Transport due to ion temperature gradient mode vortex turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, V.P.; Weiland, J.
1991-01-01
The ion energy transport due to an ensemble of nonlinear vortices is calculated in the test particle approximation for a strongly turbulent plasma. A diffusion coefficient proportional to the root of the stationary turbulence level is obtained. (au)
Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere
Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank
2007-01-01
Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...
Amplitude damping of vortex modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2010-09-01
Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...
Interaction of a strong vortex with decaying turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.
1988-01-01
The evolution of a localized, axially symmetric vortex under the action of shear stresses associated with decaying two-dimensional turbulent vorticity which is inhomogeneous in the presence of the vortex is studied analytically. For a vortex which is sufficiently strong relative to the coefficient of turbulent eddy viscosity, it is shown that turbulent fluctuations in the vortex interior and diffusion of coherent vorticity by the turbulence localize to the vortex periphery. It is also found that the coefficient of diffusion is small compared to the coefficient of eddy viscosity. 8 refs
The statistical mechanics of vortex-acoustic ion wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giles, M.J.
1980-01-01
The equilibrium statistical mechanics of electrostatic ion wave turbulence is studied within the framework of a continuum ion flow with adiabatic electrons. The wave field consists in general of two components, namely ion-acoustic and ion vortex modes. It is shown that the latter can significantly affect the equilibria on account of their ability both to emit and to scatter ion sound. Exact equilibria for the vortex-acoustic wave field are given in terms of a canonical distribution and the correlation functions are expressed in terms of a generating functional. Detailed calculations are carried out for the case in which the dominant coupling is an indirect interaction of the vortex modes mediated by the sound field. An equation for the spectrum of the vortex modes is obtained for this case, which is shown to possess a simple exact solution. This solution shows that the spectrum of fluctuations changes considerably as the total energy increases. Condensed vortex states could occur in the plasma sheet of the earth's magnetosphere and it is shown that the predicted ratio of the mean ion energy to the mean electron energy is consistent with the trend of observed values. (author)
From vortex reconnections to quantum turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipniacki, T.
2001-01-01
An alternative approach to quantum turbulence is proposed in order to derive the evolution equation for vortex line-length density. Special attention is paid to reconnections of vortex lines. The summed line-length change ΔS of two vortex lines resulting from the reconnection (in the presence of counterflow V ns ) can be approximated in the form: δS=-at 1/2 +bV ns 2 t 3/2 , with a>0, b≥0, at least until δS≤0. For steady-state turbulence, the average line-length change left angle ΔS right angle between reconnections has to be zero. If, for a given value of the counterflow, the line density is smaller than the equilibrium one, the reconnections occur less frequently and left angle ΔS right angle becomes positive and the line density grows until the equilibrium is restored. When the line-density is too large, the reconnections are more frequent, the lines shorten between reconnections and the line density gets smaller. The time derivative of the total line density is proportional to the reconnection frequency multiplied by the average line-length change due to a single reconnection. The evolution equation obtained in the proposed approach resembles the alternative Vinen equation. (orig.)
Vortex Thermometry for Turbulent Two-Dimensional Fluids.
Groszek, Andrew J; Davis, Matthew J; Paganin, David M; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P
2018-01-19
We introduce a new method of statistical analysis to characterize the dynamics of turbulent fluids in two dimensions. We establish that, in equilibrium, the vortex distributions can be uniquely connected to the temperature of the vortex gas, and we apply this vortex thermometry to characterize simulations of decaying superfluid turbulence. We confirm the hypothesis of vortex evaporative heating leading to Onsager vortices proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 165302 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.165302, and we find previously unidentified vortex power-law distributions that emerge from the dynamics.
Metamorphosis of a Hairpin Vortex into a Young Turbulent Spot
Singer, Bart A.; Joslin, Ronald D.
1995-01-01
Direct numerical simulation was used to study the formation and growth of a hairpin vortex in a flat-plate boundary layer and its later development into a young turbulent spot. Fluid injection through a slit in the wall triggered the initial vortex. The legs of the vortex were stretched into a hairpin shape as it traveled downstream. Multiple hairpin vortex heads developed between the stretched legs. New vortices formed beneath the streamwise-elongated vortex legs. The continued development of additional vortices resulted in the formation of a traveling region of highly disturbed ow with an arrowhead shape similar to that of a turbulent spot.
Statistics of optical vortex wander on propagation through atmospheric turbulence.
Gu, Yalong
2013-04-01
The transverse position of an optical vortex on propagation through atmospheric turbulence is studied. The probability density of the optical vortex position on a transverse plane in the atmosphere is formulated in weak turbulence by using the Born approximation. With these formulas, the effect of aperture averaging on topological charge detection is investigated. These results provide quantitative guidelines for the design of an optimal detector of topological charge, which has potential application in optical vortex communication systems.
Dynamics of phytoplankton blooms in turbulent vortex cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindemann, Christian; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio
2017-01-01
the effects of turbulent transport on the phytoplankton population growth and its spatial structure in a vertical two-dimensional vortex flow field. In particular, we focus on how turbulent flow velocities and sinking influence phytoplankton growth and biomass aggregation. Our results indicate that conditions...... can be maintained with increasing turbulent flow velocities, allowing the apparently counter-intuitive persistence of fast sinking phytoplankton populations in highly turbulent and deep mixed layers. These dynamics demonstrate the role of considering advective transport within a turbulent vortex...
Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes
Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.
1992-01-01
Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.
Effects of parallel dynamics on vortex structures in electron temperature gradient driven turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
2011-01-01
Vortex structures and related heat transport properties in slab electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence are comprehensively investigated by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations, with the aim of elucidating the underlying physical mechanisms of the transition from turbulent to coherent states. Numerical results show three different types of vortex structures, i.e., coherent vortex streets accompanied with the transport reduction, turbulent vortices with steady transport, and a zonal-flow-dominated state, depending on the relative magnitude of the parallel compression to the diamagnetic drift. In particular, the formation of coherent vortex streets is correlated with the strong generation of zonal flows for the cases with weak parallel compression, even though the maximum growth rate of linear ETG modes is relatively large. The zonal flow generation in the ETG turbulence is investigated by the modulational instability analysis with a truncated fluid model, where the parallel dynamics such as acoustic modes for electrons is incorporated. The modulational instability for zonal flows is found to be stabilized by the effect of the finite parallel compression. The theoretical analysis qualitatively agrees with secondary growth of zonal flows found in the slab ETG turbulence simulations, where the transition of vortex structures is observed.
Copepod behavior response to Burgers' vortex treatments mimicking turbulent eddies
Elmi, D.; Webster, D. R.; Fields, D. M.
2017-11-01
Copepods detect hydrodynamic cues in the water by their mechanosensory setae. We expect that copepods sense the flow structure of turbulent eddies in order to evoke behavioral responses that lead to population-scale distribution patterns. In this study, the copepods' response to the Burgers' vortex is examined. The Burgers' vortex is a steady-state solution of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations that allows us to mimic turbulent vortices at the appropriate scale and eliminate the stochastic nature of turbulence. We generate vortices in the laboratory oriented in the horizontal and vertical directions each with four intensity levels. The objective of including vortex orientation as a parameter in the study is to quantify directional responses that lead to vertical population distribution patterns. The four intensity levels correspond to target vortex characteristics of eddies corresponding to the typical dissipative vortices in isotropic turbulence with mean turbulent dissipation rates in the range of 0.002 to 0.25 cm2/s3. These vortices mimic the characteristics of eddies that copepods most likely encounter in coastal zones. We hypothesize that the response of copepods to hydrodynamic features depends on their sensory architecture and relative orientation with respect to gravity. Tomo-PIV is used to quantify the vortex circulation and axial strain rate for each vortex treatment. Three-dimensional trajectories of the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus are analyzed to examine their swimming kinematics in and around the vortex to quantify the hydrodynamic cues that trigger their behavior.
Flow in a circular expansion pipe flow: effect of a vortex perturbation on localised turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selvam, Kamal; Peixinho, Jorge [Laboratoire Ondes Milieux Complexes, CNRS and Université du Havre, F-76600 Le Havre (France); Willis, Ashley P, E-mail: jorge.peixinho@univ-lehavre.fr [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)
2016-12-15
We report the results of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations for incompressible viscous fluid in a circular pipe flow with a sudden expansion. At the inlet, a parabolic velocity profile is applied together with a finite amplitude perturbation in the form of a vortex with its axis parallel to the axis of the pipe. At sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the recirculation region breaks into a turbulent patch that changes position axially, depending on the strength of the perturbation. This vortex perturbation is believed to produce a less abrupt transition than in previous studies, which applied a tilt perturbation, as the localised turbulence is observed via the formation of a wavy structure at a low order azimuthal mode, which resembles an optimally amplified perturbation. For large vortex amplitude, the localised turbulence remains at a constant axial position. It is further investigated using proper orthogonal decomposition, which indicates that the centre region close to the expansion is highly energetic. (paper)
Vortex instability in turbulent free-space propagation
Lavery, Martin P. J.
2018-04-01
The spatial structuring of optical fields is integral within many next generation optical metrology and communication techniques. A verifiable physical model of the propagation of these optical fields in a turbulent environment is important for developing effective mitigation techniques for the modal degradation that occurs in a free-space link. We present a method to simulate this modal degradation that agrees with recently reported experimental findings. A 1.5 km free-space link is emulated by decomposing the optical turbulence that accumulates over a long distance link, into many, weakly perturbing steps of 10 m. This simulation shows that the high-order vortex at the centre of the helical phase profiles in modes that carry orbital angular momentum of | {\\ell }| ≥slant 2{\\hslash } are unstable and fracture into many vortices when they propagate over the link. This splitting presents issues for the application of turbulence mitigation techniques. The usefulness of pre-correction, post-correction, and complex field conjugation techniques are discussed.
Vortex statistics for turbulence in a container with rigid boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clercx, H.J.H.; Nielsen, A.H.
2000-01-01
The evolution of vortex statistics for decaying two-dimensional turbulence in a square container with rigid no-slip walls is compared with a few available experimental results and with the scaling theory of two-dimensional turbulent decay as proposed by Carnevale et al. Power-law exponents......, computed from an ensemble average of several numerical runs, coincide with some experimentally obtained values, but not with data obtained from numerical simulations of decaying two-dimensional turbulence with periodic boundary conditions....
IUTAM Symposium on Hamiltonian Dynamics, Vortex Structures, Turbulence
Borisov, Alexey V; Mamaev, Ivan S; Sokolovskiy, Mikhail A; IUTAM BOOKSERIES : Volume 6
2008-01-01
This work brings together previously unpublished notes contributed by participants of the IUTAM Symposium on Hamiltonian Dynamics, Vortex Structures, Turbulence (Moscow, 25-30 August 2006). The study of vortex motion is of great interest to fluid and gas dynamics: since all real flows are vortical in nature, applications of the vortex theory are extremely diverse, many of them (e.g. aircraft dynamics, atmospheric and ocean phenomena) being especially important. The last few decades have shown that serious possibilities for progress in the research of real turbulent vortex motions are essentially related to the combined use of mathematical methods, computer simulation and laboratory experiments. These approaches have led to a series of interesting results which allow us to study these processes from new perspectives. Based on this principle, the papers collected in this proceedings volume present new results on theoretical and applied aspects of the processes of formation and evolution of various flows, wave a...
Collapsing vortex filaments and the spectrum of quantum turbulence
Andryushchenko, V. A.; Nemirovskii, S. K.
2017-01-01
The method of correlation functions and the method of quantum vortex configurations are used to calculate the energy spectrum of a three-dimensional velocity field that is induced by collapsing (immediately before reconnection) vortex filaments. The formulation of this problem is motivated by the idea of modeling classical turbulence by a set of chaotic quantized vortex filaments. Among the various arguments that support the idea of quasi-classical behavior for quantum turbulence, the most persuasive is probably the resulting Kolmogorov energy spectrum resembling E ( k ) ∝ k - 5 / 3 that was obtained in a number of numerical studies. Another goal is associated with an important and intensely studied theme that relates to the role of hydrodynamic collapse in the formation of turbulence spectra. Calculations have demonstrated that vortex filaments create a velocity field at the moment of contact, which has a singularity. This configuration of vortex filaments generates the spectrum E(k), which bears the resemblance to the Kolmogorov law. A possible cause for this observation is discussed, as well as the likely reasons behind any deviations. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of both classical and quantum turbulence.
Vortex locking in direct numerical simulations of quantum turbulence.
Morris, Karla; Koplik, Joel; Rouson, Damian W I
2008-07-04
Direct numerical simulations are used to examine the locking of quantized superfluid vortices and normal fluid vorticity in evolving turbulent flows. The superfluid is driven by the normal fluid, which undergoes either a decaying Taylor-Green flow or a linearly forced homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, although the back reaction of the superfluid on the normal fluid flow is omitted. Using correlation functions and wavelet transforms, we present numerical and visual evidence for vortex locking on length scales above the intervortex spacing.
Strained spiral vortex model for turbulent fine structure
Lundgren, T. S.
1982-01-01
A model for the intermittent fine structure of high Reynolds number turbulence is proposed. The model consists of slender axially strained spiral vortex solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. The tightening of the spiral turns by the differential rotation of the induced swirling velocity produces a cascade of velocity fluctuations to smaller scale. The Kolmogorov energy spectrum is a result of this model.
Nonlinear tearing mode and vortex chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jovanovic, D.; Vranjes, J.
1996-01-01
We study the nonlinear stage of a tearing mode, whose island width exceeds the tearing layer thickness, and the wavelength is of the order of collisionless skin depth. A coherent solution is found in the form of a moving vortex chain. It is the result of a self-organization process, which adjusts the profile of the sheared poloidal magnetic field and excites a localized perpendicular sheared plasma flow, consisting of three counterstreaming jets. A numerical solution shows a twin chain of plasma vortices, coupled with a single chain of magnetic islands, whose width is of the order of collisionless skin depth. Adiabatic evolution of the vortex chain in the presence of small viscosity reveals its finite lifetime. The chain destruction may occur either directly, or through a sequence of bifurcations (corresponding to abrupt changes of the vortex chain parameters) to magnetic field stochastization within a layer of the collisionless skin depth scale, which occurs before the magnetic island overlapping takes place. This provides a new mechanism for the anomalous transport. (orig.)
Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery
2011-01-01
Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvi......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....
Theory of Vortex Crystal Formation in Two-Dimensional Turbulence
Jin, D. Z.
1999-11-01
The free relaxation of inviscid, incompressible 2D turbulence is often dominated by strong vortices (coherent patches of intense vorticity) that move chaotically and merge. However, recent experiments(K.S. Fine et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75), 3277 (1995). with pure electron plasmas have found that freely relaxing turbulent flows with a single sign of vorticity can spontaneously form ``vortex crystals'' -- symmetric, stable arrays of strong vortices that are immersed in a low vorticity background. In this talk we discuss how these complex equilibria can form from 2D turbulence. First, we formulate a statistical theory of the vortex crystals. We show that vortex crystals are well described as ``regional'' maximum fluid entropy (RMFE) states, which are equilibrium states reached through ergodic mixing of the background by the strong vortices.(D.Z. Jin and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80), 4434 (1998). Given the dynamically conserved quantities as well as the number and the vorticity distributions of the strong vortices, the theory predicts the positions of the strong vortices and the coarse-grained vorticity distribution of the background. These predictions agree well with the observed vortex crystals. Second, we examine the formation process of the vortex crystals in more detail. In the RMFE theory, the vortex crystal equilibrium can only be predicted if the number Nc of the strong vortices in the final state is given. Here, we estimate Nc from the characteristics of the early turbulent flow. The estimate relies on the idea that vortex crystals form because the chaotic motions of the strong vortices are ``cooled'' due to mixing of the background by the vortices. When the rate of cooling is faster than the rate of pairwise mergers, the vortices fall into a crystal pattern before they can merge. We estimate the merger rate from the observed power law decay of the number of strong vortices in the early stages of the flow, and the cooling rate from the rate of mixing of
Vortex statistics in turbulent rotating convection
Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, B.J.
2010-01-01
The vortices emerging in rotating turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in water at Rayleigh number Ra=6.0×108 are investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and by direct numerical simulation. The so-called Q criterion is used to detect the vortices from velocity fields. This
Turbulence Statistics in a Two-Dimensional Vortex Condensate
Frishman, Anna; Herbert, Corentin
2018-05-01
Disentangling the evolution of a coherent mean-flow and turbulent fluctuations, interacting through the nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations, is a central issue in fluid mechanics. It affects a wide range of flows, such as planetary atmospheres, plasmas, or wall-bounded flows, and hampers turbulence models. We consider the special case of a two-dimensional flow in a periodic box, for which the mean flow, a pair of box-size vortices called "condensate," emerges from turbulence. As was recently shown, a perturbative closure describes correctly the condensate when turbulence is excited at small scales. In this context, we obtain explicit results for the statistics of turbulence, encoded in the Reynolds stress tensor. We demonstrate that the two components of the Reynolds stress, the momentum flux and the turbulent energy, are determined by different mechanisms. It was suggested previously that the momentum flux is fixed by a balance between forcing and mean-flow advection: using unprecedently long numerical simulations, we provide the first direct evidence supporting this prediction. By contrast, combining analytical computations with numerical simulations, we show that the turbulent energy is determined only by mean-flow advection and obtain for the first time a formula describing its profile in the vortex.
The structure of vortex tube segments in fluid turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Lipo
2011-01-01
Geometrical description of the flow fields is an important direction to understand the physics of turbulence. Recently several new analysis approaches addressing the entire field properties have been developed, such as dissipation element analysis for the scalar fields and streamtube segment analysis (J. Fluid Mech. 2010, 648: 183-203) for the velocity vector field. By decomposing into a fundamental structure, i.e. stream-tube segments, the velocity field can be understood from the statistics of these relative simple units. Similar idea can be adopted to analyze the vorticity field. The classic concept of vortex tube has been remaining as a topic of essential importance in many aspects. However, the vortex tube structure is not complete to represent the entire turbulent fields, because of its ambiguous definition and small volume portion. This work presents tentatively the vorticitytube segment structure to overcome the existing deficiency. Vorticitytube segments reveal an inherent topology of turbulence vorticity fields. Based on statistics conditioned on different vorticitytube segments, some problems can be newly understood, such as the enstrophy production. Results hereof may also serve for turbulence modeling.
Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Sephton, Bereneice C
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Light beams that carry orbital angular momentum are often approximated by modulating an initial beam, usually Gaussian, with an azimuthal phase variation to create a vortex beam. Such vortex beams are well defined azimuthally, but the radial profile...
Turbulence and Solar p-Mode Oscillations
Bi, S. L.; Xu, H. Y.
The discrepancy between observed and theoretical mode frequencies can be used to examine the reliability of the standard solar model as a faithful representation of solar real situation. With the help of an improved time-dependent convective model that takes into account contribution of the full spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectrum, we study the influence of turbulent pressure on structure and solar p-mode frequencies. For the radial modes we find that the Reynolds stress produces signification modifications in structure and p-mode spectrum. Compared with an adiabatic approximation, the discrepancy is largely removed by the turbulent correction.
Multiplexing of adjacent vortex modes with the forked grating coupler
Nadovich, Christopher T.; Kosciolek, Derek J.; Crouse, David T.; Jemison, William D.
2017-08-01
For vortex fiber multiplexing to reach practical commercial viability, simple silicon photonic interfaces with vortex fiber will be required. These interfaces must support multiplexing. Toward this goal, an efficient singlefed multimode Forked Grating Coupler (FGC) for coupling two different optical vortex OAM charges to or from the TE0 and TE1 rectangular waveguide modes has been developed. A simple, apodized device implemented with e-beam lithography and a conventional dual-etch processing on SOI wafer exhibits low crosstalk and reasonable mode match. Advanced designs using this concept are expected to further improve performance.
Generation of compressible modes in MHD turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Jungyeon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea); Lazarian, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2005-05-01
Astrophysical turbulence is magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) in nature. We discuss fundamental properties of MHD turbulence and in particular the generation of compressible MHD waves by Alfvenic turbulence and show that this process is inefficient. This allows us to study the evolution of different types of MHD perturbations separately. We describe how to separate MHD fluctuations into three distinct families: Alfven, slow, and fast modes. We find that the degree of suppression of slow and fast modes production by Alfvenic turbulence depends on the strength of the mean field. We review the scaling relations of the modes in strong MHD turbulence. We show that Alfven modes in compressible regime exhibit scalings and anisotropy similar to those in incompressible regime. Slow modes passively mimic Alfven modes. However, fast modes exhibit isotropy and a scaling similar to that of acoustic turbulence both in high and low {beta} plasmas. We show that our findings entail important consequences for star formation theories, cosmic ray propagation, dust dynamics, and gamma ray bursts. We anticipate many more applications of the new insight to MHD turbulence and expect more revisions of the existing paradigms of astrophysical processes as the field matures. (orig.)
Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Niu, Liting; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang; Liu, Jinsong
2016-06-13
We present an efficient method to discriminate orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the terahertz (THz) vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer. The mode transformer performs a log-polar coordinate transformation of the input THz vortex beam, which consists of two 3D-printed diffractive elements. A following lens separates each transformed OAM mode to a different lateral position in its focal plane. This method enables a simultaneous measurement over multiple OAM modes of the THz vortex beam. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of seven individual OAM modes and two multiplexed OAM modes, which is in good agreement with simulations.
Inhomogeneous vortex tangles in counterflow superfluid turbulence: flow in convergent channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saluto Lidia
2016-06-01
Full Text Available We investigate the evolution equation for the average vortex length per unit volume L of superfluid turbulence in inhomogeneous flows. Inhomogeneities in line density L andincounterflowvelocity V may contribute to vortex diffusion, vortex formation and vortex destruction. We explore two different families of contributions: those arising from asecondorder expansionofthe Vinenequationitself, andthose whichare notrelated to the original Vinen equation but must be stated by adding to it second-order terms obtained from dimensional analysis or other physical arguments.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Mercier, P.; Machefaux, Ewan
2016-01-01
by a bound vorticity lifting line while the turbine wake vorticity and the turbulence vorticity are projected onto vortex particles. In the present work the rotor blades are stiff leaving aero-elastic interactions for future work. Inflow turbulence is generated with the model of Mann and converted to vortex......? Is it acceptable to neglect the influence of the wake and the wind turbine on the turbulent inflow? Is there evidence to justify the extra cost of a method capable of including these effects correctly? To this end, a unified vorticity representation of the flow is used: the wind turbine model is represented......A vortex particle representation of turbulent fields is devised in order to address the following questions: Does a wind turbine affect the statistics of the incoming turbulence? Should this imply a change in the way turbulence boxes are used in wind turbine aero-elastic simulations...
Strings, vortex rings, and modes of instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Steven S. Gubser
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We treat string propagation and interaction in the presence of a background Neveu–Schwarz three-form field strength, suitable for describing vortex rings in a superfluid or low-viscosity normal fluid. A circular vortex ring exhibits instabilities which have been recognized for many years, but whose precise boundaries we determine for the first time analytically in the small core limit. Two circular vortices colliding head-on exhibit stronger instabilities which cause splitting into many small vortices at late times. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of these instabilities and show that the most unstable wavelength is parametrically larger than a dynamically generated length scale which in many hydrodynamic systems is close to the cutoff. We also summarize how the string construction we discuss can be derived from the Gross–Pitaevskii Lagrangian, and also how it compares to the action for giant gravitons.
Copepods' Response to Burgers' Vortex: Deconstructing Interactions of Copepods with Turbulence.
Webster, D R; Young, D L; Yen, J
2015-10-01
This study examined the behavioral response of two marine copepods, Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis, to a Burgers' vortex intended to mimic the characteristics of a turbulent vortex that a copepod is likely to encounter in the coastal or near-surface zone. Behavioral assays of copepods were conducted for two vortices that correspond to turbulent conditions with mean dissipation rates of turbulence of 0.009 and 0.096 cm(2) s(-3) (denoted turbulence level 2 and level 3, respectively). In particular, the Burgers' vortex parameters (i.e., circulation and rate of axial strain rate) were specified to match a vortex corresponding to the median rate of dissipation due to viscosity for each target level of turbulence. Three-dimensional trajectories were quantified for analysis of swimming kinematics and response to hydrodynamic cues. Acartia tonsa did not significantly respond to the vortex corresponding to turbulence level 2. In contrast, A. tonsa significantly altered their swimming behavior in the turbulence-level-3 vortex, including increased relative speed of swimming, angle of alignment of the trajectory with the axis of the vortex, ratio of net-to-gross displacement, and acceleration during escape, along with decreased turn frequency (relative to stagnant control conditions). Further, the location of A. tonsa escapes was preferentially in the core of the stronger vortex, indicating that the hydrodynamic cue triggering the distinctive escape behavior was vorticity. In contrast, T. longicornis did not reveal a behavioral response to either the turbulence level 2 or the level 3 vortex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Propagation of partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam through oceanic turbulence.
Liu, Dajun; Yin, Hongming; Wang, Guiqiu; Wang, Yaochuan
2017-11-01
The partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam generated by a Schell-model source has been introduced. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the cross-spectral density function of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in oceanic turbulence is derived. The influences of coherence length, topological charge M, and oceanic turbulence on the spreading properties and position of the coherence vortex for a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam are analyzed in detail. The results show that a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in stronger oceanic turbulence will evolve into a Gaussian-like beam more rapidly as the propagation distance increases, and the number of coherent vortices will change.
Coherence of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere
Lukin, Igor P.
2017-11-01
In this paper the theoretical research of coherent properties of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere are developed. The approach to the analysis of this problem is based on the analytical solution of the equation for the transverse second-order mutual coherence function of a field of optical radiation. The behavior of integral scale of coherence degree of vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beams depending on parameters of an optical beam and characteristics of turbulent atmosphere is particularly considered. It is shown that the integral scale of coherence degree of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beam essentially depends on value of a topological charge of a vortex optical beam. With increase in a topological charge of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beam the value of integral scale of coherence degree of a vortex Bessel-Gaussian optical beam are decreased.
Vortex beam characterization in terms of Hypergeometric- Gaussian modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Sephton, Bereneice C
2016-10-01
Full Text Available in Optics: The 100th OSA Annual Meeting and Exhibit/Laser Science XXXII , 17-21 October 2016, Rochester Riverside Convention Center, Rochester, New York United States Vortex beam characterization in terms of Hypergeometric- Gaussian modes Sephton...
van Jaarsveld, J.P.J.; Holten, A.P.C.; Elsenaar, A.; Trieling, R.R.; Heijst, van G.J.F.
2011-01-01
This study is concerned with the effect of external turbulence on the decay of vortices. Single vortices and vortex pairs were generated with wing(s) mounted in the sidewalls of a wind tunnel. The distance between the two vortices could be adjusted such that they just touched each other or
Chikishev, Leonid; Lobasov, Aleksei; Sharaborin, Dmitriy; Markovich, Dmitriy; Dulin, Vladimir; Hanjalic, Kemal
2017-11-01
We investigate flame-flow interactions in an atmospheric turbulent high-swirl methane/air lean jet-flame at Re from 5,000 to 10,000 and equivalence ratio below 0.75 at the conditions of vortex breakdown. The focus is on the spatial correlation between the propagation of large-scale vortex structures, including precessing vortex core, and the variations of the local heat release. The measurements are performed by planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl and formaldehyde, applied simultaneously with the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry technique. The data are processed by the proper orthogonal decomposition. The swirl rate exceeded critical value for the vortex breakdown resulting in the formation of a processing vortex core and secondary helical vortex filaments that dominate the unsteady flow dynamics both of the non-reacting and reacting jet flows. The flame front is located in the inner mixing layer between the recirculation zone and the annular swirling jet. A pair of helical vortex structures, surrounding the flame, stretch it and cause local flame extinction before the flame is blown away. This work is supported by Russian Science Foundation (Grant No 16-19-10566).
Integral momenta of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere.
Lukin, Igor P
2016-04-20
The orbital angular momentum of vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere is studied theoretically. The field of an optical beam is determined through the solution of the paraxial wave equation for a randomly inhomogeneous medium with fluctuations of the refraction index of the turbulent atmosphere. Peculiarities in the behavior of the total power of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam at the receiver (or transmitter) are examined. The dependence of the total power of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam on optical beam parameters, namely, the transverse wave number of optical radiation, amplitude factor radius, and, especially, topological charge of the optical beam, is analyzed in detail. It turns out that the mean value of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam remains constant during propagation in the turbulent atmosphere. It is shown that the variance of fluctuations of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere calculated with the "mean-intensity" approximation is equal to zero identically. Thus, it is possible to declare confidently that the variance of fluctuations of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere is not very large.
Propagation of stochastic electromagnetic vortex beams through the turbulent biological tissues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Meilan; Chen, Qi; Hua, Limin; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com
2014-01-10
The general analytical expression of the stochastic electromagnetic vortex beams through turbulent biological tissues is derived based on the fractal model. The statistical properties, including the spectral density, the spectral degree of coherence and the spectral degree of polarization are investigated in detail. It can be found that the normalized spectral density of the stochastic electromagnetic vortex beams with higher topological charge is less influenced by turbulence than that with lower topological charge. In addition, the change of the degree of polarization versus propagation distance of the anisotropic vortex beams in biological tissues differs from that of the isotropic vortex beams. The findings might be useful in the investigation of the structures of biological tissues and operation of communication and sensing systems involving biological tissues turbulence channels.
Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent vortex shedding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Archambeau, F.
1995-06-01
This thesis documents the development and application of a computational algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation. Unusually, the method adopts a fully collocated variable storage arrangement and is applicable to complex, non-rectilinear geometries. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes algorithm has formed the starting point of the development, but has been modified substantially: the spatial approximation of convection is effected by an energy-conserving central-differencing scheme; a second-order time-marching Adams-Bashforth scheme has been introduced; the pressure field is determined by solving the pressure-Poisson equation; this equation is solved either by use of preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient methods or with the Generalised Minimum Residual method; two types of sub-grid scale models have been introduced and examined. The algorithm has been validated by reference to a hierarchy of unsteady flows of increasing complexity starting with unsteady lid-driven cavity flows and ending with 3-D turbulent vortex shedding behind a square prism. In the latter case, for which extensive experimental data are available, special emphasis has been put on examining the dependence of the results on mesh density, near-wall treatment and the nature of the sub-grid-scale model, one of which is an advanced dynamic model. The LES scheme is shown to return time-average and phase-averaged results which agree well with experimental data and which support the view that LES is a promising approach for unsteady flows dominated by large periodic structures. (author)
Double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent swirling annular jet flow
Vanierschot, M.; Perçin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.W.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we report on the structure and dynamics of double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent annular swirling jet. Double helix breakdown has been reported previously for the laminar flow regime, but this structure has rarely been observed in turbulent flow. The flow field is
Ground, Cody; Vergine, Fabrizio; Maddalena, Luca
2016-08-01
A defining feature of the turbulent free shear layer is that its growth is hindered by compressibility effects, thus limiting its potential to sufficiently mix the injected fuel and surrounding airstream at the supersonic Mach numbers intrinsic to the combustor of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles. The introduction of streamwise vorticity is often proposed in an attempt to counteract these undesired effects. This fact makes the strategy of introducing multiple streamwise vortices and imposing upon them certain modes of mutual interaction in order to potentially enhance mixing an intriguing concept. However, many underlying fundamental characteristics of the flowfields in the presence such interactions are not yet well understood; therefore, the fundamental physics of these flowfields should be independently investigated before the explicit mixing performance is characterized. In this work, experimental measurements are taken with the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry technique on two specifically targeted modes of vortex interaction—the merging and non-merging of two corotating vortices. The fluctuating velocity fields are analyzed utilizing the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to identify the content, organization, and distribution of the modal turbulent kinetic energy content of the fluctuating velocity eigenmodes. The effects of the two modes of vortex interaction are revealed by the POD analysis which shows distinct differences in the modal features of the two cases. When comparing the low-order eigenmodes of the two cases, the size of the structures contained within the first ten modes is seen to increase as the flow progresses downstream for the merging case, whereas the opposite is true for the non-merging case. Additionally, the relative modal energy contribution of the first ten eigenmodes increases as the vortices evolve downstream for the merging case, whereas in the non-merging case the relative modal energy contribution decreases
Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent vortex shedding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Archambeau, F
1995-06-01
This thesis documents the development and application of a computational algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation. Unusually, the method adopts a fully collocated variable storage arrangement and is applicable to complex, non-rectilinear geometries. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes algorithm has formed the starting point of the development, but has been modified substantially: the spatial approximation of convection is effected by an energy-conserving central-differencing scheme; a second-order time-marching Adams-Bashforth scheme has been introduced; the pressure field is determined by solving the pressure-Poisson equation; this equation is solved either by use of preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient methods or with the Generalised Minimum Residual method; two types of sub-grid scale models have been introduced and examined. The algorithm has been validated by reference to a hierarchy of unsteady flows of increasing complexity starting with unsteady lid-driven cavity flows and ending with 3-D turbulent vortex shedding behind a square prism. In the latter case, for which extensive experimental data are available, special emphasis has been put on examining the dependence of the results on mesh density, near-wall treatment and the nature of the sub-grid-scale model, one of which is an advanced dynamic model. The LES scheme is shown to return time-average and phase-averaged results which agree well with experimental data and which support the view that LES is a promising approach for unsteady flows dominated by large periodic structures. (author) 87 refs.
Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wang, E.; Bell, R.E.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Yuh, H.
2011-01-01
This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.
Decay of the vortex tangle at zero temperature and quasiclassical turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemirovskii, Sergej K.
2013-01-01
We review and analyze a series of works, both experimental and numerical and theoretical, dealing with the decay of quantum turbulence at zero temperature. Free decay of the vortex tangle is a key argument in favor of the idea that a chaotic set of quantum vortices can mimic classical turbulence, or at least reproduce many of the basic features. The corresponding topic is referred as the quasiclassical turbulence. Appreciating significance of the challenging problem of classical turbulence it can be expressed that the idea to study it in terms of quantized line is indeed very important and may be regarded as a breakthrough. For this reason, the whole theory, together with the supporting experimental results and numerical simulations should be carefully scrutinized. One of the main arguments, supporting the idea of quasiclassical turbulence is the fact that vortex tangle decays at zero temperature, when the mutual friction is absent. Since all other possible mechanisms of dissipation of the vortex energy, discussed in literature, are related to the small scales, it is natural to suggest that the Kolmogorov cascade takes place with the flow of the energy in space of scales, just like as in the classical turbulence. In the present work we discuss an alternative mechanism of decay of the vortex tangle, which is not associated with dissipation at small scales. This mechanism is a diffusive-like spreading of the vortex tangle due to evaporation of small vortex loops. We discuss a number of experiments and numerical simulations, considering them from the point of view of alternative mechanism.
Field theory modelling of vortex tube entanglement in turbulent magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriconi, L.; Nobre, F.A. S.
2000-01-01
Full text follows: We study the dynamics of interacting closed vortex tubes in magnetohydrodynamics, in terms of a (1+1)-dimensional field theory derived within the context of the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism. The fluid is stirred by large scale stochastic forces which affect smaller scales through foldings of the velocity and magnetic vortex tubes. Numerical computations are done by means of a length-preserving scheme, motivated by the usual self-induction approximation. In order to understand the origin of intermittency effects, we investigate the multifractal exponents for the equilibrium vortex tube configurations, as well as correlations developed between different tubes. (author)
A topological method for vortex identification in turbulent flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong, Qiang; Chen, Huai; Li, Danxun [State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Qigang, E-mail: lidx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)
2017-02-15
We present a novel vortex identification method based on structured vorticity ( ω {sub s}) of the direction field of flow (velocity vectors set to unit magnitude). As a direct measure of streamline curvature is insensitive to vortex strength, ω {sub s} is effective in detecting vortices of various strengths. The effectiveness has been tested against both analytical flows (pure shear flow, Oseen vortex flow, strong outward spiraling motion, straining flow, Taylor–Green flow) and experimental flows (closed cavity flow, closed and open channel flow). Comparison of the new method with the swirling-strength method indicates that the new method shows promise as being a simple and effective criterion for vortex identification. (paper)
Propagation of partially coherent vector anomalous vortex beam in turbulent atmosphere
Zhang, Xu; Wang, Haiyan; Tang, Lei
2018-01-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe a partially coherent vector anomalous vortex(AV) beam. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, analytical propagation formula for the proposed beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived. The spectral properties of the partially coherent vector AV beam are explored by using the unified theory of coherence and polarization in detail. It is interesting to find that the turbulence of atmosphere and the source parameter of the partially coherent vector AV beam( order, topological charge, coherence length, beam waist size etc) have significantly impacted the propagation properties of the partially coherent vector AV beam in turbulent atmosphere.
Bradley, D I; Clubb, D O; Fisher, S N; Guénault, A M; Haley, R P; Matthews, C J; Pickett, G R; Tsepelin, V; Zaki, K
2005-07-15
We report a transition in the vorticity generated by a grid moving in the B phase of superfluid 3He at Tring production at low grid velocities to quantum turbulence at higher velocities and that independent isolated vortex rings provide the precursors to the developed turbulence. Furthermore we believe that this may be a feature of all quantum turbulence arising from repetitive mechanical agitation.
Vortex filament method as a tool for computational visualization of quantum turbulence
Hänninen, Risto; Baggaley, Andrew W.
2014-01-01
The vortex filament model has become a standard and powerful tool to visualize the motion of quantized vortices in helium superfluids. In this article, we present an overview of the method and highlight its impact in aiding our understanding of quantum turbulence, particularly superfluid helium. We present an analysis of the structure and arrangement of quantized vortices. Our results are in agreement with previous studies showing that under certain conditions, vortices form coherent bundles, which allows for classical vortex stretching, giving quantum turbulence a classical nature. We also offer an explanation for the differences between the observed properties of counterflow and pure superflow turbulence in a pipe. Finally, we suggest a mechanism for the generation of coherent structures in the presence of normal fluid shear. PMID:24704873
Peristaltic modes of a single vortex in the Abelian Higgs model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kojo, Toru; Suganuma, Hideo; Tsumura, Kyosuke
2007-01-01
Using the Abelian Higgs model, we study the radial excitations of single vortex and their propagation modes along the vortex line. We call such beyond-stringy modes peristaltic modes of single vortex. With the profile of the static vortex, we derive the vortex-induced potential, i.e., single-particle potential for the Higgs and the photon field fluctuations around the static vortex, and investigate the coherently propagating fluctuations which correspond to the vibration of the vortex. We derive, analyze, and numerically solve the field equations of the Higgs and the photon field fluctuations around the static vortex with various Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ and topological charge n. Around the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield value or critical coupling κ 2 =1/2, there appears a significant correlation between the Higgs and the photon field fluctuations mediated by the static vortex. As a result, for κ 2 =1/2, we find the characteristic new-type discrete pole of the peristaltic mode corresponding to the quasibound state of coherently fluctuating fields and the static vortex. We investigate its excitation energy, correlation energy of coherent fluctuations, spatial distributions, and the resulting magnetic flux behavior in detail. Our investigation covers not only usual type-II vortices with n=1 but also type-I and type-II vortices with n set-membership sign Z for the application to various general systems where the vortexlike objects behave as the essential degrees of freedom
Vortex dynamics and Lagrangian statistics in a model for active turbulence.
James, Martin; Wilczek, Michael
2018-02-14
Cellular suspensions such as dense bacterial flows exhibit a turbulence-like phase under certain conditions. We study this phenomenon of "active turbulence" statistically by using numerical tools. Following Wensink et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109, 14308 (2012)), we model active turbulence by means of a generalized Navier-Stokes equation. Two-point velocity statistics of active turbulence, both in the Eulerian and the Lagrangian frame, is explored. We characterize the scale-dependent features of two-point statistics in this system. Furthermore, we extend this statistical study with measurements of vortex dynamics in this system. Our observations suggest that the large-scale statistics of active turbulence is close to Gaussian with sub-Gaussian tails.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reinhardt, B.; Duhamel, Ph.; Cordonnier, A. [FCB Centre de Recherches, 59 - Lille (France); Florent, P. [LAMIH/LMFE, 59 - Valenciennes (France)
1997-12-31
The cyclones used in cement industry generally have a diameter of 4 to 6 m. However, tests on cyclones bigger than 4 m can hardly be performed and thus, it is important to study the influence of the size of the apparatus on the development of the generated vortex. A study of the structure and characteristics of the suspension inside a cyclone has been carried out. The results of the characterization of two cyclones (400 and 800 mm diameter) running without load are presented first in order to study the vortex behaviour. In parallel with this experimental study, a numerical study has been carried out and a calculation code called CYCLOP has been developed. The code, the equations of the gas flow inside the cyclone and the modifications given to the turbulent model are presented. (J.S.) 4 refs.
Mode Selection in Flame-Vortex driven Combustion Instabilities
Speth, Ray
2011-01-04
In this paper, we investigate flame-vortex interaction in a lean premixed, laboratory scale, backward-facing step combustor. Two series of tests were conducted, using propane/hydrogen mixtures and carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures as fuels, respectively. Pressure measurements and high speed particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) were employed to generate pressure response curves as well as the images of the velocity field and the flame brush. We demonstrate that the step combustor exhibits several operating modes depending on the inlet conditions and fuel composition, characterized by the amplitude and frequency of pressure oscillations along with distinct dynamic flame shapes. We propose a model in which the combustor\\'s selection of the acoustic mode is governed by a combustion-related time delay inversely proportional to the flame speed. Our model predicts the transition between distinct operating modes. We introduce non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flame speed and stretch rate, and develop a relationship between these quantities at the operating conditions corresponding to each mode transition. Based on this relationship, we show that numerically-calculated density-weighted strained flame speed can be used to collapse the combustion dynamics data over the full range of conditions (inlet temperature, fuel composition, and equivalence ratio). Finally, we validate our strain flame based model by measuring the strain rate using the flame image and the velocity field from the PIV measurement. Our results show that the measured strain rates lie in the same range as the critical values at the transitions among distinct modes as those predicted by our model.
Huang, S.; Sahraoui, F.; Yuan, Z.; He, J.; Zhao, J.; Du, J.; Le Contel, O.; Wang, X.; Deng, X.; Fu, H.; Zhou, M.; Shi, Q.; Breuillard, H.; Pang, Y.; Yu, X.; Wang, D.
2017-12-01
Magnetic hole is characterized by a magnetic depression, a density peak, a total electron temperature increase (with a parallel temperature decrease but a perpendicular temperature increase), and strong currents carried by the electrons. The current has a dip in the core region of the magnetic hole and a peak in the outer region of the magnetic hole. There is an enhancement in the perpendicular electron fluxes at 90° pitch angles inside the magnetic hole, implying that the electrons are trapped within it. The variations of the electron velocity components Vem and Ven suggest that an electron vortex is formed by trapping electrons inside the magnetic hole in the circular cross-section. These observations demonstrate the existence of a new type of coherent structures behaving as an electron vortex magnetic hole in turbulent space plasmas as predicted by recent kinetic simulations. We perform a statistically study using high time solution data from the MMS mission. The magnetic holes with short duration (i.e., < 0.5 s) have their cross section smaller than the ion gyro-radius. Superposed epoch analysis of all events reveals that an increase in the electron density and total temperature, significantly increase (resp. decrease) the electron perpendicular (resp. parallel) temperature, and an electron vortex inside the holes. Electron fluxes at 90° pitch angles with selective energies increase in the KSMHs, are trapped inside KSMHs and form the electron vortex due to their collective motion. All these features are consistent with the electron vortex magnetic holes obtained in 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations, indicating that the observed the magnetic holes seem to be best explained as electron vortex magnetic holes. It is furthermore shown that the magnetic holes are likely to heat and accelerate the electrons. We also investigate the coupling between whistler waves and electron vortex magnetic holes. These whistler waves can be locally generated inside electron
Targeting specific azimuthal modes using wall changes in turbulent pipe flow
van Buren, Tyler; Hellström, Leo; Marusic, Ivan; Smits, Alexander
2017-11-01
We experimentally study turbulent pipe flow at Re =3486 using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Using pipe inserts with non-circular geometry to perturb the flow upstream of the measurement location, we excite specific naturally occurring energetic modes. We consider inserts that directly manipulate the flow momentum (vortex generators), and/or induce secondary flows through Reynolds stresses (sinusoidally varying wall shape). These inserts substantially change the mean flow, and produce distinct regions of low and high momentum corresponding to the mode being excited. The inserts add energy in the targeted modes while simultaneously reducing the energy in the non-excited azimuthal modes. In addition, inserts designed to excite two modes simultaneously exhibit non-linear interactions. Supported under ONR Grant N00014-15-1-2402, Program Manager/Director Thomas Fu and the Australian Research Council.
Generating broadband vortex modes in ring-core fiber by using a plasmonic q-plate.
Ye, Jingfu; Li, Yan; Han, Yanhua; Deng, Duo; Su, Xiaoya; Song, He; Gao, Jianmin; Qu, Shiliang
2017-08-15
A mode convertor was proposed and investigated for generating vortex modes in a ring-core fiber based on a plasmonic q-plate (PQP), which is composed of specially organized L-shaped resonator (LSR) arrays. A multicore fiber was used to transmit fundamental modes, and the LSR arrays were used to modulate phases of these fundamental modes. Behind the PQP, the transmitted fundamental modes with gradient phase distribution can be considered as the incident lights for generating broadband vortex modes in the ring-core fiber filter. The topological charges of generated vortex modes can be various by using an optical PQP with different q, and the chirality of the generated vortex mode can be controlled by the sign of q and handedness of the incident circularly polarized light. The operation bandwidth is 800 nm in the range of 1200-2000 nm, which covers six communication bands from the O band to the U band. The separation of vortex modes also was addressed by using a dual ring-core fiber. The mode convertor is of potential interest for connecting a traditional network and vortex communication network.
Turbulence anisotropy and coherent structures in electromagnetically generated vortex patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenjereš, S
2011-01-01
Numerical investigations addressing influence of the localised electromagnetic forcing on turbulent thermal convection of a weakly electrically conductive fluid in a wall-bounded rectangular enclosure are performed over a wide range of working parameters (10 4 ≤Ra≤5×10 5 , Pr = 7). An asymmetrical electromagnetic forcing (EMF) is applied originating from combined effects of the imposed magnetic fields (originating from an array of 5×7 permanent magnets with |b 0 | max = 1 T each, located beneath the lower thermally active wall) and electric fields (originating from two electrodes supplied with dc current of different intensities, 0≤I≤10 A). Subgrid turbulent stress is modelled by electromagnetically extended Smagorinsky model and subgrid turbulent heat flux is represented by a simple gradient diffusion hypothesis. Simulations revealed two interesting findings: the electromagnetic forcing generated significant overall heat transfer increase (more than 500% for lower values of Ra) compared to its neutral case, and, the turbulence anisotropy was reduced in the central part of the enclosure.
Turbulence production due to secondary vortex cutting in a turbine rotor
Binder, A.
1985-10-01
Measurements of the unsteady flow field near and within a turbine rotor were made by means of a Laser-2-Focus velocimeter. The testing was performed in a single-stage cold-air turbine at part-load and near-design conditions. Random unsteadiness and flow angle results indicate that the secondary vortices of the stator break down after being cut and deformed by the rotor blades. A quantitative comparison shows that some of the energy contained in these secondary vortices is thereby converted into turbulence energy in the front part of the rotor. An attempt is made to explain this turbulence energy production as caused by the vortex breakdown.
Flow-around modes for a rhomboid wing with a stall vortex in the shock layer
Zubin, M. A.; Maximov, F. A.; Ostapenko, N. A.
2017-12-01
The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of an asymmetrical hypersonic flow around a V-shaped wing with the opening angle larger than π on the modes with attached shockwaves on forward edges, when the stall flow is implemented on the leeward wing cantilever behind the kink point of the cross contour. In this case, a vortex of nonviscous nature is formed in which the velocities on the sphere exceeding the speed of sound and resulting in the occurrence of pressure shocks with an intensity sufficient for the separation of the turbulent boundary layer take place in the reverse flow according to the calculations within the framework of the ideal gas. It is experimentally established that a separation boundary layer can exist in the reverse flow, and its structure is subject to the laws inherent to the reverse flow in the separation region of the turbulent boundary layer arising in the supersonic conic flow under the action of a shockwave incident to the boundary layer.
Kim, Joon Hyun; Kwon, Woo Jin; Shin, Yong-Il
2016-05-01
In a recent experiment, it was found that the dissipative evolution of a corotating vortex pair in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate is well described by a point vortex model with longitudinal friction on the vortex motion and the thermal friction coefficient was determined as a function of sample temperature. In this poster, we present a numerical study on the relaxation of 2D superfluid turbulence based on the dissipative point vortex model. We consider a homogeneous system in a cylindrical trap having randomly distributed vortices and implement the vortex-antivortex pair annihilation by removing a pair when its separation becomes smaller than a certain threshold value. We characterize the relaxation of the turbulent vortex states with the decay time required for the vortex number to be reduced to a quarter of initial number. We find the vortex decay time is inversely proportional to the thermal friction coefficient. In particular, we observe the decay times obtained from this work show good quantitative agreement with the experimental results in, indicating that in spite of its simplicity, the point vortex model reasonably captures the physics in the relaxation dynamics of the real system.
Li, Nan; Chu, Xiuxiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Feng, Xiaoxing; Fan, ChengYu; Qiao, Chunhong
2018-01-01
A method which can be used to compensate for a distorted orbital angular momentum and wavefront of a beam in atmospheric turbulence, simultaneously, has been proposed. To confirm the validity of the method, an experimental setup for up-link propagation of a vortex beam in a turbulent atmosphere has been simulated. Simulation results show that both of the distorted orbital angular momentum and the distorted wavefront of a beam due to turbulence can be compensated by an adaptive optics system with the help of a cooperative beacon at satellite. However, when the number of the lenslet of wavefront sensor (WFS) and the actuators of the deform mirror (DM) is small, satisfactory results cannot be obtained.
Analysis of Optical Fiber Complex Propagation Matrix on the Basis of Vortex Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng
2016-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel method for reconstruction of the complex propagation matrix of optical fibers supporting propagation of multiple vortex modes. This method is based on the azimuthal decomposition approach and allows the complex matrix elements to be determined...... by direct calculations. We apply the proposed method to demonstrate the feasibility of optical compensation for coupling between vortex modes in optical fiber....
Optical-domain Compensation for Coupling between Optical Fiber Conjugate Vortex Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng
2016-01-01
We demonstrate for the first time optical-domain compensation for coupling between conjugate vortex modes in optical fibers. We introduce a novel method for reconstructing the complex propagation matrix of the optical fiber with straightforward implementation.......We demonstrate for the first time optical-domain compensation for coupling between conjugate vortex modes in optical fibers. We introduce a novel method for reconstructing the complex propagation matrix of the optical fiber with straightforward implementation....
Measurements of turbulence in a microscale multi-inlet vortex nanoprecipitation reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Yanxiang; Cheng, Janine Chungyin; Fox, Rodney O; Olsen, Michael G
2013-01-01
The microscale multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) is designed for use in Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP), a promising technique for producing nanoparticles within small particle size distribution. Fluid mixing is crucial in the FNP process, and due to mixing’s strong dependence upon fluid kinematics, investigating velocity and turbulence within the reactor is crucial to optimizing reactor design. To this end, microscopic particle image velocimetry has been used to investigate flow within the MIVR. Three Reynolds numbers are studied, namely, Re j = 53, 93 and 240. At Re j = 53, the flow is laminar and steady. Due to the strong viscous effects at this Reynolds number, distinct flow patterns are observed at different distances from the reactor top and bottom walls. The viscous effects also retard the tangential motions within the reactor, resulting in a weaker vortex than appears at the higher Reynolds numbers. As the Reynolds number is increased to 93, the flow becomes more homogeneous over the depth of the reactor due to weaker viscous effects, yet the flow is still steady. The diminishing effects of viscosity also result in a stronger vortex. At the highest Reynolds number investigated, the flow is turbulent. Turbulent statistics including tangential and radial velocity fluctuations and Reynolds shear stresses are analyzed for this case in addition to the mean velocity field. The tangential motions of the flow are strongest at Re j = 240. Both the tangential and radial velocity fluctuations increase as the flow spirals toward the center of the reactor. The magnitudes of the tangential and radial velocity fluctuations are similar, suggesting that the turbulence is locally isotropic. (paper)
Energy Spectra of Vortex Distributions in Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashton S. Bradley
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We theoretically explore key concepts of two-dimensional turbulence in a homogeneous compressible superfluid described by a dissipative two-dimensional Gross-Pitaeveskii equation. Such a fluid supports quantized vortices that have a size characterized by the healing length ξ. We show that, for the divergence-free portion of the superfluid velocity field, the kinetic-energy spectrum over wave number k may be decomposed into an ultraviolet regime (k≫ξ^{-1} having a universal k^{-3} scaling arising from the vortex core structure, and an infrared regime (k≪ξ^{-1} with a spectrum that arises purely from the configuration of the vortices. The Novikov power-law distribution of intervortex distances with exponent -1/3 for vortices of the same sign of circulation leads to an infrared kinetic-energy spectrum with a Kolmogorov k^{-5/3} power law, which is consistent with the existence of an inertial range. The presence of these k^{-3} and k^{-5/3} power laws, together with the constraint of continuity at the smallest configurational scale k≈ξ^{-1}, allows us to derive a new analytical expression for the Kolmogorov constant that we test against a numerical simulation of a forced homogeneous, compressible, two-dimensional superfluid. The numerical simulation corroborates our analysis of the spectral features of the kinetic-energy distribution, once we introduce the concept of a clustered fraction consisting of the fraction of vortices that have the same sign of circulation as their nearest neighboring vortices. Our analysis presents a new approach to understanding two-dimensional quantum turbulence and interpreting similarities and differences with classical two-dimensional turbulence, and suggests new methods to characterize vortex turbulence in two-dimensional quantum fluids via vortex position and circulation measurements.
Energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in sheared background field
Hu, Di; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Huang, Yi-Min
2018-06-01
The energy spectrum of tearing mode turbulence in a sheared background magnetic field is studied in this work. We consider the scenario where the nonlinear interaction of overlapping large-scale modes excites a broad spectrum of small-scale modes, generating tearing mode turbulence. The spectrum of such turbulence is of interest since it is relevant to the small-scale back-reaction on the large-scale field. The turbulence we discuss here differs from traditional MHD turbulence mainly in two aspects. One is the existence of many linearly stable small-scale modes which cause an effective damping during the energy cascade. The other is the scale-independent anisotropy induced by the large-scale modes tilting the sheared background field, as opposed to the scale-dependent anisotropy frequently encountered in traditional critically balanced turbulence theories. Due to these two differences, the energy spectrum deviates from a simple power law and takes the form of a power law multiplied by an exponential falloff. Numerical simulations are carried out using visco-resistive MHD equations to verify our theoretical predictions, and a reasonable agreement is found between the numerical results and our model.
Anderson, William; Yang, Jianzhi
2017-11-01
Spanwise surface heterogeneity beneath high-Reynolds number, fully-rough wall turbulence is known to induce mean secondary flows in the form of counter-rotating streamwise vortices. The secondary flows are a manifestation of Prandtl's secondary flow of the second kind - driven and sustained by spatial heterogeneity of components of the turbulent (Reynolds averaged) stress tensor. The spacing between adjacent surface heterogeneities serves as a control on the spatial extent of the counter-rotating cells, while their intensity is controlled by the spanwise gradient in imposed drag (where larger gradients associated with more dramatic transitions in roughness induce stronger cells). In this work, we have performed an order of magnitude analysis of the mean (Reynolds averaged) streamwise vorticity transport equation, revealing the scaling dependence of circulation upon spanwise spacing. The scaling arguments are supported by simulation data. Then, we demonstrate that mean streamwise velocity can be predicted a priori via a similarity solution to the mean streamwise vorticity transport equation. A vortex forcing term was used to represent the affects of spanwise topographic heterogeneity within the flow. Efficacy of the vortex forcing term was established with large-eddy simulation cases, wherein vortex forcing model parameters were altered to capture different values of spanwise spacing.
Double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent swirling annular jet flow
Vanierschot, M.; Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B. W.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we report on the structure and dynamics of double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent annular swirling jet. Double helix breakdown has been reported previously for the laminar flow regime, but this structure has rarely been observed in turbulent flow. The flow field is investigated experimentally by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. Notwithstanding the axisymmetric nature of the time-averaged flow, analysis of the instantaneous three-dimensional (3D) vortical structures shows the existence of a vortex core along the central axis which breaks up into a double helix downstream. The winding sense of this double helix is opposite to the swirl direction (m =-2 ) and it is wrapped around a central vortex breakdown bubble. This structure is quite different from double helix breakdown found in laminar flows where the helix is formed in the wake of the bubble and not upstream. The double helix precesses around the central axis of the jet with a precessing frequency corresponding to a Strouhal number of 0.27.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, S. Y.; Yuan, Z. G.; Wang, D. D.; Yu, X. D. [School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Sahraoui, F.; Contel, O. Le [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-UPMC, Palaiseau (France); He, J. S. [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhao, J. S. [Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Deng, X. H.; Pang, Y.; Li, H. M. [Institute of Space Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang (China); Zhou, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Fu, H. S.; Yang, J. [School of Space and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing (China); Shi, Q. Q. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai (China); Lavraud, B. [Institut de Recherche and Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université de Toulouse (UPS), Toulouse (France); Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Torbert, R. B. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Russell, C. T., E-mail: shiyonghuang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); and others
2017-02-20
We report on the observations of an electron vortex magnetic hole corresponding to a new type of coherent structure in the turbulent magnetosheath plasma using the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission data. The magnetic hole is characterized by a magnetic depression, a density peak, a total electron temperature increase (with a parallel temperature decrease but a perpendicular temperature increase), and strong currents carried by the electrons. The current has a dip in the core region and a peak in the outer region of the magnetic hole. The estimated size of the magnetic hole is about 0.23 ρ {sub i} (∼30 ρ {sub e}) in the quasi-circular cross-section perpendicular to its axis, where ρ {sub i} and ρ {sub e} are respectively the proton and electron gyroradius. There are no clear enhancements seen in high-energy electron fluxes. However, there is an enhancement in the perpendicular electron fluxes at 90° pitch angle inside the magnetic hole, implying that the electrons are trapped within it. The variations of the electron velocity components V {sub em} and V {sub en} suggest that an electron vortex is formed by trapping electrons inside the magnetic hole in the cross-section in the M – N plane. These observations demonstrate the existence of a new type of coherent structures behaving as an electron vortex magnetic hole in turbulent space plasmas as predicted by recent kinetic simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishitsuka, Shota; Motozawa, Masaaki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Ando, Hirotomo; Senda, Tetsuya
2011-01-01
Coherent vortex structure in turbulent drag-reducing channel flow with blown polymer solution from the wall was investigated. As a statistical analysis, we carried out Galilean decomposition, swirling strength and linear stochastic estimation of the PIV data obtained by the PIV measurement in x – y plane. Reynolds number based on bulk velocity and channel height was set to 40000. As a result, the angle of shear layer that cleared up by using Galilean decomposition becomes small in the drag-reducing flow. Q3 events were observed near the shear layer. In addition, as a result of linear stochastic estimation (LSE) based on swirling strength, we confirmed that the velocity under the vortex core is strong in the water flow. This result shows Q2 (ejection) are dominant in the water flow. However, in the drag-reducing flow with blown polymer solution, the velocity above the vortex core become strong, that is, Q4 (sweep) events are relatively strong around the vortex core. This is the result of Q4 events to come from the channel center region because the polymer solution does not exist in this region. The typical structure like this was observed in the drag -reducing flow with blown polymer solution from the wall.
Developed Turbulence: From Full Simulations to Full Mode Reductions
Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Reeh, Achim
1996-01-01
Developed Navier-Stokes turbulence is simulated with varying wave-vector mode reductions. The flatness and the skewness of the velocity derivative depend on the degree of mode reduction. They show a crossover towards the value of the full numerical simulation when the viscous subrange starts to be
Akhmetov, D G
2009-01-01
This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.
Hyper-resistivity produced by tearing mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.
1986-01-01
Tearing mode turbulence produces a hyper-resistivity or effective anomalous electron viscosity. The hyper-resistivity is calculated for the mean magnetic field quasilinearly, and for long-wavelength modes using the direct interaction approximation. The hyper-resistivity accounts for current relaxation in reversed-field pinch experiments, and gives a magnetic fluctuation sealing of S -1 /sup // 3 . It causes enhanced tearing mode growth rates in the turbulent phase of tokamak disruptions. In astrophysics, it limits magnetic energy growth due to the dynamo effect, and may explain rapid reconnection phenomena such as solar flares
Turbulent Flow with Embedded Vortical Structures Induced by Vortex Generators in a Cascade
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Součková, Natálie; Uruba, Václav
2012-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 1 (2012), s. 571-572 ISSN 1617-7061. [Annual Meeting of the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics /83./. Darmstadt, 26.03.2012-30.03.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/10/1230; GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : vortex generator * turbulent flow * PIV Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201210274/abstract
Wu, Huiyun; Sheng, Shen; Huang, Zhisong; Zhao, Siqing; Wang, Hua; Sun, Zhenhai; Xu, Xiegu
2013-02-25
As a new attractive application of the vortex beams, power coupling of annular vortex beam propagating through a two- Cassegrain-telescope optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. A typical model of annular vortex beam propagating through a two-Cassegrain-telescope optical system is established, the general analytical expression of vortex beams with limited apertures and the analytical formulas for the average intensity distribution at the receiver plane are derived. Under the H-V 5/7 turbulence model, the average intensity distribution at the receiver plane and power coupling efficiency of the optical system are numerically calculated, and the influences of the optical topological charge, the laser wavelength, the propagation path and the receiver apertures on the power coupling efficiency are analyzed. These studies reveal that the average intensity distribution at the receiver plane presents a central dark hollow profile, which is suitable for power coupling by the Cassegrain telescope receiver. In the optical system with optimized parameters, power coupling efficiency can keep in high values with the increase of the propagation distance. Under the atmospheric turbulent conditions, great advantages of vortex beam in power coupling of the two-Cassegrain-telescope optical system are shown in comparison with beam without vortex.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huggins, E.R.
1994-01-01
Expressing hydrodynamics in terms of the flow of vorticity, using the vortex current tensor, helps unify the picture of turbulent channel flow for viscous fluids and for superfluids. In both, eddy viscosity plays a major role in energy dissipation, and in both there is a similar cross stream flow of vorticity, which in the case of superfluids leads to the Josephson frequency. The vortex current tensor, which was introduced in an earlier paper to derive an exact three dimensional Magnus effect formula, turns out to be the classical hydrodynamic limit of the vortex current that is the source for a classical Goldstone-boson field
Zonal flow generation in collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, J; Nordman, H; Singh, R; Weiland, J
2006-01-01
In the present work the generation of zonal flows in collisionless trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence is studied analytically. A reduced model for TEM turbulence is utilized based on an advanced fluid model for reactive drift waves. An analytical expression for the zonal flow growth rate is derived and compared with the linear TEM growth, and its scaling with plasma parameters is examined for typical tokamak parameter values
Bailly, Christophe
2015-01-01
This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...
Burst-mode manipulation of magnonic vortex crystals
Hänze, Max; Adolff, Christian F.; Weigand, Markus; Meier, Guido
2015-03-01
The manipulation of polarization states in 4 ×4 vortex crystals using sinusoidal magnetic field bursts is investigated by means of a broadband ferromagnetic-resonance setup. Magnetic field excitation with the proper amplitude and frequency allows tuning different polarization states, which are observed in the measured absorption spectra. The variation of the sinusoidal burst width consecutively identifies the time scale of the underlying process. A memorylike polarization state writing process is demonstrated on the submicrosecond time scale.
Tang, Shiwei; Cai, Tong; Wang, Guang-Ming; Liang, Jian-Gang; Li, Xike; Yu, Jiancheng
2018-04-23
Vortex beam is believed to be an effective way to extend communication capacity, but available efforts suffer from the issues of complex configurations, fixed operation mode as well as low efficiency. Here, we propose a general strategy to design dual-modes vortex beam generator by using metasurfaces with polarization-dependent transmission and reflection properties. Combining the focusing and vortex functionalities, we design/fabricate a type of compact dual-modes vortex beam generator operating at both reflection/transmission sides of the system. Experimental results demonstrate that the designed metadevice can switch freely and independently between the reflective vortex with topological charge m 1 = 2 and transmissive vortex with m 2 = 1. Moreover, the metadevice exhibits very high efficiencies of 91% and 85% for the reflective and transmissive case respectively. Our findings open a door for multifunctional metadevices with high performances, which indicate wide applications in modern integration-optics and wireless communication systems.
Scaling laws and vortex profiles in two-dimensional decaying turbulence.
Laval, J P; Chavanis, P H; Dubrulle, B; Sire, C
2001-06-01
We use high resolution numerical simulations over several hundred of turnover times to study the influence of small scale dissipation onto vortex statistics in 2D decaying turbulence. A scaling regime is detected when the scaling laws are expressed in units of mean vorticity and integral scale, like predicted in Carnevale et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2735 (1991), and it is observed that viscous effects spoil this scaling regime. The exponent controlling the decay of the number of vortices shows some trends toward xi=1, in agreement with a recent theory based on the Kirchhoff model [C. Sire and P. H. Chavanis, Phys. Rev. E 61, 6644 (2000)]. In terms of scaled variables, the vortices have a similar profile with a functional form related to the Fermi-Dirac distribution.
Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.
1998-01-01
The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)
Varga, E.; Skrbek, L.
2018-02-01
Recently the interest in thermal counterflow of superfluid 4He, the most extensively studied form of quantum turbulence, has been renewed. Particularly, an intense theoretical debate has arisen about what form, if any, of the so-called Vinen equation accurately captures the dynamics of vortex line density, L . We address this problem experimentally, in a 21 cm long channel of square 7 ×7 mm2 cross section. Based on large statistics of second-sound data measured in nonequilibrium square-wave modulated thermally induced counterflow we investigate the phase portrait of the general form of the governing dynamical equation and conclude that for sparse tangles (L ≲105cm-2) all proposed forms of this equation based on the concept of a homogeneous random tangle of quantized vortices provide equally adequate descriptions of the growth of L , while for dense tangles (L >105cm-2) none of them is satisfactory or able to account for the significant slow-down in tangle growth rate as the steady state is approached. We claim, however, that agreement with theory is recovered if the geometrical parameter c2 introduced in numerical studies by K. W. Schwarz [Phys. Rev. B 38, 2398 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevB.38.2398] is allowed to vary with vortex line density which also greatly improves the prediction of the observed early decay rate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitani, Akira; Tsubota, Makoto
2006-01-01
The energy spectrum of decaying quantum turbulence at T=0 obeys Kolmogorov's law. In addition to this, recent studies revealed that the vortex-length distribution (VLD), meaning the size distribution of the vortices, in decaying Kolmogorov quantum turbulence also obeys a power law. This power-law VLD suggests that the decaying turbulence has scale-free structure in real space. Unfortunately, however, there has been no practical study that answers the following important question: why can quantum turbulence acquire a scale-free VLD? We propose here a model to study the origin of the power law of the VLD from a generic point of view. The nature of quantized vortices allows one to describe the decay of quantum turbulence with a simple model that is similar to the Barabasi-Albert model, which explains the scale-invariance structure of large networks. We show here that such a model can reproduce the power law of the VLD well
Spiral Transformation for High-Resolution and Efficient Sorting of Optical Vortex Modes
Wen, Yuanhui; Chremmos, Ioannis; Chen, Yujie; Zhu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yu, Siyuan
2018-05-01
Mode sorting is an essential function for optical multiplexing systems that exploit the orthogonality of the orbital angular momentum mode space. The familiar log-polar optical transformation provides a simple yet efficient approach whose resolution is, however, restricted by a considerable overlap between adjacent modes resulting from the limited excursion of the phase along a complete circle around the optical vortex axis. We propose and experimentally verify a new optical transformation that maps spirals (instead of concentric circles) to parallel lines. As the phase excursion along a spiral in the wave front of an optical vortex is theoretically unlimited, this new optical transformation can separate orbital angular momentum modes with superior resolution while maintaining unity efficiency.
Optical vortex propagation in few-mode rectangular polymer waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Chipouline, Arkadi; Zywietz, Urs
2017-01-01
We demonstrate that rectangular few-mode dielectric waveguides, fabricated with standard lithographic technique, can support on-chip propagation of optical vortices. We show that specific superpositions of waveguide eigenmodes form quasi-degenerate modes carrying light with high purity states...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenaud, C.; Podvin, B.; Fraigneau, Y.; Daru, V.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Study devoted to the compressible LES of the separated/reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate with a right-angled leading edge. • Original contribution using a compressible approach to analyze main coherent structure features and their relation to the unsteady pressure field in the separated/reattached turbulent flow. • The present study provides a well resolved LES reference data-basis that is compared to incompressible results for validation. • It contributes to a better understanding of the coupling between the vortex dynamics and the wall pressure fluctuations, especially in connection with either the vortex shedding or the low frequency shear-layer flapping. - Abstract: This study deals with the numerical predictions through Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) of the separated–reattached turbulent flow over a blunt flat plate for analyzing main coherent structure features and their relation to the unsteady pressure field. A compressible approach that inherently includes acoustic propagation is here followed to describe the relationship between pressure fluctuations and vortex dynamics around the separation bubble. The objective of the present work is then to contribute to a better understanding of the coupling between the vortex dynamics and the wall pressure fluctuations. The filtered compressible Navier–Stokes equations are then solved with a numerical method that follows a Lax–Wendroff approach to recover a high accuracy in both time and space. For validations, the present numerical results are compared to experimental measurements, coming from both the Pprime laboratory (Sicot el al., 2012) and the literature (Cherry et al., 1984; Kiya and Sasaki, 1985; Tafti and Vanka,1991; Sicot et al., 2012). Our numerical results very well predict mean and fluctuating pressure and velocity fields. Flapping, shedding as well as Kelvin–Helmholtz characteristic frequencies educed by present simulations are in very good agreement with the
A comprehensive spectral theory of zonal-mode dynamics in trapped electron mode turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Gatto, R.; Baver, D.A.; Fernandez, E.
2005-01-01
A comprehensive, self-consistent theory for spectral dynamics in trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence offers critical new understanding and insights into zonal-mode physics. This theory shows that 1) zonal mode structure, anisotropy, excitation, and temporal behavior arise at and from the interface of nonlinear advection and linear wave properties; 2) waves induce a marked spectral energy-transfer anisotropy that preferentially drives zonal modes relative to non zonal modes; 3) triplet correlations involving density (as opposed to those involving only flow) mediate the dominant energy transfer at long wavelengths; 4) energy transfer becomes inverse in the presence of wave anisotropy, where otherwise it is forward; 5) zonal-mode excitation is accompanied by excitation of a spectrum of damped eigenmodes, making zonal modes nonlinearly damped; and 6) the combination of anisotropic transfer to zonal modes and their nonlinear damping make this the dominant saturation mechanism for TEM turbulence. This accounts for the reduction of turbulence level by zonal modes, not zonal-flow ExB shearing. (author)
Mode Selection in Flame-Vortex driven Combustion Instabilities
Speth, Ray; Hong, Seung Hyuck; Shanbogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed
2011-01-01
is governed by a combustion-related time delay inversely proportional to the flame speed. Our model predicts the transition between distinct operating modes. We introduce non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flame speed and stretch rate, and develop a
Radio-over-Fiber Transmission Using Vortex Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng; Rommel, Simon
2015-01-01
This paper demonstrates experimentally the distribution of radio-over-fiber (RoF) signals using orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light over standard OM4 multimode fiber (MMF) at 850 nm wavelength. Five independent OAM modes are used to convey RoF signals in the microwave regime showing robust pe...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Jinzhao; Qi, Meilan; Fuhrman, David R.
2018-01-01
-normal distribution for uniform channel-open flows. The comparisons of sediment transport rates where turbulent fluctuations in the bed shear stress are, or are not, taken into account show that the sediment transport rates calculated by the mean bed shear stress are under-predicted. Furthermore, a new sediment......This study concerns the flow and associated sediment transport in front of a cylinder in steady currents. The study comprises (i) flow characteristics induced by the turbulent horseshoe vortex (THV), (ii) bed shear stress within the THV region, and (iii) predicted sediment transport rates...
Evolutionary pulsational mode dynamics in nonthermal turbulent viscous astrofluids
Karmakar, Pralay Kumar; Dutta, Pranamika
2017-11-01
The pulsational mode of gravitational collapse in a partially ionized self-gravitating inhomogeneous viscous nonthermal nonextensive astrofluid in the presence of turbulence pressure is illustratively analyzed. The constitutive thermal species, lighter electrons and ions, are thermostatistically treated with the nonthermal κ-distribution laws. The inertial species, such as identical heavier neutral and charged dust microspheres, are modelled in the turbulent fluid framework. All the possible linear processes responsible for dust-dust collisions are accounted. The Larson logatropic equations of state relating the dust thermal (linear) and turbulence (nonlinear) pressures with dust densities are included. A regular linear normal perturbation analysis (local) over the complex astrocloud ensues in a generalized quartic dispersion relation with unique nature of plasma-dependent multi-parametric coefficients. A numerical standpoint is provided to showcase the basic mode features in a judicious astronomical paradigm. It is shown that both the kinematic viscosity of the dust fluids and nonthermality parameter (kappa, the power-law tail index) of the thermal species act as stabilizing (damping) agent against the gravity; and so forth. The underlying evolutionary microphysics is explored. The significance of redistributing astrofluid material via waveinduced accretion in dynamic nonhomologic structureless cloud collapse leading to hierarchical astrostructure formation is actualized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Ruifeng; Wang, Feiran; Chen, Dongxu; Wang, Yunlong; Zhou, Yu; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Pei, E-mail: zhangpei@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Li, Fuli [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Optoelectronic Devices, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2016-02-01
It is known that the cross-correlation function (CCF) of a partially coherent vortex (PCV) beam shows a robust link with the radial and azimuthal mode indices. However, the previous proposals are difficult to measure the CCF in practical systems, especially in the case of astronomical objects. In this letter, we demonstrate experimentally that the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect can be used to measure the mode indices of the original vortex beam and investigate the relationship between the spatial coherent width and the characterization of CCF of the PCV beam. The technique we exploit is quite efficient and robust, and it may be useful in the field of free space communication and astronomy which are related to the photon's orbital angular momentum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Ruifeng; Wang, Feiran; Chen, Dongxu; Wang, Yunlong; Zhou, Yu; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Fuli
2016-01-01
It is known that the cross-correlation function (CCF) of a partially coherent vortex (PCV) beam shows a robust link with the radial and azimuthal mode indices. However, the previous proposals are difficult to measure the CCF in practical systems, especially in the case of astronomical objects. In this letter, we demonstrate experimentally that the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect can be used to measure the mode indices of the original vortex beam and investigate the relationship between the spatial coherent width and the characterization of CCF of the PCV beam. The technique we exploit is quite efficient and robust, and it may be useful in the field of free space communication and astronomy which are related to the photon's orbital angular momentum
Turbulent precipitation of uranium oxalate in a vortex reactor - experimental study and modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer de Gelicourt, Y.
2004-03-01
Industrial oxalic precipitation processed in an un-baffled magnetically stirred tank, the Vortex Reactor, has been studied with uranium simulating plutonium. Modelling precipitation requires a mixing model for the continuous liquid phase and the solution of population balance for the dispersed solid phase. Being chemical reaction influenced by the degree of mixing at molecular scale, that commercial CFD code does not resolve, a sub-grid scale model has been introduced: the finite mode probability density functions, and coupled with a model for the liquid energy spectrum. Evolution of the dispersed phase has been resolved by the quadrature method of moments, first used here with experimental nucleation and growth kinetics, and an aggregation kernel based on local shear rate. The promising abilities of this local approach, without any fitting constant, are strengthened by the similarity between experimental results and simulations. (author)
Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence Driven Intrinsic Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W.X.; Hahm, T.S.; Ethier, S.; Zakharov, L.E.
2011-01-01
Recent progress from global gyrokinetic simulations in understanding the origin of intrinsic rotation in toroidal plasmas is reported with emphasis on electron thermal transport dominated regimes. The turbulence driven intrinsic torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation by the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of zonal flow shear induced asymmetry in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is shown to scale close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current. These results qualitatively reproduce empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation observed in various experiments. The origin of current scaling is found to be due to enhanced kll symmetry breaking induced by the increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic torque on pressure gradient is that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving residual stress, increase with the strength of turbulence drive, which is R0/LTe and R0/Lne for the trapped electron mode.
Large CYBER-205-model of the Euler equations for vortex-stretched turbulent flow around Delta wings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizzi, A.; Purcell, C.J.
1985-01-01
The large-scale numerical simulation of fluid flow is described as a discipline within the field of software engineering. As an example of such work, a vortex flow field is analyzed for its essential physical flow features, an appropriate mathematical description is presented (the Euler equations with an artificial viscosity model), a numerical algorithm to solve mathematical equations is described, and the programming methodology which allows us to attain a very high degree of vectorization on the CYBER 205 is discussed. Four simulated flowfields with vorticity shed from wing edges are computed with up to as many as one million grid points and verify the realism of the simulation model. The computed solutions show all of the qualitative features that are expected in these flows. The twisted cranked-and-cropped delta case is one where the leading-edge vortex is highly stretched and unstable, displaying ultimately inviscid large-scale turbulent-like phenomena
Orbital angular momentum mode of Gaussian beam induced by atmospheric turbulence
Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Li, Jiangting; Yan, Xu; Dong, Kangjun
2018-02-01
Superposition theory of the spiral harmonics is employed to numerical study the transmission property of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode of Gaussian beam induced by atmospheric turbulence. Results show that Gauss beam does not carry OAM at the source, but various OAM modes appear after affected by atmospheric turbulence. With the increase of atmospheric turbulence strength, the smaller order OAM modes appear firstly, followed by larger order OAM modes. The beam spreading of Gauss beams in the atmosphere enhance with the increasing topological charge of the OAM modes caused by atmospheric turbulence. The mode probability density of the OAM generated by atmospheric turbulence decreases, and peak position gradually deviate from the Gauss beam spot center with the increase of the topological charge. Our results may be useful for improving the performance of long distance laser digital spiral imaging system.
Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation
Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph
2012-01-01
Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.
Rai, Man Mohan
2018-05-01
The near wake of a flat plate is investigated via direct numerical simulations. Many earlier experimental investigations have used thin plates with sharp trailing edges and turbulent boundary layers to create the wake. This results in large θ/DTE values (θ is the boundary layer momentum thickness toward the end of the plate and DTE is the trailing edge thickness). In the present study, the emphasis is on relatively thick plates with circular trailing edges (CTEs) resulting in θ/D values less than one (D is the plate thickness and the diameter of the CTE) and vigorous vortex shedding. The Reynolds numbers based on the plate length and D are 1.255 × 106 and 10 000, respectively. Two cases are computed: one with turbulent boundary layers on both the upper and lower surfaces of the plate (statistically the same, symmetric wake, Case TT) and the other with turbulent and laminar boundary layers on the upper and lower surfaces, respectively (asymmetric case, Case TL). The data and understanding obtained are of considerable engineering interest, particularly in turbomachinery where the pressure side of an airfoil can remain laminar or transitional because of a favorable pressure gradient and the suction side is turbulent. Shed-vortex structure and phase-averaged velocity statistics obtained in the two cases are compared here. The upper negative shed vortices in Case TL (turbulent separating boundary layer) are weaker than the lower positive ones (laminar separating boundary layer) at inception (a factor of 1.27 weaker in terms of peak phase-averaged spanwise vorticity at the first appearance of a peak). The upper vortices weaken rapidly as they travel downstream. A second feature of interest in Case TL is a considerable increase in the peak phase-averaged, streamwise normal intensity (random component) with increasing streamwise distance (x/D) that occurs near the positive vortex cores. This behavior is observed for a few diameters in the near wake. This is counter to
Tokamak fluidlike equations, with applications to turbulence and transport in H mode discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.B.; Biglari, H.; Carreras, B.A.; Diamond, P.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Kwon, O.J.; Spong, D.A.; Callen, J.D.; Chang, Z.; Hollenberg, J.B.; Sundaram, A.K.; Terry, P.W.; Wang, J.F.
1990-01-01
Significant progress has been made in developing tokamak fluidlike equations which are valid in all collisionality regimes in toroidal devices, and their applications to turbulence and transport in tokamaks. The areas highlighted in this paper include: the rigorous derivation of tokamak fluidlike equations via a generalized Chapman-Enskog procedure in various collisionality regimes and on various time scales; their application to collisionless and collisional drift wave models in a sheared slab geometry; applications to neoclassical drift wave turbulence; i.e. neoclassical ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence and neoclassical electron-drift-wave turbulence; applications to neoclassical bootstrap-current-driven turbulence; numerical simulation of nonlinear bootstrap-current-driven turbulence and tearing mode turbulence; transport in Hot-Ion H mode discharges. 20 refs., 3 figs
Diagnostics of BubbleMode Vortex Breakdown in Swirling Flow in a Large-Aspect-Ratio Cylinder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulikov, D. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Naumov, Igor
2014-01-01
We report for the first time on the possible formation of regions with counterflow (bubble-mode vortex breakdown or explosion) at the center of strongly swirling flow generated by a rotating endwall in a large-aspect-ratio cylindrical cavity filled with a liquid medium. Previously, the possibility...... of bubble-mode breakdown was studied in detail for cylindrical cavities of moderate aspect ratio (length to radius ratios up to H/R ∼ 3.5), while flows in large-aspect-ratio cylinders were only associated with regimes of self-organized helical vortex multiplets. In the present study, a regime...
A new kinetic description for turbulent collisions including mode-coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Misguich, J.H.; Tchen, C.M.
1982-07-01
The usual introduction of higher-order mode-coupling terms in the description of turbulent collisions beyond usual Renormalized Quasi-Linear approximation (RQL) is briefly analyzed. Here new results are derived in the framework of the general kinetic theory, and the equivalence is proved with the long time limit of simple results deduced from the Vlasov equation. The correction to the RQL turbulent collision term is analyzed and a new approximation is proposed. Turbulent collisions are also described by perturbation around the Lagrangian autocorrelation of fluctuating fields. For an homogeneous turbulence, however, the asymptotic integral of this Lagrangian autocorrelation vanishes identically, similarly to what occurs in Brownian motion. For inhomogeneous turbulence this method can nevertheless be used, and higher-order mode-coupling terms can be interpreted as a shielding of elementary Lagrangian turbulent collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sommer de Gelicourt, Y
2004-03-15
Industrial oxalic precipitation processed in an un-baffled magnetically stirred tank, the Vortex Reactor, has been studied with uranium simulating plutonium. Modelling precipitation requires a mixing model for the continuous liquid phase and the solution of population balance for the dispersed solid phase. Being chemical reaction influenced by the degree of mixing at molecular scale, that commercial CFD code does not resolve, a sub-grid scale model has been introduced: the finite mode probability density functions, and coupled with a model for the liquid energy spectrum. Evolution of the dispersed phase has been resolved by the quadrature method of moments, first used here with experimental nucleation and growth kinetics, and an aggregation kernel based on local shear rate. The promising abilities of this local approach, without any fitting constant, are strengthened by the similarity between experimental results and simulations. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Munki; Choi, Youngil; Oh, Jeongseog; Yoon, Youngbin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)
2009-12-15
This study examines the effect of acoustic excitation using forced coaxial air on the flame characteristics of turbulent hydrogen non-premixed flames. A resonance frequency was selected to acoustically excite the coaxial air jet due to its ability to effectively amplify the acoustic amplitude and reduce flame length and NO{sub x} emissions. Acoustic excitation causes the flame length to decrease by 15% and consequently, a 25% reduction in EINO{sub x} is achieved, compared to coaxial air flames without acoustic excitation at the same coaxial air to fuel velocity ratio. Moreover, acoustic excitation induces periodical fluctuation of the coaxial air velocity, thus resulting in slight fluctuation of the fuel velocity. From phase-lock PIV and OH PLIF measurement, the local flow properties at the flame surface were investigated under acoustic forcing. During flame-vortex interaction in the near field region, the entrainment velocity and the flame surface area increased locally near the vortex. This increase in flame surface area and entrainment velocity is believed to be a crucial factor in reducing flame length and NO{sub x} emission in coaxial jet flames with acoustic excitation. Local flame extinction occurred frequently when subjected to an excessive strain rate, indicating that intense mass transfer of fuel and air occurs radially inward at the flame surface. (author)
Hill, James C.; Liu, Zhenping; Fox, Rodney O.; Passalacqua, Alberto; Olsen, Michael G.
2015-11-01
The multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) has been developed to provide a platform for rapid mixing in the application of flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) for manufacturing functional nanoparticles. Unfortunately, commonly used RANS methods are unable to accurately model this complex swirling flow. Large eddy simulations have also been problematic, as expensive fine grids to accurately model the flow are required. These dilemmas led to the strategy of applying a Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) method to the vortex reactor. In the current work, the turbulent swirling flow inside a scaled-up MIVR has been investigated by using a dynamic DDES model. In the DDES model, the eddy viscosity has a form similar to the Smagorinsky sub-grid viscosity in LES and allows the implementation of a dynamic procedure to determine its coefficient. The complex recirculating back flow near the reactor center has been successfully captured by using this dynamic DDES model. Moreover, the simulation results are found to agree with experimental data for mean velocity and Reynolds stresses.
Fermion zero modes in the vortex background of a Chern-Simons-Higgs theory with a hidden sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lozano, Gustavo [Departamento de Física, FCEYN Universidad de Buenos Aires & IFIBA CONICET,Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mohammadi, Azadeh [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba,58.059-970, Caixa Postal 5.008, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Schaposnik, Fidel A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata/IFLP/CICBA,CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2015-11-06
In this paper we study a 2+1 dimensional system in which fermions are coupled to the self-dual topological vortex in U(1)×U(1) Chern-Simons theory, where both U(1) gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. We consider two Abelian Higgs scalars with visible and hidden sectors coupled to a fermionic field through three interaction Lagrangians, where one of them violates the fermion number. Using a fine tuning procedure, we could obtain the number of the fermionic zero modes which is equal to the absolute value of the sum of the vortex numbers in the visible and hidden sectors.
Yan, Xu; Guo, Lixin; Cheng, Mingjian; Li, Jiangting
2018-05-14
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode crosstalk induced by atmospheric turbulence is a challenging phenomenon commonly occurring in OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) communication. Recent advances have facilitated new practicable methods using abruptly autofocusing light beams for weakening the turbulence effect on the FSO link. In this work, we show that a circular phase-locked Airy vortex beam array (AVBA) with sufficient elements has the inherent ability to form an abruptly autofocusing light beam carrying OAM, and its focusing properties can be controlled on demand by adjusting the topological charge values and locations of these vortices embedded in the array elements. The performance of a tailored Airy vortex beam array (TAVBA) through atmospheric turbulence is numerically studied. In a comparison with the ring Airy vortex beam (RAVB), the results indicate that TAVBA can be a superior light source for effectively reducing the intermodal crosstalk and vortex splitting, thus leading to improvement in the FSO system performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buntine, J.D.
1994-01-01
Part I. A study of the behaviour of an inviscid, swirling fluid is performed. This flow can be described by the Squire-Long equation if the constraints of time-independence and axisymmetry are invoked. The particular case of flow through a diverging pipe is selected and a study is conducted to determine over what range of parameters does a solution exist. The work is performed with a view to understanding how the phenomenon of vortex breakdown develops. Experiments and previous numerical studies have indicated that the flow is sensitive to boundary conditions particularly at the pipe inlet. A open-quotes quasi-cylindricalclose quotes amplification of the Squire-Long equation is compared with the more complete model and shown to be able to account for most of its behaviour. An advantage of this latter representation is the relatively undetailed description of the flow geometry it requires in order to calculate a solution. open-quotes Criticalityclose quotes or the ability of small disturbances to propagate upstream is related to results of the quasi-cylindrical and axisymmetric flow models. This leads to an examination of claims made by researchers such as Benjamin and Hall concerning the interrelationship between open-quotes failureclose quotes of the quasi-cylindrical model and the occurrence of a open-quotes criticalclose quotes flow state. Lundgren developed an analytical model for homogeneous turbulence based on a collection of contracting spiral vortices each embedded in an axisymmetric strain field. Using asymptotic approximations he was able to deduce the Kolmogorov k -5/3 behaviour for inertial scales in the turbulence energy spectrum. Pullin ampersand Saffman have enlarged upon his work to make a number of predictions about the behaviour of turbulence described by the model. This work investigates the model numerically. The first part considers how the flow description compares with numerical simulations using the Navier-Stokes equations
Turbine airfoil with an internal cooling system having vortex forming turbulators
Lee, Ching-Pang
2014-12-30
A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels having a plurality of turbulators protruding from an inner surface and positioned generally nonorthogonal and nonparallel to a longitudinal axis of the airfoil cooling channel. The configuration of turbulators may create a higher internal convective cooling potential for the blade cooling passage, thereby generating a high rate of internal convective heat transfer and attendant improvement in overall cooling performance. This translates into a reduction in cooling fluid demand and better turbine performance.
Asahi, Y.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.
2014-05-01
Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.
Ground state, collective mode, phase soliton and vortex in multiband superconductors.
Lin, Shi-Zeng
2014-12-10
This article reviews theoretical and experimental work on the novel physics in multiband superconductors. Multiband superconductors are characterized by multiple superconducting energy gaps in different bands with interaction between Cooper pairs in these bands. The discovery of prominent multiband superconductors MgB2 and later iron-based superconductors, has triggered enormous interest in multiband superconductors. The most recently discovered superconductors exhibit multiband features. The multiband superconductors possess novel properties that are not shared with their single-band counterpart. Examples include: the time-reversal symmetry broken state in multiband superconductors with frustrated interband couplings; the collective oscillation of number of Cooper pairs between different bands, known as the Leggett mode; and the phase soliton and fractional vortex, which are the main focus of this review. This review presents a survey of a wide range of theoretical exploratory and experimental investigations of novel physics in multiband superconductors. A vast amount of information derived from these studies is shown to highlight unusual and unique properties of multiband superconductors and to reveal the challenges and opportunities in the research on the multiband superconductivity.
Keatley, Paul Steven; Redjai Sani, Sohrab; Hrkac, Gino; Majid Mohseni, Seyed; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Åkerman, Johan; Hicken, Robert James
2017-04-01
Nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) are anticipated to find application as nanoscale sources of microwave emission in future technological applications. Presently the output power and phase stability of individual STVOs are not competitive with existing oscillator technologies. Synchronisation of multiple nano-contact STVOs via magnetisation dynamics has been proposed to enhance the microwave emission. The control of device-to-device variations, such as mode splitting of the microwave emission, is essential if multiple STVOs are to be successfully synchronised. In this work a combination of electrical measurements and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to demonstrate how mode splitting in the microwave emission of STVOs was related to the magnetisation dynamics that are generated. The free-running STVO response to a DC current only was used to identify devices and bias magnetic field configurations for which single and multiple modes of microwave emission were observed. Stroboscopic Kerr images were acquired by injecting a small amplitude RF current to phase lock the free-running STVO response. The images showed that the magnetisation dynamics of a multimode device with moderate splitting could be controlled by the injected RF current so that they exhibit similar spatial character to that of a single mode. Significant splitting was found to result from a complicated equilibrium magnetic state that was observed in Kerr images as irregular spatial characteristics of the magnetisation dynamics. Such dynamics were observed far from the nano-contact and so their presence cannot be detected in electrical measurements. This work demonstrates that TRSKM is a powerful tool for the direct observation of the magnetisation dynamics generated by STVOs that exhibit complicated microwave emission. Characterisation of such dynamics outside the nano-contact perimeter permits a deeper insight into the requirements for optimal phase-locking of
Turbulent edge transport in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified high confinement mode
Tynan, G. R.; Schmitz, L.; Blush, L.; Boedo, J. A.; Conn, R. W.; Doerner, R.; Lehmer, R.; Moyer, R.; Kugel, H.; Bell, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Sesnic, S.; Sun, Y.
1994-10-01
The first probe measurements of edge turbulence and transport in a neutral beam induced high confinement mode (H-mode) are reported. A strong negative radial electric field is directly observed in H-mode. A transient suppression of normalized ion saturation and floating potential fluctuation levels occurs at the low confinement mode to high confinement mode (L-H) transition, followed by a recovery to near low mode (L-mode) levels. The average poloidal wave number and the poloidal wave-number spectral width are decreased, and the correlation between fluctuating density and potential is reduced. A large-amplitude coherent oscillation, localized to the strong radial electric field region, is observed in H-mode but does not cause transport. In H-mode the effective turbulent diffusion coefficient is reduced by an order of magnitude inside the last closed flux surface and in the scrape-off layer. The results are compared with a heuristic model of turbulence suppression by velocity-shear stabilization.
The impact of pedestal turbulence and electron inertia on edge-localized-mode crashes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xi, P. W. [FSC and State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States)
2014-05-15
We demonstrate that the occurrence of Edge-Localized-Modes (ELM) crashes does not depend only on the linear peeling-ballooning threshold, but also relies on nonlinear processes. Wave-wave interaction constrains the growth time of a mode, thus inducing a shift in the criterion for triggering an ELM crash. An ELM crash requires the P-B growth rate to exceed a critical value γ>γ{sub c}, where γ{sub c} is set by 1/τ{sup ¯}{sub c}, and τ{sup ¯}{sub c} is the averaged mode phase coherence time. For 0<γ<γ{sub c}, P-B turbulence develops but drives enhanced turbulent transport. We also show that electron inertia dramatically changes the instability threshold when density is low. However, P-B turbulence alone cannot generate enough current transport to allow fast reconnection during an ELM crash.
Scaling and interaction of self-similar modes in models of high Reynolds number wall turbulence.
Sharma, A S; Moarref, R; McKeon, B J
2017-03-13
Previous work has established the usefulness of the resolvent operator that maps the terms nonlinear in the turbulent fluctuations to the fluctuations themselves. Further work has described the self-similarity of the resolvent arising from that of the mean velocity profile. The orthogonal modes provided by the resolvent analysis describe the wall-normal coherence of the motions and inherit that self-similarity. In this contribution, we present the implications of this similarity for the nonlinear interaction between modes with different scales and wall-normal locations. By considering the nonlinear interactions between modes, it is shown that much of the turbulence scaling behaviour in the logarithmic region can be determined from a single arbitrarily chosen reference plane. Thus, the geometric scaling of the modes is impressed upon the nonlinear interaction between modes. Implications of these observations on the self-sustaining mechanisms of wall turbulence, modelling and simulation are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).
POD Mode Robustness for the Turbulent Jet Sampled with PIV
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hodzic, Azur; Meyer, Knud Erik; Velte, Clara Marika
2017-01-01
An important challenge in the description and simulation of turbulence is the large amount of information that is needed to describe even relatively simple flows in detail. The frequent disagreement between Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes-based simulations and experiments is well known. Albeit, d...... and even high speed volumetric PIV systems providing fully three dimensional velocity fields. Another challenge is how do we verify simulations against experiments and ensure that we indeed have simulated the same flow that we have measured?......An important challenge in the description and simulation of turbulence is the large amount of information that is needed to describe even relatively simple flows in detail. The frequent disagreement between Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes-based simulations and experiments is well known. Albeit......, direct numerical simulations and in certain cases large eddy simulations tend to agree fairly well with experiments, their practical implementation introduces the problem of data storage. The experimentalist, however, experiences the same problem, using highspeed particle image velocimetry (PIV) systems...
Bifurcation and phase diagram of turbulence constituted from three different scale-length modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, S.-I.; Kitazawa, A.; Yagi, M. [Kyushu Univ., Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2002-04-01
Cases where three kinds of fluctuations having the different typical scale-lengths coexist are analyzed, and the statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed. Statistical nonlinear interactions between fluctuations are kept in the analysis as the renormalized drag, statistical noise and the averaged drive. The nonlinear interplay through them induces a quenching or suppressing effect, even if all the modes are unstable when they are analyzed independently. Variety in mode appearance takes place: one mode quenches the other two modes, or one mode is quenched by the other two modes, etc. The bifurcation of turbulence is analyzed and a phase diagram is drawn. Phase diagrams with cusp type catastrophe and butterfly type catastrophe are obtained. The subcritical bifurcation is possible to occur through the nonlinear interplay, even though each one is supercritical turbulence when analyzed independently. Analysis reveals that the nonlinear stability boundary (marginal point) and the amplitude of each mode may substantially shift from the conventional results of independent analyses. (author)
Abler, M. C.; Mauel, M. E.; Saperstein, A.
2017-12-01
Plasmas confined by a strong dipole field exhibit interchange and entropy mode turbulence, which previous experiments have shown respond locally to active feedback [1]. On the Collisionless Terrella Experiment (CTX), this turbulence is characterized by low frequency, low order, quasi-coherent modes with complex spectral dynamics. We apply bicoherence analysis [2] to study nonlinear phase coupling in a variety of scenarios. First, we study the self-interaction of the naturally occurring interchange turbulence; this analysis is then expanded to include the effects of single or multiple driven modes in the frequency range of the background turbulent oscillations. Initial measurements of coupling coefficients are presented in both cases. Driven low frequency interchange modes are observed to generate multiple harmonics which persist throughout the plasma, becoming weaker as they propagate away from the actuator in the direction of the electron magnetic drift. Future work is also discussed, including application of wavelet bicoherence analysis and applications to planetary magnetospheres. [1] Roberts, Mauel, and Worstell, Phys Plasmas (2015). [2] Grierson, Worstell, and Mauel, Phys Plasmas (2009). Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science Grants DOE-DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF-PHY-1201896.
Multi-scale-nonlinear interactions among macro-MHD mode, micro-turbulence, and zonal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, Akihiro; Nakajima, Noriyoshi
2007-01-01
This is the first numerical simulation demonstrating that macro-magnetohydrodynamic (macro-MHD) mode is exited as a result of multi-scale interaction in a quasi-steady equilibrium formed by a balance between zonal flow and micro-turbulence via reduced-two-fluid simulation. Only after obtaining the equilibrium which includes zonal flow and the turbulence caused by kinetic ballooning mode is this simulation of macro-MHD mode, double tearing mode, accomplished. In the quasi-steady equilibrium a macro-fluctuation which has the same helicity as that of double tearing mode is a part of the turbulence until it grows as a macro-MHD mode finally. When the macro-MHD grows it effectively utilize free energy of equilibrium current density gradient because of positive feedback loop between suppression of zonal flow and growth of the macro-fluctuation causing magnetic reconnection. Thus once the macro-MHD grows from the quasi-equilibrium, it does not go back. This simulation is more comparable with experimental observation of growing macro-fluctuation than traditional MHD simulation of linear instabilities in a static equilibrium. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inada, Fumio; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Yasuo, Akira; Nishihara, Takashi
2000-01-01
In the circular tube bundle immersed in the crossflow, the exciting force induced by the turbulence and periodically discharged vortices becomes large, and it is necessary to confirm a long-term integrity to the flow induced vibration. In this report, the local fluid exciting force and the correlation length in the direction of tube axis were measured. The exciting force acting on the first row was smaller than that inside the tube bundle, and the exciting force was almost saturated at the third row. As for vortex induced vibration, there could be an influence when a dimensionless frequency was 0.4 or less. When vortex induced vibration did not affect the vibration, a correlation composed of a correlation length and power spectrum density of the local fluid exciting force were proposed, with which we could estimate the amplitude of the vibration. A computer program to estimate the vibration amplitude and maximum stress was made using the flow velocity distribution and the mode of vibration. (author)
A novel turbulence trigger for neoclassical tearing modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka
2003-07-01
Stochastic trigger by microturbulence for neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is studied. NTM induces topological change of magnetic structure and has subcritical nature. Transition rate of probability density function for and statistically-averaged amplitude of NTM are obtained. Boundary in the phase diagram is determined as the statistical long time average of the transition conditions. NTM can be excited by crossing this boundary even in the absence of other global instabilities. (author)
Vortex methods and vortex statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chorin, A.J.
1993-05-01
Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible, inviscid, isentropic flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus if the vorticity is known at time t = 0, one can deduce the flow at a later time by simply following it around. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that makes use of this observation. Even more generally, the analysis of vortex methods leads, to problems that are closely related to problems in quantum physics and field theory, as well as in harmonic analysis. A broad enough definition of vortex methods ends up by encompassing much of science. Even the purely computational aspects of vortex methods encompass a range of ideas for which vorticity may not be the best unifying theme. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (''blobs'') and those whose understanding contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Vortex methods for inviscid flow lead to systems of ordinary differential equations that can be readily clothed in Hamiltonian form, both in three and two space dimensions, and they can preserve exactly a number of invariants of the Euler equations, including topological invariants. Their viscous versions resemble Langevin equations. As a result, they provide a very useful cartoon of statistical hydrodynamics, i.e., of turbulence, one that can to some extent be analyzed analytically and more importantly, explored numerically, with important implications also for superfluids, superconductors, and even polymers. In the authors view, vortex ''blob'' methods provide the most promising path to the understanding of these phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowal, Grzegorz; Lazarian, A.
2010-01-01
We study compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, which holds the key to many astrophysical processes, including star formation and cosmic-ray propagation. To account for the variations of the magnetic field in the strongly turbulent fluid, we use wavelet decomposition of the turbulent velocity field into Alfven, slow, and fast modes, which presents an extension of the Cho and Lazarian decomposition approach based on Fourier transforms. The wavelets allow us to follow the variations of the local direction of the magnetic field and therefore improve the quality of the decomposition compared to the Fourier transforms, which are done in the mean field reference frame. For each resulting component, we calculate the spectra and two-point statistics such as longitudinal and transverse structure functions as well as higher order intermittency statistics. In addition, we perform a Helmholtz- Hodge decomposition of the velocity field into incompressible and compressible parts and analyze these components. We find that the turbulence intermittency is different for different components, and we show that the intermittency statistics depend on whether the phenomenon was studied in the global reference frame related to the mean magnetic field or in the frame defined by the local magnetic field. The dependencies of the measures we obtained are different for different components of the velocity; for instance, we show that while the Alfven mode intermittency changes marginally with the Mach number, the intermittency of the fast mode is substantially affected by the change.
Turbulent Statistics From Time-Resolved PIV Measurements of a Jet Using Empirical Mode Decomposition
Dahl, Milo D.
2013-01-01
Empirical mode decomposition is an adaptive signal processing method that when applied to a broadband signal, such as that generated by turbulence, acts as a set of band-pass filters. This process was applied to data from time-resolved, particle image velocimetry measurements of subsonic jets prior to computing the second-order, two-point, space-time correlations from which turbulent phase velocities and length and time scales could be determined. The application of this method to large sets of simultaneous time histories is new. In this initial study, the results are relevant to acoustic analogy source models for jet noise prediction. The high frequency portion of the results could provide the turbulent values for subgrid scale models for noise that is missed in large-eddy simulations. The results are also used to infer that the cross-correlations between different components of the decomposed signals at two points in space, neglected in this initial study, are important.
Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Narasimha, Roddam
2017-02-01
Although the free-shear or mixing layer has been a subject of extensive research over nearly a century, there are certain fundamental issues that remain controversial. These include the influence of initial and downstream conditions on the flow, the effect of velocity ratio across the layer, and the nature of any possible coupling between small scale dynamics and the large scale evolution of layer thickness. In the spirit of the temporal vortex-gas simulations of Suryanarayanan et al. ["Free turbulent shear layer in a point vortex gas as a problem in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics," Phys. Rev. E 89, 013009 (2014)], we revisit the simple 2D inviscid vortex-gas model with extensive computations and detailed analysis, in order to gain insights into some of the above issues. Simulations of the spatially evolving vortex-gas shear layer are carried out at different velocity ratios using a computational model based on the work of Basu et al. ["Vortex sheet simulation of a plane canonical mixing layer," Comput. Fluids 21, 1-30 (1992) and "Modelling plane mixing layers using vortex points and sheets," Appl. Math. Modell. 19, 66-75 (1995)], but with a crucial improvement that ensures conservation of global circulation. The simulations show that the conditions imposed at the origin of the free shear layer and at the exit to the computational domain can affect flow evolution in their respective downstream and upstream neighbourhoods, the latter being particularly strong in the single stream limit. In between these neighbourhoods at the ends is a regime of universal self-preserving growth rate given by a universal function of velocity ratio. The computed growth rates are generally located within the scatter of experimental data on plane mixing layers and closely agree with recent high Reynolds number experiments and 3D large eddy simulation studies. These findings support the view that observed free-shear layer growth can be largely explained by the 2D vortex dynamics of
Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Xian, Hao
2015-10-10
High-speed free-space optical communication systems using fiber-optic components can greatly improve the stability of the system and simplify the structure. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence degrades the spatial coherence of the signal beam and limits the single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the SMF coupling efficiency over various turbulences. The results show that the SMF coupling efficiency drops from 81% without phase distortion to 10% when phase root mean square value equals 0.3λ. The simulations of SMF coupling with adaptive optics (AO) indicate that it is inevitable to compensate the high-order aberrations for SMF coupling over relatively strong turbulence. The SMF coupling efficiency experiments, using an AO system with a 137-element deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, obtain average coupling efficiency increasing from 1.3% in open loop to 46.1% in closed loop under a relatively strong turbulence, D/r0=15.1.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelino, P; Bottino, A; Hatzky, R; Jolliet, S; Sauter, O; Tran, T M; Villard, L
2006-01-01
The mutual interactions of ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven modes, zonal flows and geodesic acoustic modes (GAM) in tokamak plasmas are investigated using a global nonlinear gyrokinetic formulation with totally unconstrained evolution of temperature gradient and profile. A series of numerical simulations with the same initial temperature and density profile specifications is performed using a sequence of ideal MHD equilibria differing only in the value of the total plasma current, in particular with identical magnetic shear profiles and shapes of magnetic surfaces. On top of a bursty or quasi-steady state behaviour the zonal flows oscillate at the GAM frequency. The amplitude of these oscillations increases with the value of the safety factor q, resulting in a less effective suppression of ITG turbulence by zonal flows at a lower plasma current. The turbulence-driven volume-averaged radial heat transport is found to scale inversely with the total plasma current
A sparse-mode spectral method for the simulation of turbulent flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meneguzzi, M.; Politano, H.; Pouquet, A.; Zolver, M.
1996-01-01
We propose a new algorithm belonging to the family of the sparsemode spectral method to simulate turbulent flows. In this method the number of Fourier modes k increases with k more slowly than k D-1 in dimension D, while retaining the advantage of the fast Fourier transform. Examples of applications of the algorithm are given for the one-dimensional Burger's equation and two-dimensional incompressible MHD flows
Hanson, Frank; Lasher, Mark
2010-06-01
We characterize and compare the effects of turbulence on underwater laser propagation with theory. Measurements of the coupling efficiency of the focused beam into a single-mode fiber are reported. A simple tip-tilt control system, based on the position of the image centroid in the focal plane, was shown to maintain good coupling efficiency for a beam radius equal to the transverse coherence length, r(0). These results are relevant to high bandwidth communication technology that requires good spatial mode quality.
Weak turbulence theory of ion temperature gradient modes for inverted density plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.; Tang, W.M.
1989-09-01
Typical profiles measured in H-mode (''high confinement'') discharges from tokamaks such as JET and DIII-D suggest that the ion temperature gradient instability threshold parameter η i (≡dlnT i /dlnn i ) could be negative in many cases. Previous linear theoretical calculations have established the onset conditions for these negative η i -modes and the fact that their growth rate is much smaller than their real frequency over a wide range of negative η i values. This has motivated the present nonlinear weak turbulence analysis to assess the relevance of such instabilities for confinement in H-mode plasmas. The nonlinear eigenmode equation indicates that the 3-wave coupling to shorter wavelength modes is the dominant nonlinear saturation mechanism. It is found that both the saturation level for these fluctuations and the magnitude of the associated ion thermal diffusivity are considerably smaller than the strong turbulence mixing length type estimates for the more conventional positive-η i -instabilities. 19 refs., 3 figs
Laurantzon, F.; Örlü, R.; Segalini, A.; Alfredsson, P. H.
2010-12-01
Vortex flowmeters are commonly employed in technical applications and are obtainable in a variety of commercially available types. However their robustness and accuracy can easily be impaired by environmental conditions, such as inflow disturbances and/or pulsating conditions. Various post-processing techniques of the vortex signal have been used, but all of these methods are so far targeted on obtaining an improved estimate of the time-averaged bulk velocity. Here, on the other hand, we propose, based on wavelet analysis, a straightforward way to utilize the signal from a vortex shedder to extract the time-resolved and thereby the phase-averaged velocity under pulsatile flow conditions. The method was verified with hot-wire and laser Doppler velocimetry measurements.
Sellahi, Mohamed; Seghilani, Mohamed Seghir; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Lafosse, Xavier; Legratiet, Luc; Lalanne, Philippe; Myara, Mikhal; Garnache, Arnaud
2017-11-01
Since years, the VeCSEL concept is pointed out as a technology of choice for beyond-state-of-the-art laser light sources. The targeted coherent state in CW is typically the common gaussian TEM00, single frequency, linearly polarized lightstate. In this work, we take advantage of the VeCSEL technology for the generation of other kinds of coherent states, thanks to the insertion of intracavity functions, such as low-loss intensity and phase filters integrated on a semiconductor chip. This technological development permitted to demonstrate very pure high-order Laguerre-Gauss mode, both degenerate and non-degenerate(vortex)modes, preserving the coherence properties of usual TEM00 VeCSELs. This technology paves the way for the generation of other coherences (Bessel beams) or new functionnalities (wavelength filtering, etc.). We also explore new time domain coherence : owing to a high gain semiconductor chip design and the insertion of intracavity AOM, we demonstrated the first Frequecy-Shifted-Feedback VeCSEL, with a broadband coherence state as wide as 300 GHz.
Wu, Yongxiao; Wang, Zhongyang; Chen, Sanbin; Shirakwa, Akira; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Li, Jianlang
2018-05-01
We proposed an efficient and vortex Nd:YAG laser for selective lasing of low- and high-order vortex modes, in which multiple-ring pump light was originated from cascaded conical refraction of multiple biaxial crystals. In our proof of concept demonstration, we used two-crystal cascade conical refraction to generate two-ring pump light; the mutual intensity ratio and relative separation of the inner ring and outer ring were controlled by rotating the second biaxial crystal and by moving the imaging lens, respectively. As a result, we obtained selective excitation of Laguerre–Gaussian (LG01 and LG03) vortex modes in the end-pump Nd:YAG laser. For LG01-mode output, the laser power reached 439 mW with 52.5% slope efficiency; for LG03-mode output, the laser power reached 160 mW with 41.3% slope efficiency. Our results revealed that the multiple-ring pumping technique based on cascaded conical refraction would pave the way for realization of the efficient and switchable excitation of low- and high-order LG modes in an end-pumped solid-state laser.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahm, T.S.
1990-12-01
Ion temperature gradient turbulence based transport models have difficulties reconciling the recent DIII-D H-mode results where the density profile is flat, but χ e > χ i in the core region. In this work, a nonlinear theory is developed for recently discovered ion temperature gradient trapped electron modes propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction. This instability is predicted to be linearly unstable for L Ti /R approx-lt κ θ ρ s approx-lt (L Ti /R) 1/4 . They are also found to be strongly dispersive even at these long wavelengths, thereby suggesting the importance of the wave-particle-wave interactions in the nonlinear saturation phase. The fluctuation spectrum and anomalous fluxes are calculated. In accordance with the trends observed in DIII-D, the predicted electron thermal diffusivity can be larger than the ion thermal diffusivity. 17 refs., 3 figs
H-Mode Turbulence, Power Threshold, ELM, and Pedestal Studies in NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maingi, R.; Bush, C.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Menard, J.E.; Meyer, H.; Mueller, D.; Nishino, N.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Tritz, K.; Zweben, S.J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Biewer, T.; Boedo, J.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; Maqueda, R.J.; Munsat, T.; Raman, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.
2004-01-01
High-confinement mode (H-mode) operation plays a crucial role in NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] research, allowing higher beta limits due to reduced plasma pressure peaking, and long-pulse operation due to high bootstrap current fraction. Here, new results are presented in the areas of edge localized modes (ELMs), H-mode pedestal physics, L-H turbulence, and power threshold studies. ELMs of several other types (as observed in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks) are often observed: (1) large, Type I ELMs, (2) ''medium'' Type II/III ELMs, and (3) giant ELMs which can reduce stored energy by up to 30% in certain conditions. In addition, many high-performance discharges in NSTX have tiny ELMs (newly termed Type V), which have some differences as compared with ELM types in the published literature. The H-mode pedestal typically contains between 25-33% of the total stored energy, and the NSTX pedestal energy agrees reasonably well with a recent international multi-machine scaling. We find that the L-H transition occurs on a ∼100 (micro)sec timescale as viewed by a gas puff imaging diagnostic, and that intermittent quiescent periods precede the final transition. A power threshold identity experiment between NSTX and MAST shows comparable loss power at the L-H transition in balanced double-null discharges. Both machines require more power for the L-H transition as the balance is shifted toward lower single null. High field side gas fueling enables more reliable H-mode access, but does not always lead to a lower power threshold e.g., with a reduction of the duration of early heating. Finally the edge plasma parameters just before the L-H transition were compared with theories of the transition. It was found that while some theories can separate well-developed L- and H-mode data, they have little predictive value
2012-04-01
Both flame lengths shrink and large scale disruptions occur downstream with vortex shedding carrying reaction zones. Flames in both flameholders...9) the flame structure changes dramatically for both regular and open-slit V-gutter. Both flame lengths shrink and large scale disruptions occur...reduces the flame length . However, qualitatively the open-slit V-gutter appears to be more sensitive than the regular V-gutter. Both flames remain
Self-sustained turbulence and L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.
1993-04-01
Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The quantitative effect of the anomalous transport, which is caused by microscopic fluctuations, on the pressure-gradient- driven modes is analyzed. The ExB nonlinearity is renormalized in a form of the transport coefficient such as the thermal diffusivity, the ion viscosity and the current diffusivity. The destabilization by the current-diffusivity and the stabilization by the thermal transport and ion viscosity are analyzed. By use of the mean-field approximations, the nonlinear dispersion relation is solved. Growth rate and stability condition are expressed in terms of the renormalized transport coefficients. The transport coefficients in the steady state are obtained by the marginal stability condition for the least stable mode. This method is applied to the microscopic ballooning mode for the toroidal plasma with the magnetic well (such as tokamak). The comparison with experimental observations are made. A good agreement is found in a various aspects of the L-mode plasmas; The typical wavenumber and level of the fluctuations for the self-sustained turbulence is also obtained. The analysis is also made for the plasma with magnetic hill and shear (such as torsatron/Heliotron devices). This method is applied to the interchange modes. Formula of the anomalous transport is obtained. Also investigated is the case of the magnetic well and low magnetic shear (conventional stellarator). The roles of the pressure gradient and the collisionless skin depth in determining the anomalous transport are found to be generic in toroidal plasmas. The difference in the magnetic configuration affects the transport coefficient. These formula explain major experimental observations. (J.P.N.)
Inertial modes and their transition to turbulence in a differentially rotating spherical gap flow
Hoff, Michael; Harlander, Uwe; Andrés Triana, Santiago; Egbers, Christoph
2016-04-01
dominant mode (l,m,ˆω) = (3,2,˜ 0.71) is increasing with increasing |Ro| until a critical Rossby number Rocrit. Accompanying with this is an increase of the zonal mean flow outside the tangent cylinder, leading to enhanced angular momentum transport. At the particular Rocrit, the wave mode, and the entire flow, breaks up into smaller-scale turbulence [6], together with a strong increase of the zonal mean flow inside the tangent cylinder. We found that the critical Rossby number scales approximately with E1/5. References [1] Aldridge, K. D.; Lumb, L. I. (1987): Inertial waves identified in the Earth's fluid outer core. Nature 325 (6103), S. 421-423. DOI: 10.1038/325421a0. [2] Greenspan, H. P. (1968): The theory of rotating fluids. London: Cambridge U.P. (Cambridge monographs on mechanics and applied mathematics). [3] Kelley, D. H.; Triana, S. A.; Zimmerman, D. S.; Lathrop, D. P. (2010): Selection of inertial modes in spherical Couette flow. Phys. Rev. E 81 (2), 26311. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.026311. [4] Rieutord, M.; Triana, S. A.; Zimmerman, D. S.; Lathrop, D. P. (2012): Excitation of inertial modes in an experimental spherical Couette flow. Phys. Rev. E 86 (2), 026304. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.026304. [5] Hoff, M., Harlander, U., Egbers, C. (2016): Experimental survey of linear and nonlinear inertial waves and wave instabilities in a spherical shell. J. Fluid Mech., (in print) [6] Kerswell, R. R. (1999): Secondary instabilities in rapidly rotating fluids: inertial wave breakdown. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 382, S. 283-306. DOI: 10.1017/S0022112098003954.
Mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics; Proceedings of the Workshop, Leesburg, VA, Apr. 25-27, 1988
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caflisch, R.E.
1989-01-01
Various papers on the mathematical aspects of vortex dynamics are presented. Individual topics addressed include: mathematical analysis of vortex dynamics, improved vortex methods for three-dimensional flows, the relation between thin vortex layer and vortex sheets, computations of broadband instabilities in a class of closed-streamline flows, vortex-sheet dynamics and hyperfunction theory, free surface vortex method with weak viscous effects, iterative method for computing steady vortex flow systems, invariant measures for the two-dimensional Euler flow, similarity flows containing two-branched vortex sheets, strain-induced vortex stripping, convergence of the vortex method for vortex sheets, boundary conditions and deterministic vortex methods for the Navier-Stokes equations, vorticity creation boundary conditions, vortex dynamics of stratified flows, vortex breakdown, numerical studies of vortex reconnection, vortex lattices in theory and practice, dynamics of vortex structures in the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer, and energy of a vortex lattice configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sommer de Gelicourt, Y
2004-03-15
Industrial oxalic precipitation processed in an un-baffled magnetically stirred tank, the Vortex Reactor, has been studied with uranium simulating plutonium. Modelling precipitation requires a mixing model for the continuous liquid phase and the solution of population balance for the dispersed solid phase. Being chemical reaction influenced by the degree of mixing at molecular scale, that commercial CFD code does not resolve, a sub-grid scale model has been introduced: the finite mode probability density functions, and coupled with a model for the liquid energy spectrum. Evolution of the dispersed phase has been resolved by the quadrature method of moments, first used here with experimental nucleation and growth kinetics, and an aggregation kernel based on local shear rate. The promising abilities of this local approach, without any fitting constant, are strengthened by the similarity between experimental results and simulations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkin, E. R.; Bicknell, G. V.
2013-01-01
Global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when nonlinear motions—perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence—upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with previous works. In particular, the globally averaged stress normalized to the gas pressure P >bar = 0.034, with notably higher values achieved for simulations with higher azimuthal resolution. Supplementary tests are performed using different numerical algorithms and resolutions. Convergence with resolution during the initial linear MRI growth phase is found for 23-35 cells per scale height (in the vertical direction).
Nonlinear Simulations of Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence in Low Magnetic Shear Stellarators
Faber, B. J.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.; Hegna, C. C.
2017-10-01
Optimized stellarators, like the Helically Symmetric eXperiment (HSX), often operate with small global magnetic shear to avoid low-order rational surfaces and magnetic islands. Nonlinear, flux-tube gyrokinetic simulations of density-gradient-driven Trapped Electron Mode (TEM) turbulence in HSX shows two distinct spectral fluctuation regions: long-wavelength slab-like TEMs localized by global magnetic shear that extend along field lines and short-wavelength TEMs localized by local magnetic shear to a single helical bad curvature region. The slab-like TEMs require computational domains significantly larger than one poloidal turn and are computationally expensive, making turbulent optimization studies challenging. A computationally more efficient, zero-average-magnetic-shear approximation is shown to sufficiently describe the relevant nonlinear physics and replicate finite-shear computations, and can be exploited in quasilinear models based on linear gyrokinetics as a feasible optimization tool. TEM quasilinear heat fluxes are computed with the zero-shear approximation and compared to experimentally-relevant nonlinear gyrokinetic TEM heat fluxes for HSX. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54546, DE-FG02-93ER54222 and DE-FG02-89ER53291.
On the effective turbulence driving mode of molecular clouds formed in disc galaxies
Jin, Keitaro; Salim, Diane M.; Federrath, Christoph; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Habe, Asao; Kainulainen, Jouni T.
2017-07-01
We determine the physical properties and turbulence driving mode of molecular clouds formed in numerical simulations of a Milky Way-type disc galaxy with parsec-scale resolution. The clouds form through gravitational fragmentation of the gas, leading to average values for mass, radii and velocity dispersion in good agreement with observations of Milky Way clouds. The driving parameter (b) for the turbulence within each cloud is characterized by the ratio of the density contrast (σ _{ρ /ρ _0}) to the average Mach number (M) within the cloud, b=σ _{ρ /ρ _0}/M. As shown in previous works, b ˜ 1/3 indicates solenoidal (divergence-free) driving and b ˜ 1 indicates compressive (curl-free) driving. We find that the average b value of all the clouds formed in the simulations has a lower limit of b > 0.2. Importantly, we find that b has a broad distribution, covering values from purely solenoidal to purely compressive driving. Tracking the evolution of individual clouds reveals that the b value for each cloud does not vary significantly over their lifetime. Finally, we perform a resolution study with minimum cell sizes of 8, 4, 2 and 1 pc and find that the average b value increases with increasing resolution. Therefore, we conclude that our measured b values are strictly lower limits and that a resolution better than 1 pc is required for convergence. However, regardless of the resolution, we find that b varies by factors of a few in all cases, which means that the effective driving mode alters significantly from cloud to cloud.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foucaut, J.M.; Coudert, S.; Braud, C.
2012-01-01
The Stereoscopic PIV is nowadays a well established measurement technique for turbulent flows. However, the accuracy and the spatial resolution are still highly questionable in presence of complex flow with both strong gradients and out of plane motions. To give guidelines for both setup and meas......The Stereoscopic PIV is nowadays a well established measurement technique for turbulent flows. However, the accuracy and the spatial resolution are still highly questionable in presence of complex flow with both strong gradients and out of plane motions. To give guidelines for both setup...... of measurements by increasing the velocity dynamic range especially. It also presents the enhancement of accuracy due to the light sheets separation for characterizing streamwise vortices (i.e. perpendicular to the sheet). The present experiment was performed in the Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille wind tunnel...
Two improvements on numerical simulation of 2-DOF vortex-induced vibration with low mass ratio
Kang, Zhuang; Ni, Wen-chi; Zhang, Xu; Sun, Li-ping
2017-12-01
Till now, there have been lots of researches on numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibration. Acceptable results have been obtained for fixed cylinders with low Reynolds number. However, for responses of 2-DOF vortex-induced vibration with low mass ratio, the accuracy is not satisfactory, especially for the maximum amplitudes. In Jauvtis and Williamson's work, the maximum amplitude of the cylinder with low mass ratio m*=2.6 can reach as large as 1.5 D to be called as the "super-upper branch", but from current literatures, few simulation results can achieve such value, even fail to capture the upper branch. Besides, it is found that the amplitude decays too fast in the lower branch with the RANS-based turbulence model. The reason is likely to be the defects of the turbulence model itself in the prediction of unsteady separated flows as well as the unreasonable setting of the numerical simulation parameters. Aiming at above issues, a modified turbulence model is proposed in this paper, and the effect of the acceleration of flow field on the response of vortex-induced vibration is studied based on OpenFOAM. By analyzing the responses of amplitude, phase and trajectory, frequency and vortex mode, it is proved that the vortex-induced vibration can be predicted accurately with the modified turbulence model under appropriate flow field acceleration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchner, Abel-John; Kitsios, Vassili; Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio; Lozano-Durán, Adrián
2016-01-01
Previous works have shown that momentum transfer in the wall–normal direction within turbulent wall–bounded flows occurs primarily within coherent structures defined by regions of intense Reynolds stress [1]. Such structures may be classified into wall–attached and wall–detached structures with the latter being typically weak, small–scale, and isotropically oriented, while the former are larger and carry most of the Reynolds stresses. The mean velocity fluctuation within each structure may also be used to separate structures by their dynamic properties. This study aims to extract information regarding the scales, kinematics and dynamics of these structures within the topological framework of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT). The local topological characteristics of these intense Reynolds stress structures are compared to the topological characteristics of vortex clusters defined by the discriminant of the velocity gradient tensor. The alignment of vorticity with the principal strain directions within these structures is also determined, and the implications of these findings are discussed. (paper)
Drift wave coherent vortex structures in inhomogeneous plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, X.N.
1992-01-01
Nonlinear drift wave vortex structures in magnetized plasmas are studied theoretically and numerically in the various physical environments. The effects of density and temperature gradients on drift wave vortex dynamics are analyzed using a fully nonlinear model with the Boltzmann density distribution. The equation, based on the full Boltzmann relation, possess no localized monopole solution in the short wavelength (∼ρ s ) region, while in the longer wavelength (∼(ρ s (r) n ) 1/2 ) region the density profile governs the existence of monopole-like solutions. In the longer wavelength regime, however, the monopoles cannot be localized sufficiently to avoid coupling to propagating drift waves due to the inhomogeneity of the plasma. Thus, the monopole vortex is a long lived coherent structure, but it is not precisely a stationary structure since the coupling results in a open-quote flapping close-quote tail. The tail causes energy of the vortex to leak out, but the effect of the temperature gradient is to reduce the leaking of this energy. Nonlinear coherent structures governing by the coupled drift wave-ion acoustic mode equations in sheared magnetic field are studied analytically and numerically. A solitary vortex equation that includes the effects of density and temperature gradients and magnetic shear is derived and analyzed. The results show that for a plasma in a sheared magnetic field, there exist the solitary vortex solutions. The new vortex structures are dipole-like in their symmetry, but not the modon type of dipoles. The numerical simulations are performed in 2-D with the coupled vorticity and parallel mass flow equations. The vortex structures in an unstable drift wave system driven by parallel shear flow are studied. The nonlinear solitary vortex solutions are given and the formation of the vortices from a turbulent state is observed from the numerical simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, G. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: wangg@fusion.gat.com; Peebles, W.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Doyle, E.J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rhodes, T.L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zeng, L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Nguyen, X. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Snyder, P.B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kramer, G.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Groebner, R.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Burrell, K.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Strait, E.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)
2007-06-15
High-resolution quadrature reflectometer measurements of density fluctuation levels have been obtained on DIII-D for H-mode edge pedestal studies. Initial results are presented from the L-H transition to the first ELM for two cases: (i) a low pedestal beta discharge, in which density turbulence in the pedestal has little change during the ELM-free phase, and (ii) a high pedestal beta discharge in which both density and magnetic turbulence are observed to increase before the first ELM. These high beta data are consistent with the existence of electromagnetic turbulence suggested by some transport models. During Type-I ELM cycles, when little magnetic turbulence can be observed, pedestal turbulence increases just after an ELM crash and then decreases before next ELM strikes, in contrast to a drop after ELM crash and then it re-grows when strong magnetic turbulence shows similar behavior. Clear ELM precursors are observed on {<=}20% of Type-I ELMs observed to date.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKee, G.; Gohil, P.; Schlossberg, D.; Boedo, J.; Burrell, K.; deGrassie, J.; Groebner, R.; Makowski, M.; Moyer, R.; Petty, C.; Rhodes, T.; Schmitz, L.; Shafer, M.; Solomon, W.; Umansky, M.; Wang, G.; White, A.; Xu, X.
2008-01-01
The injected power required to induce a transition from L-mode to H-mode plasmas is found to depend strongly on the injected neutral beam torque and consequent plasma toroidal rotation. Edge turbulence and flows, measured near the outboard midplane of the plasma (0.85 < r/a < 1.0) on DIII-D with the high-sensitivity 2D beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system, likewise vary with rotation and suggest a causative connection. The L-H power threshold in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift away from the X-point decreases from 4-6 MW with co-current beam injection, to 2-3 MW with near zero net injected torque, and to <2 MW with counter injection. Plasmas with the ion (del)B drift towards the X-point exhibit a qualitatively similar though less pronounced power threshold dependence on rotation. 2D edge turbulence measurements with BES show an increasing poloidal flow shear as the L-H transition is approached in all conditions. At low rotation, the poloidal flow of turbulent eddies near the edge reverses prior to the L-H transition, generating a significant poloidal flow shear that exceeds the measured turbulence decorrelation rate. This increased poloidal turbulence velocity shear may facilitate the L-H transition. No such reversal is observed in high rotation plasmas. The poloidal turbulence velocity spectrum exhibits a transition from a Geodesic Acoustic Mode zonal flow to a higher-power, lower frequency, zero-mean-frequency zonal flow as rotation varies from co-current to balanced during a torque scan at constant injected neutral beam power, perhaps also facilitating the L-H transition. This reduced power threshold at lower toroidal rotation may benefit inherently low-rotation plasmas such as ITER
Turbulent transport stabilization by ICRH minority fast ions in low rotating JET ILW L-mode plasmas
Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Di Siena, A.; Delabie, E.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T.; Lerche, E.; Menmuir, S.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET
2018-05-01
The first experimental demonstration that fast ion induced stabilization of thermal turbulent transport takes place also at low values of plasma toroidal rotation has been obtained in JET ILW (ITER-like wall) L-mode plasmas with high (3He)-D ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) power. A reduction of the gyro-Bohm normalized ion heat flux and higher values of the normalized ion temperature gradient have been observed at high ICRH power and low NBI (neutral beam injection) power and plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic simulations indicate that ITG (ion temperature gradient) turbulence stabilization induced by the presence of high-energetic 3He ions is the key mechanism in order to explain the experimental observations. Two main mechanisms have been identified to be responsible for the turbulence stabilization: a linear electrostatic wave-fast particle resonance mechanism and a nonlinear electromagnetic mechanism. The dependence of the stabilization on the 3He distribution function has also been studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiya, M.; Sato, T.
1986-01-01
In this paper the interaction between vortex filaments and vortex rings and the deformation of vortex rings near the two-dimensional stagnation point are simulated by a three-dimensional vortex method. The two problems are respectively concerned with the effect of free-stream turbulence on turbulent plane mixing layers and the production of turbulence by the vortex stretching near saddles associated with large-scale coherent structures. The authors assume that the first step to understand the free-stream turbulence effect is to study the interaction between a vortex ring and a vortex filament and that the process of deformation of a vortex ring gives us a clue to understand physical processes occurring near the saddles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, T.L.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Sydora, R.D.; Groebner, R.J.; Doyle, E.J.; McKee, G.R.; Peebles, W.A.; Rettig, C.L.; Zeng, L.; Wang, G.
2002-01-01
Measured turbulence characteristics (correlation lengths, spectra, etc.) in low-confinement (L-mode) and high-performance plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak [Luxon et al., Proceedings Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1986 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] show many similarities with the characteristics determined from turbulence simulations. Radial correlation lengths Δr of density fluctuations from L-mode discharges are found to be numerically similar to the ion poloidal gyroradius ρ θ,s , or 5-10 times the ion gyroradius ρ s over the radial region 0.2 θ,s or 5-10 times ρ s , an experiment was performed which modified ρ θs while keeping other plasma parameters approximately fixed. It was found that the experimental Δr did not scale as ρ θ,s , which was similar to low-resolution UCAN simulations. Finally, both experimental measurements and gyrokinetic simulations indicate a significant reduction in the radial correlation length from high-performance quiescent double barrier discharges, as compared to normal L-mode, consistent with reduced transport in these high-performance plasmas
Isliker, H.; Pisokas, Th.; Strintzi, D.; Vlahos, L.
2010-08-01
A new self-organized criticality (SOC) model is introduced in the form of a cellular automaton (CA) for ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode driven turbulence in fusion plasmas. Main characteristics of the model are that it is constructed in terms of the actual physical variable, the ion temperature, and that the temporal evolution of the CA, which necessarily is in the form of rules, mimics actual physical processes as they are considered to be active in the system, i.e., a heating process and a local diffusive process that sets on if a threshold in the normalized ITG R /LT is exceeded. The model reaches the SOC state and yields ion temperature profiles of exponential shape, which exhibit very high stiffness, in that they basically are independent of the loading pattern applied. This implies that there is anomalous heat transport present in the system, despite the fact that diffusion at the local level is imposed to be of a normal kind. The distributions of the heat fluxes in the system and of the heat out-fluxes are of power-law shape. The basic properties of the model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results.
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.
2014-10-01
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.
2014-01-01
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches
A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2014-10-15
An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isliker, H.; Pisokas, Th.; Vlahos, L.; Strintzi, D.
2010-01-01
A new self-organized criticality (SOC) model is introduced in the form of a cellular automaton (CA) for ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode driven turbulence in fusion plasmas. Main characteristics of the model are that it is constructed in terms of the actual physical variable, the ion temperature, and that the temporal evolution of the CA, which necessarily is in the form of rules, mimics actual physical processes as they are considered to be active in the system, i.e., a heating process and a local diffusive process that sets on if a threshold in the normalized ITG R/L T is exceeded. The model reaches the SOC state and yields ion temperature profiles of exponential shape, which exhibit very high stiffness, in that they basically are independent of the loading pattern applied. This implies that there is anomalous heat transport present in the system, despite the fact that diffusion at the local level is imposed to be of a normal kind. The distributions of the heat fluxes in the system and of the heat out-fluxes are of power-law shape. The basic properties of the model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Ware, A.S.; Newman, D.E.
1994-01-01
A nonlinear frequency shift in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence is shown to give rise to a relaxation oscillation in the saturated power density spectrum. A simple non-Markovian closure for the coupled evolution of ion momentum and electron density response is developed to describe the oscillations. From solutions of a nonlinear oscillator model based on the closure, it is found that the oscillation is driven by the growth rate, as modified by the amplitude-dependent frequency shift, with inertia provided by the memory of the growth rate of prior amplitudes. This memory arises from time-history integrals common to statistical closures. The memory associated with a finite time of energy transfer between coupled spectrum components does not sustain the oscillation in the simple model. Solutions of the model agree qualitatively with the time-dependent numerical solutions of the original dissipative trapped electron model, yielding oscillations with the proper phase relationship between the fluctuation energy and the frequency shift, the proper evolution of the wave number spectrum shape and particle flux, and a realistic period
Flux-driven turbulence GDB simulations of the IWL Alcator C-Mod L-mode edge compared with experiment
Francisquez, Manaure; Zhu, Ben; Rogers, Barrett
2017-10-01
Prior to predicting confinement regime transitions in tokamaks one may need an accurate description of L-mode profiles and turbulence properties. These features determine the heat-flux width upon which wall integrity depends, a topic of major interest for research aid to ITER. To this end our work uses the GDB model to simulate the Alcator C-Mod edge and contributes support for its use in studying critical edge phenomena in current and future tokamaks. We carried out 3D electromagnetic flux-driven two-fluid turbulence simulations of inner wall limited (IWL) C-Mod shots spanning closed and open flux surfaces. These simulations are compared with gas puff imaging (GPI) and mirror Langmuir probe (MLP) data, examining global features and statistical properties of turbulent dynamics. GDB reproduces important qualitative aspects of the C-Mod edge regarding global density and temperature profiles, within reasonable margins, and though the turbulence statistics of the simulated turbulence follow similar quantitative trends questions remain about the code's difficulty in exactly predicting quantities like the autocorrelation time A proposed breakpoint in the near SOL pressure and the posited separation between drift and ballooning dynamics it represents are examined This work was supported by DOE-SC-0010508. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).
Direct numerical simulation of homogeneous stratified rotating turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iida, O.; Tsujimura, S.; Nagano, Y. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Department of Mech. Eng., Nagoya (Japan)
2005-12-01
The effects of the Prandtl number on stratified rotating turbulence have been studied in homogeneous turbulence by using direct numerical simulations and a rapid distortion theory. Fluctuations under strong stable-density stratification can be theoretically divided into the WAVE and the potential vorticity (PV) modes. In low-Prandtl-number fluids, the WAVE mode deteriorates, while the PV mode remains. Imposing rotation on a low-Prandtl-number fluid makes turbulence two-dimensional as well as geostrophic; it is found from the instantaneous turbulent structure that the vortices merge to form a few vertically-elongated vortex columns. During the period toward two-dimensionalization, the vertical vortices become asymmetric in the sense of rotation. (orig.)
Intracavity vortex beam generation
Naidoo, Darryl; Aït-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew
2011-10-01
In this paper we explore vortex beams and in particular the generation of single LG0l modes and superpositions thereof. Vortex beams carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and this intrinsic property makes them prevalent in transferring this OAM to matter and to be used in quantum information processing. We explore an extra-cavity and intra-cavity approach in LG0l mode generation respectively. The outputs of a Porro-prism resonator are represented by "petals" and we show that through a full modal decomposition, the "petal" fields are a superposition of two LG0l modes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Mirror mode turbulence is the lowest frequency perpendicular magnetic excitation in magnetized plasma proposed already about half a century ago by Rudakov and Sagdeev (1958 and Chandrasekhar et al. (1958 from fluid theory. Its experimental verification required a relatively long time. It was early recognized that mirror modes for being excited require a transverse pressure (or temperature anisotropy. In principle mirror modes are some version of slow mode waves. Fluid theory, however, does not give a correct physical picture of the mirror mode. The linear infinitesimally small amplitude physics is described correctly only by including the full kinetic theory and is modified by existing spatial gradients of the plasma parameters which attribute a small finite frequency to the mode. In addition, the mode is propagating only very slowly in plasma such that convective transport is the main cause of flow in it. As the lowest frequency mode it can be expected that mirror modes serve as one of the dominant energy inputs into plasma. This is however true only when the mode grows to large amplitude leaving the linear stage. At such low frequencies, on the other hand, quasilinear theory does not apply as a valid saturation mechanism. Probably the dominant processes are related to the generation of gradients in the plasma which serve as the cause of drift modes thus transferring energy to shorter wavelength propagating waves of higher nonzero frequency. This kind of theory has not yet been developed as it has not yet been understood why mirror modes in spite of their slow growth rate usually are of very large amplitudes indeed of the order of |B/B0|2~O(1. It is thus highly reasonable to assume that mirror modes are instrumental for the development of stationary turbulence in high temperature plasma. Moreover, since the magnetic field in mirror turbulence forms extended though slightly oblique magnetic bottles, low parallel energy particles can be trapped
Precessing vortex core in a swirling wake with heat release
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbunova, A.; Klimov, A.; Molevich, N.; Moralev, I.; Porfiriev, D.; Sugak, S.; Zavershinskii, I.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Precessing vortex core is left-handed co-rotated bending single-vortex structure. • The precession frequency grows with the heat-source power. • Growth of the heat-source power decreases vortex core oscillations. • The left-handed bending mode is the most unstable mode in the low-density wake. - Abstract: Numerical simulation of the non-stationary three-dimensional swirling flow is presented for an open tube with a paraxial heat source. In the considered type of swirling flows, it is shown that a precessing vortex core (PVC) appears. The obtained PVC is a left-handed co-rotated bending single-vortex structure. The influence of the heat release enhancement on parameters of PVC is investigated. Using various turbulence models (the Spalart–Allmaras, k–ω and SST models), it is shown that an increase in the heat-source power leads to an increase in the PVC frequency and to a decrease in the amplitude of PVC oscillations. Moreover, we conduct the linear stability analysis of the simplified flow model with paraxial heating (the Rankine vortex with the piecewise axial flow and density) and demonstrate that its results correspond to the results of numerical simulations rather well. In particular, we prove that the left-handed bending mode (m = +1) is the most unstable one in the low-density wake and its frequency increases with a decrease of density ratio that is similar to the behavior of precession frequency with an increase of heat-source power.
Simulations of drift resistive ballooning L-mode turbulence in the edge plasma of the DIII-D tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, B. I.; Umansky, M. V.; Nevins, W. M.; Makowski, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boedo, J. A.; Rudakov, D. L. [University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)
2013-05-15
Results from simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence for tokamak edge turbulence in realistic single-null geometry are reported. The calculations are undertaken with the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations [X. Q. Xu and R. H. Cohen, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 36, 158 (1998)]. The simulation setup models L-mode edge plasma parameters in the actual magnetic geometry of the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 807 (2002)]. The computations track the development of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the edge region to saturation. Fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes are compared to experimental data near the outer midplane from Langmuir probe and beam-emission-spectroscopy for a few well-characterized L-mode discharges in DIII-D. The simulations are comprised of a suite of runs in which the physics model is varied to include more fluid fields and physics terms. The simulations yield results for fluctuation amplitudes, correlation lengths, particle and energy fluxes, and diffusivities that agree with measurements within an order of magnitude and within factors of 2 or better for some of the data. The agreement of the simulations with the experimental measurements varies with respect to including more physics in the model equations within the suite of models investigated. The simulations show stabilizing effects of sheared E × B poloidal rotation (imposed zonal flow) and of lower edge electron temperature and density.
Encoding information using Laguerre Gaussian modes over free space turbulence media
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Trichili, A
2016-07-01
Full Text Available of the atmospheric turbulence on the proposed communication system. We believe that the proposed technique is promising for high-bit-rate spatial division multiplexing in optical fiber and free space communication systems....
1989-12-01
laboratory were necessary. but also the Pitot tulbe (used to ineasuire free-streamn velocity) had to be checked often. On top of stich basic considerations...8217turbulence’ in Fluid Mechanics (Alexandre Favre). Pure Mathematics (Andr Lichnerowiez), Philosophy (,Jean G uitton). Economics ( Henri Guitton). and
A Retrospective on Modulated Wavy Vortex Flow
Gorman, Michael; Swinney, Harry
2009-01-01
A fluid dynamics video of the Modulated Wavy Vortex Flow state of Taylor-Couette flow with the outer cylinder fixed is presented. This state precedes the transition to turbulence, which is more gradual than that for other fluid systems.
Wang, Wenkang; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jinjun
2018-01-01
The identification and separation of multi-scale coherent structures is a critical task for the study of scale interaction in wall-bounded turbulence. Here, we propose a quasi-bivariate variational mode decomposition (QB-VMD) method to extract structures with various scales from instantaneous two-dimensional (2D) velocity field which has only one primary dimension. This method is developed from the one-dimensional VMD algorithm proposed by Dragomiretskiy and Zosso (IEEE Trans Signal Process 62:531-544, 2014) to cope with a quasi-2D scenario. It poses the feature of length-scale bandwidth constraint along the decomposed dimension, together with the central frequency re-balancing along the non-decomposed dimension. The feasibility of this method is tested on both a synthetic flow field and a turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number (Re_{τ } = 3458) measured by 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). Some other popular scale separation tools, including pseudo-bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (PB-EMD), bi-dimensional EMD (B-EMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), are also tested for comparison. Among all these methods, QB-VMD shows advantages in both scale characterization and energy recovery. More importantly, the mode mixing problem, which degrades the performance of EMD-based methods, is avoided or minimized in QB-VMD. Finally, QB-VMD analysis of the wall-parallel plane in the log layer (at y/δ = 0.12) of the studied turbulent boundary layer shows the coexistence of large- or very large-scale motions (LSMs or VLSMs) and inner-scaled structures, which can be fully decomposed in both physical and spectral domains.
Vortex Simulation of Turbulent Combustion
1992-11-19
Japan, (lecture). 14. 1990, Toyota Motor Co., Nagoya, Japan, (lecture). 15. 1990, Nissan Motor Co., Yokosaka, Japan, (lecture). 16. 1990, Mitsubishi...Nagoya University, Japan 12. 1990, Institute of Computational Fluid Dynamics, Tokyo, Japan, one-day professional course. 13. 1990, Honda Motor Co. Wako...established by comparing the results of variable density shear layers with the results of a shear layer with an initially asymmetric vorticity distribution
Experiments concerning the theories of vortex breakdown
Panton, Ronald L.; Stifle, Kirk E.
1991-01-01
An experimental project was undertaken to investigate the character of vortex breakdown with particular regard to the stagnation and wave guide theories of vortex breakdown. Three different wings were used to produce a trailing vortex which convected downstream without undergoing breakdown. Disturbances were then introduced onto the vortex using a moving wire to 'cut' the vortex. The development of upstream and downstream propagating disturbance waves was observed and the propagation velocities measured. A downstream traveling wave was observed to produce a structure similar in appearance to a vortex breakdown. An upstream traveling wave produced a moving turbulent region. The upstream disturbance moved into an axial velocity profile that had a wake-like defect while the downstream moving vortex breakdown moved against a jet-like overshoot. The longitudinal and swirl velocity profiles were documented by LDV measurement. Wave velocities, swirl angles, and swirl parameters are reported.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleva, R.G.
1980-01-01
The first part of this work is concerned with test particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field. In the absence of collisions, the test particle self-diffusion coefficient is given by D = D/sub m/ V (in the zero gyroradius limit), where D/sub m/ is the magnetic diffusion coefficient due to a given spectrum of magnetic fluctuations and V is the particle velocity along a field line. The effect of collisions, either classical or turbulent, on this result is considered. The second part of this work is concerned with the evolution of the collisionless tearing mode in the presence of a stochastic magnetic field. A statistical closure approximation, obtained from the DIA by neglecting a mode-coupling term, is used to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation. For L 0 < L/sub K/ the dominant nonlinear effect is shown to be a turbulent broadening of the perturbed current layer. Saturation occurs when the perturbed current layer broadens to the point where Δ' = 0, where Δ' is the jump in the logarithmic derivative of the vector potential across the perturbed current layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzdar, P.N.; Drake, J.F.
1993-01-01
The generation of shear flow by resistive ballooning modes and resistive interchange modes is compared and contrasted using a 3-D fluid code. The resistive ballooning modes give rise to poloidally asymmetric transport and hence drive poloidal rotation due to the Reynold's Stress as well as the anomalous Stringer/Winsor mechanism. On the other hand the resistive interchange mode can drive shear flow only through the Reynold's Stress. The studies show that if the self-consistent sheared flow is suppressed, the resistive ballooning modes give rise to a larger anomalous transport than produced by the resistive interchange modes. Furthermore the shear flow generated by the resistive ballooning modes is larger than that driven by the resistive interchange modes due to the combined effect of the dual mechanisms stated earlier. As a consequence strong suppression of the fluctuations as well as reduction of the transport occurs for resistive ballooning modes. On the other hand, for the resistive interchange modes the level of fluctuation as well as the anomalous transport is not reduced by the self consistent shear flow generated by the Reynold's Stress. This latter result is in agreement with some earlier 3-D simulation of resistive interchange modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Rettig, C.L.
1993-01-01
VH-mode plasma exhibit energy confinement times up to 2.4 times the DIII-D/JET H-mode scaling relation and up to 3.9 times the value given by ITER89-P L-mode scaling. If this confinement improvement can be exploited in reactor plasmas, smaller prototype reactors with significantly lower unit cost can be produced. Accordingly, understanding and optimizing the confinement improvement is of significant interest. One of the possible explanations for this bulk confinement improvement is stabilization of turbulence by shear in the radial electric field, similar to the present explanation for the confinement improvement at the extreme plasma edge at the L to H transition. Preliminary measurements have shown that the region of the plasma where the electric field gradient is steepest broadens when the plasma goes from H-mode to VH-mode. More recent measurements have confirmed this broadening and have shown that the change in the electric field gradient occurs prior to the change in the thermal transport. In addition, transport analysis shows that the electric field shear increases in the same region between magnetic flux coordinate p=0.6 and 0.9 where the local thermal transport decreases. Furthermore, far infra-red (FIR) scattering measurements have detected density fluctuations in the region around p=0.8 which could be responsible for enhanced transport and which disappear at the time that the electric shear increases. These fluctuations appear as bursts of density fluctuations in the 0.5 to 1.5 MHz range. The time between bursts increases as the electric field shear increases. Once these bursts disappear, the major change in confinement takes place in most discharges. When isolated bursts occur, the heat and angular momentum pulse connected with the burst are detectable on the plasma profile diagnostics. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs
Turbulence at the transition to the high density H-mode in Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Baumel, S.
2003-01-01
Recently a new improved confinement regime was found in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator (Renner H. et al 1989 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 31 1579). The discovery of this high density high confinement mode (HDH-mode) was facilitated by the installation of divertor modules. In this paper,...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leconte, M.; Diamond, P.H.; Xu, Y.
2014-01-01
We study the effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows and confinement in the framework of resistive drift-wave turbulence. This work was motivated, in parts, by experiments reported at the IAEA 2010 conference (Xu et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 062030) which showed a decrease of long-range correlations during the application of RMPs. We derive and apply a zero-dimensional predator–prey model coupling the drift-wave–zonal-mode system (Leconte and Diamond 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 055903) to the evolution of mean quantities. This model has both density-gradient drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. This model allows a description of the full L–H transition evolution with RMPs, including the mean sheared flow evolution. The key results are the following: (i) the L–I and I–H power thresholds both increase with RMP amplitude | b-tilde x |, the relative increase of the L–I threshold scales as ΔP LI ∝| b-tilde x | 2 ν ∗ −2 ρ s −2 , where ν * is edge collisionality and ρ s is the sound gyroradius. (ii) RMPs are predicted to decrease the hysteresis between the forward and back-transition. (iii) Taking into account the mean density evolution, the density profile—sustained by the particle source—has an increased turbulent diffusion compared with the reference case without RMPs which provides one possible explanation for the density pump-out effect. (paper)
Sung, C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Staebler, G. M.; Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; Smith, S. P.; Osborne, T. H.; Peebles, W. A.
2018-05-01
For the first time, we report increased edge electron temperature and density turbulence levels ( T˜ e and n˜ e) in Edge Localized Mode free Quiescent H-mode (ELM-free QH-mode) plasmas as compared to the ELMing time period. ELMs can severely damage plasma facing components in fusion plasma devices due to their large transient energy transport, making ELM-free operation a highly sought after goal. The QH-mode is a candidate for this goal as it is ELM-free for times limited only by hardware constraints. It is found that the driving gradients decrease during the QH-mode compared to the ELMing phase, however, a significant decrease in the ExB shearing rate is also observed that taken together is consistent with the increased turbulence. These results are significant as the prediction and control of ELM-free H-mode regimes are crucial for the operation of future fusion devices such as ITER. The changes in the linear growth rates calculated by CGYRO [Candy et al., J. Comput. Phys. 324, 73 (2016)] and the measured ExB shearing rate between ELMing and QH-mode phases are qualitatively consistent with these turbulence changes. Comparison with ELMing and 3D fields ELM suppressed H-mode finds a similar increase in T˜ e and n˜ e, however, with distinctly different origins, the increased driving gradients rather than the changes in the ExB shearing rate in 3D fields ELM suppressed the H-mode. However, linear gyrokinetic calculation results are generally consistent with the increased turbulence in both ELM-controlled discharges.
Ground, Cody R.; Gopal, Vijay; Maddalena, Luca
2018-04-01
By introducing large-scale streamwise vortices into a supersonic flow it is possible to enhance the rate of mixing between two fluid streams. However, increased vorticity content alone does not explicitly serve as a predictor of mixing enhancement. Additional factors, particularly the mutual interactions occurring between neighboring vortical structures, affect the underlying fundamental physics that influence the rate at which the fluids mix. As part of a larger systematic study on supersonic streamwise vortex interactions, this work experimentally quantifies the average rate of mixing of helium and air in the presence of two separate modes of vortex interaction, the merging and non-merging of a pair of co-rotating vortices. In these experiments vortex-generating expansion ramps are placed on a strut injector. The freestream Mach number is set at 2.5 and helium is injected as a passive scalar. Average injectant mole fractions at selected flow planes downstream of the injector are measured utilizing the filtered Rayleigh scattering technique. The filtered Rayleigh scattering measurements reveal that, in the domain surveyed, the merging vortex interaction strongly displaces the plume from its initial horizontal orientation while the non-merging vortex interaction more rapidly mixes the helium and air. The results of the current experiments are consistent with associated knowledge derived from previous analyses of the two studied configurations which have included the detailed experimental characterization of entrainment, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity of both modes of vortex interaction.
Profiles of zonal flows and turbulence mode numbers and probe system in the HL-2A tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong Wenyu; Zhao Kaijun; Yan Longwen; Dong Jiaqi; Cheng Jun; Qian Jun
2009-01-01
The toroidal and poloidal symmetries (m-0, n-0) of the measured low frequency zonal flows (f=0-5 kHz) and geodesic acoustic mode zonal flow (f=16 kHz) electric potential and radial promulgate features were unambiguously identified with displaced Langmuir probe arrays in the edge plasma of the HL-2A tokamak for the first time. The finite radial wave vector (K r-LF =0.6 cm -1 , K r-GAM =2 cm -1 ) of the flows was simultaneously estimated. The formation mechanism of the flows is identified to be nonlinear three wave coupling between high frequency turbulent fluctuations and the flows. Changes of zonal flow amplitude bring by ECRH power and the boundary safety factors were simply studied. Moreover, change of zonal flow amplitude in radial direction was too observed. (authors)
Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan
2013-01-01
Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 vortex pair sizes at the time when one...... pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys.21, 269-273 (2000...... pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...
Low- and high-mode separation of short wavelength turbulence in dithering Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Saffman, M.
2002-01-01
In this article measurements of small scale electron density fluctuations in dithering high confinement (H)-mode plasmas obtained by collective scattering of infrared light are presented. A scan of the fluctuation wavenumber was made in a series of similar discharges in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-A...
Dynamic mode decomposition of turbulent cavity flows for self-sustained oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seena, Abu; Sung, Hyung Jin
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► DMD modes were extracted from two cavity flow data set at Re D = 12,000 and 3000. ► At Re D = 3000, frequencies of boundary layer and shear layer structures coincides. ► Boundary layer structures exceed in size with shear layer structures. ► At Re D = 12,000, structure showed coherence leading to self-sustained oscillations. ► Hydrodynamic resonance occurs if coherence exists in wavenumber and frequency. - Abstract: Self-sustained oscillations in a cavity arise due to the unsteady separation of boundary layers at the leading edge. The dynamic mode decomposition method was employed to analyze the self-sustained oscillations. Two cavity flow data sets, with or without self-sustained oscillations and possessing thin or thick incoming boundary layers (Re D = 12,000 and 3000), were analyzed. The ratios between the cavity depth and the momentum thickness (D/θ) were 40 and 4.5, respectively, and the cavity aspect ratio was L/D = 2. The dynamic modes extracted from the thick boundary layer indicated that the upcoming boundary layer structures and the shear layer structures along the cavity lip line coexisted with coincident frequency space but with different wavenumber space, whereas structures with a thin boundary layer showed complete coherence among the modes to produce self-sustained oscillations. This result suggests that the hydrodynamic resonances that gave rise to the self-sustained oscillations occurred if the upcoming boundary layer structures and the shear layer structures coincided, not only in frequencies, but also in wavenumbers. The influences of the cavity dimensions and incoming momentum thickness on the self-sustained oscillations were examined.
Numerical investigation of unsteady vortex breakdown past 80°/65° double-delta wing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Jian
2014-06-01
Full Text Available An improved delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES method based on the k-ω-SST (shear stress transport turbulence model was applied to predict the unsteady vortex breakdown past an 80°/65° double-delta wing (DDW, where the angles of attack (AOAs range from 30° to 40°. Firstly, the IDDES model and the relative numerical methods were validated by simulating the massively separated flow around an NACA0021 straight wing at the AOA of 60°. The fluctuation properties of the lift and pressure coefficients were analyzed and compared with the available measurements. For the DDW case, the computations were compared with such measurements as the mean lift, drag, pitching moment, pressure coefficients and breakdown locations. Furthermore, the unsteady properties were investigated in detail, such as the frequencies of force and moments, pressure fluctuation on the upper surface, typical vortex breakdown patterns at three moments, and the distributions of kinetic turbulence energy at a stream wise section. Two dominated modes are observed, in which their Strouhal numbers are 1.0 at the AOAs of 30°, 32° and 34° and 0.7 at the AOAs of 36°, 38° and 40°. The breakdown vortex always moves upstream and downstream and its types change alternatively. Furthermore, the vortex can be identified as breakdown or not through the mean pressure, root mean square of pressure, or even through correlation analysis.
Vortex dynamics during blade-vortex interactions
Peng, Di; Gregory, James W.
2015-05-01
Vortex dynamics during parallel blade-vortex interactions (BVIs) were investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Vortices were generated by applying a rapid pitch-up motion to an airfoil through a pneumatic system, and the subsequent interactions with a downstream, unloaded target airfoil were studied. The blade-vortex interactions may be classified into three categories in terms of vortex behavior: close interaction, very close interaction, and collision. For each type of interaction, the vortex trajectory and strength variation were obtained from phase-averaged PIV data. The PIV results revealed the mechanisms of vortex decay and the effects of several key parameters on vortex dynamics, including separation distance (h/c), Reynolds number, and vortex sense. Generally, BVI has two main stages: interaction between vortex and leading edge (vortex-LE interaction) and interaction between vortex and boundary layer (vortex-BL interaction). Vortex-LE interaction, with its small separation distance, is dominated by inviscid decay of vortex strength due to pressure gradients near the leading edge. Therefore, the decay rate is determined by separation distance and vortex strength, but it is relatively insensitive to Reynolds number. Vortex-LE interaction will become a viscous-type interaction if there is enough separation distance. Vortex-BL interaction is inherently dominated by viscous effects, so the decay rate is dependent on Reynolds number. Vortex sense also has great impact on vortex-BL interaction because it changes the velocity field and shear stress near the surface.
Michael, C. A.; Tanaka, K.; Akiyama, T.; Ozaki, T.; Osakabe, M.; Sakakibara, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Murakami, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Shoji, M.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; LHD Experimental Group
2018-04-01
In the Large helical device, a change of energetic particle mode is observed as He concentration is varied in ion-ITB type experiments, having constant electron density and input heating power but with a clear increase of central ion temperature in He rich discharges. This activity consists of bursty, but damped energetic interchange modes (EICs, Du et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 155003), whose occurrence rate is dramatically lower in the He-rich discharges. Mechanisms are discussed for the changes in drive and damping of the modes with He concentration. These EIC bursts consist of marked changes in the radial electric field, which is derived from the phase velocity of turbulence measured with the 2D phase contrast imaging (PCI) system. Similar bursts are detected in edge fast ion diagnostics. Ion thermal transport by gyro-Bohm scaling is recognised as a contribution to the change in ion temperature, though fast ion losses by these EIC modes may also contribute to the ion temperature dependence on He concentration, most particularly controlling the height of an ‘edge-pedestal’ in the Ti profile. The steady-state level of fast ions is shown to be larger in helium rich discharges on the basis of a compact neutral particle analyser (CNPA), and the fast-ion component of the diamagnetic stored energy. These events also have an influence on turbulence and transport. The large velocity shear induced produced during these events transiently improves confinement and suppresses turbulence, and has a larger net effect when bursts are more frequent in hydrogen discharges. This exactly offsets the increased gyro-Bohm related turbulence drive in hydrogen which results in the same time-averaged turbulence level in hydrogen as in helium.
Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.
Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan
2010-07-23
Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hornsby, W. A.; Peeters, A. G.; Snodin, A. P.; Casson, F. J.; Camenen, Y.; Szepesi, G.; Siccinio, M.; Poli, E.
2010-01-01
The interaction between small scale turbulence (of the order of the ion Larmor radius) and mesoscale magnetic islands is investigated within the gyrokinetic framework. Turbulence, driven by background temperature and density gradients, over nonlinear mode coupling, pumps energy into long wavelength modes, and can result in an electrostatic vortex mode that coincides with the magnetic island. The strength of the vortex is strongly enhanced by the modified plasma flow response connected with the change in topology, and the transport it generates can compete with the parallel motion along the perturbed magnetic field. Despite the stabilizing effect of sheared plasma flows in and around the island, the net effect of the island is a degradation of the confinement. When density and temperature gradients inside the island are below the threshold for turbulence generation, turbulent fluctuations still persist through turbulence convection and spreading. The latter mechanisms then generate a finite transport flux and, consequently, a finite pressure gradient in the island. A finite radial temperature gradient inside the island is also shown to persist due to the trapped particles, which do not move along the field around the island. In the low collisionality regime, the finite gradient in the trapped population leads to the generation of a bootstrap current, which reduces the neoclassical drive.
Scalable fast multipole methods for vortex element methods
Hu, Qi; Gumerov, Nail A.; Yokota, Rio; Barba, Lorena A.; Duraiswami, Ramani
2012-01-01
work for a scalar heterogeneous FMM algorithm, we develop a new FMM-based vortex method capable of simulating general flows including turbulence on heterogeneous architectures, which distributes the work between multi-core CPUs and GPUs to best utilize
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Q. Q., E-mail: yangqq@ipp.ac.cn; Zhong, F. C., E-mail: gsxu@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Jia, M. N. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, G. S., E-mail: gsxu@ipp.ac.cn, E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Wang, H. Q.; Chen, R.; Yan, N.; Liu, S. C.; Chen, L.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, J. B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2015-06-15
The power fall-off width in the H-mode scrape-off layer (SOL) in tokamaks shows a strong inverse dependence on the plasma current, which was noticed by both previous multi-machine scaling work [T. Eich et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 093031 (2013)] and more recent work [L. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 114002 (2014)] on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. To understand the underlying physics, probe measurements of three H-mode discharges with different plasma currents have been studied in this work. The results suggest that a higher plasma current is accompanied by a stronger E×B shear and a shorter radial correlation length of turbulence in the SOL, thus resulting in a narrower power fall-off width. A simple model has also been applied to demonstrate the suppression effect of E×B shear on turbulence in the SOL and shows relatively good agreement with the experimental observations.
Vortex Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Bose-Einstein Condensates
Groszek, Andrew James
2018-01-01
Fluid turbulence remains an open problem in contemporary physics. In gases or liquids encountered in daily life, turbulence is comprised of swirling vortices of varying sizes, shapes and strengths. The impossibility of making detailed predictions of turbulent flows comes, in part, from the complicated nature of these vortices. Turbulence in quantum mechanical superfluids, on the other hand, is comparatively simple. When stirred, a superfluid produces well-defined, discretised vortex lines, an...
ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments after Clinical Use.
Shen, Ya; Zhou, Huimin; Coil, Jeffrey M; Aljazaeri, Bassim; Buttar, Rene; Wang, Zhejun; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus
2015-06-01
The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and mode of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument defects after clinical use in a graduate endodontic program and to examine the impact of clinical use on the instruments' metallurgical properties. A total of 330 ProFile Vortex and 1136 Vortex Blue instruments from the graduate program were collected after each had been used in 3 teeth. The incidence and type of instrument defects were analyzed. The lateral surfaces and fracture surfaces of the fractured files were examined by using scanning electron microscopy. Unused and used instruments were examined by full and partial differential scanning calorimetry. No fractures were observed in the 330 ProFile Vortex instruments, whereas 20 (6.1%) revealed bent or blunt defects. Only 2 of the 1136 Vortex Blue files fractured during clinical use. The cause of fracture was shear stress. The fractures occurred at the tip end of the spirals. Only 1.8% (21 of 1136) of the Vortex Blue files had blunt tips. Austenite-finish temperatures were very similar for unused and used ProFile Vortex files and were all greater than 50°C. The austenite-finish temperatures of used and unused Vortex Blue files (38.5°C) were lower than those in ProFile Vortex instruments (P Vortex Blue files had an obvious 2-stage transformation, martensite-to-R phase and R-to-austenite phase. The trends of differential scanning calorimetry plots of unused Vortex Blue instruments and clinically used instruments were very similar. The risk of ProFile Vortex and Vortex Blue instrument fracture is very low when instruments are discarded after clinical use in the graduate endodontic program. The Vortex Blue files have metallurgical behavior different from ProFile Vortex instruments. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seghilani, Mohamed S; Myara, Mikhael; Sellahi, Mohamed; Legratiet, Luc; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Lalanne, Philippe; Garnache, Arnaud
2016-12-05
The generation of a coherent state, supporting a large photon number, with controlled orbital-angular-momentum L = ħl (of charge l per photon) presents both fundamental and technological challenges: we demonstrate a surface-emitting laser, based on III-V semiconductor technology with an integrated metasurface, generating vortex-like coherent state in the Laguerre-Gauss basis. We use a first order phase perturbation to lift orbital degeneracy of wavefunctions, by introducing a weak anisotropy called here "orbital birefringence", based on a dielectric metasurface. The azimuthal symmetry breakdown and non-linear laser dynamics create "orbital gain dichroism" allowing selecting vortex handedness. This coherent photonic device was characterized and studied, experimentally and theoretically. It exhibits a low divergence (50 dB vortex purity), and single frequency operation in a stable low noise regime (0.1% rms). Such high performance laser opens the path to widespread new photonic applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, T.L.; Doyle, E.J.; Hillesheim, J.C.; Peebles, W.A.; Schmitz, L.; Holland, C.; Smith, S.P.; Burrell, K.H.; Candy, J.; DeBoo, J.C.; Kinsey, J.E.; Petty, C.C.; Prater, R.; Staebler, G.M.; Waltz, R.E.; White, A.E.; McKee, G.R.; Mikkelsen, D.; Parker, S.; Chen, Y.
2011-01-01
A series of carefully designed experiments on DIII-D have taken advantage of a broad set of turbulence and profile diagnostics to rigorously test gyrokinetic turbulence simulations. In this paper the goals, tools and experiments performed in these validation studies are reviewed and specific examples presented. It is found that predictions of transport and fluctuation levels in the mid-core region (0.4 < ρ < 0.75) are in better agreement with experiment than those in the outer region (ρ ≥ 0.75) where edge coupling effects may become increasingly important and multiscale simulations may also be necessary. Validation studies such as these are crucial in developing confidence in a first-principles based predictive capability for ITER.
Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández
2005-09-16
Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.
Wang, Xiaohui; Song, Yingxiong
2018-02-01
By exploiting the non-Kolmogorov model and Rytov approximation theory, a propagation model of Bessel-Gaussian vortex beams (BGVB) propagating in a subway tunnel is derived. Based on the propagation model, a model of orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode probability distribution is established to evaluate the propagation performance when the beam propagates along both longitudinal and transverse directions in the subway tunnel. By numerical simulations and experimental verifications, the influences of the various parameters of BGVB and turbulence on the OAM mode probability distribution are evaluated, and the results of simulations are consistent with the experimental statistics. The results verify that the middle area of turbulence is more beneficial for the vortex beam propagation than the edge; when the BGVB propagates along the longitudinal direction in the subway tunnel, the effects of turbulence on the OAM mode probability distribution can be decreased by selecting a larger anisotropy parameter, smaller coherence length, larger non-Kolmogorov power spectrum coefficient, smaller topological charge number, deeper subway tunnel, lower train speed, and longer wavelength. When the BGVB propagates along the transverse direction, the influences can be also mitigated by adopting a larger topological charge number, less non-Kolmogorov power spectrum coefficient, smaller refractive structure index, shorter wavelength, and shorter propagation distance.
Alteration of helical vortex core without change in flow topology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2011-01-01
topology. The helical symmetry as such is preserved, although the characteristic parameters of helical symmetry of the vortex core transfer from a smooth linear variation to a different trend under the influence of a non-uniform pressure gradient, causing an increase in helical pitch without changing its......The abrupt expansion of the slender vortex core with changes in flow topology is commonly known as vortex breakdown. We present new experimental observations of an alteration of the helical vortex core in wall bounded turbulent flow with abrupt growth in core size, but without change in flow...
Optical vortex beams: Generation, propagation and applications
Cheng, Wen
An optical vortex (also known as a screw dislocation or phase singularity) is one type of optical singularity that has a spiral phase wave front around a singularity point where the phase is undefined. Optical vortex beams have a lot of applications in areas such as optical communications, LADAR (laser detection and ranging) system, optical tweezers, optical trapping and laser beam shaping. The concepts of optical vortex beams and methods of generation are briefly discussed. The properties of optical vortex beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence have been studied. A numerical modeling is developed and validated which has been applied to study the high order properties of optical vortex beams propagating though a turbulent atmosphere. The simulation results demonstrate the advantage that vectorial vortex beams may be more stable and maintain beam integrity better when they propagate through turbulent atmosphere. As one important application of optical vortex beams, the laser beam shaping is introduced and studied. We propose and demonstrate a method to generate a 2D flat-top beam profile using the second order full Poincare beams. Its applications in two-dimensional flat-top beam shaping with spatially variant polarization under low numerical aperture focusing have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A novel compact flat-top beam shaper based on the proposed method has been designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results show that high quality flat-top profile can be obtained with steep edge roll-off. The tolerance to different input beam sizes of the beam shaper is also verified in the experimental demonstration. The proposed and experimentally verified LC beam shaper has the potential to become a promising candidate for compact and low-cost flat-top beam shaping in areas such as laser processing/machining, lithography and medical treatment.
Vortex line topology during vortex tube reconnection
McGavin, P.; Pontin, D. I.
2018-05-01
This paper addresses reconnection of vortex tubes, with particular focus on the topology of the vortex lines (field lines of the vorticity). This analysis of vortex line topology reveals key features of the reconnection process, such as the generation of many small flux rings, formed when reconnection occurs in multiple locations in the vortex sheet between the tubes. Consideration of three-dimensional reconnection principles leads to a robust measurement of the reconnection rate, even once instabilities break the symmetry. It also allows us to identify internal reconnection of vortex lines within the individual vortex tubes. Finally, the introduction of a third vortex tube is shown to render the vortex reconnection process fully three-dimensional, leading to a fundamental change in the topological structure of the process. An additional interesting feature is the generation of vorticity null points.
Numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown
Liu, C. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Kandil, H. A.
1993-01-01
Existing numerical simulations and physical aspects of subsonic and supersonic vortex-breakdown modes are reviewed. The solution to the problem of supersonic vortex breakdown is emphasized in this paper and carried out with the full Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows. Numerical simulations of vortex-breakdown modes are presented in bounded and unbounded domains. The effects of different types of downstream-exit boundary conditions are studied and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Eun-jin; Diamond, P.H.
2003-01-01
The dynamics of and an interplay among structures (mean shear flows, zonal flows, and generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz modes) are studied in drift wave turbulence. Mean shear flows are found to inhibit the nonlinear generation of zonal flows by weakening the coherent modulation response of the drift wave spectrum. Based on this result, a minimal model for the L→H (low- to high-confinement) transition is proposed, which involves the amplitude of drift waves, zonal flows, and the density gradient. A transition to quiescent H-mode sets in as the profile becomes sufficiently steep to completely damp out drift waves, following an oscillatory transition phase where zonal flows regulate drift wave turbulence. The different roles of mean flows and zonal flows are elucidated. Finally, the effect of poloidally nonaxisymmetric structures (generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz mode) on anomalous transport is investigated, especially in reference to damping of collisionless zonal flows. Results indicate that nonlinear excitation of this structure can be potentially important in enhancing anomalous transport as well as in damping zonal flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrando, Albert; Garcia-March, Miguel-Angel; Zacares, Mario; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Cordoba, Pedro Fernandez de
2005-01-01
Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a 'transmutation pass rule' determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials
On the evolution of vortex rings with swirl
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitoh, Takashi; Okura, Nobuyuki; Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Kato, Yusuke
2014-01-01
A laminar vortex ring with swirl, which has the meridional velocity component inside the vortex core, was experimentally generated by the brief fluid ejection from a rotating outlet. The evolution of the vortex ring was investigated with flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in order to find the influence of swirling flow in particular upon the transition to turbulence. Immediately after the formation of a vortex ring with swirl, a columnar strong vortex along the symmetric axis is observed in all cases of the present experiment. Then the characteristic fluid discharging from a vortex ring with swirl referred to as “peeling off” appears. The amount of discharging fluid due to the “peeling off” increases with the angular velocity of the rotating outlet. We conjectured that the mechanism generating the “peeling off” is related to the columnar strong vortex by close observations of the spatio-temporal development of the vorticity distribution and the cutting 3D images constructed from the successive cross sections of a vortex ring. While a laminar vortex ring without swirl may develop azimuthal waves around its circumference at some later time and the ring structure subsequently breaks, the swirling flow in a vortex ring core reduces the amplification rate of the azimuthal wavy deformation and preserved its ring structure. Then the traveling distance of a vortex ring can be extended using the swirl flow under certain conditions
On the evolution of vortex rings with swirl
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naitoh, Takashi, E-mail: naitoh.takashi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Engineering Physics, Electronics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Okura, Nobuyuki, E-mail: ohkura@meijo-u.ac.jp [Department of Vehicle and Mechanical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Gotoh, Toshiyuki, E-mail: gotoh.toshiyuki@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Scientific and Engineering Simulation, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kato, Yusuke [Controller Business Unit Engineering Division 1, Engineering Department 3, Denso Wave Incorporated, 1 Yoshiike Kusagi Agui-cho, Chita-gun Aichi 470-2297 (Japan)
2014-06-15
A laminar vortex ring with swirl, which has the meridional velocity component inside the vortex core, was experimentally generated by the brief fluid ejection from a rotating outlet. The evolution of the vortex ring was investigated with flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in order to find the influence of swirling flow in particular upon the transition to turbulence. Immediately after the formation of a vortex ring with swirl, a columnar strong vortex along the symmetric axis is observed in all cases of the present experiment. Then the characteristic fluid discharging from a vortex ring with swirl referred to as “peeling off” appears. The amount of discharging fluid due to the “peeling off” increases with the angular velocity of the rotating outlet. We conjectured that the mechanism generating the “peeling off” is related to the columnar strong vortex by close observations of the spatio-temporal development of the vorticity distribution and the cutting 3D images constructed from the successive cross sections of a vortex ring. While a laminar vortex ring without swirl may develop azimuthal waves around its circumference at some later time and the ring structure subsequently breaks, the swirling flow in a vortex ring core reduces the amplification rate of the azimuthal wavy deformation and preserved its ring structure. Then the traveling distance of a vortex ring can be extended using the swirl flow under certain conditions.
Intra-cavity vortex beam generation
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Naidoo, Darryl
2011-08-01
Full Text Available at exploring the methods of generating optical vortex beams. We will discuss a typical extra-cavity approach that harnesses digital holography through the use of a SLM. We consider vortex beam generation as the fundamental mode of a monolithic microchip laser...-cavity phase diffractive elements can result in the desired mode as the fundamental mode of the cavity with pure modal quality. This approach, although very attractive is insufficient for the generation of these modes in monolithic microchip lasers. A...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, H.T. [Department of Information Management, Cheng Shiu University, Kaoshuing, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C.H. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Ke, C.; Pan, M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)
2011-11-15
Mean field approach is a good way of dealing with chaos of vortex motion in a background of many vortices. The vortex motion under the damping mode is a kind of self-organized motion. The spatial chaos can dominate the chaotic behavior of the system. Vortex motion in the background of many vortices is investigated by a mean field approach. Effects of the vortex-vortex coupling, the driving frequency, and the vortex viscosity on the vortex motion have been studied to reveal the interaction between the spatial and temporal chaos. It is found that the mean-field approach is a good approximation to describe the vortex motion in one dimensional vortex system. The vortex motion under the damping mode is a kind of self-organized motion. The spatial chaos can dominate the chaotic behavior of the system.
Three-Phased Wake Vortex Decay
Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; Switzer, George S.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.
2010-01-01
A detailed parametric study is conducted that examines vortex decay within turbulent and stratified atmospheres. The study uses a large eddy simulation model to simulate the out-of-ground effect behavior of wake vortices due to their interaction with atmospheric turbulence and thermal stratification. This paper presents results from a parametric investigation and suggests improvements for existing fast-time wake prediction models. This paper also describes a three-phased decay for wake vortices. The third phase is characterized by a relatively slow rate of circulation decay, and is associated with the ringvortex stage that occurs following vortex linking. The three-phased decay is most prevalent for wakes imbedded within environments having low-turbulence and near-neutral stratification.
Dewhurst, J.; Hnat, B.; Dudson, B.; Dendy, R. O.; Counsell, G. F.; Kirk, A.
2007-12-01
Almost all astrophysical and magnetically confined fusion plasmas are turbulent. Here, we examine ion saturation current (Isat) measurements of edge plasma turbulence for three MAST L-mode plasmas that differ primarily in their edge magnetic field configurations. First, absolute moments of the coarse grained data are examined to obtain accurate values of scaling exponents. The dual scaling behaviour is identified in all samples, with the temporal scale τ ≍ 40-60 μs separating the two regimes. Strong universality is then identified in the functional form of the probability density function (PDF) for Isat fluctuations, which is well approximated by the Fréchet distribution on temporal scales τ ≤ 40μs. For temporal scales τ > 40μs, the PDFs appear to converge to the Gumbel distribution, which has been previously identified as a universal feature of many other complex phenomena. The optimal fitting parameters k=1.15 for Fréchet and a=1.35 for Gumbel provide a simple quantitative characterisation of the full spectrum of fluctuations. We conclude that, to good approximation, the properties of the edge turbulence are independent of the edge magnetic field configuration.
Electric vortex lines from the Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, N.K.; Olesen, P.
1978-08-01
The dynamics of an unstable Yang-Mills field mode previously found by the authors is developed. It is argued that this unstable mode corresponds to the transition to a state where electric vortex lines are created. (Auth.)
Tunable magnetic vortex resonance in a potential well
Warnicke, P.; Wohlhüter, P.; Suszka, A. K.; Stevenson, S. E.; Heyderman, L. J.; Raabe, J.
2017-11-01
We use frequency-resolved x-ray microscopy to fully characterize the potential well of a magnetic vortex in a soft ferromagnetic permalloy square. The vortex core is excited with magnetic broadband pulses and simultaneously displaced with a static magnetic field. We observe a frequency increase (blueshift) in the gyrotropic mode of the vortex core with increasing bias field. Supported by micromagnetic simulations, we show that this frequency increase is accompanied by internal deformation of the vortex core. The ability to modify the inner structure of the vortex core provides a mechanism to control the dynamics of magnetic vortices.
Generation and detection of vortex rings in superfluid 4He at very low temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yano, H; Nishijima, A; Yamamoto, S; Ogawa, T; Nago, Y; Obara, K; Ishikawa, O; Tsubota, M; Hata, T
2012-01-01
Motions of vortices are fundamental characteristics of quantum turbulence. These motions are expected to be governed only by quantized circulations in superfluids at the zero temperature limit. In the present paper, we report the motions of vortex rings emitted from a quantum turbulence in superfluid 4 He, by detecting vortex rings using a vortex-free vibrating wire as a detector. The time of flights of vortex rings are distributed, because vortex rings are emitted in any direction from a turbulent region and the detector can respond only to a reachable vortex ring. By measuring time-of-flights many times, we find an exponential distribution of time-of-flights with a non-detection period, which corresponds to the fastest time of flights of vortex rings. For a larger generation power of vortex rings, a distribution of time-of-flights still shows a single exponential distribution, but a non-detection period becomes shorter. This result implies that sizes of emitted vortex rings are distributed dependently on the generation power of turbulence. The observed exponential distributions are confirmed by numerical simulations of the dynamics of vortex rings.
Anisotropic Formation of Quantum Turbulence Generated by a Vibrating Wire in Superfluid {}4{He}
Yano, H.; Ogawa, K.; Chiba, Y.; Obara, K.; Ishikawa, O.
2017-06-01
To investigate the formation of quantum turbulence in superfluid {}4{He}, we have studied the emission of vortex rings with a ring size of larger than 38 μm in diameter from turbulence generated by a vibrating wire. The emission rate of vortex rings from a turbulent region remains low until the beginning of high-rate emissions, suggesting that some of the vortex lines produced by the wire combine to form a vortex tangle, until an equilibrium is established between the rate of vortex line combination with the tangle and dissociation. The formation times of equilibrium turbulence are proportional to ɛ ^{-1.2} and ɛ ^{-0.6} in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the vibrating direction of the generator, respectively, indicating the anisotropic formation of turbulence. Here, ɛ is the generation power of the turbulence. This power dependence may be associated with the characteristics of quantum turbulence with a constant energy flux.
Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers.
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-07-03
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.
Proposed thermodynamic method to determine the vortex mass in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moler, K.A.; Fetter, A.L.; Kapitulnik, A.
1995-01-01
The authors describe a simple method to study vortex dynamics that can determine or set an upper limit on the vortex mass. The specific heat of the vortex lattice in layered superconductors has a classical limit of 1 k B per pancake vortex if the vortex mass is zero. If the vortex mass m v is finite, a new Einstein branch of normal modes will appear with a crossover temperature Θ E ∝ m v -1 , and the specific heat will saturate at a new classical limit of 2 k B per pancake vortex
Optical vortex discrimination with a transmission volume hologram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruneisen, Mark T [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Dymale, Raymond C; Stoltenberg, Kurt E [Boeing Company, PO Box 5670, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Steinhoff, Nicholas [Optical Sciences Company, 1341 S Sunkist St., Anaheim, CA 92806 (United States)
2011-08-15
Transmissive volume holograms are considered as mode-selective optical elements for the de-multiplexing and detecting of optical vortex modes according to the topological charge or mode number. Diffraction of vortex modes by a fundamental mode hologram is modeled using a physical optics model that treats the volume hologram as an angle-dependent transfer function. Diffracted irradiance profiles and diffraction efficiencies are calculated numerically as a function of the incident mode number. The results of the model are compared with experimental results obtained with volume holograms of fundamental and higher-order vortex modes. When considered as a function of detuning between the incident and recorded mode numbers, the measured diffraction efficiencies are found to be invariant with respect to the recorded mode number, provided that the order difference remains unchanged, and in close agreement with the predictions of the model. Measurements are made with a 1.3 mm thick permanent photo-thermo-refractive glass hologram and a 9 mm thick re-writable photorefractive lithium niobate hologram. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator generates the vortex modes used to record and read the holograms. The results indicate that a simple volume hologram can discriminate between vortex modes; however, adjacent mode discrimination with low crosstalk would require a very thick hologram. Furthermore, broadening of the vortex angular spectrum, due to diffraction at a finite aperture, can adversely affect diffraction efficiencies.
Optical vortex discrimination with a transmission volume hologram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruneisen, Mark T; Dymale, Raymond C; Stoltenberg, Kurt E; Steinhoff, Nicholas
2011-01-01
Transmissive volume holograms are considered as mode-selective optical elements for the de-multiplexing and detecting of optical vortex modes according to the topological charge or mode number. Diffraction of vortex modes by a fundamental mode hologram is modeled using a physical optics model that treats the volume hologram as an angle-dependent transfer function. Diffracted irradiance profiles and diffraction efficiencies are calculated numerically as a function of the incident mode number. The results of the model are compared with experimental results obtained with volume holograms of fundamental and higher-order vortex modes. When considered as a function of detuning between the incident and recorded mode numbers, the measured diffraction efficiencies are found to be invariant with respect to the recorded mode number, provided that the order difference remains unchanged, and in close agreement with the predictions of the model. Measurements are made with a 1.3 mm thick permanent photo-thermo-refractive glass hologram and a 9 mm thick re-writable photorefractive lithium niobate hologram. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator generates the vortex modes used to record and read the holograms. The results indicate that a simple volume hologram can discriminate between vortex modes; however, adjacent mode discrimination with low crosstalk would require a very thick hologram. Furthermore, broadening of the vortex angular spectrum, due to diffraction at a finite aperture, can adversely affect diffraction efficiencies.
Modeling of aerodynamics in vortex furnace
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anufriev, I.; Krasinsky, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Salomatov, V.; Anikin, Y.; Sharypov, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Enkhjargal, Kh. [Mongol Univ. of Science and Technology, Ulan Bator (Mongolia)
2013-07-01
At present, the torch burning technology of pulverized-coal fuel in vortex flow is one of the most prospective and environmentally-friendly combustion technologies of low-grade coals. Appropriate organization of aerodynamics may influence stability of temperature and heat flux distributions, increase slag catching, and reduce toxic emissions. Therefore, from scientific point of view it is interesting to investigate aerodynamics in the devices aiming at justification of design and operating parameters for new steam generators with vortex furnace, and upgrade of existing boiler equipment. The present work is devoted to physical and mathematical modeling of interior aerodynamics of vortex furnace of steam generator of thermal power plants. Research was carried out on the air isothermal model which geometry was similar to one section of the experimental- industrial boiler TPE-427 of Novosibirsk TPS-3. Main elements of vortex furnace structure are combustion chamber, diffuser, and cooling chamber. The model is made from organic glass; on the front wall two rectangular nozzles (through which compressed air is injected) are placed symmetrically at 15 to the horizon. The Laser Doppler Velocimeter LAD-05 was used for non-contact measurement of vortex flow characteristics. Two velocity components in the XY-plane (in different cross- sections of the model) were measured in these experiments. Reynolds number was 3.10{sup 5}. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent isothermal flow was performed with the use of CFD package FLUENT. Detailed structure of the flow in vortex furnace model has been obtained in predictions. The distributions of main flow characteristics (pressure, velocity and vorticity fields, turbulent kinetic energy) are presented. The obtained results may be used at designing boilers with vortex furnace. Computations were performed using the supercomputer NKS-160.
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-11-01
One of the longest standing unsolved problems in physics relates to the behavior of fluids that are driven far from equilibrium such as occurs when they become turbulent due to fast flow through a grid or tidal motions. In turbulent flows the distribution of vortex energy as a function of the inverse length scale [or wavenumber 'k'] of motion is proportional to 1/k5/3 which is the celebrated law of Kolmogorov. Although this law gives a good description of the average motion, fluctuations around the average are huge. This stands in contrast with thermally activated motion where large fluctuations around thermal equilibrium are highly unfavorable. The problem of turbulence is the problem of understanding why large fluctuations are so prevalent which is also called the problem of 'intermittency'. Turbulence is a remarkable problem in that its solution sits simultaneously at the forefront of physics, mathematics, engineering and computer science. A recent conference [March 2002] on 'Statistical Hydrodynamics' organized by the Los Alamos Laboratory Center for Nonlinear Studies brought together researchers in all of these fields. Although turbulence is generally thought to be described by the Navier-Stokes Equations of fluid mechanics the solution as well as its existence has eluded researchers for over 100 years. In fact proof of the existence of such a solution qualifies for a 1 M millennium prize. As part of our NASA funded research we have proposed building a bridge between vortex turbulence and wave turbulence. The latter occurs when high amplitude waves of various wavelengths are allowed to mutually interact in a fluid. In particular we have proposed measuring the interaction of ripples [capillary waves] that run around on the surface of a fluid sphere suspended in a microgravity environment. The problem of ripple turbulence poses similar mathematical challenges to the problem of vortex turbulence. The waves can have a high amplitude and a strong nonlinear
Containerless Ripple Turbulence
Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles
2002-01-01
One of the longest standing unsolved problems in physics relates to the behavior of fluids that are driven far from equilibrium such as occurs when they become turbulent due to fast flow through a grid or tidal motions. In turbulent flows the distribution of vortex energy as a function of the inverse length scale [or wavenumber 'k'] of motion is proportional to 1/k(sup 5/3) which is the celebrated law of Kolmogorov. Although this law gives a good description of the average motion, fluctuations around the average are huge. This stands in contrast with thermally activated motion where large fluctuations around thermal equilibrium are highly unfavorable. The problem of turbulence is the problem of understanding why large fluctuations are so prevalent which is also called the problem of 'intermittency'. Turbulence is a remarkable problem in that its solution sits simultaneously at the forefront of physics, mathematics, engineering and computer science. A recent conference [March 2002] on 'Statistical Hydrodynamics' organized by the Los Alamos Laboratory Center for Nonlinear Studies brought together researchers in all of these fields. Although turbulence is generally thought to be described by the Navier-Stokes Equations of fluid mechanics the solution as well as its existence has eluded researchers for over 100 years. In fact proof of the existence of such a solution qualifies for a 1 M$ millennium prize. As part of our NASA funded research we have proposed building a bridge between vortex turbulence and wave turbulence. The latter occurs when high amplitude waves of various wavelengths are allowed to mutually interact in a fluid. In particular we have proposed measuring the interaction of ripples [capillary waves] that run around on the surface of a fluid sphere suspended in a microgravity environment. The problem of ripple turbulence poses similar mathematical challenges to the problem of vortex turbulence. The waves can have a high amplitude and a strong nonlinear
Effect of free-stream turbulence on boundary layer transition.
Goldstein, M E
2014-07-28
This paper is concerned with the transition to turbulence in flat plate boundary layers due to moderately high levels of free-stream turbulence. The turbulence is assumed to be generated by an (idealized) grid and matched asymptotic expansions are used to analyse the resulting flow over a finite thickness flat plate located in the downstream region. The characteristic Reynolds number Rλ based on the mesh size λ and free-stream velocity is assumed to be large, and the turbulence intensity ε is assumed to be small. The asymptotic flow structure is discussed for the generic case where the turbulence Reynolds number εRλ and the plate thickness and are held fixed (at O(1) and O(λ), respectively) in the limit as [Formula: see text] and ε→0. But various limiting cases are considered in order to explain the relevant transition mechanisms. It is argued that there are two types of streak-like structures that can play a role in the transition process: (i) those that appear in the downstream region and are generated by streamwise vorticity in upstream flow and (ii) those that are concentrated near the leading edge and are generated by plate normal vorticity in upstream flow. The former are relatively unaffected by leading edge geometry and are usually referred to as Klebanoff modes while the latter are strongly affected by leading edge geometry and are more streamwise vortex-like in appearance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Vortex Shedding Inside a Baffled Air Duct
Davis, Philip; Kenny, R. Jeremy
2010-01-01
Common in the operation of both segmented and un-segmented large solid rocket motors is the occurrence of vortex shedding within the motor chamber. A portion of the energy within a shed vortex is converted to acoustic energy, potentially driving the longitudinal acoustic modes of the motor in a quasi-discrete fashion. This vortex shedding-acoustic mode excitation event occurs for every Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) operation, giving rise to subsequent axial thrust oscillations. In order to better understand this vortex shedding/acoustic mode excitation phenomena, unsteady CFD simulations were run for both a test geometry and the full scale RSRM geometry. This paper covers the results from the subscale geometry runs, which were based on work focusing on the RSRM hydrodynamics. Unsteady CFD simulation parameters, including boundary conditions and post-processing returns, are reviewed. The results were further post-processed to identify active acoustic modes and vortex shedding characteristics. Probable locations for acoustic energy generation, and subsequent acoustic mode excitation, are discussed.
Edge energy transport barrier and turbulence in the I-mode regime on Alcator C-Moda)
Hubbard, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Churchill, R. M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Greenwald, M. J.; Howard, N.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E. S.; Reinke, M. L.; Rowan, W. L.; Terry, J. L.
2011-05-01
We report extended studies of the I-mode regime [Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)] obtained in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak [Marmar et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 51(3), 3261 (2007)]. This regime, usually accessed with unfavorable ion B × ∇B drift, features an edge thermal transport barrier without a strong particle transport barrier. Steady I-modes have now been obtained with favorable B × ∇B drift, by using specific plasma shapes, as well as with unfavorable drift over a wider range of shapes and plasma parameters. With favorable drift, power thresholds are close to the standard scaling for L-H transitions, while with unfavorable drift they are ˜ 1.5-3 times higher, increasing with Ip. Global energy confinement in both drift configurations is comparable to H-mode scalings, while density profiles and impurity confinement are close to those in L-mode. Transport analysis of the edge region shows a decrease in edge χeff, by typically a factor of 3, between L- and I-mode. The decrease correlates with a drop in mid-frequency fluctuations (f ˜ 50-150 kHz) observed on both density and magnetics diagnostics. Edge fluctuations at higher frequencies often increase above L-mode levels, peaking at f ˜ 250 kHz. This weakly coherent mode is clearest and has narrowest width (Δf/f ˜ 0.45) at low q95 and high Tped, up to 1 keV. The Er well in I-mode is intermediate between L- and H-mode and is dominated by the diamagnetic contribution in the impurity radial force balance, without the Vpol shear typical of H-modes.
A Refined Model for Calculation of the Vortex Tube Thermal Characteristics
Biryuk, V. V.; Gorshkalev, A. A.; Uglanov, D. A.; Urlapkin, V. V.; Korneev, S. S.
2018-01-01
The article deals with the main types of vortex tubes, provides a brief description of the fundamental principles of the vortex interaction hypothesis. A physical process is represented reflecting the physical essence of the gas flow energetic separation process in the vortex tube due to the intensive turbulent heat exchange from the forced vortex to the free one. A method for refinement of the design characteristics for the cold and hot gas temperatures in a vortex tube through the employment of the gas-dynamic and thermodynamic corrections is proposed. A refined calculation method allows reaching close agreement between the cold gas temperature and the experimental values.
Constructive modelling of structural turbulence: computational experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belotserkovskii, O M; Oparin, A M; Troshkin, O V [Institute for Computer Aided Design, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vtoraya Brestskaya st., 19/18, Moscow, 123056 (Russian Federation); Chechetkin, V M [Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq., 4, Moscow, 125047 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: o.bel@icad.org.ru, E-mail: a.oparin@icad.org.ru, E-mail: troshkin@icad.org.ru, E-mail: chech@gin@keldysh.ru
2008-12-15
Constructively, the analysis of the phenomenon of turbulence must and can be performed through direct numerical simulations of mechanics supposed to be inherent to secondary flows. This one reveals itself through such instances as large vortices, structural instabilities, vortex cascades and principal modes discussed in this paper. Like fragments of a puzzle, they speak of a motion ordered with its own nuts and bolts, however chaotic it appears at first sight. This opens an opportunity for a multi-oriented approach of which a prime ideology seems to be a rational combination of grid, spectral and statistical methods. An attempt is made to bring together the above instances and produce an alternative point of view on the phenomenon in question when based on the main laws of conservation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnsen, Eric; Larsson, Johan; Bhagatwala, Ankit V.; Cabot, William H.; Moin, Parviz; Olson, Britton J.; Rawat, Pradeep S.; Shankar, Santhosh K.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H.C.; Zhong Xiaolin; Lele, Sanjiva K.
2010-01-01
Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamura, N. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan); Ogasawara, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Shiraishi, N. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Nanjo, M.
1996-07-21
In order to predict the three-dimensional response to vortex-induced oscillation of bridges, a model was investigated using the aerodynamic force coefficient including vortex-induced and self-excited forces, and the nonlinear response coefficient expressing constancy of response to vortex-induced oscillation. In the analysis, change of frequency in wind by the self-excited force, aerodynamic damping term, effect of the mode, and correlation of the vortex-induced force along member axis were taken into account. The aerodynamic force and nonlinear response coefficients were identified from the homogeneous and turbulent flow results of wind tunnel tests using a two-dimensional spring support rigid body model with varied damping factor. The aerodynamic damping term can be estimated from the nonlinear aerodynamic force coefficient, but it was enough to calculate it from the quasi-stationary coefficient in general bridge profiles. The correlation of the vortex-induced force was obtained from measurements of the vertical variation components of trailing flow under the resonance state, or the pressure distribution of the member surface. When comparing to the wind tunnel test of three-dimensional model of cable-stayed bridge, the response amplitude by the present analysis method was consistent well with the test results rather than by the method in which the amplitude of two-dimensional model was corrected. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Porkolab, M.; Lin, L.; Edlund, E. M.; Rost, J. C.; Fiore, C. L.; Greenwald, M.; Mikkelsen, D.
2008-11-01
We present recent experimental measurements of turbulence and transport in C-Mod H-Mode plasmas with and without internal transport barriers (ITB) using the phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic and compare the results with GYRO predictions. In plasmas without ITB, the fluctuation above 300 kHz observed by PCI agrees with ITG in GYRO simulation, including the direction of propagation, wavenumber spectrum, and absolute intensity within experimental uncertainly (+/-75%). After transition to ITBs, the observed overall fluctuation intensity increases. GYRO simulation in the core shows that ITG dominates in ITBs but its intensity is lower than the overall experimental measurements which may also include contributions from the plasma edge. These results, as well as the impact of varying ∇Ti, ∇n, and ExB shear on turbulence will be discussed. C.L. Fiore et al., Fusion Sci. Technol., 51, 303 (2007). M. Porkolab et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 34, 229 (2006). J. Candy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 91, 045001 (2003).
Hnat, B.; Dudson, B. D.; Dendy, R. O.; Counsell, G. F.; Kirk, A.; MAST Team
2008-08-01
Ion saturation current (Isat) measurements of edge plasma turbulence are analysed for six MAST L-mode plasmas that differ primarily in their edge magnetic field configurations. The analysis techniques are designed to capture the strong nonlinearities of the datasets. First, absolute moments of the data are examined to obtain accurate values of scaling exponents. This confirms dual scaling behaviour in all samples, with the temporal scale τ ≈ 40-60 µs separating the two regimes. Strong universality is then identified in the functional form of the probability density function (PDF) for Isat fluctuations, which is well approximated by the Fréchet distribution on temporal scales τ 40 µs, the PDFs appear to converge to the Gumbel distribution, which has been previously identified as a universal feature of many other complex phenomena. The optimal fitting parameters k = 1.15 for Fréchet and a = 1.35 for Gumbel provide a simple quantitative characterization of the full spectrum of fluctuations. It is concluded that, to good approximation, the properties of the edge turbulence are independent of the edge magnetic field configuration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, H.W.; Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Conway, G.D.; Fischer, R.; Happel, T.; Manz, P.; Suttrop, W.; Wolfrum, E.
2014-01-01
In the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade the influence of a non-axisymmetric n = 2 error field on the turbulence in the far scrape-off layer of a low density L-mode discharge has been studied. There is no density pump-out with the non-axisymmetric perturbation but an increase of the scrape-off layer density at the outer midplane. While the relative ion saturation current fluctuation level in the far scrape-off layer is decreasing, the skewness rises and especially the excess kurtosis grows by a factor of 1.5-3. The frequency of intermittent events (blobs) is increasing by 50 %. Also the poloidal velocity grows with the magnetic perturbation while the typical turbulent structure size becomes smaller by a factor 5-10 about 20-25 mm outside the separatrix. The local spectral density has been calculated from a two-point measurement of the ion saturation current. It is used to derive a dispersion relation. Two poloidal propagation velocities depending on the wave number have been found. One is an upper limit for the bulk E x B velocity and the second one the lower limit of the phase velocity. There is a significant contribution of the phase velocity to the propagation speed in the far scrape-off layer. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately
Advances in compressible turbulent mixing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.
1992-01-01
This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.
Formation of quasistationary vortex and transient hole patterns through vortex merger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganesh, R.; Lee, J.K.
2002-01-01
Collection of point-like intense vortices arranged symmetrically outside of a uniform circular vortex patch, both enclosed in a free-slip circular boundary, are numerically time evolved for up to 10-15 patch turnover times. These patterns are found to merge with the patch by successively inducing nonlinear dispersive modes (V-states) on the surface of the patch, draw off fingers of vorticity (filamentation), trap the irrotational regions as the fingers symmetrize under the shear flow of the patch and point-like vortices (wave breaking) followed by the vortex-hole capture. While the hole patterns are observed to break up over several turnover periods the vortex patterns appear to evolve into quasistationary patterns for some cases of an initial number of point-like vortices N pv . The bounded V-states, filamentation, and vortex (hole) pattern formation are discussed in some detail and their possible connection to recently observed vortex 'crystals' is pointed out
Vortex rings from Sphagnum moss capsules
Whitaker, Dwight; Strassman, Sam; Cha, Jung; Chang, Emily; Guo, Xinyi; Edwards, Joan
2010-11-01
The capsules of Sphagnum moss use vortex rings to disperse spores to suitable habitats many kilometers away. Vortex rings are created by the sudden release of pressurized air when the capsule ruptures, and are an efficient way to carry the small spores with low terminal velocities to heights where they can be carried by turbulent wind currents. We will present our computational model of these explosions, which are carried out using a 2-D large eddy simulation (LES) on FLUENT. Our simulations can reproduce the observed motion of the spore clouds observed from moss capsules with high-speed videos, and we will discuss the roles of bursting pressure, cap mass, and capsule morphology on the formation and quality of vortex rings created by this plant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lao, L.L.; Burrell, K.H.; Casper, T.S.
1996-08-01
The confinement and the stability properties of the DIII-D tokamak high performance discharges are evaluated in terms of rotational and magnetic shear with emphasis on the recent experimental results obtained from the negative central magnetic shear (NCS) experiments. In NCS discharges, a core transport barrier is often observed to form inside the NCS region accompanied by a reduction in core fluctuation amplitudes. Increasing negative magnetic shear contributes to the formation of this core transport barrier, but by itself is not sufficient to fully stabilize the toroidal drift mode (trapped- electron-η i mode) to explain this formation. Comparison of the Doppler shift shear rate to the growth rate of the η i mode suggests that the large core E x B flow shear can stabilize this mode and broaden the region of reduced core transport . Ideal and resistive stability analysis indicates the performance of NCS discharges with strongly peaked pressure profiles is limited by the resistive interchange mode to low Β N < 2.3. This mode is insensitive to the details of the rotational and the magnetic shear profiles. A new class of discharges which has a broad region of weak or slightly negative magnetic shear (WNS) is described. The WNS discharges have broader pressure profiles and higher values than the NCS discharges together with high confinement and high fusion reactivity
Single vortex states in a confined Bose-Einstein condensate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komineas, S.; Cooper, N. R.; Papanicolaou, N.
2005-01-01
It has been demonstrated experimentally that non-axisymmetric vortices precess around the center of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Two types of single vortex states have been observed, usually referred to as the S vortex and the U vortex. We study theoretically the single vortex excitations in spherical and elongated condensates as a function of the interaction strength. We solve numerically the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and calculate the angular momentum as a function of precession frequency. The existence of two types of vortices means that we have two different precession frequencies for each angular momentum value. As the interaction strength increases the vortex lines bend and the precession frequencies shift to lower values. We establish that for given angular momentum the S vortex has higher energy than the U vortex in a rotating elongated condensate. We show that the S vortex is related to the solitonic vortex, which is a nonlinear excitation in the nonrotating system. For small interaction strengths the S vortex is related to the dark soliton. In the dilute limit a lowest Landau level calculation provides an analytic description of these vortex modes in terms of the harmonic oscillator states
Wake-vortex decay in external turbulence
Kuczaj, Arkadiusz K.; Armenio, V.; Fröhlich, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.
2010-01-01
Wake vortices that form behind a moving aircraft represent 11 safety COil cern for other aircraft.s that follow. These tornado-like wake structures may persist for several minutes, extending for many kilometers across the sky. This safety issue is particularly important close to major airports where
Problem of Vortex Turbulence behind Wings (II),
1980-09-23
these winglets would give a resultant aerodynamic force directed towards the front which would decrease the wing drag. Such winglets will affect the...Fig. 30 Whitcomb winglets Pig. 31 Set of winglets for wake dissipation Surfaces on wing tips, winglets (Fig. 30), proposed by Whitcomb to diminish...anyway - to decrease the induced drag of the wing by putting some winglets at a certain angle in different planes, as shown in Fig. 31. The total
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Yao Shuo
2012-01-01
To determine the wave modes prevailing in solar wind turbulence at kinetic scales, we study the magnetic polarization of small-scale fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the data sampling direction (namely, the solar wind flow direction, V SW ) and analyze its orientation with respect to the local background magnetic field B 0,local . As an example, we take only measurements made in an outward magnetic sector. When B 0,local is quasi-perpendicular to V SW , we find that the small-scale magnetic-field fluctuations, which have periods from about 1 to 3 s and are extracted from a wavelet decomposition of the original time series, show a polarization ellipse with right-handed orientation. This is consistent with a positive reduced magnetic helicity, as previously reported. Moreover, for the first time we find that the major axis of the ellipse is perpendicular to B 0,local , a property that is characteristic of an oblique Alfvén wave rather than oblique whistler wave. For an oblique whistler wave, the major axis of the magnetic ellipse is expected to be aligned with B 0,local , thus indicating significant magnetic compressibility, and the polarization turns from right to left handedness as the wave propagation angle (θ kB ) increases toward 90°. Therefore, we conclude that the observation of a right-handed polarization ellipse with orientation perpendicular to B 0,local seems to indicate that oblique Alfvén/ion-cyclotron waves rather than oblique fast-mode/whistler waves dominate in the 'dissipation' range near the break of solar wind turbulence spectra occurring around the proton inertial length.
An Improved Wake Vortex Tracking Algorithm for Multiple Aircraft
Switzer, George F.; Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.
2010-01-01
The accurate tracking of vortex evolution from Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data is a complex and computationally intensive problem. The vortex tracking requires the analysis of very large three-dimensional and time-varying datasets. The complexity of the problem is further compounded by the fact that these vortices are embedded in a background turbulence field, and they may interact with the ground surface. Another level of complication can arise, if vortices from multiple aircrafts are simulated. This paper presents a new technique for post-processing LES data to obtain wake vortex tracks and wake intensities. The new approach isolates vortices by defining "regions of interest" (ROI) around each vortex and has the ability to identify vortex pairs from multiple aircraft. The paper describes the new methodology for tracking wake vortices and presents application of the technique for single and multiple aircraft.
Statistical behaviour of optical vortex fields
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2009-09-01
Full Text Available ) Density limitation→ effective profile for point vortex (remove evanescent field) . – p.10/37 Scintillated optical beams Optical beam in a turbulent atmosphere: → index variations cause random phase modulations → leads to distortion of the optical beam.... Weak scintillation→ continuous phase distortions that can be corrected by an adaptive optical system: Wavefront sensor Beam splitter Scintillated beam Corrected beam Deformable mirror Control signal . – p.11/37 Strong scintillation Strong scintillation...
Cascade of circulations in fluid turbulence.
Eyink, Gregory L
2006-12-01
Kelvin's theorem on conservation of circulations is an essential ingredient of Taylor's theory of turbulent energy dissipation by the process of vortex-line stretching. In previous work, we have proposed a nonlinear mechanism for the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem in ideal turbulence at infinite Reynolds number. We develop here a detailed physical theory of this cascade of circulations. Our analysis is based upon an effective equation for large-scale coarse-grained velocity, which contains a turbulent-induced vortex force that can violate Kelvin's theorem. We show that singularities of sufficient strength, which are observed to exist in turbulent flow, can lead to nonvanishing dissipation of circulation for an arbitrarily small coarse-graining length in the effective equations. This result is an analog for circulation of Onsager's theorem on energy dissipation for singular Euler solutions. The physical mechanism of the breakdown of Kelvin's theorem is diffusion of lines of large-scale vorticity out of the advected loop. This phenomenon can be viewed as a classical analog of the Josephson-Anderson phase-slip phenomenon in superfluids due to quantized vortex lines. We show that the circulation cascade is local in scale and use this locality to develop concrete expressions for the turbulent vortex force by a multiscale gradient expansion. We discuss implications for Taylor's theory of turbulent dissipation and we point out some related cascade phenomena, in particular for magnetic flux in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Tearing instabilities in turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2009-01-01
Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial
Vortex profiles and vortex interactions at the electroweak crossover
Chernodub, M. N.; Ilgenfritz, E. -M.; Schiller, A.
1999-01-01
Local correlations of Z-vortex operators with gauge and Higgs fields (lattice quantum vortex profiles) as well as vortex two-point functions are studied in the crossover region near a Higgs mass of 100 GeV within the 3D SU(2) Higgs model. The vortex profiles resemble certain features of the classical vortex solutions in the continuum. The vortex-vortex interactions are analogous to the interactions of Abrikosov vortices in a type-I superconductor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patrignani, L.; Losurdo, M.; Bruno, C. [Sapienza Univ. de Roma, Rome (Italy)
2010-09-15
Exhaust emissions from furnace burners can be reduced by premixing reactants with combustion products. This paper discussed the use of a trapped vortex combustor (TVC) as a very promising technology for gas turbines. The TVC can reduce emissions and ensure that the temperature is uniform in the exhaust products, which is a key aspect for certain types of heat treatments, such as in steel rolling mills. The TVC for gas turbines is configured to mix air, fuel and hot products at turbulent scales fine enough to render the combustion mode flameless, or close to flameless. The vortex ensures a high recirculation factor between hot combustion products and reactants, and ultimately flame stability. In this study, the TVC configuration for an existing gas turbine was numerically investigated by means of RANS and LES. According to preliminary results of the fast-flameless combustion (FFC) strategy, the proposed TVC is a suitable candidate to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while keeping the pressure drop below 1 per cent. Both RANS and LES show that too much fuel burns along the main duct. Better fuel splitting or a different position for the injectors may enhance combustion inside the recirculation zone. Behaviour of the main vortices showed that a more accurate design of the internal shape of the combustor is needed to prevent excessive velocity fluctuation or vortex instabilities and therefore emissions. 13 refs., 9 figs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Spietz, Henrik J.; Walther, Jens Honore
2014-01-01
, unbounded particle-mesh based vortex method is used to simulate the instability, transition to turbulence and eventual destruction of a single vortex ring. From the simulation data a novel method on analyzing the dynamics of the enstrophy is presented based on the alignment of the vorticity vector...... with the principal axis of the strain rate tensor. We find that the dynamics of the enstrophy density is dominated by the local flow deformation and axis of rotation, which is used to infer some concrete tendencies related to the topology of the vorticity field....
Transient dynamics of the flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil using fluidic vortex generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siauw, W.L. [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Bonnet, J.-P., E-mail: Jean-Paul.Bonnet@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Tensi, J., E-mail: Jean.Tensi@lea.univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, ENSMA - Teleport 2, 1 Avenue Clement Ader, BP 40109, F-86961 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Cordier, L., E-mail: Laurent.Cordier@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Noack, B.R., E-mail: Bernd.Noack@univ-poitiers.f [Institut Pprime, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers - ENSMA, UPR 3346, Departement Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, CEAT, 43 rue de l' Aerodrome, F-86036 Poitiers Cedex (France); Cattafesta, L., E-mail: cattafes@ufl.ed [Florida Center for Advanced Aero-Propulsion (FCAAP), Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 231 MAE-A, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
2010-06-15
The unsteady activation or deactivation of fluidic vortex generators on a NACA 0015 airfoil is studied to understand the transient dynamics of flow separation control. The Reynolds number is high enough and the boundary layer is tripped, so the boundary layer is fully turbulent prior to separation. Conditional PIV of the airfoil wake is obtained phase-locked to the actuator trigger signal, allowing reconstruction of the transient processes. When the actuators are impulsively turned on, the velocity field in the near wake exhibit a complex transient behavior associated with the formation and shedding of a starting vortex. When actuation is stopped, a more gradual process of the separation dynamics is found. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature in comparable configurations. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of phase-locked velocity fields reveals low-dimensional transient dynamics for the attachment and separation processes, with 98% of the fluctuation energy captured by the first four modes. The behavior is quantitatively well captured by a four-dimensional dynamical system with the corresponding mode amplitudes. Analysis of the first temporal POD modes accurately determines typical time scales for attachment and separation processes to be respectively t{sup +}=10 and 20 in conventional non-dimensional values. This study adds to experimental investigations of this scale with essential insight for the targeted closed-loop control.
Evolution of the Orszag-Tang vortex system in a compressible medium. II - Supersonic flow
Picone, J. Michael; Dahlburg, Russell B.
1991-01-01
A study is presented on the effect of embedded supersonic flows and the resulting emerging shock waves on phenomena associated with MHD turbulence, including reconnection, the formation of current sheets and vortex structures, and the evolution of spatial and temporal correlations among physical variables. A two-dimensional model problem, the Orszag-Tang (1979) vortex system, is chosen, which involves decay from nonrandom initial conditions. The system is doubly periodic, and the initial conditions consist of single-mode solenoidal velocity and magnetic fields, each containing X points and O points. The initial mass density is flat, and the initial pressure fluctuations are incompressible, balancing the local forces for a magnetofluid of unit mass density. Results on the evolution of the local structure of the flow field, the global properties of the system, and spectral correlations are presented. The important dynamical properties and observational consequences of embedded supersonic regions and emerging shocks in the Orszag-Tang model of an MHD system undergoing reconnection are discussed. Conclusions are drawn regarding the effects of local supersonic regions on MHD turbulence.
Elavarasan, Ramasamy; Arakeri, Jayawant; Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu
1999-11-01
The interaction of a high-speed vortex ring with a shock wave is one of the fundamental issues as it is a source of sound in supersonic jets. The complex flow field induced by the vortex alters the propagation of the shock wave greatly. In order to understand the process, a compressible vortex ring is studied in detail using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and shadowgraphic techniques. The high-speed vortex ring is generated from a shock tube and the shock wave, which precedes the vortex, is reflected back by a plate and made to interact with the vortex. The shadowgraph images indicate that the reflected shock front is influenced by the non-uniform flow induced by the vortex and is decelerated while passing through the vortex. It appears that after the interaction the shock is "split" into two. The PIV measurements provided clear picture about the evolution of the vortex at different time interval. The centerline velocity traces show the maximum velocity to be around 350 m/s. The velocity field, unlike in incompressible rings, contains contributions from both the shock and the vortex ring. The velocity distribution across the vortex core, core diameter and circulation are also calculated from the PIV data.
Modelling of Tip Vortex Cavitation for Engineering Applications in OpenFOAM
Schot, J.J.A.; Pennings, P.C.; Pourquie, M.J.B.M.; Van Terwisga, T.J.C.
2014-01-01
In this paper modelling assumptions for the prediction of tip vortex flow and vortex cavitation with the RANS equations and homogeneous fluid approach in Open-FOAM are presented. The effects of the changes in the turbulence model are investigated and the results are compared with PIV measurements.
Phenomena, dynamics and instabilities of vortex pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williamson, C H K; Asselin, D J; Leweke, T; Harris, D M
2014-01-01
Our motivation for studying the dynamics of vortex pairs stems initially from an interest in the trailing wake vortices from aircraft and the dynamics of longitudinal vortices close to a vehicle surface. However, our motivation also comes from the fact that vortex–vortex interactions and vortex–wall interactions are fundamental to many turbulent flows. The intent of the paper is to present an overview of some of our recent work concerning the formation and structure of counter-rotating vortex pairs. We are interested in the long-wave and short-wave three-dimensional instabilities that evolve for an isolated vortex pair, but also we would like to know how vortex pairs interact with a wall, including both two-dimensional interactions, and also the influence of the surface on the three-dimensional instabilities. The emphasis of this presentation is on physical mechanisms by which vortices interact with each other and with surfaces, principally from an experimental approach, but also coupled with analytical studies. (paper)
Vortices and turbulence (The 23rd Lanchester Memorial Lecture)
Lilley, G. M.
1983-12-01
A comprehensive discussion is presented concerning the phenomena characteristically treated in vortex and turbulence theory, as well as the degree of success achieved by various computation and visualization methods and theoretical models developed for vortex flow behavior prediction. Note is taken of the pioneering research conducted by F. W. Lanchester in 1893-1907, and attention is given to vortex tip and edge generation by rectangular and delta wings, the cool core effect of the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, the modeling of shear flows by means of vortex array methods, the classification and modelling of turbulent flows (together with a taxonomy of their calculation methods), and NASA ILLIAC IV computations of two-dimensional channel flow. Also noted are recent results concerning the boundary layer coherent structure of a flat plate at zero pressure gradient, including the regeneration structure and flow distortion and breakdown of a turbulent boundary layer.
A vortex filament tracking method for the Gross–Pitaevskii model of a superfluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villois, Alberto; Proment, Davide; Salman, Hayder; Krstulovic, Giorgio
2016-01-01
We present an accurate and robust numerical method to track quantised vortex lines in a superfluid described by the Gross–Pitaevskii equation. By utilising the pseudo-vorticity field of the associated complex scalar order parameter of the superfluid, we are able to track the topological defects of the superfluid and reconstruct the vortex lines which correspond to zeros of the field. Throughout, we assume our field is periodic to allow us to make extensive use of the Fourier representation of the field and its derivatives in order to retain spectral accuracy. We present several case studies to test the precision of the method which include the evaluation of the curvature and torsion of a torus vortex knot, and the measurement of the Kelvin wave spectrum of a vortex line and a vortex ring. The method we present makes no a priori assumptions on the geometry of the vortices and is therefore applicable to a wide range of systems such as a superfluid in a turbulent state that is characterised by many vortex rings coexisting with sound waves. This allows us to track the positions of the vortex filaments in a dense turbulent vortex tangle and extract statistical information about the distribution of the size of the vortex rings and the inter-vortex separations. In principle, the method can be extended to track similar topological defects arising in other physical systems. (paper)
Scale separation closure and Alfven wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, C.Y.; Mahajan, S.M.
1985-04-01
Based on the concept of scale separation between coherent response function and incoherent source for renormalized turbulence theories, a closure scheme is proposed. A model problem dealing with shear-Alfven wave turbulence is numerically solved; the solution explicitly shows expected turbulence features such as frequency shift from linear modes, band-broadening, and a power law dependence for the turbulence spectrum
Turbulence and fossil turbulence lead to life in the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, Carl H
2013-01-01
Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than all the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Fossil turbulence is a perturbation produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid ceases to be turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Because vorticity is produced at small scales, turbulence must cascade from small scales to large, providing a consistent physical basis for Kolmogorovian universal similarity laws. Oceanic and astrophysical mixing and diffusion are dominated by fossil turbulence and fossil turbulent waves. Observations from space telescopes show turbulence and vorticity existed in the beginning of the universe and that their fossils persist. Fossils of big bang turbulence include spin and the dark matter of galaxies: clumps of ∼10 12 frozen hydrogen planets that make globular star clusters as seen by infrared and microwave space telescopes. When the planets were hot gas, they hosted the formation of life in a cosmic soup of hot-water oceans as they merged to form the first stars and chemicals. Because spontaneous life formation according to the standard cosmological model is virtually impossible, the existence of life falsifies the standard cosmological model. (paper)
The Vortex Oscillations and Abelian Higgs Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karkowski, J.; Swierczynski, Z.
2000-01-01
The excitations of the vortex in Abelian Higgs model with small ratio of vector and Higgs particle masses are considered. Three main modes encountered in numerical computations are described in detail. They are also compared to analytic results obtained recently by Arodz and Hadasz in Phys. Rev. D54, 4004 (1996). (author)
Stirring turbulence with turbulence
Cekli, H.E.; Joosten, R.; van de Water, W.
2015-01-01
We stir wind-tunnel turbulence with an active grid that consists of rods with attached vanes. The time-varying angle of these rods is controlled by random numbers. We study the response of turbulence on the statistical properties of these random numbers. The random numbers are generated by the
Front propagation in a regular vortex lattice: Dependence on the vortex structure.
Beauvier, E; Bodea, S; Pocheau, A
2017-11-01
We investigate the dependence on the vortex structure of the propagation of fronts in stirred flows. For this, we consider a regular set of vortices whose structure is changed by varying both their boundary conditions and their aspect ratios. These configurations are investigated experimentally in autocatalytic solutions stirred by electroconvective flows and numerically from kinematic simulations based on the determination of the dominant Fourier mode of the vortex stream function in each of them. For free lateral boundary conditions, i.e., in an extended vortex lattice, it is found that both the flow structure and the front propagation negligibly depend on vortex aspect ratios. For rigid lateral boundary conditions, i.e., in a vortex chain, vortices involve a slight dependence on their aspect ratios which surprisingly yields a noticeable decrease of the enhancement of front velocity by flow advection. These different behaviors reveal a sensitivity of the mean front velocity on the flow subscales. It emphasizes the intrinsic multiscale nature of front propagation in stirred flows and the need to take into account not only the intensity of vortex flows but also their inner structure to determine front propagation at a large scale. Differences between experiments and simulations suggest the occurrence of secondary flows in vortex chains at large velocity and large aspect ratios.
Vortex cutting in superconductors
Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.
2015-03-01
Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xingtuan Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the anisotropic characteristics of turbulent energy dissipation rate in a rotating jet flow via direct numerical simulation. The turbulent energy dissipation tensor, including its eigenvalues in the swirling flows with different rotating velocities, is analyzed to investigate the anisotropic characteristics of turbulence and dissipation. In addition, the probability density function of the eigenvalues of turbulence dissipation tensor is presented. The isotropic subrange of PDF always exists in swirling flows relevant to small-scale vortex structure. Thus, with remarkable large-scale vortex breakdown, the isotropic subrange of PDF is reduced in strongly swirling flows, and anisotropic energy dissipation is proven to exist in the core region of the vortex breakdown. More specifically, strong anisotropic turbulence dissipation occurs concentratively in the vortex breakdown region, whereas nearly isotropic turbulence dissipation occurs dispersively in the peripheral region of the strong swirling flows.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm
ring dynamics is presented based on the alignment of the vorticity vector with the principal axis of the strain rate tensor.A novel iterative implementation of the Brinkman penalisation method is introduced for the enforcement of a fluid-solid interface in re-meshed vortex methods. The iterative scheme...... is included to explicitly fulfil the kinematic constraints of the flow field. The high order, unbounded particle-mesh based vortex method is used to simulate the instability, transition to turbulence and eventual destruction of a single vortex ring. From the simulation data, a novel analysis on the vortex...
Decoding algorithm for vortex communications receiver
Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi
2018-01-01
Vortex light beams can provide a tremendous alphabet for encoding information. We derive a symbol decoding algorithm for a direct detection matrix detector vortex beam receiver using Laguerre Gauss (LG) modes, and develop a mathematical model of symbol error rate (SER) for this receiver. We compare SER as a function of signal to noise ratio (SNR) for our algorithm and for the Pearson correlation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive treatment of a decoding algorithm of a matrix detector for an LG receiver.
Inclined Jet in Crossflow Interacting with a Vortex Generator
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Rigby, D .L.; Heidmann, J. D.
2011-01-01
An experiment is conducted on the effectiveness of a vortex generator in preventing liftoff of a jet in crossflow, with possible relevance to film-cooling applications. The jet issues into the boundary layer at an angle of 20 degreees to the freestream. The effect of a triangular ramp-shaped vortex generator is studied while varying its geometry and location. Detailed flowfield properties are obtained for a case in which the height of the vortex generator and the diameter of the orifice are comparable with the approach boundary-layer thickness. The vortex generator produces a streamwise vortex pair with a vorticity magnitude 3 times larger (and of opposite sense) than that found in the jet in crossflow alone. Such a vortex generator appears to be most effective in keeping the jet attached to the wall. The effect of parametric variation is studied mostly from surveys 10 diameters downstream from the orifice. Results over a range of jet-to-freestream momentum flux ratio (1 vortex generator has a significant effect even at the highest J covered in the experiment. When the vortex generator height is halved, there is a liftoff of the jet. On the other hand, when the height is doubled, the jet core is dissipated due to larger turbulence intensity. Varying the location of the vortex generator, over a distance of three diameters from the orifice, is found to have little impact. Rounding off the edges of the vortex generator with the increasing radius of curvature progressively diminishes its effect. However, allowing for a small radius of curvature may be quite tolerable in practice.
Optical vortex generation from a diode-pumped alexandrite laser
Thomas, G. M.; Minassian, A.; Damzen, M. J.
2018-04-01
We present the demonstration of an optical vortex mode directly generated from a diode-pumped alexandrite slab laser, operating in the bounce geometry. This is the first demonstration of an optical vortex mode generated from an alexandrite laser or from any other vibronic laser. An output power of 2 W for a vortex mode with a ‘topological charge’ of 1 was achieved and the laser was made to oscillate with both left- and right-handed vorticity. The laser operated at two distinct wavelengths simultaneously, 755 and 759 nm, due to birefringent filtering in the alexandrite gain medium. The result offers the prospect of broadly wavelength tunable vortex generation directly from a laser.
Instability of a two-step Rankine vortex in a reduced gravity QG model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perrot, Xavier [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France); Carton, Xavier, E-mail: xperrot@lmd.ens.fr, E-mail: xcarton@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, F-29200 Brest (France)
2014-06-01
We investigate the stability of a steplike Rankine vortex in a one-active-layer, reduced gravity, quasi-geostrophic model. After calculating the linear stability with a normal mode analysis, the singular modes are determined as a function of the vortex shape to investigate short-time stability. Finally we determine the position of the critical layer and show its influence when it lies inside the vortex. (papers)
Stagnation zone formation on the axis of a closed vortex flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2014-01-01
The features of developing a counterflow zone (bubble-mode vortex breakdown or vortex explosion) at the center of an intensively swirled flow produced in a liquid-filled cylindrical container with a rotating endwall have been studied. The observation showed that the scenario of developing a bubbl......-mode breakdown zone with generation of counterflow is the same for cylinders with low or high aspect ratio, and it remains independent of stationary-nonstationary transition boundary for the main vortex flow....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jolliet, S.
2009-02-01
The goal of thermonuclear fusion research is to provide power plants, that will be able to produce one gigawatt of electricity. Among the different ways to achieve fusion, the tokamak, based on magnetic confinement, is the most promising one. A gas is heated up to hundreds of millions of degrees and becomes a plasma, which is maintained - or confined - in a toroidal vessel by helical magnetic field lines. Then, deuterium and tritium are injected and fuse to create an α particle and an energetic neutron. In order to have a favorable power balance, the power produced by fusion reactions must exceed the power needed to heat the plasma and the power losses. This can be cast in a very simple expression which stipulates that the product of the density, the temperature and the energy confinement time must exceed some given value. Unfortunately, present-days tokamaks are not able to reach this condition, mostly due to plasma turbulence. The latter phenomenon enhances the heat losses and degrades the energy confinement time, which cannot be predicted by analytical theories such as the so-called neoclassical theory in which the heat losses are caused by Coulomb collisions. Therefore, numerical simulations are being developed to model plasma turbulence, mainly caused by the Ion and Electron Temperature-Gradient and the Trapped-Electron-Mode (TEM) instabilities. The plasma is described by a distribution function which evolves according to the Vlasov equation. The electromagnetic fields created by the particles are self-consistently obtained through Maxwell’s equations. The resulting Vlasov-Maxwell system is greatly simplified by using the gyrokinetic theory, which consists, through an appropriate ordering, of eliminating the fast gyromotion (compared to the typical frequency of instabilities). Nevertheless, it is still extremely difficult to solve this system numerically due to the large range of time and spatial scales to be resolved. In this thesis, the Vlasov
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Dunkelman, Orr; Mendel, Florian
2009-01-01
Vortex is a hash function that was first presented at ISC'2008, then submitted to the NIST SHA-3 competition after some modifications. This paper describes several attacks on both versions of Vortex, including collisions, second preimages, preimages, and distinguishers. Our attacks exploit flaws...
Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig
2016-01-01
An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Houck, Edward D.
1994-01-01
A fluid transfer system that combines a vortex diode with a jet ejector to transfer liquid from one tank to a second tank by a gas pressurization method having no moving mechanical parts in the fluid system. The vortex diode is a device that has a high resistance to flow in one direction and a low resistance to flow in the other.
Flow regimes in a trapped vortex cell
Lasagna, D.; Iuso, G.
2016-03-01
This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the flow in a trapped vortex cell, embedded into a flat plate, and interacting with a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. The objective of the work is to describe the flow features and elucidate some of the governing physical mechanisms, in the light of recent investigations on flow separation control using vortex cells. Hot-wire velocity measurements of the shear layer bounding the cell and of the boundary layers upstream and downstream are reported, together with spectral and correlation analyses of wall-pressure fluctuation measurements. Smoke flow visualisations provide qualitative insight into some relevant features of the internal flow, namely a large-scale flow unsteadiness and possible mechanisms driving the rotation of the vortex core. Results are presented for two very different regimes: a low-Reynolds-number case where the incoming boundary layer is laminar and its momentum thickness is small compared to the cell opening, and a moderately high-Reynolds-number case, where the incoming boundary layer is turbulent and the ratio between the momentum thickness and the opening length is significantly larger than in the first case. Implications of the present findings to flow control applications of trapped vortex cells are also discussed.
Decay of homogeneous two-dimensional quantum turbulence
Baggaley, Andrew W.; Barenghi, Carlo F.
2018-03-01
We numerically simulate the free decay of two-dimensional quantum turbulence in a large, homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate. The large number of vortices, the uniformity of the density profile, and the absence of boundaries (where vortices can drift out of the condensate) isolate the annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs as the only mechanism which reduces the number of vortices, Nv, during the turbulence decay. The results clearly reveal that vortex annihilation is a four-vortex process, confirming the decay law Nv˜t-1 /3 where t is time, which was inferred from experiments with relatively few vortices in small harmonically trapped condensates.
Numerical simulation on quantum turbulence created by an oscillating object
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujiyama, S; Tsubota, M [Department of Physics, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka City, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: fujiyama@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp
2009-02-01
We have conducted a numerical simulation of vortex dynamics in superfluid {sup 4}He in the presence of an oscillating sphere. The experiment on a vibrating wire that measured the transition from laminar to turbulent flow is modelled in our simulations. The simulation exhibits the details of vortex growth by the oscillating sphere. Our result also shows that a more realistic modelling may change the destiny of the vortex rings detached from the sphere. We have evaluated the force driven by the sphere in the simulation and have confirmed the onset of the quantum turbulence.
Stellinga, Daan; Pietrzyk, Monika E; Glackin, James M E; Wang, Yue; Bansal, Ashu K; Turnbull, Graham A; Dholakia, Kishan; Samuel, Ifor D W; Krauss, Thomas F
2018-03-27
Optical vortex beams are at the heart of a number of novel research directions, both as carriers of information and for the investigation of optical activity and chiral molecules. Optical vortex beams are beams of light with a helical wavefront and associated orbital angular momentum. They are typically generated using bulk optics methods or by a passive element such as a forked grating or a metasurface to imprint the required phase distribution onto an incident beam. Since many applications benefit from further miniaturization, a more integrated yet scalable method is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate the generation of an azimuthally polarized vortex beam directly by an organic semiconductor laser that meets these requirements. The organic vortex laser uses a spiral grating as a feedback element that gives control over phase, handedness, and degree of helicity of the emitted beam. We demonstrate vortex beams up to an azimuthal index l = 3 that can be readily multiplexed into an array configuration.
Formation of vortex breakdown in conical–cylindrical cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, Diego Alves de Moro; Souza, Francisco José de; Salvo, Ricardo de Vasconcelos
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Rotating flows in conical–cylindrical cavities were simulated via an in-house code using unstructured meshes. • The vortex breakdown phenomenon was verified in the geometries analyzed. • The influence of Stewartson and Bödewadt layers was observed in the vortex breakdown formation. • A curve of stability and number of breakdowns was obtained as a function of Reynolds number. • Spiral vortex breakdown was observed in some situations. - Abstract: Numerical simulations in confined rotating flows were performed in this work, in order to verify and characterize the formation of the vortex breakdown phenomenon. Cylindrical and conical–cylindrical geometries, both closed, were used in the simulations. The rotating flow is induced by the bottom wall, which rotates at constant angular velocity. Firstly the numerical results were compared to experimental results available in references, with the purpose to verify the capacity of the computational code to predict the vortex breakdown phenomenon. Further, several simulations varying the parameters which govern the characteristics of the flows analyzed in this work, i.e., the Reynolds number and the aspect ratio, were performed. In these simulations, the limits for the transitional regime and the vortex breakdown formation were verified. Steady and transient cases, with and without turbulence modeling, were simulated. In general, some aspects of the process of vortex breakdown in conical–cylindrical geometries were observed to be different from that in cylinders
Giant moving vortex mass in thick magnetic nanodots.
Guslienko, K Y; Kakazei, G N; Ding, J; Liu, X M; Adeyeye, A O
2015-09-10
Magnetic vortex is one of the simplest topologically non-trivial textures in condensed matter physics. It is the ground state of submicron magnetic elements (dots) of different shapes: cylindrical, square etc. So far, the vast majority of the vortex dynamics studies were focused on thin dots with thickness 5-50 nm and only uniform across the thickness vortex excitation modes were observed. Here we explore the fundamental vortex mode in relatively thick (50-100 nm) dots using broadband ferromagnetic resonance and show that dimensionality increase leads to qualitatively new excitation spectra. We demonstrate that the fundamental mode frequency cannot be explained without introducing a giant vortex mass, which is a result of the vortex distortion due to interaction with spin waves. The vortex mass depends on the system geometry and is non-local because of important role of the dipolar interaction. The mass is rather small for thin dots. However, its importance increases drastically with the dot thickness increasing.
Oscillations of a Turbulent Jet Incident Upon an Edge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell
2000-09-19
For the case of a jet originating from a fully turbulent channel flow and impinging upon a sharp edge, the possible onset and nature of coherent oscillations has remained unexplored. In this investigation, high-image-density particle image velocimetry and surface pressure measurements are employed to determine the instantaneous, whole-field characteristics of the turbulent jet-edge interaction in relation to the loading of the edge. It is demonstrated that even in absence of acoustic resonant or fluid-elastic effects, highly coherent, self-sustained oscillations rapidly emerge above the turbulent background. Two clearly identifiable modes of instability are evident. These modes involve large-scale vortices that are phase-locked to the gross undulations of the jet and its interaction with the edge, and small-scale vortices, which are not phase-locked. Time-resolved imaging of instantaneous vorticity and velocity reveals the form, orientation, and strength of the large-scale concentrations of vorticity approaching the edge in relation to rapid agglomeration of small-scale vorticity concentrations. Such vorticity field-edge interactions exhibit rich complexity, relative to the simplified pattern of vortex-edge interaction traditionally employed for the quasi-laminar edgetone. Furthermore, these interactions yield highly nonlinear surface pressure signatures. The origin of this nonlinearity, involving coexistence of multiple frequency components, is interpreted in terms of large- and small-scale vortices embedded in distributed vorticity layers at the edge. Eruption of the surface boundary layer on the edge due to passage of the large-scale vortex does not occur; rather apparent secondary vorticity concentrations are simply due to distension of the oppositely-signed vorticity layer at the tip of the edge. The ensemble-averaged turbulent statistics of the jet quickly take on an identity that is distinct from the statistics of the turbulent boundary layer in the channel
Dipolar vortex structures in magnetized rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jixing
1990-01-01
Dipolar solitary vortices of both electrostatic and electromagnetic character in low-β, in homogeneous rotating plasma confined in a constant external magnetic field were systematically presented. The main stimulus to this investigation is the expectation to apply this coherent structure as a candidate constituent of plasma turbulance to understand the anomalous transport phenomena in confined plasma. The electrostatic vortices have similar structure and properties as the Rossby vortices in rotating fluids, the electromagnetic vortices obtained here have no analogy in hydrodynamics and hence are intrinsic to magnetized plasma. It is valuably remarked that the intrinsic electromagnetic vortices presented here have no discontinuity of perturbed magnetic field δB and parallel current j(parallel) on the border of vortex core. The existence region of the new type of vortex is found much narrower than the Rossby type one. (M.T.)
Structure and modeling of turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novikov, E.A.
1995-01-01
The open-quotes vortex stringsclose quotes scale l s ∼ LRe -3/10 (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES)
Direct emission of chirality controllable femtosecond LG01 vortex beam
Wang, S.; Zhang, S.; Yang, H.; Xie, J.; Jiang, S.; Feng, G.; Zhou, S.
2018-05-01
Direct emission of a chirality controllable ultrafast LG01 mode vortex optical beam from a conventional z-type cavity design SESAM (SEmiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror) mode locked LD pumped Yb:Phosphate laser has been demonstrated. A clean 360 fs vortex beam of ˜45.7 mW output power has been achieved. A radial shear interferometer has been built to determine the phase singularity and the wavefront helicity of the ultrafast output laser. Theoretically, it is found that the LG01 vortex beam is obtained via the combination effect of diagonal HG10 mode generation by off-axis pumping and the controllable Gouy phase difference between HG10 and HG01 modes in the sagittal and tangential planes. The chirality of the LG01 mode can be manipulated by the pump position to the original point of the laser cavity optical axis.
Flow around turbulence promoters in parallel channel, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiina, Yasuaki; Takizuka, Takakazu; Okamoto, Yoshizo
1982-01-01
Flow characteristics in relation to heat transfer characteristics in parallel channel with turbulence promoters were studied experimentally. Flow visualization experiments were made in paralle channel with one or two turbulence promoters for Reynolds number region of 100 lt = Resub(w) lt = 3,600. The vortex patterns behind one promoter were that a steady vortex was formed for low Reynolds number and vortex was shed for high Reynolds number,. For higher Reynolds number, it was observed that shedding vortex caused other vortices or disappeared itself randomly. The results indicate that the shedding vortices will augment heat transfer, whereas the steady vortex will give rise to deterioration in heat transfer. This inference agrees with the experimental results of Hishida et al. The results of two promoters experiment showed that the maximum performance of promoter would be attained at p/d -- 7. This agrees with the results formerly studied by other investigators. (author)
The problem of clear air turbulence: Changing perspectives in the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
observation systems, in most cases, aircraft are able to steer clear of regions of adverse ... that weather is a predominant cause of aviation accidents, accounting for ... clear air turbulence, wind shear and wake-vortex effects. Here .... ters a region of turbulence, the pilot informs the ground control about the location and extent.
Investigation of propagation dynamics of truncated vector vortex beams.
Srinivas, P; Perumangatt, C; Lal, Nijil; Singh, R P; Srinivasan, B
2018-06-01
In this Letter, we experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of truncated vector vortex beams generated using a Sagnac interferometer. Upon focusing, the truncated vector vortex beam is found to regain its original intensity structure within the Rayleigh range. In order to explain such behavior, the propagation dynamics of a truncated vector vortex beam is simulated by decomposing it into the sum of integral charge beams with associated complex weights. We also show that the polarization of the truncated composite vector vortex beam is preserved all along the propagation axis. The experimental observations are consistent with theoretical predictions based on previous literature and are in good agreement with our simulation results. The results hold importance as vector vortex modes are eigenmodes of the optical fiber.
Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow - An alternative view
Bernard, P. S.; Speziale, C. G.
1992-01-01
The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if a residual vortex stretching term is maintained in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are presented for a k-epsilon model modified to account for net vortex stretching.
An Empirical Model for Vane-Type Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code
Dudek, Julianne C.
2005-01-01
An empirical model which simulates the effects of vane-type vortex generators in ducts was incorporated into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code. The model enables the effects of the vortex generators to be simulated without defining the details of the geometry within the grid, and makes it practical for researchers to evaluate multiple combinations of vortex generator arrangements. The model determines the strength of each vortex based on the generator geometry and the local flow conditions. Validation results are presented for flow in a straight pipe with a counter-rotating vortex generator arrangement, and the results are compared with experimental data and computational simulations using a gridded vane generator. Results are also presented for vortex generator arrays in two S-duct diffusers, along with accompanying experimental data. The effects of grid resolution and turbulence model are also examined.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre
2017-01-01
The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... the analogy to a doublet field is made. The following section derive the value of the vector potential and velocity field in the full domain. The expression for the velocity gradient is also provided since it may be relevant in a simulation with vortex particles and vortex rings. Most of this chapter...
Method of trial distribution function for quantum turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemirovskii, Sergey K.
2012-01-01
Studying quantum turbulence the necessity of calculation the various characteristics of the vortex tangle (VT) appears. Some of 'crude' quantities can be expressed directly via the total length of vortex lines (per unit of volume) or the vortex line density L(t) and the structure parameters of the VT. Other more 'subtle' quantities require knowledge of the vortex line configurations {s(xi,t) }. Usually, the corresponding calculations are carried out with the use of more or less truthful speculations concerning arrangement of the VT. In this paper we review other way to solution of this problem. It is based on the trial distribution functional (TDF) in space of vortex loop configurations. The TDF is constructed on the basis of well established properties of the vortex tangle. It is designed to calculate various averages taken over stochastic vortex loop configurations. In this paper we also review several applications of the use this model to calculate some important characteristics of the vortex tangle. In particular we discussed the average superfluid mass current J induced by vortices and its dynamics. We also describe the diffusion-like processes in the nonuniform vortex tangle and propagation of turbulent fronts.
Formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamemoto, Kyoji
1976-01-01
A series of theoretical analysis were made on the mechanism of the formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets appearing behind a pair of two long bars placed perpendicularly to uniform flow. In the first part, the flow model used for this study is explained. It was assumed that two pairs of vortex sheets having the same interval (h) were placed at the distance of g in non-viscous flow. Then small disturbance was given to the flow, and the behavior of the vortex sheets in course of time was analyzed by solving a set of linear simultaneous differential equations. Eight fundamental modes of small displacement were obtained as the independent solutions of the equations. The fundamental modes and the associated parameters are presented. In the second part, a set of non-linear differential equations were derived by substituting the vortex sheets with vortex streets with finite intensity. The set of equations were solved numerically. The results of numerical solutions for various conditions are presented. Main conclusions drawn from this study are that the condition of the existence of two pairs of vortex sheets is g/h >= 1, and that the mutual interference between two pairs of vortex streets becomes conspicuous for g/h <= 2. Some discussions made by other researchers and the author are also presented at the end of this paper. (Aoki, K.)
Excitation of high density surface plasmon polariton vortex array
Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun
2018-06-01
This study proposes a method to excite surface plasmon polariton (SPP) vortex array of high spatial density on metal/air interface. A doughnut vector beam was incident at four rectangularly arranged slits to excite SPP vortex array. The doughnut vector beam used in this study has the same field intensity distribution as the regular doughnut laser mode, TEM01* mode, but a different polarization distribution. The SPP vortex array is achieved through the matching of both polarization state and phase state of the incident doughnut vector beam with the four slits. The SPP field distribution excited in this study contains stable array-distributed time-varying optical vortices. Theoretical derivation, analytical calculation and numerical simulation were used to discuss the characteristics of the induced SPP vortex array. The period of the SPP vortex array induced by the proposed method had only half SPPs wavelength. In addition, the vortex number in an excited SPP vortex array can be increased by enlarging the structure.
Arndt, R.; Pennings, P.; Bosschers, J.; van Terwisga, T.
2015-01-01
Marine propellers display several forms of cavitation. Of these, propeller-tip vortex cavitation is one of the important factors in propeller design. The dynamic behaviour of the tip vortex is responsible for hull vibration and noise. Thus, cavitation in the vortices trailing from tips of propeller blades has been studied extensively. Under certain circumstances cavitating vortices have been observed to have wave-like disturbances on the surfaces of vapour cores. Intense sound at discrete frequencies can result from a coupling between tip vortex disturbances and oscillating sheet cavitation on the surfaces of the propeller blades. This research article focuses on the dynamics of vortex cavitation and more in particular on the energy and frequency content of the radiated pressures. PMID:26442147
A computational study of the topology of vortex breakdown
Spall, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.
1991-01-01
A fully three-dimensional numerical simulation of vortex breakdown using the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been performed. Solutions to four distinct types of breakdown are identified and compared with experimental results. The computed solutions include weak helical, double helix, spiral, and bubble-type breakdowns. The topological structure of the various breakdowns as well as their interrelationship are studied. The data reveal that the asymmetric modes of breakdown may be subject to additional breakdowns as the vortex core evolves in the streamwise direction. The solutions also show that the freestream axial velocity distribution has a significant effect on the position and type of vortex breakdown.
Numerical study of the properties of optical vortex array laser tweezers.
Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun
2013-11-04
Chu et al. constructed a kind of Ince-Gaussian modes (IGM)-based vortex array laser beams consisting of p x p embedded optical vortexes from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e)(p,p) modes [Opt. Express 16, 19934 (2008)]. Such an IGM-based vortex array laser beams maintains its vortex array profile during both propagation and focusing, and is applicable to optical tweezers. This study uses the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to study the properties of the IGM-based vortex array laser tweezers while it traps dielectric particles. This study calculates the resultant force exerted on the spherical dielectric particles of different sizes situated at the IGM-based vortex array laser beam waist. Numerical results show that the number of trapping spots of a structure light (i.e. IGM-based vortex laser beam), is depended on the relation between the trapped particle size and the structure light beam size. While the trapped particle is small comparing to the beam size of the IGM-based vortex array laser beams, the IGM-based vortex array laser beams tweezers are suitable for multiple traps. Conversely, the tweezers is suitable for single traps. The results of this study is useful to the future development of the vortex array laser tweezers applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadaoka, N.; Umegaki, K. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-01-25
A vortex-induced vibration of an array of elastically supported tubes is simulated in two-dimension by using a flow-induced vibration analysis program, which was developed in order to evaluate flow-induced vibration in various components such as heat exchangers. From a comparison of calculated results and experimental data, the following points are observed. (1) For the calculated results in a 5 {times} 5 square array, the flow pattern surrounding the first-row tubes is markedly different from that observed in the second-row or third-row tubes. This flow pattern is the same as that obtained from the experiment. (2) All tubes begin to oscillate due to unsteady fluid force and the oscillating mode is different for each row of tubes. These oscillation patterns show the same tendency in the experiments and it is concluded that the developed method can simulate vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes. 19 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Generation and evolution of turbulence in an annulus between two concentric rotating cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, K.; Deguchi, T.
1987-01-01
The objective of the present work is to observe the generation and spectral evolution of time-dependent wavy disturbances in the Taylor-Couette flow. It is well known that as the Reynolds number Re = R/sub i/Ω d/ν, based on the rotation speed (Ω: angular velocity) of the inner cylinder, is gradually increased, the following five dynamical transitions occur stepwise in sequence: laminar Couette flow → laminar Taylor vortex flow → wavy vortex flow → quasi-periodic wavy vortex flow → weakly turbulent wavy vortex flow → turbulent vortex flow. Time-dependent wavy disturbances appear when the transition to wavy vortex flow occurs as a result of instability of the laminar Taylor vortex flow. The disturbances are regularly periodic because it results from the azimuthally traveling waves. The next transition to the quasi-periodic wavy vortex flow is accompanied by the amplitude modulation of the wave motion. The first fundamental frequency f/sub 1/ comes from the passing frequency of the azimuthally traveling waves and the second fundamental frequency f/sub 2/ from the modulation frequency. When the transition to the weakly turbulent wavy vortex flow occurs, chaotic turbulence first appears, A spectral analysis is made to analyze the temporal variation in the local velocity gradient measured on both the inner and outer cylinder walls by using an electrochemical technique
Memory effects in turbulent diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zagorodny, A.G.; Weiland, J.; Wilhelmsson, H.
1993-01-01
A non-Markovian approach is proposed for the derivation of the diffusion coefficient of saturated turbulence. A memory term accounting for nonlocal coherence effects is introduced in a new attempt to describe the transition between weak and strong turbulence. The result compares favourably with recent experiments as well as mode coupling simulations of fusion plasmas. (14 refs.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deri, E; Braza, M; Cazin, S; Cid, E; Harran, G; Ouvrard, H; Hoarau, Y; Hunt, J
2011-01-01
The present study aims at a physical analysis of the coherent and chaotic vortex dynamics in the near wake around a flat plate at incidence, to provide new elements in respect of the flow physics turbulence modelling for high-Reynolds number flows around bodies. This constitutes nowadays a challenge in the aeronautics design. A special attention is paid to capture the thin shear layer interfaces downstream of the separation, responsible for aeroacoustics phenomena related to noise reduction and directly linked to an accurate prediction of the aerodynamic forces. The experimental investigation is carried out by means of tomographic PIV. The interaction of the most energetic coherent structures with the random turbulence is discussed. Furthermore, the POD analysis allowed evaluation of 3D phase averaged dynamics as well as the influence of higher modes associated with the finer-scale turbulence. The numerical study by means of the Organised Eddy Simulation, OES approach ensured a reduced turbulence diffusion that allowed development of the von Karman instability and of capturing of the thin shear-layer interfaces, by using appropriate criteria based on vorticity and dissipation rate of kinetic energy. A comparison between the experiments and the simulations concerning the coherent vortex pattern is carried out.
Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey
2006-01-01
We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcia, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves
Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction
Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey
2006-05-01
We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.
Spectroscopy of fractional Josephson vortex molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldobin, Edward; Gaber, Tobias; Buckenmaier, Kai; Kienzle, Uta; Sickinger, Hanna; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II, Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)
2010-07-01
Using tiny current injectors we create {kappa} discontinuities of the Josephson phase in a long Josephson junction. The junction reacts at the discontinuities by creating fractional Josephson vortices of size {lambda}{sub J} pinned at them. Such vortices carry the flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. Being pinned, a fractional vortex has an eigenfrequency (localized mode), which depends on {kappa} and applied bias current, and which lays within the plasma gap. If one considers a molecule consisting of several coupled fractional vortices, the eigenfrequency will split into several modes. We report on spectroscopy of a fractional vortex molecule performed in the thermal regime.
Simula, Tapio
2018-02-01
We consider the inertial mass of a vortex in a superfluid. We obtain a vortex mass that is well defined and is determined microscopically and self-consistently by the elementary excitation energy of the kelvon quasiparticle localized within the vortex core. The obtained result for the vortex mass is found to be consistent with experimental observations on superfluid quantum gases and vortex rings in water. We propose a method to measure the inertial rest mass and Berry phase of a vortex in superfluid Bose and Fermi gases.
Synchronization of two coupled turbulent fires
Takagi, Kazushi; Gotoda, Hiroshi; Miyano, Takaya; Murayama, Shogo; Tokuda, Isao T.
2018-04-01
We numerically study the scale-free nature of a buoyancy-induced turbulent fire and synchronization of two coupled turbulent fires. A scale-free structure is detected in weighted networks between vortices, while its lifetime obeys a clear power law, indicating intermittent appearances, disappearances, and reappearances of the scale-free property. A significant decrease in the distance between the two fire sources gives rise to a synchronized state in the near field dominated by the unstable motion of large-scale of transverse vortex rings. The synchronized state vanishes in the far field forming well-developed turbulent plumes, regardless of the distance between the two fire sources.
Nonuniform quantum turbulence in superfluids
Nemirovskii, Sergey K.
2018-04-01
The problem of quantum turbulence in a channel with an inhomogeneous counterflow of superfluid turbulent helium is studied. The counterflow velocity Vns x(y ) along the channel is supposed to have a parabolic profile in the transverse direction y . Such statement corresponds to the recent numerical simulation by Khomenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 91, 180504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.180504]. The authors reported about a sophisticated behavior of the vortex-line density (VLD) L (r ,t ) , different from L ∝Vns x(y) 2 , which follows from the straightforward application of the conventional Vinen theory. It is clear that Vinen theory should be refined by taking into account transverse effects, and the way it ought to be done is the subject of active discussion in the literature. In this work, we discuss several possible mechanisms of the transverse flux of VLD L (r ,t ) which should be incorporated in the standard Vinen equation to describe adequately the inhomogeneous quantum turbulence. It is shown that the most effective among these mechanisms is the one that is related to the phase-slippage phenomenon. The use of this flux in the modernized Vinen equation corrects the situation with an unusual distribution of the vortex-line density, and satisfactorily describes the behavior L (r ,t ) both in stationary and nonstationary situations. The general problem of the phenomenological Vinen theory in the case of nonuniform and nonstationary quantum turbulence is thoroughly discussed.
Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Biskamp, Dieter
2003-01-01
This book presents an introduction to, and modern account of, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, an active field both in general turbulence theory and in various areas of astrophysics. The book starts by introducing the MHD equations, certain useful approximations and the transition to turbulence. The second part of the book covers incompressible MHD turbulence, the macroscopic aspects connected with the different self-organization processes, the phenomenology of the turbulence spectra, two-point closure theory, and intermittency. The third considers two-dimensional turbulence and compressi
Numerical simulation of a precessing vortex breakdown
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jochmann, P.; Sinigersky, A.; Hehle, M.; Schaefer, O.; Koch, R.; Bauer, H.-J.
2006-01-01
The objective of this work is to present the results of time-dependent numerical predictions of a turbulent symmetry breaking vortex breakdown in a realistic gas turbine combustor. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved by using the k-ε two-equation model as well as by a full second-order closure using the Reynolds stress model of Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski (SSG). The results for a Reynolds number of 5.2 x 10 4 , a swirl number of 0.52 and an expansion ratio of 5 show that the flow is emerging from the swirler as a spiral gyrating around a zone of strong recirculation which is also asymmetric and precessing. These flow structures which are typical for the spiral type (S-type) vortex breakdown have been confirmed by PIV and local LDA measurements in a corresponding experimental setup. Provided that high resolution meshes are employed the calculations with both turbulence models are capable to reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of the flow
On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halse, Karl Henning
1998-12-31
In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.
On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halse, Karl Henning
1997-12-31
In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, R.J.
1988-01-01
Most flows of fluids, in nature and in technology, are turbulent. Since much of the energy expended by machines and devices that involve fluid flows is spent in overcoming drag caused by turbulence, there is a strong motivation to understand the phenomena. Surprisingly, the peculiar, quantum-mechanical form of turbulence that can form in superfluid helium may turn out to be much simpler to understand that the classical turbulence that forms in normal fluids. It now seems that the study of superfluid turbulence may provide simplified model systems for studying some forms of classical turbulence. There are also practical motivations for studying superfluid turbulence. For example, superfuid helium is often used as a coolant in superconducting machinery. Superfluid turbulence is the primary impediment to the transfer of heat by superfluid helium; an understanding of the phenomena may make it possible to design more efficient methods of refrigeration for superconducting devices. 8 figs
Tip Vortex and Wake Characteristics of a Counterrotating Open Rotor
VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.
2012-01-01
One of the primary noise sources for Open Rotor systems is the interaction of the forward rotor tip vortex and blade wake with the aft rotor. NASA has collaborated with General Electric on the testing of a new generation of low noise, counterrotating Open Rotor systems. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurements were acquired in the intra-rotor gap of the Historical Baseline blade set. The velocity measurements are of sufficient resolution to characterize the tip vortex size and trajectory as well as the rotor wake decay and turbulence character. The tip clearance vortex trajectory is compared to results from previously developed models. Forward rotor wake velocity profiles are shown. Results are presented in a form as to assist numerical modeling of Open Rotor system aerodynamics and acoustics.
Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.
2002-01-01
The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...
Laguerre Gaussian beam multiplexing through turbulence
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Trichili, A
2014-08-17
Full Text Available We analyze the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of multiplexed Laguerre Gaussian modes. We present a method to multiplex Laguerre Gaussian modes using digital holograms and decompose the resulting field after encountering a...
Wu, Jie-Zhi; Zhou, M-D
2006-01-01
The importance of vorticity and vortex dynamics has now been well rec- nized at both fundamental and applied levels of ?uid dynamics, as already anticipatedbyTruesdellhalfcenturyagowhenhewrotethe?rstmonograph onthesubject, The Kinematics of Vorticity(1954);andasalsoevidencedby the appearance of several books on this ?eld in 1990s. The present book is characterizedbythefollowingfeatures: 1. A basic physical guide throughout the book. The material is directed by a basic observation on the splitting and coupling of two fundamental processes in ?uid motion, i.e., shearing (unique to ?uid) and compre- ing/expanding.Thevorticityplaysakeyroleintheformer,andavortex isnothingbuta?uidbodywithhighconcentrationofvorticitycompared to its surrounding ?uid. Thus, the vorticity and vortex dynamics is - cordinglyde?nedasthetheoryofshearingprocessanditscouplingwith compressing/expandingprocess. 2. A description of the vortex evolution following its entire life.Thisbegins from the generation of vorticity to the formation of thi...
Magnetic vortex racetrack memory
Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.
2017-02-01
We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube
Bunge, Carl; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Leachman, Jake
2017-11-01
A 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a Heisenberg Vortex Tube (HVT) is performed to estimate cooling potential with cryogenic hydrogen. The main mechanism driving operation of the vortex tube is the use of fluid power for enthalpy streaming in a highly turbulent swirl in a dual-outlet tube. This enthalpy streaming creates a temperature separation between the outer and inner regions of the flow. Use of a catalyst on the peripheral wall of the centrifuge enables endothermic conversion of para-ortho hydrogen to aid primary cooling. A κ- ɛ turbulence model is used with a cryogenic, non-ideal equation of state, and para-orthohydrogen species evolution. The simulations are validated with experiments and strategies for parametric optimization of this device are presented.
Numerical Simulation of the Aircraft Wake Vortex Flowfield
Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Perry, R. Brad
2013-01-01
The near wake vortex flowfield from a NACA0012 half-wing was simulated using a fully unstructured Navier-Stokes flow solver in three dimensions at a chord Reynolds number of 4.6 million and a Mach number of approximately 0.15. Several simulations were performed to examine the effect of boundary conditions, mesh resolution and turbulence scheme on the formation of wingtip vortex and its downstream propagation. The standard Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model was compared with the Dacles-Mariani and Spalart-Shur corrections for rotation and curvature effects. The simulation results were evaluated using the data from experiment performed at NASA Ames' 32in x 48in low speed wind tunnel.
A high-resolution code for large eddy simulation of incompressible turbulent boundary layer flows
Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi
2014-01-01
examples to establish the fourth-order accuracy and energy conservation property of the code. Furthermore, we implement a recycling method to generate turbulent inflow. We use the stretched spiral vortex subgrid-scale model and virtual wall model
Vortex solitons at the interface separating square and hexagonal lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jović Savić, Dragana, E-mail: jovic@ipb.ac.rs; Piper, Aleksandra; Žikić, Radomir; Timotijević, Dejan
2015-06-19
Vortex solitons at the interface separating two different photonic lattices – square and hexagonal – are demonstrated numerically. We consider the conditions for the existence of discrete vortex states at such interfaces and develop a concise picture of different scenarios of the vortex solutions behavior. Various vortices with different size and topological charges are considered, as well as various lattice interfaces. A novel type of discrete vortex surface solitons in a form of five-lobe solution is observed. Besides stable three-lobe and six-lobe discrete surface modes propagating for long distances, we observe various oscillatory vortex surface solitons, as well as dynamical instabilities of different kinds of solutions and study their angular momentum. Dynamical instabilities occur for higher values of the propagation constant, or at higher beam powers. - Highlights: • We demonstrate vortex solitons at the square–hexagonal photonic lattice interface. • A novel type of five-lobe surface vortex solitons is observed. • Different phase structures of surface solutions are studied. • Orbital angular momentum transfer of such solutions is investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, M.
1995-01-01
An electric vortex is the circulation of electron space charge about a magnetic field line that is transported by ion momentum. In cold, or low β flow the vortex diameter is the minimum length scale of charge neutrality. The distinctive feature of the vortex is its radial electric field which manifests the interplay of electrostatics, magnetism, and motion
Investigation of vortex breakdown on a delta wing using Euler and Navier-Stokes equations
Agrawal, S.; Barnett, R. M.; Robinson, B. A.
1991-01-01
A numerical investigation of leading edge vortex breakdown in a delta wing at high angles of attack is presented. The analysis was restricted to low speed flows on a flat plate wing with sharp leading edges. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes equations were used and the results were compared with experimental data. Predictions of vortex breakdown progression with angle of attack with both Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are shown to be consistent with the experimental data. However, the Navier-Stokes predictions show significant improvements in breakdown location at angles of attack where the vortex breakdown approaches the wing apex. The predicted trajectories of the primary vortex are in very good agreement with the test data, the laminar solutions providing the overall best comparison. The Euler shows a small displacement of the primary vortex, relative to experiment, due to the lack of secondary vortices. The turbulent Navier-Stokes, in general, fall between the Euler and laminar solutions.
Vortex Tube: A Comparison of Experimental and CFD Analysis Featuring Different RANS Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chýlek Radomír
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube represents a device for both cooling and heating applications. It uses compressed gas as drive medium. The temperature separation is affected by fluid flow behaviour inside the tube. It has not been sufficiently examined in detail yet and has the potential for further investigation. The aim of this paper is to compare results of numerical simulations of the vortex tube with obtained experimental data. The numerical study was using computational fluid dynamics (CFD, namely computational code STAR-CCM+. For the numerical study, a three-dimensional geometry model, and various turbulence physics models were used. For the validation of carried out calculations, an experimental device of the vortex tube of identical geometrical and operating conditions was created and tested. The numerical simulation results have been obtained for five different turbulence models, namely Standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, Standard k-ω, SST k-ω and Reynolds stress model (RSM, were compared with experimental results. The most important evaluation factor was the temperature field in the vortex tube. All named models of turbulence were able to predict the general flow behaviour in the vortex tube with satisfactory precision. Standard k-ε turbulence model predicted temperature distribution in the best accordance with the obtained experimental data.
Vortex survival in 3D self-gravitating accretion discs
Lin, Min-Kai; Pierens, Arnaud
2018-04-01
Large-scale, dust-trapping vortices may account for observations of asymmetric protoplanetary discs. Disc vortices are also potential sites for accelerated planetesimal formation by concentrating dust grains. However, in 3D discs vortices are subject to destructive `elliptic instabilities', which reduces their viability as dust traps. The survival of vortices in 3D accretion discs is thus an important issue to address. In this work, we perform shearing box simulations to show that disc self-gravity enhances the survival of 3D vortices, even when self-gravity is weak in the classic sense (e.g. with a Toomre Q ≃ 5). We find a 3D, self-gravitating vortex can grow on secular timescales in spite of the elliptic instability. The vortex aspect-ratio decreases as it strengthens, which feeds the elliptic instability. The result is a 3D vortex with a turbulent core that persists for ˜103 orbits. We find when gravitational and hydrodynamic stresses become comparable, the vortex may undergo episodic bursts, which we interpret as interaction between elliptic and gravitational instabilities. We estimate the distribution of dust particles in self-gravitating, turbulent vortices. Our results suggest large-scale vortices in protoplanetary discs are more easily observed at large radii.
Spectral analysis of vortex/free-surface interaction
Hofert, Glenn D.
1994-01-01
The unsteady flow phenomena resulting from the interaction of vorticity with a free surface has been investigated through the use of a three- color Laser Doppler-Velocimeter. The vorticity field was provided by a single tip vortex generated by an airfoil, placed in the test section of a recirculating water tunnel at a suitable angle of attack. All of the statistical quantities of flow such as turbulence and Reynolds stresses and in particular the spectrum of the fluctuations have been measure...
Analytical Models Development of Compact Monopole Vortex Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavlo V. Lukianov
2017-09-01
Conclusions. The article contains series of the latest analytical models that describe both laminar and turbulent dynamics of monopole vortex flows which have not been reflected in traditional publications up to the present. The further research must be directed to search of analytical models for the coherent vortical structures in flows of viscous fluids, particularly near curved surfaces, where known in hydromechanics “wall law” is disturbed and heat and mass transfer anomalies take place.
Large-scale vortices in compressible turbulent medium with the magnetic field
Gvaramadze, V. V.; Dimitrov, B. G.
1990-08-01
An averaged equation which describes the large scale vortices and Alfven waves generation in a compressible helical turbulent medium with a constant magnetic field is presented. The presence of the magnetic field leads to anisotropization of the vortex generation. Possible applications of the anisotropic vortex dynamo effect are accretion disks of compact objects.
Hybrid Optical-Magnetic Traps for Studies of 2D Quantum Turbulence in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Myers, Jessica Ann
Turbulence appears in most natural and man-made flows. However, the analysis of turbulence is particularly difficult. Links between microscopic fluid dynamics and statistical signatures of turbulence appear unobtainable from the postulates of fluid dynamics making turbulence one of the most important unsolved theoretical problems in physics. Two-dimensional quantum turbulence (2DQT), an emerging field of study, involves turbulence in two-dimensional (2D) flows in superfluids, such as Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). In 2D superfluids, a turbulent state can be characterized by a disordered distribution of numerous vortex cores. The question of how to effectively and efficiently generate turbulent states in superfluids is a fundamental question in the field of quantum turbulence. Therefore, experimental studies of vortex nucleation and the onset of turbulence in a superfluid are important for achieving a deeper understanding of the overall problem of turbulence. My PhD dissertation involves the study of vortex nucleation and the onset of turbulence in quasi-2D BECs. First, I discuss experimental apparatus advancements that now enable BECs to be created in a hybrid optical-magnetic trap, an atom trapping configuration conducive to 2DQT experiments. Next, I discuss the design and construction of a quantum vortex microscope and initial vortex detection tests. Finally, I present the first experiments aimed at studying 2DQT carried out in the updated apparatus. Thermal counterflow in superfluid helium, in which the normal and superfluid components flow in opposite directions, is known to create turbulence in the superfluid. However, this phenomenon has not been simulated or studied in dilute-gas BECs as a possible vortex nucleation method. In this dissertation, I present preliminary data from the first experiments aimed at understanding thermal counterflow turbulence in dilute-gas BECs.
Simulation of a MW rotor equipped with vortex generators using CFD and an actuator shape model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Troldborg, Niels; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.
2015-01-01
This article presents a comparison of CFD simulations of the DTU 10 MW reference wind turbine with and without vortex generators installed on the inboard part of the blades. The vortex generators are modelled by introducing body forces determined using a modified version of the so-called BAY mode...
Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations
Shakerin, Said
2010-01-01
Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies. In this paper, we focus on a…
Magnetic vortex racetrack memory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M., E-mail: ymjin@mtu.edu
2017-02-01
We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications. - Highlights: • Advance fundamental knowledge of current-driven magnetic vortex phenomena. • Report appealing new magnetic racetrack memory based on current-controlled magnetic vortices in nanowires. • Provide a novel approach to adjust current magnitude for data propagation. • Overcome the limitations of domain wall racetrack memory.
Low energy consumption vortex wave flow membrane bioreactor.
Wang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Weilong; Hu, Xiaohong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Tao; Sun, Youshan
2017-11-01
In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state. The MBR system was used to treat domestic wastewater under the condition of vortex wave flow state for 30 days. The results showed that the removal efficiency for CODcr and NH 3 -N was 82% and 98% respectively, and the permeate quality met the requirement of 'Water quality standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption (GB/T 18920-2002)'. Analysis of the energy consumption of the MBR showed that the average energy consumption was 1.90 ± 0.55 kWh/m 3 (permeate), which was only two thirds of conventional MBR energy consumption.
Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics.
Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan
2015-05-01
This Letter presents for the first time a scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. In the three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, the high-order harmonics of the high-order vortex mode is generated in both reflected and transmitted light beams when a linearly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The azimuthal mode of the harmonics scales with its order. The intensity of the high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, with the pulse duration down to attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. In addition to the application in high-resolution detection in both spatial and temporal scales, it also presents new opportunities in the intense vortex required fields, such as the inner shell ionization process and high energy twisted photons generation by Thomson scattering of such an intense vortex beam off relativistic electrons.
Yu, Yuelong; Liu, Yingzheng; Chen, Yujia
2017-12-01
The unsteady flow behind an inverted flag placed in a water channel and then excited into a self-oscillating state is measured using time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The dynamically deformed profiles of the inverted flag are determined by a novel algorithm that combines morphological image processing and principle component analysis. Three modes are discovered with the successive decrease in the dimensionless bending stiffness: the biased mode, the flapping mode, and the deflected mode. The distinctly different flow behavior is discussed in terms of instantaneous velocity field, phase-averaged vorticity field, time-mean flow field, and turbulent kinetic energy. The results demonstrated that the biased mode generated abundant vortices at the oscillating side of the inverted flag. In the deflected mode, the inverted flag is highly deflected to one side of the channel and remains almost stationary, inducing two stable recirculation zones and a considerably inversed flow between them. In the flapping mode, the strongly oscillating flag periodically provides a strengthened influence on the fluid near the two sidewalls. The reverse von Kármán vortex street is well formed and energetic in the wake, and a series of high-speed impingement jets between the neighboring vortices are directed toward the sidewalls in a staggered fashion.
Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers
Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre
2017-01-01
Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304
Characteristics of transitional and turbulent jet diffusion flames in microgravity
Bahadori, Yousef M.; Small, James F., Jr.; Hegde, Uday G.; Zhou, Liming; Stocker, Dennis P.
1995-01-01
This paper presents the ground-based results obtained to date in preparation of a proposed space experiment to study the role of large-scale structures in microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames by investigating the dynamics of vortex/flame interactions and their influence on flame characteristics. The overall objective is to gain an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. Understanding of the role of large-scale structures on the characteristics of microgravity transitional and turbulent flames will ultimately lead to improved understanding of normal-gravity turbulent combustion.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes
2014-01-01
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gasenzer, Thomas [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); McLerran, Larry [Physics Department, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Physics Department, China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China); Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
2014-10-15
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.
On the dynamics of a plasma vortex street and its topological signatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siregar, E.; Stribling, W.T.; Goldstein, M.L.
1994-01-01
A plasma vortex street configuration can evolve when two velocity and one magnetic shear layer interact strongly. A study of the interaction between two- and three-dimensional plasma modes and a mean sheared magnetic field is undertaken using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic spectral Galerkin computation. The initial state is a simple magnetic shear in a plane perpendicular to the plasma velocity shear plane. In a very weak magnetic field, secondary instabilities (three-dimensional modes), expressed by the kinking of vortex tubes, lead to plasma flow along and around the axes of the vortex cores, creating characteristic patterns of kinetic helicity and linkages between vortex filaments. Three-dimensionality leads to the vortex breakdown process. A strong sheared magnetic field inhibits the kinking of vortex tubes, maintaining two-dimensionality. This inhibits vortex breakdown over long dynamical times. There is an anticorrelation in time between linkage indices of the vortex filament (related to kinetic helicity), suggesting that the ellipticity axes of the vortex cores along the street undergo a global inphase evolution. This anticorrelation has a dynamical interpretation. It extends to a relaxing plasma in the Navier--Stokes flow notion that helical regions of opposite helicities interact and screen each other off so that the global helicity remains bounded
Transient behavior of superfluid turbulence in a large channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarz, K.W.; Rozen, J.R.
1991-01-01
The transient behavior of superfluid turbulence is studied theoretically and experimentally with the aim of understanding the disagreement between vortex-tangle theory and past measurements of free vortex-tangle decay in superfluid 4 He. Scaling theory is extended and large-scale simulations based on the reconnecting-vortex model are carried out. These imply that the Vinen equation should be a reasonable approximation even for rather large transients, and predict definite values for the Vinen parameters. Direct measurements of the vortex-tangle response to a sudden change in the driving velocity are seen to be in reasonable agreement with these predictions. It is found, however, that when the vortex tangle is allowed to decay farther toward zero, it eventually crosses over into a state of anomalously slow decay, which appears to be that observed in previous experiments. We argue that this regime should be interpreted in terms of a coupled-turbulence state in which random superfluid and normal-fluid motion interacts with the vortex tangle, the whole system decaying self-consistently at a rate controlled by the normal-fluid viscosity. Several additional qualitative observations which may be relevant to the question of how the vortex tangle is initiated are also reported
Localized vortices in ηi-modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nycander, J.; Lynov, J.P.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1992-01-01
For a wide variety of nonlinear wave equations necessary conditions for the existence of localized, stationary structures can be found by applying a simple procedure, involving two steps: First the linear dispersion relation is obtained and the regions of the phase velocity of linear waves found. Secondly, assuming that localized solutions exist, their velocities are determined by using integral relations. The obtained velocity takes the form of a ''center of mass velocity''. If this velocity falls outside the regions of phase velocities for linear waves then nonlinear localized vortices may exist. Otherwise, the structure will couple to the linear waves and gradually disperse. Applying this method we have shown that monopole vortex solutions exist for drift waves driven by the ion temperature gradient in a magnetized plasma, the so-called η i -modes. Numerical solutions show that such vortices are steadily propagating and stable and they generally emerge from localized initial conditions. Our study is motivated by recent high resolution simulations of η i -turbulence, where it was observed that coherent vortices developed spontaneously. These had a dominating influence on the evolution of the turbulence, and the associated anomalous transport was found to be significantly reduced as compared with the predictions from quasilinear theory. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs
Modeling Thermally Driven Flow Problems with a Grid-Free Vortex Filament Scheme: Part 1
2018-02-01
simulation FMM Fast Multipole Method GPUs graphic processing units LES Large Eddy Simulation M-O Monin-Obukhov MPI Message Passing Interface Re Reynolds...mail.mil>. Grid-free representation of turbulent flow via vortex filaments offers a means for large eddy simulations that faithfully and efficiently...particle, Lagrangian, turbulence, grid-free, large eddy simulation , natural convection, thermal bubble 56 Pat Collins 301-394-5617Unclassified
Coherent Vortex Simulation (CVS) of vortex-dipoles impinging on a no-slip wall
Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie
2004-11-01
Recently, we have introduced a new wavelet-based method, called Coherent Vortex Simulation (CVS), to compute turbulent flows (Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 66(4), 2001). The main idea is to split the flow into two orthogonal parts, a coherent flow and an incoherent background flow, using a nonlinear wavelet filtering of vorticity (Phys. Fluids, 11(8), 1999). As the coherent flow is responsible for the nonlinear dynamics, its evolution is deterministically computed in an adaptive wavelet basis, while the incoherent background flow being noise-like, structureless and decorrelated, its influence on the coherent flow is statistically modelled. Since the coherent part is described by only few wavelets, it is possible to reduce the computational cost, both in terms of memory requirement and cpu time. In order to take into account no-slip boundary conditions, we coupled the adaptive wavelet solver with a volume penalization technique (ACHA, 12, 2002). Here, we present applications of the CVS method to compute vortex dipoles impinging on a no-slip wall in a square container at different Reynolds numbers, which is a challenging test case for numerical methods. We observe the creation of strong vorticity gradients and the production of enstrophy when the dipole hits the wall. We show that the computational grid is dynamically adapted to the dipole evolution, since the wavelet nonlinear filter automatically refines the grid in regions of strong gradients. Note that during the computation only 5% out of 1024^2 wavelet coefficients are thus used.
Swirl effect on flow structure and mixing in a turbulent jet
Kravtsov, Z. D.; Sharaborin, D. K.; Dulin, V. M.
2018-03-01
The paper reports on experimental study of turbulent transport in the initial region of swirling turbulent jets. The particle image velocimetry and planar laser-induced fluorescence techniques are used to investigate the flow structure and passive scalar concentration, respectively, in free air jet with acetone vapor. Three flow cases are considered, viz., non-swirling jets and swirling jets with and without vortex breakdown and central recirculation zone. Without vortex breakdown, the swirl is shown to promote jet mixing with surrounding air and to decrease the jet core length. The vortex core breakdown further enhances mixing as the jet core disintegrates at the nozzle exit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.
2000-01-01
Recent results and future challenges in the systematic analytical description of plasma turbulence are described. First, the importance of statistical realizability is stressed, and the development and successes of the Realizable Markovian Closure are briefly reviewed. Next, submarginal turbulence (linearly stable but nonlinearly self-sustained fluctuations) is considered and the relevance of nonlinear instability in neutral-fluid shear flows to submarginal turbulence in magnetized plasmas is discussed. For the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, a self-consistency loop that leads to steady-state vortex regeneration in the presence of dissipation is demonstrated and a partial unification of recent work of Drake (for plasmas) and of Waleffe (for neutral fluids) is given. Brief remarks are made on the difficulties facing a quantitatively accurate statistical description of submarginal turbulence. Finally, possible connections between intermittency, submarginal turbulence, and self-organized criticality (SOC) are considered and outstanding questions are identified
BOOK REVIEW: Plasma and Fluid Turbulence: Theory and Modelling
Yoshizawa, A.; Itoh, S. I.; Itoh, K.
2003-03-01
The area of turbulence has been covered by many books over the years. This has, of course, mainly been fluid turbulence, while the area of plasma turbulence has been treated much less. This book by Yoshizawa et al covers both plasma and fluid turbulence, in a way that does justice to both areas at the same time as cross-disciplinary aspects are illuminated. The book should be useful to physicists working in both areas partly because it examines fundamental aspects in a pedagogical way, partly because it is up to date and partly because of the cross-disciplinary aspects which enrich both areas. It is written as an advanced textbook. The reader should have previous knowledge of at least one of the areas and also some background in statistical physics. The book starts with the very important and highly up to date area of structure formation which is relevant both to fluids and plasmas. Here, pipe flow of fluids is treated as an introduction to the area, then follows discussion of the generation of magnetic fields by turbulent motion in stellar objects and stucture formation in plasmas confined by a magnetic field. Also the concept of bifurcation is introduced. This part builds up knowledge from the simple fluid case to the problems of magnetic confinement of plasmas in a very pedagogical way. It continues by introducing the fundamentals of fluid turbulence. This is done very systematically and concepts useful for industrial applications like the K-e method and several ways of heuristic modelling are introduced. Also the two dimensional vortex equation, which is also relevant to magnetized plasmas is introduced. In chapter 5 the statistical theory of turbulence is treated. It starts with a very nice and easy to understand example of renormalization of a simple nonlinear equation where the exact solution is known. It introduces the method of partial renormalization, Greens functions and the direct interaction approximation (DIA). The book then continues with an
Segmented trapped vortex cavity
Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)
2010-01-01
An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.
Analysis of zonal flow bifurcations in 3D drift wave turbulence simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kammel, Andreas
2012-01-01
The main issue of experimental magnetic fusion devices lies with their inherently high turbulent transport, preventing long-term plasma confinement. A deeper understanding of the underlying transport processes is therefore desirable, especially in the high-gradient tokamak edge which marks the location of the drift wave regime as well as the outer boundary of the still badly understood high confinement mode. One of the most promising plasma features possibly connected to a complete bifurcation theory for the transition to this H-mode is found in large-scale phenomena capable of regulating radial transport through vortex shearing - i.e. zonal flows, linearly stable large-scale poloidal vector E x vector B-modes based on radial flux surface averages of the potential gradient generated through turbulent self-organization. Despite their relevance, few detailed turbulence studies of drift wave-based zonal flows have been undertaken, and none of them have explicitly targeted bifurcations - or, within a resistive sheared-slab environment, observed zonal flows at all. In this work, both analytical means and the two-fluid code NLET are used to analyze a reduced set of Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, describing a sheared collisional drift wave system without curvature. The characteristics of the drift waves themselves, as well as those of the drift wave-based zonal flows and their retroaction on the drift wave turbulence are examined. The single dimensionless parameter ρ s proposed in previous analytical models is examined numerically and shown to divide the drift wave scale into two transport regimes, the behavioral characteristics of which agree perfectly with theoretical expectations. This transport transition correlates with a transition from pure drift wave turbulence at low ρ s into the high-ρ s zonal flow regime. The associated threshold has been more clearly identified by tracing it back to a tipping of the ratio between a newly proposed frequency gradient length at
Instabilities and vortex dynamics in shear flow of magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Schutkeker, J.; Kamimura, T.; Mima, K.; Abe, Y.
1990-03-01
Gradient-driven instabilities and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of generated vortices in sheared E x B flows are investigated for magnetized plasmas with and without gravity (magnetic curvature) and magnetic shear by using theory and implicit particle simulations. In the linear eigenmode analysis, the instabilities considered are the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability and the resistive interchange instability. The presence of the shear flow can stabilize these instabilities. The dynamics of the K-H instability and the vortex dynamics can be uniformly described by the initial flow pattern with a vorticity localization parameter ε. The observed growth of the K-H modes is exponential in time for linearly unstable modes, secular for marginal mode, and absent until driven nonlinearly for linearly stable modes. The distance between two vortex centers experiences rapid merging while the angle θ between the axis of vortices and the external shear flow increases. These vortices proceed toward their overall coalescence, while shedding small-scale vortices and waves. The main features of vortex dynamics of the nonlinear coalescence and the tilt or the rotational instabilities of vortices are shown to be given by using a low dimension Hamiltonian representation for interacting vortex cores in the shear flow. 24 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
Soliton on thin vortex filament
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konno, Kimiaki; Mituhashi, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Y.H.
1990-12-01
Showing that one of the equations found by Wadati, Konno and Ichikawa is equivalent to the equation of motion of a thin vortex filament, we investigate solitons on the vortex filament. N vortex soliton solution is given in terms of the inverse scattering method. We examine two soliton collision processes on the filament. Our analysis provides the theoretical foundation of two soliton collision processes observed numerically by Aref and Flinchem. (author)
Resonant-spin-ordering of vortex cores in interacting mesomagnets
Jain, Shikha
2013-03-01
The magnetic system of interacting vortex-state elements have a dynamically reconfigurable ground state characterized by different relative polarities and chiralities of the individual disks; and have a corresponding dynamically controlled spectrum of collective excitation modes that determine the microwave absorption of the crystal. The development of effective methods for dynamic control of the ground state in this vortex-type magnonic crystal is of interest both from fundamental and technological viewpoints. Control of vortex chirality has been demonstrated previously using various techniques; however, control and manipulation of vortex polarities remain challenging. In this work, we present a robust and efficient way of selecting the ground state configuration of interacting magnetic elements using resonant-spin-ordering approach. This is achieved by driving the system from the linear regime of constant vortex gyrations to the non-linear regime of vortex-core reversals at a fixed excitation frequency of one of the coupled modes. Subsequently reducing the excitation field to the linear regime stabilizes the system to a polarity combination whose resonant frequency is decoupled from the initialization frequency. We have utilized the resonant approach to transition between the two polarity combinations (parallel or antiparallel) in a model system of connected dot-pairs which may form the building blocks of vortex-based magnonic crystals. Taking a step further, we have extended the technique by studying many-particle system for its potential as spin-torque oscillators or logic devices. Work at Argonne was supported by the U. S. DOE, Office of BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This work was in part supported by grant DMR-1015175 from the U. S. National Science Foundation, by a Contract from the U.S. Army TARDEC and RDECOM.
EuHIT, Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton, W.
1998-07-01
The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nazarenko, Sergey [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Mathematics Inst.
2011-07-01
Wave Turbulence refers to the statistical theory of weakly nonlinear dispersive waves. There is a wide and growing spectrum of physical applications, ranging from sea waves, to plasma waves, to superfluid turbulence, to nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Beyond the fundamentals the book thus also covers new developments such as the interaction of random waves with coherent structures (vortices, solitons, wave breaks), inverse cascades leading to condensation and the transitions between weak and strong turbulence, turbulence intermittency as well as finite system size effects, such as ''frozen'' turbulence, discrete wave resonances and avalanche-type energy cascades. This book is an outgrow of several lectures courses held by the author and, as a result, written and structured rather as a graduate text than a monograph, with many exercises and solutions offered along the way. The present compact description primarily addresses students and non-specialist researchers wishing to enter and work in this field. (orig.)
Nanostructure of vortex during explosion welding.
Rybin, V V; Greenberg, B A; Ivanov, M A; Patselov, A M; Antonova, O V; Elkina, O A; Inozemtsev, A V; Salishchev, G A
2011-10-01
The microstructure of a bimetallic joint made by explosion welding of orthorhombic titanium aluminide (Ti-30Al-16Nb-1Zr-1Mo) with commercially pure titanium is studied. It is found that the welded joint has a multilayered structure including a severely deformed zone observed in both materials, a recrystallized zone of titanium, and a transition zone near the interface. Typical elements of the transition zone-a wavy interface, macrorotations of the lattice, vortices and tracks of fragments of the initial materials-are determined. It is shown that the observed vortices are formed most probably due to local melting of the material near the contact surface. Evidence for this assumption is deduced from the presence of dipoles, which consist of two vortices of different helicity and an ultrafine duplex structure of the vortex. Also, high mixing of the material near the vortex is only possible by the turbulent transport whose coefficient is several orders of magnitude larger than the coefficient of atomic diffusion in liquids. The role played by fragmentation in both the formation of lattice macrorotations and the passage of coarse particles of one material through the bulk of the other is determined.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Bazdidi Tehrani
2017-02-01
of windward wall of the second building. Among the various inflow turbulence generation methods, the vortex method is the most precise method and no-inlet perturbation method is the least precise method.
Coherent vortical structures in two-dimensional plasma turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, H.L.; Coutsias, E.A.; Huld, T.
1992-01-01
A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the nonlinear saturated stage of the cross-field electrostatic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a strongly magnetized plasma. The presence of large vortex-like structures in a background of wide-band turbulent fluctuations was demonstrated...... simulations. The importance of the large scale structures for the turbulent plasma transport across magnetic field lines was analyzed in detail....
Quantum turbulence of bellows-driven .sup.4./sup.He superflow: decay
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Babuin, Simone; Varga, E.; Vinen, W. F.; Skrbek, L.
2015-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 18 (2015), "184503-1"-"184503-13" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : vortex-line density * counterflow turbulence * quantum turbulence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gorji, Mofid; Mirgolbabaei, Hessam; Barari, Amin
2010-01-01
In this paper a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a steady incompressible and turbulent model has been carried out to study the effects of vortex generators in a compact heat exchanger in a curvilinear coordinate system. The mesh which is applied in this study is boundary fitted and has been...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gorji, M.; Mirgolbababei, H.; Barari, Amin
2011-01-01
In this paper, numerical, curvilinear and turbulent model has been used to investigate the effect of vortex generator's longitudinal displacement on heat transfer and fluid flow in different Reynolds numbers ranging from 500 to 3000. The numerical model has been validated with experimental results...
Computing the flow past Vortex Generators : Comparison between RANS Simulations and Experiments
Manolesos, M.; Sorensen, NN; Troldborg, N.; Florentie, L.; Papadakis, G; Voutsinas, S.
2016-01-01
The flow around a wind turbine airfoil equipped with Vortex Generators (VGs) is examined. Predictions from three different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers with two different turbulence models and two different VG modelling approaches are compared between them and with experimental
Numerical investigation on flow behavior and energy separation in a micro-scale vortex tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahbar Nader
2015-01-01
Full Text Available There are a few experimental and numerical studies on the behaviour of micro-scale vortex tubes. The intention of this work is to investigate the energy separation phenomenon in a micro-scale vortex tube by using the computational fluid dynamic. The flow is assumed as steady, turbulent, compressible ideal gas, and the shear-stress transport sst k-w is used for modeling of turbulence phenomenon. The results show that 3-D CFD simulation is more accurate than 2-D axisymmetric one. Moreover, optimum cold-mass ratios to maximize the refrigeration-power and isentropicefficiency are evaluated. The results of static temperature, velocity magnitude and pressure distributions show that the temperature-separation in the micro-scale vortex tube is a function of kinetic-energy variation and air-expansion in the radial direction.
Deng, Jian; Schlichting, Soeren; Venugopalan, Raju; Wang, Qun
2018-05-01
We map the infrared dynamics of a relativistic single-component (N =1 ) interacting scalar field theory to that of nonrelativistic complex scalar fields. The Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation, describing the real-time dynamics of single-component ultracold Bose gases, is obtained at first nontrivial order in an expansion proportional to the powers of λ ϕ2/m2 where λ , ϕ , and m are the coupling constant, the scalar field, and the particle mass respectively. Our analytical studies are corroborated by numerical simulations of the spatial and momentum structure of overoccupied scalar fields in (2+1)-dimensions. Universal scaling of infrared modes, vortex-antivortex superfluid dynamics, and the off-equilibrium formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate are observed. Our results for the universal scaling exponents are in agreement with those extracted in the numerical simulations of the GP equation. As in these simulations, we observe coarsening phase kinetics in the Bose superfluid with strongly anomalous scaling exponents relative to that of vertex resummed kinetic theory. Our relativistic field theory framework further allows one to study more closely the coupling between superfluid and normal fluid modes, specifically the turbulent momentum and spatial structure of the coupling between a quasiparticle cascade to the infrared and an energy cascade to the ultraviolet. We outline possible applications of the formalism to the dynamics of vortex-antivortex formation and to the off-equilibrium dynamics of the strongly interacting matter formed in heavy-ion collisions.
Evolution of an electron plasma vortex in a strain flow
Danielson, J. R.
2016-10-01
Coherent vortex structures are ubiquitous in fluids and plasmas and are examples of self-organized structures in nonlinear dynamical systems. The fate of these structures in strain and shear flows is an important issue in many physical systems, including geophysical fluids and shear suppression of turbulence in plasmas. In two-dimensions, an inviscid, incompressible, ideal fluid can be modeled with the Euler equations, which is perhaps the simplest system that supports vortices. The Drift-Poisson equations for pure electron plasmas in a strong, uniform magnetic field are isomorphic to the Euler equations, and so electron plasmas are an excellent test bed for the study of 2D vortex dynamics. This talk will describe results from a new experiment using pure electron plasmas in a specially designed Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap to study the evolution of an initially axisymmetric 2D vortex subject to externally imposed strains. Complementary vortex-in-cell simulations are conducted to validate the 2D nature of the experimental results and to extend the parameter range of these studies. Data for vortex destruction using both instantaneously applied and time dependent strains with flat (constant vorticity) and extended radial profiles will be presented. The role of vortex self-organization will be discussed. A simple 2D model works well for flat vorticity profiles. However, extended profiles exhibit more complicated behavior, such as filamentation and stripping; and these effects and their consequences will be discussed. Work done in collaboration with N. C. Hurst, D. H. E. Dubin, and C. M. Surko.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hara, H.; Takahashi, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shizawa, T.; Honami, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1999-12-25
This paper presents a potential for a passive control of a horseshoe vortex at the root of the wing. NACA0024 wing is established on a turbulent boundary layer. A pair of vortex generators of halt delta wing is installed upstream of the wing. The controlled horseshoe vortex is tested qualitatively by flow visualization technique. Also, the potential for controlling is quantitatively investigated by wall static pressure and total pressure. The horseshoe vortex is remarkably controlled in Common Flow Up Configuration (CFUC) of vortex generators. The distortion of the total pressure contours is diminished by 49% and the vortex is located closer to the wing. In case of Common Flow Down Configuration (CFDC), the mass flow averaged pressure loss is decreased by 29% compared with the case without a pair of vortex generators. (author)
Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control
Bernitsas, Michael M [Saline, MI; Raghavan, Kamaldev [Houston, TX
2011-11-01
Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).
Simulating Wake Vortex Detection with the Sensivu Doppler Wind Lidar Simulator
Ramsey, Dan; Nguyen, Chi
2014-01-01
In support of NASA's Atmospheric Environment Safety Technologies NRA research topic on Wake Vortex Hazard Investigation, Aerospace Innovations (AI) investigated a set of techniques for detecting wake vortex hazards from arbitrary viewing angles, including axial perspectives. This technical report describes an approach to this problem and presents results from its implementation in a virtual lidar simulator developed at AI. Threedimensional data volumes from NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) containing strong turbulent vortices were used as the atmospheric domain for these studies, in addition to an analytical vortex model in 3-D space. By incorporating a third-party radiative transfer code (BACKSCAT 4), user-defined aerosol layers can be incorporated into atmospheric models, simulating attenuation and backscatter in different environmental conditions and altitudes. A hazard detection algorithm is described that uses a twocomponent spectral model to identify vortex signatures observable from arbitrary angles.
A Parrinello-Rahman approach to vortex lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Kevrekidis, I.G.; Maroudas, D.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.
2005-01-01
We present a framework for studying vortex lattice patterns and their structural transitions, using the Parrinello-Rahman (PR) method for molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Assuming an interaction between vortices derived from a Ginzburg-Landau field-theoretic context, we extract the ground-state of a 'vortex gas' using the PR-MD technique and find it to be a triangular pattern. Other patterns are also obtained for special initial conditions. Generalizations of the technique, such as the inclusion of external potentials or excitation of quadrupolar modes, are also commented upon
The Acoustically Driven Vortex Cannon
Perry, Spencer B.; Gee, Kent L.
2014-01-01
Vortex cannons have been used by physics teachers for years, mostly to teach the continuity principle. In its simplest form, a vortex cannon is an empty coffee can with a hole cut in the bottom and the lid replaced. More elaborate models can be purchased through various scientific suppliers under names such as "Air Cannon" and…
Vortex lattices in layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.
1995-01-01
We study vortex lattices in a superconductor--normal-metal superlattice in a parallel magnetic field. Distorted lattices, resulting from the shear deformations along the layers, are found to be unstable. Under field variation, nonequilibrium configurations undergo an infinite sequence of continuous transitions, typical for soft lattices. The equilibrium vortex arrangement is always a lattice of isocell triangles, without shear
Magnetic vortex filament flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barros, Manuel; Cabrerizo, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel; Romero, Alfonso
2007-01-01
We exhibit a variational approach to study the magnetic flow associated with a Killing magnetic field in dimension 3. In this context, the solutions of the Lorentz force equation are viewed as Kirchhoff elastic rods and conversely. This provides an amazing connection between two apparently unrelated physical models and, in particular, it ties the classical elastic theory with the Hall effect. Then, these magnetic flows can be regarded as vortex filament flows within the localized induction approximation. The Hasimoto transformation can be used to see the magnetic trajectories as solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation showing the solitonic nature of those
Decreasing vortex flux in channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Migaj, V.K.; Nosova, I.S.
1979-01-01
A new method for reducing vortex flow losses in power plant channels is suggested. The method is based on vortex splitting in vortex flow areas with transverse barriers placed on the channel walls. The upper barrier ends are at the level of the upper boundary of the vortex area and don't protrude to the active flow beyond this boundary. The effectiveness of the method suggested is illustrated taking as an example the investigation of square and flat channels with abrupt widening in one plane, diffusers with widening in one plane, or a rectangualr bend. It is shown that splitting the vortex areas with transverse barriers in the channels results in reduction of hydraulic losses by 10-25%. The above method is characteristic of an extreme simplicity, its application doesn't require changes in the channel shape nor installation of any devices in the flow
Vasilev, V. Ya; Nikiforova, S. A.
2018-03-01
Experimental studies of thermo-aerodynamic characteristics of non-circular ducts with discrete turbulators on walls and interrupted channels have confirmed the rational enhancement of convective heat transfer, in which the growth of heat transfer outstrips or equals the growth of aerodynamic losses. Determining the regularities of rational (energy-saving) enhancement of heat transfer and the proposed method for comparing the characteristics of smooth-channel (without enhancement) heat exchangers with effective analogs provide new results, confirming the high efficiency of vortex enhancement of convective heat transfer in non-circular ducts of plate-finned heat exchange surfaces. This allows creating heat exchangers with much smaller mass and volume for operation in energy-saving modes.
Near-ground tornado-like vortex structure resolved by particle image velocimetry (PIV)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei [Iowa State University, Aerospace Engineering Department, Ames, IA (United States); University of Minnesota, Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sarkar, Partha P. [Iowa State University, Aerospace Engineering Department, Ames, IA (United States)
2012-02-15
The near-ground flow structure of tornadoes is of utmost interest because it determines how and to what extent civil structures could get damaged in tornado events. We simulated tornado-like vortex flow at the swirl ratios of S = 0.03-0.3 (vane angle {theta}{sub v} = 15 -60 ), using a laboratory tornado simulator and investigated the near-ground-vortex structure by particle imaging velocimetry. Complicated near-ground flow was measured in two orthogonal views: horizontal planes at various elevations (z = 11, 26 and 53 mm above the ground) and the meridian plane. We observed two distinct vortex structures: a single-celled vortex at the lowest swirl ratio (S = 0.03, {theta}{sub v} = 15 ) and multiple suction vortices rotating around the primary vortex (two-celled vortex) at higher swirl ratios (S = 0.1-0.3, {theta}{sub v} = 30 -60 ). We quantified the effects of vortex wandering on the mean flow and found that vortex wandering was important and should be taken into account in the low swirl ratio case. The tangential velocity, as the dominant velocity component, has the peak value about three times that of the maximum radial velocity regardless of the swirl ratio. The maximum velocity variance is about twice at the high swirl ratio ({theta}{sub v} = 45 ) that at the low swirl ratio ({theta}{sub v} = 15 ), which is contributed significantly by the multiple small-scale secondary vortices. Here, the results show that not only the intensified mean flow but greatly enhanced turbulence occurs near the surface in the tornado-like vortex flow. The intensified mean flow and enhanced turbulence at the ground level, correlated with the ground-vortex interaction, may cause dramatic damage of the civil structures in tornadoes. This work provides detailed characterization of the tornado-like vortex structure, which has not been fully revealed in previous field studies and laboratory simulations. It would be helpful in improving the understanding of the interaction between the
CFD simulation of the combustion process of the low-emission vortex boiler
Chernov, A. A.; Maryandyshev, P. A.; Pankratov, E. V.; Lubov, V. K.
2017-11-01
Domestic heat and power engineering needs means and methods for optimizing the existing boiler plants in order to increase their technical, economic and environmental work. The development of modern computer technology, methods of numerical modeling and specialized software greatly facilitates the solution of many emerging problems. CFD simulation allows to obtaine precise results of thermochemical and aerodynamic processes taking place in the furnace of boilers in order to optimize their operation modes and develop directions for their modernization. The paper presents the results of simulation of the combustion process of a low-emission vortex coal boiler of the model E-220/100 using the software package Ansys Fluent. A hexahedral grid with a number of 2 million cells was constructed for the chosen boiler model. A stationary problem with a two-phase flow was solved. The gaseous components are air, combustion products and volatile substances. The solid phase is coal particles at different burnup stages. The Euler-Lagrange approach was taken as a basis. Calculation of the coal particles trajectories was carried out using the Discrete Phase Model which distribution of the size particle of coal dust was accounted for using the Rosin-Rammler equation. Partially Premixed combustion model was used as the combustion model which take into account elemental composition of the fuel and heat analysis. To take turbulence into account, a two-parameter k-ε model with a standard wall function was chosen. Heat transfer by radiation was calculated using the P1-approximation of the method of spherical harmonics. The system of spatial equations was numerically solved by the control volume method using the SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar and Spaulding. Comparison of data obtained during the industrial-operational tests of low-emission vortex boilers with the results of mathematical modeling showed acceptable convergence of the tasks of this level, which confirms the adequacy of the
Hanratty, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)
Investigation of reattachment length for a turbulent flow over a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
(2D), segregated, renormalized group (RNG) k−ε turbulence model has been chosen ... noise, as it also exhibits an unsteady structure with a large scale vortex in the .... possible because at low Re and high ER, the flow gets enough space and ...
Lift enhancement by trapped vortex
Rossow, Vernon J.
1992-01-01
The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit
2005-01-01
Understanding turbulence is vital in astrophysics, geophysics and many engineering applications, with thermal convection playing a central role. I shall describe progress that has recently been made in understanding this ubiquitous phenomenon by making controlled experiments using low-temperature helium, and a brief account of the frontier topic of superfluid turbulence will also be given. CERN might be able to play a unique role in experiments to probe these two problems.
Vortex coupling in trailing vortex-wing interactions
Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.
2018-03-01
The interaction of trailing vortices of an upstream wing with rigid and flexible downstream wings has been investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel, using particle image velocimetry, hot-wire, force, and deformation measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices exhibit increased meandering when they are close to the tip of the downstream wing. The upstream vortex forms a pair with the vortex shed from the downstream wing and then exhibits large displacements around the wing tip. This coupled motion of the pair has been found to cause large lift fluctuations on the downstream wing. The meandering of the vortex pair occurs at the natural meandering frequency of the isolated vortex, with a low Strouhal number, and is not affected by the frequency of the large-amplitude wing oscillations if the downstream wing is flexible. The displacement of the leading vortex is larger than that of the trailing vortex; however, it causes highly correlated variations of the core radius, core vorticity, and circulation of the trailing vortex with the coupled meandering motion. In contrast, co-rotating vortices do not exhibit any increased meandering.
Thermal and quantum depinning of a fractional Josephson vortex
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldobin, Edward; Gaber, Tobias; Buckenmaier, Kai; Kienzle, Uta; Sickinger, Hanna; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalische Institut, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Meckbach, Max; Kaiser, Christoph; Il' in, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, University of Karlsruhe, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2011-07-01
We investigate the bias current induced depinning of a fractional Josephson vortex in a 0-{kappa} Josephson junction, where the {kappa}-discontinuity of the phase is induced by current injectors. At high temperatures T>or similar 100 mK the depinning is governed by thermal fluctuations. By measuring a depinning current histogram and extracting the effective barrier height vs. {kappa}, one can see the signatures of fractional vortex escape. At low T
Weak and strong turbulence in the CGL equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbon, J.D.; Bartuccelli, M.V.; Doering, C.R.
1993-01-01
To many fluid dynamicists, the only real turbulence is the fine scale 3-dimensional turbulence which occurs at high Reynolds numbers, with an energy cascade and an inertial subrange. The number of degrees of freedom in 3d strong turbulence is clearly many orders of magnitude greater than in such phenomena as convection in a box where perhaps only a few spatial modes govern the dynamics. Only in 2d are the incompressible Navier Stokes equations understood analytically in the sense that there is a rigorous proof of the existence of a finite dimensional global attractor. Computational methods are generally good enough to resolve the smallest scale in a 2d flow and, for 2d homogeneous decaying turbulence, the vorticity obeys a maximum principle. No such maximum principle is known to exist in 3d and regularity remains to be proved. Numerical resolution of the smallest scale in a fully turbulent 3d flow is still a long way off. In order to attempt to get a better grip on the tantalizing phenomena displayed by the Navier Stokes equations, it is a useful exercise to see whether it is possible to mimic some limited features of the 3d Navier Stokes equations with a different PDE system which displays similar functional properties but in a lower spatial dimension. This exercise, however, must obviously be limited by the fact that simpler models in lower dimensions cannot display the vortex stretching properties displayed by the 3d Navier Stokes equations, although the lowering of the spatial dimension does make it easier to compute the dynamics. One equation which will be shown to have some of the desired properites is a version of the d dimensional complex Ginzburg Landau (CDL) equation on the periodic domain [0,1]. It is not our intention here to treat it in its physical context. Our intention in using it is to try and mimic limited features of the Navier Stokes equations with an equation over which we have more analytical control
Translational velocity oscillations of piston generated vortex rings
Kumar, Manoj; Arakeri, J. H.; Shankar, P. N.
1995-11-01
Experimental results are presented that show that the translational velocities of piston generated vortex rings often undergo oscillations, similar to those recently discovered for drop generated rings. An attempt has been made to minimize uncertainties by utilizing both dye and hydrogen bubbles for visualization and carefully repeating measurements on the same ring and on different realizations under the same nominal piston conditions. The results unambiguously show that under most conditions, both for laminar and turbulent rings and for rings generated from pipes and orifices, the oscillations are present. The present results, together with the earlier results on drop generated rings, give support to the view that translational velocity oscillations are probably an inherent feature of translating vortex ring fields.
Resistive drift wave turbulence and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatani, M.
1986-01-01
Our efforts for studying the properties of resistive drift wave turbulence by using model mode-coupling equations are shown. It may be related to the edge turbulence and the associated anomalous transport in tokamaks or in stellarator/heliotron. (author)
A Coaxial Vortex Ring Model for Vortex Breakdown
Blackmore, Denis; Brons, Morten; Goullet, Arnaud
2008-01-01
A simple - yet plausible - model for B-type vortex breakdown flows is postulated; one that is based on the immersion of a pair of slender coaxial vortex rings in a swirling flow of an ideal fluid rotating around the axis of symmetry of the rings. It is shown that this model exhibits in the advection of passive fluid particles (kinematics) just about all of the characteristics that have been observed in what is now a substantial body of published research on the phenomenon of vortex breakdown....
Vortex-vortex interactions in toroidally trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Schulte, T.; Santos, L.; Sanpera, A.; Lewenstein, M.
2002-01-01
We analyze the vortex dynamics and vortex-vortex interactions in Bose-Einstein condensates confined in toroidal traps. We show that this particular geometry strongly distorts the vortex dynamics. The numerically calculated vortex trajectories are well explained by an analytical calculation based on image method and conformal mapping. Finally, the dissipation effects are discussed.
Cylindrical vortex wake model: right cylinder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branlard, Emmanuel; Gaunaa, Mac
2015-01-01
The vortex system consisting of a bound vortex disk, a root vortex and a vortex cylinder as introduced by Joukowski in 1912 is further studied in this paper. This system can be used for simple modeling of rotors (e.g. wind turbines) with infinite number of blades and finite tip-speed ratios....... For each vortex element, the velocity components in all directions and in the entire domain are computed analytically in a novel approach. In particular, the velocity field from the vortex actuator disk is derived for the first time. The induction from the entire vortex system is studied and is seen...
Theory of incremental turbulent transport in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Similon, P.L.
1991-01-01
The goal of this research is to understand how the various aspect of turbulent transport operate in tokamaks, in the presence of low frequency fluctuations such as drift waves or trapped electron modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1989-01-01
Papers on turbulent shear flows are presented, covering topics such as the structure of pressure fluctuations, fossil two-dimensional turbulence in the ocean, turbulence production and eddy structure in wall turbulence, bypass transition in a heated boundary layer, a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow, the evolution of an axisymmetric jet, plane mixing layer development, vortex models of a pseudoturbulent shear flow, numerical techniques for turbulence studies, Reynolds stress in the wall region of turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent structure of a momentumless wake, the near field of the transverse jet. Additional topics include a turbulent boundary layer disturbed by a cylinder, evolving mixing layers, flow analysis in a vortex flowmeter, ejections and bursts in pulsatile turbulent wall flow measurements, a flat plate oscillating in pitch, turbulent buoyant flows, isothermal lobed mixer flows, flow distortion on a turbulent scalar field, two phase flows. In addition, papers on the applications of turbulent shear flow studies are given, including air pollutant deposition, closures, oceanography, instrumentation, heat transfer, rotating flows, combustion, coherent structures, turbulence control, and scalar transport modeling
Recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terry, P.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1997-09-22
This report contains viewgraphs of recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport. Localized nonlinear structures occur under a variety of circumstances in turbulent, magnetically confined plasmas, arising in both kinetic and fluid descriptions, i.e., in either wave-particle or three-wave coupling interactions. These structures are non wavelike. They cannot be incorporated in the collective wave response, but interact with collective modes through their shielding by the plasma dielectric. These structures are predicted to modify turbulence-driven transport in a way that in consistent with, or in some cases are confirmed by recent experimental observations. In kinetic theory, non wavelike structures are localized perturbations of phase space density. There are two types of structures. Holes are self-trapped, while clumps have a self-potential that is too weak to resist deformation and mixing by ambient potential fluctuations. Clumps remain correlated in turbulence if their spatial extent is smaller than the correlation length of the scattering fields. In magnetic turbulence, clumps travel along stochastic magnetic fields, shielded by the plasma dielectric. A drag on the clump macro-particle is exerted by the shielding, inducing emission into the collective response. The emission in turn damps back on the particle distribution via Landau dampling. The exchange of energy between clumps and particles, as mediated by the collective mode, imposes constraints on transport. For a turbulent spectrum whose mean wavenumber along the equilibrium magnetic field is nonzero, the electron thermal flux is proportional to the ion thermal velocity. Conventional predictions (which account only for collective modes) are larger by the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Recent measurements are consistent with the small flux. In fluid plasma,s localized coherent structures can occur as intense vortices.
Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho
2009-01-01
This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)
Chashechkin, Yu. D.; Bardakov, R. N.
2018-02-01
By the methods of schlieren visualization, the evolution of elements of the fine structure of transverse vortex loops formed in the circular vortex behind the edge of a disk rotating in a continuously stratified fluid is traced for the first time. An inhomogeneous distribution of the density of a table-salt solution in a basin was formed by the continuous-squeezing method. The development of periodic perturbations at the outer boundary of the circular vortex and their transformation at the vortex-loop vertex are traced. A slow change in the angular size of the structural elements in the supercritical-flow mode is noted.
Vortex ring state by full-field actuator disc model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soerensen, J.N.; Shen, W.Z.; Munduate, X. [DTU, Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark)
1997-08-01
One-dimensional momentum theory provides a simple analytical tool for analysing the gross flow behavior of lifting propellers and rotors. Combined with a blade-element strip-theory approach, it has for many years been the most popular model for load and performance predictions of wind turbines. The model works well at moderate and high wind velocities, but is not reliable at small wind velocities, where the expansion of the wake is large and the flow field behind the rotor dominated by turbulent mixing. This is normally referred to as the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state. In the vortex ring state, momentum theory predicts a decrease of thrust whereas the opposite is found from experiments. The reason for the disagreement is that recirculation takes place behind the rotor with the consequence that the stream tubes past the rotor becomes effectively chocked. This represents a condition at which streamlines no longer carry fluid elements from far upstream to far downstream, hence one-dimensional momentum theory is invalid and empirical corrections have to be introduced. More sophisticated analytical or semi-analytical rotor models have been used to describe stationary flow fields for heavily loaded propellers. In recent years generalized actuator disc models have been developed, but up to now no detailed computations of the turbulent wake state or the vortex ring state have been performed. In the present work the phenomenon is simulated by direct simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, where the influence of the rotor on the flow field is modelled simply by replacing the blades by an actuator disc with a constant normal load. (EG) 13 refs.
Phenomenological Model of Vortex Generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Westergaard, C.
1995-01-01
For some time attempts have been made to improve the power curve of stall regulated wind turbines by using devices like vortex generators VG and Gurney flaps. The vortex produces an additional mixing of the boundary layer and the free stream and thereby increasing the momentum close to the wall......, which again delays separation in adverse pressure gradient regions. A model is needed to include the effect of vortex generators in numerical computations of the viscous flow past rotors. In this paper a simple model is proposed....
Review of Vortex Methods for Simulation of Vortex Breakdown
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Levinski, Oleg
2001-01-01
The aim of this work is to identify current developments in the field of vortex breakdown modelling in order to initiate the development of a numerical model for the simulation of F/A-18 empennage buffet...
Melting of heterogeneous vortex matter: The vortex 'nanoliquid'
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E ZELDOV2, A SOIBEL3, F de la CRUZ4,CJ van der BEEK5,. M KONCZYKOWSKI5, T ... 2Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot. 76100, Israel ..... heterogeneous nature of the vortex nanoliquid.
Dynamic signatures of driven vortex motion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.; Lopez, D.; Olsson, R. J.; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Safar, H.
1999-09-16
We probe the dynamic nature of driven vortex motion in superconductors with a new type of transport experiment. An inhomogeneous Lorentz driving force is applied to the sample, inducing vortex velocity gradients that distinguish the hydrodynamic motion of the vortex liquid from the elastic and-plastic motion of the vortex solid. We observe elastic depinning of the vortex lattice at the critical current, and shear induced plastic slip of the lattice at high Lorentz force gradients.
New Theories on Boundary Layer Transition and Turbulence Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaoqun Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is a short review of our recent DNS work on physics of late boundary layer transition and turbulence. Based on our DNS observation, we propose a new theory on boundary layer transition, which has five steps, that is, receptivity, linear instability, large vortex structure formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. For turbulence generation and sustenance, the classical theory, described with Richardson's energy cascade and Kolmogorov length scale, is not observed by our DNS. We proposed a new theory on turbulence generation that all small length scales are generated by “shear layer instability” through multiple level ejections and sweeps and consequent multiple level positive and negative spikes, but not by “vortex breakdown.” We believe “shear layer instability” is the “mother of turbulence.” The energy transferring from large vortices to small vortices is carried out by multiple level sweeps, but does not follow Kolmogorov's theory that large vortices pass energy to small ones through vortex stretch and breakdown. The loss of symmetry starts from the second level ring cycle in the middle of the flow field and spreads to the bottom of the boundary layer and then the whole flow field.
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) vortices in helical turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, H.
1996-01-01
The study of large-scale coherent hydrodynamic (HD) vortex generation has been extended to electrified charged dusty vortices to be termed as electrohydrodynamic (EHD) vortices, incorporating helical turbulence in electric and magnetic fields into that in fluid velocity, which are all created by an external DC electric field on the background. A new equation of EHD vortices is introduced on the basis of a set of EHD or electromagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) equations, including equations of state and a full set of Maxwell's equations by using functional techniques for estimating equations for an ensemble average, turbulent background, and additional random field. In fact, EHD vortices for a charged dusty fluid can be more explosive with larger instabilities than HD vortices. In addition, it is inferred that an external DC electric field could provide the origin of additional self-organization to a coalescence of fluid vortex and electric field lines as a manifestation of a new frozen-in field concept for electric fields when the electric Reynolds number is sufficiently high. This is discussed on the basis of a set of general transport equations for fluid vorticity, magnetic and electric fields that are rederived concisely. In particular, a novel concept of electric field line merging-reconnection is developed in close relation to fluid vortex line merging, indicating a coalescence of fluid vortex breakdown or merging point and electric field line reconnection point, X-type or O-type with possible application to tornadic thunderstorms. In fact, a thundercloud charge distribution so as to provide a coalescence of fluid vortex and electric field lines is quite possible without theoretical inconsistency, and is thought most likely to occur from observations available so far. (orig.)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
Theoretical and numerical works in atmospheric turbulence have used the Navier-Stokes fluid equations exclusively for describing large-scale motions. Controversy over the existence of an average temperature gradient for the very large eddies in the atmosphere suggested that a new theoretical basis for describing large-scale turbulence was necessary. A new soliton formalism as a fluid analogue that generalizes the Schrodinger equation and the Zakharov equations has been developed. This formalism, processing all the nonlinearities including those from modulation provided by the density fluctuations and from convection due to the emission of finite sound waves by velocity fluctuations, treats large-scale turbulence as coalescing and colliding solitons. The new soliton system describes large-scale instabilities more explicitly than the Navier-Stokes system because it has a nonlinearity of the gradient type, while the Navier-Stokes has a nonlinearity of the non-gradient type. The forced Schrodinger equation for strong fluctuations describes the micro-hydrodynamical state of soliton turbulence and is valid for large-scale turbulence in fluids and plasmas where internal waves can interact with velocity fluctuations.
Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galvis, J.A. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de ingeniería y Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Central, Bogotá (Colombia); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Suderow, H., E-mail: hermann.suderow@uam.es [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.
Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvis, J.A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chesi, Stefano; Jaffe, Arthur; Loss, Daniel; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.
2013-01-01
We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry
Bogdanoff, David W.; Berschauer, Andrew; Parker, Timothy W.; Vickers, Jesse E.
1989-01-01
A vortex gas lens concept is presented. Such a lens has a potential power density capability of 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 10th w/sq cm. An experimental prototype was constructed, and the divergence half angle of the exiting beam was measured as a function of the lens operating parameters. Reasonably good agreement is found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations. The expanded beam was observed to be steady, and no strong, potentially beam-degrading jets were found to issue from the ends of the lens. Estimates of random beam deflection angles to be expected due to boundary layer noise are presented; these angles are very small.
2003-01-01
Understanding the nature of vortices in high-Tc superconductors is a crucial subject for research on superconductive electronics, especially for superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs), it is also a fundamental problem in condensed-matter physics. Recent technological progress in methods for both direct and indirect observation of vortices, e.g. scanning SQUID, terahertz imaging, and microwave excitation, has led to new insights into vortex physics, the dynamic behavior of vortices in junctions and related questions of noise. This book presents the current status of research activity and provides new information on the applications of SQUIDs, including magnetocardiography, immunoassays, and laser-SQUID microscopes, all of which are close to being commercially available.
Discrete vortex method simulations of aerodynamic admittance in bridge aerodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Larsen, Allan
, and to determine aerodynamic forces and the corresponding ﬂutter limit. A simulation of the three-dimensional bridge responseto turbulent wind is carried out by quasi steady theory by modelling the bridge girder as a line like structure [2], applying the aerodynamic load coefﬁcients found from the current version......The meshless and remeshed Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) has been widely used in academia and by the industry to model two-dimensional ﬂow around bluff bodies. The implementation “DVMFLOW” [1] is used by the bridge design company COWI to determine and visualise the ﬂow ﬁeld around bridge sections...
Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Yokoi, N.
2017-12-01
Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow
Transport barrier fluctuations governed by SOL turbulence spreading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.; Ciraolo, G.; Darmet, G.; Garbet, X.; Grangirard, V.; Tamain, P.; Benkadda, S.; Beyer, P.
2007-01-01
Turbulence spreading, namely turbulent transport extending into a stable region is reported both for the flat density profiles in the far SOL and into a modeled H-mode barrier. It is shown that due to turbulence penetration, the pedestal width fluctuates and that its effective width is a factor 2 smaller than the linear predicted width. Turbulence overshooting throughout the pedestal leads to a non-vanishing turbulent transport within the barrier and provides a coupling of core and SOL turbulence despite the transport barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drury, L.O.; Stewart, J.M.
1976-01-01
A generalization of a transformation due to Kurskov and Ozernoi is used to rewrite the usual equations governing subsonic turbulence in Robertson-Walker cosmological models as Navier-Stokes equations with a time-dependent viscosity. This paper first rederives some well-known results in a very simple way by means of this transformation. The main result however is that the establishment of a Kolmogorov spectrum at recombination appears to be incompatible with subsonic turbulence. The conditions after recombination are also discussed briefly. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krasinsky Denis
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The results of numerical modelling of 3D turbulent two-phase reacting flow with account for all the principal heat and mass transfer processes during the pulverized brown coal combustion in the vortex furnace of a power plant boiler unit have been presented. For two computational cases where air excess coefficient α was varied (set to 1.15 and 1.25, the detailed aerothermochemical 3D structure of reacting flow in the furnace volume has been revealed. The comparison of integral heat engineering parameters and NOx emissions obtained in the two cases has shown a slightly improved vortex furnace performance in the case α=1.25.
Effects of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsov, E.A.; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry
2007-01-01
The appearance of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence and their influence on the turbulent spectra are considered. We have developed the analog of the vortex line representation as a transformation to the curvilinear system of coordinates moving together with the ......The appearance of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence and their influence on the turbulent spectra are considered. We have developed the analog of the vortex line representation as a transformation to the curvilinear system of coordinates moving together...... with the divorticity lines. Compressibility of this mapping can be considered as the main reason for the formation of the sharp vorticity gradients at high Reynolds numbers. For two-dimensional turbulence in the case of strong anisotropy the sharp vorticity gradients can generate spectra which fall off as k−3 at large...
Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Combustion Using Vortex Methods
1988-09-27
laminar burning velocity times the flame length measured along the line of maximum reaction rate. Following the burning of the eddy core, the strain...is approximately the same as the flame length at t - 0. In the second stage, and as the eddy starts to roll up, the flame front forms a fold within the...Rp, which is the slope of the curve in Fig. 9, can be approximated by the product of the flame length times the average burning velocity along the
Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumert, H Z
2013-01-01
This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes (vortex filaments, excitations) as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations and with Landau's two-fluid theory of liquid helium. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the turbulent kinetic energy to follow t −1 . With an adiabatic wall condition it predicts the logarithmic law with von Kármán's constant as 1/√(2 π)= 0.399. Likewise rotating couples form localized dissipative patches almost at rest (→ intermittency) wherein under local quasi-steady conditions the spectrum evolves into an ‘Apollonian gear’ as discussed first by Herrmann (1990 Correlation and Connectivity (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 108–20). Dissipation happens exclusively at scale zero and at finite scales this system is frictionless and reminds of Prigogine's (1947 Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles (Liege: Desoer) p 143) law of minimum (here: zero) entropy production. The theory predicts further the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum (a Kolmogorov constant) as 1/3 (4 π) 2/3 =1.802, well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and direct numerical simulation results. (paper)
Universal equations and constants of turbulent motion
Baumert, H. Z.
2013-07-01
This paper presents a parameter-free theory of shear-generated turbulence at asymptotically high Reynolds numbers in incompressible fluids. It is based on a two-fluids concept. Both components are materially identical and inviscid. The first component is an ensemble of quasi-rigid dipole-vortex tubes (vortex filaments, excitations) as quasi-particles in chaotic motion. The second is a superfluid performing evasive motions between the tubes. The local dipole motions follow Helmholtz' law. The vortex radii scale with the energy-containing length scale. Collisions between quasi-particles lead either to annihilation (likewise rotation, turbulent dissipation) or to scattering (counterrotation, turbulent diffusion). There are analogies with birth and death processes of population dynamics and their master equations and with Landau's two-fluid theory of liquid helium. For free homogeneous decay the theory predicts the turbulent kinetic energy to follow t-1. With an adiabatic wall condition it predicts the logarithmic law with von Kármán's constant as 1/\\sqrt {2\\,\\pi }= 0.399 . Likewise rotating couples form localized dissipative patches almost at rest (→ intermittency) wherein under local quasi-steady conditions the spectrum evolves into an ‘Apollonian gear’ as discussed first by Herrmann (1990 Correlation and Connectivity (Dordrecht: Kluwer) pp 108-20). Dissipation happens exclusively at scale zero and at finite scales this system is frictionless and reminds of Prigogine's (1947 Etude Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles (Liege: Desoer) p 143) law of minimum (here: zero) entropy production. The theory predicts further the prefactor of the 3D-wavenumber spectrum (a Kolmogorov constant) as \\frac {1}{3}(4\\,\\pi )^{2/3}=1.802 , well within the scatter range of observational, experimental and direct numerical simulation results.
Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eitel-Amor, G; Schlatter, P; Flores, O
2014-01-01
The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Re τ = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Re τ < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.
Dynamic structure in self-sustained turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.
1995-06-01
Dynamical equation for the self-sustained and pressure-driven turbulence in toroidal plasmas is derived. The growth rate of the dressed-test mode, which belongs to the subcritical turbulence, is obtained as a function of the turbulent transport coefficient. In the limit of the low fluctuation level, the mode has the feature of the nonlinear instability and shows the explosive growth. The growth rate vanishes when the driven transport reaches to the stationarily-turbulent level. The stationary solution is thermodynamically stable. The characteristic time, by which the stationary and self-sustained turbulence is established, scales with the ion-sound transit time and is accelerated by the bad magnetic curvature. Influences of the pressure gradient as well as the radial electric field inhomogeneity are quantified. (author)
Studi Eksperimen dan Numerik Pengaruh Penambahan Vortex Generator pada Airfoil NASA LS-0417
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ulul Azmi
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Separasi boundary layer merupakan fenomena penting yang mempengaruhi performansi airfoil. Salah satu upaya untuk menunda atau menghilangkan separasi aliran adalah meningkatkan momentum fluida untuk melawan adverse pressure dan tegangan geser permukaan. Hal ini mengakibatkan separasi aliran akan tertunda lebih ke belakang. Upaya tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan penambahan turbulent generator pada upper surface airfoil. Vortex generator (VG merupakan salah satu jenis turbulent generator yang dapat mempercepat transisi dari laminar boundary layer menjadi turbulent boundary layer. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jarak penempatan dan ketinggian VG terhadap perkembangan turbulent boundary layer sehingga dapat meningkatkan performansi airfoil. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan eksperimen dan numerik pada Re = 1.41x105 dengan angle of attack 16°. Benda uji yang digunakan adalah airfoil NASA LS-0417 dengan dan tanpa VG. Variasi jarak penempatan dan ketinggian VG yaitu x/c = 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4 (h = 1 mm; 3 mm; 5 mm. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah variasi vortex generator paling optimal adalah vortex generator dengan x/c = 0.3 dan h = 1 mm dimana Nilai CL/CD mengalami kenaikan sebesar 14.337%.
Jarvis, S.; Hargrave, G. K.
2006-01-01
Experimental data obtained using a new multiple-camera digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique are presented for the interaction between a propagating flame and the turbulent recirculating velocity field generated during flame-solid obstacle interaction. The interaction between the gas movement and the obstacle creates turbulence by vortex shedding and local wake recirculations. The presence of turbulence in a flammable gas mixture can wrinkle a flame front, increasing the flame surface area and enhancing the burning rate. To investigate propagating flame/turbulence interaction, a novel multiple-camera digital PIV technique was used to provide high spatial and temporal characterization of the phenomenon for the turbulent flow field in the wake of three sequential obstacles. The technique allowed the quantification of the local flame speed and local flow velocity. Due to the accelerating nature of the explosion flow field, the wake flows develop 'transient' turbulent fields. Multiple-camera PIV provides data to define the spatial and temporal variation of both the velocity field ahead of the propagating flame and the flame front to aid the understanding of flame-vortex interaction. Experimentally obtained values for flame displacement speed and flame stretch are presented for increasing vortex complexity.
Imaging of artificially induced vortex structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fasano, Yanina; Menghini, M.; Cruz, F. de la
2004-01-01
The combination of engineered pinning potentials in superconducting crystals, the detection of the liquid-solid vortex transition and the observation of the vortex structure with single vortex sensitivity allow the microscopic analysis of the response of 3D elastic systems to the presence of these potentials. In this work we review recent results obtained by a combination of those techniques studying different vortex structure induced transformations. On the one hand, we have visualized the transformation, along the vortex direction, of a bulk vortex single crystal with hexagonal symmetry into another crystal with square symmetry induced by an engineered Fe-dot lattice deposited on a surface of the vortex single crystal. On the other hand, we found an infrequent first-order phase transition where a vortex liquid under the presence of a random correlated potential (columnar defects) transforms into a vortex solid with no change of topological order
Optical vortex scanning inside the Gaussian beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masajada, J; Leniec, M; Augustyniak, I
2011-01-01
We discussed a new scanning method for optical vortex-based scanning microscopy. The optical vortex is introduced into the incident Gaussian beam by a vortex lens. Then the beam with the optical vortex is focused by an objective and illuminates the sample. By changing the position of the vortex lens we can shift the optical vortex position at the sample plane. By adjusting system parameters we can get 30 times smaller shift at the sample plane compared to the vortex lens shift. Moreover, if the range of vortex shifts is smaller than 3% of the beam radius in the sample plane the amplitude and phase distribution around the phase dislocation remains practically unchanged. Thus we can scan the sample topography precisely with an optical vortex
Plasmonic vortex generator without polarization dependence
Wang, Han; Liu, Lixia; Liu, Chunxiang; Li, Xing; Wang, Shuyun; Xu, Qing; Teng, Shuyun
2018-03-01
In view of the limitations of vortex generators with polarization dependence at present, we propose a plasmonic vortex generator composed of rectangular holes etched in silver film, in which the optical vortex can be generated under arbitrary linearly polarized light illumination. Two sets of rectangular holes are arranged equidistantly on a circle and rotate in postulate directions. Theoretical analysis provides the design principle for the vortex generator, and numerical simulations give guidance on designating the vortex generator parameters. Experimental measurements verify the performance of the proposed vortex generator. Moreover, two alternative structures for the generation of a plasmonic vortex are also provided in this paper. The resulting perfect vortex, compact structure and flexible illumination conditions will lead to wide applications of this plasmonic vortex generator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imaizumi, Ryota; Morikawa, Koichi; Higuchi, Masamori; Saito, Takayuki
2009-01-01
In this study, the interaction between a bubble swarm and homogeneous isotropic turbulence was experimentally investigated. The objective is to clarify the turbulence modulation induced by interaction between the bubble swarm and the homogeneous isotropic turbulence without mean flow. In order to generate simultaneously ideally homogeneous isotropic turbulence and a sufficiently controlled bubble swarm, we employed both oscillating grid and bubble generators equipped with audio speakers. First, the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was formed by operating the oscillating grid cylindrical acrylic pipe (height: 600 mm, inner diameter: 149 mm) filled with ion-exchanged and degassed water. Second, we stopped the oscillating-grid in arbitrary time after the homogeneous isotropic turbulence was achieved. A few moments later, the controlled bubble swarm (number of bubbles: 3, average equivalent diameter of bubble: 3 mm, bubble Reynolds number: 859, Weber number: 3.48) was launched into the decaying turbulence described above, using the bubble generators. The bubble formation, bubble size and bubble-launch timing are controlled arbitrarily and precisely by this device. In this study, we conducted the following experiments: 1) measurement of the motion of bubbles in rest water and oscillating grid turbulence via high-speed visualization, 2) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in rest water via PIV system with LIF method, 3) measurement of the liquid phase motion around the bubbles in oscillating-grid turbulence via PIV system with LIF method. In the vitalization of the liquid-phase motion of both experiments, two high speed video cameras were employed in order to simultaneously film large- and small-scale interrogation areas. The liquid-phase ambient turbulence hastened the change of the bubble motion from zigzag mode to spiral mode. The interaction between the bubble swarm and liquid-phase turbulence increased decay-rate of the turbulence. (author)
Route to non-Abelian quantum turbulence in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Mawson, Thomas; Ruben, Gary; Simula, Tapio
2015-06-01
We have studied computationally the collision dynamics of spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates initially confined in a triple-well trap. Depending on the phase structure of the initial-state spinor wave function, the collision of the three condensate fragments produces one of many possible vortex-antivortex lattices, after which the system transitions to quantum turbulence. We find that the emerging vortex lattice structures can be described in terms of multiwave interference. We show that the three-fragment collisions can be used to systematically produce staggered vortex-antivortex honeycomb lattices of fractional-charge vortices, whose collision dynamics are known to be non-Abelian. Such condensate collider experiments could potentially be used as a controllable pathway to generating non-Abelian superfluid turbulence with networks of vortex rungs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens
2011-01-01
term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence...
Tracking coherent structures in massively-separated and turbulent flows
Rockwood, Matthew; Huang, Yangzi; Green, Melissa
2018-01-01
Coherent vortex structures are tracked in simulations of massively-separated and turbulent flows. Topological Lagrangian saddle points are found using intersections of the positive and negative finite-time Lyapunov exponent ridges, and these points are then followed in order to track individual coherent structure motion both in a complex interacting three-dimensional flow (turbulent channel) and during vortex formation (two-dimensional bluff body shedding). For a simulation of wall-bounded turbulence in a channel flow, tracking Lagrangian saddles shows that the average structure convection speed exhibits a similar trend as a previously published result based on velocity and pressure correlations, giving validity to the method. When this tracking method is applied in a study of a circular cylinder in cross-flow it shows that Lagrangian saddles rapidly accelerate away from the cylinder surface as the vortex sheds. This saddle behavior is compared with the time-resolved static pressure distribution on the circular cylinder, yielding locations on a cylinder surface where common sensors could detect this phenomenon, which is not available from force measurements or vortex circulation calculations. The current method of tracking coherent structures yields insight into the behavior of the coherent structures in both of the diverse flows presented, highlighting the breadth of its potential application.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sicot, Christophe; Aubrun, Sandrine; Loyer, Stephane; Devinant, Philippe [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, Orleans (France)
2006-10-15
Fluctuation of the separation point on an airfoil under high turbulence level is investigated using pressure measurements and flow visualisations. The characteristics of the unsteady loads induced by Karman vortex shedding are studied. This is related with a local approach based on the study of the oscillation zone. A method based on the pressure standard deviation is proposed to obtain the length of this zone, which is found to be independent of the turbulence level. This result is in agreement with that obtained by spectral analysis which shows no effect of the turbulence level on the Karman vortex shedding frequency. (orig.)
Regimes of flow past a vortex generator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.
2012-01-01
A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...... particle image velocimetry (SPIV). Based on the obtained SPIV data, a map of the regimes of flow past the vortex generator has been constructed. One region with a developed stable multivortex system on this map reaches the vicinity of the optimum angle of attack of the vortex generator....
Passive propulsion in vortex wakes
Beal, D. N.; Hover, F. S.; Triantafyllou, M. S.; Liao, J. C.; Lauder, G. V.
A dead fish is propelled upstream when its flexible body resonates with oncoming vortices formed in the wake of a bluff cylinder, despite being well outside the suction region of the cylinder. Within this passive propulsion mode, the body of the fish extracts sufficient energy from the oncoming vortices to develop thrust to overcome its own drag. In a similar turbulent wake and at roughly the same distance behind a bluff cylinder, a passively mounted high-aspect-ratio foil is also shown to propel itself upstream employing a similar flow energy extraction mechanism. In this case, mechanical energy is extracted from the flow at the same time that thrust is produced. These results prove experimentally that, under proper conditions, a body can follow at a distance or even catch up to another upstream body without expending any energy of its own. This observation is also significant in the development of low-drag energy harvesting devices, and in the energetics of fish dwelling in flowing water and swimming behind wake-forming obstacles.
Interaction of a vortex ring and a bubble
Jha, Narsing K.; Govardhan, Raghuraman N.
2014-11-01
Micro-bubble injection in to boundary layers is one possible method for reducing frictional drag of ships. Although this has been studied for some time, the physical mechanisms responsible for drag reduction using microbubbles in turbulent boundary layers is not yet fully understood. Previous studies suggest that bubble-vortical structure interaction seems to be one of the important physical mechanisms for frictional drag reduction using microbubbles. In the present work, we study a simplification of this problem, namely, the interaction of a single vortical structure, in particular a vortex ring, with a single bubble for better understanding of the physics. The vortex ring is generated using a piston-cylinder arrangement and the bubble is generated by connecting a capillary to an air pump. The bubble dynamics is directly visualized using a high speed camera, while the vorticity modification is measured using time resolved PIV. The results show that significant deformations can occur of both the bubble and the vortex ring. Effect of different non-dimensional parameters on the interaction will be presented in the meeting.
Identification of vortexes obstructing the dynamo mechanism in laboratory experiments
Limone, A.; Hatch, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Jenko, F.
2013-06-01
The magnetohydrodynamic dynamo effect explains the generation of self-sustained magnetic fields in electrically conducting flows, especially in geo- and astrophysical environments. Yet the details of this mechanism are still unknown, e.g., how and to which extent the geometry, the fluid topology, the forcing mechanism, and the turbulence can have a negative effect on this process. We report on numerical simulations carried out in spherical geometry, analyzing the predicted velocity flow with the so-called singular value decomposition, a powerful technique that allows us to precisely identify vortexes in the flow which would be difficult to characterize with conventional spectral methods. We then quantify the contribution of these vortexes to the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the system. We identify an axisymmetric vortex, whose rotational direction changes periodically in time, and whose dynamics are decoupled from those of the large scale background flow, that is detrimental for the dynamo effect. A comparison with experiments is carried out, showing that similar dynamics were observed in cylindrical geometry. These previously unexpected eddies, which impede the dynamo effect, offer an explanation for the experimental difficulties in attaining a dynamo in spherical geometry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hara, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Shizawa, T.; Honami, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1999-12-25
This paper presents the behavior of a passively controlled horseshoe vortex at the root of NACA0024 wing which is established on a turbulent boundary layer, A pair of vortex generators of half delta wing is installed upstream of the wing. The flow field of the optimally controlled horseshoe vortex both in case of Common Flow Up (CFUC) and Common Flow Down Configuration (CFDC) is carefully investigated by an X-array hot-wire. In case of CFUC, the horseshoe vortex is not shifted from the wing, because the longitudinal vortex is restrained. The interacted vortex presents a circular profile, in a optimally controlled case. In case of CFDC, the interacted vortex that has strong vorticity by the pairing process is shifted away from the wing. Then, the high momentum fluid flow penetrates between the wing and the vortex. (author)
Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furuya, Atsushi; Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi
2000-01-01
Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)
Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component.
Eltsov, Vladimir; Hänninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti
2014-03-25
In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid (3)He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures.
Structure of a swirling jet with vortex breakdown and combustion
Sharaborin, D. K.; Dulin, V. M.; Markovich, D. M.
2018-03-01
An experimental investigation is performed in order to compare the time-averaged spatial structure of low- and high-swirl turbulent premixed lean flames by using the particle image velocimetry and spontaneous Raman scattering techniques. Distributions of the time-average velocity, density and concentration of the main components of the gas mixture are measured for turbulent premixed swirling propane/air flames at atmospheric pressure for the equivalence ratio Φ = 0.7 and Reynolds number Re = 5000 for low- and high-swirl reacting jets. For the low-swirl jet (S = 0.41), the local minimum of the axial mean velocity is observed within the jet center. The positive value of the mean axial velocity indicates the absence of a permanent recirculation zone, and no clear vortex breakdown could be determined from the average velocity field. For the high-swirl jet (S = 1.0), a pronounced vortex breakdown took place with a bubble-type central recirculation zone. In both cases, the flames are stabilized in the inner mixing layer of the jet around the central wake, containing hot combustion products. O2 and CO2 concentrations in the wake of the low-swirl jet are found to be approximately two times smaller and greater than those in the recirculation zone of the high-swirl jet, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, D.I.; Fisher, S.N.; Guenault, A.M.; Lowe, M.R.; Pickett, G.R.; Rahm, A.
2003-01-01
A beam of quasiparticles from a black-body radiator is directed at a localized region of quantum turbulence generated by a vibrating wire resonator driven at super-critical velocity. We are able to measure directly the fraction of the incident quasiparticle beam which is retro-reflected from the turbulence by Andreev processes. Combining these measurements with previous measurements on the spatial extent of the turbulence may allow us to infer the vortex line density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buckenmaier, Kai
2010-06-09
. For the measurements at 0.5 K a model of low to intermediate damping results in a much better agreement with the measurements. It was also tried to reach the regime, where the escape process is dominated by macroscopic quantum tunneling. During this thesis first hints of the macroscopic quantum tunneling of fractional vortices were observed. Beside the measurements of the activation energy, the resonant escape of {rho} vortices was investigated. As mentioned before, {rho} vortices are pinned at the discontinuity. They can be deformed and so they can oscillate around there equilibrium position with a characteristic eigenfrequency. By applying an AC current, with the vortex's eigenfrequency, the escape process is resonantly enhanced. Spectroscopic investigations of the resonant activation are successfully realized for a single vortex and a two-vortex molecule. In vortex molecules, vortex coupling results in an eigenfrequency splitting and the dependency of the vortex configuration can be observed. Here, a parallel and an antiparallel configuration is possible. Due to the coupling of the two vortices, a splitting of the eigenfrequency occurs, corresponding to an in and an out-of phase oscillation mode. The lowest mode has been measured as a function of the applied bias current and the coupling strength. Whereas the next higher mode could only be measured for a large distance between the two vortices and a small frequency splitting. (orig.)
Green functions of vortex operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polchinski, J.; California Univ., Berkeley
1981-01-01
We study the euclidean Green functions of the 't Hooft vortex operator, primarly for abelian gauge theories. The operator is written in terms of elementary fields, with emphasis on a form in which it appears as the exponential of a surface integral. We explore the requirement that the Green functions depend only on the boundary of this surface. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string, which suggests a new solution of the veto problem. The renormalization of the Green functions of the abelian Wilson loop and abelian vortex operator is studied with the aid of the operator product expansion. In each case, an overall multiplication of the operator makes all Green functions finite; a surprising cancellation of divergences occurs with the vortex operator. We present a brief discussion of the relation between the nature of the vacuum and the cluster properties of the Green functions of the Wilson and vortex operators, for a general gauge theory. The surface-like cluster property of the vortex operator in an abelian Higgs theory is explored in more detail. (orig.)
Observation of self-excited acoustic vortices in defect-mediated dust acoustic wave turbulence.
Tsai, Ya-Yi; I, Lin
2014-07-01
Using the self-excited dust acoustic wave as a platform, we demonstrate experimental observation of self-excited fluctuating acoustic vortex pairs with ± 1 topological charges through spontaneous waveform undulation in defect-mediated turbulence for three-dimensional traveling nonlinear longitudinal waves. The acoustic vortex pair has helical waveforms with opposite chirality around the low-density hole filament pair in xyt space (the xy plane is the plane normal to the wave propagation direction). It is generated through ruptures of sequential crest surfaces and reconnections with their trailing ruptured crest surfaces. The initial rupture is originated from the amplitude reduction induced by the formation of the kinked wave crest strip with strong stretching through the undulation instability. Increasing rupture causes the separation of the acoustic vortex pair after generation. A similar reverse process is followed for the acoustic vortex annihilating with the opposite-charged acoustic vortex from the same or another pair generation.
Point vortex modelling of the wake dynamics behind asymmetric vortex generator arrays
Baldacchino, D.; Simao Ferreira, C.; Ragni, D.; van Bussel, G.J.W.
2016-01-01
In this work, we present a simple inviscid point vortex model to study the dynamics of asymmetric vortex rows, as might appear behind misaligned vortex generator vanes. Starting from the existing solution of the in_nite vortex cascade, a numerical model of four base-vortices is chosen to represent
Vortex rings in classical and quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barenghi, C F; Donnelly, R J
2009-01-01
The study of vortex rings has been pursued for decades and is a particularly difficult subject. However, the discovery of quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has greatly increased interest in vortex rings with very thin cores. While rapid progress has been made in the simulation of quantized vortex rings, there has not been comparable progress in laboratory studies of vortex rings in a viscous fluid such as water. This article overviews the history and current frontiers of classical and quantum vortex rings. After introducing the classical results, this review discusses thin-cored vortex rings in superfluid helium in section 2, and recent progress in understanding vortex rings of very thin cores propagating in water in section 3. (invited paper)
Helical structure of longitudinal vortices embedded in turbulent wall-bounded flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Okulov, Valery
2009-01-01
Embedded vortices in turbulent wall-bounded flow over a flat plate, generated by a passive rectangular vane-type vortex generator with variable angle \\beta to the incoming flow in a low-Reynolds number flow (Re = 2600 based on the inlet grid mesh size L = 0:039 m and free stream velocity U....... This is important for flow control, since one thereby can determine the axial velocity induced by the helical vortex as well as the swirl redistributing the axial velocity component for a given device angle \\beta. This also simplifies theoretical studies, e.g. to understand and predict the stability of the vortex...
Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control
Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev
2014-04-01
Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.
Navier-Stokes prediction of a delta wing in roll with vortex breakdown
Chaderjian, Neal M.; Schiff, Lewis B.
1993-01-01
The three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used to numerically simulate vortical flow about a 65 degree sweep delta wing. Subsonic turbulent flow computations are presented for this delta wing at 30 degrees angle of attack and static roll angles up to 42 degrees. This work is part of an on going effort to validate the RANS approach for predicting high-incidence vortical flows, with the eventual application to wing rock. The flow is unsteady and includes spiral-type vortex breakdown. The breakdown positions, mean surface pressures, rolling moments, normal forces, and streamwise center-of-pressure locations compare reasonably well with experiment. In some cases, the primary vortex suction peaks are significantly underpredicted due to grid coarseness. Nevertheless, the computations are able to predict the same nonlinear variation of rolling moment with roll angle that appeared in the experiment. This nonlinearity includes regions of local static roll instability, which is attributed to vortex breakdown.
Mitigation of Wind Turbine/Vortex Interaction Using Disturbance Accommodating Control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hand, M. M.
2003-12-01
Wind turbines, a competitive source of emission-free electricity, are being designed with diameters and hub heights approaching 100 m, to further reduce the cost of the energy they produce. At this height above the ground, the wind turbine is exposed to atmospheric phenomena such as low-level jets, gravity waves, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which are not currently modeled in wind turbine design codes. These atmospheric phenomena can generate coherent turbulence that causes high cyclic loads on wind turbine blades. These fluctuating loads lead to fatigue damage accumulation and blade lifetime reduction. Advanced control was used to mitigate vortex-induced blade cyclic loading. A full-state feedback controller that incorporates more detailed vortex inputs achieved significantly greater blade load reduction. Blade loads attributed to vortex passage, then, can be reduced through advanced control, and further reductions appear feasible.
An Entropy-Assisted Shielding Function in DDES Formulation for the SST Turbulence Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling Zhou
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The intent of shielding functions in delayed detached-eddy simulation methods (DDES is to preserve the wall boundary layers as Reynolds-averaged Navier–Strokes (RANS mode, avoiding possible modeled stress depletion (MSD or even unphysical separation due to grid refinement. An entropy function fs is introduced to construct a DDES formulation for the k-ω shear stress transport (SST model, whose performance is extensively examined on a range of attached and separated flows (flat-plate flow, circular cylinder flow, and supersonic cavity-ramp flow. Two more forms of shielding functions are also included for comparison: one that uses the blending function F2 of SST, the other which adopts the recalibrated shielding function fd_cor of the DDES version based on the Spalart-Allmaras (SA model. In general, all of the shielding functions do not impair the vortex in fully separated flows. However, for flows including attached boundary layer, both F2 and the recalibrated fd_cor are found to be too conservative to resolve the unsteady flow content. On the other side, fs is proposed on the theory of energy dissipation and independent on from any particular turbulence model, showing the generic priority by properly balancing the need of reserving the RANS modeled regions for wall boundary layers and generating the unsteady turbulent structures in detached areas.
Integrated analysis of energy transfers in elastic-wave turbulence.
Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori
2017-08-01
In elastic-wave turbulence, strong turbulence appears in small wave numbers while weak turbulence does in large wave numbers. Energy transfers in the coexistence of these turbulent states are numerically investigated in both the Fourier space and the real space. An analytical expression of a detailed energy balance reveals from which mode to which mode energy is transferred in the triad interaction. Stretching energy excited by external force is transferred nonlocally and intermittently to large wave numbers as the kinetic energy in the strong turbulence. In the weak turbulence, the resonant interactions according to the weak turbulence theory produce cascading net energy transfer to large wave numbers. Because the system's nonlinearity shows strong temporal intermittency, the energy transfers are investigated at active and moderate phases separately. The nonlocal interactions in the Fourier space are characterized by the intermittent bundles of fibrous structures in the real space.
Backreaction of excitations on a vortex
Arodz, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek
1996-01-01
Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their backreaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate backreaction of Proca type excitations on a straightlinear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose exact Ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the backreaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found ...
Numerical Simulation of Polymer Injection in Turbulent Flow Past a Circular Cylinder
Richter, David; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2011-01-01
Using a code developed to compute high Reynolds number viscoelastic flows, polymer injection from the upstream stagnation point of a circular cylinder is modeled at Re = 3900. Polymer stresses are represented using the FENE-P constitutive equations. By increasing polymer injection rates within realistic ranges, significant near wake stabilization is observed. Rather than a turbulent detached shear layer giving way to a chaotic primary vortex (as seen in Newtonian flows at high Re), a much more coherent primary vortex is shed, which possesses an increased core pressure as well as a reduced level of turbulent energy. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Quantum turbulence in superfluid 3He illuminated by a beam of quasiparticle excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, D.I.; Fisher, S.N.; Guenault, A.M.; Lowe, M.R.; Pickett, G.R.; Rahm, A.; Whitehead, R.C.V.
2004-01-01
We have measured directly the Andreev scattering of a controllable beam of quasiparticle excitations by a localized tangle of quantum vortices in superfluid 3 He-B at low temperatures. We present a microscopic description of the Andreev scattering from a vortex line allowing us to estimate the vortex separation scale in a dilute tangle of vortices, providing a better comparison of the observed decay time of the turbulence with recent numerical simulations. The experiments also suggest that below 200 μK we reach the low temperature limit for turbulent dynamics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lucey, George
1998-01-01
The U.S. Marine Corps Joint Nonlethal Weapons Directorate tasked the U.S. Army to demonstrate a means of quickly converting the Navy MK19-3 automatic 40-mm grenade launcher between lethal and nonlethal modes of operation...
Vortex dynamics in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kono, M.; Krane, B.; Pecseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.
1998-01-01
Low frequency dynamics of electrostatic fluctuations in strongly magnetized plasmas have been studied. It was found that perturbations in density and potential can be very localized, indicating the applicability of an approximate description based on a finite number of vortices. A model based on a few isolated vortical structures is discussed, with particular attention to vortex collapse, where three vortices merge together within a finite time, or to the converse process, i.e. a vortex explosion. Details of these particular types of vortex dynamics depend on the actual model used for describing the electrons, the presence of a Debye shielding in particular. A ''boomerang''-type of evolution was found, where three shielded vortices expand initially, just as their unshielded counterparts, but eventually the expansion is arrested, and they start converging to collapse ultimately. The study is extended by a numerical simulation where the point model is relaxed to a continuous, but localized, vorticity distribution with finite size vortices. (orig.)
Tallarita, Gianni; Peterson, Adam
2018-04-01
We perform a numerical study of the phase diagram of the model proposed in [M. Shifman, Phys. Rev. D 87, 025025 (2013)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.025025], which is a simple model containing non-Abelian vortices. As per the case of Abrikosov vortices, we map out a region of parameter space in which the system prefers the formation of vortices in ordered lattice structures. These are generalizations of Abrikosov vortex lattices with extra orientational moduli in the vortex cores. At sufficiently large lattice spacing the low energy theory is described by a sum of C P (1 ) theories, each located on a vortex site. As the lattice spacing becomes smaller, when the self-interaction of the orientational field becomes relevant, only an overall rotation in internal space survives.
Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations
Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.
2014-01-01
Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235
Vortex breakdown incipience: Theoretical considerations
Berger, Stanley A.; Erlebacher, Gordon
1992-01-01
The sensitivity of the onset and the location of vortex breakdowns in concentrated vortex cores, and the pronounced tendency of the breakdowns to migrate upstream have been characteristic observations of experimental investigations; they have also been features of numerical simulations and led to questions about the validity of these simulations. This behavior seems to be inconsistent with the strong time-like axial evolution of the flow, as expressed explicitly, for example, by the quasi-cylindrical approximate equations for this flow. An order-of-magnitude analysis of the equations of motion near breakdown leads to a modified set of governing equations, analysis of which demonstrates that the interplay between radial inertial, pressure, and viscous forces gives an elliptic character to these concentrated swirling flows. Analytical, asymptotic, and numerical solutions of a simplified non-linear equation are presented; these qualitatively exhibit the features of vortex onset and location noted above.
Electromechanical vortex filaments during cardiac fibrillation
Christoph, J.; Chebbok, M.; Richter, C.; Schröder-Schetelig, J.; Bittihn, P.; Stein, S.; Uzelac, I.; Fenton, F. H.; Hasenfuß, G.; Gilmour, R. F., Jr.; Luther, S.
2018-03-01
The self-organized dynamics of vortex-like rotating waves, which are also known as scroll waves, are the basis of the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns in many excitable chemical and biological systems. In the heart, filament-like phase singularities that are associated with three-dimensional scroll waves are considered to be the organizing centres of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. The mechanisms that underlie the onset, maintenance and control of electromechanical turbulence in the heart are inherently three-dimensional phenomena. However, it has not previously been possible to visualize the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of scroll waves inside cardiac tissues. Here we show that three-dimensional mechanical scroll waves and filament-like phase singularities can be observed deep inside the contracting heart wall using high-resolution four-dimensional ultrasound-based strain imaging. We found that mechanical phase singularities co-exist with electrical phase singularities during cardiac fibrillation. We investigated the dynamics of electrical and mechanical phase singularities by simultaneously measuring the membrane potential, intracellular calcium concentration and mechanical contractions of the heart. We show that cardiac fibrillation can be characterized using the three-dimensional spatiotemporal dynamics of mechanical phase singularities, which arise inside the fibrillating contracting ventricular wall. We demonstrate that electrical and mechanical phase singularities show complex interactions and we characterize their dynamics in terms of trajectories, topological charge and lifetime. We anticipate that our findings will provide novel perspectives for non-invasive diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications.
Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Zhi; Zhang Zhaoshun; Cui Guixiang; Xu Chunxiao
2011-01-01
Stably stratified turbulence is a common phenomenon in atmosphere and ocean. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating homogeneous stably stratified turbulence numerically at Reynolds number Re = uL/v = 10 2 ∼10 3 and Froude number Fr = u/NL = 10 −2 ∼10 0 in which u is root mean square of velocity fluctuations, L is integral scale and N is Brunt-Vaïsälä frequency. Three sets of computation cases are designed with different initial conditions, namely isotropic turbulence, Taylor Green vortex and internal waves, to investigate the statistical properties from different origins. The computed horizontal and vertical energy spectra are consistent with observation in atmosphere and ocean when the composite parameter ReFr 2 is greater than O(1). It has also been found in this paper that the stratification turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominated in the developed stably stratified turbulence.
A note on integral vortex strength
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolář, Václav
2010-01-01
Roč. 58, č. 1 (2010), s. 23-28 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : circulation * unsteady Taylor vortex * vortex intensity * vortex strength * vorticity * vorticity decomposition Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.553, year: 2010
Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.
Computing the flow past Vortex Generators: Comparison between RANS Simulations and Experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manolesos, M.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Troldborg, Niels
2016-01-01
The flow around a wind turbine airfoil equipped with Vortex Generators (VGs) is examined. Predictions from three different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers with two different turbulence models and two different VG modelling approaches are compared between them and with experimental ...... data. The best results are obtained with the more expensive fully resolved VG approach. The cost efficient BAY model can also provide acceptable results, if grid related numerical diffusion is minimized and only force coefficient polars are considered....
A partial entropic lattice Boltzmann MHD simulation of the Orszag-Tang vortex
Flint, Christopher; Vahala, George
2018-02-01
Karlin has introduced an analytically determined entropic lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm for Navier-Stokes turbulence. Here, this is partially extended to an LB model of magnetohydrodynamics, on using the vector distribution function approach of Dellar for the magnetic field (which is permitted to have field reversal). The partial entropic algorithm is benchmarked successfully against standard simulations of the Orszag-Tang vortex [Orszag, S.A.; Tang, C.M. J. Fluid Mech. 1979, 90 (1), 129-143].
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Shixing; Li, Long, E-mail: lilong@mail.xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: gmshi@xidian.edu.cn; Shi, Guangming, E-mail: lilong@mail.xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: gmshi@xidian.edu.cn; Zhu, Cheng; Shi, Yan [National Key Laboratory of Antennas and Microwave Technology, School of Electronic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Information Sensing and Understanding, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)
2016-06-13
In this paper, an electromagnetic metasurface is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex beams in radio frequency domain. Theoretical formula of compensated phase-shift distribution is deduced and used to design the metasurface to produce multiple vortex radio waves in different directions with different OAM modes. The prototype of a practical configuration of square-patch metasurface is designed, fabricated, and measured to validate the theoretical analysis at 5.8 GHz. The simulated and experimental results verify that multiple OAM vortex waves can be simultaneously generated by using a single electromagnetic metasurface. The proposed method paves an effective way to generate multiple OAM vortex waves in radio and microwave wireless communication applications.
Vortex configuration and vortex-vortex interaction in nano-structured superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Masaru; Niwa, Yuhei; Suematsu, Hisataka; Ishida, Takekazu
2012-01-01
We study the vortex structures and quasi-particle structures in nano-structured superconductors. We used the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation and the finite element method and obtained stable magnetic flux structures and the quasi-particle states. We found the vortex configurations are affected by the interference of the quasi-particle bound states around the vortices. In order to clarify the interference between the quasi-particle wave-functions around two vortices we have developed a numerical method using the elliptic coordinates and the Mathieu functions. We apply this method to two singly quantized vortex state in a conventional s-wave superconductor and a pair of half-quantum vortices in a chiral p-wave superconductor.
On the problem of turbulent arcs modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yas'ko, O.I.
1998-01-01
A new hypothesis is proposed which considers mass as a charge which produces a special field during its movement likewise the electric charge creates magnetic one. This approach throws new light on vortexes formation since interaction of moving mass with the considered field exerts swirling effect. Some aspects of turbulence in flows near walls and in blown electric arc discharge were considered to validate the hypothesis in the cases of cold and high-temperature flows. The theoretical results are found to comply with experiment well. (author)
Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Montgomery, David C.
2004-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence theory is modeled on neutral fluid (Navier-Stokes) turbulence theory, but with some important differences. There have been essentially no repeatable laboratory MHD experiments wherein the boundary conditions could be controlled or varied and a full set of diagnostics implemented. The equations of MHD are convincingly derivable only in the limit of small ratio of collision mean-free-paths to macroscopic length scales, an inequality that often goes the other way for magnetofluids of interest. Finally, accurate information on the MHD transport coefficients-and thus, the Reynolds-like numbers that order magnetofluid behavior-is largely lacking; indeed, the algebraic expressions used for such ingredients as the viscous stress tensor are often little more than wishful borrowing from fluid mechanics. The one accurate thing that has been done extensively and well is to solve the (strongly nonlinear) MHD equations numerically, usually in the presence of rectangular periodic boundary conditions, and then hope for the best when drawing inferences from the computations for those astrophysical and geophysical MHD systems for which some indisputably turbulent detailed data are available, such as the solar wind or solar prominences. This has led to what is perhaps the first field of physics for which computer simulations are regarded as more central to validating conclusions than is any kind of measurement. Things have evolved in this way due to a mixture of the inevitable and the bureaucratic, but that is the way it is, and those of us who want to work on the subject have to live with it. It is the only game in town, and theories that have promised more-often on the basis of some alleged ``instability''-have turned out to be illusory.
Violato, D.; Bryon, K.; Moore, P.; Scarano, F.
2010-01-01
This paper describes an experimental investigation by time-resolved planar and tomographic PIV on the sound production mechanism of vortex pairing of a transitional water-jet flow at Re=5000. The shear layer is characterized by axisymmetric vortex rings which undergo pairing with a varicose mode.
The interaction of counter-rotating strained vortex pairs with a third vortex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higgins, Keith; Ooi, Andrew; Chong, M S; Ruetten, Markus
2009-01-01
The vortex dynamics caused by the interaction of counter-rotating Burgers vortex pairs with a third Burgers vortex in a straining flow is investigated numerically. These interactions blend vortex merging and cancellation effects, and the aim is to investigate how the third vortex might influence the evolution of the vortex pair. Many different choices of initial conditions for the pair and third vortex exist, so attention is restricted to a class of initial conditions in which the vortex pair initially moves in the general direction of vortex 3, and the distance from vortex 3 to the line of free propagation of the vortex pair is the 'offset' parameter δ. A series of calculations with 0≤δ≤4 reveals three types of intermediate-time vortex dynamics that are called merging, swapping and switching. The evolution of the vortex core separation and core vorticity level diagnostics are used to determine the points of transition from merging to swapping and switching. In the longer term, vortex merging, cancellation and straining reduces the three vortices to a single vortex. Other diagnostics of interest are also monitored, including the spatial distributions of the rate of viscous dissipation and terms contributing to the vorticity transport equation. During the merging phase for the case with δ=0, double-peak and double-trough structures are observed in the dissipation-rate contours. In addition, the diffusion of vorticity dominates the vortex-stretching effect near vortex 1 during its absorbtion by vortex 3. Finally, the dynamics of the three vortices are also examined by computing a co-rotating angular velocity and stream function. A series of peaks in the co-rotating angular velocity is found to be associated with the conservation of angular momentum and interactions with a 'ghost' vortex in the co-rotating stream function.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, D. R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Thompson, D. S. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2013-05-15
The spherical torus edge region is among the most challenging regimes for plasma turbulence simulations. Here, we measure the spatial and temporal properties of ion-scale turbulence in the steep gradient region of H-mode pedestals during edge localized mode-free, MHD quiescent periods in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Poloidal correlation lengths are about 10 ρ{sub i}, and decorrelation times are about 5 a/c{sub s}. Next, we introduce a model aggregation technique to identify parametric dependencies among turbulence quantities and transport-relevant plasma parameters. The parametric dependencies show the most agreement with transport driven by trapped-electron mode, kinetic ballooning mode, and microtearing mode turbulence, and the least agreement with ion temperature gradient turbulence. In addition, the parametric dependencies are consistent with turbulence regulation by flow shear and the empirical relationship between wider pedestals and larger turbulent structures.
Destructive interference of TEM and ITG turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merz, F.; Jenko, F.
2009-01-01
Full text: Turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and trapped electron modes (TEMs) is generally considered the key mechanism for anomalous transport in fusion devices on ion scales. But while pure ITG and, to a lesser extent, also pure TEM turbulence have been studied in detail over the last years, not much is presently known about nonlinear interactions between ITG modes and TEMs, which are often present simultaneously in experimentally relevant situations. This important issue is addressed by means of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GENE code. To examine the properties of the (linear) TEM and ITG instabilities in the (realistic) transitional regime, the GENE code is run as eigenvalue solver, which allows for a systematic study of dominant and subdominant modes. Corresponding nonlinear initial value computations show that the particle transport of the turbulent system can be completely suppressed if the two driving instabilities are active simultaneously. The direct comparison of the linear modes and the corresponding turbulent system reveals a coexistence of the two microinstabilities in a transitional regime even at the same wave number. The consequences of this dual turbulence drive for transport modeling is discussed. (author)
TEM turbulence optimisation in stellarators
Proll, J. H. E.; Mynick, H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Lazerson, S. A.; Faber, B. J.
2016-01-01
With the advent of neoclassically optimised stellarators, optimising stellarators for turbulent transport is an important next step. The reduction of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence has been achieved via shaping of the magnetic field, and the reduction of trapped-electron mode (TEM) turbulence is addressed in the present paper. Recent analytical and numerical findings suggest TEMs are stabilised when a large fraction of trapped particles experiences favourable bounce-averaged curvature. This is the case for example in Wendelstein 7-X (Beidler et al 1990 Fusion Technol. 17 148) and other Helias-type stellarators. Using this knowledge, a proxy function was designed to estimate the TEM dynamics, allowing optimal configurations for TEM stability to be determined with the STELLOPT (Spong et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 711) code without extensive turbulence simulations. A first proof-of-principle optimised equilibrium stemming from the TEM-dominated stellarator experiment HSX (Anderson et al 1995 Fusion Technol. 27 273) is presented for which a reduction of the linear growth rates is achieved over a broad range of the operational parameter space. As an important consequence of this property, the turbulent heat flux levels are reduced compared with the initial configuration.
Some exact Bradlow vortex solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudnason, Sven Bjarke [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Lanzhou 730000 (China); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)
2017-05-08
We consider the Bradlow equation for vortices which was recently found by Manton and find a two-parameter class of analytic solutions in closed form on nontrivial geometries with non-constant curvature. The general solution to our class of metrics is given by a hypergeometric function and the area of the vortex domain by the Gaussian hypergeometric function.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aref, Hassan
2010-01-01
An IUTAM symposium with the title of this paper was held on October 12-16, 2008, in Lyngby and Copenhagen, Denmark, to mark the sesquicentennial of publication of Helmholtz's seminal paper on vortex dynamics. This volume contains the proceedings of the Symposium. The present paper provides...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, Bjarne
2003-01-01
We present experiments and theory for the "bathtub vortex," which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating "drainpipe" from the free surface down to the drain hole...
Vortex dynamics in inhomogeneous plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1999-01-01
The dynamics of vortical structures in magnetized plasmas with nonuniform density is investigated numerically. In particular the dynamics of monopolar vortices is considered and the results are discussed in terms of the conservation of potential vorticity. It is found that individual vortex...
A vortex dynamics perspective on stratospheric sudden warmings
Matthewman, N. J.
2009-01-01
A vortex dynamics approach is used to study the underlying mechanisms leading to polar vortex breakdown during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs). Observational data are used in chapter 2 to construct climatologies of the Arctic polar vortex structure during vortex-splitting and vortex-displacement SSWs occurring between 1958 and 2002. During vortex-splitting SSWs, polar vortex breakdown is shown to be typically independent of height (barotropic), whereas breakdown during vor...
Radial propagation of turbulence in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Laurent, L.; Samain, A.
1993-12-01
It is shown in this paper that a turbulence propagation can be due to toroidal or non linear mode coupling. An analytical analysis indicates that the toroidal coupling acts through a convection while the non linear effects induce a diffusion. Numerical simulations suggest that the toroidal propagation is usually the fastest process, except perhaps in some highly turbulent regimes. The consequence is the possibility of non local effects on the fluctuation level and the associated transport. (authors). 7 figs., 19 refs
Generation of large-scale vortives in compressible helical turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chkhetiani, O.G.; Gvaramadze, V.V.
1989-01-01
We consider generation of large-scale vortices in compressible self-gravitating turbulent medium. The closed equation describing evolution of the large-scale vortices in helical turbulence with finite correlation time is obtained. This equation has the form similar to the hydromagnetic dynamo equation, which allows us to call the vortx genertation effect the vortex dynamo. It is possible that principally the same mechanism is responsible both for amplification and maintenance of density waves and magnetic fields in gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. (author). 29 refs
Ballistic rectification of vortex domain wall chirality at nanowire corners
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omari, K.; Bradley, R. C.; Broomhall, T. J.; Hodges, M. P. P.; Hayward, T. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Rosamond, M. C.; Linfield, E. H. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Im, M.-Y. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Fischer, P. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 94056 (United States)
2015-11-30
The interactions of vortex domain walls with corners in planar magnetic nanowires are probed using magnetic soft X-ray transmission microscopy. We show that when the domain walls are propagated into sharp corners using applied magnetic fields above a critical value, their chiralities are rectified to either clockwise or anticlockwise circulation depending on whether the corners turn left or right. Single-shot focused magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements are then used to demonstrate how, when combined with modes of domain propagation that conserve vortex chirality, this allows us to dramatically reduce the stochasticity of domain pinning at artificial defect sites. Our results provide a tool for controlling domain wall chirality and pinning behavior both in further experimental studies and in future domain wall-based memory, logic and sensor technologies.
Dynamics of an N-vortex state at small distances
Ovchinnikov, Yu. N.
2013-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of a state of N vortices, placed at the initial instant at small distances from some point, close to the "weight center" of vortices. The general solution of the time-dependent Ginsburg-Landau equation for N vortices in a large time interval is found. For N = 2, the position of the "weight center" of two vortices is time independent. For N ≥ 3, the position of the "weight center" weakly depends on time and is located in the range of the order of a 3, where a is a characteristic distance of a single vortex from the "weight center." For N = 3, the time evolution of the N-vortex state is fixed by the position of vortices at any time instant and by the values of two small parameters. For N ≥ 4, a new parameter arises in the problem, connected with relative increases in the number of decay modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckenmaier, Kai
2010-01-01
results in a much better agreement with the measurements. It was also tried to reach the regime, where the escape process is dominated by macroscopic quantum tunneling. During this thesis first hints of the macroscopic quantum tunneling of fractional vortices were observed. Beside the measurements of the activation energy, the resonant escape of ρ vortices was investigated. As mentioned before, ρ vortices are pinned at the discontinuity. They can be deformed and so they can oscillate around there equilibrium position with a characteristic eigenfrequency. By applying an AC current, with the vortex's eigenfrequency, the escape process is resonantly enhanced. Spectroscopic investigations of the resonant activation are successfully realized for a single vortex and a two-vortex molecule. In vortex molecules, vortex coupling results in an eigenfrequency splitting and the dependency of the vortex configuration can be observed. Here, a parallel and an antiparallel configuration is possible. Due to the coupling of the two vortices, a splitting of the eigenfrequency occurs, corresponding to an in and an out-of phase oscillation mode. The lowest mode has been measured as a function of the applied bias current and the coupling strength. Whereas the next higher mode could only be measured for a large distance between the two vortices and a small frequency splitting. (orig.)
Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A.H.
2009-01-01
Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes
Enstrophy generation in a shock-dominated turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, Hideaki.
1995-09-01
A mechanism of enstrophy generation is investigated numerically in a shock-dominated turbulence driven by a random external force which has only the compressible component. Enstrophy is generated, especially on collision of shock, as a pair of vortex tube of opposite sense of rotation behind curved shocks. The roles of various terms in enstrophy equation are clarified in enstrophy generation process. Generation of enstrophy is enhanced by strong alignment of each term of the enstrophy equation with the vorticity vector. (author)
Investigation of mass transfer in swirling turbulent flames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharaborin, D; Abdurakipov, S; Dulin, V
2016-01-01
The present paper reports on analysis of flow structure and turbulent transport in swirling flames. The particle image velocimetry and spontaneous Raman scattering techniques were used for the measurements of 2D velocity and density distributions. The focus was placed on comparison between low- and high-swirl flows. A pronounced bubble-type vortex breakdown with strong flow precession took place in the latter case. (paper)
Dynamical structure of the turbulent boundary layer on rough surface
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uruba, Václav; Jonáš, Pavel; Hladík, Ondřej
2011-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 603-604 ISSN 1617-7061 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulent boundary layer * rough wall * hairpin vortex Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201110291/abstract
Electron vortex magnetic holes: A nonlinear coherent plasma structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haynes, Christopher T., E-mail: c.t.haynes@qmul.ac.uk; Burgess, David; Sundberg, Torbjorn [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Camporeale, Enrico [Multiscale Dynamics, Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica (CWI), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2015-01-15
We report the properties of a novel type of sub-proton scale magnetic hole found in two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of decaying turbulence with a guide field. The simulations were performed with a realistic value for ion to electron mass ratio. These structures, electron vortex magnetic holes (EVMHs), have circular cross-section. The magnetic field depression is associated with a diamagnetic azimuthal current provided by a population of trapped electrons in petal-like orbits. The trapped electron population provides a mean azimuthal velocity and since trapping preferentially selects high pitch angles, a perpendicular temperature anisotropy. The structures arise out of initial perturbations in the course of the turbulent evolution of the plasma, and are stable over at least 100 electron gyroperiods. We have verified the model for the EVMH by carrying out test particle and PIC simulations of isolated structures in a uniform plasma. It is found that (quasi-)stable structures can be formed provided that there is some initial perpendicular temperature anisotropy at the structure location. The properties of these structures (scale size, trapped population, etc.) are able to explain the observed properties of magnetic holes in the terrestrial plasma sheet. EVMHs may also contribute to turbulence properties, such as intermittency, at short scale lengths in other astrophysical plasmas.
Galaxy formation with BECDM - I. Turbulence and relaxation of idealized haloes.
Mocz, Philip; Vogelsberger, Mark; Robles, Victor H; Zavala, Jesús; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Fialkov, Anastasia; Hernquist, Lars
2017-11-01
We present a theoretical analysis of some unexplored aspects of relaxed Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter (BECDM) haloes. This type of ultralight bosonic scalar field dark matter is a viable alternative to the standard cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, as it makes the same large-scale predictions as CDM and potentially overcomes CDM's small-scale problems via a galaxy-scale de Broglie wavelength. We simulate BECDM halo formation through mergers, evolved under the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. The formed haloes consist of a soliton core supported against gravitational collapse by the quantum pressure tensor and an asymptotic r -3 NFW-like profile. We find a fundamental relation of the core-to-halo mass with the dimensionless invariant Ξ ≡ | E |/ M 3 /( Gm/ħ ) 2 or M c / M ≃ 2.6Ξ 1/3 , linking the soliton to global halo properties. For r ≥ 3.5 r c core radii, we find equipartition between potential, classical kinetic and quantum gradient energies. The haloes also exhibit a conspicuous turbulent behaviour driven by the continuous reconnection of vortex lines due to wave interference. We analyse the turbulence 1D velocity power spectrum and find a k -1.1 power law. This suggests that the vorticity in BECDM haloes is homogeneous, similar to thermally-driven counterflow BEC systems from condensed matter physics, in contrast to a k -5/3 Kolmogorov power law seen in mechanically-driven quantum systems. The mode where the power spectrum peaks is approximately the soliton width, implying that the soliton-sized granules carry most of the turbulent energy in BECDM haloes.
Bounded energy states in homogeneous turbulent shear flow: An alternative view
Bernard, Peter S.; Speziale, Charles G.
1990-01-01
The equilibrium structure of homogeneous turbulent shear flow is investigated from a theoretical standpoint. Existing turbulence models, in apparent agreement with physical and numerical experiments, predict an unbounded exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate; only the anisotropy tensor and turbulent time scale reach a structural equilibrium. It is shown that if vortex stretching is accounted for in the dissipation rate transport equation, then there can exist equilibrium solutions, with bounded energy states, where the turbulence production is balanced by its dissipation. Illustrative calculations are present for a k-epsilon model modified to account for vortex stretching. The calculations indicate an initial exponential time growth of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate for elapsed times that are as large as those considered in any of the previously conducted physical or numerical experiments on homogeneous shear flow. However, vortex stretching eventually takes over and forces a production-equals-dissipation equilibrium with bounded energy states. The validity of this result is further supported by an independent theoretical argument. It is concluded that the generally accepted structural equilibrium for homogeneous shear flow with unbounded component energies is in need of re-examination.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.
1990-01-01
A serious degradation of confinement with additional heating is commonly observed on most tokamaks. The microtearing modes could provide an explanation for this experimental fact. They are driven linearly unstable by diamagnetism in collisional regimes, but it may be shown that the collisions in non linear regimes provide a small diffusion coefficient which can be only significant at the plasme edge. In the bulk of the plasma, the microtearing turbulence could play a basic role if it is unstable in the collisionless regime. While it is linearly stable without collisions, it could be driven unstable in realistic regimes by the radial diffusion it induces. To study this effect, we have used a model where the non linear action of the modes on a given helicity component is represented by a diffusion operator. They are found unstable for reasonable β p =2μ o nT/B 2 p , with a special radial profile of the potential vector A. The problem arises the validity of this model where non linearities in the trajectories behaviour are replaced by the diffusion which broadens resonances. To test this procedure, we calculate the actual electron distribution function when it is determined by the ergodicity of the field lines. We compute the correlations of the distribution function with the magnetic perturbation and compare them with the analytical expressions derived from the resonance broadening model. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs
Turbulence, Magnetic Reconnection in Turbulent Fluids and Energetic Particle Acceleration
Lazarian, A.; Vlahos, L.; Kowal, G.; Yan, H.; Beresnyak, A.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.
2012-11-01
Turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysics. It radically changes many astrophysical phenomena, in particular, the propagation and acceleration of cosmic rays. We present the modern understanding of compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, in particular its decomposition into Alfvén, slow and fast modes, discuss the density structure of turbulent subsonic and supersonic media, as well as other relevant regimes of astrophysical turbulence. All this information is essential for understanding the energetic particle acceleration that we discuss further in the review. For instance, we show how fast and slow modes accelerate energetic particles through the second order Fermi acceleration, while density fluctuations generate magnetic fields in pre-shock regions enabling the first order Fermi acceleration of high energy cosmic rays. Very importantly, however, the first order Fermi cosmic ray acceleration is also possible in sites of magnetic reconnection. In the presence of turbulence this reconnection gets fast and we present numerical evidence supporting the predictions of the Lazarian and Vishniac (Astrophys. J. 517:700-718, 1999) model of fast reconnection. The efficiency of this process suggests that magnetic reconnection can release substantial amounts of energy in short periods of time. As the particle tracing numerical simulations show that the particles can be efficiently accelerated during the reconnection, we argue that the process of magnetic reconnection may be much more important for particle acceleration than it is currently accepted. In particular, we discuss the acceleration arising from reconnection as a possible origin of the anomalous cosmic rays measured by Voyagers as well as the origin cosmic ray excess in the direction of Heliotail.
3D fluid simulations of tokamak edge turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeiler, A.; Biskamp, D.; Drake, J.F.; Guzdar, P.N.
1995-09-01
3D simulations of drift resistive ballooning turbulence are presented. The turbulence is basically controlled by a parameter α, the ratio of the drift wave frequency to the ideal ballooning growth rate. If this parameters is small (α≤1, corresponding to Ohmic or L-mode plasmas), the system is dominated by ballooning turbulence, which is strongly peaked at the outside of the torus. If it is large (α≥1, corresponding to H-mode plasmas) field line curvature plays a minor role. The turbulence is nonlinearly sustained even if curvature is removed and all modes are linearly stable due to magnetic shear. In the nonlinear regime without curvature the system obeys a different scaling law compared to the low α regime. The transport scaling is discussed in both regimes and the implications for OH-, L-mode and H-mode transport are discussed. (orig.)
Evolution of optical vortex distributions in stochastic vortex fields
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2011-01-01
Full Text Available simple decay process to restore equilibrium. More complicated dynamics are involved, which requires deeper investigations. REFERENCES [1] Nye, J. F. and Berry, M. V., ?Dislocations in wave trains,? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 336, 165?190 (1974). [2] Dennis..., J., Zambrini, R., Dennis, M., and Vasnetsov, M., ?Angular momentum of optical vortex arrays,? Opt. Express 14, 938?949 (2006). [27] Berry, M. V., ?Disruption of wavefronts: statistics of dislocations in incoherent gaussian random waves,? J. Phys...
Vortex-slip transitions in superconducting a-NbGe mesoscopic channels
Kokubo, N.; Sorop, T. G.; Besseling, R.; Kes, P. H.
2006-06-01
Intriguing and novel physical aspects related to the vortex flow dynamics have been recently observed in mesoscopic channel devices of a-NbGe with NbN channel edges. In this work we have systematically studied the flow properties of vortices confined in such mesoscopic channels as a function of the magnetic field history, using dc-transport and mode-locking (ML) measurements. As opposed to the field-down situation, in the field-up case a kink anomaly in the dc I-V curves is detected. The mode-locking measurements reveal that this anomaly is, in fact, a flow induced vortex slip transition: by increasing the external drive (either dc or ac) a sudden change occurs from n to n+2 moving vortex rows in the channel. The observed features can be explained in terms of an interplay between field focusing due to screening currents and a change in the predominant pinning mechanism.
Interaction of Vortex Ring with Cutting Plate
Musta, Mustafa
2015-11-01
The interaction of a vortex ring impinging on a thin cutting plate was made experimentally using Volumetric 3-component Velocitmetry (v3v) technique. The vortex rings were generated with piston-cylinder vortex ring generator using piston stroke-to-diameter ratios and Re at 2-3 and 1500 - 3000, respectively. The cutting of vortex rings below center line leads to the formation of secondary vortices on each side of the plate which is look like two vortex rings, and a third vortex ring propagates further downstream in the direction of the initial vortex ring, which is previously showed by flow visualization study of Weigand (1993) and called ``trifurcation''. Trifurcation is very sensitive to the initial Reynolds number and the position of the plate with respect to the vortex ring generator pipe. The present work seeks more detailed investigation on the trifurcation using V3V technique. Conditions for the formation of trifurcation is analyzed and compared with Weigand (1993). The formed secondary vortex rings and the propagation of initial vortex ring in the downstream of the plate are analyzed by calculating their circulation, energy and trajectories.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)
1997-08-01
Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, Changhe; Li, Liang; Wu, Xin; Feng, Zhenping
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We establish a suitable vortex chamber model for gas turbine blade leading edge. • Mechanism of vortex cooling is further discussed and presented. • Influences of jet nozzle geometry on vortex cooling characteristics are researched. • This paper focuses on assessment of flow field and thermal performance for different jet nozzle aspect ratio and area. - Abstract: In this paper, 3D viscous steady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations are utilized to investigate the influence of jet nozzle geometry on flow and thermal behavior of vortex cooling for gas turbine blades. Comparison between calculation with different turbulence models and the experimental data is conducted, and results show that the standard k-ω model provides the best accuracy. The grid independence analysis is performed to obtain the proper mesh number. First, the mechanism of vortex cooling is further discussed, and the pronounced impact of kinetic turbulence intensity, thin thermal boundary layer, violent radial convection and complex vortices on enhanced heat transfer performance is confirmed. Then, seven jet nozzle aspect ratios and seven jet nozzle to chamber cross section area ratios are selected to research the flow field and thermal characteristics of vortex cooling focusing on the streamline, static pressure ratio, total pressure loss ratio and Nusselt number. It is presented that the jet nozzle aspect ratio and jet nozzle to chamber cross section area ratio both impose a significant effect on the flow and thermal parameters. The averaged Nusselt number decreases at first and then increases with the increasing jet nozzle aspect ratio, reaching highest when aspect ratio equals to 1. The effect of area ratio on averaged Nusselt number is complex. Finally, the heat transfer results in this study are compared with other previous works. Results indicate that good agreement with previous data is achieved, and the enhanced thermal behavior may be acquired by
Hierarchical order in wall-bounded shear turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbone, F.; Aubry, N.
1996-01-01
Since turbulence at realistic Reynolds numbers, such as those occurring in the atmosphere or in the ocean, involve a high number of modes that cannot be resolved computationally in the foreseeable future, there is a strong motivation for finding techniques which drastically decrease the number of such required modes, particularly under inhomogeneous conditions. The significance of this work is to show that wall-bounded shear turbulence, in its strongly inhomogeneous direction (normal to the wall), can be decomposed into one (or a few) space endash time mother mode(s), with each mother generating a whole family of modes by stretching symmetry. In other words, the generated modes are similar, dilated copies of their mother. In addition, we show that the nature of all previous modes strongly depends on the symmetry itself. These findings constitute the first scaling theory of inhomogeneous turbulence. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Evaluation of the Use of Second Generation Wavelets in the Coherent Vortex Simulation Approach
Goldstein, D. E.; Vasilyev, O. V.; Wray, A. A.; Rogallo, R. S.
2000-01-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the use of the second generation bi-orthogonal wavelet transform for the field decomposition in the Coherent Vortex Simulation of turbulent flows. The performances of the bi-orthogonal second generation wavelet transform and the orthogonal wavelet transform using Daubechies wavelets with the same number of vanishing moments are compared in a priori tests using a spectral direct numerical simulation (DNS) database of isotropic turbulence fields: 256(exp 3) and 512(exp 3) DNS of forced homogeneous turbulence (Re(sub lambda) = 168) and 256(exp 3) and 512(exp 3) DNS of decaying homogeneous turbulence (Re(sub lambda) = 55). It is found that bi-orthogonal second generation wavelets can be used for coherent vortex extraction. The results of a priori tests indicate that second generation wavelets have better compression and the residual field is closer to Gaussian. However, it was found that the use of second generation wavelets results in an integral length scale for the incoherent part that is larger than that derived from orthogonal wavelets. A way of dealing with this difficulty is suggested.
Quantum turbulence in cold multicomponent matter
Pshenichnyuk, Ivan A.
2018-02-01
Quantum vortices are pivotal for understanding of phenomena in quantum hydrodynamics. Vortices were observed in different physical systems like trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, liquid helium, exciton-polariton condensates and other types of systems. Foreign particles attached to the vortices often serve for a visualization of the vortex shape and kinematics in superfluid experiments. Fascinating discoveries were made in the field of cold quantum mixtures, where vortices created in one component may interact with the other component. This works raise the fundamental question of the interaction between quantum vortices and matter. The generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation based formalism is applied here to model three different processes involving the interaction of quantum vortices with foreign particles: propagation of a fast classical particle in a superfluid under the influence of sound waves, scattering of a single fermion by a quantized vortex line and dynamics of vortex pairs doped with heavy bosonic matter. The obtained results allow to to clarify the details of recent experiments and acquire a better understanding of the multicomponent quantum turbulence.
Grid-generated He II turbulence in a finite channel - experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemela, J.J.; Skrbek, L.; Stalp, S.R.
2001-01-01
We present experimental data on decaying turbulence, generated by towing a grid through a stationary sample of He II. We describe in detail the experimental apparatus and physical principles that allow observation of up to six orders of magnitude of decaying vortex line density over three orders of magnitude in time using the second sound attenuation technique. (orig.)
Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.
Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz
2016-04-20
This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.
Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models
Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don
2014-01-01
Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.