposes for practioners of adaptive management, from illustrating system relations conceptually to...

  3. True happiness: The role of morality in the folk concept of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; De Freitas, Julian; Mott, Christian; Gruber, June; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    Recent scientific research has settled on a purely descriptive definition of happiness that is focused solely on agents' psychological states (high positive affect, low negative affect, high life satisfaction). In contrast to this understanding, recent research has suggested that the ordinary concept of happiness is also sensitive to the moral value of agents' lives. Five studies systematically investigate and explain the impact of morality on ordinary assessments of happiness. Study 1 demonstrates that moral judgments influence assessments of happiness not only for untrained participants, but also for academic researchers and even in those who study happiness specifically. Studies 2 and 3 then respectively ask whether this effect may be explained by general motivational biases or beliefs in a just world. In both cases, we find evidence against these explanations. Study 4 shows that the impact of moral judgments cannot be explained by changes in the perception of descriptive psychological states. Finally, Study 5 compares the impact of moral and nonmoral value, and provides evidence that unlike nonmoral value, moral value is part of the criteria that govern the ordinary concept of happiness. Taken together, these studies provide a specific explanation of how and why the ordinary concept of happiness deviates from the definition used by researchers studying happiness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Folk Narratives and the Reflection of (UTU Humanness in Shaaban Robert Adili na Nduzuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Madoshi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the novel Adili na Nduguze by Shaaban Robert. It seeks to explain how humanness is embedded in the plot of this prose fiction. The study uses Utu/Ubuntu as a theory of analyzing and explaining the events and the actions within this novel. The focus of the paper is to explore the plot of the novel in order to see how it reflects humanness (Utu/Ubuntu as it is perceived among the Bantu. The analysis is done by examining the reason of characters appellation and the author attention to diction which shows how royal characters intervene a conflict within this creative work. Also the study examines the novel in order to provide an account of the ontological conflict of two opposing beliefs in which a city is turned into stones (Mji Uliogeuka Mawe. Lastly, the paper attempts to inspect and explain reasons why Hasidi and Mwivu, Adili two brothers are turned into baboons, subjected to severe whipping from Adili and the cause of the removal of the curse placed upon them which subsequently makes them humans again.

  5. Journalism as Justified True Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Lisboa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available If it is important to think of journalism as a form of knowledge, then how does it become knowledge? How does this process work? In order to answer this question, this article proposes a new understanding of journalism as a subject; presenting it as a justified true belief. We think of journalism being based on pillars of truth and justification, conditions necessary in order for Epistemology to grant it the status of knowledge. We address the concept of truth and show how journalistic reports are justified to the public as well as consider the central role of credibility in this process. We add to the epistemic conception by using concepts of discourse that help to understand how journalism provides evidence through its intentions, its authority and its ability. This evidence acts like a guide for the reader towards forming opinions on journalistic reports and recognizing journalism as a form of knowledge.

  6. Diabetes screening anxiety and beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Davies, M. J.; Farooqi, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: This study assesses the impact of screening for diabetes on anxiety levels in an ethnically mixed population in the UK, and explores whether beliefs about Type 2 diabetes account for these anxiety levels. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited individuals who were identified at high...... risk of developing diabetes through general practitioners' (GPs) lists or through public media recruitment. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Between blood tests, participants completed the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale Short Form, the Emotional Stability Scale of the Big...... amounts of anxiety at screening (mean 35.2; SD = 11.6). There was no significant effect of family history of diabetes, ethnic group or recruitment method on anxiety. The only variable significantly associated (negatively) with anxiety was the personality trait of emotional stability. Of responders, 64...

  7. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-11-21

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Indonesian teachers' epistemological beliefs and inclusive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Kieron; Budiyanto; Kaye, Helen; Rofiah, Khofidotur

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of children with intellectual disabilities attend inclusive schools in Indonesia. Previous research has suggested that teachers' type of school and experience influences their beliefs about inclusive education. This research collected questionnaire data from 267 Indonesian teachers and compared the responses from those working in inclusive, special and regular schools regarding their epistemological and pedagogical beliefs. The results showed that teachers in inclusive schools expressed stronger social constructivist beliefs than those in other schools. However, it was teachers' epistemological beliefs, rather than their type of school or experience, which were the significant predictor of their beliefs about inclusive education. The findings suggest that international epistemological research needs to have a more nuanced view of constructivist models of learning to better understand and inform how inclusive pedagogy is being enacted in different contexts.

  9. ENGLISH FOLK BALLADS COLLECTED BY CECIL JAMES SHARP IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS: GENESIS, TRANSFORMATION AND UKRAINIAN PARALLELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Karbashevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research, presented at the Conference sectional meeting, is to trace peculiarities of transformation of British folk medieval ballads, which were brought to the Southern Appalachians in the east of the USA by British immigrants at the end of the XVIIIth – beginning of the XIXth century and retained by their descendants, through analyzing certain texts on the levels of motifs, dramatis personae, composition, style and artistic means, as well as to outline relevant Ukrainian parallels. The analysis of such ballads, plot types and epic songs was carried out: 1 British № 10: “The Twa Sisters” (21 variants; American “The Two Sisters”(5 variants and Ukrainian plot type I – C-5: “the elder sister drowns the younger one because of envy and jealousy” (8 variants; 2 British № 26: The Three Ravens” (2, “The Twa Corbies” (2; American “The Three Ravens” (1, “The Two Crows”(1 and Ukrainian epic songs with the motif of lonely death of a Cossack warrior on the steppe (4. In our study British traditional ballads are classified according to the grouping worked out by the American scholar Francis Child (305 numbers, Ukrainian folk ballads – the plot-thematic catalogue developed by the Ukrainian folklorist Оleksiy Dey (here 288 plots are divided into 3 spheres, cycles and plot types. The investigation and comparison of the above indicated texts witness such main tendencies: 1 the American counterparts, collected in the Appalachian Mountains, preserve the historic-national memory and cultural heritage of the British immigrant bearers on the level of leading motifs, dramatis personae, composition peculiarities, traditional medieval images, epithets, similes, commonplaces; 2 some motifs, characters, images, artistic means, archaic and dialectal English of the Child ballads are reduced or substituted in the Appalachian texts; 3 realism of American ballad transformations, which overshadows fantasy and

  10. Test Performance Related Dysfunctional Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep TÜTÜNCÜ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Examinations by using tests are very frequently used in educational settings and successful studying before the examinations is a complex matter to deal with. In order to understand the determinants of success in exams better, we need to take into account not only emotional and motivational, but also cognitive aspects of the participants such as dysfunctional beliefs. Our aim is to present the relationship between candidates’ characteristics and distorted beliefs/schemata just before an examination. Method: The subjects of the study were 30 female and 30 male physicians who were about to take the medical specialization exam (MSE in Turkey. Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS and Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form (YSQ-SF were applied to the subjects. The statistical analysis was done using the F test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square test and spearman’s correlation test. Results: It was shown that some of the DAS and YSQ-SF scores were significantly higher in female gender, in the group who could not pass the exam, who had repetitive examinations, who had their first try taking an examination and who were unemployed at the time of the examination. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that candidates seeking help before MSE examination could be referred for cognitive therapy or counseling even they do not have any psychiatric diagnosis due to clinically significant cognitive distortion. Measurement and treatment of cognitive distortions that have negative impact on MSE performance may improve the cost-effectiveness and mental well being of the young doctors.

  11. Child Grooming and Sexual Exploitation: Are South Asian Men the UK Media’s New Folk Devils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha K Gill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2012, nine men from the Rochdale area of Manchester were found guilty of sexually exploiting a number of underage girls. Media reporting on the trial focused on the fact that eight of the men were of Pakistani descent, while all the girls were white. Framing similar cases in Preston, Rotherham, Derby, Shropshire, Oxford, Telford and Middlesbrough as ethnically motivated, the media incited moral panic over South Asian grooming gangs preying on white girls. While these cases shed light on the broader problem of sexual exploitation in Britain, they also reveal continuing misconceptions that stereotype South Asian men as ‘natural’ perpetrators of these crimes due to culturally-specific notions of hegemonic masculinity. Examining newspaper coverage from 2012 to 2013, this article discusses the discourse of the British media’s portrayal of South Asian men as perpetrators of sexual violence against white victims, inadvertently construing ‘South Asian men’ as ‘folk devils’.

  12. Beyond food and medicine, but necessary for life, too: other folk plant uses in several territories of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Airy; Garnatje, Teresa; Bonet, M Àngels; Carrió, Esperança; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Rigat, Montse; Vallès, Joan

    2016-06-17

    Ethnobotanical academic research, particularly in European industrialised countries, has been, and is, mostly focused on folk uses of food and medicinal plants. Nevertheless, other uses, as may well be supposed, account for a significant portion of these folk uses. In the Catalan linguistic domain, a considerable amount of ethnobotanical work has been produced, but to date almost nothing has been published on these other plant uses. We basically used the method of semistructured interviews to collect data on names, knowledge and use of plants in the above-mentioned fields from 759 informants in three Catalonian (Alt Empordà, Montseny and Ripollès) and two Balearic (Formentera and Mallorca) areas. We identified the plants quoted by the informants and prepared herbarium vouchers. We analysed and compared the results obtained. Information has been collected on 401 genera, 552 species, 81 subspecies and four varieties, belonging to 122 families, totalling 4137 use reports for popular non-food and non-medicinal uses (classified in 14 modalities), and designated with 1303 folk Catalan names. The informant consensus factor is 0.87, accounting for a consistent and robust dataset. Contrarily to what could be thought a priori, and irrespective of the fact that some uses are declining or changing, non-medicinal and non-food folk plant uses strongly persist in the territories considered, are highly considered by their practitioners, and may even imply some economic revenues.

  13. On The Folk Customs of Huazhao Festival Which Is a Kind Of Intangible Cultural Heritage and its Modern Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Huazhao Festival is a traditional one that is celebrated in early spring and appeals to both highbrows and lowbrows. Once, it was as significant as Lantern Festival and Mid-autumn Festival. Ever since Tang Dynasty, it has undergone stages of emerging, thriving, declining and restoring. Originally, people only had a spring outing enjoying beautiful flowers at this festival; later, various other folk activities were also carried out on this day, including catching butterflies, picking wild vegetables, offering sacrifices to gods, predicting bumper and poor harvest, fastening strips of red cloth to stems of flowers and trees (shang hong, having competitions on grass, encouraging agriculture, holding and attending banquets, writing articles, paying court and so on. These activities demonstrated such characteristics of the national culture of China as elegance, harmony and life-friendliness. Obviously different from other traditional festivals like Spring Festival, Mid-autumn Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, etc, Huazhao Festival has unique style and value. Despite its fading away from people’s life due to changes in modern society, its cultural glamour and comprehensive value still exist. Along with economic and social development and the increase of people’s spiritual and cultural demands, Huazhao Festival has regained people’s attention. It has been restored and hosted in some regions and identified as an intangible cultural heritage. By means of literature review, the folk customs of Huazhao Festival was re-presented to some extent in this paper. Its modern values in areas including health, culture, ecology and industry were analyzed. This paper is of certain significance, in respect of conserving and inheriting this national festival, promoting its restoration in more regions in a way more approximate to historical tradition and giving play to its unique role to benefit modern society.

  14. From Suazoid to folk pottery: pottery manufacturing traditions in a changing social and cultural environment on St. Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne L. Hofman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of pottery manufacturing traditions in St Lucia, placed within the island's cultural history from pre-Columbian times up to present Afro-Caribbean folk pottery. Authors focus on manufacturing processes in different cultural traditions through history, looking at raw materials used, the shaping and finishing, decoration, and firing process. First, they sketch St Lucia's habitation history since the first Amerindian settlers in 200 AD, and evidence of pottery, which climaxed in the later Suazoid period pottery since about 1150 AD, and discuss how later European colonization and arrival of Africans contributed to the decline of Amerindian traditions, replaced by European and West African pottery traditions, although some Amerindian traditions remained. The pottery manufacturing of 3 main cultural traditions are examined, discussing differences, as well as similarities due to cultural blending: Suazoid pottery, later Amerindian Island Carib pottery, with origins in the Guianas region, related to the Kar'ina, and current St Lucian, West African-influenced, "folk pottery". Authors conclude that all 3 traditions mainly use local clay, and include hand-built and low-fired pottery. Shaping techniques include coiling, and in today's pottery also fashioning with smaller lumps. Surfaces are smooth and polished in today's pottery, but more scraped and scratched in Suazoid vessels. Further, they find that decoration is uncommon in today's pottery, while Suazoid ceramics included decorations, and that vessel shapes tend to be simple in all 3 traditions. They also find that women have been the principal potters through time, although pottery was a male activity among the Island Caribs in the mid-17th c.

  15. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Two Types of Belief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hegarty

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascriptions of belief and other doxastic propositional attitudes are commonly interpreted as quantifying over a set of possible worlds constituting doxastic alternatives for the belief experiencer. Katz (2000, 2003, 2008 has argued that belief predicates and other stative attitude predicates, along with stative predicates generally, lack a Davidsonian event argument and therefore do not report on any eventuality (event or state. Hacquard (2010, in contrast, assumes that all attitude ascriptions describe an event corresponding to the mental state of the attitude experiencer. The present investigation suggests that the strengths of doxastic predicates can be modeled by generalized quantifiers over the doxastic alternative set, permitting us to formulate and test predictions based on standard interactions of these quantifiers with negation when these ascriptions are negated. This provides a middle ground between Katz and Hacquard, whereby some belief ascriptions are interpreted as nothing more than a quantified condition over a doxastic alternative set, while others attribute a Davidsonian belief state to the experiencer. In the latter case, the condition involving quantification over doxastic alternatives is an essential content condition which serves to individuate the eventuality described by the belief report, and to identify it across possible worlds.ReferencesCappelli, G. 2007. “I reckon I know how Leonardo da Vinci must have felt...” Epistemicity, Evidentiality and English Verbs of Cognitive Attitude. Pari: Pari Publishing.Carlson, G. 1998. ‘Thematic roles and the individuation of events’. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 35–51. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Davidson, D. 1980[1967]. ‘The Logical Form of Action Sentences’. In N. Rescher (ed. ‘The Logic of Decision and Action’, 81–95. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Reprinted in Davidson, D., Essays on Actions and Events, pp. 105

  17. LinguisticBelief: a java application for linguistic evaluation using belief, fuzzy sets, and approximate reasoning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2007-03-01

    LinguisticBelief is a Java computer code that evaluates combinations of linguistic variables using an approximate reasoning rule base. Each variable is comprised of fuzzy sets, and a rule base describes the reasoning on combinations of variables fuzzy sets. Uncertainty is considered and propagated through the rule base using the belief/plausibility measure. The mathematics of fuzzy sets, approximate reasoning, and belief/ plausibility are complex. Without an automated tool, this complexity precludes their application to all but the simplest of problems. LinguisticBelief automates the use of these techniques, allowing complex problems to be evaluated easily. LinguisticBelief can be used free of charge on any Windows XP machine. This report documents the use and structure of the LinguisticBelief code, and the deployment package for installation client machines.

  18. Cartel Stability with Subjective Detection Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Hinloopen, Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    The condition is derived for Friedman 's trigger strategy to sustaina collusive market equilibrium as a noncooperative Nash equilibriumgiven subjective beliefs as to the antitrust authority's ability of suc-cesfully dissolving the illegal cartel.

  19. Descriptor revision belief change through direct choice

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical examination of how the choice of what to believe is represented in the standard model of belief change. In particular the use of possible worlds and infinite remainders as objects of choice is critically examined. Descriptors are introduced as a versatile tool for expressing the success conditions of belief change, addressing both local and global descriptor revision. The book presents dynamic descriptors such as Ramsey descriptors that convey how an agent’s beliefs tend to be changed in response to different inputs. It also explores sentential revision and demonstrates how local and global operations of revision by a sentence can be derived as a special case of descriptor revision. Lastly, the book examines revocation, a generalization of contraction in which a specified sentence is removed in a process that may possibly also involve the addition of some new information to the belief set.

  20. Recollection, belief and metacognition: a reality check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Hartmut

    2017-08-01

    Non-believed autobiographical memories [e.g. Mazzoni, G., Scoboria, A., & Harvey, L. (2010). Nonbelieved memories. Psychological Science, 21, 1334-1340] are striking examples of divergences between recollective experiences and beliefs in their correspondence to real events. After reviewing a broader range of similar phenomena, I argue that recollection-belief divergences can arise from normal, "healthy" metacognitive monitoring and control processes that balance memory recollections and reality constraints. Such validating "reality checks" draw on general world knowledge and external/social information. Importantly, changes in (perceived) reality constraints can lead to changes in memory beliefs. More generally, both recollection and (external) reality are keys to the past. In many cases, more or less automatic (System 1-type) reliance on recollection is sufficient (or memory would be useless as a system), but sometimes more elaborate (System 2-type) reality checks are needed. I conclude with some ideas about memory-driven and reality-driven recollection-belief divergences.

  1. Jinn and psychiatry: Beliefs among (muslim doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Uvais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The belief that jinn can cause mental illness in human through afflictions or possession is widely accepted among Muslims. Belief about jinn in Muslim medical professionals, especially medical doctors has not been studied till date. Aim: To explore the belief among Muslim doctors regarding jinn and psychiatry. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among Muslim doctors using a study questionnaire. Results: Majority of the participants believed in the existence of jinn and a significant proportion of the sample believed in jinn possessing humans and jinn causing mental illness in humans and recommended treatment by doctor and religious figures together for jinn afflictions. Conclusion: The belief in jinn and jinn causing mental illness are common among Muslims and remain intact even after medical education. It deserves attention from practitioners in the field of mental health care and demand strengthening of liaison between religious leaders and mental health services.

  2. Beliefs and practices in health care

    OpenAIRE

    MELGUIZO HERRERA, ESTELA; ALZATE POSADA, MARTHA LUCÍA

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to review the concepts of beliefs and practices of health care as cultural expressions in order to highlight to caregivers the necessary aspects for them to provide a culturally consistent care, a more human and effective one. From the conception of culture as a human creation which influences and shapes people's beliefs and practices, some definitions of the concepts as of social psicology, anthropology, sociology and transcultural nursing aspects are revised. We found that ...

  3. Uncertainty and the Conditioning of Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    accurately, two different conceptions. For an early hope, articulated by John Maynard Keynes (1921), was that it should be possible to define a...Under Uncertainty: Multidisciplinary Conceptions Keynes , John Maynard (1921), A Treatise on Probability, London: Macmillan. Koopman, Bernard 0. (1940...Intelligence, Data Fusion, Uncertainty of Beliefs, 18 Conditioning of Beliefs ia. PRICE CODE ’ SECU1Ir Y CLASSIFICATION I SECURRY CLASSIFICATION I 1 9 SECURITY

  4. Properties of Plausibility Conflict of Belief Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, M. (Milan)

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical contribution studies mathematical properties of plausibility conflict of belief functions. The analysis is performed for belief functions defined on 2-element frames, then the results are generalized to general finite frames. After that, an analogous analysis of Liu’s degree of conflict is presented, to enable its comparison to the plausibility conflict. To be more efficient, a simplification of formula and computation of Liu’s degree of conflict is suggested. A series of exa...

  5. Nestedness of beliefs: Examining a prospective elementary teacher's belief system about science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Lynn A.

    2003-11-01

    This study, conducted from a constructivist perspective, examined the belief system of a prospective elementary teacher (Barbara) about science teaching and learning as she developed professional knowledge within the context of reflective science teacher education. From an analysis of interviews, observation, and written documents, I constructed a profile of Barbara's beliefs that consisted of three foundational and three dualistic beliefs. Her foundational beliefs concerned (a) the value of science and science teaching, (b) the nature of scientific concepts and goals of science instruction, and (c) control in the science classroom. Barbara held dualistic beliefs about (a) how children learn science, (b) the science students' role, and (c) the science teacher's role. Her dualistic beliefs formed two contradictory nests of beliefs. One nest, grounded in lifelong science learner experiences, reflected a didactic teaching orientation and predominantly guided her practice. The second nest, not well grounded in experience, embraced a hands-on approach and predominantly guided her vision of practice. The findings accentuate the complexity and nestedness of teachers' belief systems and underscore the significance of identifying prospective teachers' beliefs, espoused and enacted, for designing teacher preparation programs.

  6. Effectiveness of Lesson Study Approach on Preservice Science Teachers' Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakar, Zeha; Turgut, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    Beliefs influence teacher decision in the classroom. Because of this reason, understanding teachers' beliefs is important. It is also critical to study teachers' beliefs who integrate science in the classroom. In this study, the effects of microteaching with lesson study approach on preservice science teachers' beliefs about learning and teaching…

  7. Proposing an Operational Definition of Science Teacher Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutner, Todd L.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2016-01-01

    Much research has shown that a science teacher's beliefs are related to their teaching practice. This line of research has often defined "belief" epistemologically. That is, beliefs are often defined relative to other mental constructs, such as knowledge, dispositions, or attitudes. Left unspecified is the role beliefs play in cognition…

  8. Examining Changes in Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs of Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Pre-service teachers enter teacher education with beliefs about teaching and ideas on pedagogical approaches. This research focuses on monitoring the pedagogical beliefs of a cohort of pre-service teachers' pre-existing pedagogical beliefs on important/relevant pedagogy for secondary teaching and how these beliefs changed over the course of their…

  9. Beliefs into Practice: A Religious Inquiry into Teacher Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    In the field of teacher knowledge, "beliefs" is a large term narrowly constructed. The beliefs theorized, researched, and discussed are beliefs about technique, methodology, curriculum, classroom management, professional development, and similarly. Spiritual and religious beliefs are for the most part omitted. This study argues that they should be…

  10. Gifted Students' Implicit Beliefs about Intelligence and Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C.; Snyder, Kate E.; Thomas, Chandler; Malone, Patrick S.; Putallaz, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Growing attention is being paid to individuals' implicit beliefs about the nature of intelligence. However, implicit beliefs about giftedness are currently underexamined. In the current study, we examined academically gifted adolescents' implicit beliefs about both intelligence and giftedness. Overall, participants' implicit beliefs about…

  11. University Students' Beliefs about Learning English and French in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Rula L.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the beliefs about language learning of Lebanese English as a Foreign Language university students, compared their beliefs about learning different target languages, namely, English and French, and investigated within-group variation in these students' beliefs. A modified version of Horwitz's "Beliefs about Language…

  12. Basic religious beliefs and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoynezhad, Gholamreza; Rajaei, Ali Reza; Sarvarazemy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Spiritual beliefs can help people find meaning of life, and can also influence their feelings, behaviors and mental health. The present research studied the relationship between basic religious beliefs (Human, Existence and God) and five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness. One hundred seventy eight students of Islamic Azad University in Torbat-jam were randomly selected and completed the basic religious beliefs and NEO Questionnaires. Data showed that basic religious beliefs have a significant negative correlation with neuroticism (r=-0.29),and a significant positive relationship with extraversion(r=0.28),openness(r=0.14),agreeableness (r=0.29),and conscientiousness (r=0.48). Also, the results of the regression analysis showed that basic religious beliefs can anticipate neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, but they cannot anticipate the openness factor significantly. The findings of this study demonstrate that basic religious beliefs have a positive relationship with good characteristics that help people resolve the challenges of their lives and identity crisis. Thus, the results of this study support the idea of Religious Cognitive-Emotional Theory that religiosity is correlated with positive personality traits.

  13. Rethinking the learning of belief network probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musick, R.

    1996-03-01

    Belief networks are a powerful tool for knowledge discovery that provide concise, understandable probabilistic models of data. There are methods grounded in probability theory to incrementally update the relationships described by the belief network when new information is seen, to perform complex inferences over any set of variables in the data, to incorporate domain expertise and prior knowledge into the model, and to automatically learn the model from data. This paper concentrates on part of the belief network induction problem, that of learning the quantitative structure (the conditional probabilities), given the qualitative structure. In particular, the current practice of rote learning the probabilities in belief networks can be significantly improved upon. We advance the idea of applying any learning algorithm to the task of conditional probability learning in belief networks, discuss potential benefits, and show results of applying neural networks and other algorithms to a medium sized car insurance belief network. The results demonstrate from 10 to 100% improvements in model error rates over the current approaches.

  14. Beliefs and attitude towards spectacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoti, C O

    2009-12-01

    The study was conducted in order to discover the beliefs and attitude of the people towards wearing glasses in order to improve acceptance of glasses when prescribed thus reducing blindness and visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive errors. A cross sectional study of 198 participants using a pretested structured questionnaire was conducted during the parent-teacher association (PTA) meeting of three public secondary schools chosen at random from a list of schools in Osogbo. Information obtained included the age, sex, history of using glasses, experience if using glasses, whether or not they will allow their wards to use glasses if prescribed and ifno, why they will not. The data obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 11.0 version) Computer Software. Association between variables was examined using chi-square and T-test accordingly. Level of significance was drawn at P<0.05. The male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Their ages ranged between 15 and 80 years with a mean of 36.20 years (SD +/- 13.44). Majority, 141(71.21%) were between 21 and 50 years. All but 4(3.70%) of those that use glasses had good experiences. A significant percentage (38.38%) of the participants will not use glasses if prescribed. One hundred and two (51.52%) participants will not allow their children to use prescribed glasses. Acceptance of glasses for the correction of refractive errors is not encouraging. This is particularly serious when children are concerned. A health education to enlighten the populace about the benefits of wearing prescribed glasses and the dangers of not using them when needed is necessary.

  15. Beliefs about Chemistry Teaching and Learning--A Comparison of Teachers' and Student Teachers' Beliefs from Jordan, Turkey and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amoush, Siham; Markic, Silvija; Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses beliefs about teaching and learning chemistry. The sample includes chemistry student teachers and in-service teachers from Jordan, Turkey, and Germany. Two test instruments were used to investigate (student) teachers' beliefs. A qualitative instrument was used to explore Beliefs about Classroom Organization, Beliefs about…

  16. Exploring Learners' Beliefs about Science Reading and Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, and Their Relations with Science Text Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects…

  17. Gravity, God and Ghosts? Parents' Beliefs in Science, Religion, and the Paranormal and the Encouragement of Beliefs in Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Gregory S.; Rosengren, Karl S.; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, the present study examined parents' beliefs regarding the development of children's beliefs about science, religion, and the paranormal. The study also investigated parental encouragement of children's beliefs, as well as parents' own beliefs within these domains. Results revealed that parents make distinctions between…

  18. Psychics, aliens, or experience? Using the Anomalistic Belief Scale to examine the relationship between type of belief and probabilistic reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prike, Toby; Arnold, Michelle M; Williamson, Paul

    2017-08-01

    A growing body of research has shown people who hold anomalistic (e.g., paranormal) beliefs may differ from nonbelievers in their propensity to make probabilistic reasoning errors. The current study explored the relationship between these beliefs and performance through the development of a new measure of anomalistic belief, called the Anomalistic Belief Scale (ABS). One key feature of the ABS is that it includes a balance of both experiential and theoretical belief items. Another aim of the study was to use the ABS to investigate the relationship between belief and probabilistic reasoning errors on conjunction fallacy tasks. As expected, results showed there was a relationship between anomalistic belief and propensity to commit the conjunction fallacy. Importantly, regression analyses on the factors that make up the ABS showed that the relationship between anomalistic belief and probabilistic reasoning occurred only for beliefs about having experienced anomalistic phenomena, and not for theoretical anomalistic beliefs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Professor Attitudes and Beliefs about Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Maryann Elizabeth

    Teaching evolution has been shown to be a challenge for faculty, in both K-12 and postsecondary education. Many of these challenges stem from perceived conflicts not only between religion and evolution, but also faculty beliefs about religion, it's compatibility with evolutionary theory, and it's proper role in classroom curriculum. Studies suggest that if educators engage with students' religious beliefs and identity, this may help students have positive attitudes towards evolution. The aim of this study was to reveal attitudes and beliefs professors have about addressing religion and providing religious scientist role models to students when teaching evolution. 15 semi-structured interviews of tenured biology professors were conducted at a large Midwestern universiy regarding their beliefs, experiences, and strategies teaching evolution and particularly, their willingness to address religion in a class section on evolution. Following a qualitative analysis of transcripts, professors did not agree on whether or not it is their job to help students accept evolution (although the majority said it is not), nor did they agree on a definition of "acceptance of evolution". Professors are willing to engage in students' religious beliefs, if this would help their students accept evolution. Finally, professors perceived many challenges to engaging students' religious beliefs in a science classroom such as the appropriateness of the material for a science class, large class sizes, and time constraints. Given the results of this study, the author concludes that instructors must come to a consensus about their goals as biology educators as well as what "acceptance of evolution" means, before they can realistically apply the engagement of student's religious beliefs and identity as an educational strategy.

  20. Belief Functions: Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Masson, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The theory of belief functions, also known as evidence theory or Dempster-Shafer theory, was first introduced by Arthur P. Dempster in the context of statistical inference, and was later developed by Glenn Shafer as a general framework for modeling epistemic uncertainty. These early contributions have been the starting points of many important developments, including the Transferable Belief Model and the Theory of Hints. The theory of belief functions is now well established as a general framework for reasoning with uncertainty, and has well understood connections to other frameworks such as probability, possibility and imprecise probability theories.   This volume contains the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Belief Functions that was held in Compiègne, France on 9-11 May 2012. It gathers 51 contributions describing recent developments both on theoretical issues (including approximation methods, combination rules, continuous belief functions, graphical models and independence concepts) an...

  1. Posttraumatic maladaptive beliefs scale: evolution of the personal beliefs and reactions scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Dawne S; Shipherd, Jillian C; Resick, Patricia A

    2012-09-01

    The posttraumatic maladaptive beliefs scale (PMBS) was developed to measure maladaptive beliefs about current life circumstances that may occur following trauma exposure. This scale assesses maladaptive beliefs within three domains: (a) threat of harm, (b) self-worth and judgment, and (c) reliability and trustworthiness of others. Items for the PMBS were drawn from a larger preexisting measure that assesses a wide range of personal beliefs and reactions associated with trauma exposure. The construct validity of the PMBS was assessed in two independent samples of interpersonal trauma survivors. This article provides data to support the reliability and validity of the PMBS as an instrument to assess general, rather than trauma-specific, maladaptive beliefs that have relevance for functioning in the aftermath of a traumatic event. Moreover, the measure is sensitive to changes that occur in treatment, and the length of the measure (15 items) is practical for use in clinical settings.

  2. Paranormal beliefs of Latvian college students: a Latvian version of the revised paranormal belief scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utinans, A; Ancane, G; Tobacyk, J J; Boyraz, G; Livingston, M M; Tobacyk, J S

    2015-02-01

    A Latvian version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale (RPBS) was completed by 229 Latvian university students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed six relatively independent factors labeled Magical Abilities, Psychokinesis, Traditional Religious Belief, Superstition, Spirit Travel, and Extraordinary Life Forms. Based on the motivational-control model, it was hypothesized that the societal stressors affecting Latvian society during the last 50 yr. have led to a reduced sense of personal control which, in turn, has resulted in increased endorsement of paranormal beliefs to re-establish a sense of control. The motivational-control hypothesis was not supported. Results indicated that (except for Traditional Religious Belief in women), the majority of these students were disbelievers in paranormal phenomena. As hypothesized, Latvian women reported significantly greater paranormal belief than men.

  3. Paranormal beliefs and religiosity: Chinese version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Chang, Frances

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports an initial study investigating the relations of paranormal beliefs with religiosity in a Chinese sample, as well as the development of a Chinese version of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and a test of its psychometric properties with 310 college students (5.5% Christians, 21.3% Buddhists, 61% believers in traditional Chinese religions, and 12% atheists). The reliability and validity of the Chinese version were satisfactory. In general, traditional Chinese religious believers had higher scores on paranormal belief than did Christians and atheists, and the mean total score of the Chinese participants was higher than previously reported in a Western sample. It was concluded that the greater involvement of practitioners of traditional Chinese religions in activities emphasizing paranormal experiences might contribute to their greater paranormal belief, especially as compared to the minority Christian group. The results are consistent with the idea that Christianity may offer the least support for paranormal belief.

  4. Interhemispheric interaction and beliefs on our origin: degree of handedness predicts beliefs in creationism versus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebauer, Christopher Lee; Christman, Stephen D; Reid, Scott A; Garvey, Kilian J

    2004-10-01

    It has been suggested that strongly handed individuals have attenuated systems for updating beliefs compared to mixed handers (Niebauer, Aselage, & Schutte, 2002). The current research extended this theory to individual differences in updating beliefs concerning our origins. Although the theory of evolution has gained overwhelming success in the sciences, a significant percentage of the population believes in biblical creationist accounts of human origins that are inconsistent with accepted, contemporary scientific views. If strongly handed individuals possess attenuated systems for updating beliefs, they might be more likely to believe in creationism. In two studies, strongly handed participants were more likely to believe in creationism while mixed-handed participants were more likely to believe in evolution. A model of how interhemispheric interaction functions in maintaining and updating beliefs is discussed. Specifically, mixed-handedness seems to be associated with a lower threshold for updating beliefs.

  5. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information.

  6. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P colon cancer screening.

  7. Addressing defeatist beliefs in work rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Joshua E; Lysaker, Paul H; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D; Chue, Amanda E; Pauls, Carol; Bisoglio, Joseph; Choi, Jimmy

    2016-08-01

    Adults with serious mental illness (SMI) may struggle with expectations of failure in vocational rehabilitation. These expectations can be global and trait-like or performance-specific and related to ability. To date, it has not been examined whether global or performance-specific defeatist beliefs are related to functional outcomes. The Indianapolis Vocational Intervention Program (IVIP) is a CBT intervention used to address expectations of failure and improve work performance. We examined the relationships between defeatist beliefs, self-esteem, social functioning, and work behaviors in 54 adults with SMI who completed IVIP within a work therapy program. Baseline work-specific defeatist beliefs were related to baseline self-esteem, employment attitude, and work behaviors. Decline in work-specific defeatist beliefs was associated with better social functioning, self-esteem, and work behaviors. Decline in global defeatist beliefs was only associated with improvements in social functioning. Performance-specific expectations about work may be an appropriate therapeutic target to enhance work outcome in SMI.

  8. Scale of Unpredictability Beliefs: Reliability and Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Short, Stephen D; Garofano, Marina

    2016-11-16

    Experiencing unpredictability in the environment has a variety of negative outcomes. However, these are difficult to ascertain due to the lack of a psychometrically sound measure of unpredictability beliefs. This article summarizes the development of the Scale of Unpredictability Beliefs (SUB), which assesses perceptions about unpredictability in one's life, in other people, and in the world. In Study I, college students (N = 305) responded to 68 potential items as well as other scales. Exploratory factor analysis yielded three internally consistent subscales (Self, People, and World; 16 items total). Higher SUB scores correlated with more childhood family unpredictability, greater likelihood of parental alcohol abuse, stronger causal uncertainty, and lower self-efficacy. In Study II, a confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor solution (N = 186 college students). SUB scores correlated with personality, childhood family unpredictability, and control beliefs. In most instances the SUB predicted family unpredictability and control beliefs beyond existing unpredictability measures. Study III confirmed the factor structure and replicated family unpredictability associations in an adult sample (N = 483). This article provides preliminary support for this new multi-dimensional, self-report assessment of unpredictability beliefs, and ideas for future research are discussed.

  9. Linking unfounded beliefs to genetic dopamine availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eSchmack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfounded convictions involving beliefs in the paranormal, grandiosity ideas or suspicious thoughts are endorsed at varying degrees among the general population. Here, we investigated the neurobiopsychological basis of the observed inter-individual variability in the propensity towards unfounded beliefs. 109 healthy individuals were genotyped for four polymorphisms in the COMT gene (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818 and rs4680, also known as val158met that define common functional haplotypes with substantial impact on synaptic dopamine degradation, completed a questionnaire measuring unfounded beliefs, and took part in a behavioural experiment assessing perceptual inference. We found that greater dopamine availability was associated with a stronger propensity towards unfounded beliefs, and that this effect was mediated by an enhanced influence of expectations on perceptual inference. Our results indicate that genetic differences in dopaminergic neurotransmission account for inter-individual differences in perceptual inference linked to the formation and maintenance of unfounded beliefs. Thus, dopamine might be critically involved in the processes underlying one's interpretation of the relationship between the self and the world.

  10. FORMING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS OF THE PROSPECTIVE HEADS OF CHILDREN'S DANCE GROUPS DURING THE CHOREOGRAPHIC ACTIVITIES IN THE COURSE "FOLK DANCE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kotov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the urgent problem of contemporary art pedagogy – involvement to training future professional choreographic traditions of different nations. Addressing to this problem is caused by a number of socio-political events in Ukraine, mainstreaming of national and international education, integration of Ukrainian education with the European educational space, intensive development of domestic students’ intercultural communication with young people from different countries, which is the basis for updating national art education. Prospective choreographers, who are being training at pedagogical universities to manage children's dance groups, should actively be involved into creating their own productions of folk dance various genres. It promotes the formation of choreographers’ professional competence and pedagogical skills. The development of Georgian "Lezginka" is proposed – a joint creative work of the teacher and students who get higher education degree in SHEE “Donbass State Pedagogical University” (Bachelor's Degree. Development of the dance contains schematic drawings of dance figures, it is recommended for use in forming choreographers’ professional skills while studying the course "Folk Dance Theory and Methodology". The author admits that folklore material requires a cautious, respectful attitude. Therefore, modern folk stage dances are integrally to combine traditional choreographic manner with its new interpretations. The author believes the actual capture of different nations’ choreographic culture improves intercultural youth communication; involves future professionals into the traditions of different nations; form professional skills of managers of children’s dance groups. The author concluded that a dance always reflects consciousness of different nations; future choreographers should be aware of characteristic features of dances of different world nations so that on the basis of traditional

  11. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beliefs underlying Women's intentions to consume alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Helen M; Obst, Patricia L; Lewis, Ioni

    2016-07-13

    Changing trends demonstrate that women, in a number of economically-developed countries, are drinking at higher levels than ever before. Exploring key targets for intervention, this study examined the extent to which underlying beliefs in relation to alcohol consumption predicted intentions to drink in three different ways (i.e. low risk drinking, frequent drinking and binge drinking). Utilizing a prospective design survey, women (N = 1069), aged 18-87 years, completed a questionnaire measuring their beliefs and intentions regarding alcohol consumption. Then, two weeks later, 845 of the original sample, completed a follow-up questionnaire reporting their engagement in the drinking behaviors. A mixed design ANOVA was conducted to examine potential differences between women of different age groups (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55 years and above) and their intentions to engage in the three different drinking behaviors. Based upon The Theory of Planned Behavior, critical beliefs analyses were carried out to identify key determinants underlying intentions to engage in the three different drinking behaviors. Significant effects of age were found in relation to frequent and binge drinking. The critical beliefs analyses revealed that a number of behavioral, control and normative beliefs were significant predictors of intentions. These beliefs varied according to age group and drinking behavior. Previously unidentified key factors that influence women's decisions to drink in certain ways have been established. Overall, future interventions and public policy may be better tailored so as to address specific age groups and drinking behaviors.

  13. Erosion of belief and disbelief: effects of religiosity and negative affect on beliefs in the paranormal and supernatural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R; Miller, J P

    2001-04-01

    The authors investigated the effects of religiosity and negative affect on beliefs in the paranormal and supernatural among 94 undergraduate students enrolled in psychology classes at a small, private U.S. university. They hypothesized that religiosity would predict differential beliefs in the supernatural versus the paranormal but that negative affect would attenuate these beliefs. In addition, the authors predicted that belief in the supernatural and negative affect would interact to predict belief in the paranormal. Overall, the results were consistent with predictions. The religious participants were skeptical of paranormal phenomena but were accepting of supernatural phenomena. In addition, increased reports of negative affect over the preceding year appeared to attenuate belief in the supernatural for the religious participants. By contrast, for the nonreligious participants, increased belief in both the supernatural and paranormal was predicted when reports of negative affect were high. Finally, the interaction of supernatural belief and negative affect significantly predicted belief in the paranormal.

  14. Development of a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shia; Teng, Ching-I

    2009-06-01

    Traditional Western superstitious beliefs, such as black cats and the number 13 bringing bad luck, may not be applicable to different cultures. This study develops a Chinese Superstitious Belief Scale by conducting two studies with 363 and 395 participants, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis was used to construct the scale and then structural equation modeling was applied to verify its reliability and validity. The scale contains six dimensions, Homonym, Traditional customs, Power of crystal, Horoscope, Feng-shui, and Luck for gambling. Findings are helpful for understanding the difference between Chinese superstitions and the traditional Western superstitions and permits subsequent development of sociopsychological theories on correlates and effects of Chinese superstitions.

  15. Valence-Dependent Belief Updating: Computational Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Kuzmanovic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available People tend to update beliefs about their future outcomes in a valence-dependent way: they are likely to incorporate good news and to neglect bad news. However, belief formation is a complex process which depends not only on motivational factors such as the desire for favorable conclusions, but also on multiple cognitive variables such as prior beliefs, knowledge about personal vulnerabilities and resources, and the size of the probabilities and estimation errors. Thus, we applied computational modeling in order to test for valence-induced biases in updating while formally controlling for relevant cognitive factors. We compared biased and unbiased Bayesian models of belief updating, and specified alternative models based on reinforcement learning. The experiment consisted of 80 trials with 80 different adverse future life events. In each trial, participants estimated the base rate of one of these events and estimated their own risk of experiencing the event before and after being confronted with the actual base rate. Belief updates corresponded to the difference between the two self-risk estimates. Valence-dependent updating was assessed by comparing trials with good news (better-than-expected base rates with trials with bad news (worse-than-expected base rates. After receiving bad relative to good news, participants' updates were smaller and deviated more strongly from rational Bayesian predictions, indicating a valence-induced bias. Model comparison revealed that the biased (i.e., optimistic Bayesian model of belief updating better accounted for data than the unbiased (i.e., rational Bayesian model, confirming that the valence of the new information influenced the amount of updating. Moreover, alternative computational modeling based on reinforcement learning demonstrated higher learning rates for good than for bad news, as well as a moderating role of personal knowledge. Finally, in this specific experimental context, the approach based on

  16. Deep Belief Nets for Topic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Arngren, Morten; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    -formative. In this paper we describe large-scale content based collaborative filtering for digital publishing. To solve the digital publishing recommender problem we compare two approaches: latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and deep be-lief nets (DBN) that both find low-dimensional latent representations for documents....... Efficient retrieval can be carried out in the latent representation. We work both on public benchmarks and digital media content provided by Issuu, an on-line publishing platform. This article also comes with a newly developed deep belief nets toolbox for topic modeling tailored towards performance...

  17. Expectations and Beliefs in Science Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    ; gene therapy was not universally hyped. Against that background, attention is directed towards another area of variation in the material: different basic assumptions about science and scientists. Exploring such culturally rooted assumptions and beliefs and their possible significance to science...... communication practices, it is argued that deep beliefs may constitute drivers of hype that are particularly difficult to deal with. To participants in science communication, the discouragement of hype, viewed as a practical–ethical challenge, can be seen as a learning exercise that includes critical attention...

  18. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Gregory Cope

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators’ beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public.

  19. On the nature of implicit soul beliefs: when the past weighs more than the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    Intuitive childhood beliefs in dualism may lay the foundation for implicit soul and afterlife beliefs, which may diverge from explicit beliefs formed later in adulthood. Brief Implicit Association Tests were developed to investigate the relation of implicit soul and afterlife beliefs to childhood and current beliefs. Early but not current beliefs covaried with implicit beliefs. Results demonstrated greater discrepancies in current than in childhood soul and afterlife beliefs among religious groups, and no differences in implicit beliefs. These findings suggest that implicit soul and afterlife beliefs diverge from current self-reported beliefs, stemming instead from childhood beliefs. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Understanding Beliefs, Teachers’ Beliefs and Their Impact on the Use of Computer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Alejandro Galvis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical review addresses the construct of beliefs in education and English as a foreign language, and their impact when integrating technology. A thorough definition and categorization of teachers’ beliefs will be provided. In addition, studies conducted in various educational settings examining the effects of teachers’ beliefs and the use of technology will be reviewed. Additional information on models attempting to explain human behavior and the use of computers will be presented as well in order to discuss these research results in light of local efforts made to solve the gap of integrating technology through the Computadores para Educar Program in Colombian public schools.

  1. Salient beliefs about earthquake hazards and household preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia S; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David M; Ronan, Kevin R

    2013-09-01

    Prior research has found little or no direct link between beliefs about earthquake risk and household preparedness. Furthermore, only limited work has been conducted on how people's beliefs influence the nature and number of preparedness measures adopted. To address this gap, 48 qualitative interviews were undertaken with residents in three urban locations in New Zealand subject to seismic risk. The study aimed to identify the diverse hazard and preparedness-related beliefs people hold and to articulate how these are influenced by public education to encourage preparedness. The study also explored how beliefs and competencies at personal, social, and environmental levels interact to influence people's risk management choices. Three main categories of beliefs were found: hazard beliefs; preparedness beliefs; and personal beliefs. Several salient beliefs found previously to influence the preparedness process were confirmed by this study, including beliefs related to earthquakes being an inevitable and imminent threat, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, personal responsibility, responsibility for others, and beliefs related to denial, fatalism, normalization bias, and optimistic bias. New salient beliefs were also identified (e.g., preparedness being a "way of life"), as well as insight into how some of these beliefs interact within the wider informational and societal context. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Organizational Conspiracy Beliefs: Implications for Leadership Styles and Employee Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; de Vries, Reinout E

    2016-01-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories about societal events is widespread among citizens. The extent to which conspiracy beliefs about managers and supervisors matter in the micro-level setting of organizations has not yet been examined, however. We investigated if leadership styles predict conspiracy beliefs among employees in the context of organizations. Furthermore, we examined if such organizational conspiracy beliefs have implications for organizational commitment and turnover intentions. We conducted a survey among a random sample of the US working population ( N  = 193). Despotic, laissez-faire, and participative leadership styles predicted organizational conspiracy beliefs, and the relations of despotic and laissez-faire leadership with conspiracy beliefs were mediated by feelings of job insecurity. Furthermore, organizational conspiracy beliefs predicted, via decreased organizational commitment, increased turnover intentions. Organizational conspiracy beliefs matter for how employees perceive their leaders, how they feel about their organization, and whether or not they plan to quit their jobs. A practical implication, therefore, is that it would be a mistake for managers to dismiss organizational conspiracy beliefs as innocent rumors that are harmless to the organization. Three novel conclusions emerge from this study. First, organizational conspiracy beliefs occur frequently among employees. Second, participative leadership predicts decreased organizational conspiracy beliefs; despotic and laissez-faire leadership predict increased organizational conspiracy beliefs due to the contribution of these destructive leadership styles to an insecure work environment. Third, organizational conspiracy beliefs harm organizations by influencing employee commitment and, indirectly, turnover intentions.

  3. An ethnography: Understanding emergency nursing practice belief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Margaret

    2012-07-01

    Further insight is needed to better understand how beliefs impact on contemporary Australian Emergency Department (ED) triage nursing practice. Specifically, how do cultural notions drive beliefs that give shape to nursing practice? Ethnography was the methodological framework used to explore triage practice. A purposeful sample of 10 Triage Nurses across four EDs was selected. Two hundred hours of nonparticipant observation were collected. Beliefs were identified that gave meaning to triage nursing behaviour and action. Belief 1: Respecting space and privacy; Belief 2: Taking control and responsibility; Belief 3: Patients should not arrive with expectations; Belief 4: Do not ask for a bed; Belief 5: Expect a level playing field; Belief 6: No benefit from having a referral letter; Belief 7: Do not waste time. When a belief was engaged Triage Nurses implemented a range of practices, which were culturally oriented and at times at odds with patient expectations and care. The ethnographic study made visible an ED culture of timeliness, appropriateness and efficiency which perpetuated beliefs that framed notions of service worthiness and appropriateness. Making explicit beliefs can assist clinicians to be more considered, sensitive and culturally competent to meet the growing demand for emergency care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Animal-based folk remedies sold in public markets in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Waltécio O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]. We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV to determine the extent of utilization of each species. Results A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species, mammals (7, fish (5, reptiles (5 and birds (4. The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems, Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections, and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises. Conclusion The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products – and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna

  5. What's in a virus? Folk understandings of hepatitis C infection and infectiousness among injecting drug users in Kings Cross, Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Carolyn

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore folk understandings of blood borne virus infection and infectiousness among injecting drug users in Kings Cross, Sydney. Methods Observational fieldwork was conducted in Kings Cross over a four month period. In-depth interviews with 24 current injectors and 4 key informants recruited from King Cross were undertaken. Results Hepatitis C (HCV generated different meanings from HIV. HIV was considered "the dreaded" and generated fear of infection and dire disease progression. Whereas HCV was considered non-desirable but less threatening than HIV. The risks of transmitting HCV through sharing injecting paraphernalia was poorly understood. Some believed HCV infection was linked to poor hygiene and dirty water. Jaundice was mistakenly thought to indicate HCV infection and was used to gauge infectiousness. Many were confused about their current hepatitis C serostatus. Some participants thought they had a "dormant antibody" or that they had a "mild case" of infection. Participants were unsure what this meant for their own health or for their potential to infect others. Conclusion Participants displayed confusion about transmission risks for hepatitis C, conflating blood awareness and hygiene health promotion messages. Participants' reliance on the symptom of jaundice to gauge serostatus places them at risk of transmitting and contracting HCV. Participants were confused about what a positive HCV diagnosis meant for their own health and their ability to infect others. Education is needed to debunk misconceptions about jaundice and clarify medical terms such as 'antibody' at the time of diagnosis. Further clarification of messages about injecting hygiene and blood awareness are also required.

  6. The Revival and Restructuring of a Traditional Folk Festival: Cultural Landscape and Memory in Guangzhou, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Landscape is an important object for research on local culture from a cultural geographical perspective. It is the spatial nature of memory that has seen the integrative study of memory and landscape receive increased attention from human geographers. The Qiqiao Festival is a traditional folk festival in the Lingnan region of Southern China. After half a century of suppression, the Qiqiao Festival in Zhucun was publically revitalized as the Guangzhou Qiqiao Cultural Festival, which coincided with the changing structure and significance of the landscape. This paper selected Zhucun, a typical urban village, as its case study and constructed an index system of festival landscapes. Through in-depth interviews, this paper studied the revival and restructure process of the Qiqiao Festival, and the role that landscapes play in the formation mechanism of memory on the part of subjects with different identities. The results showed that the elite and the local government selectively restructure festival landscapes, replacing authentic landscapes with “official” ones. The selection and production of a festival landscape constructed different memories among the subjects, where the festival memory of grassroots villagers was self-constructed and mostly came from traditional festival landscape elements while top-down interventions in the festival landscape constructed a different “official” memory for citizens and migrants to those of the villagers. The contemporary festival deviates from the original, which has weakened the conscious degree of cultural evolution and has had a reaction on the authenticity of memory. This research serves a reference for approaches in planning and conserving intangible cultural heritage in historic villages.

  7. Exploring the convergence between religious beliefs with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that there was an inverse relationship between religious attitudes of students with psychological distress.As a result, it is suggested that a spirituality-based care program can reduce the students' psychological distress. Keywords: Religious beliefs, psychological distress, ...

  8. Learning Words from Speakers with False Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Fairchild, Sarah; Cohen, Matthew L.; Friedberg, Carlyn

    2017-01-01

    During communication, hearers try to infer the speaker's intentions to be able to understand what the speaker means. Nevertheless, whether (and how early) preschoolers track their interlocutors' mental states is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, there is disagreement about how children's ability to consult a speaker's belief in communicative…

  9. Assessing Graduate Teaching Assistants' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jennifer; Powell, Darcey N.; Rouamba, Nathalie H.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) play a crucial role in North American colleges. At a mid-Atlantic, land grant institution, GTAs instruct 34,000 undergraduates per semester. Given this scope, GTAs exert a powerful influence on undergraduate learning, yet little is known about their teaching beliefs in relation to their classroom practices. This…

  10. Impact of Teachers' Beliefs on Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayaga, Anass; Wadesango, Newman; Wadesango, Ongayi Vongai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to analyse the impact of teachers' personal theory and beliefs (PTB) towards Mathematics teaching. A total of 183 respondents were involved in this study, using the stratified random sampling method with Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Due to the objective of the research and the hypothesis, it was positioned…

  11. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a Beliefs About Teaching (BAT) scale was created to examine preservice elementary science teachers' self-reported comfort level with both traditional and reform-based teaching methods, assessment techniques, classroom management techniques, and science content. Participants included 166 preservice teachers from three different US…

  12. Latvian Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs on Effective Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkova, Alesja

    2011-01-01

    The article aims to present findings of a study on the profile of traditional/constructivist beliefs of mathematics teachers in Latvia connected with effective teaching. For this purpose, data acquired within the framework of the project "Nordic-Baltic comparative research in mathematics education" (NorBa) were analyzed. The sample…

  13. Teachers' Beliefs and Behaviors: What Really Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Reynolds, David

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we looked at the relationship between teacher behaviors, teacher beliefs, teacher self-efficacy, and teacher subject knowledge with student achievement in mathematics. Data was collected from 103 primary school teachers and 2,148 students in the UK using achievement tests, classroom observation, and questionnaires. Structural…

  14. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  15. Secondary Teachers' Language Usage: Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlas, Anne Cummings

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, much research has shown that the first language (L1) is being used in the majority of foreign language classrooms. However, these findings have often failed to include secondary foreign language teachers and their teaching context. The current mixed-methods study explores Spanish teachers' use of and beliefs about first and target…

  16. Beliefs And Practice Concerning Pregnancy Delivery And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puerperal seclusion practiced to varying degrees and maybe beneficial. Most beliefs and practices of our rural women are potential contributors to maternal morbidity. A few are harmless or even beneficial. Public enlightenment and education of our rural dwellers while incorporating the harmless/beneficial practices into ...

  17. Unlocking ePortfolio Practice: Teaching Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henscheid, Jean M.; Brown, Gary; Gordon, Aifang; Chen, Helen L.

    2014-01-01

    The Association for Authentic, Experiential, and Evidence-Based Learning (AAEEBL) annual ePortfolio survey focuses on understanding ePortfolio practitioners' teaching beliefs and practices. The action research reported here extends that survey research to a population of emerging educators (i.e., graduate students in education). In addition to…

  18. Cultural Context Shapes Essentialist Beliefs about Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalik, Lisa; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Rhodes, Marjorie

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the processes by which essentialist beliefs about religious categories develop. Children (ages 5 and 10) and adults (n = 350) from 2 religious groups (Jewish and Christian), with a range of levels of religiosity, completed switched-at-birth tasks in which they were told that a baby had been born to parents of 1…

  19. Differences in beliefs and currency risk premia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beber, A.; Breedon, F.; Buraschi, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates how heterogeneous beliefs of professional investors impact on the currency options market. Using a unique data set with detailed information on the foreign-exchange forecasts of about 50 market participants over more than ten years, we construct an empirical proxy for

  20. Differences in beliefs and currency risk premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beber, A.; Breedon, F.; Buraschi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of heterogeneous beliefs for the dynamics of asset prices. We focus on currency markets, where the absence of short-selling constraints allows us to perform sharper tests of theoretical predictions. Using a unique data set with detailed information on

  1. The Epistemological Beliefs of Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Meger, Jennifer I.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that undergraduate students come into social work programs with an epistemological belief system that values personal experience over critical thinking processes. Epistemological development and self-efficacy are important factors to facilitating identity as a learner and developing critical thinking aptitudes. This qualitative,…

  2. Capacity Constraints and Beliefs about Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines how a firm can strategically choose its capacity to manipulate consumer beliefs about aggregate demand. It looks at a market with social effects where consumers want to do what is popular, to buy what they believe others want to buy. By imposing a capacity constraint

  3. Deep Belief Networks for dimensionality reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noulas, A.K.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Deep Belief Networks are probabilistic generative models which are composed by multiple layers of latent stochastic variables. The top two layers have symmetric undirected connections, while the lower layers receive directed top-down connections from the layer above. The current state-of-the-art

  4. Metaphysical Beliefs as Predictors of Death Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R. K.; Sinha, Ambalika

    1992-01-01

    Investigated impact of four metaphysical beliefs (existence of God, attributes of God, afterlife, consequences of suffering) on death anxiety. Householders (n=120), one-half of whom lived in high exposure to death sight areas, responded to pictures depicting death and nondeath scenes to measure death anxiety. Subjects from low exposure areas…

  5. Emotions and beliefs: how feelings influence thoughts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Bem, S.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    from the jacket)This book, with contributions from some of the leading figures in the study of emotion, explores the relationship between emotions and beliefs from a number of different psychological perspectives. Combining theory with research, it seeks to develop coherent theoretical principles

  6. Student Teacher Beliefs on Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2016-01-01

    The role of grammar teaching in foreign language education is a controversial one both in second language acquisition (SLA) research and language pedagogy and, as a result, a potential source of confusion to student teachers. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the beliefs on grammar teaching of student teachers of English as a…

  7. Unscientific beliefs about scientific topics in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Ioannidis, John P A; Cope, Mark B; Bier, Dennis M; Allison, David B

    2014-09-01

    Humans interact with food daily. Such repeated exposure creates a widespread, superficial familiarity with nutrition. Personal familiarity with nutrition from individual and cultural perspectives may give rise to beliefs about food not grounded in scientific evidence. In this summary of the session entitled “Unscientific Beliefs about Scientific Topics in Nutrition,” we discuss accumulated work illustrating and quantifying potentially misleading practices in the conduct and, more so, reporting of nutrition science along with proposed approaches to amelioration. We begin by defining “unscientific beliefs” and from where such beliefs may come, followed by discussing how large bodies of nutritional epidemiologic observations not only create highly improbable patterns of association but implausible magnitudes of implied effect. Poor reporting practices, biases, and methodologic issues that have distorted scientific understandings of nutrition are presented, followed by potential influences of conflicts of interest that extend beyond financial considerations. We conclude with recommendations for improving the conduct, reporting, and communication of nutrition-related research to ground discussions in evidence rather than solely on beliefs.

  8. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  9. Belief ascription and the Ramsey test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzanowska, Karolina

    In this paper, I analyse a finding by Riggs and colleagues that there is a close connection between people's ability to reason with counterfactual conditionals and their capacity to attribute false beliefs to others. The result indicates that both processes may be governed by one cognitive

  10. Belief in astrology inventory: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Eliseo; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2006-12-01

    After the paper by Mayo, White, and Eysenck in 1978, a considerable number of papers studied the so-called sun-sign-effect predicted by astrology: people born with the sun in a positive sign are supposed to be extraverted, and those with the sun in a negative sign are supposed to be introverted. In these papers, researchers used ad hoc questionnaires with a few questions related to belief, knowledge, experience, or attitude toward astrology. However, an appropriate inventory with known psychometric properties has yet to be developed to assess the belief in astrology. In the present paper, the Belief in Astrology Inventory is presented with some psychometric data. The participants were 743 undergraduates studying Psychology and Social Sciences at a university in Spain. Correlation of scores on Belief in Astrology and Extraversion was small but significant (r = .22; r2 = .04) for positive sun-sign participants. This value accounts for negligible common variance. Women had significandy higher scores on the inventory than men.

  11. On Three Ways to Justify Religious Beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brümmer, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the ways in which revealed theology, natural theology and philosophical theology justify religious belief. Revealed theology does so with an appeal to revelation and natural theology with an appeal to reason and perception. It is argued that both are inadequate. Philosophical

  12. Religious Commitment and Superstitious Beliefs about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analysed using multiple regression, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and t-test. Combined influence of students' religious commitment and superstitious beliefs about examinations accounted for a significant percentage of 13.6% of the total variance in examination malpractice behaviours (R2 ...

  13. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching...

  14. Beliefs and purchasing practices of Cape Town consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sblignaut

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 31, 2003. Beliefs and ... on consumer perceptions, beliefs, attitudes and pur- chasing ..... RESEARCH DESIGN ..... presentation and packaging, organically produced.

  15. Age and leadership : The moderating role of legacy beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Frese, Michael

    Age and age-related motivations have been neglected in leadership research. This study examined the moderating influence of legacy beliefs on the relationships between age and transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership behaviors. Legacy beliefs involve individuals' convictions

  16. Customers' values, beliefs on sustainable corporate performance, and buying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Christy M.; Steg, Linda

    Sustainable corporate performance (SCP) requires balancing a corporation's economic, social, and environmental performance. This research explores values, beliefs about the importance of SCP, and buying behaviors of supermarket customers from within a stakeholder framework. Beliefs about the

  17. Beliefs and perceived causes of death among selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANOVA) and Duncan multiple Range Test (DMRT) as a follow-up on ANOVA. Results of the study indicate generally high and positive beliefs about death with Hausa undergraduates having more positive beliefs than their Igbo and Yoruba ...

  18. Skepticism: Genuine unbelief or implicit beliefs in the supernatural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Riekki, Tapani

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether skeptics hold implicit supernatural beliefs or implicit cognitive underpinnings of the beliefs. In study 1 (N=57), participants read a biological or a religious story about death. The story content had no effect on skeptics' (or believers') afterlife beliefs. Study 2 examined the relationships between religious and non-religious paranormal beliefs and implicit views about whether supernatural and religious phenomena are imaginary or real (n1=33, n2=31). The less supernatural beliefs were endorsed the easier it was to connect "supernatural" with "imaginary". Study 3 (N=63) investigated whether participants' supernatural beliefs and ontological confusions differ between speeded and non-speeded response conditions. Only non-analytical skeptics' ontological confusions increased in speeded conditions. The results indicate that skeptics overall do not hold implicit supernatural beliefs, but that non-analytically thinking skeptics may, under supporting conditions, be prone to biases that predispose to supernatural beliefs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. What Happens When a Teacher's Science Belief Structure Is in Disequilibrium? Entangled Nature of Beliefs and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anita; Park, Soonhye; Hand, Brian

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative case study examined the process of change in an experienced elementary teacher's belief structure during implementation of an inquiry-based science program. Difficulties generally associated with ascertaining beliefs were minimized by using Leatham's (Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9, 91-102 (2006) Sensible System Framework, enabling researchers to obtain rich descriptions of the teacher's belief structure by focusing on words (professed beliefs), intentions (intended beliefs), and actions (enacted beliefs). Models were constructed of the teacher's belief structure before and after implementation of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach (Hand et al. International Journal of Science Education, 26(2), 131-149, 2004), an inquiry-based approach to teaching science. Key beliefs for this teacher were related to how students learn, goals for teaching science, focus of instruction, and roles of teacher and student. Ultimately, the teacher shifted her professed, intended, and enacted beliefs resulting in a shift from a teacher-centered to a student-centered classroom. Findings support Thagard's Coherence Theory of Justification (2002), positing that change in one belief creates a state of disequilibrium that must be alleviated by changing/realigning other beliefs in order to re-establish coherence in the overall belief structure. This research focus is distinct from the general trend in teacher beliefs research in important ways. Most significant is that this study was not focused on the traditional two lists—those beliefs that were consistent with practice and those that were inconsistent with practice—but instead focused on the entwined nature of beliefs and practice and have shown that a teacher's practice can be viewed as their enacted beliefs, an integral part of the teacher's overall belief structure.

  20. Investigating the cognitive structure of stereotypes: Generic beliefs about groups predict social judgments better than statistical beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Cimpian, Andrei

    2017-05-01

    Stereotypes are typically defined as beliefs about groups, but this definition is underspecified. Beliefs about groups can be generic or statistical. Generic beliefs attribute features to entire groups (e.g., men are strong), whereas statistical beliefs encode the perceived prevalence of features (e.g., how common it is for men to be strong). In the present research, we sought to determine which beliefs-generic or statistical-are more central to the cognitive structure of stereotypes. Specifically, we tested whether generic or statistical beliefs are more influential in people's social judgments, on the assumption that greater functional importance indicates greater centrality in stereotype structure. Relative to statistical beliefs, generic beliefs about social groups were significantly stronger predictors of expectations (Studies 1-3) and explanations (Study 4) for unfamiliar individuals' traits. In addition, consistent with prior evidence that generic beliefs are cognitively simpler than statistical beliefs, generic beliefs were particularly predictive of social judgments for participants with more intuitive (vs. analytic) cognitive styles and for participants higher (vs. lower) in authoritarianism, who tend to view outgroups in simplistic, all-or-none terms. The present studies suggest that generic beliefs about groups are more central than statistical beliefs to the cognitive structure of stereotypes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. An investigation of experienced secondary science teachers' beliefs about inquiry: An examination of competing belief sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.; Kang, Nam-Hwa

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the beliefs of six experienced high school science teachers about (1) what is successful science learning; (2) what are the purposes of laboratory in science teaching; and (3) how inquiry is implemented in the classroom. An interpretive multiple case study with an ethnographic orientation was used. The teachers' beliefs about successful science learning were substantively linked to their beliefs about laboratory and inquiry implementation. For example, two teachers who believed that successful science learning was deep conceptual understanding, used verification labs primarily to illustrate these concepts and used inquiry as a type of isolated problem-solving experience. Another teacher who believed that successful science learning was enculturation into scientific practices used inquiry-based labs extensively to teach the practices of science. Tension in competing beliefs sets and implications for reform are discussed. ? 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 41: 936-960, 2004.

  2. Extreme Overvalued Beliefs: How Violent Extremist Beliefs Become “Normalized”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tahir

    2018-01-01

    Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority. Religious cults such as The People’s Temple, Heaven’s Gate, Aum Shinrikyo, and Islamic State (ISIS) and conspiracy beliefs such as assassinations, moon-hoax, and vaccine-induced autism beliefs are discussed using this construct. Finally, some concluding thoughts on countering violent extremism, including its online presence is discussed utilizing information learned from online eating disorders and consumer experience. PMID:29329259

  3. Beliefs and Experimentation with Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional studies found that positive beliefs about electronic nicotine delivery systems (commonly known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) were associated with use of these products. However, the prospective association between these beliefs and subsequent use of e-cigarettes is unclear. Purpose To identify the beliefs predicting subsequent use of e-cigarettes. Methods 1379 young adults (mean age=24.1 years) from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort who reported never using e-cigarettes at baseline (collected Oct 2010–Mar 2011) and completed follow-up data collection (during Oct 2011–Mar 2012) were included in this analysis. Participants’ beliefs about e-cigarettes (potential as quit aids, harmfulness and addictiveness relative to cigarettes) were asked at baseline (yes/no). At follow-up, participants were asked if they had ever used e-cigarettes. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between beliefs about e-cigarettes and subsequent experimentation. Analysis was conducted in 2012. Results At follow-up, 7.4% of the sample reported ever using e-cigarettes (21.6% among baseline current smokers, 11.9% among baseline former smokers, and 2.9% among baseline nonsmokers). Participants who believed e-cigarettes can help people quit smoking and perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes at baseline were more likely to report experimenting with e-cigarettes at follow-up (pe-cigarettes as quit aids and the unknown health risk of e-cigarettes may deter young adults from trying these products. PMID:24439352

  4. Validation of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilla K. Shapiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents’ vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS and determined whether this scale was associated with parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Methods: Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, the seven-item VCBS, and parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. Results: A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2% or French (38.8%. A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937. The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, p<0.001. Hierarchical regression analyses found the VCBS is negatively related to parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points (‘free’ or ‘$300′ after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. Conclusions: The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Keywords: Cancer prevention, Conspiracy beliefs, Human papillomavirus, Vaccine hesitancy, Vaccines, Vaccine Conspiracy Belief Scale

  5. Malawian secondary students' beliefs about intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D; Rakes, Lee; Landon, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Students who view intelligence as malleable tend to be more academically motivated and perform at higher levels than students who view it as a fixed trait. We examined the beliefs of students from Malawi because the culture and schooling process in this country is very different from some other areas of the world in which students' views of intelligence have already been studied. Our research questions were: (1) How do Malawian students define intelligence? (2) To what extent do Malawian students view intelligence as malleable? (3) Are Malawian students' definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence similar to those of students in more developed countries? We conducted a mixed methods study and surveyed 136 students attending a secondary school in Malawi using a 39-item questionnaire. Students responded to questions about their intelligence beliefs on open- and closed-ended items. Our results showed that Malawian students believe that an intelligent student exhibits a variety of behaviors, including studying, working hard, reading, performing well on exams and in class, answering and asking questions, paying attention, and demonstrating good behavior. Most students believe that intelligence is malleable and provided responses that indicated that students can become more intelligent through effort. When compared to the findings of other studies, the present results suggest that the Malawian students who remain in secondary school have definitions of intelligence and beliefs about the malleability of intelligence that are similar to those of students in more developed countries, such as the US and Germany. In fact, it appears that Malawian secondary students have even higher malleable beliefs than American and German students. Finally, some of the measures that have been found to produce scores that are reliable and valid in other populations do not produce scores that are as reliable when used with Malawian students.

  6. Superstitious Beliefs as Constraints in The Learning of Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the nature, prevalence and effect of superstitious beliefs as constraints to the appropriate learning of science in our schools. Studies done on identification and analysis of types and degrees of superstitious beliefs have been reported as well as to how these beliefs inhibit the individual learner\\'s ...

  7. Beyond "born this way?" reconsidering sexual orientation beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzanka, Patrick R; Zeiders, Katharine H; Miles, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) has been limited in that it has generally examined heterosexuals' beliefs from an essentialist perspective. The recently developed Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS; Arseneau, Grzanka, Miles, & Fassinger, 2013) assesses multifarious "lay beliefs" about SO from essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist perspectives. This study used the SOBS to explore latent group-based patterns in endorsement of these beliefs in 2 samples of undergraduate students: a mixed-gender sample (n = 379) and an all-women sample (n = 266). While previous research has posited that essentialist beliefs about the innateness of SO predict positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, our research contributes to a growing body of scholarship that suggests that biological essentialism should be considered in the context of other beliefs. Using a person-centered analytic strategy, we found that that college students fell into distinct patterns of SO beliefs that are more different on beliefs about the homogeneity, discreteness, and informativeness of SO categories than on beliefs about the naturalness of SO. Individuals with higher levels of endorsement on all 4 SOBS subscales (a group we named multidimensional essentialism) and those who were highest in discreteness, homogeneity, and informativeness beliefs (i.e., high-DHI) reported higher levels of homonegativity when compared with those who were high only in naturalness beliefs. We discuss the implications of these findings for counseling and psychotherapy about SO, as well educational and social interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Pedagogical Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Aurelia; Timmons, Kristy; Lenis, Angelike

    2017-01-01

    Preservice early childhood educators begin postsecondary programs with established beliefs about children, children's learning, and their roles as future educators. The present study examined 26 first-year students' beliefs about children, classroom practice, and guiding children's behavior. Participants completed the Teacher Beliefs Q-Sort…

  9. Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: A Dynamic and Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongying

    2013-01-01

    Research on teachers' beliefs has provided useful insights into understanding processes of teaching. However, no research has explored teachers' beliefs as a system nor have researchers investigated the substance of interactions between teachers' beliefs, practices and context. Therefore, the author adopts complexity theory to explore the features…

  10. 29 CFR 18.610 - Religious beliefs or opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Religious beliefs or opinions. 18.610 Section 18.610 Labor... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.610 Religious beliefs or opinions. Evidence of the beliefs or opinions of a witness on matters of religion is not admissible for the purpose...

  11. Questionable but Unquestioned Beliefs:A Call for a Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First, in spite of the Yoruba belief that no human being is privy to the content of destiny, the Yoruba belief in sorrowful or sudden death (iku-ofo or iku-ojiji) presupposes some knowledge of the content of each person's destiny. Second, the beliefs in destiny on one hand, and in sudden or sorrowful death on the other, are ...

  12. Teachers' Dispositions and Beliefs about Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Montilla, Elia; Just, Megan; Triscari, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs towards their students' cultural backgrounds and languages affect all aspects of learning. Critical consciousness of attitudes and beliefs about the increasing culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) student population is necessary for aligning individual beliefs with effective teaching practices. Rethinking how to work with…

  13. Osteoporosis Health Beliefs among Younger and Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Shanthi; McLeod, William; Kennedy, Laura; McLeod, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare osteoporosis health beliefs among different age and gender groups. This study used a cross-sectional design, involved 300 participants that represent both genders and three age groups (18 to 25, 30 to 50, and 50-plus), and assessed osteoporosis health beliefs using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale…

  14. 1 Belief Control Practices and Organizational Performances: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... industry and that belief control has a significant positive relationship with organizational ... outcomes intended in the production,. Belief Control Practices & Organizational Performances...of Sugar Industry in Kenya .... dominance of belief control systems at a great extent (mean of 4.0 on a five- point scale).

  15. Examining Epistemological Beliefs of Teacher Candidates According to Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Cengiz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Epistemological beliefs of teachers are important factors on their perceptions of subject area and their classroom practices. This research aims to define epistemological beliefs of teacher candidates and investigates whether or not epistemological beliefs change according to teacher candidates' gender, fields of study, year of study, and…

  16. Beliefs and Values of Women in Community College Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.; Creswell, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the beliefs and values of women in two-year college departmental chair positions. Finds that dominant beliefs are related to educational philosophies and program outcomes, while secondary beliefs and values are related to student-centered issues, suggesting that women in chair positions have a traditional view of themselves as internal…

  17. In-Service EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamanger, Ebrahim M.; Gashan, Amani K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends in teacher education have focused on exploring teachers' beliefs. Earlier studies have shown the important influence of teachers' beliefs on teaching practices. The present study was conducted to explore the beliefs of Saudi EFL teachers about the significance of teaching English reading strategies. The study aimed also to find the…

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Mindset Beliefs about Student Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutshall, C. Anne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We all have beliefs about our ability or intelligence. The extent to which we believe ability is malleable (growth) or stable (fixed) is commonly referred to as our mindset. This research is designed to explore pre-service teachers' mindset beliefs as well as their beliefs when applied to hypothetical student scenarios. Method:…

  19. Belief-node Condensation for Online POMDP Algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available with non-zero probability they contain. Computation time of updating a belief-state is exponential in the number of states contained by the belief. Belief-update occurs for each node in a search tree. It would thus pay to reduce the size of the nodes while...

  20. Belief Inhibition in Children's Reasoning: Memory-Based Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegen, Sara; Neys, Wim De

    2012-01-01

    Adult reasoning has been shown as mediated by the inhibition of intuitive beliefs that are in conflict with logic. The current study introduces a classic procedure from the memory field to investigate belief inhibition in 12- to 17-year-old reasoners. A lexical decision task was used to probe the memory accessibility of beliefs that were cued…