Cunningham, A. M., Jr.
1986-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.
1981-01-01
j . 1978. 93. Grabowski , W.J.; "Solutions of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Vortex Breakdown," NASA CR...including foreign nations. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. LAWRENCE W. ROGERS Q LOWELL C. KEEL, Major, USAF Project...or’ a w U - a LU LU U- LU C - J ’di 2 2 C LU I- 4 S Ua * - w x 2 40 20 I- 2 LU W S ~ 00 * U. 4 I- LU a 4 U 4 2 C C LU 4 a 4a 2 I- 4 a 3 9
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukla, P.K
2002-12-30
Coherent nonlinear structures in the form of dust vortex flows have been observed in unmagnetized laboratory dusty plasmas. Our objective here is show that the dynamics of such dust vortices is governed by a modified Navier-Stokes equation (MNSE) and that the stationary solutions of the MNSE can be represented as monopolar as well as a row of identical Stuart and a row of counter-rotating vortices.
The shock-vortex interaction patterns affected by vortex flow regime and vortex models
Chang, Keun-Shik; Barik, Hrushikesh; Chang, Se-Myong
2009-08-01
We have used a third-order essentially non-oscillatory method to obtain numerical shadowgraphs for investigation of shock-vortex interaction patterns. To search different interaction patterns, we have tested two vortex models (the composite vortex model and the Taylor vortex model) and as many as 47 parametric data sets. By shock-vortex interaction, the impinging shock is deformed to a S-shape with leading and lagging parts of the shock. The vortex flow is locally accelerated by the leading shock and locally decelerated by the lagging shock, having a severely elongated vortex core with two vertices. When the leading shock escapes the vortex, implosion effect creates a high pressure in the vertex area where the flow had been most expanded. This compressed region spreads in time with two frontal waves, an induced expansion wave and an induced compression wave. They are subsonic waves when the shock-vortex interaction is weak but become supersonic waves for strong interactions. Under a intermediate interaction, however, an induced shock wave is first developed where flow speed is supersonic but is dissipated where the incoming flow is subsonic. We have identified three different interaction patterns that depend on the vortex flow regime characterized by the shock-vortex interaction.
Vortex sound in confined flows
Hofmans, Gerardus Carolus Johannus
The interaction of vortex structures with the acoustic velocity field is prerequisite for the production or absorption of acoustic energy. When the source region in which this interaction occurs is much smaller than the wavelength of the acoustic wave, it is possible to neglect wave propagation in the source region itself. Such a source region is called 'compact' and it results in a simplified description of the acoustic source. We have restricted ourselves to compact source regions. Three relevant applications have been studied: speech modelling, damping of acoustic waves by means of diaphragms, and the prediction of flow-induced resonances in bifurcated pipe systems with T-shaped junctions. Experimental as well as numerical work has been carried out for rigid in vitro models of the vocal folds. It was found that it is possible to use a simplified quasi- steady model, which describes the boundary-layer flow in the glottis, to reasonably predict the separation point during a part of one cycle of the vocal-fold movement. This results in a reasonable prediction of the source of sound in voiced speech. Furthermore, it was found that the instability of the jet, that is formed downstream of the glottis, can be a significant source of broad-band sound. A diaphragm used as a constriction in a pipe is a common element in mufflers. This configuration is investigated theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. Results of the quasi-steady flow model and of the numerical calculations are in good agreement with results of experiments. Theory also correctly describes the limit of high frequencies. For the intermediate frequencies we found some deviation between theory and experiments, which is not yet fully understood. The flow through T-joints, with sharp edges, has been numerically investigated as a function of the acoustic amplitude, the Strouhal number, and the flow configuration. In the limit of low frequencies the acoustic source in a T-joint can be described by means
Superconducting Josephson vortex flow transistors
Tavares, P A C
2002-01-01
The work reported in this thesis focuses on the development of high-temperature superconducting Josephson vortex-flow transistors (JVFTs). The JVFT is a particular type of superconducting transistor, i.e. an electromagnetic device capable of delivering gain while keeping the control and output circuits electrically isolated. Devices were fabricated from (100) YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta thin films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition on 24 deg magnesium oxide and strontium titanate bicrystals. The design of the JVFTs was guided by numerical simulations and the devices were optimised for current gain. Improvements were made to the fabrication process in order to accurately pattern the small structures required. The devices exhibited current gains higher than 60 in liquid nitrogen. Gains measured at lower temperatures were significantly higher. As part of the work a data acquisition suite was developed for the characterisation of three-terminal devices and, in particular, of JVFTs.
Boundary Layers in Laminar Vortex Flows.
Baker, Glenn Leslie
A detailed experimental study of the flow in an intense, laminar, axisymmetric vortex has been conducted in the Purdue Tornado Vortex Simulator. The complicated nature of the flow in the boundary layer of laboratory vortices and presumably on that encountered in full-scale tornadoes has been examined. After completing a number of modifications to the existing facility to improve the quality of the flow in the simulator, hot-film anemometry was employed for making velocity-component and turbulence-intensity measurements of both the free-stream and boundary layer portions of the flow. The measurements represent the first experimental boundary layer investigation of a well-defined vortex flow to appear in the literature. These results were compared with recent theoretical work by Burggraf, Stewartson and Belcher (1971) and with an exact similarity solution for line-sink boundary layers developed by the author. A comparison is also made with the numerical simulation of Wilson (1981) in which the boundary conditions were matched to those of the present experimental investigation. Expressions for the vortex core radius, the maximum tangential velocity and the maximum pressure drop are given in terms of dimensionless modeling parameters. References. Burggraf, O. R., K. Stewartson and R. Belcher, Boundary layer. induced by a potential vortex. Phys. Fluids 14, 1821-1833 (1971). Wilson, T., M. S. thesis, Vortex Boundary Layer Dynamics, Univ. Calif. Davis (1981).
Flow regimes in a trapped vortex cell
Lasagna, D.; Iuso, G.
2016-03-01
This paper presents results of an experimental investigation on the flow in a trapped vortex cell, embedded into a flat plate, and interacting with a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. The objective of the work is to describe the flow features and elucidate some of the governing physical mechanisms, in the light of recent investigations on flow separation control using vortex cells. Hot-wire velocity measurements of the shear layer bounding the cell and of the boundary layers upstream and downstream are reported, together with spectral and correlation analyses of wall-pressure fluctuation measurements. Smoke flow visualisations provide qualitative insight into some relevant features of the internal flow, namely a large-scale flow unsteadiness and possible mechanisms driving the rotation of the vortex core. Results are presented for two very different regimes: a low-Reynolds-number case where the incoming boundary layer is laminar and its momentum thickness is small compared to the cell opening, and a moderately high-Reynolds-number case, where the incoming boundary layer is turbulent and the ratio between the momentum thickness and the opening length is significantly larger than in the first case. Implications of the present findings to flow control applications of trapped vortex cells are also discussed.
Prediction and Control of Vortex Dominated and Vortex-wake Flows
Kandil, Osama
1996-01-01
This report describes the activities and accomplishments under this research grant, including a list of publications and dissertations, produced in the field of prediction and control of vortex dominated and vortex wake flows.
Characterization of Vortex Generator Induced Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika
The aim of this thesis is the characterization and modeling of the longitudinal structures actuated by vortex generators. Results from generic studies performed at low Reynolds numbers have shown that the device induced vortices possess helical structure of the vortex core. Further, their ability...... to control separation and downstream evolution across the chord of a circular sector have been studied. Similar flow structures to the ones found in the generic experiments have been found in a higher Reynolds number setting, more applicable to realistic cases common to, e.g., aeronautical applications...
Convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun
Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez; Cabello, I; Domingo, V
2008-01-01
We have discovered small whirlpools in the Sun, with a size similar to the terrestrial hurricanes (<~0.5 Mm). The theory of solar convection predicts them, but they had remained elusive so far. The vortex flows are created at the downdrafts where the plasma returns to the solar interior after cooling down, and we detect them because some magnetic bright points (BPs) follow a logarithmic spiral in their way to be engulfed by a downdraft. Our disk center observations show 0.009 vortexes per Mm^2, with a lifetime of the order of 5 min, and with no preferred sense of rotation. They are not evenly spread out over the surface, but they seem to trace the supergranulation and the mesogranulation. These observed properties are strongly biased by our type of measurement, unable to detect vortexes except when they are engulfing magnetic BPs.
Numerical Study of Tip Vortex Flows
Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer; Hafez, Mohamed
1998-01-01
This paper presents an overview and summary of the many different research work related to tip vortex flows and wake/trailing vortices as applied to practical engineering problems. As a literature survey paper, it outlines relevant analytical, theoretical, experimental and computational study found in literature. It also discusses in brief some of the fundamental aspects of the physics and its complexities. An appendix is also included. The topics included in this paper are: 1) Analytical Vortices; 2) Experimental Studies; 3) Computational Studies; 4) Wake Vortex Control and Management; 5) Wake Modeling; 6) High-Lift Systems; 7) Issues in Numerical Studies; 8) Instabilities; 9) Related Topics; 10) Visualization Tools for Vertical Flows; 11) Further Work Needed; 12) Acknowledgements; 13) References; and 14) Appendix.
Solitary vortex couples in viscoelastic Couette flow
Groisman, A; Groisman, Alexander; Steinberg, Victor
1996-01-01
We report experimental observation of a localized structure, which is of a new type for dissipative systems. It appears as a solitary vortex couple ("diwhirl") in Couette flow with highly elastic polymer solutions. A unique property of the diwhirls is that they are stationary, in contrast to the usual localized wave structures in both Hamiltonian and dissipative systems which are stabilized by wave dispersion. It is also a new object in fluid dynamics - a couple of vortices that build a single entity somewhat similar to a magnetic dipole. The diwhirls arise as a result of a purely elastic instability through a hysteretic transition at negligible Reynolds numbers. It is suggested that the vortex flow is driven by the same forces that cause the Weissenberg effect. The diwhirls have a striking asymmetry between the inflow and outflow, which is also an essential feature of the suggested elastic instability mechanism.
The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hirao K.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.
The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders
Yokoi, Y.; Hirao, K.
2013-04-01
In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and square cylinder) were also investigated. As a result of the experiment, it was shown that the flow pattern of wake flow was divided into three kinds (coupled vortex streets, biased gap flow and single vortex street) regardless of the cylinder section shape and cylinder size. Then, the region of the appearance of flow pattern was shown about each case. In the case where two each other independent vortex streets were formed, three typical flow patterns of vortex formation (in-phase coupled vortex streets, out-of-phase coupled vortex streets and complication coupled vortex streets) were observed. It was known that three configuration of vortex formation appear intermittently and alternatively.
Prediction and control of vortex-dominated and vortex-wake flows
Kandil, Osama
1993-01-01
This progress report documents the accomplishments achieved in the period from December 1, 1992 until November 30, 1993. These accomplishments include publications, national and international presentations, NASA presentations, and the research group supported under this grant. Topics covered by documents incorporated into this progress report include: active control of asymmetric conical flow using spinning and rotary oscillation; supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow; shock-vortex interaction over a 65-degree delta wing in transonic flow; three dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown; numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown; and prediction of asymmetric vortical flows around slender bodies using Navier-Stokes equations.
Particle classification in Taylor vortex flow with an axial flow
Ohmura, N.; Suemasu, T.; Asamura, Y.
2005-01-01
Particle classification phenomenon in Taylor vortex flow with an axial flow was investigated experimentally and numerically. The flow-visualization experiment by a laser-induced fluorescence method clearly revealed that there existed two distinct mixing regions at low Reynolds numbers. The tracer near the vortex cell boundary was rapidly transported axially owing to the bypass flow effect. On the other hand, the fluid element was confined to the vortex core region without being exchanged with the outer flow region. In order to observe particle classification phenomenon, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) particles suspended in the same aqueous solution of glycerol as the working fluid were fed into the top of the apparatus. Particle size was initially ranging from 10 to 80 µm. The ratio of the particle density to the fluid density was 1.04-1.05, which means the density difference between particle and fluid is very small. The suspended solution was withdrawn using a hypodermic needle every a certain time period at 30 mm above the bottom of apparatus. The fluid was sampled both near the outer wall and in vortex core. The particles sampled at 42 min having the size of 20-50 µm were mainly observed in the vortex core region. On the other hand, a large population of particles having the size of about 50-80 µm could be seen in the outer region of vortex. It was found that large particles located near the outer edge of vortices were quickly transported axially owing to the bypass flow effect. Numerical simulation also revealed that the loci of particles depended on the particle size.
Regimes of flow past a vortex generator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.
2012-01-01
A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...
Alteration of helical vortex core without change in flow topology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2011-01-01
The abrupt expansion of the slender vortex core with changes in flow topology is commonly known as vortex breakdown. We present new experimental observations of an alteration of the helical vortex core in wall bounded turbulent flow with abrupt growth in core size, but without change in flow...... topology. The helical symmetry as such is preserved, although the characteristic parameters of helical symmetry of the vortex core transfer from a smooth linear variation to a different trend under the influence of a non-uniform pressure gradient, causing an increase in helical pitch without changing its...
Flow visualization of a vortex ring interaction with porous surfaces
Hrynuk, John T.; Van Luipen, Jason; Bohl, Douglas
2012-03-01
The interaction of vortex rings of constant Reynolds number with porous surfaces composed of wire meshes of constant open area, i.e., surface porosity, but variable wire diameter is studied using flow visualization. The results indicate that several regimes of flow behavior exist in the parameter space investigated. The vortex ring passes through and immediately reforms downstream of the surface for porous surfaces with small wire mesh diameters. The transmitted vortex ring has the same diameter, but lower convection speed and circulation than the pre-interaction vortex ring. For these cases, secondary vortex rings are formed on the upstream side of the porous surface that convect upstream away from the screen. As the wire diameter of the porous surface is increased, smaller sub-scale vortical structures are formed on the transmitted vortex ring as it passes through the surface. The spatial scale of these structures is dependent on the diameter of the mesh wire. The vortex ring is disrupted but is able to reform downstream when these structures are small compared to the scale of the vortex ring. When these structures are large enough the transmitted vortex ring is disrupted and does not reform. The results indicate that the dynamics governing the vortex ring/mesh surface interaction are dependent not only on the strength of the vortex ring and the porosity of the surface, as previously thought, but also on the length scales (i.e., the diameter and spacing of the wire mesh) of the porous surface.
Front propagation in vortex-dominated flows
O'Malley, Garrett; Winokur, Justin; Solomon, Tom
2008-11-01
We present experiments that explore how the propagation of a reaction front is affected by a two-dimensional flow dominated by vortices. The reaction is the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical reaction. The flow is driven by the interaction between an electrical current passing through the fluid and a spatially-varying magnetic field produced by an array of magnets below the fluid. For some of the experiments, the forcing is strong enough to produce a weakly turbulent flow. Measurements are made both of the enhanced diffusion coefficient D^* describing transport in the flow and of the propagation speed v of a reaction front in the same flow. Scaling of v versus D^* is compared with that for the standard Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov prediction v ˜√D (with D as the molecular diffusion coefficient) for the reaction-diffusion limit with no fluid advection. We also study the effects of superdiffusive transport and Lévy flights on front propagation in a time-dependent vortex array with wavy jet regions.
Scalar Mixing In A Vortex Flow
Meunier, P.; Villermaux, E.; Leweke, T.
We present experimental and theoretical results on the evolution of a scalar blob em- bedded in the velocity field of one or two vortices, a configuration relevant to geo- physical mixing in particular. We first follow the evolution of the scalar in one vortex. The scalar blob rolls up into a spiral and then diffuses rapidly, much faster than in the absence of a vortex flow. A simple model predicts that the maximal scalar concentration decreases in time as t-3 , after a mixing time which scales like Pe1 /2 /3 (where Pe = /D is the Peclet number). This hyper-diffusion process is due to the coupled presence of stretching and diffusion, and is in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results. In contrast with this temporal variation of the scalar, the model predicts that the proba- bility distribution functions (PDF) of the scalar are almost stationnary. The agreement between experimental and theoretical PDF is excellent. Finally, we report on the evolution of the PDF of a scalar during the merging of two vortices and on the comparison law of the concentration PDF's associated with each vortices, both in laminar and turbulent situations.
Lagrangian analysis of fluid transport in empirical vortex ring flows
Shadden, Shawn C.; Dabiri, John O.; Marsden, Jerrold E.
2006-01-01
In this paper we apply dynamical systems analyses and computational tools to fluid transport in empirically measured vortex ring flows. Measurements of quasisteadily propagating vortex rings generated by a mechanical piston-cylinder apparatus reveal lobe dynamics during entrainment and detrainment that are consistent with previous theoretical and numerical studies. In addition, the vortex ring wake of a free-swimming Aurelia aurita jellyfish is measured and analyzed in the framework of dynami...
Turbulent Flow Measurement in Vortex Settling Basin
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jafar Chapokpour
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an experimental study on the three-dimensional turbulent flow field in vortex settling basin. An ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter were used to catch 3D velocitycomponents inside the basin. Detailed measurements of time-averaged velocity components, turbulent intensity components and turbulent kinetic energy were determined at different radial sections of chamber. Also the normalized time averaged absolute velocity of 3D components in contour type exhibition were conducted and it was found that the absolute velocity generally is influenced by u component of flow. It trends from high magnitude in basin center to the constant magnitude in basin side wall. The normalized turbulent intensity ofthree components was investigated individually. It was found that intensity of 3D components in vicinity of central air core is higher than other regions, decreasing by moving towards basin sidewall except for the sections that influenced directly by entrance flow jet and sidewall exiting overflow. The results of turbulence kinetic energy also had the same interpretation like turbulence intensity and affected by the same boundary conditions which cover turbulence intensity of 3 velocity components overly.
The Interaction Vortex Flow Around Two Bluff Cylinders
Hirao K.; Yokoi Y.
2013-01-01
In this study, the interaction vortex flow features around a pair of parallel arranged bluff cylinders were observed by visualizing water flow experiment at the range of the gap ratio G/d=0~3. It was obtained that the result of established wind tunnel test and the result of this water tank test agreed about the characteristics of vortex shedding when varying the distance of circular cylinder gap. The flow pattern and vortex shedding frequency of another type bluff cylinder (triangular and squ...
Vortex Analysis of Intra-Aneurismal Flow in Cerebral Aneurysms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Sunderland
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This study aims to develop an alternative vortex analysis method by measuring structure ofIntracranial aneurysm (IA flow vortexes across the cardiac cycle, to quantify temporal stability of aneurismal flow. Hemodynamics were modeled in “patient-specific” geometries, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. Modified versions of known λ2 and Q-criterion methods identified vortex regions; then regions were segmented out using the classical marching cube algorithm. Temporal stability was measured by the degree of vortex overlap (DVO at each step of a cardiac cycle against a cycle-averaged vortex and by the change in number of cores over the cycle. No statistical differences exist in DVO or number of vortex cores between 5 terminal IAs and 5 sidewall IAs. No strong correlation exists between vortex core characteristics and geometric or hemodynamic characteristics of IAs. Statistical independence suggests this proposed method may provide novel IA information. However, threshold values used to determine the vortex core regions and resolution of velocity data influenced analysis outcomes and have to be addressed in future studies. In conclusions, preliminary results show that the proposed methodology may help give novel insight toward aneurismal flow characteristic and help in future risk assessment given more developments.
Vortex Analysis of Intra-Aneurismal Flow in Cerebral Aneurysms
Sunderland, Kevin; Haferman, Christopher; Chintalapani, Gouthami
2016-01-01
This study aims to develop an alternative vortex analysis method by measuring structure ofIntracranial aneurysm (IA) flow vortexes across the cardiac cycle, to quantify temporal stability of aneurismal flow. Hemodynamics were modeled in “patient-specific” geometries, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Modified versions of known λ2 and Q-criterion methods identified vortex regions; then regions were segmented out using the classical marching cube algorithm. Temporal stability was measured by the degree of vortex overlap (DVO) at each step of a cardiac cycle against a cycle-averaged vortex and by the change in number of cores over the cycle. No statistical differences exist in DVO or number of vortex cores between 5 terminal IAs and 5 sidewall IAs. No strong correlation exists between vortex core characteristics and geometric or hemodynamic characteristics of IAs. Statistical independence suggests this proposed method may provide novel IA information. However, threshold values used to determine the vortex core regions and resolution of velocity data influenced analysis outcomes and have to be addressed in future studies. In conclusions, preliminary results show that the proposed methodology may help give novel insight toward aneurismal flow characteristic and help in future risk assessment given more developments. PMID:27891172
Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex
Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham
2014-11-01
We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).
Experimental Studies on Turbulence Kinetic Energy in Confined Vortex Flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L.Yan; G.H.Vatistas; 等
2000-01-01
Turbulence kinetic energies in confined vortex flows have been studied.The studies were based on the experiments performed in a vortex chamber,In the experiments,a Laser Doppler Anemometry(LDA) was used to perform flow measurements inside the vortex chamber,which provided the data for the kinetic energy analysis.The studies concentrated on the influences of the contraction ratio and the inlet air flow rate on the kinetic energy,and analyzed the characteristics of the kinetic energy in the confined vortex flows,including the distributions of the tangential component,radial component and total turbulence kinetic energy,In the paper,both the experimental techniques and the experimental results were presented.Based on a similarity analyis and the experimental data,an empirical scaling formula was proposed so that the tangential component of the turbulence kinetic energy was dependent only on the parameter of the contraction ratio.
Vortex dominated flows. Analysis and computation for multiple scale phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ting, L. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences; Klein, R. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik und Informatik; Knio, O.M. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2007-07-01
This monograph provides in-depth analyses of vortex dominated flows via matched and multiscale asymptotics, and demonstrates how insight gained through these analyses can be exploited in the construction of robust, efficient, and accurate numerical techniques. The book explores the dynamics of slender vortex filaments in detail, including fundamental derivations, compressible core structure, weakly non-linear limit regimes, and associated numerical methods. Similarly, the volume covers asymptotic analysis and computational techniques for weakly compressible flows involving vortex-generated sound and thermoacoustics. The book is addressed to both graduate students and researchers. (orig.)
The analysis of flow stability in a vortex furance model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anufriev Igor S.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Results of experimental study of the pulsation characteristics of a flow in isothermal model of vortex furnace with vertically oriented nozzles of secondary blast are obtained. With use of laser Doppler measuring system and pressure pulsations analyzer the data about the pressure and velocity pulsations has been received. Spectra of pressure and velocity pulsations at various regime parameters are presented. Absence of non-stationary structures, such as precessing vortex core of a flow, is shown.
Self-organized vortex multiplets in swirling flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Naumov, Igor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2008-01-01
The possibility of double vortex multiplet formation at the center of an intensively swirling cocurrent flow generated in a cylindrical container by its rotating lid is reported for the first time. The boundary of the transition to unsteady flow regimes, which arise as a result of the equilibrium...... rotation of self-organized vortex multiplets (triplet, double triplet, double doublet, and quadruplet), has been experimentally determined for cylinders with the aspect (height to radius) ratios in a wider interval than that studied previously....
Steady vortex force theory and slender-wing flow diagnosis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Y.T.Yang; R.K.Zhang; Y.R.An; J.Z.Wu
2007-01-01
The concept vortex force in aerodynamics is sys-tematically examined based on a new steady vortex-force theory (Wu et al., Vorticity and vortex dynamics, Springer, 2006) which expresses the aerodynamic force (and moment) by the volume and boundary integrals of the Lamb vector.In this paper, the underlying physics of this theory is explo-red, including the general role of the Lamb vector in non-linear aerodynamics, its initial formation, and its relevance to the total-pressure non-uniformity. As a typical example, the theory is applied to the flow over a slender delta wing at a large angle of attack. The highly localized flow structures with high Lamb-vector peaks are identified in terms of their net contribution to various constituents of the total aerody-namic force. This vortex-force diagnosis sheds new light on the flow control and configuration optimization.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Akira OGAWA; Tutomu OONO; Hayato OKABE; Noriaki AKIBA; Taketo OOYAGI
2005-01-01
@@ Vortex flow is applied to a cyclone dust collector, a vortex combustion chamber, and a vortex diode for vortex control. In order to apply the vortex flow to the industries, it is necessary to keep the stable flow condition and to estimate the response time of the transient flow process and also the intensity of the vortex flow. For control vortex flow, two types of vortex chamber with two inlet pipes were designed. One of them is to promote the vortex flow named as Co-Rotating Flow System and another one is to hinder the vortex flow named as Counter-Rotating Flow System. The pressure drops and the velocity distributions were measured for these vortex chambers. The estimation of the tangential velocity by the application of the angular momentum flux is compared with the measured velocity by a cylindrical Pitot-tube. The characteristics of the total pressure drop could be explained by introducing the circulation.
Prospects for Eulerian CFD analysis of helicopter vortex flows
Drela, Mark; Murman, Earll M.
1987-01-01
The applicability of current finite-volume CFD algorithms based on the Euler equations to the vortex flow over a helicopter in forward flight is investigated analytically. The general characteristics of the flow are reviewed; existing Euler, Navier-Stokes, perturbation, high-order, and adaptive methods are briefly characterized; and a novel Eulerian/Lagrangian approach with entropy and vorticity corrections is presented in detail. Numerical results for simple convection of a finite-core Lamb vortex moving downstream with its axis perpendicular to the flow are presented in graphs, and the possibility of extending the method to three-dimensional, viscous, and shock flows is discussed.
Vortex Simulation of the Bubbly Flow around a Hydrofoil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomomi Uchiyama
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This study is concerned with the two-dimensional simulation for an air-water bubbly flow around a hydrofoil. The vortex method, proposed by the authors for gas-liquid two-phase free turbulent flow in a prior paper, is applied for the simulation. The liquid vorticity field is discrerized by vortex elements, and the behavior of vortex element and the bubble motion are simultaneously computed by the Lagrangian approach. The effect of bubble motion on the liquid flow is taken into account through the change in the strength of vortex element. The bubbly flow around a hydrofoil of NACA4412 with a chord length 100 mm is simulated. The Reynolds number is 2.5×105, the bubble diameter is 1 mm, and the volumetric flow ratio of bubble to whole fluid is 0.048. It is confirmed that the simulated distributions of air volume fraction and pressure agree well with the trend of the measurement and that the effect of angle of attack on the flow is favorably analyzed. These demonstrate that the vortex method is applicable to the bubbly flow analysis around a hydrofoil.
Evolution of a Vortex in a Strain Flow
Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Surko, C. M.
2016-12-01
Experiments and vortex-in-cell simulations are used to study an initially axisymmetric, spatially distributed vortex subject to an externally imposed strain flow. The experiments use a magnetized pure electron plasma to model an inviscid two-dimensional fluid. The results are compared to a theory assuming an elliptical region of constant vorticity. For relatively flat vorticity profiles, the dynamics and stability threshold are in close quantitative agreement with the theory. Physics beyond the constant-vorticity model, such as vortex stripping, is investigated by studying the behavior of nonflat vorticity profiles.
Stereo particle image velocimetry applied to a vortex pipe flow
Zhang, Zherui; Hugo, Ronald J.
2006-03-01
Stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been employed to study a vortex generated via tangential injection of water in a 2.25 inch (57 mm) diameter pipe for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1,118 to 63,367. Methods of decreasing pipe-induced optical distortion and the PIV calibration technique are addressed. The mean velocity field analyses have shown spatial similarity and revealed four distinct flow regions starting from the central axis of rotation to the pipe wall in the vortex flows. Turbulence statistical data and vortex core location data suggest that velocity fluctuations are due to the axis of the in-line vortex distorting in the shape of a spiral.
Vortex sinks with axial flow: Solution and applications
Shtern, Vladimir; Borissov, Anatoly; Hussain, Fazle
1997-10-01
In this paper we develop a new class of analytical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations and suggest ways to predict and control complex swirling flows. We consider vortex sinks on curved axisymmetric surfaces with an axial flow and obtain a five-parameter solution family that describes a large variety of flow patterns and models fluid motion in a cylindrical can, whirlpools, tornadoes, and cosmic swirling jets. The singularity of these solutions on the flow axis is removed by matching them with swirling jets. The resulting composite solutions describe flows, consisting of up to seven separation regions (recirculatory "bubbles" and vortex rings), and model flows in the Ranque-Hilsch tube, in the meniscus of electrosprays, in vortex breakdown, and in an industrial vortex burner. The analytical solutions allow a clear understanding of how different control parameters affect the flow and guide selection of optimal parameter values for desired flow features. The approach permits extension to swirling flows with heat transfer and chemical reaction, and have the potential of being significantly useful for further detailed investigation by direct or large-eddy numerical simulations as well as laboratory experimentation.
Lorincz, D. J.
1980-01-01
The vortex flows generated at subsonic speed during the final portion of atmospheric reentry were defined using a 0.01 scale model of the orbiter in a diagnostic water tunnel. Flow visualization photographs were obtained over an angle-of-attack range to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics were determined as a function of angle-of-attack at zero sideslip. Vortex flows were found to develop on the highly swept glove, on the wing, and on the upper surface of the fuselage. No significant asymmetries were observed at zero sideslip in the water tunnel tests. The sensitivity of the upper surface vortex flow fields to variations in sideslip angle was also studied. The vortex formed on the glove remained very stable in position above the wing up through the 10 deg of sideslip tested. There was a change in the vortex lifts under sideslip due to effective change in leading-edge sweep angles. Asymmetric flow separation occurred on the upper surface of the fuselage at small sideslip angles. The influence of vortex flow fields in sideslip on the lateral/ directional characteristics of the orbiter is discussed.
Mechanisms of Vortex Evolution in Unsteady Stalled Flows
Buchholz, James; Wabick, Kevin; Akkala, James; Eslam Panah, Azar
2014-11-01
Formation of a leading-edge vortex is considered on plunging and rotating flat plates at a chord-based Reynolds number of 104. In all cases, a concentrated leading-edge vortex is formed. The physical mechanisms of vorticity transport governing the growth and evolution of the vortex are investigated within selected spanwise regions. It is demonstrated that the net flux magnitude of (opposite-sign) secondary vorticity is often significant during formation of the leading-edge vortex, in comparison to that of the leading-edge shear layer, suggesting that the secondary flux plays a substantial role in regulating the growth and evolution of leading-edge vortex circulation. Other mechanisms of vorticity transport will also be discussed, including the importance of spanwise flow to vortex circulation, and the roles of vortex tilting and stretching on the evolution of the vorticity field. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through Grant FA9550-11-1-0019 and the National Science Foundation Iowa EPSCoR program through Grant EPS1101284.
On stagnation points and streamline topology in vortex flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten
1998-01-01
of the stagnation point in a flow produced by three vortices with sum of strengths zero is found. Using topological arguments the distinct streamline patterns for flow about three vortices are also determined. Partial results are given for two special sets of vortex strengths on the changes between these patterns...
RESEARCH ON TURBULENT FLOW WITHIN THE VORTEX PUMP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Hong-xun
2004-01-01
Based on the standard k-ε turbulence model and the RANS equations, the finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm were adopted to carry out the three-dimensional viscous numerical simulation of the internal flow within a vortex pump in double reference frames. According to the results of numerical simulation, the internal flow in the vortex pump was analyzed, and the calculated results of blade surface pressure of the impeller were compared with experimental results. The maximum relative error is 6.6% between calculated value and experimental value of the pump head under operation conditions.
Alleviation of fuselage form drag using vortex flows: Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wortman, A.
1987-09-15
The concept of using vortex generators to reduce the fuselage form drag of transport aircraft combines the outflow from the plane of symmetry which is induced by the rotational component of the vortex flow with the energization of the boundary layer to reduce the momentum thickness and to delay or eliminate flow separation. This idea was first advanced by the author in 1981. Under a DOE grant, the concept was validated in wind tunnel tests of approximately 1:17 scale models of fuselages of Boeing 747 and Lockheed C-5 aircraft. The search for the minimum drag involved three vortex generator configurations with three sizes of each in six locations clustered in the aft regions of the fuselages at the beginning of the tail upsweep. The local Reynolds number, which is referred to the length of boundary layer run from the nose, was approximately 10{sup 7} so that a fully developed turbulent boundary layer was present. Vortex generator planforms ranged from swept tapered, through swept straight, to swept reverse tapered wings whose semi-spans ranged from 50% to 125% of the local boundary layer thickness. Pitch angles of the vortex generators were varied by inboard actuators under the control of an external proportional digital radio controller. It was found that certain combinations of vortex generator parameters increased drag. However, with certain configurations, locations, and pitch angles of vortex generators, the highest drag reductions were 3% for the 747 and about 6% for the C-5, thus confirming the arguments that effectiveness increases with the rate of upsweep of the tail. Greatest gains in performance are therefore expected on aft loading military transports. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Analysis of design parameters and flow characteristics of the vortex valve for SIT flow control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Young Dong; Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, Seong O.; Kim, Young In
1997-01-01
This study was performed to provide a technical basis for the development of the vortex valve which will be adopted in Korean Advanced Reactor. The influence of nondimensional and geometrical parameters of the vortex valve were investigated by analyzing the flow field of the vortex chamber, and the performance related parameters were evaluated by utilizing of the published experimental and analytical data. Also the level transients of the stand pipe were investigated by using of the simplified analytical model. In order to obtain the more detailed information on the vortex flow field, three dimensional preliminary analyses for the vortex valve design were conducted by FLUENT code. This study were carried out by using the simplified analytical model of the vortex valve and downstream pipe. However, the detailed analysis on the integrated system of the vortex valve with the as built design data and the required operating conditions should be performed to obtain the more accurate results on the vortex valve behavior. Also the experimental study over a wide range of operating conditions to develop the correlation of the design parameters and the performance verification should be performed for the practical design and engineering applications of the vortex valve. The results of this study can be used as a basic information for the development of the vortex valve design for the SIT of Korean Advanced Reactor. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs., 33 figs.
Compressible Turbulent Flow Numerical Simulations of Tip Vortex Cavitation
Khatami, F.; Weide, van der E.T.A.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.
2015-01-01
For an elliptic Arndt’s hydrofoil numerical simulations of vortex cavitation are presented. An equilibrium cavitation model is employed. This single-fluid model assumes local thermodynamic and mechanical equilibrium in the mixture region of the flow, is employed. Furthermore, for characterizing the
Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.
2012-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...
Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.
2014-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...
Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.
2002-01-01
a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 a(c) ...The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...
Numerical simulation of the characteristics of turbulent Taylor vortex flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Xiantao; PAN Jiazhen; CHEN Liqing; SHI Yan; CHEN Wenmei; CHU Liangyin
2007-01-01
Turbulent Taylor vortex flow,which is contained between a rotating inner cylinder and a coaxial fixed outer cylinder with fixed ends,is simulated by applying the development in Reynolds stress equations mold (RSM) of the micro-perturbation.This resulted from the truncation error between the numerical solution and exact solution of the Reynolds stress equations.Based on the numerical simulation results of the turbulent Taylor vortex flow,its characteristics such as the fluctuation of the flow field,the precipitous drop of azimuthal velocity,the jet flow of radial velocity,the periodicity of axial velocity,the wave periodicity of pressure distribution,the polarization of shear stress on the walls,and the turbulence intensity in the jet region,are discussed.Comparing the pilot results measured by previous methods,the relative error of the characteristics predicted by simulation is less than 30%.
A Hybrid Vortex Sheet / Point Vortex Model for Unsteady Separated Flows
Darakananda, Darwin; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Colonius, Tim; Williams, David R.
2015-11-01
The control of separated flow over an airfoil is essential for obtaining lift enhancement, drag reduction, and the overall ability to perform high agility maneuvers. In order to develop reliable flight control systems capable of realizing agile maneuvers, we need a low-order aerodynamics model that can accurately predict the force response of an airfoil to arbitrary disturbances and/or actuation. In the present work, we integrate vortex sheets and variable strength point vortices into a method that is able to capture the formation of coherent vortex structures while remaining computationally tractable for control purposes. The role of the vortex sheet is limited to tracking the dynamics of the shear layer immediately behind the airfoil. When parts of the sheet develop into large scale structures, those sections are replaced by variable strength point vortices. We prevent the vortex sheets from growing indefinitely by truncating the tips of the sheets and transfering their circulation into nearby point vortices whenever the length of sheet exceeds a threshold. We demonstrate the model on a variety of canonical problems, including pitch-up and impulse translation of an airfoil at various angles of attack. Support by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0328) with program manager Dr. Douglas Smith is gratefully acknowledged.
Evolution of an electron plasma vortex in a strain flow
Danielson, J. R.
2016-10-01
Coherent vortex structures are ubiquitous in fluids and plasmas and are examples of self-organized structures in nonlinear dynamical systems. The fate of these structures in strain and shear flows is an important issue in many physical systems, including geophysical fluids and shear suppression of turbulence in plasmas. In two-dimensions, an inviscid, incompressible, ideal fluid can be modeled with the Euler equations, which is perhaps the simplest system that supports vortices. The Drift-Poisson equations for pure electron plasmas in a strong, uniform magnetic field are isomorphic to the Euler equations, and so electron plasmas are an excellent test bed for the study of 2D vortex dynamics. This talk will describe results from a new experiment using pure electron plasmas in a specially designed Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap to study the evolution of an initially axisymmetric 2D vortex subject to externally imposed strains. Complementary vortex-in-cell simulations are conducted to validate the 2D nature of the experimental results and to extend the parameter range of these studies. Data for vortex destruction using both instantaneously applied and time dependent strains with flat (constant vorticity) and extended radial profiles will be presented. The role of vortex self-organization will be discussed. A simple 2D model works well for flat vorticity profiles. However, extended profiles exhibit more complicated behavior, such as filamentation and stripping; and these effects and their consequences will be discussed. Work done in collaboration with N. C. Hurst, D. H. E. Dubin, and C. M. Surko.
Shear-dependant toroidal vortex flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khorasani, Nariman Ashrafi; Haghighi, Habib Karimi [Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-01-15
Pseudoplastic circular Couette flow in annulus is investigated. The flow viscosity is dependent on the shear rate, which directly affects the conservation equations that are solved in the present study by the spectral method in the present study. The pseudoplastic model adopted here is shown to be a suitable representative of nonlinear fluids. Unlike the previous studies, where only the square of shear rate term in the viscosity expression was considered to ease the numerical manipulations, in the present study takes the term containing the quadratic power into account. The curved streamlines of the circular Couette flow can cause a centrifugal instability leading to toroidal vortices, known as Taylor vortices. It is further found that the critical Taylor number becomes lower as the pseudoplastic effect increases. Comparison with existing measurements on pseudoplastic circular Couette flow results in good agreement.
Vortex source flowing into vacuum under thermal crisis
Kucherov, A. N.
2013-07-01
Thermal crisis of a stationary vortex source flowing to vacuum is considered for air on the basis of the model of a diatomic gas with variable heat capacities due to the excitation of vibrational degrees of freedom of molecules. The versions with different heat supply laws are compared. The effect of the size of the heat-release region (from close-to-zero value to that exceeding the minimal radius of the vortex source by tens of times) as well as the effect of the circulation of the flow on the critical parameters determining thermal crisis are considered. A qualitative difference from the thermal crisis in a perfect (ideal) gas with constant heat capacities is demonstrated.
Edge Vortex Flow Due to Inhomogeneous Ion Concentration
Sugioka, Hideyuki
2017-04-01
The ion distribution of an open parallel electrode system is not known even though it is often used to measure the electrical characteristics of an electrolyte. Thus, for an open electrode system, we perform a non-steady direct multiphysics simulation based on the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Stokes equations and find that inhomogeneous ion concentrations at edges cause vortex flows and suppress the anomalous increase in the ion concentration near the electrodes. A surprising aspect of our findings is that the large vortex flows at the edges approximately maintain the ion-conserving condition, and thus the ion distribution of an open electrode system can be approximated by the solution of a closed electrode system that considers the ion-conserving condition rather than the Gouy-Chapman solution, which neglects the ion-conserving condition. We believe that our findings make a significant contribution to the understanding of surface science.
Magnetohydrodynamic Vortex Behavior in Free-Surface Channel Flow
Kubricht, J.; Rhoads, J.; Spence, E.; Ji, H.
2011-10-01
Flowing liquid plasma-facing systems have been proposed for fusion devices due to their structural consistency and capability to withstand enormous heat fluxes. In support of these designs, the effects of magnetic field on the thermal mixing of conductive fluids need to be studied and understood. The Princeton Liquid Metal Experiment (LMX) consists of a free-surface, externally driven channel flow subjected to a strong vertical magnetic field. LMX uses an infrared camera and non-intrusive heat signatures to visually study the vortex street of a vertical cylinder while an array of potential probes has been installed to map the velocity profile for varying magnetic field strengths. Our studies show a decrease in surface activity with increasing field strength as well as distinct changes in vortex behavior. Velocity distributions across the channel are compared with infrared observations and the relationship between Strouhal number and magnetic field strength is examined.
On the Vortex Filament Conjecture for Euler Flows
Jerrard, Robert L.; Seis, Christian
2017-04-01
In this paper, we study the evolution of a vortex filament in an incompressible ideal fluid. Under the assumption that the vorticity is concentrated along a smooth curve in R3, we prove that the curve evolves to leading order by binormal curvature flow. Our approach combines new estimates on the distance of the corresponding Hamiltonian-Poisson structures with stability estimates recently developed in Jerrard and Smets (J Eur Math Soc (JEMS) 17(6):1487-1515, 2015).
Advanced overset methods for vortex dominated flows
Foster, Norman F.
A newly implemented computational method of high-order accuracy is presented for the accurate calculation of unsteady vortical structures that may produce aeroacoustic sources, or affect downstream structural responses. The method involves prediction of the mean flow field by solving the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver that employs high-order discretization on overlapping (overset) grid systems. The method dramatically reduces the artificial dissipation and dispersion of vortical flow features that would ordinarily be lost or degraded with the use of current methods. Complex domains are discretized using an overset grid strategy that allows for the use of multiple high quality structured meshes. The high-order method is developed and incorporated into a generalized overset grid assembly scheme, which allows high-order spatial accuracy of the NSE solutions to be maintained across overset grid boundaries. Comparisons are made to calculations that do not preserve high-order accuracy at overset boundaries, and insight is obtained into the effects and sensitivities of different treatments of overlapping boundaries. A nested block adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method has also been developed, within the context of the overset paradigm. The method is shown to significantly improve accuracy for a given computational cell count by tracking dynamic vortical features using appropriate dynamic refinement and coarsening, and its implementation in the context of the high-order overset method is presented. The computational procedures presented herein are tested against analytic and canonical cases (slightly compressible, M ≤ 0.5, and incompressible mean flows) in order to characterize the accuracy of flow field calculations using high-order discretization and overset schemes across overlapping grid boundaries. The methods are also extended to far more complex systems including the transport of rotorcraft hub vorticity to
Wall Shear Rates in Taylor Vortex Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Sobolik
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Wall shear rate and its axial and azimuthal components were evaluated in stable Taylor vortices. The measurements were carried out in a broad interval of Taylor numbers (52-725 and several gap width (R1/R2 = 0.5 – 0.8 by two three-segment electrodiffusion probes and three single probes flush mounted in the wall of the outer fixed cylinder. The axial distribution of wall shear rate components was obtained by sweeping the vortices along the probes using a slow axial flow. The experimental results were verified by CFD simulations. The knowledge of local wall shear rates and its fluctuations is of primordial interest for industrial applications like tangential filtration, membrane reactors and bioreactors containing shear sensitive cells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenkai Xu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation (DNS was carried out to study twin swirling jets which are issued from two parallel nozzles at a Reynolds number of Re = 5000 and three swirl levels of S = 0.68, 1.08, and 1.42, respectively. The basic structures of vortex-vortex interaction and temporal evolution are illustrated. The characteristics of axial variation of turbulent fluctuation velocities, in both the near and far field, in comparison to a single swirling jet, are shown to explore the effects of vortex-vortex interaction on turbulence modifications. Moreover, the second order turbulent fluctuations are also shown, by which the modification of turbulence associated with the coherent or correlated turbulent fluctuation and turbulent kinetic energy transport characteristics are clearly indicated. It is found that the twin swirling flow has a fairly strong localized vortex-vortex interaction between a pair of inversely rotated vortices. The location and strength of interaction depend on swirl level greatly. The modification of vortex takes place by transforming large-scale vortices into complex small ones, whereas the modulation of turbulent kinetic energy is continuously augmented by strong vortex modification.
Inhomogeneous vortex tangles in counterflow superfluid turbulence: flow in convergent channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saluto Lidia
2016-06-01
Full Text Available We investigate the evolution equation for the average vortex length per unit volume L of superfluid turbulence in inhomogeneous flows. Inhomogeneities in line density L andincounterflowvelocity V may contribute to vortex diffusion, vortex formation and vortex destruction. We explore two different families of contributions: those arising from asecondorder expansionofthe Vinenequationitself, andthose whichare notrelated to the original Vinen equation but must be stated by adding to it second-order terms obtained from dimensional analysis or other physical arguments.
Recent development of vortex method in incompressible viscous bluff body flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Lan; JI Feng; FAN Jian-ren; CEN Ke-fa
2005-01-01
Vortex methods have been alternative tools of finite element and finite difference methods for several decades. This paper presents a brief review of vortex method development in the last decades and introduces efficient vortex methods developed for high Reynolds number bluffbody flows and suitable for running on parallel computer architectures. Included in this study are particle strength exchange methods, core-spreading method, deterministic particle method and hybrid vortex methods. Combined with conservative methods, vortex methods can comprise the most available tools for simulations of three-dimensional complex bluff body flows at high Reynolds numbers.
Vortex-based spatiotemporal characterization of nonlinear flows
Byrne, Gregory A.
Although the ubiquity of vortices in nature has been recognized by artists for over seven centuries, it was the work of artist and scientist Leonardo da Vinci that provided the monumental transition from an aesthetic form to a scientific tool. DaVinci used vortices to describe the motions he observed in air currents, flowing water and blood flow in the human heart. Five centuries later, the Navier-Stokes equations allow us to recreate the swirling motions of fluid observed in nature. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have provided a lens through which to study the role of vortices in a wide variety of modern day applications. The research summarized below represents an effort to look through this lens and bring into focus the practical use of vortices in describing nonlinear flows. Vortex-based spatiotemporal characterizations are obtained using two specific mathematical tools: vortex core lines (VCL) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). By applying these tools, we find that vortices continue to provide new insights in the realm of biofluids, urban flows and the phase space of dynamical systems. The insights we have gained are described in this thesis. Our primary focus is on biofluids. Specifically, we seek to gain new insights into the connection between vortices and vascular diseases in order to provide more effective methods for clinical diagnosis and treatment. We highlight several applications in which VCL and POD are used to characterize the flow conditions in a heart pump, identify stenosis in carotid arteries and validate numerical models against PIV-based experimental data. Next, we quantify the spatial complexity and temporal stability of hemodynamics generated by a database of 210 patient-specific aneurysm geometries. Visual classifications of the hemodynamics are compared to the automated, quantitative classifications. The quantities characterizing the hemodynamics are then compared to clinical data to determine conditions that are
Lan, C. Edward
1985-01-01
A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.
VORTEX FLOW FIELD IN A SCOUR HOLE AROUND ABUTMENTS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdul Karim BARBHUIYA; Subhasish DEY
2003-01-01
The three-dimensional flow field in a scour hole around different abutments under a clear water regime was experimentally measured in a laboratory flume, using the Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Three types of abutments used in the experiments were vertical-wall (rectangular section), 45° wing-wall (45° polygonal section) and semicircular. The threedimensional time-averaged velocity components were detected at different vertical planes for vertical-wall abutment and azimuthal planes for wing-wall and semicircular abutments. The velocity components were also measured at different horizontal planes. In the upstream, presentations of flow field through vector plots at vertical / azimuthal and horizontal planes show the existence of a primary vortex associated with the downflow inside the scour hole. On the other hand, in the downstream, the flow field shows a reversed flow near the abutments having a subsequent recovery with a passage of flow as a part of the main flow. The data presented in this paper would be useful to the researchers for the development and verification of mathematical models of flow field in a scour hole at bridge abutments.
A simple mechanism for controlling vortex breakdown in a closed flow
Cabeza, C; Martí, A C; Sarasua, G; Bove, Italo; Marti, Arturo C.; Sarasua, Gustavo
2005-01-01
Vortex breakdown can be described as a change in vortex core structures in which a recirculation flux induces the formation of bubbles in the rotation axis. The development and control of a laminar vortex breakdown of a flow enclosed in a cylinder is studied both theoretical and experimentally. We show that the vortex breakdown can be controlled by the introduction of a small fixed rod in the axis of the cylinder. This method is simpler than those previously proposed, since it does not require any auxiliary device system. The experimental observations are consistent with the results of a simple model to predict the onset of vortex breakdown.
Symmetry plane model for turbulent flows with vortex generators
Arnaud, Gilles L.; Russell, David A.
1991-01-01
An approximate procedure is proposed for predicting the performance of counterrotating vortex-generator installations in incompressible flow. An inviscid calculation that includes the motion of the vortices is used to obtain crossflow velocities at the boundary-layer edge as a function of initial position, spacing, and strength of the vortices, and local values of the spanwise gradient are then folded into an integral turbulent-boundary layer procedure applied in the plane of symmetry. Special attention is paid to the consistency of the approximations and equations used. The two-dimensional aerodynamics of vortex generator installations on a NACA 0016 airfoil at angle-of-attack are estimated in this manner, and the results compared with experiments carried out with a 30-cm chord wing mounted in a 2.4 x 3.6-m cross-section wind tunnel and tested at chord Reynolds numbers of 0.7 and 1.4 x 10 to the 6th. Agreement in the separation location is found for these complex flows for a range of conditions.
Axisymmetrical electric vortex flow in a corrugated pipe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freyberg, Ya.Zh.; Shcherbinin, E.V.
1977-10-01
The calculation of electric vortex flows, i.e., flows of an electrically conducting fluid arising as a result of the interaction of an electric current with the natural magnetic field, can be begun by constructing the electromagnetic force. The simplest means for constructing the electromagnetic force is to use certain harmonics of the basic equation. This article analyzes a solution of the equation which is periodic with respect to z. An effect is observed which is similar to the phenomenon, well-known in the mechanics of solids, in which the force of friction and the moment applied to a body is significant in generating the motion, in spite of the fact that the total force acting on the supporting element (the pipe in this case) is equal to zero, as for example the rolling motion of a coil in the direction opposite to the force applied to the winding. 7 references, 5 figures.
Bluff Body Flow Simulation Using a Vortex Element Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anthony Leonard; Phillippe Chatelain; Michael Rebel
2004-09-30
Heavy ground vehicles, especially those involved in long-haul freight transportation, consume a significant part of our nation's energy supply. it is therefore of utmost importance to improve their efficiency, both to reduce emissions and to decrease reliance on imported oil. At highway speeds, more than half of the power consumed by a typical semi truck goes into overcoming aerodynamic drag, a fraction which increases with speed and crosswind. Thanks to better tools and increased awareness, recent years have seen substantial aerodynamic improvements by the truck industry, such as tractor/trailer height matching, radiator area reduction, and swept fairings. However, there remains substantial room for improvement as understanding of turbulent fluid dynamics grows. The group's research effort focused on vortex particle methods, a novel approach for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Where common CFD methods solve or model the Navier-Stokes equations on a grid which stretches from the truck surface outward, vortex particle methods solve the vorticity equation on a Lagrangian basis of smooth particles and do not require a grid. They worked to advance the state of the art in vortex particle methods, improving their ability to handle the complicated, high Reynolds number flow around heavy vehicles. Specific challenges that they have addressed include finding strategies to accurate capture vorticity generation and resultant forces at the truck wall, handling the aerodynamics of spinning bodies such as tires, application of the method to the GTS model, computation time reduction through improved integration methods, a closest point transform for particle method in complex geometrics, and work on large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling.
Generalized Kutta–Joukowski theorem for multi-vortex and multi-airfoil flow (a lumped vortex model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bai Chenyuan
2014-02-01
Full Text Available For purpose of easy identification of the role of free vortices on the lift and drag and for purpose of fast or engineering evaluation of forces for each individual body, we will extend in this paper the Kutta–Joukowski (KJ theorem to the case of inviscid flow with multiple free vortices and multiple airfoils. The major simplification used in this paper is that each airfoil is represented by a lumped vortex, which may hold true when the distances between vortices and bodies are large enough. It is found that the Kutta–Joukowski theorem still holds provided that the local freestream velocity and the circulation of the bound vortex are modified by the induced velocity due to the outside vortices and airfoils. We will demonstrate how to use the present result to identify the role of vortices on the forces according to their position, strength and rotation direction. Moreover, we will apply the present results to a two-cylinder example of Crowdy and the Wagner example to demonstrate how to perform fast force approximation for multi-body and multi-vortex problems. The lumped vortex assumption has the advantage of giving such kinds of approximate results which are very easy to use. The lack of accuracy for such a fast evaluation will be compensated by a rigorous extension, with the lumped vortex assumption removed and with vortex production included, in a forthcoming paper.
Generalized Kutta-Joukowski theorem for multi-vortex and multi-airfoil flow (a lumped vortex model)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bai Chenyuan; Wu Ziniu
2014-01-01
For purpose of easy identification of the role of free vortices on the lift and drag and for purpose of fast or engineering evaluation of forces for each individual body, we will extend in this paper the Kutta-Joukowski (KJ) theorem to the case of inviscid flow with multiple free vortices and multiple airfoils. The major simplification used in this paper is that each airfoil is represented by a lumped vortex, which may hold true when the distances between vortices and bodies are large enough. It is found that the Kutta-Joukowski theorem still holds provided that the local freestream velocity and the circulation of the bound vortex are modified by the induced velocity due to the out-side vortices and airfoils. We will demonstrate how to use the present result to identify the role of vortices on the forces according to their position, strength and rotation direction. Moreover, we will apply the present results to a two-cylinder example of Crowdy and the Wagner example to demon-strate how to perform fast force approximation for multi-body and multi-vortex problems. The lumped vortex assumption has the advantage of giving such kinds of approximate results which are very easy to use. The lack of accuracy for such a fast evaluation will be compensated by a rig-orous extension, with the lumped vortex assumption removed and with vortex production included, in a forthcoming paper.
Flow characteristics on the blade channel vortex in the Francis turbine
Guo, P. C.; Wang, Z. N.; Luo, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Zuo, J. L.
2016-05-01
Depending on the long-term hydraulic development of Francis turbine, the blade channel vortex phenomenon was investigated systematically from hydraulic design, experimental and numerical computation in this paper. The blade channel vortex difference between the high water head and low water head turbine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the relationship between the blade channel vortex and the operating stability of hydraulic turbine was also investigated. The results show that the phenomenon of blade channel vortex is an intrinsic property for Francis turbine under small flow rate condition, the turning-point of the blade channel vortex inception curve appears at low unit speed region, and the variation trend of the blade channel vortex inception curve is closely related to the blade inlet edge profile. In addition to, the vortex of the high water head turbine can generally be excluded from the stable operation region, while which is more different for the one of the low water head turbine.
STABILITY OF VORTEX STREET IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Yong-guang; Lin Zong-hu
2003-01-01
The stability of the Karmen vortex street in gas-liquid two-phase flow was studied experimentally and theoretically. The values of the parameter h/l characterizing the vortex street structure (I.e., the ratio of the vortex street width to the distance between two vortexes) for a stable vortex street in gas-liquid two-phase flow were obtained for the first time. The parameter h/l was proved to be a variable, not a constant as in single-phase flow. H/l is related to the upstream fluid void fraction. In gas-liquid two-phase fluid flow to form a steady vortex street is more difficult than in a single-phase fluid flow. Because in the unsteady vortex shedding the vortex shedding band frequency is broader than the one in the single phase fluid flow, so it is easier to induce the cross-cylinder resonance than in the single phase fluid flow, and this case should give rise to the attention of engineers.
Automatic Tip Vortex Core Profiling for Numerical Flow Simulations of Rotorcraft in Hover
Kao, David L.; Chaderjian, Neal M.
2010-01-01
An automated approach is presented that extracts visual and quantitative data from vortex cores produced by Navier-Stokes simulations of rotorcraft in hover mode. This approach extracts contiguous rotor tip vortex-core trajectories, cross-flow velocity profiles, and vortex-core diameter variation with wake age (azimuth angle). This automated approach is faster and more accurate than a conventional manual approach. Moreover, this new approach allows for an efficient way to quantitatively compare vortex-core profiles from different flow simulations, e.g., grid resolution studies, and validate computed results with experimental data
Spiral vortex formation in cross-slot flow
Haward, Simon; Burshtein, Noa; Poole, Robert; Oliveira, Paulo; Alves, Manuel; Shen, Amy
2016-11-01
Fluid flow through bisecting channels (cross-slots) results in the formation of a steady spiral vortex as the Reynolds number (Re) is increased above a modest critical value (Rec) . The value of Rec is strongly dependent on the channel aspect ratio, α = d / w , where d and w are the depth and width of the channel, respectively. Quasistatic experiments and numerical simulations over a range of Re show that for low α this symmetry-breaking bifurcation is supercritical, however subcritical behavior develops as α is increased. The system can be described by a Landau-type 6th-order polynomial potential and we identify a value of α 0 . 55 for which a tricritical point can be found. Dynamic experiments and simulations conducted across the transition indicate a plausible mechanism for the onset of the instability. Our analysis suggests that the transition results from the growth of center-point vorticity induced by random imbalances between two pairs of Dean vortices that form in the channel cross-section. Vorticity growth is governed by two distinct time scales. At short times, viscous diffusion dominates and vorticity grows slowly. Once the vorticity is sufficiently high, vortex stretching dominates and the vorticity grows rapidly until steady state is reached.
Start-up vortex flow past an accelerated flat plate
Xu, Ling
2014-01-01
Viscous flow past a finite flat plate moving in direction normal to itself is studied numerically.The plate moves with velocity $at^p$, where $p=0,0.5,1,2$. We present the evolution of vorticity profiles, streaklines and streamlines, and study the dependence on the acceleration parameter $p$. Four stages in the vortex evolution, as proposed by Luchini & Tognaccini (2002), are clearly identified. The initial stage, in which the vorticity consists solely of a Rayleigh boundary layer, is shown to last for a time-interval whose length shrinks to zero like $p^3$, as $p \\to 0$. In the second stage, a center of rotation develops near the tip of the plate, well before a vorticity maximum within the vortex core develops. Once the vorticity maximum develops, its position oscillates and differs from the center of rotation. The difference between the two increases with increasing $p$, and decreases in time. In the third stage, the center of rotation and the shed circulation closely satisfy self-similar scaling laws f...
Analysis of Axial Flow Ventilation Fans by Vortex - Method.
Hardin, Richard Anthony
A steady vortex-lattice method is used to solve the lifting surface equation for an axial flow fan. The type of fan studied is designed for industrial and ventilation applications and in thermofluid systems such as cooling towers. The fan blades are thin cambered surfaces manufactured from metal sheets. The numerical approach is inviscid and results in a boundary value problem with viscous effects partially accounted for by application of drag coefficient data. A non-linear wake alignment procedure is used to account for the effects of vorticity shedding in the wake and variation in wake geometry with operating conditions. The wake alignment procedure is semi-free with wake input parameters required for accurate use of the technique. A study of the wake parameters was conducted and gave trends in the variation of their values with flow rate. At "free-air" conditions, flow visualization estimates of these parameters were found to agree with those from the computations. Comparisons are made between the measured and predicted fan performance with and without a surrounding duct. The comparison of the results were especially good at the "free-air" condition using wake parameters determined from flow visualization and an inlet velocity profile measured using hot-wire anemometry. To enable better understanding of basic flow phenomena and to provide data for verification of numerical analyses, a method for measuring unsteady surface pressure on a rotating axial-flow fan blade was devised. Unsteadiness of pressure on the blade surfaces is due to the effects of upstream fan motor supports and other installation features. A pressure transducer and signal amplification circuit were mounted on a circuit board at the rotating hub with signals taken off the rotating shaft through copper disk-mercury slip rings. The pressure difference across the blade was determined and the data were corrected for time lag and distortion caused by the length of tubing. The pressure difference
Reactive Flow Control of Delta Wing Vortex (Postprint)
2006-08-01
Passive vortex control devices such as vortex generators and winglets attach to the wing and require no energy input. Passive vortex control...width. The dynamic test parameters are summarized in Table 2. The composite duty cycle input signal is denoted ( ) ( )ou t u u tδ= + in which ou
Flow in a circular expansion pipe flow: effect of a vortex perturbation on localised turbulence
Selvam, Kamal; Peixinho, Jorge; Willis, Ashley P.
2016-12-01
We report the results of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations for incompressible viscous fluid in a circular pipe flow with a sudden expansion. At the inlet, a parabolic velocity profile is applied together with a finite amplitude perturbation in the form of a vortex with its axis parallel to the axis of the pipe. At sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the recirculation region breaks into a turbulent patch that changes position axially, depending on the strength of the perturbation. This vortex perturbation is believed to produce a less abrupt transition than in previous studies, which applied a tilt perturbation, as the localised turbulence is observed via the formation of a wavy structure at a low order azimuthal mode, which resembles an optimally amplified perturbation. For large vortex amplitude, the localised turbulence remains at a constant axial position. It is further investigated using proper orthogonal decomposition, which indicates that the centre region close to the expansion is highly energetic.
Vortex flow in the technology of radiation wave cracking (RWC)
Tsoy, L A; Komarov, A G; Tsoy, A N
2012-01-01
This article examines the theory of vortex flows in relation to the processes occurring in the radiation-wave cracking of crude oil, when the crude oil is sprayed into the gas stream in the form of a mist and then is fed into the reactor, where it is treated by the accelerated electrons and the UHF radiation. The output of this process are the products with the specified parameters (high-octane petroleum products). This process operates at the ambient pressure and temperature, which makes the process safer for industrial purposes. Besides the process itself, the authors described the equipment used in this process, as well as the parameters of the optimal process.
Flow Characteristics Study of Wind Turbine Blade with Vortex Generators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Hu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The blade root flow control is of particular importance to the aerodynamic characteristic of large wind turbines. The paper studies the feasibility of improving blade pneumatic power by applying vortex generators (VGs to large variable propeller shaft horizontal axis wind turbines, with 2 MW variable propeller shaft horizontal axis wind turbine blades as research object. In the paper, three cases of VGs installation are designed; they are scattered in different chordwise position at the blade root, and then they are calculated, respectively, with CFD method. The results show that VGs installed in the separation line upstream, with the separation line of the blade root as a benchmark, show a better effect. Pneumatic power of blades increases by 0.6% by installing VGs. Although the effect on large wind turbines is not obvious, there is a space for optimization.
Spiral and Taylor vortex fronts and pulses in axial through flow.
Pinter, A; Lücke, M; Hoffmann, Ch
2003-02-01
The influence of an axial through flow on the spatiotemporal growth behavior of different vortex structures in the Taylor-Couette system with radius ratio eta=0.5 is determined. The Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) linearized around the basic Couette-Poiseuille flow are solved numerically with a shooting method in a wide range of through flow strengths Re and different rates of co-rotating and counter-rotating cylinders for toroidally closed vortices with azimuthal wave number m=0 and for spiral vortex flow with m=+/-1. For each of these three different vortex varieties we have investigated (i) axially extended vortex structures, (ii) axially localized vortex pulses, and (iii) vortex fronts. The complex dispersion relations of the linearized NSE for vortex modes with the three different m are evaluated for real axial wave numbers for (i) and over the plane of complex axial wave numbers for (ii) and (iii). We have also determined the Ginzburg-Landau amplitude equation (GLE) approximation in order to analyze its predictions for the vortex structures (ii) and (iii). Critical bifurcation thresholds for extended vortex structures are evaluated. The boundaries between absolute and convective instability of the basic state for vortex pulses are determined with a saddle-point analysis of the dispersion relations. Fit parameters for power-law expansions of the boundaries up to Re4 are listed in two tables. Finally, the linearly selected front behavior of growing vortex structures is investigated using saddle-point analyses of the dispersion relations of NSE and GLE. For the two front intensity profiles (increasing in positive or negative axial direction) we have determined front velocities, axial growth rates, and the wave numbers and frequencies of the unfolding vortex patterns with azimuthal wave numbers m=0,+/-1, respectively.
Chan, Alexis Y. L.; Lee, Joohwi; Taylor, Russell M.
2013-01-01
We present two new vortex-summarization techniques designed to portray vortex motion over an entire simulation and over an ensemble of simulations in a single image. Linear "vortex core timelines" with cone glyphs summarize flow over all time steps of a single simulation, with color varying to indicate time. Simplified "ribbon summarizations" with hue nominally encoding ensemble membership and saturation encoding time enable direct visual comparison of the distribution of vortices in time and space for a set of simulations.
Simulation of turbulent flow and temperature separation in a uni-flow vortex tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Promvonge, P.
2007-03-01
Full Text Available The vortex tube is a mechanical device operating as a refrigerating machine without refrigerants, by separating a compressed gas stream into two streams; the cold air stream at the tube core while the hot airstream near the tube wall. Such a separation of the flow into regions of low and high total temperature is referred to as the temperature separation effect. In this paper, simulation of the turbulent compressible flowand temperature separation in a uni-flow vortex tube with the turbulence model and the algebraic Reynolds stress model (ASM is described. Steady, compressible and two-dimensional flows are assumed through outthe calculation. It has been found that the predicted results of velocity, pressure, and temperature fields are generally in good agreement with available experiment data. Moreover, it can be indicated that the highest temperature separation occurs near the inlet nozzle while the lowest temperature separation is found at the downstream near the control valve.
Generation of large-scale vortex dislocations in a three-dimensional wake-type flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Numerical study of three-dimensional evolution of wake-type flow and vortex dislocations is performed by using a compact finite diffenence-Fourier spectral method to solve 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A local spanwise nonuniformity in momentum defect is imposed on the incoming wake-type flow. The present numerical results have shown that the flow instability leads to three-dimensional vortex streets, whose frequency, phase as well as the strength vary with the span caused by the local nonuniformity. The vortex dislocations are generated in the nonuniform region and the large-scale chain-like vortex linkage structures in the dislocations are shown. The generation and the characteristics of the vortex dislocations are described in detail.
A water tunnel flow visualization study of the vortex flow structures on the F/A-18 aircraft
Sandlin, Doral R.; Ramirez, Edgar J.
1991-01-01
The vortex flow structures occurring on the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack were studied. A water tunnel was used to gather flow visualization data on the forebody vortex and the wing leading edge extension vortex. The longitudinal location of breakdown of the leading edge vortex was found to be consistently dependent on the angle of attack. Other parameters such as Reynolds number, model scale, and model fidelity had little influence on the overall behavior of the flow structures studied. The lateral location of the forebody vortex system was greatly influenced by changes in the angle of sideslip. Strong interactions can occur between the leading edge extension vortex and the forebody vortex. Close attention was paid to vortex induced flows on various airframe components of the F/A-18. Reynolds number and angle of attack greatly affected the swirling intensity, and therefore the strength of the studied vortices. Water tunnel results on the F/A-18 correlated well with those obtained in similar studies at both full and sub scale levels. The water tunnel can provide, under certain conditions, good simulations of realistic flows in full scale configurations.
The large-scale pulsation effect in a vortex-type turbulent flow
Paukov, Iu. N.; Poroshin, Iu. V.
1989-06-01
A physical analogy between the amplification mechanism of vortex disturbances in the atmosphere and the occurrence of self-oscillations in a confined vortex-type turbulent flow is established. The increment of vortex instability in a centrifugal atomizer is determined, and used to calculate the characteristic time of evolution of this instability (about 0.001 sec). It is shown that the pulsational operating mode of a vortex chamber with a nozzle can be viewed as a series of individual amplifying acts with respect to single vortices.
Numerical Simulation of Tripolar Vortex in Dusty Plasma with Sheared Flow and Sheared Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Ge; Chen Yinhua; Tan Liwei
2005-01-01
This article presents a study we have made of one class of coherent structures of the tripolar vortex. Considering the sheared flow and sheared magnetic field which are common in the thermonuclear plasma and space plasma, we have simulated the dynamics of the tripolar vortex.The results show that the tripolar vortex is largely stable in most cases, but a strongly sheared magnetic field will make the structure less stable, and lead it to decays into single vortices with the large space scale. These results are consistent with findings from former research about the dipolar vortex.
Dynamical systems analysis of fluid transport in time-periodic vortex ring flows
Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony; Ferziger, Joel H.
2006-01-01
It is known that the stable and unstable manifolds of dynamical systems theory provide a powerful tool for understanding Lagrangian aspects of time-periodic flows. In this work we consider two time-periodic vortex ring flows. The first is a vortex ring with an elliptical core. The manifolds provide information about entrainment and detrainment of irrotational fluid into and out of the volume transported with the ring. The likeness of the manifolds with features observed in flow visualization ...
Stagnation zone formation on the axis of a closed vortex flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2014-01-01
The features of developing a counterflow zone (bubble-mode vortex breakdown or vortex explosion) at the center of an intensively swirled flow produced in a liquid-filled cylindrical container with a rotating endwall have been studied. The observation showed that the scenario of developing a bubble...
NUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOW IN CONICAL DIFFUSER WITH VORTEX GENERATOR JETS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Xiaomin; NISHI Michihiro
2007-01-01
To develop vortex generator jet (VGJ) method for flow control, the turbulence flow in a 14°conical diffuser with and without vortex generator jets are simulated by solving Navier-Stokes equations with κ-ε turbulence model. The diffuser performance, based on different velocity ratio (ratio of the jet speed to the mainstream velocity), is investigated and compared with the experimental study. On the basis of the flow characteristics using computation fluid dynamics (CFD) method observed in the conical diffuser and the downstream development of the longitudinal vortices, attempt is made to correlate the pressure recovery coefficient with the behavior of vortices produced by vortex generator jets.
Interaction of a decaying vortex ring with a rotational background flow bounded by a solid wall
Ishii, K.; Liu, C. H.
1987-01-01
The interaction between a vortex ring of finite strength and an axisymmetric rotational background flow bounded by a solid wall is studied by a singular perturbation method. The analysis is carried out by combining a composite solution of a vortex ring and an unsteady Navier-Stokes solution for the background rotational flow. Using the method of averaging, numerical scheme is developed to obtain a Navier-Stokes solution in which the grid and time-step sizes depend solely on the length and velocity scales of the background flow. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the separation of the boundary layer on a solid wall and its interaction with the vortex ring.
Numerical investigation of cavitation-vortex interaction in a mixed-flow water jet pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Renfang; Lou, Xianwu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Ji, Bin [Wuhan University, Hubei (China); Zhai, Zhihong; Zhou, Jiajian [Marine Design and Research Institute of China, Shanghai (China)
2015-09-15
Turbulent cavitating flows in a mixed-flow waterjet pump were numerically investigated using the k-w SST turbulence model and the mass transfer cavitation model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to provide a comprehensive understanding of the cavitation-vortex interaction mechanism. The predicted hydraulic performance, as well as the cavitation performance, exhibits a reasonable agreement with the experimental results. The vorticity distributions under three operation conditions were illustrated together. Based on the illustration, cavitation development enhances vorticity production and flow unsteadiness in a mixed-flow waterjet pump. Vortices are basically located at the cavity interface, particularly at the downstream interface, during cavitation. Further analyses using the relative vorticity transport equation in cavitating turbulent flows indicate that vortex dilation and baroclinic torque exhibit a steep jump as cavitation occurs. In addition, vortex stretching contributes mainly to large-scale vortex generation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matějka Milan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on a suppression of the flow separation, which occurs on a deflected flap, by means of vortex generators (VG's. An airfoil NACA 63A421 with a simple flap and vane-type vortex generators were used. The investigation was carried out by using experimental and numerical methods. The data from the numerical simulation of the flapped airfoil without VG's control were used for the vortex generator design. Two sizes, two different shapes and various spacing of the vortex generators were tested. The flow past the airfoil was visualized through three methods, namely tuft filaments technique, oil and thermo camera visualization. The experiments were performed in closed circuit wind tunnels with closed and open test sections. The lift curves for both cases without and with vortex generators were acquired for a lift coefficient improvement determination. The improvement was achieved for several cases by means all of the applied methods.
Real-time visualization of Karman vortex street in water flow field by using digital holography.
Sun, Weiwei; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Le
2009-10-26
The Karman vortex street generated behind a circular cylinder in water flow field is displayed and analyzed in real time by means of digital holography. Using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a digital hologram of the flow field in still state and then a video of continuous digital holograms in flowing state are recorded at 14.6 frames per second by a CCD camera, respectively. A series of sequential phase maps of the flow field are numerically reconstructed from the holograms in different states above based on double-exposure holographic interferometry. By seriating these phase maps, the shape and evolution of Karman vortex street can be displayed in real time in the form of a movie. For comparison, numerical simulation of the Karman vortex street under the boundary conditions adopted in the experiment is also presented, and the consistent results indicate that the experimental observation of Karman vortex street by using digital holography is successful and feasible.
On the origins of vortex shedding in two-dimensional incompressible flows
Boghosian, M. E.; Cassel, K. W.
2016-12-01
An exegesis of a novel mechanism leading to vortex splitting and subsequent shedding that is valid for two-dimensional incompressible, inviscid or viscous, and external or internal or wall-bounded flows, is detailed in this research. The mechanism, termed the vortex shedding mechanism (VSM) is simple and intuitive, requiring only two coincident conditions in the flow: (1) the existence of a location with zero momentum and (2) the presence of a net force having a positive divergence. Numerical solutions of several model problems illustrate causality of the VSM. Moreover, the VSM criteria is proved to be a necessary and sufficient condition for a vortex splitting event in any two-dimensional, incompressible flow. The VSM is shown to exist in several canonical problems including the external flow past a circular cylinder. Suppression of the von Kármán vortex street is demonstrated for Reynolds numbers of 100 and 400 by mitigating the VSM.
Motion and decay of vortex rings submerged in a rotational flow
Ishii, K.; Liu, C. H.
1987-01-01
The interaction between vortex rings of finite strength and an axisymmetric rotational background flow is studied by a singular perturbation method, because it is difficult to use a finite-difference method to analyze the viscous decay in the small core of a vortex ring. The analysis is carried out by combining a composite solution of a vortex ring and an unsteady Euler solution for the background rotational flow. Using the method of averaging, a numerical scheme is developed to obtain an Euler solution in which the grid and time-step sizes depend solely on the length and velocity scales of the background flow. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the interaction between the trajectories and decay rates of the vortex rings and the background rotational flow.
Spiral and Taylor vortex fronts and pulses in axial through-flow
Pinter, A; Hoffmann, C; Hoffmann, Ch.
2003-01-01
The influence of an axial through-flow on the spatiotemporal growth behavior of different vortex structures in the Taylor-Couette system with radius ratio eta=0.5 is determined. The Navier Stokes equations (NSE) linearized around the basic Couette-Poiseuille flow are solved numerically with a shooting method in a wide range of through-flow strengths Re and different rates of co- and counterrotating cylinders for toroidally closed vortices with azimuthal wave number m=0 and for spiral vortex flow with m=+1 and m=-1. For each of these three different vortex varieties we have investigated (i) axially extended vortex structures, (ii) axially localized vortex pulses, and (iii) vortex fronts. The complex dispersion relations of the linearized NSE for vortex modes with the three different m are evaluated for real axial wave numbers for (i) and over the plane of complex axial wave numbers for (ii,iii). We have also determined the Ginzburg-Landau amplitude equation (GLE) approximation in order to analyze its predictio...
Study of aerodynamic structure of flow in a model of vortex furnace using Stereo PIV method
Anufriev, I. S.; Kuibin, P. A.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Sharaborin, D. K.; Sharypov, O. V.
2016-07-01
The aerodynamic structure of flow in a lab model of a perspective design of vortex furnace was studied. The chamber has a horizontal rotation axis, tangential inlet for fuel-air jets and vertical orientation of secondary injection nozzles. The Stereo PIV method was used for visualization of 3D velocity field for selected cross sections of the vortex combustion chamber. The experimental data along with "total pressure minimum" criterion were used for reconstruction of the vortex core of the flow. Results fit the available data from LDA and simulation.
Flux-flow resistivity in UPt3: Evidence for nonsingular vortex-core structure
Lütke-Entrup, N.; Blaauwgeers, R.; Plaçais, B.; Huxley, A.; Kambe, S.; Krusius, M.; Mathieu, P.; Simon, Y.
2001-07-01
We have investigated the core structure of B-phase vortex lines in two clean UPt3 crystals, using flux-flow dissipation as the probe. The flux-flow resistivity is determined from the skin depth of the high-frequency oscillations of the vortex lines in the pinned state. With Ĥ⊥ĉ, our data agree with the previously established scaling law of the moderately clean limit with anisotropic gap. When Ĥ||ĉ, the resistivity is three times larger. We interpret this increase as evidence for a vortex-core structure with two length scales, as predicted for UPt3 with a two-component order parameter.
Hub vortex instability and wake dynamics in axial flow wind turbines
Foti, Daniel; Howard, Kevin; Yang, Xiaolei; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2014-11-01
The near wake region of an axial flow wind turbine has two distinct shear layers: an outer tip vortex shear layer, which rotates in the same direction as the rotor, and an inner counter-rotating hub vortex shear layer. Recent simulations (Kang et al., J. Fluid Mech. 744, 376 (2014)), corroborated with experiments (Chamorro et al., J. Fluid Mech. 716, 658 (2013)), showed that the hub vortex can undergo spiral vortex breakdown immediately downstream of the turbine. The precessing hub vortex core intercepts and interacts with the tip vortex shear layer causing the large-scale wake meandering motions in the far wake to intensify. These results were obtained for an axial flow hydrokinetic turbine in a turbulent open channel flow. Here we integrate high-resolution LES with experiments to show that a hub vortex instability also occurs in the near wake of a wind turbine in a wind tunnel. We show that the interactions of the hub vortex with the outer flow have significant effects on the wake meandering amplitude and frequency. Our results reinforce the conclusions of Kang et al. (2014) that the hub vortex must be included in wake models to simulate wake interactions at the power plant scale and optimize turbine siting for realistic terrain and wind conditions. This work was supported by DOE (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), the NSF (IIP-1318201), the IREE early career award (UMN) and NSF CAREER: Geophysical Flow Control (CBET-1351303). Computational resources were provided by MSI.
Flow in a Circular Expansion Pipe Flow: Effect of a Vortex Perturbation on Localized Turbulence
Selvam, Kamal; Willis, Ashley P
2016-01-01
We report the results of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations for incompressible viscous fluid in a circular pipe flow with a sudden expansion. At the inlet, a parabolic velocity profile is applied together with a finite amplitude perturbation in the form of a vortex with its axis parallel to the axis of the pipe. At sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the recirculation region breaks into a turbulent patch that changes position axially depending on the strength of the perturbation. This vortex perturbation is believed to produce a less abrupt transition than in previous studies with a tilt perturbation, as the localized turbulence is observed via the formation of a wavy structure at a low order azimuthal mode, which resembles an optimally amplified perturbation. For higher amplitude, the localized turbulence remains at a constant axial position. It is further investigated using proper orthogonal decomposition, which indicates that the centre region close to the expansion is highly energetic.
Numerical simulation of the interaction of a vortex with stationary airfoil in transonic flow
Srinivasan, G. R.; Mccroskey, W. J.; Kutler, P.
1984-01-01
A perturbation form of an implicit conservative, noniterative numerical algorithm for the two-dimensional thin layer Navier-Stokes and Euler equations is used to compute the interaction flow-field of a vortex with stationary airfoil. A Lamb-like analytical vortex having a finite core is chosen to interact with a thick (NACA 0012) and a thin (NACA 64A006) airfoil independently in transonic flow. Two different configurations of vortex interaction are studied, viz., (1) when the vortex is fixed at one location in the flowfield, and (2) when the vortex is convecting past the airfoil at freestream velocity. Parallel computations of this interacting flowfield are also done using a version of the Transonic Small Disturbance Code (ATRAN2). A special treatment of the leading edge region for thin airfoils is included in this code. With this, the three methods gave qualitatively similar results for the weaker interactions considered in this study. However, the strongest interactions considered proved to be beyond the capabilities of the small disturbance code. The results also show a far greater influence of the vortex on the airfoil flowfield when the vortex is stationary than when it is convecting with the flow.
The migration and growth of nuclei in an ideal vortex flow
Zhang, Lingxin; Chen, Linya; Shao, Xueming
2016-12-01
Tip vortex cavitation occurs on ship propellers which can cause significant noise compared to the wet flow. In order to predict the inception of tip vortex cavitation, numerous researches have been investigated about the detailed flow field around the tip. According to informed studies, the inception of tip vortex cavitation is affected by many factors. To understand the effect of water quality on cavitation inception, the motion of nuclei in an ideal vortex flow, i.e., the Rankine vortex flow, was investigated. The one-way coupling point-particle tracking model was employed to simulate the trajectory of nuclei. Meanwhile, Rayleigh-Plesset equation was introduced to describe the growth of nuclei. The results show that the nucleus size has a significant effect on nucleus' trajectory. The capture time of a nucleus is approximately inversely proportional to its radius. The growth of nucleus accelerates its migration in the vortex flow and shortens its capture time, especially for the case of explosive growth.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨庆海; 黄洪雁; 韩万今
2002-01-01
By means of ink trace visualization of the flows in conventional straight,positively curved and negatively curved cascades with tip clearance, and measurement of the aerodynamic parameters in transverse section, and by appling topology theory, the topological structures and vortex structure in the transverse section of a blade cascade were analyzed. Compared with conventional straight cascade, blade positive curving eliminates the separation line of the upper passage vortex, and leads the secondary vortex to change from close separation to open separation, while blade negative curving effects merely the positions of singular points and the intensities and scales of vortex.
A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Swirling Flow Reduction by Using Anti-Vortex Baffle
Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John W.; West, Jeff S.
2017-01-01
An anti-vortex baffle is a liquid propellant management device placed adjacent to an outlet of the propellant tank. Its purpose is to substantially reduce or eliminate the formation of free surface dip and vortex, as well as prevent vapor ingestion into the outlet, as the liquid drains out through the flight. To design an effective anti-vortex baffle, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were undertaken for the NASA Ares I vehicle LOX tank subjected to the simulated flight loads with and without the anti-vortex baffle. The Six Degree-Of-Freedom (6-DOF) dynamics experienced by the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) during ascent were modeled by modifying the momentum equations in a CFD code to accommodate the extra body forces from the maneuvering in a non-inertial frame. The present analysis found that due to large moments, the CLV maneuvering has a significant impact on the vortical flow generation inside the tank. Roll maneuvering and side loading due to pitch and yaw are shown to induce swirling flow. The vortical flow due to roll is symmetrical with respect to the tank centerline, while those induced by pitch and yaw maneuverings showed two vortices side by side. The study found that without the anti-vortex baffle, the swirling flow caused surface dip during the late stage of drainage and hence early vapor ingestion. The flow can also be non-uniform in the drainage pipe as the secondary swirling flow velocity component can be as high as 10% of the draining velocity. An analysis of the vortex dynamics shows that the swirling flow in the drainage pipe during the Upper Stage burn is mainly the result of residual vortices inside the tank due to the conservation of angular momentum. The study demonstrated that the swirling flow in the drainage pipe can be effectively suppressed by employing the anti-vortex baffle.
Water tunnel visualization of the vortex flows of the F-15
Lorincz, D. J.; Friend, E. L.
1979-01-01
Flow visualization studies were conducted in a diagnostic water tunnel to provide details of the wing, glove, and forebody vortex flow fields of the F-15 aircraft over a range of angles of attack and sideslip. Both the formation and breakdown of the vortex flow as a function of angle of attack and sideslip are detailed for the basic aircraft configuration. Additional tests showed that the wing upper surface vortex flows were sensitive to variations in an inlet mass flow ratio and an inlet cowl deflection angle. Two lengthened forebodies, one with a modified cross-sectional shape, were tested in addition to the basic forebody. Asymmetric forebody vortices were observed at zero sideslip and high angles of attack on each forebody. A large nose boom was added to each of the three forebodies, and it was observed that the turbulent wake shed from the boom disrupted the forebody vortices.
Laminar fluid flow and heat transfer in a fin-tube heat exchanger with vortex generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yanagihara, J.I.; Rodriques, R. Jr. [Polytechnic School of Univ. of Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1996-12-31
Development of heat transfer enhancement techniques for fin-tube heat exchangers has great importance in industry. In recent years, heat transfer augmentation by vortex generators has been considered for use in plate fin-tube heat exchangers. The present work describes a numerical investigation about the influence of delta winglet pairs of vortex generators on the flow structure and heat transfer of a plate fin-tube channel. The Navier-Stokes and Energy equations are solved by the finite volume method using a boundary-fitted coordinate system. The influence of vortex generators parameters such as position, angle of attack and aspect ratio were investigated. Local and global influences of vortex generators in heat transfer and flow losses were analyzed by comparison with a model using smooth fin. The results indicate great advantages of this type of geometry for application in plate fin-tube heat exchangers, in terms of large heat transfer enhancement and small pressure loss penalty. (author)
Passive Tracer Dynamics in 4 Point-Vortex Flow
Laforgia, A; Kuznetsov, L V; Zaslavsky, G M
2000-01-01
The advection of passive tracers in a system of 4 identical point vortices is studied when the motion of the vortices is chaotic. The phenomenon of vortex-pairing has been observed and statistics of the pairing time is computed. The distribution exhibits a power-law tail with exponent (\\sim 3.6), implying finite average pairing time. Tracer motion is studied for a chosen initial condition of the vortex system. Accessible phase space is investigated. The size of the cores around the vortices is well approximated by the minimum inter-vortex distance and stickiness to these cores is observed. We investigate the origin of stickiness which we link to the phenomenon of vortex pairing and jumps of tracers between cores. Motion within the core is considered and fluctuations are shown to scale with tracer-vortex distance (r) as (r^{6}). No outward or inward diffusion of tracers are observed. This investigation allows the separation of the accessible phase space in four distinct regions, each with its own specific prop...
Longitudinal Plasmoid in High-Speed Vortex Gas Flow Created by Capacity HF Discharge
2010-10-28
instrumentation will be used in this Project to study plasma and gas flow parameters, including new shadow device with excimer KrF laser, MW...vortex decay (attenuation) by HF plasma. The additional experiments with small helium jet injection prove the conclusion about vortex attenuation by a...equilibrium HF plasma. Plasma and airflow parameters are measured by different diagnostic instrumentation including shadow optical device with excimer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张辉; 范宝春; 李鸿志
2012-01-01
The flow of the weak electrolyte solution can be controlled by Lorentz force achieved with the suitable magnetic and electric fields, and it has the advantages of vortex street suppression, drag reduction, lift enhancement and oscillatory suppression for the flow over a bluff body. The electro-magnetic control of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cyl- inder in the shear flow was investigated numerically in the exponential-polar coordinates attached on the moving cylinder for Re = 150. With the effect of background vorticity, the vortex street of VIV cylinder was composed of two parallel rows with an opposite sign of the vortices which inclines toward the lower side and the strength of upper vortex is larger than that of lower vortex. The lift force vibrated periodically with the effect of vortex shedding and the mean value was negative due to the background vorticity. The Lorentz force for controlling the VIV cylinder was classified into the field Lorentz force and the wall Lorentz force. The field Lorentz force suppresses the lift oscillation, and in turn, suppresses the VIV, whereas the wall Loreutz force increases the lift.
Fast Vortex Method for the Simulation of Flows Inside Channels With and Without Injection
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YvesGAGNON; HUANGWeiguang
1993-01-01
A fast vortex method is presented for the simulation of fluid flows inside two-dimensional channels,The first channel studied is formed by two parallel walls simulating the entrance length of a developing flow.The second channel is similar to the first one but with an injection of a secondary fluid through a slot on one of its walls,In both cases,results are presented for flows at low Reynolds numbers and for flows at a high Reynolds number The numerical method used is based on the Random Vortex Method and on the Vortex-In-Cell Algorithm.Physical analyses of the numerical results are also presented.mostly in application to film cooling.
Recent progress on the study of asymmetric vortex flow over slender bodies
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
X.Y.Deng; W.Tian; B.F.Ma; Y.K.Wang
2008-01-01
The investigations of forebody vortex flow and its flow control have great importance in both academic field and engineering application areas. A large number of papers and many review papers have been published. However in this research field of forebody asymmetric vortices, three problems such as tip perturbation effect, Reynolds number effect and flow instability are less studied and thus not unders-tood completely. So many researches are still working on the issues in recent years. The present paper attempts to provide a review of recent research progress on first two problems. The first problem is mainly concerned with how the vortex flow evolves after tip perturbation; how to solve the problem of repeatability and reproducibility of wind tunnel testing data; how to develop a conception of active flow control technique with tip perturbation based on the study of vor-tex flow response to tip perturbation. For the second problem one is mainly concerned that how the asymmetric vortices are developed with the increase of Reynolds number; how to classify the vortex flow patterns in different Reynolds number regimes; how to develop an appropriate boundary layer tran-sition technique to simulate flows at high Reynolds number in the convention wind tunnels. Finally, some important ques-tions that deserve answers are proposed in the concluding remarks.
Vortex flow formation during dielectric barrier discharge initiation in quiescent air
Golub, V. V.; Saveliev, A. S.
2010-01-01
The structure of vortex flows generated by dielectric barrier discharge initiated in quiescent air at atmospheric pressure has been studied by the methods of particle image velocimetry and schlieren photography. The flow parameters have been measured as functions of the time past the electric discha
Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section
Zaman, KBMQ; Fagan, A. F.; Mankbadi, M. R.
2016-01-01
An experimental investigation of a tip vortex from a NACA0012 airfoil is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4x10(exp 4). Initially, data for a stationary airfoil held at various angles-of-attack (alpha) are gathered. Detailed surveys are done for two cases: alpha=10 deg with attached flow and alpha=25 deg with massive flow separation on the upper surface. Distributions of various properties are obtained using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity and turbulent stresses at various streamwise locations. For all cases, the vortex core is seen to involve a mean velocity deficit. The deficit apparently traces to the airfoil wake, part of which gets wrapped by the tip vortex. At small alpha, the vortex is laminar within the measurement domain. The strength of the vortex increases with increasing alpha but undergoes a sudden drop around alpha (is) greater than 16 deg. The drop in peak vorticity level is accompanied by transition and a sharp rise in turbulence within the core. Data are also acquired with the airfoil pitched sinusoidally. All oscillation cases pertain to a mean alpha=15 deg while the amplitude and frequency are varied. An example of phase-averaged data for an amplitude of +/-10 deg and a reduced frequency of k=0.2 is discussed. All results are compared with available data from the literature shedding further light on the complex dynamics of the tip vortex.
Dynamical systems analysis of fluid transport in time-periodic vortex ring flows
Shariff, Karim; Leonard, Anthony; Ferziger, Joel H.
2006-04-01
It is known that the stable and unstable manifolds of dynamical systems theory provide a powerful tool for understanding Lagrangian aspects of time-periodic flows. In this work we consider two time-periodic vortex ring flows. The first is a vortex ring with an elliptical core. The manifolds provide information about entrainment and detrainment of irrotational fluid into and out of the volume transported with the ring. The likeness of the manifolds with features observed in flow visualization experiments of turbulent vortex rings suggests that a similar process might be at play. However, what precise modes of unsteadiness are responsible for stirring in a turbulent vortex ring is left as an open question. The second situation is that of two leapfrogging rings. The unstable manifold shows striking agreement with even the fine features of smoke visualization photographs, suggesting that fluid elements in the vicinity of the manifold are drawn out along it and begin to reveal its structure. We suggest that interpretations of these photographs that argue for complex vorticity dynamics ought to be reconsidered. Recently, theoretical and computational tools have been developed to locate structures analogous to stable and unstable manifolds in aperiodic, or finite-time systems. The usefulness of these analogs is demonstrated, using vortex ring flows as an example, in the paper by Shadden, Dabiri, and Marsden [Phys. Fluids 18, 047105 (2006)].
FORCE CHARACTERISTICS AND VORTEX SHEDDING OF A PITCHING FOIL IN SHEAR FLOWS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Dan-yong; LIU Nan-sheng; LU Xi-yun; YIN Xie-zhen
2005-01-01
The objective of this study is to deal with unsteady force acting on a pitching foil in shear flow and to study the relation of the force characteristics with vortex shedding near the foil. The two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the vorticity and stream-function formulation were solved with the fourth-order essentially compact finite difference schemes for the space derivatives and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme for the time advancement. The force characteristics and vortex shedding of the pitching foil in shear flows were investigated. The effects of some typical factors, including the incoming flow shear, the oscillating frequency and amplitude, on the vortex shedding and force behavior were analyzed and discussed.
Vortex structure analysis of unsteady cloud cavitating flows around a hydrofoil
Zhao, Yu; Wang, Guoyu; Huang, Biao
2016-01-01
In this paper, time dependent vortex structures are numerically analyzed for both noncavitating and cloud cavitating flows around a Clark-Y hydrofoil with angle of attack α = 8∘ at a moderate Reynolds number, Re = 7 × 105. The numerical simulations are performed using a transport equation-based cavitation model and the large eddy simulation (LES) approach with a classical eddy viscosity subgrid scale (SGS) model. Compared with experimental results, present numerical predictions are capable of capturing the initiation of cavity, growth toward the trailing edge and subsequent shedding process. Results indicate that in noncavitating conditions, the trailing edge vortex and induced positive vortex shed periodically into the wake region to form the vortex street. In cloud cavitating conditions, interrelations between cavity and vortex induce different vortex dynamics at different cavity developing stages. (i) As attached cavity grows, vorticity production is greatly enhanced by the favorable pressure gradient at the leading edge. The trailing edge flow does not have a direct impact on the attached cavity expansion process. Furthermore, the liquid-vapor interface that moves toward the trailing edge enhances the vorticity in the attached cavity closure region. (ii) When the stable attached sheet cavity grows to its maximum length, the accumulation process of vorticity is eventually interrupted by the formation of the re-entrant jet. Re-entrant jet’s moving upstream leads to a higher spreading rate of the attached cavity and the formation of a large coherent structure inside the attached cavity. Moreover, the wavy/bubbly cavity interface enhances the vorticity near the trailing edge. (iii) As the attached sheet cavity breaks up, this large vortex structure converts toward the trailing edge region, which will eventually couple with a trailing edge vortex shedding from the lower surface to form the cloud cavity. The breakup of the stable attached cavity is the main
Gloyer, P.; Knuth, William H.; Goodman, J.
1993-01-01
An examination of the effect of vortex flow on hybrid rocket combustion and performance is underway. Emphasis is on response of the fuel regression rate when subjected to vortex flow. Initial results show that there is a definite effect of the vortex on fuel regression rate. Future work will focus on quantitatively measuring this regression rate. This work is part of an overall program to develop an ultra low cost fuel system for hybrid rocket engines.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows
Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.
2016-10-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows
Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.
2017-04-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.
Vortex sound in the presence of a low Mach number flow across a drum-like silencer.
Tang, S K
2011-05-01
The sound generated by a vortex propagating across a two-dimensional duct section with flexible walls (membranes) in an infinitely long rigid duct conveying a flow is investigated numerically using the matched asymptotic expansion technique and the potential theory. The effects of the initial vortex position, the mechanical properties of the flexible walls, and the mean flow on the sound generation are examined in detail. Results show that the presence of a vortex inside a uniform mean flow can strengthen or attenuate the sound generation, depending on the phase of the membrane vibration when the vortex starts vigorous interaction with the membranes and the strength of the mean flow. The results tend to imply that there is a higher chance of sound amplification when a vortex stream is moving closer to the lighter membrane under a relatively strong mean flow or when the mean flow is weak. The chances of sound amplification or attenuation are equal otherwise.
Optimization of counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube performance using Taguchi method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinar, Ahmet Murat [Celal Bayar University, Vocational High School, Department of Machinery, 45400-Turgutlu-Manisa (Turkey); Uluer, Onuralp [Gazi University, Faculty of Technical Education, Mechanical Education Department, Teknikokullar, 06503 Ankara (Turkey); Kirmaci, Volkan [Bartin University, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, 74100 Bartin (Turkey)
2009-09-15
This study discusses the application of Taguchi method in assessing maximum temperature gradient for the Ranque-Hilsch counter flow vortex tube performance. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi's L27 orthogonal array with each trial performed under different conditions of inlet pressure, nozzle number and fluid type. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression analysis were carried out in order to determine the effects of process parameters and optimal factor settings. Finally, confirmation tests verified that Taguchi method achieved optimization of counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube performance with sufficient accuracy. (author)
Energy and Flow Separation in the Vortex Tube : A Numerical Investigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. S. Maurya
2013-10-01
Full Text Available As a localized cooling device the vortex tube is being used is several applications due to its simplicity, robustness and maintenance free service. Its design still depends on experiment based empirical relations and thumb rules. Capturing complete flow and energy separation features of vortex tube through experimentation is difficult due to the complexity associated to flow Numerical investigation of the vortex tube presented here intends to bring out unexplored features. The work is done on a 3D model of vortex tube with 6 nozzles and an adjustable cone valve. The parameters varied in the investigation are supply air pressure from 2 to 6 bars, the orifice diameter from 5 to 10 mm, L/D ratio from 4 to 20. The mechanism of flow and energy separation is completely explained based on present work. The impact of important performance parameters such as supply pressure, cold orifice diameter, tube diameter and its length suggest improvement in the present thumb rule for better vortex tube performance. Present work investigates the effect of working environment also where tube is assumed work under constant wall temperature and constant wall heat flux condition. It concludes that cooling performance of the tube is independent of thermal condition imposed on its wall.
NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF VORTEX FLOW IN HYDRAULIC TURBINE DRAFT TUBE FOR LES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Xiao-bing; ZENG Yong-zhong; CAO Shu-you
2005-01-01
The three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow is studied numerically in the whole flow passage of hydraulic turbine, and vortex flow in the draft tube is predicted accurately in this paper. The numerical prediction is based on the Navier-Stokes equations and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model. The SIMPLE algorithm with the body-fitted coordinate and tetrahedroid grid system is applied for the solution of the discretization governing equations.
Effect of span length and temperature on the 3-D confined flow around a vortex promoter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, E. [Fluid Mechanics Area, School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Velazquez, A., E-mail: angel.velazquez@upm.es [Aerospace Propulsion and Fluid Mechanics Department, School of Aeronautics, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza del Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2011-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article deals with study of vortex promoter flow in a 3-D micro-channel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aspects studied are: channel aspect ratio and prism surface temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flow is classified into three different regimes depending on different parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results could be used for practical engineering design purposes. - Abstract: This article presents a numerical study on the influence of span length and wall temperature on the 3-D flow pattern around a square section vortex promoter located inside a micro-channel in the low Reynolds number regime. The first objective of the work is to quantify the critical Reynolds number that defines the onset of vortex shedding and to identify the different regimes that appear as a function of the channel aspect ratio (span to height ratio). We found that the critical Reynolds number for the onset of the Karman street regime increases as the aspect ratio decreases. In particular, for the aspect ratio of 1/2 the critical Reynolds number is nearly six times the critical Reynolds number of the 2-D problem. An intermediate oscillating regime between the steady and the Karman street solutions was also found to exist within a rather wide range of Reynolds numbers for small channel aspect ratios. The second objective was to investigate the influence of the vortex promoter wall temperature on both vortex shedding and flow pattern. This has practical engineering implications because the working fluid considered in the article is water that has a viscosity that depends significantly on temperature and promotes a strong coupling between the momentum and energy equations that influences the system behaviour. Results indicate that high surface temperature on the prism promotes the onset of the Karman street, suggesting design guidelines for micro-channel based heat sinks that make use of vortex promoters.
van Rees, Wim M.; Leonard, Anthony; Pullin, D. I.; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2011-04-01
We present a validation study for the hybrid particle-mesh vortex method against a pseudo-spectral method for the Taylor-Green vortex at ReΓ = 1600 as well as in the collision of two antiparallel vortex tubes at ReΓ = 10,000. In this study we present diagnostics such as energy spectra and enstrophy as computed by both methods as well as point-wise comparisons of the vorticity field. Using a fourth order accurate kernel for interpolation between the particles and the mesh, the results of the hybrid vortex method and of the pseudo-spectral method agree well in both flow cases. For the Taylor-Green vortex, the vorticity contours computed by both methods around the time of the energy dissipation peak overlap. The energy spectrum shows that only the smallest length scales in the flow are not captured by the vortex method. In the second flow case, where we compute the collision of two anti-parallel vortex tubes at Reynolds number 10,000, the vortex method results and the pseudo-spectral method results are in very good agreement up to and including the first reconnection of the tubes. The maximum error in the effective viscosity is about 2.5% for the vortex method and about 1% for the pseudo-spectral method. At later times the flows computed with the different methods show the same qualitative features, but the quantitative agreement on vortical structures is lost.
Using a pressure controlled vortex design method to control secondary flow losses in a turbine stage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Deng Qingfeng; Zheng Qun; Yue Guoqiang; Zhang Hai; Luo Mingcong
2013-01-01
A turbine design method based on pressure controlled vortex design (PCVD) is presented to design a small-size turbine stage. Contrary to the conventional controlled vortex design (CVD) method, the main objective of PCVD is to control the axial velocity and radial pressure in the sta-tor-rotor gap. Through controlling axial velocity, the PCVD establishes a direct tie to meridional stream surface. Thus stream surface variation is induced, resulting in a large secondary flow vortex covering the full blade passage in the respective stator and rotor. This secondary flow vortex could be dedicated to control the secondary flow mitigation and migration. Through radial pressure, the PCVD is also associated with the macroscopic driving force of fluid motion. So the better benefit of CVD can be achieved. The core concept behind PCVD is to mainly control the spanwise pressure gradient by altering profile loading at various spanwise locations. Therefore not only the local pro-file lift is affected, but also the resulting throat widths, stage reaction degree, and massflow rate are altered or redistributed respectively. With the PCVD method, the global stage efficiency is increased successfully while the mass flow rate keeps constant. Additionally there is no endwall shape optimi-zation, stacking optimization, or pitch/chord variations, concentrating solely on varying blade pro-file deflections and stagger.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Cavar, Dalibor
2008-01-01
Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements have been executed in a low speed wind tunnel in spanwise planes in the flow past a row of vortex generators, mounted on a bump in a fashion producing counter-rotating vortices. The measurement technique is a powerful tool which provides all...
Multiple inviscid solutions for the flow in a leading- edge vortex
van Noordenburg, M.B.H.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie
2000-01-01
To analyze the flowfield inside the vortex formed at the leading edge of a highly swept wing at an angle of attack, conical similarity solutions of the compressible Euler equations have been obtained and compared to incompressible conical similarity flow solutions. It is shown that, in contrast to t
Computing the flow past Vortex Generators: Comparison between RANS Simulations and Experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manolesos, M.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Troldborg, Niels;
2016-01-01
The flow around a wind turbine airfoil equipped with Vortex Generators (VGs) is examined. Predictions from three different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solvers with two different turbulence models and two different VG modelling approaches are compared between them and with experimental ...
Testing of self-similarity and helical symmetry in vortex generator flow simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernández-Gámiz, Unai; Velte, Clara Marika; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan;
2016-01-01
Vortex generators (VGs) are used increasingly by the wind turbine industry as flow control devices to improve rotor bladeperformance. According to experimental observations, the vortices generated by VGs have previously been observed to beself-similar for both the axial (uz) and azimuthal (u...
Multiple Inviscid Solutions for the Flow in a Leading-Edge Vortex
Noordenburg, M.B.H.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.
2000-01-01
To analyze the flowfield inside the vortex formed at the leading edge of a highly swept wing at an angle of attack, conical similarity solutions of the compressible Euler equations have been obtained and compared to incompressible conical similarity flow solutions. It is shown that, in contrast to t
Lee, C.; Chung, M. K.; Kim, Y.-H.
1993-06-01
An analytical model is presented for predicting the vortex shedding noise generated from the wake of axial flow fan blades. The downstream wake of a fan blade is assumed to be dominated by the von Karman vortex street, and the strength and the shedding frequency of the wake vortex are determined from the wake structure model. The fluctuating pressure and lift on the blade surface, which are induced from the vortices in the wake, are analyzed by incorporating the wake model for the von Karman vortex street with thin airfoil theory. The predicted vortex shedding frequency and the overall sound pressure level compare favorably with the measured results for the vortex shedding noise from axial flow fans.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mizue MUNEKATA; Hidefumi TAKAKI; Hideki OHBA; Kazuyoshi MATSUZAKI
2005-01-01
Effects of non-Newtonian viscosity for surfactant solution on the vortex characteristics and drag-reducing rate in a swirling pipe flow are investigated by pressure drop measurements, velocity profile measurements and viscosity measurements. Non-Newtonian viscosity is represented by power-law model (τ = kD n). Surfactant solution used has shear-thinning viscosity with n ＜ 1.0. The swirling flow in this study has decay of swirl and vortex-type change from Rankin's combined vortex to forced vortex. It is shown that the effect of shear-thinning viscosity on the decay of swirl intensity is different by vortex category and the critical swirl number with the vortex-type change depends on shear-thinning viscosity.
Effect of Rolling Massage on the Vortex Flow in Blood Vessels with Lattice Boltzmann Simulation
Yi, Hou Hui
The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese Medical Massage, which is a nature therapy in eliminating many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on the cavity flows in blood vessel under the rolling manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the vortex flows are fully disturbed by the rolling massage. The flow behavior depends on the rolling velocity and the rolling depth. Rolling massage has a better effect on the flows in the cavity than that of the flows in a planar blood vessel. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gul-e-Ali,; Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdara Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2016-02-15
Coupling of drift vortex and the ion acoustic modes in the linear and nonlinear regimes are investigated with sheared ion flow perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field in a plasma comprising of hot ions and nonthermal population of electrons. In this regard, generation of nonlinear vortex structures in the presence of kappa, Cairns, and q-nonextensive electron distributions are investigated in detail, and comparison with the Maxwellian distribution is also made. The appositeness of the present investigation in the matter of auroral F-region is also pointed out.
Vortex lattice ordering in the flux flow state of Nb thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grimaldi, Gaia, E-mail: gaia.grimaldi@cnr.i [CNR-SPIN, V. Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy); Leo, Antonio [CNR-SPIN, V. Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy); Nigro, Angela; Pace, Sandro [CNR-SPIN, V. Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy); Physics Department ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno, V. Ponte Don Melillo, Fisciano I-84084 (Italy)
2010-10-01
We measure current-voltage characteristics at high driving currents for different magnetic fields and temperatures in Nb thin films of rather strong pinning. In a definite range of the B-T phase diagram we find that a current induced transition occurs in the flux flow motion of the vortex lattice, namely a dynamic ordering (DO). Contrary to the case of weaker pinning materials, DO is observed only at low fields, due to the stronger intrinsic disorder that can deform plastically the moving vortex lattice even for small applied fields.
Olson, C. J.; Reichhardt, C.; Nori, F.
1997-03-01
Vortices moving in dirty superconductors can form intricate flow patterns, resembling fluid rivers, as they interact with the pinning landscape (F. Nori, Science 271), 1373 (1996).. Weaker pinning produces relatively straight nori>vortex channels, while stronger pinning results in the formation of one or more winding channels that carry all flow. This corresponds to a crossover from elastic flow to plastic flow as the pinning strength is increased. For several pinning parameters, we find the fractal dimension of the channels that form, the vortex trail density, the distance travelled by vortices as they pass through the sample, the branching ratio, the sinuosity, and the size distribution of the rivers, and we compare our rivers with physical rivers that follow Horton's laws.
Subramanian, C. S.; Ligrani, P. M.; Tuzzolo, M. F.
1992-01-01
The paper presents and compares fluid-flow and heat transfer properties from artificially induced vortices in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer and naturally occurring vortices due to centrifugal instabilities in a curved-channel laminar flow. Pairs and arrays of vortices are artificially induced by placing half-delta wings on the plate surface. With both arrays and pairs of vortices, streamwise velocities and total pressures are high, and surface heat transfer is locally augmented in vortex downwash regions. In contrast to vortices in the arrays vortices in the pairs tend to move in the streamwise direction with significant divergence (when the common flow between pair is toward the wall) or convergence (when the common flow between pair is away from the wall). The vortices in the arrays cause maximum peak-to-peak heat transfer variations of up to 12 percent of local spanwise-averaged values for initial vortex spacings between 1 to 2.5 generator heights.
High-Alfa Aerodynamics with Separated Flow Modeled as a Single Nascent Vortex
Antony, Samuel B.; Mukherjee, Rinku
2017-04-01
A numerical iterative vortex lattice method is developed to study flow past wing(s) at high angles of attack where the separated flow is modelled using NY nascent vortex filaments. The wing itself is modelled using NX × NY bound vortex rings, where NX and NY are the number of sections along the chord and span of the wing respectively. The strength and position of the nascent vortex along the chord corresponding to the local effective angle of attack are evaluated from the residuals in viscous and potential flow, i.e. (Cl)visc - (Cl)pot and (Cm)visc - (Cm)pot. Hence, the 2D airfoil viscous Cl - α and Cm - α is required as input (from experiment, numerical analysis or CFD). Aerodynamic characteristics and section distribution along span are predicted for 3D wings at a high angle of attack. Effect of initial conditions and existence of multiple solutions in the post-stall region is studied. Results are validated with experiment.
Numerical investigation on flow behavior and energy separation in a micro-scale vortex tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahbar Nader
2015-01-01
Full Text Available There are a few experimental and numerical studies on the behaviour of micro-scale vortex tubes. The intention of this work is to investigate the energy separation phenomenon in a micro-scale vortex tube by using the computational fluid dynamic. The flow is assumed as steady, turbulent, compressible ideal gas, and the shear-stress transport sst k-w is used for modeling of turbulence phenomenon. The results show that 3-D CFD simulation is more accurate than 2-D axisymmetric one. Moreover, optimum cold-mass ratios to maximize the refrigeration-power and isentropicefficiency are evaluated. The results of static temperature, velocity magnitude and pressure distributions show that the temperature-separation in the micro-scale vortex tube is a function of kinetic-energy variation and air-expansion in the radial direction.
Numerical simulations of leading-edge vortex core axial velocity for flow over delta wings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate the characteristics of leading-edge vortex core axial velocity over two delta wings with leading edge swept angles Λ =50°and 76°, respectively. It is obtained that Reynolds number has the most important effect on the axial velocity of the primary leading-edge vortex core. At Reynolds numbers larger than 105, the jet-like flow of the vortex core is the most common type for both the large and the moderate swept delta wings. While if Reynolds number decreases to 103―104, the core axial velocity distributions for these two delta wings present the wake-like profile for all angles of attack considered in the present investigation.
Vortex/Body Interaction and Sound Generation in Low-Speed Flow
Kao, Hsiao C.
1998-01-01
The problem of sound generation by vortices interacting with an arbitrary body in a low-speed flow has been investigated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. For the purpose of this report, it is convenient to divide the problem into three parts. In the first part the mechanism of the vortex/body interaction, which is essentially the inner solution in the inner region, is examined. The trajectories for a system of vortices rotating about their centroid are found to undergo enormous changes after interaction; from this, some interesting properties emerged. In the second part, the problem is formulated, the outer solution is found, matching is implemented, and solutions for acoustic pressure are obtained. In the third part, Fourier integrals are evaluated and predicated results presented. An examination of these results reveals the following: (a) the background noise can be either augmented or attenuated by a body after interaction, (b) sound generated by vortex/body interaction obeys a scaling factor, (C) sound intensity can be reduced substantially by positioning the vortex system in the "favorable" side of the body instead of the "unfavorable" side, and (d) acoustic radiation from vortex/bluff-body interaction is less than that from vortex/airfoil interaction under most circumstances.
Experimental investigation of the mass flow gain factor in a draft tube with cavitation vortex rope
Landry, C.; Favrel, A.; Müller, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Alligné, S.; Avellan, F.
2017-04-01
At off-design operating operations, cavitating flow is often observed in hydraulic machines. The presence of a cavitation vortex rope may induce draft tube surge and electrical power swings at part load and full load operations. The stability analysis of these operating conditions requires a numerical pipe model taking into account the complexity of the two-phase flow. Among the hydroacoustic parameters describing the cavitating draft tube flow in the numerical model, the mass flow gain factor, representing the mass excitation source expressed as the rate of change of the cavitation volume as a function of the discharge, remains difficult to model. This paper presents a quasi-static method to estimate the mass flow gain factor in the draft tube for a given cavitation vortex rope volume in the case of a reduced scale physical model of a ν = 0.27 Francis turbine. The methodology is based on an experimental identification of the natural frequency of the test rig hydraulic system for different Thoma numbers. With the identification of the natural frequency, it is possible to model the wave speed, the cavitation compliance and the volume of the cavitation vortex rope. By applying this new methodology for different discharge values, it becomes possible to identify the mass flow gain factor and improve the accuracy of the system stability analysis.
ENTROPY-VORTEX WAVES IN NON-ADIABATIC FLOWS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibáñez S, Miguel H., E-mail: mhibanez@yahoo.com [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma del Caribe, Barranquilla (Colombia)
2016-02-20
The Ertel theorem on the vorticity along the flow of adiabatic fluids is generalized for non-adiabatic flows. Several limiting cases are analyzed and the results are applied to flows behind different hydrodynamics fronts, particularly to thermal fronts (heat and cooling fronts). An important conclusion of the present analysis is that vorticity is inherent in the condensation’s (or hot spots) formation by thermal instabilities in plasma flows. Implications for several astrophysical plasmas are outlined.
Vortex Matter in Highly Strained Nb_{75}Zr_{25}: Analogy with Viscous Flow of Disordered Solids
Chandra, Jagdish; Manekar, Meghmalhar; Sharma, V. K.; Mondal, Puspen; Tiwari, Pragya; Roy, S. B.
2017-01-01
We present the results of magnetization and magneto-transport measurements in the superconducting state of an as-cast Nb_{75}Zr_{25} alloy. We also report the microstructure of our sample at various length scales by using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies. The information of microstructure is used to understand the flux pinning properties in the superconducting state within the framework of collective pinning. The magneto-transport measurements show a non-Arrhenius behaviour of the temperature- and field-dependent resistivity across the resistive transition and is understood in terms of a model for viscous flow of disordered solids which is popularly known as the `shoving model'. The activation energy for flux flow is assumed to be mainly the elastic energy stored in the flux-line lattice. The scaling of pinning force density indicates the presence of two pinning mechanisms of different origins. The elastic constants of the flux-line lattice are used to estimate the length scale of vortex lattice movement, or the volume displaced by the flux-line lattice. It appears that the vortex lattice displacement estimated from elastic energy considerations is of the same order of magnitude as that of the flux bundle hopping length during flux flow. Our results could provide possible directions for establishing a framework where vortex matter and glass-forming liquids or amorphous solids can be treated in a similar manner for understanding the phenomenon of viscous flow in disordered solids or more generally the pinning and depinning properties of elastic manifolds in random media. It is likely that the vortex molasses scenario is more suited to explain the vortex dynamics in conventional low-T_C superconductors.
Töger, Johannes; Kanski, Mikael; Carlsson, Marcus; Kovács, Sándor J; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar
2012-12-01
Recent studies suggest that vortex ring formation during left ventricular (LV) rapid filling is an optimized mechanism for blood transport, and that the volume of the vortex ring is an important measure. However, due to lack of quantitative methods, the volume of the vortex ring has not previously been studied. Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) is a new flow analysis method, which enables in vivo quantification of vortex ring volume. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if vortex ring volume in the human LV can be reliably quantified using LCS and magnetic resonance velocity mapping (4D PC-MR). Flow velocities were measured using 4D PC-MR in 9 healthy volunteers and 4 patients with dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy. LV LCS were computed from flow velocities and manually delineated in all subjects. Vortex volume in the healthy volunteers was 51 ± 6% of the LV volume, and 21 ± 5% in the patients. Interobserver variability was -1 ± 13% and interstudy variability was -2 ± 12%. Compared to idealized flow experiments, the vortex rings showed additional complexity and asymmetry, related to endocardial trabeculation and papillary muscles. In conclusion, LCS and 4D PC-MR enables measurement of vortex ring volume during rapid filling of the LV.
Observation of dual-mode, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability vortex merger in a compressible flow
Wan, W. C.; Malamud, G.; Shimony, A.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Trantham, M. R.; Klein, S. R.; Shvarts, D.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.
2017-05-01
We report the first observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices evolving from well-characterized, dual-mode initial conditions in a steady, supersonic flow. The results provide the first measurements of the instability's vortex merger rate and supplement data on the inhibition of the instability's growth rate in a compressible flow. These experimental data were obtained by sustaining a shockwave over a foam-plastic interface with a precision-machined seed perturbation. This technique produced a strong shear layer between two plasmas at high-energy-density conditions. The system was diagnosed using x-ray radiography and was well-reproduced using hydrodynamic simulations. Experimental measurements imply that we observed the anticipated vortex merger rate and growth inhibition for supersonic shear flow.
Reverse flow and vortex breakdown in a shear-thinning fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabeza, C; Sarasua, G; Barrere, N; Marti, A C, E-mail: cecilia@fisica.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, UDELAR (Uruguay)
2011-05-01
The effect of polymer concentration on the development of reverse secondary flow and vortex breakdown was studied using a viscoelastic solution of polyacrlylamide in water. The fluid was contained in cylindrical containers of two different radii, the top end wall of which rotated at a varying speed, thus, imparting a circulating motion to the fluid. Whereas using a newtonian fluid, streamlines will occupy the entire container, the flow of a shear-thinning fluid may divide into two cells of opposite circulating motion. The curve of critical Reynolds and elasticity numbers (Re, E) values corresponding to the development of reverse flow was obtained over a wide range of Re values. Vortex breakdown was found to occur at extremely low Re values.
Investigation of vortical flows over oscillating body using fast Lagrangian vortex method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Baoshan ZHU
2009-01-01
A computational method facilitating long-time and high-resolution unsteady vortical flows is developed with the advantages of the discrete vortex methods. Both the velocity and pressure distribution of the flow field are calculated by integral formulations in combination with a fast summation algorithm. The vorticity field is described by Lagrangian representation, which is well suited to the moving boundary. Viscosity diffusion of the vorticity is considered with the core spreading model corrected by an adaptive splitting and merging algorithm. The effective-ness of the present method is examined by comparing the numerical results of unsteady separated flows which pass a cylinder and a thin cambered blade undergoing rotational oscillations with available experimental results. Interesting results about vortex shedding patterns and lock-in characteristics are provided for the thin cambered blade.
Application of Data Smoothing Method in Signal Processing for Vortex Flow Meters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Jun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Vortex flow meter is typical flow measure equipment. Its measurement output signals can easily be impaired by environmental conditions. In order to obtain an improved estimate of the time-averaged velocity from the vortex flow meter, a signal filter method is applied in this paper. The method is based on a simple Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter algorithm. According with the algorithm, a numerical program is developed in Python with the scientific library numerical Numpy. Two sample data sets are processed through the program. The results demonstrate that the processed data is available accepted compared with the original data. The improved data of the time-averaged velocity is obtained within smoothing curves. Finally the simple data smoothing program is useable and stable for this filter.
Vortex propagation around a wall-mounted obstacle in pulsatile flow
Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2015-11-01
Wall-mounted obstacles are prevalent in nature and engineering applications. Physiological flows observed in human vocal fold pathologies, such as polyps, can be modeled by flow over a wall-mounted protuberance. Despite their prevalence, studies of wall-mounted obstacles have been restricted to steady (constant velocity) freestream flow. In biological and geophysical applications, pulsatile flow is much more common, yet effects of pulsatility on the wake of a wall-mounted obstacle remain to be extensively studied. This study aims to characterize the complex physics produced in this unsteady, separated flow. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel with a set of rotating vanes, which produce the pulsatile inflow waveform. Instantaneous and phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) results acquired around a hemispherical obstacle are presented and compared. A mechanism based on self-induced vortex propagation, analogous to that in vortex rings, is proposed to explain the observed dynamics of coherent structures. Predictions of the propagation velocity based on analytical expressions for vortex rings in a viscous fluid are compared to the experimentally measured propagation velocity. Effects of the unsteady boundary layer on the observed physics are explored. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).
Nonlinear effects in the bounded dust-vortex flow in plasma
Laishram, Modhuchandra; Sharma, Devendra; Chattopdhyay, Prabal K.; Kaw, Predhiman K.
2017-03-01
The vortex structures in a cloud of electrically suspended dust in a streaming plasma constitutes a driven system with a rich nonlinear flow regime. Experimentally recovered toroidal formations of this system have motivated study of its volumetrically driven-dissipative vortex flow dynamics using two-dimensional hydrodynamics in the incompressible Navier-Stokes regime. Nonlinear equilibrium solutions are obtained for this system where a nonuniformly driven two-dimensional dust flow exhibits distinct regions of localized accelerations and strong friction caused by stationary fluids at the confining boundaries resisting the dust flow. In agreement with observations in experiments, it is demonstrated that the nonlinear effects appear in the limit of small viscosity, where the primary vortices form scaling with the most dominant spatial scales of the domain topology and develop separated virtual boundaries along their periphery. This separation is triggered beyond a critical dust viscosity that signifies a structural bifurcation. Emergence of uniform vorticity core and secondary vortices with a newer level of identical dynamics highlights the applicability of the studied dynamics to gigantic vortex flows, such as the Jovian great red spot, to microscopic biophysical intracellular activity.
Vortex-breakdown and wall-separation states in swirling flows in a straight pipe
Zhang, Yuxin; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao
2016-11-01
The appearance of vortex-breakdown and wall-separation states in various incoming swirling flows to a straight circular pipe is investigated. Fixed-in-time profiles of the axial and circumferential velocities and of the azimuthal vorticity are prescribed at the pipe inlet. A parallel flow state is set at the pipe outlet. Following the theory of Wang & Rusak (1997), the outlet state of the steady flow problem is determined for a long pipe by solutions of the columnar (axially-independent) Squire-Long equation. For each of the incoming flows studied, these solutions include the base columnar flow state, a decelerated flow along the centerline, an accelerated flow along the centerline, a vortex-breakdown state and a wall-separation state. These theoretical predictions are numerically realized by flow simulations based on the unsteady flow equations. The simulations shed light on the base flow stability and the dynamics of initial perturbations to the various states. The present study extends all the six bifurcation diagrams of solutions studied in Leclaire & Sipp (2010), who stopped the development of branches of steady states once breakdown and wall-separation states first appear.
Studies of the Precessing Vortex Core in Swirling Flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.O. Vigueras-Zuñiga
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Large scale coherent structures play an important role in the behavior of the combustion regime inside any type ofcombustor stabilized by swirl, with special impact on factors such as flame stability, blow off, emissions and theoccurrence of thermo-acoustic oscillations. Lean premixed combustion is widely used and is known to impact many ofthese factors, causing complex interrelationships with any coherent structure formed. Despite the extensiveexperimentation in this matter, the above phenomena are poorly understood. Numerical simulations have been usedto try to explain the development of different regimes, but their extremely complex nature and lack of time dependentvalidation show varied and debatable results. The precessing vortex core (PVC is a well-known coherent structurewhose development, intensity and occurrence has not been well documented. This paper thus adopts an experimentalapproach to characterize the PVC in a simple swirl burner under combustion conditions so as to reveal the effects ofswirl and other variables on the latter. Aided by a high speed photography (HSP system, the recognition and extentof several different types of PVCs were observed and discussed.
Gajjar, J. S. B.
1995-01-01
We consider the nonlinear stability of a fully three-dimensional boundary layer flow in an incompressible fluid and derive an equation governing the nonlinear development of a stationary cross-flow vortex. The amplitude equation is a novel integro-differential equation which has spatial derivatives of the amplitude occurring in the kernal function. It is shown that the evolution of the cross-flow vortex is strongly coupled to the properties of an unsteady wall layer which is in fact driven by an unknown slip velocity, proportional to the amplitude of the cross-flow vortex. The work is extended to obtain the corresponding equation for rotating disk flow. A number of special cases are examined and the numerical solution for one of cases, and further analysis, demonstrates the existence of finite-distance as well as focussing type singularities. The numerical solutions also indicate the presence of a new type of nonlinear wave solution for a certain set of parameter values.
King, Gregory P.; Rudman, Murray; Coughlin, Katie; Rowlands, George
2005-11-01
The mixing characteristics of wavy Taylor vortex flow have been studied. In a previous work [Rudman, AIChE J., 44, 1998) we demonstrated that inter-vortex mixing could be modelled as a one-dimensional diffusion process along the length (z) of the cylinders and determined, through particle tracking experiments in numerical fields, that the (non-dimensional) effective axial diffusion coefficient (Dz) is a non-monotonic function of the Reynolds number. In a subsequent work (Phys. Fluids, 13 2001) we showed that Dz correlated with the product of space-averaged Eulerian symmetry measures -- quantities that measure the deviation from two-dimensional flow. Those results were for one radius ratio (η= 0.875) and one particular wavy vortex flow state (six waves, axial wavelength = 2.33 gap widths). To determine if this result was `coincidental', we have carried out an extensive investigation of the dependence of Dz on Reynolds number, radius ratio and flow state. We find that the excellent correlation of the original study deteriorates only modestly when the radius ratio is decreased from 0.875 to 0.700. On the other hand, Dz shows a more interesting dependence on flow state.
Dynamics and Instabilities of Free Surface and Vortex Flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild
2012-01-01
This PhD thesis consists of two main parts. The first part describes the dynamics of an ideal fluid on a stationary free surface of a given shape. It turns out that one can formulate a set of self-contained equations of momentum conservation for the tangential flow, with no reference to the flow...... of the fluid bulk. With these equations, one can in principle predict the surface flow on a given free surface, once its shape has been measured. The equations are expressed for a general surface using Riemannian geometry and their solutions are discussed, including some difficulties that may arise...
Computation of hypersonic vortex flows with an Euler model
Bruneau, Charles-Henri; Laminie, Jacques; Chattot, Jean-Jacques
The variational approach of the steady Euler equations presented at the loth ICNMFD [1] is extended to the treatment of supersonic and hypersonic flows by introducing the energy equation inthe least-squares formulation. The approximation is made with cubic or prismatic linear finite elements and the results are presented for flows around a rectangular flat plate or a thin delta wing for various Mach numbers and angles of attack. They show the occurrence of vortical flows on the upper surface of the wings due to the sharp edges.
Vortex generated fluid flows in multiply connected domains
Zemlyanova, Anna; Handley, Demond
2016-01-01
A fluid flow in a multiply connected domain generated by an arbitrary number of point vortices is considered. A stream function for this flow is constructed as a limit of a certain functional sequence using the method of images. The convergence of this sequence is discussed, and the speed of convergence is determined explicitly. The presented formulas allow for the easy computation of the values of the stream function with arbitrary precision in the case of well-separated cylinders. The considered problem is important for applications such as eddy flows in the oceans. Moreover, since finding the stream function of the flow is essentially identical to finding the modified Green's function for Laplace's equation, the presented method can be applied to a more general class of applied problems which involve solving the Dirichlet problem for Laplace's equation.
Sugioka, Hideyuki
2011-05-01
Broken symmetry of vortices due to induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) around stacking structures is important for the generation of a large net flow in a microchannel. Following theoretical predictions in our previous study, we herein report experimental observations of asymmetrical reverse vortex flows around stacking structures of carbon posts with a large height (~110 μm) in water, prepared by the pyrolysis of a photoresist film in a reducing gas. Further, by the use of a coupled calculation method that considers boundary effects precisely, the experimental results, except for the problem of anomalous flow reversal, are successfully explained. That is, unlike previous predictions, the precise calculations here show that stacking structures accelerate a reverse flow rather than suppressing it for a microfluidic channel because of the deformation of electric fields near the stacking portions; these structures can also generate a large net flow theoretically in the direction opposite that of a previous prediction for a standard vortex flow. Furthermore, by solving the one-dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) equations in the presence of ac electric fields, we find that the anomalous flow reversal occurs by the phase retardation between the induced diffuse charge and the tangential electric field. In addition, we successfully explain the nonlinearity of the flow velocity on the applied voltage by the PNP analysis. In the future, we expect to improve the pumping performance significantly by using stacking structures of conductive posts along with a low-cost process.
Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun
2016-06-01
Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.
High-resolution simulations of the flow around an impulsively started cylinder using vortex methods
Koumoutsakos, Petros; Leonard, A.
1995-01-01
The development of a two-dimensional viscous incompressible flow generated from a circular cylinder impulsively started into rectilinear motion is studied computationally. An adaptative numerical scheme, based on vortex methods, is used to integrate the vorticity/velocity formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations for a wide range of Reynolds numbers (Re = 40 to 9500). A novel technique is implemented to resolve diffusion effects and enforce the no-slip boundary condition. The Biot–Savart law...
Physical features of atmospheric pressure microdischarge system with vortex gas flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prysiazhnevych Iryna
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The parameters for microdischarges of plasma medicine in air and argon vortex flows at atmospheric pressure for different shapes of electrodes (outlet nozzle and axis electrode diameters ratio set have been investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of the designed systems have been analyzed, the parameters of the generated jets plasma have been investigated by means of the optical emission spectroscopy, and the form of plasma jets has been studied by using video camera.
Flux flow resistivity and vortex viscosity of high-$T_{c}$ films
Martin, J I; Guinea, F; Vicent, J L
1996-01-01
The flux flow regime of high-T$_{\\rm c}$ samples of different normal state resistivities is studied in the temperature range where the sign of the Hall effect is reversed. The scaling of the vortex viscosity with normal state resistivity is consistent with the Bardeen-Stephen theory. Estimates of the influence of possible mechanisms suggested for the sign reversal of the Hall effect are also given.
Evolutions of hairpin vortexes over a superhydrophobic surface in turbulent boundary layer flow
Zhang, Jingxian; Tian, Haiping; Yao, Zhaohui; Hao, Pengfei; Jiang, Nan
2016-09-01
Turbulent flows over a superhydrophobic surface and a smooth surface have been measured and studied by particle image velocimetry technology at Reθ = 990. The Reynolds shear stress distributions over the two surfaces are significantly different. Specifically, for the superhydrophobic surface, the Reynolds shear stress is suppressed in the near-wall region (y/δ curve. Evolutions of hairpin vortexes are analyzed to interpret differences in the Reynolds shear stress, based on some comparisons in the low-speed streaks and Q2/Q4 (ejection/sweep) events. The results show that, in the near wall region, the turbulent coherent structures (low-speed streaks and hairpin vortex) over the superhydrophobic surface are more stable and flat, due to the suppression in the strength and the lifting effect of the hairpin vortex. In the outer region, the superhydrophobic surface lifts the hairpin vortex away from the wall with a value of 0.14δ in our experiment, which makes the Q4 events occur further from the wall and contribute less to skin friction.
Studies on CFD simulation of hydrodynamic phenomena with vortex flow around the bow of a blunt ship
上浦, 鉄平
2014-01-01
In the present studies, hydrodynamic phenomena with vortex flow around the bow of a blunt ship are simulated by using various CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes. In the conventional experimental studies, some flow properties in front of the bow beneath the free surface have been found out and reported; for example, a necklace vortex based on the wave breaking phenomena is the typical one. In CFD simulations, however, reliable results have not been obtained yet.In this study, the authors...
Doll, Ulrich; Burow, Eike; Beversdorff, Manfred; Stockhausen, Guido; Willert, Christian; Morsbach, Christian; Schlüß, Daniel; Franke, Martin
2015-01-01
The flow field of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is characterized experimentally. Firstly conventional probe based technology is used in order to measure inlet and outlet temperatures as well as to acquire temporally resolved wall pressure data over a wide range of operating conditions. Secondly the filtered Rayleigh scattering technique is employed in order to gather detailed temporally averaged planar information on the vortex tube’s flow topology. These measurements form the basis of a detail...
Liquid Crystal Analogue of Abrikosov Vortex Flow in Superconductors
Tanaka, A; Hayakawa, R
1996-01-01
We extend the correspondence between the Renn-Lubensky Twist-Grain-Boundary-A phase in chiral liquid crystals and the Abrikosov mixed state in superconductors to dynamical aspects. We find that for a TGB sample with free boundaries, an external electric field applied along the helical axis induces a uniform translational motion of the grain boundary system - an analogue of the well-known mixed state flux flow. Likewise, an analogue of the mixed state Nernst effect is found. In much the same way in which the flux flow carries intercore electric fields generating Joule heat in an otherwise dissipation-free system, the grain boundary flow carries along polarized charges, resulting in a finite electric conductivity in a ferroelectric.
Orientation of Cells Cultured in Vortex Flow with Swinging Plate in Vitro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shigehiro Hashimoto
2011-06-01
Full Text Available An effect of flow on cell culture has been studied in vitro. A silicone disk was placed in the center of culture dish of 52 mm internal diameter to make a doughnut-shaped canal. The dish was placed on a tilted plate, which rotates to make a vortex flow around the silicone disk with a swing motion. Variations were made on the diameter (20 mm, 30 mm, and 40 mm of the silicone disk and the rotational speed (2.1 rad/sec, 5.2 rad/sec of the swinging plate, which tilts with 0.1 rad from the horizontal plane. Five kinds of cells were cultured in the vortex flow of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium for seven days: C2C12 (mouse myoblast, L6 (rat skeletal muscle cell, A7r5 (rat aortic smooth muscle cell, CS-2P2-C75 (primary normal porcine aortic endothelial cell, and L929 (mouse fibroblast. The experiments show the following results. The orientation of cells depends on flow and on kinds of cells. A7r5 and CS-2P2-C75 line along the streamline of the flow. C2C12 and L6 adhere along the direction of the flow in the first stage, and tilt to the perpendicular direction to the flow differentiating to myotubes with fusion in the second stage.
Discrete vortex model of a Helmholtz resonator subjected to high-intensity sound and grazing flow.
Dai, Xiwen; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng
2012-11-01
In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to study the acoustical response of a Helmholtz resonator as a duct-branched acoustic absorber subjected to both high-intensity sound and grazing flow. The present model is comprised of a discrete vortex model in combination with a one-dimensional duct sound propagation model. The present work is to study the overall effect of incident sound interacting with grazing flow but putting emphasis on the nonlinear or intermediate regime where the sound intensity has a marked or non-negligible influence on the acoustic behavior of the Helmholtz resonator. The numerical results reveal that the flow field around the orifice is dominated by the evolution of the vortex sheet and the flow pattern is influenced by the ratio of the orifice flow velocity to the grazing flow velocity. When the incident sound pressure is high or the resonance occurs, the resonator shows nonlinearity, i.e., the acoustic impedance and absorption coefficient vary not only with duct flow Mach number buy also with incident frequency and incident sound pressure level.
Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use
Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.
2008-01-01
Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to de
On Stagnation points and streamline topology in vortex flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten
1997-01-01
The problem of locating stagnation points in the flow produced by a system of N interacting point vortices in two dimensions is considered. The general solution, which follows from an 1864 theorem by Siebeck, that the stagnation points are the foci of a certain plane curve of class N-1 that has a...
Periodic oscillations of Josephson-vortex flow resistance in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+y).
Ooi, S; Mochiku, T; Hirata, K
2002-12-09
To study the Josephson-vortex system, we have measured the vortex-flow resistance as a function of magnetic field parallel to the ab plane in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+y) single crystals. Novel periodic oscillations of the vortex-flow resistance have been observed in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. The period of the oscillations corresponds to the field needed to add "one" vortex quantum per "two" intrinsic Josephson junctions. The flow velocity is related to a matching effect between the lattice spacing of Josephson vortices along the layers and the width of the sample. These results suggest that Josephson vortices form a triangular lattice in the ground state where the oscillations occur.
Flow Fields with Vortex in a Small Semi-open Axial Fan
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Norimasa. Shiomi; Yoichi Kinoue; Ying zi Jin; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Kenji Kaneko
2009-01-01
In order to clarify the effect of tip clearance (TC) size on fan performance and the flow field at rotor outlet in a small semi-open axial fan, the experimental investigation was carried out. The tip diameter of test fan rotor was 180mm and test TC sizes were 1 mm (TC=1 mm) and 4mm (TC=4mm). Fan characteristics tests were carried out for two cases of TC size and three-dimensional velocity fields at rotor outlet were measured using a single slant hot-wire probe at four flow-rate conditions. As a result, it was found that the pressure -flow-rate characteristics curves for two cases showed almost the same tendency. However, the ensemble averaged velocity profiles along radial measurement stations of TC=4mm largely changed compared with that of TC=1mm in cases of small flow-rate condition. From the phase-locked averaging results, it was also found that the vortex existed in the rotor outlet flow field of high flow-rate condition for each TC case. Compared with the vortices for TC=1mm and TC=4mm, the vortex for TC=4mm was stronger than that for TC=1mm.
Active flow control of the vortex rope and pressure pulsations in a swirl generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ardalan Javadi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The vortex rope and pressure pulsations caused by a radial pressure gradient in the conical diffuser of a swirl generator is controlled using continuous slot jets with different momentum fluxes and angles injected from the runner crown. The swirl apparatus is designed to generate flows similar to those in the different operating conditions of a Francis turbine. The study is done with numerical modelling using the hybrid URANS-LES (Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes–Large Eddy Simulation method with the rotor–stator interaction. The comprehensive studies of Javadi and Nilsson [Time-accurate numerical simulations of swirling flow with rotor–stator interaction. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, Vol. 95, pp. 755–774], and Javadi, Bosioc, Nilsson, Muntean and Susan-Resiga [Experimental and numerical investigation of the precessing helical vortex in a conical diffuser, with rotor–stator interaction. ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, doi:10.1115/1.4033416] are considered as the bench mark, and the capabilities of the technique is studied in the present work with the validated numerical results presented in those studies. The pressure pulsations caused by the pressure gradient generated by the swirl, present at off-design conditions, are cumbersome for hydropower structures. The investigation shows that the pressure pulsation, velocity fluctuations and the size of the vortex rope decrease when the jet is injected from the runner crown. The flow rate of the jet is less than 3% of the flow rate of the swirl generator. The momentum flux, angle of injection of the jet and the position of the slot are important factors for the effectiveness of the flow control technique.
Peng, Naifu; Yang, Yue
2016-11-01
We investigate the evolution of vortex-surface fields (VSFs) in viscous compressible Taylor-Green flows. The VSF is applied to the direct numerical simulation of the Taylor-Green flows at a range of Mach numbers from Ma = 0 . 6 to Ma = 2 . 2 for characterizing the Mach-number effects on evolving vortical structures. We find that the dilatation and baroclinic force strongly influence the geometry of vortex surfaces and the energy dissipation rate in the transitional stage. The vortex tubes in compressible flows are less curved than those in incompressible flows, and the maximum dissipation rate occurs earlier in high-Mach-number flows perhaps owing to the conversion of kinetic energy into heat. Moreover, the relations between the evolutionary geometry of vortical structures and flow statistics are discussed. This work has been supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11522215 and 11521091), and the Thousand Young Talents Program of China.
Diagnostics of spatial structure of vortex multiplets in a swirl flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2011-01-01
for different heights of this cylinder. The working liquid was 80-percent water-glycerin mixture, and small air bubbles were used as the tracers. The lid was rotated with a constant angular velocity under the studied conditions, and air was accumulated in the zones of decreased pressure on axes of vortices....... Visualization of flow structure for unstable swirl flows and cylinder aspect ratios from 3.2 to 5.5 allowed first identification of these regimes as multispiral breakdowns with formation of helical-like vortex duplets, triplets and quadruplets....
Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section
Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina
2016-01-01
An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.
Park, Kyu-Hwan; Son, Jang-Won; Park, Won-Jong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ung; Park, Jong-Seon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Young-Jo; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Hong, Geu-Ru
2013-01-01
This article is the first clinical investigation of the quantitative left atrial (LA) vortex flow by two-dimensional (2-D) transesophageal contrast echocardiography (2-D-TECE) using vector particle image velocimetry (PIV). The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of LA vortex flow analysis and to characterize and quantify the LA vortex flow in controls and in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Thirty-five controls and 30 patients with AF underwent transesophageal contrast echocardiography. The velocity vector was estimated by particle image velocimetry. The morphology and pulsatility of the LA vortex flow were compared between the control and AF groups. In all patients, quantitative LA vortex flow analysis was feasible. In the control group, multiple, pulsatile, compact and elliptical-shaped vortices were seen in the periphery of the LA. These vortices were persistently maintained and vectors were directed toward the atrioventricular inflow. In the AF group, a large, merged, lower pulsatile and round-shaped vortex was observed in the center of the LA. In comparisons of vortex parameters, the relative strength was significantly lower in the AF group (1.624 ± 0.501 vs. 2.105 ± 0.226, p < 0.001). It is feasible to characterize and quantify the LA vortex flow by transesophageal contrast echocardiography in patients with AF, which offers a new method to obtain additional information on LA hemodynamics. The approach has the potential for early detection of the LA dysfunction and in decisions regarding treatment strategy and guiding anticoagulation treatment in patients with AF.
Parametric CFD study of micro-energy harvesting in a flow channel exploiting vortex shedding
Koubogiannis, Dimitrios G.
2016-05-01
Miniature energy harvesting devices are increasingly used in various fields. For example, Wireless Sensor Networks have recently made great progress in many applications. However, their main drawback, i.e. the limited duration of operation, poses the requirement for an effective way to recharge their batteries. In this context, the presentwork focuses on the study of micro-energy harvesting from flow by exploiting vortex shedding behind bluff bodies, in order to cause oscillations to a piezoelectric film and generate the required electrical power. To this end, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool is validated on a particular miniature device configuration proposed in the literature and implemented for the numerical simulations of flow around bluff micro-bodies in a very small channel. Aiming to enhance vortex shedding, parametric studies corresponding to different bluff body shapes and arrangements for a fixed Reynolds number are performed, the main parameters involved in the phenomenon are highlighted and the potential for vortex shedding exploitation is qualitatively assessed.
Predicting chaotic dispersion with Eulerian symmetry measures: Wavy Taylor-vortex flow
King, G. P.; Rowlands, G.; Rudman, Murray; Yannacopoulos, A. N.
2001-09-01
In a recent investigation of particle transport in numerically computed wavy Taylor-vortex flow, Rudman estimated an effective axial diffusion coefficient, Dz, to characterize the enhanced mixing due to chaotic advection [AIChE J. 44, 1015 (1998)]. We find that Dz is proportional to the product of two measures of symmetry deviation. The first is a measure of the average deviation of the flow from rotational symmetry, and the second is a measure of the average deviation from flexion-free flow (a flow where the curl of the vorticity is zero). Because these quantities are obtained directly from the velocity field, we call them Eulerian symmetry measures. Thus, we show that the macroscopic transport behavior in a flow can be quantified directly in terms of the velocity field and its gradients, and hence provides a connection between Eulerian and Lagrangian pictures of transport—a problem of fundamental and widespread interest.
Influence of coaxial cylinders on vortex breakdown in a closed flow
Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo C; Bove, Italo; Varela, Sylvana; Usera, Gabriel; Vernet, Anton
2008-01-01
The effect of fixed cylindrical rods located at the centerline axis on vortex breakdown (VB) is studied experimentally and numerically. We find that the VB is enhanced for very small values of the rod radius $d$, while it is suppressed for values of $d$ beyond a critical value. In order to characterize this effect, the critical Reynolds number for the appearance of vortex breakdown as a function of the radius of the fixed rods and the different aspect ratios was accurately determined, using digital particle image velocimetry. The numerical and experimental results are compared showing an excellent agreement. In addition, a simple model in order to show that this effect also appears in open pipe flows is presented in the appendix.
On secondary instabilities generating footbridges between spiral vortex flow
Altmeyer, Sebastian A.; Hoffman, Ch
2014-04-01
This work investigates the transition between different traveling helical waves (spirals, SPIs) in the setup of differentially independent rotating cylinders. We use direct numerical simulations to consider an infinite long and periodic Taylor-Couette apparatus with fixed axial periodicity length. We find so-called mixed-cross-spirals (MCSs), that can be seen as nonlinear superpositions of SPIs, to establish stable footbridges connecting SPI states. While bridging the bifurcation branches of SPIs, the corresponding contributions within the MCS vary continuously with the control parameters. Here discussed MCSs presenting footbridge solutions start and end in different SPI branches. Therefore they differ significantly from the already known MCSs that present bypass solutions (Altmeyer and Hoffmann 2010 New J. Phys. 12 113035). The latter start and end in the same SPI branch, while they always bifurcate out of those SPI branches with the larger mode amplitude. Meanwhile, these only appear within the coexisting region of both SPIs. In contrast, the footbridge solutions can also bifurcate out of the minor SPI contribution. We also find they exist in regions where only one of the SPIs contributions exists. In addition, MCS as footbridge solution can appear either stable or unstable. The latter detected transient solutions offer similar spatio-temporal characteristics to the flow establishing stable footbridges. Such transition processes are interesting for pattern-forming systems in general because they accomplish transitions between traveling waves of different azimuthal wave numbers and have not been described in the literature yet.
On secondary instabilities generating footbridges between spiral vortex flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altmeyer, Sebastian A; Hoffman, Ch, E-mail: sebastian_altmeyer@t-online.de [Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria), A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria Max-Planck-Institute for Dynamic and Self-Organization, D-37073 Göttingen (Germany)
2014-04-01
This work investigates the transition between different traveling helical waves (spirals, SPIs) in the setup of differentially independent rotating cylinders. We use direct numerical simulations to consider an infinite long and periodic Taylor–Couette apparatus with fixed axial periodicity length. We find so-called mixed-cross-spirals (MCSs), that can be seen as nonlinear superpositions of SPIs, to establish stable footbridges connecting SPI states. While bridging the bifurcation branches of SPIs, the corresponding contributions within the MCS vary continuously with the control parameters. Here discussed MCSs presenting footbridge solutions start and end in different SPI branches. Therefore they differ significantly from the already known MCSs that present bypass solutions (Altmeyer and Hoffmann 2010 New J. Phys. 12 113035). The latter start and end in the same SPI branch, while they always bifurcate out of those SPI branches with the larger mode amplitude. Meanwhile, these only appear within the coexisting region of both SPIs. In contrast, the footbridge solutions can also bifurcate out of the minor SPI contribution. We also find they exist in regions where only one of the SPIs contributions exists. In addition, MCS as footbridge solution can appear either stable or unstable. The latter detected transient solutions offer similar spatio-temporal characteristics to the flow establishing stable footbridges. Such transition processes are interesting for pattern-forming systems in general because they accomplish transitions between traveling waves of different azimuthal wave numbers and have not been described in the literature yet. (paper)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Particle-laden water flows past a circular cylinder were numerically investigated. The discrete vortex method (DVM) was employed to evaluate the unsteady water flow fields and a Lagrangian approach was applied for tracking individual solid particles. A dispersion function was defined to represent the dispersion scale of the particle.The wake vortex patterns, the distributions and the time series of dispersion functions of particles with different Stokes numbers were obtained. Numerical results show that the particle distribution in the wake of the circular cylinder is closely related to the particle's Stokes number and the structure of wake vortices: (1) the intermediate sized particles with Stokes numbers, St, of 0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 can not enter the vortex cores and concentrate near the peripheries of the vortex structures, (2) in the circular cylinder wake, the dispersion intensity of particles decreases as St is increased from 0.25 to 4.0.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laith J.H
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this numerical study a detailed evaluation of the heat transfer characteristics and flow structure in a laminar and turbulent flow through a rectangular channel containing built-in of different type vortex generator has been a accomplished in a range of Reynolds number between 500 and 100,000.A modified version of ESCEAT code has been used to solve Navier-Stokes and energy equations. The purpose of this paper is to present numerical comparisons in terms of temperature, Nusselt number and flow patterns on several configurations of longitudinal vortex generator including new five cases. The structures of heat and flow were studied, using iso-contours of velocity components, vortices, temperature and Nusselt number. This study shows that the predicted structures of fluid flow, temperature fields and Nusselt number variation are strongly affected by the presence of the turbulators. Staggered arrangement gains high Nusselt number, also the lower and upper arrangements have higher Nusselt number than plane duct. High Reynolds number (higher air inlet velocity will enhance the Nusselt number. Increase in ribs height will enhance the heat transfer as it works as surface area and turbulator at the same time.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI E-rong; LI Guo-ya; LI Wei; WU Jian; ZHANG Xin
2006-01-01
In the gap-ratio range of 0.0≤G≤7.0, a particle image velocimetry PIV is applied to conduct a systematic experimental research of the flow around a horizontal circular cylinder in the cross-flow of shallow water. The velocity distribution of transient flow field at various gap-ratios is obtained. Based on these data, the phenomena and rules of the vortex and its course of generation, development and evolvement at various gap-ratios are analyzed, and it is found that there are similar unshedding vortex structures at G = 0.0 and G = 7.0, and others are structures of shedding vortex. The figures of typical vortex movements are given. Based on this, the differences between the transient flow field and the time-averaged flow field and the characteristics of the vortex structures are analyzed. In addition when the Strouhal number keeps constant (about 0.2) concerning vortex shedding have been discussed. The findings of this paper are of guiding significance for engineering issues with similar flowing features.
Cyclostrophic adjustment in swirling gas flows and the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect
Kalashnik, M. V.; Visheratin, K. N.
2008-04-01
A theoretical analysis of cyclostrophic adjustment is presented; i.e., adjustment to balance between pressure gradient and centrifugal force in axisymmetric flow of an inviscid gas is examined. The solution to the problem is represented as the sum of a time-independent (balanced) and time-dependent (wave) components. It is shown that the wave component of the flow in an unbounded domain decays with time, and the corresponding solution reduces to the balanced component. In a bounded domain, the balanced flow component exists against the background of undamped acoustic waves. It is found that the balanced flow is thermally stratified at Mach numbers close to unity, with a substantial decrease in gas temperature (to between -50 and -100°C) in the axial region. This finding, combined with the results of special experiments, is used to explain the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect.
Flow visualization of the trapping induced by vortex breakdown at a junction
Vigolo, Daniele; Riccomi, Marco; Alberini, Federico; Brunazzi, Elisabetta; Ault, Jesse; Stone, Howard
2016-11-01
Here we present experimental investigations of the vortex breakdown happening at a T-, Y- or "arrow" shaped junction responsible for the trapping of light material suspended in solution. Considering the ubiquitous nature of T-junctions and bifurcation in general, in industrial as well as biological environments, it is extremely interesting to better understand how this trapping phenomenon happens. In particular, we observed the flow profiles at different sections in order to perform a three-dimensional study of complex structures, such as vortices and recirculation zones, that develop at a bifurcation. We explored Reynolds number ranging from 50 to about 500 for different milli-fluidic devices. Thus we compared standard micro-PIV and a novel optical technique, the Ghost Particle Velocimetry (GPV), that was recently introduced, to investigate the onset of vortex breakdown. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with single-phase OpenFoam numerical simulations performed in the same flow conditions. Finally, we studied the mutual influence of a trapped particle on the flow field inside the recirculation zone by fully exploiting the capability of GPV to produce 3D flow field with a spatial resolution of few tens of microns. This work was partially supported by the Wellcome Trust [1516ISSFFIRA23].
2-D Urans Simulations of Vortex Induced Vibrations of Circular Cylinder at Trsl3 Flow Regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omer Kemal Kinaci
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Research on vortex-induced vibrations (VIV mainly involves experimental science but building laboratory setups to investigate the flow are expensive and time consuming. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD methods may offer a faster and a cheaper way to understand this phenomenon depending on the solution approach to the problem. The context of this paper is to present the author’s computational approach to solve for vortex-induced vibrations which cover extensive explanations on the mathematical background, the grid structure and the turbulence models implemented. Current computational research on VIV for smooth cylinders is currently restricted to flows that have Reynolds numbers below 10,000. This paper describes the method to approach the problem with URANS and achieves to return satisfactory results for higher Reynolds numbers.The computational approach is first validated with a benchmark experimental study for rather low Reynolds number which falls into TrSL2 flow regime. Then, some numerical results up to Re=130,000, which falls into TrSL3 flow regime,are given at the end of the paper to reveal the validity of the approach for even higher Reynolds numbers.
Effect of Internal Flow on Vortex-Induced Vibration of Submarine Free Spanning Pipelines
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LOU Min; DING Jian; GUO Hai-yan; DONG Xiao-lin
2005-01-01
At present, most researches on the vortex-induced vibration of submarine free spanning pipelines ignore the effect of internal flowing fluid; furthermore, there are no research reports considering the coupling effect of internal and external fluid with the free span. In this paper, combining Iwan's wake oscillator model with the differential equation derived for the dynamic response of submarine free spanning pipelines with inclusion of internal flow, the pipe-fluid coupling equations are developed to investigate the effect of internal flow on the vortex-induced vibration of the free spans. The finite element approximation is implemented to derive the matrix equations of equilibrium. The Newmark method combined with simple iteration is used to solve the system of equations. The results indicate that the internal fluid flow may cause the shift of resonance band to the lower frequency and a slight decrease in the peak value; the effect will be more pronounced with the increase of the span length and can be weakened in the presence of the axial tension.
Control of a Backward-Facing Step flow through vortex pairing and phase locking
Duriez, Thomas; Wesfreid, Jose Eduardo; Artana, Guillermo
2014-01-01
Many experimental and numerical studies report a large reduction of the recirculation bubble in Backward-Facing Step flows or airfoils in stall situation when excited at the natural shedding frequency $f_0$. Through a simple experiment using Dielectric Barrier Discharge actuator, we find a different result. For a given Reynolds number, the frequency of the perturbation is varied for a fixed duty-cycle dc = 27%. Through phase-averaging of Particle Image Velocimetry measurements, we show that the actuation creates a forced vortex which interacts with the natural shedding with a different phase velocity than the unforced one. The largest reduction of the recirculation bubble (-35%) is obtained in a very narrow frequency range around $0.73 f_0$ where early vortex pairing occurs between forced and unforced vortices. Phase averaging shows that in this case, the actuation clearly forces the vortex pairing in the shear layer. On the contrary, when the forcing frequency is higher, the shear layer behaves like an ampli...
Yang, Peng; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yingwen
2017-06-01
In this paper, a two-dimensional axisymmetric model of a thermoacoustic Stirling engine with a short tube where the cross section narrows has been developed. The transient streamlines and vortex formation through short tubes with different diameters in oscillatory flow have been investigated visually by computational fluid dynamics. Three dimensionless parameters, Reynolds number (Re), Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC), and Womersley number (Wo), are used to describe the flow regime and vortex characteristic throughout the short tube. High Re and Wo numbers indicate that the oscillatory flow develops into the turbulent flow through the short tube. The KC number has a direct effect on the transition of streamlines and the development of the vortex. For a small cross section where KC ≈ 1, streamlines rotate and the vortex forms at both sides of the short tube. The vortex stays in the main flow region, and intensity varies as streamlines are convected downstream. The velocity along the radius presents a Poiseuille profile within the influence of the vortex. For a large cross section where KC < 1, streamlines pass the short tube with little rotation and the vortex disappears in the main flow region and confines near the short tube. The velocity profile tends to be flat. The nonlinear effects including instantaneous pressure drop and power dissipation throughout the short tube are also discussed. It shows that the time averaged pressure drop is generated at the cost of power dissipation. Finally, the "effectiveness" is applied to evaluate the performance of the short tube. The results suggest that increasing the diameter of the short tube is in favor of reducing power dissipation, which is beneficial to improve "effectiveness."
Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.
1975-01-01
A recently proposed method of flow visualization was investigated at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center. This method of flow visualization is particularly applicable to the study of lift-induced wing tip vortices through which it is possible to record the entire life span of the vortex. To accomplish this, a vertical screen of smoke was produced perpendicular to the flight path and allowed to become stationary. A model was then driven through the screen of smoke producing the circular vortex motion made visible as the smoke was induced along the path taken by the flow and was recorded by highspeed motion pictures.
Self-similarity and helical symmetry in vortex generator flow simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez, U.; Velte, Clara Marika; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan;
2012-01-01
According to experimental observations, the vortices generated by vortex generators have previously been observed to be self-similar for both the axial (uz) and azimuthal (u) velocity profiles. Further, the measured vortices have been observed to obey the criteria for helical symmetry...... is to investigate how well the simulations can reproduce the physics of the flow and if the same analytical model can be applied. Using this model, parametric studies can be significantly reduced and, further, reliable simulations can substantially reduce the costs of the parametric studies themselves....
Self-Similarity and helical symmetry in vortex generator flow simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez, U.; Velte, Clara Marika; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan;
2014-01-01
According to experimental observations, the vortices generated by vortex generators have previously been observed to be self-similar for both the axial (uz) and azimuthal (uӨ) velocity profiles. Further, the measured vortices have been observed to obey the criteria for helical symmetry...... is to investigate how well the simulations can reproduce the physics of the flow and if the same analytical model can be applied. Using this model, parametric studies can be significantly reduced and, further, reliable simulations can substantially reduce the costs of the parametric studies themselves....
On leading-edge vortex attachment in rotary systems: Incident flow effects
Medina, Albert; Jones, Anya R.
2015-11-01
The mechanism governing the stable attachment of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) in rotating systems has been believed to be rooting in a balance between the rate vorticity production from the leading-edge shear layer and the convection of vorticity-bearing mass from within the LEV to the surrounding flow field. In such a relation, the accumulation of vorticity within a vortical structure is regulated by convective influences effectively draining the structure of circulatory strength. This work numerically investigates the shear rate-convection balance assertion in low-aspect ratio rectangular flat plates undergoing unidirectional rotation in a steady freestream. The freestream is oriented parallel to the rotational axis and the effect of advance ratio on the resulting flow structures is compared with a rotary plate operating in a quiescent fluid. Depending on advance ratio, the incidence angle of the plate is adjusted to maintain a constant effective attack angle of α =45° based on plate tip speeds. Of interest is the response of the system over a Reynolds number range Re = [102 :103 ] where axial flow prominence shifts from aft of the leading-edge vortex to within the structure.
Imaging of the Space-time Structure of a Vortex Generator in Supersonic Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Dengpan; XIA Zhixun; ZHAO Yuxin; WANG Bo; ZHAO Yanhui
2012-01-01
The fine space-time structure of a vortex generator (VG) in supersonic flow is studied with the nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS) method in a quiet supersonic wind tunnel.The fine coherent structure at the symmetrical plane of the flow field around the VG is imaged with NPLS.The spatial structure and temporal evolution characteristics of the vortical structure are analyzed,which demonstrate periodic evolution and similar geometry,and the characteristics of rapid movement and slow change.Because the NPLS system yields the flow images at high temporal and spatial resolutions,from these images the position of a large scale structure can be extracted precisely.The position and velocity of the large scale structures can be evaluated with edge detection and correlation algorithms.The shocklet structures induced by vortices are imaged,from which the generation and development of shocklets are discussed in this paper.
Simulation of flow across complicated domain between tube bundles by the discrete vortex method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
On the basis of the analysis of numerical simulation methods for the complicated domain between tube bundles, an improved Lagragian discrete vortex method (DVM) and corresponding algorithm are put forward to solve the practical difficulties of flow across tube bundles. With this method the amount of vortices can be reduced considerably, which makes quick calculation possible. Applied to the practical configuration of horizontal tube bundles, the DVM simulation is carried out and compared with the experimental results. Both the transient flow field and the profile of mean velocity and fluctuations are in good agreement with experimental results, which indicate that the DVM is suitable for the simulation of single-phase flow across tube bundles.
Blade Vortex Interaction of Bi-directional flow in a Uni-directional Impulse Turbine
Velez, Carlos
2011-11-01
Uni-directional impulse turbines are used for the extraction of wave energy by converting oscillating air flow generated by waves into uni-directional rotational energy. The symmetric airfoil design requires a large camber, in order to function in bi-directional flow, which creates a large boundary layer separation region towards the trailing edge of the blade. A three-dimensional, viscous, transient turbulent CFD model with rotating reference frame is created to model the blade vortex interaction (BVI) which occurs during transient bi-directional air flow. Various LES models are compared to determine an adequate turbulence model to accurately resolve the vortices created on the blade trailing edge. A study of the adverse effects of this BVI is conducted and a novel blade jet technique is introduced to prevent the separation of air flow from the trailing edge of the blade. Results show strong stresses arise from BVI during bi-directional transitional flow and the effectiveness of the blade jet technique in diminishing flow separation is successfully demonstrated. Results indicate that the increase in blade lift is linearly proportional to the blade jet mass flow rate once the jet velocity reaches approximately 120% of the turbine inlet velocity and that the increase in efficiency created by the blade jets are greater than the loss in efficiency in reducing the mass flow rate extracted from the inlet to the blade jet.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FENG Shun-Xin; FU Song
2007-01-01
The effects of inner cylinder orbital motion on Taylor vortex flow of Newtonian and power-law fluid are studied numerically. The results demonstrate that when the eccentricity is not small, the orbital motion influences the stability of the flow in a non-monotonic manner. The variations of the flow-induced forces on the inner cylinder versus orbital motion are also different from the cases in which the flow is two-dimensional and laminar.
Muntean, S.; Tănasă, C.; Bosioc, A. I.; Moş, D. C.
2016-11-01
The paper investigates an unexpected feature of the unsteady pressure field resulting from the self-induced instability of the decelerated swirling flow in a straight diffuser. Firstly, the self-induced instability is experimentally investigated on the swirl generator test rig. As a result, the asynchronous (rotating) pressure pulsation associated with the rotating vortex rope of 15 Hz and it second harmonic are discriminated. Also, a low frequency synchronous (plunging) pulsation around of 2.5 Hz is identified based on unsteady pressure field measured at the wall and LDV measurement of the velocity components in the flow. The low frequency plunging pressure fluctuations is superimposed on the rotating pressure pulsations associated with the vortex rope. The numerical simulations are performed to explore the vortex rope dynamics. The numerical results are compared against experimental data to assess the accuracy of the models. Next, the pressure pulsation dynamics is correlated with the time evolution of the vortex rope. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis of the vortex rope evolution in time is that the cycle with low frequency is responsible for the plunging (synchronous) pressure fluctuations superimposed over the rotating (asynchronous) pressure field associated with the precession of the vortex rope.
Ford, C. L.; Winroth, M.; Alfredsson, P. H.
2016-08-01
An entirely pressure-based vortex-shedding meter has been designed for use in practical time-dependent flows. The meter is capable of measuring mass-flow rate in variable density gases in spite of the fact that fluid temperature is not directly measured. Unlike other vortex meters, a pressure based meter is incredibly robust and may be used in industrial type flows; an environment wholly unsuitable for hot-wires for example. The meter has been tested in a number of static and dynamic flow cases, across a range of mass-flow rates and pressures. The accuracy of the meter is typically better than about 3% in a static flow and resolves the fluctuating mass-flow with an accuracy that is better than or equivalent to a hot-wire method.
Acoustic streaming in swirling flow and the Ranque-Hilsch /vortex-tube/ effect
Kurosaka, M.
1982-11-01
The Ranque-Hilsch effect, observed in swirling flow within a single tube, is a spontaneous separation of total temperature, with the colder stream near the tube center line and the hotter air near its periphery. Despite its simplicity, the mechanism of the Ranque-Hilsch effect has been a matter of long-standing dispute. Analysis and experiment are used to demonstrate that the acoustic streaming induced by orderly disturbances within the swirling flow is, to a substantial degree, a cause of the Ranque-Hilsch effect. The analysis predicts that the streaming induced by the pure tone, a spinning wave corresponding to the first tangential mode, deforms the base Rankine vortex into a forced vortex, resulting in total temperature separation in the radial direction. This is confirmed by experiments, where, in the Ranque-Hilsch tube of uniflow arrangement, acoustic suppressors of organ-pipe type are installed, tuned to the discrete frequency of the first tangential mode, attenuate its amplitude, and it is shown that this does indeed reduce the total temperature separation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reinhardt, B.; Duhamel, Ph.; Cordonnier, A. [FCB Centre de Recherches, 59 - Lille (France); Florent, P. [LAMIH/LMFE, 59 - Valenciennes (France)
1997-12-31
The cyclones used in cement industry generally have a diameter of 4 to 6 m. However, tests on cyclones bigger than 4 m can hardly be performed and thus, it is important to study the influence of the size of the apparatus on the development of the generated vortex. A study of the structure and characteristics of the suspension inside a cyclone has been carried out. The results of the characterization of two cyclones (400 and 800 mm diameter) running without load are presented first in order to study the vortex behaviour. In parallel with this experimental study, a numerical study has been carried out and a calculation code called CYCLOP has been developed. The code, the equations of the gas flow inside the cyclone and the modifications given to the turbulent model are presented. (J.S.) 4 refs.
3D FLOW INSIDE BUBBLE-TYPE VORTEX BREAKDOWN: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION VIA LDV
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Ying-zheng; Chen Han-ping; Koyama Hide S.
2003-01-01
Bubble-type vortex breakdown of the swirling flow inside a closed cylindrical container with a rotating upper endwall was experimentally investigated via LDV.3D measurement of the steady bubble at H/R=1.5 was firstly carried out with very fine grid arrangement.Flow details inside the bubble and its Re-dependent structure were made clear.Abrupt waves of the azimuthal velocity component were always found to be between the bottom stationary endwall and the upstream stagnation point, which might be the reason of bubble formation.Variation of bubble structure and bubble center with the increasing Re gives the explanation for the disappearance of the breakdown region.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
In consideration of the effect of the internal flowing fluid and the external marine environmental condition on the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of top tensioned riser (TTR), the differential equation is derived based on work-energy principles and the riser near wake dynamics is modeled by Facchinetti's wake oscillator model. Then Galerkin's finite element approximation is implemented to derive the nonlinear matrix equation of the coupled equations and the corresponding numerical programs are compiled which solve the coupled equations directly in the time domain. The comparison of the predicted results with the recent experimental results and the prediction of SHEAR7 is performed. The results show the validity of the proposed method on the prediction of VIV of deep water risers. The effect of internal flow on the dynamic characteristics and dynamic response of the riser is analyzed and several valuable conclusions are drawn.
Isaev, Sergey; Baranov, Paul; Popov, Igor; Sudakov, Alexander; Usachov, Alexander
2017-03-01
The modified SST model (2005) is verified using Rodi- Leschziner-Isaev's approach and the multiblock computational technologies are validated in the VP2/3 code on different-structure overlapping grids by comparing the numerical predictions with the experimental data on transonic flow around an NACA0012 airfoil at an angle of attack of 4o for M=0.7 and Re=4×106. It is proved that the aerodynamic characteristics of a thick (20% of the chord) MQ airfoil mounted at an angle of attack of 2o for Re=107 and over the Mach number range 0.3-0.55 are significantly improved because an almost circular small-size (0.12) vortex cell with a defined volumetric flow rate coefficient of 0.007 during slot suction has been located on the upper airfoil section and an intense trapped vortex has been formed in it. A detailed analysis of buffeting within the self-oscillatory regime of flow around the MQ airfoil with a vortex cell has demonstrated the periodic changes in local and integral characteristics; the lift and the aerodynamic efficiency remain quite high, but inferior to the similar characteristics at M=0.55. It is found that the vortex cell at M=0.7 is inactive, and the aerodynamic characteristics of the MQ airfoil with a vortex cell are close to those of a smooth airfoil without a cell.
Generation of large-scale vortex dislocations in a three- dimensional wake-type flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LING; Guocan
2001-01-01
［1］Williamson, C. H. K., Vortex dynamics in the cylinder wake, Annu. Rev. of Fluid Mech., 1996, 28: 477—539.［2］Noack, B. R., Eckelmann, H., A global stability analysis of the steady and periodic cylinder wake, J. Fluid Mech., 1994, 270: 297.［3］Ling Guocan, Chang Yong, Three-dimensional stability analysis of the periodic wake behind a circular cylinder by low-dimensional Galerkin method, Acta Mechanica Sinica (in Chinese), 1999, 31: 660.［4］Barkley, D., Henderson, R. D., Three-dimensional Floquet stability analysis of the wake of a circular cylinder, J. Fluid Mech., 1996, 322: 215.［5］Zhang, H. Q., Fey, U., Noack, B. R. et al., On the transition of cylinder wake, Phys. Fluids, 1995, A7(4): 779.［6］Henderson, R. D., Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation in turbulent wake transition, J. Fluid Mech., 1997, 352: 65.［7］Persillon, H., Braza, M., Physical analysis of the transition to turbulence in the wake of a circular cylinder by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes simulation, J. Fluid Mech., 1998, 365: 23.［8］Ling Guocan, Yu Chenwei, Xiong Zhongmin, The nonlinear features of the wake transition behind a circular cylinder, Proceedings of the Third China-Japan Workshop on Turbulent Flows, Beijing, China, 31 Oct.—4 Nov., 1998.［9］Karniadakis, G. E., Triantafyllou, G. S., Three-dimensional dynamics and transition to turbulence in the wake of bluff objects, J. Fluid Mech., 1992, 238: 1.［10］Williamson, C. H. K., The natural and forced formation of spot-like ‘vortex dislocations’in the transition of a wake, J. Fluid Mech., 1992, 243: 393.［11］Roshko, A., On the development of turbulent wakes from vortex streets, NACA Rep., 1954, 119.［12］Bloor, M. S., The transition to turbulence in the wake of a circular cylinder, J. Fluid Mech., 1964, 19: 290.［13］Lewis, C., Gharib, M., An exploration of the wake three-dimensionalities caused by a local discontinuity in cylinder diameter, Phys. Fluids, 1992, A4: 104.［14］Eisenlohr, H
DNS Study of the Turbulent Taylor-Vortex Flow on a Ribbed Inner Cylinder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takahiro Tsukahara
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Turbulent Taylor-vortex flows over regularly spaced square ribs mounted on a rotating inner cylinder surface were investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNSs for a Reynolds number of 3200 (based on the inner-wall velocity and the gap width between two cylinders in an apparatus with an inner-to-outer radius ratio of 0.617, while varying the streamwise interval of the ribs. We examined the flow and pressure fields around each rib, focusing on the recirculation zone, the frictional drag coefficient, and the pressure (form drag. Our results for the Taylor-Couette flows were compared to DNS for plane Poiseuille flows over ribbed surfaces performed by Leonardi et al. (2003. We determined the qualitative consistency between them with respect to the roughness effect, which depends significantly on the rib interval, but the rate of increase in the flow resistance was remarkably dampened by roughness in the present flows. Taylor vortices remaining over roughened cylinder surfaces were found to induce quick pressure recovery behind each rib, leading to less pressure drag and an enhanced backflow in the recirculation zone.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏中磊; 张子强; H.E.Fiedler
1995-01-01
The behavior of synchronization in an open flow dynamical system, especially in an excited wake flow behind a 2-D oscillating circular cylinder with Reynolds number Re ranging from 45 to 200 is presented. The experiment reveals that only under certain conditions can the competition between frequencies of oscillating cylinder and the vortex shedding in the wake flow result in "window of chaos" with the mixed RTN and Feigenbaum scenario in the range of Re<185.
Diagnostics of BubbleMode Vortex Breakdown in Swirling Flow in a Large-Aspect-Ratio Cylinder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulikov, D. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Naumov, Igor
2014-01-01
We report for the first time on the possible formation of regions with counterflow (bubble-mode vortex breakdown or explosion) at the center of strongly swirling flow generated by a rotating endwall in a large-aspect-ratio cylindrical cavity filled with a liquid medium. Previously, the possibility...... of bubble-mode breakdown was studied in detail for cylindrical cavities of moderate aspect ratio (length to radius ratios up to H/R ∼ 3.5), while flows in large-aspect-ratio cylinders were only associated with regimes of self-organized helical vortex multiplets. In the present study, a regime...... with nonstationary bubble-mode vortex breakdown has been observed in a cylindrical cavity with H/R = 4.5....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
We investigates the effect of Taylor-Grtler vortex on the Reynolds stress transport in the rotating turbulent channel flow by direct numerical simulation. The Taylor-Grtler vortex is detected by longitudinal average of velocity fluctuation in the channel and defined as TG fluctuation. It has been found that turbulent diffusion is significant in the Reynolds stress transportation at the suction side of rotating turbulent channel in contrast with the turbulent channel flow without rotation and Taylor-Grtler vortex plays an important role in the turbulent diffusion in Reynolds stress transport. The paper focuses on the low and moderate rotation number, but the effect of the rotation number on the Reynolds stress transport is also reported.
Scalar mixing and strain dynamics methodologies for PIV/LIF measurements of vortex ring flows
Bouremel, Yann; Ducci, Andrea
2017-01-01
Fluid mixing operations are central to possibly all chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries either being related to biphasic blending in polymerisation processes, cell suspension for biopharmaceuticals production, and fractionation of complex oil mixtures. This work aims at providing a fundamental understanding of the mixing and stretching dynamics occurring in a reactor in the presence of a vortical structure, and the vortex ring was selected as a flow paradigm of vortices commonly encountered in stirred and shaken reactors in laminar flow conditions. High resolution laser induced fluorescence and particle imaging velocimetry measurements were carried out to fully resolve the flow dissipative scales and provide a complete data set to fully assess macro- and micro-mixing characteristics. The analysis builds upon the Lamb-Oseen vortex work of Meunier and Villermaux ["How vortices mix," J. Fluid Mech. 476, 213-222 (2003)] and the engulfment model of Baldyga and Bourne ["Simplification of micromixing calculations. I. Derivation and application of new model," Chem. Eng. J. 42, 83-92 (1989); "Simplification of micromixing calculations. II. New applications," ibid. 42, 93-101 (1989)] which are valid for diffusion-free conditions, and a comparison is made between three methodologies to assess mixing characteristics. The first method is commonly used in macro-mixing studies and is based on a control area analysis by estimating the variation in time of the concentration standard deviation, while the other two are formulated to provide an insight into local segregation dynamics, by either using an iso-concentration approach or an iso-concentration gradient approach to take into account diffusion.
Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryzhov, Evgeny A., E-mail: ryzhovea@poi.dvo.ru [Pacific Oceanological Institute of FEB RAS, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Koshel, Konstantin V., E-mail: kvkoshel@poi.dvo.ru [Pacific Oceanological Institute of FEB RAS, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Sukhanova Street, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation)
2015-10-15
In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero–oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations.
Pinning effects on hot-electron vortex flow instability in superconducting films
Shklovskij, Valerij A.
2017-07-01
The hot-electron vortex flow instability in superconducting films in magnetic field B at substrate temperature T0 ≪ Tc is theoretically considered in the presence of pinning. The magnetic field dependences of the instability critical parameters (electric field E*, current density j*, resistivity ρ*, power density P* and vortex velocity v*) are derived for a cosine and a saw-tooth washboard pinning potential and compared with the results obtained earlier by M. Kunchur [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 137005] in absence of pinning. It is shown that the B-behavior of E*, j* and ρ* is monotonic, whereas the B-dependence of v* is quite different, namely dv*/dB may change its sign twice, as sometimes observed in experiments. The simplest heat balance equation for electrons in low-Tc superconducting films is considered within the framework of the two-fluid model. A theoretical analysis reveals that the instability critical temperature T* ≈ 5Tc/6 at T0 < T*/2 with T* being independent of B.
Vortex and structural dynamics of a flexible cylinder in cross-flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shang, Jessica K., E-mail: jshang@princeton.edu; Stone, Howard A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Smits, Alexander J. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)
2014-05-15
A low-density, flexible cantilevered cylinder was permitted to vibrate freely under the influence of vortex shedding in the laminar flow regime. We find that the vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a flexible cantilever depart from those of a flexible cylinder that is fixed at both ends. In particular, we find discontinuous regions of VIV behavior – here called states – as a function of the reduced velocity U{sup *}. These states are demarcated by discrete changes in the dominant eigenmodes of the structural response as the cylinder vibrates in progressively higher structural modes with increasing U{sup *}. The contribution of structural modes can be identified readily by a modal projection of the cylinder oscillation onto known cantilever beam modes. Oscillation frequencies do not monotonically increase with U{sup *}. The wake response between different states is also found to have distinct characteristics; of particular note is the occurrence of a P+S wake over one of these regions, which is associated with a high-amplitude vibration of the cylinder that is due to the constructive interference of contributing eigenmodes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. A. Ryzhov
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In the frame of a three-layer, quasi-geostrophic analytical model of an f-plane geophysical flow, the Lagrangian advection induced by the interaction of a monopole vortex with an isolated topographic feature is addressed. Two different cases when the monopole is located either within the upper or the middle layer are of our interest. In the bottom layer, there is a delta-function topographic feature, which generates a closed recirculation region in its vicinity due to the background flow. This recirculation region extends to the middle and upper layers, and it plays the role of a topographic vortex. The interaction between the monopole and the topographic vortex causes a complex, including chaotic, advection of fluid particles. We show that the model's parameters, namely the monopole and topographic vortices' strengths and initial positions, and the layers' depths and densities, are responsible for the diverse advection patterns. While the patterns are rather complicated, one can single out two major processes, which mostly govern the fluid particle advection. The first one is the variation in time of the system's phase space structure, so that within the closed region of the topographic vortex, there appear periodically unclosed particle pathways by which the particles leave the topographic vortex. The second one is chaotic advection that arises from the nonstationarity of the monopole–topography interaction.
Simulating external flow using vortex method in two- and three dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spietz, Henrik Juul; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore;
Vortex methods are numerical methods for simulating uid ow. They use a simple formulation where only the trajectories of discrete vortex particles are simulated. In our method we combine a high order particle-mesh based vortex method with an iterative penalization method to simulate external ows...... and the wake forming behind it. This is demonstrated in 2D and 3D simulations...
Zabusky, Norman; Peng, Gaozhu; Zhang, Shuang
2004-11-01
We review our recent contributions [1,2,3,4] in the light of their omission in recent publications [5,6,7,8]. Included is the VAVD process ( also called: secondary baroclinic circulation generation) which yields more positive and negative circulation through intermediate times than the original shock-accelerated vortex deposition (SAVD). VAVD is due to the acceleration provided by the rolled up vortex from SAVD and more important, the strongly increased density gradients of the multiphase front, also caused by the roll-up process . In addition we quantify : the effect of the initial thickness of the interfacial transition layer; the approach to constant a-dot at intermediate-to-late times; the ubiquity of vortex projectiles and transition to turbulence. Refs: 1.Zabusky, N.J., Kotelnikov, A.D., Gulak, Y. & Peng, G. Amplitude growth rate of a Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable two-dimensional interface to intermediate times. J. Fluid Mechanics, 475, p. 147-162,2003. 2.N. J. Zabusky, S. Gupta and Y. Gulak. Localization and spreading of contact discontinuity layers in simulations of compressible dissipationless flows. J. Comput. Phys. 188 (2) (2003) 347-363, 2003. 3.G. Peng, N. J. Zabusky & S. Zhang. Vortex-accelerated secondary baroclinic vorticity deposition and late intermediate time dynamics of a two-dimensional RM interface. Phys. Fluids 15 (12), 3730-3744, 2003. 4. S. Zhang, N. J. Zabusky, G. Peng & S. Gupta. Shock Gaseous Cylinder Interactions: Dynamically validated initial conditions provide excellent agreement between experiments and Navier-Stokes simulations to late-intermediate time. Phys.Fluids 16(5), 1203-1216, 2004. 5.P. Vorobieff , N.-G. Mohamed, C. Tomkins, C. Goodenough, M. Marr-Lyon, and R. F. Benjamin Scaling evolution in shock-induced transition to turbulence PHYS REV. E 68, 065301.2003. 6.C. Matsuoka, K. Nishihara and Y. Fukuda,. Nonlinear evolution of an interface in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. PHYS. REV. E 67, 036301 2003!& erratum 7.K. Nishihara
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2013-01-01
Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements investigating the effect of vortex generators (VGs) on the flow near stall were carried out in a purpose-built wind tunnel for airfoil investigations on a DU 91-W2-250 profile. Measurements were conducted at Re = 0.9⋅106, corresponding to free...
Selective particle and cell capture in a continuous flow using micro-vortex acoustic streaming.
Collins, David J; Khoo, Bee Luan; Ma, Zhichao; Winkler, Andreas; Weser, Robert; Schmidt, Hagen; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye
2017-05-16
Acoustic streaming has emerged as a promising technique for refined microscale manipulation, where strong rotational flow can give rise to particle and cell capture. In contrast to hydrodynamically generated vortices, acoustic streaming is rapidly tunable, highly scalable and requires no external pressure source. Though streaming is typically ignored or minimized in most acoustofluidic systems that utilize other acoustofluidic effects, we maximize the effect of acoustic streaming in a continuous flow using a high-frequency (381 MHz), narrow-beam focused surface acoustic wave. This results in rapid fluid streaming, with velocities orders of magnitude greater than that of the lateral flow, to generate fluid vortices that extend the entire width of a 400 μm wide microfluidic channel. We characterize the forces relevant for vortex formation in a combined streaming/lateral flow system, and use these acoustic streaming vortices to selectively capture 2 μm from a mixed suspension with 1 μm particles and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-231) from red blood cells.
The boundary element method applied to viscous and vortex shedding flows around cylinders
Farrant, Tim
Studies are presented to further extend the use of the boundary element method (BEM) for the solution of viscous flows around bluff bodies, governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Two distinct formulations are applied to various flows around cylindrical geometries for Reynolds numbers Tan (1994) and known herein as the global BEM, was coded to execute in parallel on multi-processor computers. Reductions in execution time were achieved and the method was employed to solve an oscillating cylinder problem. In this study, the displacement undergone by the body was very large but the Reynolds number was always Tan et al (1998). A validation for isolated and double circular cylinders in a uniform stream was performed against experimental evidence to demonstrate the method's stability and accuracy for laminar vortex shedding with geometries involving multiply connected domains. Finally, computational results for flows around four equispaced circular cylinders of equal diameter and two cylinders, one circular the other elliptical, are reported. Many of the concepts established for the flow around two cylinders of equal diameter were found to be useful in interpretation of these more complicated arrangements.
Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koshel, Konstantin V., E-mail: kvkoshel@poi.dvo.ru [Pacific Oceanological Institute, FEB RAS, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Mathematics, FEB RAS, 7, Radio Street, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Sukhanova Street, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Ryzhov, Eugene A., E-mail: ryzhovea@gmail.com [Pacific Oceanological Institute, FEB RAS, 43, Baltiyskaya Street, Vladivostok 690041 (Russian Federation)
2016-08-15
The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system.
Experimental Study on Coupled Cross-Flow and in-Line Vortex-Induced Vibration of Flexible Risers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Hai-yan; LOU Min
2008-01-01
In this work, we study the coupled cross-flow and in-line vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a fixedly mounted flexible pipe, which is free to move in cross-flow (Y-) and in-line (X-) direction in a fluid flow where the mass and natural frequencies are precisely the same in both X- and Y-direction. The fluid speed varies from low to high with the corresponding vortex shedding frequency varying from below the first natural frequency to above the second natural frequency of the flexible pipe. Particular emphasis was placed on the investigation of the relationship between in-line and cross-flow vibration. The experimental results analyzed by using these measurements exhibits several valuable features.
Mantič-Lugo, Vladislav; Arratia, Cristóbal; Gallaire, François
2014-08-22
The Bénard-von Kármán vortex shedding instability in the wake of a cylinder is perhaps the best known example of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in fluid dynamics. However, a simplified physical description that accurately accounts for the saturation amplitude of the instability is still missing. Here, we present a simple self-consistent model that provides a clear description of the saturation mechanism and quantitatively predicts the saturated amplitude and flow fields. The model is formally constructed by a set of coupled equations governing the mean flow together with its most unstable eigenmode with finite size. The saturation amplitude is determined by requiring the mean flow to be neutrally stable. Without requiring any input from numerical or experimental data, the resolution of the model provides a good prediction of the amplitude and frequency of the vortex shedding as well as the spatial structure of the mean flow and the Reynolds stress.
Ramesh, Kiran; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael V.; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Edwards, Jack R.
2017-08-01
A leading-edge suction parameter (LESP) that is derived from potential flow theory as a measure of suction at the airfoil leading edge is used to study initiation of leading-edge vortex (LEV) formation in this article. The LESP hypothesis is presented, which states that LEV formation in unsteady flows for specified airfoil shape and Reynolds number occurs at a critical constant value of LESP, regardless of motion kinematics. This hypothesis is tested and validated against a large set of data from CFD and experimental studies of flows with LEV formation. The hypothesis is seen to hold except in cases with slow-rate kinematics which evince significant trailing-edge separation (which refers here to separation leading to reversed flow on the aft portion of the upper surface), thereby establishing the envelope of validity. The implication is that the critical LESP value for an airfoil-Reynolds number combination may be calibrated using CFD or experiment for just one motion and then employed to predict LEV initiation for any other (fast-rate) motion. It is also shown that the LESP concept may be used in an inverse mode to generate motion kinematics that would either prevent LEV formation or trigger the same as per aerodynamic requirements.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spietz, Henrik Juul; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore
in the oncoming flow. This may lead to structural instability e.g. when the shedding frequency aligns with the natural frequency of the structure. Fluid structure interaction must especially be considered when designing long span bridges. A three dimensional vortex-in-cell method is applied for the direct....... This we combine with an iterative penalization method, that allows the simulation of external flows past arbitrary geometries in arbitrary motions such as bridge decks in forced heave and pitch motion...
Vortex-induced vibrations of a square cylinder under linear shear flow
Sun, Wenjuan; Zhou, Dai; Tu, Jiahuang; Han, Zhaolong
2017-04-01
This paper investigates the numerical vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a square cylinder which is connected to a 2-DOF mass-spring system and is immersed in the planar shear flow by employing a characteristic-based split (CBS) finite element method (FEM). The reduced mass of the square cylinder is M r = 2, while the reduced velocity, U r, is changed from 3 to 12 with an increment of ΔU r = 1. The effects of some key parameters on the cylinder dynamic responses, vibrating frequencies, the flow patterns as well as the energy transferred between the fluid and cylinder are revealed. In this study, the key parameters are selected as follows: shear ratio (k = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) and Reynolds numbers (Re = 80 and 160). Numerical results demonstrate that the X-Y trajectories of the cylinder mainly appear as a symmetrical figure ‘8’ in uniform flow (k = 0) and an unsymmetrical figure ‘8’ and ‘O’ in shear flows (k = 0.05 and 0.1). The maximum oscillation amplitudes of the square cylinder in both the inline and transverse directions have distinct characteristics compared to that of a circular cylinder. Two kinds of flow patterns, ‘2S’ and ‘P + S’, are mainly observed under the shear flow. Also, the mean values of the energy of the cylinder system increase with the reduced velocity, while the root mean square (rms) of the energy reaches its peak value at reduced velocity U r = 5.
Numerical Investigation of Vortex Generator Flow Control for External-Compression Supersonic Inlets
Baydar, Ezgihan
Vortex generators (VGs) within external-compression supersonic inlets for Mach 1.6 were investigated to determine their ability to increase total pressure recovery and reduce total pressure distortion. Ramp and vane-type VGs were studied. The geometric factors of interest included height, length, spacing, angle-of-incidence, and positions upstream and downstream of the inlet terminal shock. The flow through the inlet was simulated numerically through the solution of the steady-state, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations on multi-block, structured grids using the Wind-US flow solver. The inlet performance was characterized by the inlet total pressure recovery and the radial and circumferential total pressure distortion indices at the engine face. Previous research of downstream VGs in the low-boom supersonic inlet demonstrated improvement in radial distortion up to 24% while my work on external-compression supersonic inlets improved radial distortion up to 86%, which is significant. The design of experiments and statistical analysis methods were applied to quantify the effect of the geometric factors of VGs and search for optimal VG arrays. From the analysis, VG angle-of-incidence and VG height were the most influential factors in increasing total pressure recovery and reducing distortion. The study on the two-dimensional external-compression inlet determined which passive flow control devices, such as counter-rotating vanes or ramps, reduce high distortion levels and improve the health of the boundary layer, relative to the baseline. Downstream vanes demonstrate up to 21% improvement in boundary layer health and 86% improvement in radial distortion. Upstream vanes demonstrated up to 3% improvement in boundary layer health and 9% improvement in radial distortion. Ramps showed no improvement in boundary layer health and radial distortion. Micro-VGs were preferred for their reduced viscous drag and improvement in total pressure recovery at the AIP. Although
GPU accelerated simulations of bluff body flows using vortex particle methods
Rossinelli, Diego; Bergdorf, Michael; Cottet, Georges-Henri; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2010-05-01
We present a GPU accelerated solver for simulations of bluff body flows in 2D using a remeshed vortex particle method and the vorticity formulation of the Brinkman penalization technique to enforce boundary conditions. The efficiency of the method relies on fast and accurate particle-grid interpolations on GPUs for the remeshing of the particles and the computation of the field operators. The GPU implementation uses OpenGL so as to perform efficient particle-grid operations and a CUFFT-based solver for the Poisson equation with unbounded boundary conditions. The accuracy and performance of the GPU simulations and their relative advantages/drawbacks over CPU based computations are reported in simulations of flows past an impulsively started circular cylinder from Reynolds numbers between 40 and 9500. The results indicate up to two orders of magnitude speed up of the GPU implementation over the respective CPU implementations. The accuracy of the GPU computations depends on the Re number of the flow. For Re up to 1000 there is little difference between GPU and CPU calculations but this agreement deteriorates (albeit remaining to within 5% in drag calculations) for higher Re numbers as the single precision of the GPU adversely affects the accuracy of the simulations.
Liu, Song; Jin, Hua; Song, KeWei; Wang, LiangChen; Wu, Xiang; Wang, LiangBi
2017-10-01
The heat transfer performance of the tube bank fin heat exchanger is limited by the air-side thermal resistance. Thus, enhancing the air-side heat transfer is an effective method to improve the performance of the heat exchanger. A new fin pattern with flow redistributors and curved triangular vortex generators is experimentally studied in this paper. The effects of the flow redistributors located in front of the tube stagnation point and the curved vortex generators located around the tube on the characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop are discussed in detail. A performance comparison is also carried out between the fins with and without flow redistributors. The experimental results show that the flow redistributors stamped out from the fin in front of the tube stagnation points can decrease the friction factor at the cost of decreasing the heat transfer performance. Whether the combination of the flow redistributors and the curved vortex generators will present a better heat transfer performance depends on the size of the curved vortex generators. As for the studied two sizes of vortex generators, the heat transfer performance is promoted by the flow redistributors for the fin with larger size of vortex generators and the performance is suppressed by the flow redistributors for the fin with smaller vortex generators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chorin, A.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
1993-06-01
Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ren Yonghong; Kong Xiangmin; Xie Liying
2004-01-01
With the applications of Nd-Fe-B material extending in recent years, the materials of neodymium metal and other rare earth metal alloy confront the increased demand and the high quality request at the same time.These factors stimulated greatly to perfect the producing craft of RE metals and improve the equipments.The rare earth electrolysis cell is developing towards large-scale way.Notwithstanding the present electrolysis cell of Nd metal, include 6 kA and 10 kA cell, exists some insurmountable problems during operation and these problems lead to lower electric efficiency and higher operating costs.So it is significant to study the physical fields of rare earth electrolysis cell.In this paper,a numerical flow mode is established using vortex- flowing function method and the fluid flow field of 3000A Nd electrolysis cell is computed using MATLAB.The results of the study will be important reference in theory for improving and enlarging rare earth fluoride system cell.
Chatelain, P.; Duponcheel, M.; Caprace, D.-G.; Marichal, Y.; Winckelmans, G.
2016-09-01
A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. Based on the vorticity-velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, it combines the advantages of a particle method and of a mesh-based approach. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed. The complex wake development is captured in details and over very long distances: from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, then through the transitional ones to the fully developed turbulent far wake (beyond 10 rotor diameters). The statistics and topology of the mean flow are studied. The computational sizes also allow insights into the detailed unsteady vortex dynamics, including some unexpected topological flow features.
Recent NASA Wake-Vortex Flight Tests, Flow-Physics Database and Wake-Development Analysis
Vicroy, Dan D.; Vijgen, Paul M.; Reimer, Heidi M.; Gallegos, Joey L.; Spalart, Philippe R.
1998-01-01
A series of flight tests over the ocean of a four engine turboprop airplane in the cruise configuration have provided a data set for improved understanding of wake vortex physics and atmospheric interaction. An integrated database has been compiled for wake characterization and validation of wake-vortex computational models. This paper describes the wake-vortex flight tests, the data processing, the database development and access, and results obtained from preliminary wake-characterization analysis using the data sets.
Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan
2014-11-01
A Sadovskii vortex is a patch of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. Using a boundary element type method, we investigate the steady states of this flow in an incompressible, inviscid straining flow. Outside the vortex, the fluid is irrotational. In the limiting case where the entire circulation is due to the vortex patch, this is a patch vortex (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971). In the other limiting case, where all the circulation is due to the vortex sheet, this is a hollow vortex (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691, 2012). This flow has two governing nondimensional parameters, relating the strengths of the straining field, vortex sheet, and patch vorticity. We study the relationship between these two parameters, and examine the shape of the resulting vortices. We also work towards a bifurcation diagram of the steady states of the Sadovskii vortex in an attempt to understand the connection between vortex sheet and vortex patch desingularizations of the point vortex. Support from NSF-CMMI-0970113.
di Labbio, Giuseppe; Kadem, Lyes
2016-11-01
During the heart's filling phase, a notorious vortex is known to develop in the left ventricle (LV). Improper development and poor energetic behavior of this vortex can be correlated with cardiac disease. In particular, during aortic valve regurgitation (leakage of blood through the aortic valve during LV filling), this vortex is forced to interact with a jet emanating from a regurgitant orifice in the valve. The ensuing flow in the left ventricle subject to this disease has yet to be fully characterized and may lead to new indices for evaluation of its severity. As such, this experimental work investigates flow in a model LV subject to aortic regurgitation on a novel double-activation left heart duplicator for six progressive grades of regurgitation (beginning from the healthy case). Double-activation (independent activation of the atrium and ventricle) is critical to the simulation of this pathology. Regurgitation is induced by restricting the closure of the aortic valve to a centralized orifice. The velocity fields for each case are acquired using 2D time-resolved particle image velocimetry. Viscous energy dissipation and vortex formation time are investigated and found to significantly increase as the pathology progresses, while a histogram of vorticity tends toward a shifted and depressed Gaussian distribution. Proper orthogonal decomposition reveals significant disruption of the dominant energetic coherent structures.
A Hardware-Accelerated Fast Adaptive Vortex-Based Flow Simulation Software Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Applied Scientific Research has recently developed a Lagrangian vortex-boundary element method for the grid-free simulation of unsteady incompressible...
A typhoon-like vortex solution of incompressible 3D inviscid flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
This letter obtains a typhoon-like vortex solution by solving the Bragg-Hawthorne equation.The solution describes spiral paths of fluid material element on the Bernoulli surface,whereas some new exact solutions are obtained which are bounded in the whole region.The first one is a continued umbrella vortex solution,which is a typhoon-like vortex.The second one is a multi-planar solution,which is periodic in z-coordinate.Within each layer,there is an umbrella vortex solution similar to the first one.The above...
Bloxham, Matthew Jon
A flow control scheme using endwall suction and vortex generator jet (VGJ) blowing was employed in an effort to reduce the turbine passage losses associated with the endwall flow field and midspan separation. Unsteady midspan control at low Re had a significant impact on the wake area-average total pressure losses, decreasing the losses by 54%. Initially, the focus of the endwall control was the horseshoe vortex system. The addition of leading edge endwall suction resulted in an area-average total pressure loss reduction of 57%. The minimal additional gains achieved with leading edge endwall suction showed that the horseshoe vortex was a secondary contributor to endwall loss production (primary contributor-passage vortex). A similar flow control strategy was then employed with an emphasis on passage vortex (PV) control. During the design, a theoretical model was used that effectively predicted the trajectory of the passage vortex. The model required inviscid results obtained from two-dimensional CFD. It was used in the design of two flow control approaches, the removal and redirection approaches. The emphasis of the removal approach was the direct application of flow control on the endwall below the passage vortex trajectory. The redirection approach attempted to alter the trajectory of the PV by removing boundary layer fluid through judiciously placed suction holes. Suction hole positions were chosen using a potential flow model that emphasized the alignment of the endwall flow field with inviscid streamlines. Model results were validated using flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a linear turbine cascade comprised of the highly-loaded L1A blade profile. Detailed wake total pressure losses were measured while matching the suction and VGJ massflow rates, for the removal and redirection approaches at ReCx=25000 and blowing ratio, B, of 2. When compared with the no control results, the addition of steady VGJs and endwall suction reduced the wake
Effect of random errors in planar PIV data on pressure estimation in vortex dominated flows
McClure, Jeffrey; Yarusevych, Serhiy
2015-11-01
The sensitivity of pressure estimation techniques from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements to random errors in measured velocity data is investigated using the flow over a circular cylinder as a test case. Direct numerical simulations are performed for ReD = 100, 300 and 1575, spanning laminar, transitional, and turbulent wake regimes, respectively. A range of random errors typical for PIV measurements is applied to synthetic PIV data extracted from numerical results. A parametric study is then performed using a number of common pressure estimation techniques. Optimal temporal and spatial resolutions are derived based on the sensitivity of the estimated pressure fields to the simulated random error in velocity measurements, and the results are compared to an optimization model derived from error propagation theory. It is shown that the reductions in spatial and temporal scales at higher Reynolds numbers leads to notable changes in the optimal pressure evaluation parameters. The effect of smaller scale wake structures is also quantified. The errors in the estimated pressure fields are shown to depend significantly on the pressure estimation technique employed. The results are used to provide recommendations for the use of pressure and force estimation techniques from experimental PIV measurements in vortex dominated laminar and turbulent wake flows.
Radial pressure profiles in a cold‐flow gas‐solid vortex reactor
Pantzali, Maria N.; Kovacevic, Jelena Z.; Marin, Guy B.; Shtern, Vladimir N.
2015-01-01
A unique normalized radial pressure profile characterizes the bed of a gas‐solid vortex reactor over a range of particle densities and sizes, solid capacities, and gas flow rates: 950–1240 kg/m3, 1–2 mm, 2 kg to maximum solids capacity, and 0.4–0.8 Nm3/s (corresponding to gas injection velocities of 55–110 m/s), respectively. The combined momentum conservation equations of both gas and solid phases predict this pressure profile when accounting for the corresponding measured particle velocities. The pressure profiles for a given type of particles and a given solids loading but for different gas injection velocities merge into a single curve when normalizing the pressures with the pressure value downstream of the bed. The normalized—with respect to the overall pressure drop—pressure profiles for different gas injection velocities in particle‐free flow merge in a unique profile. © 2015 The Authors AIChE Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 61: 4114–4125, 2015 PMID:27667827
A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics
Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme
2016-06-01
In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.
SUNRISE/IMaX observations of convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun
Bonet, J A; Sánchez Almeida, J; Palacios, J; Martínez Pillet, V; Solanki, S K; del Toro Iniesta, J C; Domingo, V; Berkefeld, T; Schmidt, W; Gandorfer, A; Barthol, P; Knölker, M
2010-01-01
We characterize the observational properties of the convectively driven vortex flows recently discovered on the quiet Sun, using magnetograms, Dopplergrams and images obtained with the 1-m balloon-borne Sunrise telescope. By visual inspection of time series, we find some 3.1e-3 vortices/(Mm^2 min), which is a factor of 1.7 larger than previous estimates. The mean duration of the individual events turns out to be 7.9 min, with a standard deviation of 3.2 min. In addition, we find several events appearing at the same locations along the duration of the time series (31.6 min). Such recurrent vortices show up in the proper motion flow field map averaged over the time series. The typical vertical vorticities are <= 6e-3 1/sec, which corresponds to a period of rotation of some 35 min. The vortices show a preferred counterclockwise sense of rotation, which we conjecture may have to do with the preferred vorticity impinged by the solar differential rotation.
Radial pressure profiles in a cold-flow gas-solid vortex reactor.
Pantzali, Maria N; Kovacevic, Jelena Z; Heynderickx, Geraldine J; Marin, Guy B; Shtern, Vladimir N
2015-12-01
A unique normalized radial pressure profile characterizes the bed of a gas-solid vortex reactor over a range of particle densities and sizes, solid capacities, and gas flow rates: 950-1240 kg/m(3), 1-2 mm, 2 kg to maximum solids capacity, and 0.4-0.8 Nm(3)/s (corresponding to gas injection velocities of 55-110 m/s), respectively. The combined momentum conservation equations of both gas and solid phases predict this pressure profile when accounting for the corresponding measured particle velocities. The pressure profiles for a given type of particles and a given solids loading but for different gas injection velocities merge into a single curve when normalizing the pressures with the pressure value downstream of the bed. The normalized-with respect to the overall pressure drop-pressure profiles for different gas injection velocities in particle-free flow merge in a unique profile. © 2015 The Authors AIChE Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers , 61: 4114-4125, 2015.
Anderson, Bernhard H.; Huang, Pao S.; Paschal, William A.; Cavatorta, Enrico
1992-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics was used to investigate the management of inlet distortion by the introduction of discrete vorticity sources at selected locations in the inlet for the purpose of controlling secondary flow. These sources of vorticity were introduced by means of vortex generators. A series of design observations were made concerning the importance of various vortex generator design parameters in minimizing engine face circumferential distortion. The study showed that vortex strength, generator scale, and secondary flow field structure have a complicated and interrelated influence on the engine face distortion, over and above the initial geometry and arrangement of the generators. The installed vortex generator performance was found to be a function of three categories of variables: the inflow conditions, the aerodynamic characteristics associated with the inlet duct, and the design parameters related to the geometry, arrangement, and placement of the vortex generators within the outlet duct itself.
Anderson, Bernhard H.; Huang, Pao S.; Paschal, William A.; Cavatorta, Enrico
1992-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics was used to investigate the management of inlet distortion by the introduction of discrete vorticity sources at selected locations in the inlet for the purpose of controlling secondary flow. These sources of vorticity were introduced by means of vortex generators. A series of design observations were made concerning the importance of various vortex generator design parameters in minimizing engine face circumferential distortion. The study showed that vortex strength, generator scale, and secondary flow field structure have a complicated and interrelated influence on the engine face distortion, over and above the initial geometry and arrangement of the generators. The installed vortex generator performance was found to be a function of three categories of variables: the inflow conditions, the aerodynamic characteristics associated with the inlet duct, and the design parameters related to the geometry, arrangement, and placement of the vortex generators within the outlet duct itself.
Streamwise Vortex Interaction with a Horseshoe Vortex
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Piotr Doerffer; Pawel Flaszynski; Franco Magagnato
2003-01-01
Flow control in turbomachinery is very difficult because of the complexity of its fully 3-D flow structure. The authors propose to introduce streamwise vortices into the control of internal flows. A simple configuration of vortices was investigated in order to better understand the flow control methods by means of streamwise vortices.The research presented here concerns streamwise vortex interaction with a horseshoe vortex. The effects of such an interaction are significantly dependent on the relative location of the streamwise vortex in respect to the leading edge of the profile. The streamwise vortex is induced by an air jet. The horseshoe vortex is generated by the leading edge of a symmetric profile. Such a configuration gives possibility to investigate the interaction of these two vortices alone. The presented analysis is based on numerical simulations by means of N-S compressible solver with a two-equation turbulence model.
Depicting Vortex Stretching and Vortex Relaxing Mechanisms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
符松; 李启兵; 王明皓
2003-01-01
Different from many existing studies on the paranetrization of vortices, we investigate the effectiveness of two new parameters for identifying the vortex stretching and vortex relaxing mechanisms. These parameters are invariants and identify three-dimensional flow structures only, i.e. they diminish in two-dimensional flows. This is also unlike the existing vortex identification approaches which deliver information in two-dimensional flows. The present proposals have been successfully applied to identify the stretching and relaxing vortices in compressible mixing layers and natural convection flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Home, D., E-mail: deep_aeros@yahoo.co.in; Lightstone, M.F.
2014-04-01
Highlights: • Dynamics of the subchannel gap vortex street was captured using the DES-SST model. • Gap vortical structures were qualified as eddy zones with low pressure cores. • Gap vortex formation is due to interaction between the low and high speed fluids. • Quasi-periodic gap flow was associated with an inflectional velocity profile. - Abstract: The hybrid Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS)/Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology was used to investigate the flow dynamics and associated gap vortex structure in compound rectangular channels for isothermal flows. The specific form of the hybrid URANS/LES approach that was used is the Strelets (2001) version of the Shear Stress Transport (SST) based Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). The DES-SST model was used to study quasi-periodic flow across a gap connecting two rectangular sub-channels on which extensive experiments were conducted by Meyer and Rehme (1994). It was found that the DES-SST model was successful in predicting the characteristics of the flow field in the vicinity of the gap region. The span-wise velocity contours, velocity vector plots, and time traces of the velocity components showed the expected cross flow mixing between the sub-channels through the gap. The dynamics of the flow field were quantitatively described through temporal auto-correlations, spatial cross-correlations and power spectral functions. The numerical predictions were in general agreement with the experiments. Predictions from the model were used to identify different flow mixing patterns. As expected, the simulation predicted the formation of a gap vortex street which results in a quasi-periodic flow through the gap. Coherent structures were identified in the flow field to be comprised of eddies, shear zones and streams. Eddy structures with high vorticity and low pressure cores were found to exist near the vicinity of the gap edge region. A three dimensional vorticity field was identified and found to
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Naoto Miyama; Kazuaki Inaba; Makoto Yamamoto
2008-01-01
In these years, a lot of environmental problems such as air pollution and exhaustion of fossil fuels have been discussed intensively. In our laboratory, a hydrogen-fueled propulsion system has been researched as an alternative to conventional systems. A hydrogen-fueled propulsion system is expected to have higher power, lighter weight and lower emissions. However, for the practical use, there exist many problems that must be overcome. Considering these backgrounds, jet engines with hydrogen-fueled combustion within a turbine blade passage have been studied. Although some studies have been made on injecting and burning hydrogen fuel from a stator surface, little is known about the interaction between a tip leakage vortex near the suction side of a rotor tip and hydrogen-fueled combustion.The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of the tip leakage vortex on the characteristics of the 3-dimensional flow field with hydrogen-fueled combustion within a turbine blade passage. Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with incorporating a k-ε turbulence and a reduced chemical mechanism models. Using the computational results, the 3-dimensional turbulent flow field with chemical reactions is numerically visualized, and the three-dimensional turbulent flow fields with hydrogen combustion and the structure of the tip leakage vortex are investigated.
Nonlinear Excitation of Inviscid Stationary Vortex in a Boundary-Layer Flow
Choudhari, Meelan; Duck, Peter W.
1996-01-01
We examine the excitation of inviscid stationary crossflow instabilities near an isolated surface hump (or indentation) underneath a three-dimensional boundary layer. As the hump height (or indentation depth) is increased from zero, the receptivity process becomes nonlinear even before the stability characteristics of the boundary layer are modified to a significant extent. This behavior contrasts sharply with earlier findings on the excitation of the lower branch Tollmien-Schlichting modes and is attributed to the inviscid nature of the crossflow modes, which leads to a decoupling between the regions of receptivity and stability. As a result of this decoupling, similarity transformations exist that allow the nonlinear receptivity of a general three-dimensional boundary layer to be studied with a set of canonical solutions to the viscous sublayer equations. The parametric study suggests that the receptivity is likely to become nonlinear even before the hump height becomes large enough for flow reversal to occur in the canonical solution. We also find that the receptivity to surface humps increases more rapidly as the hump height increases than is predicted by linear theory. On the other hand, receptivity near surface indentations is generally smaller in comparison with the linear approximation. Extension of the work to crossflow receptivity in compressible boundary layers and to Gortler vortex excitation is also discussed.
Design and flow analysis of S duct diffuser with submerged vortex Generators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thenambika V
2016-02-01
Full Text Available S-duct diffusers are widely used in air-intake system of several jet aircrafts to get less drag and lowering the engine position compared to straight through design. In this study the distorted flow condition parameter like static pressure recovery and total pressure loss are investigated by adding vortex generators. Geometry selected based on fox and Kline on linear area-ratio from inlet to exit. Modeling CATIA V5 is used for design of diffuser and ANSYS fluent are employed in the investigation of S-Duct and S-Duct with SVG in different locations for the Mach number values of 0.6 and 1.0 to improve the total pressure recovery of the S- duct. From the results 3 SVG pairs attached to both the sidewalls at plane-4 and SVG in top and bottom of inflexion planes offers the best performance. The design objective is to improve the static pressure recovery of the S-duct and reduce the total pressure loss
Design of Off-statistics Axial-flow Fans by Means of Vortex Law Optimization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Andrea Lazari; Andrea Cattanei
2014-01-01
Off-statistics input data sets are common in axial-flow fans design and may easily result in some violation of the requirements of a good aerodynamic blade design.In order to circumvent this problem,in the present paper,a solution to the radial equilibrium equation is found which minimizes the outlet kinetic energy and fulfills the aerodynamic constraints,thus ensuring that the resulting blade has acceptable aerodynamic performance.The presented method is based on the optimization of a three-parameters vortex law and of the meridional channel size.The aerodynamic quantities to be employed as constraints are individuated and their suitable ranges of variation are proposed.The method is validated by means of a design with critical input data values and CFD analysis.Then,by means of systematic computations with different input data sets,some correlations and charts are obtained which are analogous to classic correlations based on statistical investigations on existing machines.Such new correlations help size a fan of given characteristics as well as study the feasibility of a given design.
Design of off-statistics axial-flow fans by means of vortex law optimization
Lazari, Andrea; Cattanei, Andrea
2014-12-01
Off-statistics input data sets are common in axial-flow fans design and may easily result in some violation of the requirements of a good aerodynamic blade design. In order to circumvent this problem, in the present paper, a solution to the radial equilibrium equation is found which minimizes the outlet kinetic energy and fulfills the aerodynamic constraints, thus ensuring that the resulting blade has acceptable aerodynamic performance. The presented method is based on the optimization of a three-parameters vortex law and of the meridional channel size. The aerodynamic quantities to be employed as constraints are individuated and their suitable ranges of variation are proposed. The method is validated by means of a design with critical input data values and CFD analysis. Then, by means of systematic computations with different input data sets, some correlations and charts are obtained which are analogous to classic correlations based on statistical investigations on existing machines. Such new correlations help size a fan of given characteristics as well as study the feasibility of a given design.
Vortex mechanism in hydrocyclones
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐继润; 刘正宁; 邢军; 李新跃; 黄慧; 徐海燕; 罗茜
2001-01-01
On the basis of analyzing the vortex characteristics, a new mechanism of the vortex formation in hydrocyclones is developed. The main concept of the mechanism is that the vortex flow in a hydrocyclone is resulted from the overlapping of container rotation and hole leakage. The model is then used to explain the compound distribution of free vortex and forced vortex, predict the similarity of tangential velocity at different input pressures, and make count of the principle of small hydrocyclone with lower cut-size than large one. Meanwhile a new possible approach to a large hydro-cyclone with lower cut-size by minimizing or eliminating the air core is discussed briefly.
Dasari, Teja; Hong, Jiarong
2016-11-01
Flow visualization techniques using natural snowfall have been shown as an effective tool to probe coherent flow structures around utility-scale wind turbines. Here we present a follow-up study using the data collected during multiple deployments from 2014 to 2016 around the 2.5 MW turbine at EOLOS wind energy research station. The data include flow visualization from different perspectives in the near wake of the turbine. Coherent wake structures, including blade tip vortex, trailing vortex sheet, nacelle-generated structures, and tower vortex characterized by the snow voids, are correlated with atmospheric conditions (e.g. turbulence intensity), turbine operational conditions (e.g. power and tip-speed ratio) as well as turbine response (e.g. tower and blade strain). Physical factors and processes that affect the features and the behaviors of tip vortices including their void size and shape, their stability (e.g. meandering and intermittent appearance) and vortex interaction (e.g. vortex merging and leapfrogging) are analyzed. In particular, a strong influence of the tower on tip-vortex structures is demonstrated through simultaneous comparison of vortex voids at elevations below and above the height of nacelle and the plan view visualization. Sponsored by NSF Fluid Dynamics Program.
Numerical Simulation of Vortex Engine Flow Field: One Phase and Two Phases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A. F. Najafi; S. D. Saemi; M. H. Saidi
2009-01-01
yielding the existence of evaporation and combustion in the inner vortex. Additionally, the higher inlet velocity of continuous phase results in higher centrifugal force, leads droplets in question to deviate towards the wall faster.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1995-01-01
The Random Vortex Method extended to an axisymmetrical flow is used in the study of the flow field inside pipes incorporating an orifice plate with different contraction ratios and different inlet velocity profiles.Three test-cases,each having experimental measurements available in the literature,are studied,.In particular,instantaneous and average velocity fields along with the turbulent statistics for high Reynolds number flows are computed and compared to the corresponding experimental results These comparisons show the ability and the limitations of the method.The results of the numerical simulations are used in the physical analysis of the flow fields and thus allow for a better understanding of the dynamics of the flow in pipes incorporating an orifice plate.
Measurements and modeling of flow structure in the wake of a low profile wishbone vortex generator
Wendt, B. J.; Hingst, W. R.
1994-01-01
The results of an experimental examination of the vortex structures shed from a low profile 'wishbone' generator are presented. The vortex generator height relative to the turbulent boundary layer was varied by testing two differently sized models. Measurements of the mean three-dimensional velocity field were conducted in cross-stream planes downstream of the vortex generators. In all cases, a counter-rotating vortex pair was observed. Individual vortices were characterized by three descriptors derived from the velocity data; circulation, peak vorticity, and cross-stream location of peak vorticity. Measurements in the cross plane at two axial locations behind the smaller wishbone characterize the downstream development of the vortex pairs. A single region of stream wise velocity deficit is shared by both vortex cores. This is in contrast to conventional generators, where each core coincides with a region of velocity deficit. The measured cross-stream velocities for each case are compared to an Oseen model with matching descriptors. The best comparison occurs with the data from the larger wishbone.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Surek, D. [Fachbereich Maschinenbau, Fachhochschule Merseburg (Germany)
1997-05-01
Regenerative blowers with high pressure coefficients have high dissipation losses in the side channel and on the breaker. These losses can be in the same magnitude as the polytropic specific head. The cause of the high specific dissipation energy is the turbulent vortex flow in the side channel, which is released by the high numbers of blades and restrict the polytropic efficiency by {eta}=0.46 to 0.50. The enforced turbulent vortex-flow is the reason for the high head coefficients of regenerative blowers. In the side channel, pressure pulsations occur with pressure amplitudes of high frequency up to 40 kHz. These dynamic pressure oscillations are the result of the turbulent vortex-flow. They are indicated from the edge of the impeller blades and the impeller flow in the side channel. For instance, for one rotation of the impeller t=0.02 s and the time between two blades t=0.35 ms. The analysis of the dynamic pressure shows a distribution of the amplitudes over a wide area up to 10 kHz and higher. The dominant amplitudes are the amplitude of blade rotation frequency. The forced turbulent vortex-flow causes a high turbulent vortex-viscosity in the flow and releases a pulse-flow transportation in the side channel. This is the reason for the energy transfer and the increase of the specific dissipation energy in the side channel. With knowledge of the specific pulse-flow transportation of the turbulent vortex-flow the connection to the total transmitted enthalpy can be explained. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Seitenkanalmaschinen mit den grossen Druckzahlen treten hohe Dissipationsverluste im Seitenkanal und im Unterbrecher auf, die von der gleichen Groessenordnung sein koennen wie die polytrope spezifische Nutzarbeit. Die Ursache fuer den grossen spezifischen Dissipationsenergieanteil ist in der turbulenten Wirbelstroemung im Seitenkanal zu suchen, die von den Laufradschaufeln hoher Zahl ausgeloest wird und den Wirkungsgrad der Maschinen auf Werte von {eta}=0,46... 0
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murakami, Satoshi [Customer System Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Muramatsu, Toshiharu [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center
2001-04-01
A fundamental experiment, the aim of which is to quantify turbulent mixing characteristics, was carried out at Hiroshima University in the framework of a cooperative study with Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Turbulent mixing analyses for the fundamental experiment were carried out using a direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3 at JNC. >From the analyses, the following results have been obtained: (1) It was confirmed that the numerical analysis is applicable to the evaluation of the three flow patterns observed in the experiment: an adhesion flow, a deflection flow and an impinging flow. (2) In the deflection flow analysis, arched-vortex characteristics with lower frequency fluctuations agreed well with the experimental results. (3) Frequency of arched-vortex transportation depended on the Reynolds number. The frequency of arched-vortex was increased with increasing the Reynolds number under the condition of the constant velocity ratio between coolant pipes. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨庆海; 黄洪雁; 韩万今
2002-01-01
By means of ink trace visualization of the flows in conventional straight, positively curved and negatively curved cascades with tip clearance, and measurement of the aerodynamic parameters in the transverse section, and by appling topology theory, the structures on both endwalls and blade surfaces were analyzed. Compared with conventional straight cascade, blade positive curving eliminates the separation line of the upper passage vortex and leads the secondary vortex to change from close separation to open separation,while blade negative curving effects merely the positions of singular points and the intensities and scales of vortex.
Study of vortex generator influence on the flow in the wake of high-lift system wing
Bragin, N. N.; Ryabov, D. I.; Skomorokhov, S. I.; Slitinskaya, A. Yu.
2016-10-01
Passive vortex generators (VG) are known as one of the ways to improve the flow of the wings and other surfaces in the presence of flow separation. In particular, the VG are installed on the wings and nacelles of many foreign airplanes, including the most recent ones (for example, Boeing 787, Airbus A-350). The principle of the passive VG effects on flow is to transfer the kinetic energy of the external flow separation region by the vortices system arising from the flow VG themselves. For example, by increasing the angle of attack of the wing separation it is highly three-dimensional picture of the flow and sufficiently sensitive to external influences. Thus separated flow can be controlled when using the VG destroy large separation vortices. The VG effectiveness depends on many parameters. This is primarily the relative position of the second harmonic and the separation region on the wing and their size and position relative to each other, the orientation of the second harmonic relative to the local flow direction of the external flow, etc. Obviously, the VG effect will depend essentially on the intensity ratio of the second harmonic vortexes and nature of flow separation in the separation area. In the presence of intense flow separation the effect of conventional VG may be reduced or not occur at all. Until recently, investigations and selection of position of conventional VG were made only experimentally. Currently, the possibilities of calculation methods allow estimating the VG effect on the flow in the separation area. However, due to the phenomenon complexity the accuracy of these calculations is low. The experimental data are required to validate the computational methods, including information not only about the total impact, but also about the flow structure in the separation area. To obtain such information is the subject of this paper. In the test model of high-lift devices swept wing with modern supercritical profile the parametric studies were
Interaction dynamics of gap flow with vortex-induced vibration in side-by-side cylinder arrangement
Liu, Bin; Jaiman, Rajeev K.
2016-12-01
A numerical investigation of the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in a side-by-side circular cylinder arrangement has been performed in a two-dimensional laminar flow environment. One of the cylinders is elastically mounted and only vibrates in the transverse direction, while its counterpart remains stationary in a uniform flow stream. When the gap ratio is sufficiently small, the flip-flopping phenomenon of the gap flow can be an additional time-dependent interference to the flow field. This phenomenon was reported in the experimental work of Bearman and Wadcock ["The interaction between a pair of circular cylinders normal to a stream," J. Fluid Mech. 61(3), 499-511 (1973)] in a side-by-side circular cylinder arrangement, in which the gap flow deflects toward one of the cylinders and switched its sides intermittently. Albeit one of the two cylinders is free to vibrate, the flip-flop of a gap flow during VIV dynamics can still be observed outside the lock-in region. The exact moments of the flip-flop phenomenon due to spontaneous symmetry breaking are observed in this numerical study. The significant characteristic vortex modes in the near-wake region are extracted via dynamic modal analysis and the interference between the gap flow and VIV is found to be mutual. In a vibrating side-by-side arrangement, the lock-in region with respect to reduced velocity becomes narrower due to the interference from its stationary counterpart. The frequency lock-in occurs and ends earlier than that of an isolated vibrating circular cylinder subjected to an identical flow environment. Similar to a tandem cylinder arrangement, in the post-lock-in region, the maximum vibration amplitudes are escalated compared with those of an isolated circular cylinder configuration. On the other hand, subjected to the influence from VIV, the biased gap flow deflects toward the vibrating cylinder quasi-stably during the frequency lock-in process. This behavior is different from the reported bi
Extreme Vortex States and the Growth of Enstrophy in 3D Incompressible Flows
Ayala, Diego
2016-01-01
In this investigation we study extreme vortex states defined as incompressible velocity fields with prescribed enstrophy $E_0$ which maximize the instantaneous rate of growth of enstrophy $dE/dt$. While in the limit of vanishing enstrophy these vortex states can be found analytically, for finite enstrophy values they are computed numerically by solving a constrained variational optimization problem using a suitable gradient method. We provide a thorough characterization of these extreme vortex states and, in particular, show that the Taylor-Green vortex, which was used as the initial condition suspected of triggering singular behavior in a number of earlier studies, is in fact a local maximizer of $dE/dt$ in the limit of vanishing enstrophy $E_0$. We also confirm the findings of the seminal study by Lu & Doering (2008) that these extreme vortex states saturate (up to a numerical prefactor) the fundamental bound $dE/dt 0$. Using an estimate of the constant $C$ obtained numerically we demarcate sets of ini...
Numerical Study of the Instability and Flow Transition in a Vortex-Ring/Wall Interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heng Ren
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Instability and fl w transition of a vortex ring impinging on a wall were investig ated by means of large-eddy simulation for two vortex core thicknesses corresponding to thin and thick vortex rings. Various fundamental mechanisms dictating the fl w behaviours, such as evolution of vortical structures, instability and breakdown of vortex rings, development of modal energies, and transition from laminar to turbulent state, have been studied systematically . Analysis of the enstrophy of wrapping vortices and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE in fl w fiel indicates that the formation and evolution of wrapping vortices are closely associated with the fl w transition to turbulent state. It is found that the temporal development of wrapping vortices and the growth rate of axial fl w generated around the circumference of the core region for the thin ring are faster than those for the thick ring. The azimuthal instabilities of primary and secondary vortex rings are analysed and the development of modal energies reveals the fl w transition to turbulent state. The law of energy decay follows a characteristic k 5=3 law, indicating that the vortical fl w has become turbulent. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight into the understanding of the instability mechanisms relevant to the vortical fl w evolution.
Identification and tracking of hairpin vortex auto-generation in turbulent wall-bounded flow
Huang, Yangzi; Green, Melissa
2016-11-01
Hairpin vortices have been widely accepted as component structures of turbulent boundary layers. Their properties (size, vorticity, energy) and dynamic phenomena (origin, growth, breakdown) have been shown to correlate to the complex, multi-scaled turbulent motions observed in both experiments and simulations. As established in the literature, the passage of a hairpin vortex creates a wall-normal ejection of fluid, which encounters the high-speed freestream resulting in near-wall shear and increased drag. A previously generated simulation of an isolated hairpin vortex is used to study the auto-generation of a secondary vortex structure. Eulerian methods such as the Q criterion and Γ2 function, as well as Lagrangian methods are used to visualize the three-dimensional hairpin vortices and the auto-generation process. The circulation development and wall-normal location of both primary and secondary hairpin heads are studied to determine if there is a correlation between the strength and height of the primary hairpin vortex with the secondary hairpin vortex auto-generation.
Hill, James C.; Liu, Zhenping; Fox, Rodney O.; Passalacqua, Alberto; Olsen, Michael G.
2015-11-01
The multi-inlet vortex reactor (MIVR) has been developed to provide a platform for rapid mixing in the application of flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) for manufacturing functional nanoparticles. Unfortunately, commonly used RANS methods are unable to accurately model this complex swirling flow. Large eddy simulations have also been problematic, as expensive fine grids to accurately model the flow are required. These dilemmas led to the strategy of applying a Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) method to the vortex reactor. In the current work, the turbulent swirling flow inside a scaled-up MIVR has been investigated by using a dynamic DDES model. In the DDES model, the eddy viscosity has a form similar to the Smagorinsky sub-grid viscosity in LES and allows the implementation of a dynamic procedure to determine its coefficient. The complex recirculating back flow near the reactor center has been successfully captured by using this dynamic DDES model. Moreover, the simulation results are found to agree with experimental data for mean velocity and Reynolds stresses.
Further validation of the hybrid particle-mesh method for vortex shedding flow simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Seung-Jae
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This is the continuation of a numerical study on vortex shedding from a blunt trailing-edge of a hydrofoil. In our previous work (Lee et al., 2015, numerical schemes for efficient computations were successfully implemented; i.e. multiple domains, the approximation of domain boundary conditions using cubic spline functions, and particle-based domain decomposition for better load balancing. In this study, numerical results through a hybrid particle-mesh method which adopts the Vortex-In-Cell (VIC method and the Brinkman penalization model are further rigorously validated through comparison to experimental data at the Reynolds number of 2 × 106. The effects of changes in numerical parameters are also explored herein. We find that the present numerical method enables us to reasonably simulate vortex shedding phenomenon, as well as turbulent wakes of a hydrofoil.
Vortex Interaction and Roll-Up in Unsteady Flow past Tandem Airfoils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Aziz
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A discrete vortex model coupled with a vortex dissipation and vortex core criteria is used to study the unsteady ﬂow past two airfoils in conﬁguration. The unsteady wakes of the airfoils are modeled by discrete vortices and time-stepping is used to predict the individual wake shapes. The coupled ﬂow is solved using a combined zero-normal ﬂow boundary condition and Kelvin condition which result in (2N + 2X(2N + 2 equations. Results are presented showing the eﬀect of airfoil-airfoil and airfoil-wake interaction on the aerodynamic characteristics of the conﬁguration. The eﬀect of relative velocity, rate of pitching and phase-lag are studied on airfoil performance and wake shape is predicted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hau, Jan-Niklas, E-mail: hau@fdy.tu-darmstadt.de; Oberlack, Martin [Chair of Fluid Dynamics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Otto-Berndt-Strasse 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); GSC CE, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Dolivostraße 15, 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Chagelishvili, George [Chair of Fluid Dynamics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Otto-Berndt-Strasse 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, Tbilisi 0160, Georgia (United States); M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi 0128, Georgia (United States); Khujadze, George [Chair of Fluid Mechanics, Universität Siegen, Paul-Bonatz-Str. 9-11, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Tevzadze, Alexander [Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi 0128, Georgia (United States)
2015-12-15
Aerodynamic sound generation in shear flows is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear flow systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole linear mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear flows was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, “Linear mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear flows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, “Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear flow,” Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, “Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, “Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette flow,” Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced linear mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear flow and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of linear wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved linear and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber
Hau, Jan-Niklas; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin; Tevzadze, Alexander
2015-12-01
Aerodynamic sound generation in shear flows is investigated in the light of the breakthrough in hydrodynamics stability theory in the 1990s, where generic phenomena of non-normal shear flow systems were understood. By applying the thereby emerged short-time/non-modal approach, the sole linear mechanism of wave generation by vortices in shear flows was captured [G. D. Chagelishvili, A. Tevzadze, G. Bodo, and S. S. Moiseev, "Linear mechanism of wave emergence from vortices in smooth shear flows," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178-3181 (1997); B. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, "Transient and asymptotic growth of two-dimensional perturbations in viscous compressible shear flow," Phys. Fluids 12, 3021-3028 (2000); N. A. Bakas, "Mechanism underlying transient growth of planar perturbations in unbounded compressible shear flow," J. Fluid Mech. 639, 479-507 (2009); and G. Favraud and V. Pagneux, "Superadiabatic evolution of acoustic and vorticity perturbations in Couette flow," Phys. Rev. E 89, 033012 (2014)]. Its source is the non-normality induced linear mode-coupling, which becomes efficient at moderate Mach numbers that is defined for each perturbation harmonic as the ratio of the shear rate to its characteristic frequency. Based on the results by the non-modal approach, we investigate a two-dimensional homentropic constant shear flow and focus on the dynamical characteristics in the wavenumber plane. This allows to separate from each other the participants of the dynamical processes — vortex and wave modes — and to estimate the efficacy of the process of linear wave-generation. This process is analyzed and visualized on the example of a packet of vortex modes, localized in both, spectral and physical, planes. Further, by employing direct numerical simulations, the wave generation by chaotically distributed vortex modes is analyzed and the involved linear and nonlinear processes are identified. The generated acoustic field is anisotropic in the wavenumber plane, which
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Ming Li
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Traditionally, the formation of the Counter-Rotating Vortex Pair (CRVP has been attributed to three main sources: the jet-mainstream shear layer where the jet meets with the mainstream flow right outside the pipe, the in-tube boundary layer developing along the pipe wall, and the in-tube vortices associated with the tube inlet vorticity; whereas the liftoff-reattachment phenomenon occurring in the main flow along the plate right downstream of the jet has been associated with the jet flow trajectory. The jet-mainstream shear layer has also been demonstrated to be the dominant source of CRVP formation, whereby the shear layer disintegrates into vortex rings that deform as the jet convects downstream, becoming a pair of CRVPs flowing within the jet and eventually turning into the main flow direction. These traditional findings are assessed qualitatively and quantitatively for film-cooling flow in gas turbines by simulating numerically the flow and evaluating the extent to which the traditional flow phenomena are taking place particularly for CRVP and for flow liftoff-reattachment. To this end, three flow simulation cases are used; they are referred to as 1—the baseline case; 2—the free-slip in-tube wall case (FSIT; and 3—the unsteady flow case. The baseline case is a typical film-cooling case. The FSIT case is used to assess the in-tube boundary layer. Cases 1 and 2 are simulated using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS, whereas Case 3 solves a Detached Eddy Simulation (DES model. It is concluded that decreasing the strength of the CRVP, which is the case for e.g., shaped holes, provides high cooling performance, and the liftoff-reattachment phenomenon was thus found to be strongly influenced by the entrainment caused by the CRVP, rather than the jet flow trajectory. These interpretations of the flow physics that are more relevant to gas turbine cooling flow are new and provide a physics-based guideline for designing new film
Wang, ChengYue; Gao, Qi; Wei, RunJie; Li, Tian; Wang, JinJun
2016-06-01
Volumetric measurement for the leading-edge vortex (LEV) breakdown of a delta wing has been conducted by three-dimensional (3D) flow visualization and tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV). The 3D flow visualization is employed to show the vortex structures, which was recorded by four cameras with high resolution. 3D dye streaklines of the visualization are reconstructed using a similar way of particle reconstruction in TPIV. Tomographic PIV is carried out at the same time using same cameras with the dye visualization. Q criterion is employed to identify the LEV. Results of tomographic PIV agree well with the reconstructed 3D dye streaklines, which proves the validity of the measurements. The time-averaged flow field based on TPIV is shown and described by sections of velocity and streamwise vorticity. Combining the two measurement methods sheds light on the complex structures of both bubble type and spiral type of breakdown. The breakdown position is recognized by investigating both the streaklines and TPIV velocity fields. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied to extract a pair of conjugated helical instability modes from TPIV data. Therefore, the dominant frequency of the instability modes is obtained from the corresponding POD coefficients of the modes based on wavelet transform analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shizawa, T. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Eaton, J.K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1990-12-31
The interaction of a longitudinal vortex with a pressure-driven, three dimensional turbulent boundary layer was investigated experimentally. The vortex was attenuated much more rapidly in the three dimensional layer than in a two-dimensional boundary layer. The persistence for the vortex-induced perturbation was strongly dependent on the sign of the vortex.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boonloi, Amnart [College of Industrial Technology, Bangkok (Thailand); Jedsadaratanachai, Withada [Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand)
2016-01-15
To improve the heat transfer rate and thermal performance, the punched delta winglet vortex generators, DWVGs, were inserted in the middle of the circular tube heat exchanger. The effects of the flow attack angles and the flow directions were investigated numerically for the Reynolds number Re = 100 – 2000. The finite volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm were used to study. The results are reported in terms of the flow structure, heat transfer behavior and thermal performance evaluation and also compared with the smooth tube with no vortex generators. As the numerical results, the use of the DWVGs in the tube can improve the heat transfer rate and thermal performance by creating the vortex flow through the tested section. The rise of the flow attack angle results in the increasing strength of the vortex flows. The flow attack angle of 25 .deg. performs the highest heat transfer rate and thermal performance, while the flow attack angle of 0 .deg. gives the reversed results. The computational results reveal that the optimum thermal enhancement factor is around 2.80 at Re = 2000, α = 25 .deg., with the winglet tip pointing downstream. The correlations on both the Nusselt number ratio and friction factor ratio for the DWVG in the tube heat exchanger are presented.
Simulation of external flows using a hybrid particle mesh vortex method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spietz, Henrik; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore
The long-term goal of this project is to develop and apply state-of-the-art simulation software to enable accurate prediction of fluid structure interaction, specifically vortex-induced-vibration and flutter of long-span suspension bridges to avoid error-prone structural designs. In the following...
Mesoscopic lateral S/N/S weak links: Josephson effects and Josephson-like vortex flow
Carapella, G.; Sabatino, P.; Gombos, M.
2017-02-01
We report an experimental and numerical study of magneto-transport properties of mesoscopic lateral S/N/S superconducting weak links where the N region is made of the same material as the S banks, though with strongly reduced critical temperature. Magnetoresistance oscillations and clear dc and ac Josephson effects are observed. Experimental results are analyzed in the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model for mesoscopic type II superconductors with an inhomogeneous critical temperature. The analysis suggests that dissipative branches of the current-voltage curve of the weak link in the presence of a magnetic field are accounted for by moving ‘Josephson-like’ vortices. These relatively fast excitations are anisotropic as per the ordinary Josephson vortex in tunnel junctions, but have a normal core like the ordinary Abrikosov vortex in plain superconducting strips. Moreover, unlike the vortex in tunneling junctions, in the lateral S/N/S weak link, the extension of the moving vortex is larger than the extension of the static one. Further, we report in some detail on the lateral proximity effect, and the deviations from the ideality of the current-phase relation of this kind of lateral weak link in the Josephson regime.
Three-dimensional instability of a multipolar vortex in a rotating flow
Le Dizès, Stéphane
2000-11-01
In this paper, the elliptic instability is generalized to account for Coriolis effects and higher order symmetries. We consider, in a frame rotating at the angular frequency Ω, a stationary vortex which is described near its center r=0 by the stream function written in polar coordinates Ψ=-(r2/2)+p(rn/n)cos(nθ), where the integer n is the order of the azimuthal symmetry, and p is a small positive parameter which measures the strength of the nonaxisymmetric field. Based on the Lifschitz and Hameiri [Phys. Fluids A 3, 2644-2651 (1991)] theory, the local stability analysis of the streamline Ψ=-1/2 is performed in the limit of small p. As for the elliptic instability [Bayly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2160-2163 (1986)], the instability is shown to be due to a parametric resonance of inertial waves when the inclination angle ξ of their wave vector with respect to the rotation axis takes a particular value given by cos ξ=±4/(n(1+Ω)). An explicit formula for the maximum growth rate of the inertial wave is obtained for arbitrary ξ, Ω, and n. As an immediate consequence, it is shown that a vortex core of relative vorticity Wr (assumed positive) is locally unstable if Ω(-1+n/4-p(n-1)/2)Wr/2. The predictive power of the local theory is demonstrated on several vortex examples by comparing the local stability predictions with global stability results. For both the Kirchhoff vortex and Moore and Saffman vortex, it is shown how global stability results can be derived from the local stability analysis using the dispersion relation of normal (Kelvin) modes. These results are compared to those obtained by global methods and a surprisingly good agreement is demonstrated. The local results are also applied to rotating Stuart vortices and compared to available numerical data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bing Yang; Fuping Gao; DongSheng Jeng; Yingxiang Wu
2009-01-01
In this study, the vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder near a rigid plane boundary in a steady flow are studied experimentally. The phenomenon of vortex-induced vibrations of the cylinder near the rigid plane boundary is reproduced in the flume. The vortex shedding frequency and mode are also measured by the methods of hot film velocime-ter and hydrogen bubbles. A parametric study is carded out to investigate the influences of reduced velocity, gap-to-diame-ter ratio, stability parameter and mass ratio on the amplitude and frequency responses of the cylinder. Experimental results indicate: (1) the Strouhal number (St) is around 0.2 for the stationary cylinder near a plane boundary in the sub-criti-cal flow regime; (2) with increasing gap-to-diameter ratio (eo/D), the amplitude ratio (A/D) gets larger but frequency ratio (f/fn) has a slight variation for the case of larger val-ues of e0/D(e0/D 0.66 in this study); (3) there is a clear difference of amplitude and frequency responses of the cylin-der between the larger gap-to-diameter ratios (e0/D 0.66) and the smaller ones (e0/D < 0.3); (4) the vibration of the cylinder is easier to occur and the range of vibration in terms of Vr number becomes more extensive with decrease of the stability parameter, but the frequency response is affected slightly by the stability parameter; (5) with decreasing mass ratio,the width of the lock-in ranges in terms of Vr and the frequency ratio(f/fn)become large.
Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S; Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Williams, Sheila; Thompson, Joseph T
2016-02-01
Squids use a pulsed jet and fin movements to swim both arms-first (forward) and tail-first (backward). Given the complexity of the squid multi-propulsor system, 3D velocimetry techniques are required for the comprehensive study of wake dynamics. Defocusing digital particle tracking velocimetry, a volumetric velocimetry technique, and high-speed videography were used to study arms-first and tail-first swimming of brief squid Lolliguncula brevis over a broad range of speeds [0-10 dorsal mantle lengths (DML) s(-1)] in a swim tunnel. Although there was considerable complexity in the wakes of these multi-propulsor swimmers, 3D vortex rings and their derivatives were prominent reoccurring features during both tail-first and arms-first swimming, with the greatest jet and fin flow complexity occurring at intermediate speeds (1.5-3.0 DML s(-1)). The jet generally produced the majority of thrust during rectilinear swimming, increasing in relative importance with speed, and the fins provided no thrust at speeds >4.5 DML s(-1). For both swimming orientations, the fins sometimes acted as stabilizers, producing negative thrust (drag), and consistently provided lift at low/intermediate speeds (swimming orientation, and η for swimming sequences with clear isolated jet vortex rings was significantly greater (η=78.6±7.6%, mean±s.d.) than that for swimming sequences with clear elongated regions of concentrated jet vorticity (η=67.9±19.2%). This study reveals the complexity of 3D vortex wake flows produced by nekton with hydrodynamically distinct propulsors.
Erickson, Gary E.
2010-01-01
Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization and pressure sensitive paint (PSP) techniques were applied in a unified approach to wind tunnel testing of slender wing and missile configurations dominated by vortex flows and shock waves at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. The off-surface cross-flow patterns using the LVS technique were combined with global PSP surface static pressure mappings to characterize the leading-edge vortices and shock waves that coexist and interact at high angles of attack. The synthesis of LVS and PSP techniques was also effective in identifying the significant effects of passive surface porosity and the presence of vertical tail surfaces on the flow topologies. An overview is given of LVS and PSP applications in selected experiments on small-scale models of generic slender wing and missile configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) and 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-Foot TPT).
Erickson, Gary E.
2008-01-01
Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization and pressure sensitive paint (PSP) techniques were applied in a unified approach to wind tunnel testing of slender wing and missile configurations dominated by vortex flows and shock waves at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. The off-surface cross-flow patterns using the LVS technique were combined with global PSP surface static pressure mappings to characterize the leading-edge vortices and shock waves that coexist and interact at high angles of attack (alpha). The synthesis of LVS and PSP techniques was also effective in identifying the significant effects of passive surface porosity and the presence of vertical tail surfaces on the flow topologies. An overview is given of LVS and PSP applications in selected experiments on small-scale models of generic slender wing and missile configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) and 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-Foot TPT).
Study of secondary-flow patterns in an annular cascade of turbine nozzle blades with vortex design
Rohlik, Harold E; Allen, Hubert W; Herzig, Howard Z
1953-01-01
In order to increase understanding of the origin of losses in a turbine, the secondary-flow components in the boundary layers and the blade wakes of an annular cascade of turbine nozzle blades (vortex design) was investigated. A detailed study was made of the total-pressure contours and, particularly, of the inner-wall loss cores downstream of the blades. The inner-wall loss core associated with a blade of the turbine-nozzle cascade is largely the accumulation of low-momentum fluids originating elsewhere in the cascade. This accumulation is effected by a secondary-flow mechanism which acts to transport the low-momentum fluids across the channels on the walls and radially in the blade wakes and boundary layers. The patterns of secondary flow were determined by use of hydrogen sulfide traces, paint, flow fences, and total pressure surveys. At one flow condition investigated, the radial transport of low-momentum fluid in the blade wake and on the suction surface near the trailing edge accounted for 65 percent of the loss core; 30 percent resulted from flow in the thickened boundary layer on the suction surface and 35 percent from flow in the blade wake.
Reconnection of superfluid vortex bundles.
Alamri, Sultan Z; Youd, Anthony J; Barenghi, Carlo F
2008-11-21
Using the vortex filament model and the Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we show that bundles of quantized vortex lines in He II are structurally robust and can reconnect with each other maintaining their identity. We discuss vortex stretching in superfluid turbulence and show that, during the bundle reconnection process, kelvin waves of large amplitude are generated, in agreement with the finding that helicity is produced by nearly singular vortex interactions in classical Euler flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
King, G P [Instituto de Oceanografia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Rudman, Murray [CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology, P.O. Box 56, Highett, Vic. 3190 (Australia); Rowlands, G [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gkinglisboa@gmail.com, E-mail: Murray.Rudman@csiro.au, E-mail: G.Rowlands@warwick.ac.uk
2008-01-31
The dimensionless effective axial diffusion coefficient, D{sub z}, calculated from particle trajectories in steady wavy vortex flow in a narrow gap Taylor-Couette system, has been determined as a function of Reynolds number (R = Re/Re{sub c}), axial wavelength ({lambda}{sub z}), and the number of azimuthal waves (m). Two regimes of Reynolds number were found: (i) when R < 3.5, D{sub z} has a complex and sometimes multi-modal dependence on Reynolds number; (ii) when R > 3.5, D{sub z} decreases monotonically. Eulerian quantities measuring the departure from rotational symmetry, {psi}{sub {theta}}, and flexion-free flow, {psi}{sub {nu}}, were calculated. The space-averaged quantities {phi}-bar{sub {theta}} and {phi}-bar{sub {nu}} were found to have, unlike D{sub z}, a simple unimodal dependence on R. In the low R regime the correlation between D{sub z} and {psi}{sub {theta}}{psi}{sub {nu}} was complicated and was attributed to variations in the spatial distribution of the wavy disturbance occurring in this range of R. In the large R regime, however, the correlation simplified to D{sub z}{approx}{phi}-bar{sub {theta}}{phi}-bar{sub {nu}} for all wave states, and this was attributed to the growth of an integrable vortex core and the concentration of the wavy disturbance into narrow regions near the outflow and inflow jets. A reservoir model of a wavy vortex was used to determine the rate of escape across the outflow and inflow boundaries, the size of the 'escape basins' (associated with escape across the outflow and inflow boundaries), and the size of the trapping region in the vortex core. In the low R regime after the breakup of all KAM tori, the outflow basin ({gamma}{sub O}) is larger than the inflow basin ({gamma}{sub I}), and both {gamma}{sub O} and {gamma}{sub I} are (approximately) independent of R. In the large R regime, with increasing Reynolds number the trapping region grows, the outflow basin decreases, and the inflow basin shows a slight increase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shangguan Yanqin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Large eddy simulation (LES is performed on a jet issued normally into a cross-flow using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and multiple graphic processing units (multi-GPUs to study the flow characteristics of jets in cross-flow (JICF. The simulation with 8 1.50´10 grids is fulfilled with 6 K20M GPUs. With large-scaled simulation, the secondary and tertiary vortices are captured. The features of the secondary vortices and the tertiary vortices reveal that they have a great impact on the mixing between jet flow and cross-flow. The qualitative and quantitative results also indicate that the evolution mechanism of vortices is not constant, but varies with different situations. The hairpin vortex under attached jet regime originates from the boundary layer vortex of cross-flow. While, the origin of hairpin vortex in detached jet is the jet shear-layer vortex. The mean velocities imply the good ability of LBM to simulate JICF and the large loss of jet momentum in detached jet caused by the strong penetration. Besides, in our computation, a high computational performance of 1083.5 MLUPS is achieved.
Hebard, A.F.; Palstra, T.T.M.
1989-01-01
Analysis of resistive transitions of YBa2Cu3O7, crystals reveals a scaling behavior which identifies the vortex-depinning critical field Hcp, hence the crossover in behavior from flux creep to flux flow. The inferred Hcp for YBa2Cu3O7 crystals closely approximates the magnitude and temperature depen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heys Jeffrey J
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pericardial adhesions are a pathophysiological marker of constrictive pericarditis (CP, which impairs cardiac filling by limiting the total cardiac volume compliance and diastolic filling function. We studied diastolic transmitral flow efficiency as a new parameter of filling function in a pericardial adhesion animal model. We hypothesized that vortex formation time (VFT, an index of optimal efficient diastolic transmitral flow, is altered by patchy pericardial-epicardial adhesions. Methods In 8 open-chest pigs, the heart was exposed while preserving the pericardium. We experimentally simulated early pericardial constriction and patchy adhesions by instilling instant glue into the pericardial space and using pericardial-epicardial stitches. We studied left ventricular (LV function and characterized intraventricular blood flow with conventional and Doppler echocardiography at baseline and following the experimental intervention. Results Significant decreases in end-diastolic volume, ejection fraction, stroke volume, and late diastolic filling velocity reflected the effects of the pericardial adhesions. The mean VFT value decreased from 3.61 ± 0.47 to 2.26 ± 0.45 (P = 0.0002. Hemodynamic variables indicated the inhibiting effect of pericardial adhesion on both contraction (decrease in systolic blood pressure and +dP/dt decreased and relaxation (decrease in the magnitude of -dP/dt and prolongation of Tau function. Conclusion Patchy pericardial adhesions not only negatively impact LV mechanical functioning but the decrease of VFT from normal to suboptimal value suggests impairment of transmitral flow efficiency.
Modeling gasodynamic vortex cooling
Allahverdyan, A. E.; Fauve, S.
2017-08-01
We aim at studying gasodynamic vortex cooling in an analytically solvable, thermodynamically consistent model that can explain limitations on the cooling efficiency. To this end, we study an angular plus radial flow between two (coaxial) rotating permeable cylinders. Full account is taken of compressibility, viscosity, and heat conductivity. For a weak inward radial flow the model qualitatively describes the vortex cooling effect, in terms of both temperature and the decrease of the stagnation enthalpy, seen in short uniflow vortex (Ranque) tubes. The cooling does not result from external work and its efficiency is defined as the ratio of the lowest temperature reached adiabatically (for the given pressure gradient) to the lowest temperature actually reached. We show that for the vortex cooling the efficiency is strictly smaller than 1, but in another configuration with an outward radial flow, we find that the efficiency can be larger than 1. This is related to both the geometry and the finite heat conductivity.
Heifetz, H Vitoshkin E; Harnik, N
2012-01-01
The three dimensional optimal energy growth mechanism, in plane parallel shear flows, is reexamined in terms of the role of vortex stretching and the interplay between the span-wise vorticity and the planar divergent components. For high Reynolds numbers the structure of the optimal perturbations in Couette, Poiseuille, and mixing layer shear profiles is robust and resembles localized plane-waves in regions where the background shear is large. The waves are tilted with the shear when the span-wise vorticity and the planar divergence fields are in (out of) phase when the background shear is positive (negative). A minimal model is derived to explain how this configuration enables simultaneous growth of the two fields, and how this mutual amplification reflects on the optimal energy growth. This perspective provides an understanding of the three dimensional growth solely from the two dimensional dynamics on the shear plane.
He, Pengyu; Yang, Yue
2016-03-01
We report a systematic study on the construction of the explicit, general form of vortex-surface fields (VSFs) and Clebsch potentials in the initial fields with the zero helicity density and high symmetry. The construction methodology is based on finding independent first integrals of the characteristic equation of a given three-dimensional velocity-vorticity field. In particular, we derive the analytical VSFs and Clebsch potentials for the initial field with the Kida-Pelz symmetry. These analytical results can be useful for the evolution of VSFs to study vortical structures in transitional flows. Moreover, the generality of the construction method is discussed with the synthetic initial fields and the initial Taylor-Green field with multiple wavenumbers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawamura, T.; Nakao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, N. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1999-07-25
Vortex-induced vibrations were measured for a circular cylinder subjected to a water cross flow at supercritical Reynolds numbers for a wide range of reduced velocities. Turbulence intensities were changed from 1% to 13% in order to investigate the effect of the Strouhal number on the region of synchronization by symmetrical and Karman vortex shedding. The reduced damping of the test cylinder was about 0.1 in water. The surface roughness of the cylinder was a mirror-polished surface. Strouhal number decreased from about 0.48 to 0.29 with increasing turbulence intensity. Synchronized vibrations were observed even at supercritical Reynolds numbers where fluctuating fluid force was small. Reduced velocities at which drag and lift direction lock-in by Karman vortex shedding were initiated decreased with increasing Strouhal number. When Strouhal number was about 0.29, the self-excited vibration in drag direction by symmetrical vortex shedding began at which the frequency ratio of Karman vortex shedding frequency to the natural frequency of cylinder was 0.32. (author)
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine flows using a Vortex Particle-Mesh method: from near to very far wakes
Backaert, Stephane; Chatelain, Philippe; Winckelmans, Gregoire; Kern, Stefan; Maeder, Thierry; von Terzi, Dominic; van Rees, Wim; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2012-11-01
A Vortex Particle-Mesh (VPM) method with immersed lifting lines has been developed and validated. The vorticity-velocity formulation of the NS equations is treated in a hybrid way: particles handle advection while the mesh is used to evaluate the differential operators and for the fast Poisson solvers (here a Fourier-based solver which simultaneously allows for unbounded directions and inlet/outlet boundaries). Both discretizations communicate through high order interpolation. The immersed lifting lines handle the creation of vorticity from the blade elements and its early development. LES of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) flows are performed, with a relatively fine resolution (128 and 160 grid points per blade) and for computational domains extending up to 6 D and 14 D downstream of the rotor. The wake complex development is captured in details, from the blades to the near wake coherent vortices, to the transitional ones, to the fully developed turbulent far wake. Mean flow statistics in planes (horizontal, vertical and cross) are also presented. A case with a realistic turbulent wind inflow is also considered. The physics are more complex than for HAWT flows. Computational resources provided by a PRACE award.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Saeed Abedi; Ali Akbar Dehghan; Ali Saeidinezhad; Mojtaba Dehghan Manshadi
2016-01-01
A flow field around a streamlined body at an intermediate angle of incidence is dominated by cross-flow separation and vortical flow fields. The separated flow leads to a pair of vortices on the leeside of the body; therefore, it is essential to accurately determine this pair and estimate its size and location. This study utilizes the element-based finite volume method based on RANS equations to compute a 3D axisymmetric flow around a SUBOFF bare submarined hull. Cross-flow vortex structures are then numerically simulated and compared for a submarine with SUBOFF and DRDC STR bows. Computed results of pressure and shear stress distribution on the hull surface and the strength and locations of the vortex structures are presented at an intermediate incidence angle of 20°. A wind tunnel experiment is also conducted to experimentally visualize the vortex structures and measure their core locations. These experimental results are compared with the numerical data, and a good agreement is found.
Abedi, Saeed; Dehghan, Ali Akbar; Saeidinezhad, Ali; Manshadi, Mojtaba Dehghan
2016-03-01
A flow field around a streamlined body at an intermediate angle of incidence is dominated by cross-flow separation and vortical flow fields. The separated flow leads to a pair of vortices on the leeside of the body; therefore, it is essential to accurately determine this pair and estimate its size and location. This study utilizes the element-based finite volume method based on RANS equations to compute a 3D axisymmetric flow around a SUBOFF bare submarined hull. Cross-flow vortex structures are then numerically simulated and compared for a submarine with SUBOFF and DRDC STR bows. Computed results of pressure and shear stress distribution on the hull surface and the strength and locations of the vortex structures are presented at an intermediate incidence angle of 20°. A wind tunnel experiment is also conducted to experimentally visualize the vortex structures and measure their core locations. These experimental results are compared with the numerical data, and a good agreement is found.
Pattern Selection, Wave Formation, Turbulence and Vortex Breakdown in Spiral Flows
1990-01-01
problems in rotating plane Couette - Poiseuille flow " (joint work with George H. Knightly), Contemporary Math., 108 (1990), to appear. The following...continuum of periodic waves in rotating plane Couette flow , and an analytic description of a mechanism to generate the turbulent-like flows observed in...during the period of the report: (1) "Waves in rotating plane Couette flow " (joint work with George H. Knightly, University of Massachusetts), Geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhmetov, D.G. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2009-07-01
This book presents a comprehensive coverage of the wide field of vortex rings. The book presents the results of systematic experimental investigations, theoretical foundation, as well as the practical applications of vortex rings, such as the extinction of fires at gushing gas and oil wells. All the basic properties of vortex rings as well as their hydrodynamic structures are presented. Special attention is paid to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings. (orig.)
Cho, Inyong
2008-01-01
We investigate vortex configurations with the "vulcanization" term introduced for renormalization of $\\phi_\\star^4$ theory in canonical $\\theta$-deformed noncommutativity. In the small-$\\theta$ limit, we perform numerical calculations and find that nontopological vortex solutions exist as well as Q-ball type solutions, but topological vortex solutions are not admitted.
Development of a FBG vortex flow sensor for high-temperature applications
Cheng, L.K.; Schiferli, W.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Franzen, A.; Boer, J.J. den; Jansen, T.H.
2011-01-01
A robust fibre optic flow sensor has been developed to measure liquid or gas flows at ambient temperatures up to 300°C and pressures up to 100 bar. While such environmental conditions are typical in pressurized steam systems in the oil and gas industry (downhole and surface), wider applications are
Large Eddy Simulation of the vortex end in reverse-flow centrifugal separators
Pisarev, A.V.; Hoffmann, A.C.; Peng, W.; Dijkstra, H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073504467
2011-01-01
The present work is a study of the gas-flow phenomenon known as the “end of the vortex” (EoV), which spontaneously occurs at the lower end, or under, reverse-flow centrifugal separators such as cyclones or swirl tubes. Different CFD models of swirl tubes have been built to study and analyse this
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hara, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Shizawa, T.; Honami, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1999-12-25
This paper presents the behavior of a passively controlled horseshoe vortex at the root of NACA0024 wing which is established on a turbulent boundary layer, A pair of vortex generators of half delta wing is installed upstream of the wing. The flow field of the optimally controlled horseshoe vortex both in case of Common Flow Up (CFUC) and Common Flow Down Configuration (CFDC) is carefully investigated by an X-array hot-wire. In case of CFUC, the horseshoe vortex is not shifted from the wing, because the longitudinal vortex is restrained. The interacted vortex presents a circular profile, in a optimally controlled case. In case of CFDC, the interacted vortex that has strong vorticity by the pairing process is shifted away from the wing. Then, the high momentum fluid flow penetrates between the wing and the vortex. (author)
Ultra-Low-Power High-Frequency Micro-Vortex Generators for Transonic Flow Control Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active flow control to prevent or delay boundary layer separation dramatically improves the performance of air vehicles in critical regions of the flight envelope....
Lift enhancement by trapped vortex
Rossow, Vernon J.
1992-01-01
The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.
Bifurcation analysis in a vortex flow generated by an oscillatory magnetic obstacle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beltrán, A.; Ramos, E.; Cuevas, S.
2010-01-01
A numerical simulation and a theoretical model of the two-dimensional flow produced by the harmonic oscillation of a localized magnetic field (magnetic obstacle) in a quiescent viscous, electrically conducting fluid are presented. Nonuniform Lorentz forces produced by induced currents interacting...... model based on a local analysis that predicts most of the qualitative properties calculated numerically is proposed....... of rotation twice per cycle. The transformation of the flow field present in the first part of the cycle into the pattern displayed in the second half occurs via the generation of hyperbolic and elliptic critical points. The numerical solution of the flow indicates that for low frequencies (v.e. Re-omega = 1...
Zhou, Y. L.; Deng, D.
2010-03-01
Considering the turbulence deduced by shearing stress and air bubble, and based on two-fluid model, gas-liquid two-phase flow around two square cylinders in side-by-side arrangement in vertical tube with different void fraction different spacing ratio is numerically simulated by using the finite volume method in this paper. It is found that the gap flow with the spacing ratio smaller than 2.0 is not only biased to one side, resulting in the formation of a narrower wake behind one cylinder and a wider wake behind the other, but also not-biased to neither of them; vortex shedding from the two cylinders with the spacing ratio larger than or equal to 2.0 is synchronized. But when the spacing ratio is equal to 2.0, In-phase mode is the predominant mode while anti-phase mode predominates when the spacing ratio is 2.5, 3.0, 5.0. In bias pattern, the cylinder with wide wake has smaller resistance, the cylinder with narrow wake has larger resistance, and the cylinders with middle wake have equality resistance. Meanwhile the spacing ratio has tremendous influence on pulsating lift, amplitude spectrum and so on. The volume of void fraction in the incident flow influence the vortex production, falling off & development heavily. When the volume of void fraction increases to 0.12, the stable vortex street does not produce.
Akhtar, Imran; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ribbens, Calvin J.
2009-07-01
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been used to develop a reduced-order model of the hydrodynamic forces acting on a circular cylinder. Direct numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have been performed using a parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate the flow past a circular cylinder. Snapshots of the velocity and pressure fields are used to calculate the divergence-free velocity and pressure modes, respectively. We use the dominant of these velocity POD modes (a small number of eigenfunctions or modes) in a Galerkin procedure to project the Navier-Stokes equations onto a low-dimensional space, thereby reducing the distributed-parameter problem into a finite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system in time. The solution of the reduced dynamical system is a limit cycle corresponding to vortex shedding. We investigate the stability of the limit cycle by using long-time integration and propose to use a shooting technique to home on the system limit cycle. We obtain the pressure-Poisson equation by taking the divergence of the Navier-Stokes equation and then projecting it onto the pressure POD modes. The pressure is then decomposed into lift and drag components and compared with the CFD results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhtar, Imran [Virginia Tech, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, MC 0219, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Virginia Tech, Interdisciplinary Center for Applied Mathematics, MC 0531, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Nayfeh, Ali H. [Virginia Tech, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, MC 0219, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ribbens, Calvin J. [Virginia Tech, Department of Computer Science, Blacksburg, VA (United States)
2009-07-15
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been used to develop a reduced-order model of the hydrodynamic forces acting on a circular cylinder. Direct numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have been performed using a parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate the flow past a circular cylinder. Snapshots of the velocity and pressure fields are used to calculate the divergence-free velocity and pressure modes, respectively. We use the dominant of these velocity POD modes (a small number of eigenfunctions or modes) in a Galerkin procedure to project the Navier-Stokes equations onto a low-dimensional space, thereby reducing the distributed-parameter problem into a finite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system in time. The solution of the reduced dynamical system is a limit cycle corresponding to vortex shedding. We investigate the stability of the limit cycle by using long-time integration and propose to use a shooting technique to home on the system limit cycle. We obtain the pressure-Poisson equation by taking the divergence of the Navier-Stokes equation and then projecting it onto the pressure POD modes. The pressure is then decomposed into lift and drag components and compared with the CFD results. (orig.)
Miskon, Azizi; A/L Thanakodi, Suresh; Shiema Moh Nazar, Nazatul; Kit Chong, Marcus Wai; Sobri Takriff, Mohd; Fakir Kamarudin, Kamrul; Aziz Norzali, Abdul; Nooraya Mohd Tawil, Siti
2016-11-01
The instability of crude oil price in global market as well as the sensitivity towards green energy increases, more research works being carried out to find alternative energy replacing the depleting of fossil fuels. Photobiological hydrogen production system using algae is one of the promising alternative energy source. However, the yield of hydrogen utilizing the current photobioreactor (PBR) is still low for commercial application due to restricted light penetration into the deeper regions of the reactor. Therefore, this paper studies the feasibility of vortex flow impact utilizing magnetic stirring in hydrogen production for fuel cell applications. For comparison of results, a magnetic stirrer is placed under a PBR of algae to stir the algae to obtain an even distribution of sunlight to the algae while the controlled PBR of algae kept in static. The produced hydrogen level was measured using hydrogen sensor circuit and the data collected were communicated to laptop using Arduino Uno. The results showed more cell counts and hydrogen produced in the PBR under the influence of magnetic stirring compared to static PBR by an average of 8 percent in 4 days.
Palacios, J.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Cabello, I.; Domingo, V.
2016-04-01
In this work we follow a series of papers on high-resolution observations of small-scale structures in the solar atmosphere (Balmaceda et al. 2009, 2010; Vargas Domínguez et al. 2011; Palacios et al. 2012; Domingo et al. 2012; Vargas Domínguez et al. 2015, Cabello et al., in prep), combining several multi-wavelength data series. These were acquired by both ground-based (SST) and space-borne (Hinode) instruments during the joint campaign of the Hinode Operation Program 14, in September 2007. Diffraction-limited SST data were taken in the G-band and G-cont, and were restored by the MFBD technique. Hinode instruments, on the other hand, provided multispectral data from SOT-FG in the CN band, and Mg I and Ca II lines, as well as from SOT-SP in the Fe I line. In this series of works we have thoroughly studied vortex flows and their statistical occurrences, horizontal velocity fields by means of Local Correlation Tracking (LCT), divergence and vorticity. Taking advantage of the high-cadence and high spatial resolution data, we have also studied bright point statistics and magnetic field intensification, highlighting the importance of the smallest-scale magnetic element observations.
Vortex wakes of a flapping foil in a flowing soap film
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
We present an experimental study of an oscillating, symmetric foil in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we explore and visualize a variety of wake structures, including von K´arm´an wake, reverse von K´arm´an wake, 2P wake, and 2P+2S wake. We...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Dongil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Tavoularis, Stavros, E-mail: stavros.tavoularis@uottawa.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)
2012-02-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LES are more accurate than URANS for rod bundle flows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer URANS are still an acceptable choice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Steady RANS analysis is very inaccurate in narrow gap regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Streamwise-periodic boundary conditions are not suitable for practical rod bundles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gap instability is an inviscid process. - Abstract: Three-dimensional, unsteady simulations of developing turbulent flows in a rectangular channel containing a cylindrical rod have been performed to investigate their sensitivity to the choices of boundary conditions and turbulence models. Among all methods, large eddy simulations, employed in a downstream sub-domain of the channel as part of the segregated hybrid model, reproduced most accurately the experimental results. However, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) simulations with a Reynolds stress model appear to be also an acceptable choice for approximate rod bundle analyses, making fairly accurate predictions at a much lower computational cost. In agreement with previous findings, steady RANS simulations are not recommended as a low-cost substitute of URANS for flows in tightly packed rod bundles. The URANS simulations were found to be insensitive to inlet turbulence specification and to be more accurate when a uniform inlet velocity was specified rather than a fully developed inlet velocity distribution. Developing flow simulations were found to be preferable to simulations with a streamwise-periodic boundary condition. Finally, unsteady inviscid (Euler) simulations with a fully developed initial velocity distribution predicted the onset of gap instability, but were otherwise found to be unsuitable for practical analysis of rod bundle flows.
Development of Energetic Actuators for Shear and Vortex Dominated Flow Control
2014-02-19
control is sometimes referred to as virtual shaping [5, 6, 7, 8]. The most basic forms of active flow control involve steady suction , steady blowing...disadvantage to operating steady suction or blowing devices is the requirement of an external air supply or a vacuum chamber. Unsteady devices that draw on...and cross-layer detections that are seamlessly integrated together. We will elaborate our research activities and results from these perspectives. For
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Klein
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The lateral line system of fish consists of superficial neuromasts, and neuromasts embedded in lateral line canals. Lateral line neuromasts allow fish to sense both minute water motions and pressure gradients, thereby enabling them to detect predators and prey or to recognize and discriminate stationary objects while passing them. With the aid of the lateral line, fish can also sense vortices caused by an upstream object or by undulatory swimming movements of fish. We show here that artificial lateral line canals equipped with optical flow sensors can be used to detect the water motions generated by a stationary vibrating sphere, the vortices caused by an upstream cylinder or the water (air movements caused by a passing object. The hydrodynamic information retrieved from optical flow sensors can be used to calculate bulk flow velocity and thus the size of the cylinder that shed the vortices. Even a bilateral sensor platform equipped with only one artificial lateral line canal on each side is sufficient to determine the position of an upstream cylinder.
Magneto-hydrodynamic detection of vortex shedding for molten salt flow sensing.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Crocker, Robert W.
2012-09-01
High temperature flow sensors must be developed for use with molten salts systems at temperatures in excess of 600ÀC. A novel magneto-hydrodynamic sensing approach was investigated. A prototype sensor was developed and tested in an aqueous sodium chloride solution as a surrogate for molten salt. Despite that the electrical conductivity was a factor of three less than molten salts, it was found that the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte was too low to adequately resolve the signal amidst surrounding noise. This sensor concept is expected to work well with any liquid metal application, as the generated magnetic field scales proportionately with electrical conductivity.
Oosterhuis, Joris P; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theo
2015-01-01
A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the oscillatory flow through a tapered cylindrical tube section (jet pump) placed in a larger outer tube. Due to the shape of the jet pump, there will exist an asymmetry in the hydrodynamic end effects which will cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur that can be used to cancel Gedeon streaming in a closed-loop thermoacoustic device. The performance of two jet pump geometries with different taper angles is investigated. A specific time-domain impedance boundary condition is implemented in order to simulate traveling acoustic wave conditions. It is shown that by scaling the acoustic displacement amplitude to the jet pump dimensions, similar minor losses are observed independent of the jet pump geometry. Four different flow regimes are distinguished and the observed flow phenomena are related to the jet pump performance. The simulated jet pump performance is compared to an existing quasi-steady approximation which is shown to only be ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
AHMED N A
2006-01-01
A comprehensive hot wire investigation of the flow around a circular cylinder is carried out in an 18" × 18" wind tunnel to look into the dominant frequencies at the stagnation, separation and separated shear layers in the transition Reynolds number range. The majority of the experiments are carried out at Reynolds number of 4.5 × 104, with additional transition frequency tests at Reynolds numbers of 2.9 × 104, 3.3 × 104 and 9.7 × 104 respectively. The results are analysed in terms of power spectral density. While the frequency associated with stagnation is found to be essentially due to vortex shedding, frequency doubling of vortex shedding is also evident in the separated shear layers.Two peaks associated with transition frequencies are detected and their possible implications are presented.
Dincer, K.; Baskaya, S.; Uysal, B. Z.
2008-01-01
In this experimental study, performance of counter flow type Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes (RHVT), with a length to diameter ratio of 10, 15 and 18, were investigated with 2, 4, 6 nozzles. The measure of performance was chosen as the difference between the temperatures of hot output stream and cold output stream. The performances of RHVTs were experimentally tested by making use of velocity and temperature measurements of the input and output streams. It was determined that the difference between the temperatures of these streams, changed between 9 and 56 K. When all the results were assessed, it was concluded that the best performance was obtained when the ratio of vortex tube’s length to the diameter was 15 and the nozzle number was at least four, and the inlet pressure was as high as possible. Desired performance could be obtained by controlling the rate of the hot output stream.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dincer, K. [Selcuk University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Konya (Turkey); Baskaya, S. [Gazi University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Uysal, B.Z. [Gazi University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey)
2008-01-15
In this experimental study, performance of counter flow type Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes (RHVT), with a length to diameter ratio of 10, 15 and 18, were investigated with 2, 4, 6 nozzles. The measure of performance was chosen as the difference between the temperatures of hot output stream and cold output stream. The performances of RHVTs were experimentally tested by making use of velocity and temperature measurements of the input and output streams. It was determined that the difference between the temperatures of these streams, changed between 9 and 56 K. When all the results were assessed, it was concluded that the best performance was obtained when the ratio of vortex tube's length to the diameter was 15 and the nozzle number was at least four, and the inlet pressure was as high as possible. Desired performance could be obtained by controlling the rate of the hot output stream. (orig.)
EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FREE SURFACE VORTEX
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Hai-feng; CHEN Hong-xun; MA Zheng; ZHOU Yi
2008-01-01
An experimental model was set up to investigate the formation and evolution of the free surface vortex. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the free surface vortex flow field at different development stages. Flow visualization was used to locate the vortex position and find its structure. Empirical formulas about the critical submergence and the whole field structure were obtained. It is found that the tangential velocity distribution is similar to that of the Rankine vortex and the radial velocity changes little in the vortex functional scope. Vortex starts from the free surface and gradually intensifies to air entrainment vortex. The vortex core moves during the formation and evolution of the free surface vortex. Based on the experimental model, the vortex position and structure were predicted by numerical simulation combined with a vortex model and compared with that of the experiments, which shows satisfactory agreement.
The bathtub vortex in a rotating container
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, B.
2006-01-01
We study the time-independent free-surface flow which forms when a fluid drains out of a container, a so-called bathtub vortex. We focus on the bathtub vortex in a rotating container and describe the free-surface shape and the complex flow structure using photographs of the free surface, flow...
Experimental study on vortex induced vibration (VIV of a wide-D-section cylinder in a cross flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingyang Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Wake structures and vortex induced vibration (VIV of a spring-supported wide-D-section cylinder were experimentally investigated using an X-wire, a novel phase-locked particle image velocimetry (PIV, and an acceleration sensor at a low speed wind tunnel. Compared with the fixed case, the 2P (two pair vortex mode as defined by Govardhan and Williamson (2000 rather than S (single vortex mode exists in the wake. The velocity deficit behind the cylinder is much larger than that of fixed case. The mean drag coefficient increases from 1.42 for the fixed case to 1.64 for the vibrating case. The Reynolds stress presents even distribution and small with increased distance of X/D=−2 to X/D=−10. The power spectra density based on accelerator and hot wire data presents a highlight identical. It shows that after a strong interaction the cylinder vibration and the vortex shedding come to a stable state. The vortex shedding is totally locked on and controlled by the cylinder vibration.
Vortex tube reconnection at Re = 104
van Rees, Wim M.; Hussain, Fazle; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2012-07-01
We present simulations of the long-time dynamics of two anti-parallel vortex tubes with and without initial axial flow, at Reynolds number Re = Γ/ν = 104. Simulations were performed in a periodic domain with a remeshed vortex method using 785 × 106 particles. We quantify the vortex dynamics of the primary vortex reconnection that leads to the formation of elliptical rings with axial flow and report for the first time a subsequent collision of these rings. In the absence of initial axial flow, a -5/3 slope of the energy spectrum is observed during the first reconnection of the tubes. The resulting elliptical vortex rings experience a coiling of their vortex lines imparting an axial flow inside their cores. These rings eventually collide, exhibiting a -7/3 slope of the energy spectrum. Studies of vortex reconnection with an initial axial flow exhibit also the -7/3 slope during the initial collision as well as in the subsequent collision of the ensuing elliptical vortex rings. We quantify the detailed vortex dynamics of these collisions and examine the role of axial flow in the breakup of vortex structures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张德胜; 石磊; 陈健; 耿琳琳; 吴苏青
2015-01-01
为了深入掌握轴流泵叶顶区湍流特性，采用大涡模拟方法对某一模型轴流泵内部非定常流动进行了数值模拟。根据时域和频域特性图，分析间隙内压差和泄漏速度之间的关联现象，讨论了叶顶间隙内泄漏流的瞬态特性。根据三维泄漏涡结构，揭示了轴流泵叶顶区不同类型的涡系，叶顶泄漏涡带在剪切层内涡丝动力的驱动下逐渐变长，然后与射流剪切层分离；叶顶间隙内涡团的瞬态变化大于叶顶泄漏涡的周期性变化，导致剪切层内的小尺度涡的生成周期时间较短，其在主泄漏涡带上方形成了小尺度泄漏流涡带。从叶顶轴平面的涡结构可发现，随着弦长系数的增大，剪切层内的分离涡不断被分离并且被叶顶泄漏涡卷吸，在主泄漏涡向相邻叶片压力面的运动过程中，其涡量不断减小，并且在转轮室端壁面附近不断诱导各种尺度的涡产生。%Numerical analysis of the unsteady flow in an axial flow pump was conducted to understand deeply the characteristics of turbulence in the tip region via LES (large eddy simulation) in ANSYS CFX. Such an understanding was critical to predict and eventually control cavitation and noise as well as vibration in liquid handling systems such as pumps and propellers, and improve their performance. Compared with the conventional numerical methods, LES provided the most promising and feasible alternative to compute the unsteady velocity and pressure fields. In this paper, LES method with large mesh-size requirement was used for studying the transient characteristics of the tip leakage flow and leakage vortex. Some significant conclusions were obtained by the simulation. The responsibility of different flow rate for variation of average head and efficiency calculated by LES had little discrepancy with the experimental values in the low-head axial flow pump model, especially at flow rate condition. A combination of
Bathtub vortex induced by instability
Mizushima, Jiro; Abe, Kazuki; Yokoyama, Naoto
2014-10-01
The driving mechanism and the swirl direction of the bathtub vortex are investigated by the linear stability analysis of the no-vortex flow as well as numerical simulations. We find that only systems having plane symmetries with respect to vertical planes deserve research for the swirl direction. The bathtub vortex appearing in a vessel with a rectangular cross section having a drain hole at the center of the bottom is proved to be induced by instability when the flow rate exceeds a threshold. The Coriolis force is capable of determining the swirl direction to be cyclonic.
Devade, Kiran D.; Pise, Ashok T.
2016-12-01
An experimental investigation is made to find out the effects of the cold end orifice diameters, length to diameter ratio and exit valve angles on the heating and cooling performance of the counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube with air as a working fluid. The tube and cold end orifices used at these experiments are made of brass. Three cold end orifices (5, 6 and 7 mm) have been manufactured and are used five different L/D ratios (15 plain tube, 15-18 with 4° divergence angle) and exit valve angles (30°-90°). Inlet pressures were adjusted from 200 to 600 kPa with 100 kPa increments, and the exergy loss, exergy efficiency was determined. As a result of the experimental study, it is determined that the exergy loss between the hot and cold fluid is decreased with increasing of the cold end orifice diameter. Exergy efficiency decreases with increase in L/D ratio. It is also concluded that diverging vortex tube produces lower exergy loss as compared to plain tube. Valve angles have significant effect on hot end exergy loss of the vortex tube.
Boriskina, Svetlana V; Reinhard, Björn M
2012-01-01
Efficient delivery of light into nanoscale volumes by converting free photons into localized charge-density oscillations (surface plasmons) enables technological innovation in various fields from biosensing to photovoltaics and quantum computing. Conventional plasmonic nanostructures are designed as nanoscale analogs of radioantennas and waveguides. Here, we discuss an alternative approach for plasmonic nanocircuit engineering that is based on molding the optical powerflow through 'vortex nanogears' around a landscape of local phase singularities 'pinned' to plasmonic nanostructures. We show that coupling of several vortex nanogears into transmission-like structures results in dramatic optical effects, which can be explained by invoking a hydrodynamic analogy of the 'photon fluid'. The new concept of vortex nanogear transmissions (VNTs) provides new design principles for the development of complex multi-functional phase-operated photonics machinery and, therefore, generates unique opportunities for light generation, harvesting and processing on the nanoscale.
Holm, Darryl D
2015-01-01
Vortex blob methods are typically characterized by a regularization length scale, below which the the dynamics are trivial for isolated blobs. In this article we will find that the dynamics need not be trivial if one is willing to consider distributional derivatives of Dirac delta functionals as valid vorticity distributions. More specifically, a new singular vortex theory is presented for regularised Euler fluid equations of ideal incompressible flow in the plane. We determine the conditions under which such regularised Euler fluid equations may admit vorticity singularities which are stronger than delta functions, e.g., derivatives of delta functions. We also characterise the Hamiltonian dynamics of the higher-order singular vortices. Applications to the design of numerical meth- ods similar to vortex blob methods are also discussed. Such findings shed light onto the rich dynamics which occur below the regularization length scale and enlighten our perspective on the multiscale aspects of regularized fluid m...
The quasi-vortex-lattice method for wings with edge vortex separation
Pao, J. L.; Lan, E.
1980-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of wings with leading-edge vortex separation were predicted using a method based on a flow model with free vortex elements which are allowed to merge into a concentrated core. The calculated pressure distribution is more accurate than that predicted by methods with discrete vortex filaments alone. In addition, the computer time is reduced approximately by half.
On fatigue damage accumulation from in-line and cross-flow vortex-induced vibrations on risers
Baarholm, G. S.; Larsen, C. M.; Lie, H.
2006-01-01
Large-scale model tests of a tensioned steel riser were performed at Hanøytangen outside Bergen, Norway in 1997. The length of the model was 90 m and the diameter was 3 cm. The information from these tests consists of measured bending strains, tension, flow speed and all relevant riser data. In this work, this information is reexamined in an attempt to improve our understanding of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) for cases with very high order of responding modes. The aim is in particular to study the relative importance of in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF) vibrations for fatigue damage accumulation. It is shown that fatigue damage is proportional to U (U is the flow velocity) when the modes are dominated by tension. When bending controls the modes, the fatigue damage is proportional to U. A linear SN-curve with slope parameter m=3 is used. The Hanøytangen riser fatigue damage goes as U7 for the lowest velocities and U4 for the highest current velocities. Based on the Hanøytangen data, it seems that the transition velocity between the tension and the bending-stiffness-dominated regions is at the current velocity that gives response at a mode number where a tensioned string and an untensioned beam have equal eigenfrequencies. IL response has a significant contribution to fatigue for cases dominated by the lowest modes. The reason is that IL oscillations will take place at double the frequency of those in CF. For a tension-controlled case, this corresponds to a mode with half the wavelength, while a bending-controlled case will tend to have a wavelength ratio of 2. Since the curvature for a given amplitude increases with the inverse modal wavelength squared, fatigue from IL tends to dominate for cases with tension-controlled modes (low current speed), while CF will dominate for bending-controlled modes (high current speed). This tendency is clearly seen in the experimental data for both CF and IL responses. Fatigue damage is calculated directly from the measured
Pinch-off of axisymmetric vortex pairs in the limit of vanishing vortex line curvature
Sadri, V.; Krueger, P. S.
2016-07-01
Pinch-off of axisymmetric vortex pairs generated by flow between concentric cylinders with radial separation ΔR was studied numerically and compared with planar vortex dipole behavior. The axisymmetric case approaches planar vortex dipole behavior in the limit of vanishing ΔR. The flow was simulated at a jet Reynolds number of 1000 (based on ΔR and the jet velocity), jet pulse length-to-gap ratio ( /L Δ R ) in the range 10-20, and gap-to-outer radius ratio ( /Δ R R o ) in the range 0.01-0.1. Contrary to investigations of strictly planar flows, vortex pinch-off was observed for all gap sizes investigated. This difference was attributed to the less constrained geometry considered, suggesting that even very small amounts of vortex line curvature and/or vortex stretching may disrupt the absence of pinch-off observed in strictly planar vortex dipoles.
A Experimental Study of Viscous Vortex Rings.
Dziedzic, Mauricio
Motivated by the role played by vortex rings in the process of turbulent mixing, the work is focused on the problem of stability and viscous decay of a single vortex ring. A new classification is proposed for vortex rings which is based on extensive hot-wire measurements of velocity in the ring core and wake and flow visualization. Vortex rings can be classified as laminar, wavy, turbulence-producing, and turbulent. Prediction of vortex ring type is shown to be possible based on the vortex ring Reynolds number. Linear growth rates of ring diameter with time are observed for all types of vortex rings, with different growth rates occurring for laminar and turbulent vortex rings. Data on the viscous decay of vortex rings are used to provide experimental confirmation of the accuracy of Saffman's equation for the velocity of propagation of a vortex ring. Experimental data indicate that instability of the vortex ring strongly depends on the mode of generation and can be delayed by properly adjusting the generation parameters. A systematic review of the literature on vortex-ring interactions is presented in the form of an appendix, which helps identify areas in which further research may be fruitful.
Formation number for vortex dipoles
Sadri, Vahid; Krueger, Paul S.
2016-11-01
This investigation considers the axisymmetric formation of two opposite sign concentric vortex rings from jet ejection between concentric cylinders. This arrangement is similar to planar flow in that the vortex rings will travel together when the gap between the cylinders is small, similar to a vortex dipole, but it has the advantage that the vortex motion is less constrained than the planar case (vortex stretching and vortex line curvature is allowed). The flow was simulated numerically at a jet Reynolds number of 1,000 (based on ΔR and the jet velocity), jet pulse length-to-gap ratio (L / ΔR) in the range 10-20, and gap-to-outer radius ratio (ΔR /Ro) in the range 0.01-0.1. Small gap ratios were chosen for comparison with 2D results. In contrast with 2D results, the closely paired vortices in this study exhibited pinch-off from the generating flow and finite formation numbers. The more complex flow evolution afforded by the axisymmetric model and its influence on the pinch-off process will be discussed. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1133876 and SMU. This supports are gratefully acknowledged.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
甘晓松; 何国强; 杨尚荣; 岳赟
2011-01-01
采用冷流试验系统研究了不同主流速度对压强振荡的影响,并通过在流场中加入示踪粒子,且运用连续片光流动显示技术和高速数字摄像技术获得了试验器中流场的旋涡运动情况.实验结果表明,随着主流速度的增加,旋涡脱落的频率相应升高.同时,对比压强测试结果与高速摄影结果,发现当旋涡脱落的频率接近实验器声场的某一阶固有频率时,就可能引起压强振荡,且两者频率的差值越小,压强振荡的振幅就越大.%A cold flow experimental system was built to study the influence of mean flow velocities on pressure oscillation. By putting trace particles into the flow field, its vortex movement in tester was obtained with continuous laser sheet displaying of flow and high speed digital camera. Hie results show that vortex shedding frequency rises with the increasing of mean flow velocity. By comparing the pressure oscillation data and the high speed visualization image sequence, it can be concluded that when the vortex shedding frequency is close to the frequency of one of resonant acoustic modes of the experimental facility, pressure oscillation occurs. The closer the two frequencies are, the higher the amplitude is.
Chaos in body-vortex interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan
2010-01-01
The model of body–vortex interactions, where the fluid flow is planar, ideal and unbounded, and the vortex is a point vortex, is studied. The body may have a constant circulation around it. The governing equations for the general case of a freely moving body of arbitrary shape and mass density...... of a circle is integrable. As the body is made slightly elliptic, a chaotic region grows from an unstable relative equilibrium of the circle-vortex case. The case of a cylindrical body of any shape moving in fluid otherwise at rest is also integrable. A second transition to chaos arises from the limit between...... and an arbitrary number of point vortices are presented. The case of a body and a single vortex is then investigated numerically in detail. In this paper, the body is a homogeneous, elliptical cylinder. For large body–vortex separations, the system behaves much like a vortex pair regardless of body shape. The case...
Simulations of vortex generators
Koumoutsakos, P.
1995-01-01
We are interested in the study, via direct numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the stream direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise vorticity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations complement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators at NASA Ames and Stanford University (Saddoughi, 1994, and Jacobson and Reynolds, 1993). Jacobson and Reynolds (1993) used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and he observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. Our task is to simulate the flows generated by these devices and to conduct a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin (1994). The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands of particles allow for high resolution simulations. The results of the present simulations would help us assess some of the effects of three-dimensionality in experiments and investigate the role
An axisymmetric steady state vortex ring model
Wang, Ruo-Qian
2016-01-01
Based on the solution of Atanasiu et al. (2004), a theoretical model for axisymmetric vortex flows is derived in the present study by solving the vorticity transport equation for an inviscid, incompressible fluid in cylindrical coordinates. The model can describe a variety of axisymmetric flows with particular boundary conditions at a moderately high Reynolds number. This paper shows one example: a high Reynolds number laminar vortex ring. The model can represent a family of vortex rings by specifying the modulus function using a Rayleigh distribution function. The characteristics of this vortex ring family are illustrated by numerical methods. For verification, the model results compare well with the recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) in terms of the vorticity distribution and streamline patterns, cross-sectional areas of the vortex core and bubble, and radial vorticity distribution through the vortex center. Most importantly, the asymmetry and elliptical outline of the vorticity profile are well capt...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirmaci, Volkan [Bartin University, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, 74100 Bartin (Turkey)
2009-11-15
An experimental investigation is made to determine the effects of the orifice nozzle number and the inlet pressure on the heating and cooling performance of the counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube when air and oxygen used as a fluid. The orifices used at these experiments are made of the polyamide plastic material. The thermal conductivity of polyamide plastic material is 0.25 W/m C. Five orifices with nozzle numbers of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 have been manufactured and used during the experiments. For each one of the orifices (nozzle numbers) when used with two different fluids, inlet pressures were adjusted from 150 kPa to 700 kPa with 50 kPa increments, and the exergy efficiency was determined. During the experiments, a vortex tube is used with an L/D ratio of 15, and cold mass fraction is held constant at 0.5. As a result of the experimental study, it is determined that the temperature gradient between the hot and cold fluid is decreased with increasing of the orifice nozzle number. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘翔; 黄其柏; 廖道训; 温国珍
2005-01-01
The analytical expressions was deduced for the inviscid flow field induced by the double vortex filaments that move uniformly and rigidly without change of its form in a cylindrical tube, where the vortex filaments rotate around its axial with a constant angular velocity and translates along its axial with a constant transferal velocity. It is a key of solving problem to set up a moving cylindrical coordinate system together with the vortex filaments motion, in which the relative velocity field is presumed to be time-independent and with helical symmetry. The result shows that the absolute velocity field and pressure field are all time-periodic functions, and may degenerate into a time-independent field when the helical vortex filaments slip along the filaments themselves or is immobile. The calculation results at the location of pressure peaks and valleys on pipe wall are accordant with experimental results. When the cylindrical pipe radius tends to infinitely large quantity, it is also concluded that the double helical vortex filaments induce flow field in an unbound space.
Vortex diffusion and vortex-line hysteresis in radial quantum turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saluto, L., E-mail: lidia.saluto@unipa.it [DEIM, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Jou, D., E-mail: david.jou@uab.es [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Mongiovi, M.S., E-mail: m.stella.mongiovi@unipa.it [DEIM, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)
2014-05-01
We study the influence of vortex diffusion on the evolution of inhomogeneous quantized vortex tangles. A simple hydrodynamical model to describe inhomogeneous counterflow superfluid turbulence is used. As an illustration, we obtain solutions for these effects in radial counterflow of helium II between two concentric cylinders at different temperatures. The vortex diffusion from the inner hotter cylinder to the outer colder cylinder increases the vortex length density everywhere as compared with the non-diffusive situation. The possibility of hysteresis in the vortex line density under cyclical variations of the heat flow is explored.
Influence of Thermal Processes on the Efficiency of the Energy Separation in a Ranque Vortex Tube
Tyutyuma, V. D.
2016-11-01
On the basis of the model of a plane swirling flow in a Ranque vortex tube, in which this flow is represented in the form of a vortex consisting of a vortex flow at the periphery and a forced vortex in the central part, a theoretical analysis of the influence of the thermal processes in this tube on the efficiency of the energy separation in the vortex in it has been performed. The results of calculations were compared with experimental data.
Cambonie, T; Aider, J -L
2013-01-01
Circular flush Jets In Cross-Flow were experimentally studied in a water tunnel using Volumetric Particle Tracking Velocimetry, for a range of jet to cross-flow velocity ratios, r, from 0.5 to 3, jet exit diameters $d$ from 0.8 cm to 1 cm and cross-flow boundary layer thickness delta from 1 to 2.5 cm. The analysis of the 3D mean velocity fields allows for the definition, computation and study of Counter-rotating Vortex Pair trajectories. The influences of r, d and delta were investigated. A new scaling based on momentum ratio r_m taking into account jet and cross-flow momentum distributions is introduced based on the analysis of jet trajectories published in the literature. Using a rigorous scaling quality factor Q to quantify how well a given scaling successfully collapses trajectories, we show that the proposed scaling also improves the collapse of CVP trajectories, leading to a final scaling law for these trajectories.
Vortex migration in protoplanetary discs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Papaloizou John C. B.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Vortices embedded in protoplanetary discs can act as obstacles to the unperturbed disc flow. The resulting velocity perturbations propagate away from the vortex in the form of density waves that transport angular momentum. Any asymmetry between the inner and the outer density wave means that the region around the vortex has to change its angular momentum. We find that this leads to orbital migration of the vortex. Asymmetric waves always arise except in the case of a disc with constant pressure, for isothermal as well as non-isothermal discs. Depending on the size and strength of the vortex, the resulting migration time scales can be as short as a few thousand orbits.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈启刚; 齐梅兰; 李金钊
2016-01-01
To investigate the kinematic characteristics of horseshoe vortex upstream of cylinders, the swirl⁃ing strength method is introduced to identify horseshoe vortices, and a method of fitting the local velocity field with an elliptic vortex are proposed to characterize these vortices. The elliptic vortex is constructed by overlapping the Oseen vortex with an inclined unidirectional shear flow. The proposed methods were used to investigate the time-averaged horseshoe vortex upstream of a circular cylinder in open channel flow. The time averaged horseshoe vortex is captured by averaging instantaneous velocity fields measured with PIV. The results show that, in flows with cylinder Reynolds number larger than 104, the position of horseshoe vortex is unchanged while the upstream separation point moves downstream slowly. The distances from the vortex center to the cylinder axis and the bed are 0.67D and 0.06D, respectively, with D being the cylin⁃der diameter. Comparing with those in open channel flows,the horseshoe vortex and separation point in tur⁃bulent boundary layers are further upstream. With the increasing of cylinder Reynolds number, the horse⁃shoe vortex strengthens itself but keeps the size unchanged, results in increasing shear stress on the bed. The dependence of vortex-induced shear stress with the flow strength indicates that it is physically reason⁃able to formulate equations for local scour based on the kinematic characteristics of horseshoe vortex.%马蹄涡是水下柱体结构周围床面冲刷的主要动力。为掌握马蹄涡的运动学特征，引入了基于旋转强度的马蹄涡识别方法，提出了基于椭圆涡拟合的马蹄涡特征提取方法，其中，椭圆涡由Oseen涡和倾斜单向剪切流叠加而成。基于上述方法，通过开展明渠圆柱绕流PIV实验，对柱体上游对称面时均流场中马蹄涡的运动学特征进行了研究。结果表明，在柱体雷诺数大于104的紊流柱体绕流中，
Liu, C. H.
1975-01-01
The construction of a theoretical flow field due to shedding of vortex rings, the identification of the controlling parameters, and the determination of whether the theoretical model successfully simulated the unsteady pressure field near jet (and consequently the far field noise) was studied. The basic parameters contained in the analytic solutions were the epoch at which a vortex ring was shed near the jet exit and the eddy viscosity coefficient. These parameters were identified from the experimental data for the real-time pressure and from the spread of the mixing layer of the jet. Results of the theoretical analysis show good qualitative agreement with the experimental data.
Sun, Bo; Lin, Jiayi; Darby, Ellis; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.
2009-07-01
Mechanical equilibrium at zero temperature does not necessarily imply thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature for a particle confined by a static but nonconservative force field. Instead, the diffusing particle can enter into a steady state characterized by toroidal circulation in the probability flux, which we call a Brownian vortex. The circulatory bias in the particle’s thermally driven trajectory is not simply a deterministic response to the solenoidal component of the force but rather reflects interplay between advection and diffusion in which thermal fluctuations extract work from the nonconservative force field. As an example of this previously unrecognized class of stochastic heat engines, we consider a colloidal sphere diffusing in a conventional optical tweezer. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonconservative optical forces bias the particle’s fluctuations into toroidal vortexes whose circulation can reverse direction with temperature or laser power.
Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández
2005-09-16
Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.
The method to control the submarine horseshoe vortex by breaking the vortex core
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Zhi-hua; XIONG Ying; TU Cheng-xu
2014-01-01
The quality of the inflow across the propeller is closely related with the hydrodynamic performance and the noise characteristics of the propeller. For a submarine, with a horseshoe vortex generated at the junction of the main body and the appendages, the submarine wake is dominated by a kind of highly non-uniform flow field, which has an adverse effect on the performance of the submarine propeller. In order to control the horseshoe vortex and improve the quality of the submarine wake, the flow field around a submarine model is simulated by the detached eddies simulation (DES) method, and the vortex configuration is displayed using the second invariant of the velocity derivative tensor. The state and the transition process of the horseshoe vortex are analyzed, then a modified method to break the vortex core by a vortex baffle is proposed. The flow numerical simulation is carried out to study the effect of this method. Numerical simulations show that, with the breakdown of the vortex core, many unstable vortices are shed and the energy of the horseshoe vortex is dissipated quickly, and the uniformity of the submarine wake is improved. The submarine wake test in a wind tunnel has verified the effect of the method to control the horseshoe vortex. The vortex baffle can improve the wake uniformity in cases of high Reynolds numbers as well, and it does not have adverse effects on the maneuverability and the speed ability of the submarine.
On a few Aspects of Vortex Motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prantik Sinha
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Intricacies of vortex motion have been drawing the attention of scientists for many years. A number of works both experimental and numerical have been conducted to understand the various features of vortex motion and its effects on drag, etc. In the present experimental work we have made an attempt to visualize the patterns of both Forced and Free vortex motion. Here colored die has been used to understand the profiles and an arrow shaped strip marks the difference between irrotational and rotational flow. In the Forced vortex motion it has been observed that the parabolic profile remains invariant with the flow rate (speed of paddle, height of the lowest point of the profile decreases with the increase in flow rate (paddle speed. In the Free Vortex motion observations, the hyperbolic profile doesn’t change with the change in flow rate. In this case, suction is created towards the centre where as in the case of Force vortex no such suction arises. With the reduction in the size of the orifice diameter, the profile becomes less steep for Free vortex. In this case the velocity profile in the core region is straight, as the radius increases the profile becomes rectangular hyperbola where as in the case of Forced vortex the velocity profile maintains its linear nature for the entire range of radii.
Influence of mesoscale topography on vortex intensity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
The effect of mesoscale topography on multi-vortex self-organization is investigated numerically in this paper using a barotropic primitive equation model with topographic term. In the initial field there are one DeMaria major vortex with the maximum wind radius rm of 80 km at the center of the computational domain, and four meso-β vortices in the vicinity of rm to the east of the major vortex center.When there is no topography present, the initial vortices self-organize into a quasi-final state flow pattern, I.e. A quasi-axisymmetric vortex whose intensity is close to that of the initial major vortex. However, when a mesoscale topography is incorporated, the spatial scale of the quasi-final state vortex reduces, and the relative vorticity at the center of the vortex and the local maximum wind speed remarkably increase. The possible mechanism for the enhancement of the quasi-final state vortex might be that the negative relative vorticity lump,generated above the mesoscale topography because of the constraint of absolute vorticity conservation, squeezes the center of positive vorticity towards the mountain slope area, and thus reduces the spatial range of the major vortex. Meanwhile, because the total kinetic energy is basically conservative, the squeezing directly leads to the concentration of the energy in a smaller area, I.e. The strengthening of the vortex.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toya, Y. [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano (Japan); Nakamura, I. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-08-25
The present study concerns an experimental investigation of the instability of a Taylor vortex flow with two immiscible fluids. The fluids are used containing aqueous solution of glycerol and silicone oil. The experiments are made in a symmetric system and at a range of the aspect ratio approximately from 4 to 6. As results, a cell configuration is clarified by flow visualization, and through a surprising phenomenon where there are opposite directions of flow on a boundary surface between the fluids. The heights of cells are measured to clarify the instability of the vortices. The critical Reynolds number at which the primary mode is mutually bifurcated to the secondary mode and another critical Reynolds number at which the secondary mode changes to the wavy Taylor vortex flow are investigated. These results are compared with the features of the Taylor vortex flow with one fluid and are similar to those in an asymmetric system. But the phenomenon that there are two flow directions on the boundary surface has never been reported. 15 refs., 9 figs.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Turbulent flows associated with advanced aerodynamic designs represent a considerable challenge for accurate prediction. For example, the flow past low-speed wings...
Topology of Vortex-Wing Interaction
McKenna, Chris; Rockwell, Donald
2016-11-01
Aircraft flying together in an echelon or V formation experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex from the leader (upstream) wing on the follower wing can yield an increase of lift to drag ratio. This enhancement is known to depend on the location of vortex impingement on the follower wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine streamline topology in successive crossflow planes, which characterize the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure along the chord of the follower wing and into its wake. Different modes of vortex-follower wing interaction are created by varying both the spanwise and vertical locations of the leader wing. These modes are defined by differences in the number and locations of critical points of the flow topology, and involve bifurcation, attenuation, and mutual induction. The bifurcation and attenuation modes decrease the strength of the tip vortex from the follower wing. In contrast, the mutual induction mode increases the strength of the follower tip vortex. AFOSR.
Evaluation of travelling vortex speed by means of vortex tracking and dynamic mode decomposition
Hyhlík, Tomáš
2016-06-01
The article deals with the analysis of unsteady periodic flow field related to synthetic jet creation. The analyses are based on the data obtained using ANSYS Fluent solver. Numerical results are validated by hot wire anemometry data measured along the jet centerline. The speed of travelling vortex ring is evaluated by using vortex tracking method and by using dynamic mode decomposition method. Vortex identification is based on residual vorticity which allows identifying regions in the flow field where fluid particles perform the rotational motion. The regime of the synthetic jet with Re = 329 and S = 19.7 is chosen. Both the vortex tracking and the dynamic mode decomposition based vortex speed evaluation indicate an increase in the vortex speed close to the orifice and then decrease with maximum reaching almost one and half of orifice centerline velocity. The article contains extended version the article presented at the conference AEaNMiFMaE 2016.
New omega vortex identification method
Liu, ChaoQun; Wang, YiQian; Yang, Yong; Duan, ZhiWei
2016-08-01
A new vortex identification criterion called Ω-method is proposed based on the ideas that vorticity overtakes deformation in vortex. The comparison with other vortex identification methods like Q-criterion and λ 2-method is conducted and the advantages of the new method can be summarized as follows: (1) the method is able to capture vortex well and very easy to perform; (2) the physical meaning of Ω is clear while the interpretations of iso-surface values of Q and λ 2 chosen to visualize vortices are obscure; (3) being different from Q and λ 2 iso-surface visualization which requires wildly various thresholds to capture the vortex structure properly, Ω is pretty universal and does not need much adjustment in different cases and the iso-surfaces of Ω=0.52 can always capture the vortices properly in all the cases at different time steps, which we investigated; (4) both strong and weak vortices can be captured well simultaneously while improper Q and λ 2 threshold may lead to strong vortex capture while weak vortices are lost or weak vortices are captured but strong vortices are smeared; (5) Ω=0.52 is a quantity to approximately define the vortex boundary. Note that, to calculate Ω, the length and velocity must be used in the non-dimensional form. From our direct numerical simulation, it is found that the vorticity direction is very different from the vortex rotation direction in general 3-D vortical flow, the Helmholtz velocity decomposition is reviewed and vorticity is proposed to be further decomposed to vortical vorticity and non-vortical vorticity.
Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Hu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, K.M.; Torii, K.; Nishino, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan)
2002-11-01
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of longitudinal vortices that can be applied to the heat transfer enhancement for fin-tube heat exchangers such as air-cooled condensers. A multichannel test core was designed and fabricated for the determination of overall heat transfer and pressure loss with circular tubes and winglet vortex generators. Heat transfer results were obtained using a transient method referred to as the modified single-blow method. For a three-row tube bundle in an in-line arrangement without winglets, the heat transfer and the pressure loss were 72% and 210% higher, respectively, than for a multichannel test core without any built-in tube or winglet. These increases were caused by vortices around the tube banks. The corresponding increases for a staggered tube bundle are 95% and 310%, respectively. The triangular winglets recommended by the previous studies in a fin-tube bundle in an in-line arrangement increase the overall heat transfer 10-25% and the pressure loss 20-35% for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 300 to 2700. (orig.)
Free wake models for vortex methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaiser, K. [Technical Univ. Berlin, Aerospace Inst. (Germany)
1997-08-01
The blade element method works fast and good. For some problems (rotor shapes or flow conditions) it could be better to use vortex methods. Different methods for calculating a wake geometry will be presented. (au)
HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTICAL VORTEX AT HYDRAULIC INTAKES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Yun-liang; WU Chao; YE Mao; JU Xiao-ming
2007-01-01
The trace of vertical vortex flow at hydraulic intakes is of the shape of spiral lines, which was observed in the presented experiments with the tracer technique. It represents the fluid particles flow spirally from the water surface to the underwater and rotate around the vortex-axis multi-cycle. This process is similar to the movement of screw. To describe the multi-circle spiral characteristics under the axisymmetric condition, the vertical vortex would change not only in the radial direction but also in the axial direction. The improved formulae for three velocity components for the vertical vortex flow were deduced by using the method of separation of variables in this article. In the improved formulae, the velocity components are the functions of the radial and axial coordinates, so the multi-circle spiral flow of vertical vortex could be simulated. The calculated and measured results for the vertical vortex flow were compared and the causes of errors were analyzed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Stenum, Bjarne
2003-01-01
We present experiments and theory for the "bathtub vortex," which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating "drainpipe" from the free surface down to the drain hole. Sur...
A new design scheme of the ultrasonic vortex type air flow sensor%超声波检测涡流式空气流量传感器的改进设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
翟海朋; 史强; 王浩; 景团朋
2014-01-01
In order to avoid the influence of the atmospheric pressure and temperature in traditional ultrason-ic vortex type air flow sensor on measurement. We make a new design of ultrasonic vortex type air flow sen-sor by making use of the time difference. Furthermore, we prove the project’ s feasibility by making use of the theoretical calculation. With the use of this new kind of ultrasonic vortex type air flow sensor we can make a contribution to the air flow sensor on measurement of the car in exploitation.%为避免传统式超声波检测涡流式空气流量传感器在测量发动机进气量时受大气压力和温度变化等不利因素的影响，本文通过应用时间差原理来设计超声波检测涡流式空气流量传感器，并通过理论推算与传统式的作比较，证明了方案的可行性，为发动机空气流量传感器的设计提供一种新的方法。
Dynamic Optimization for Vortex Shedding Suppression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bonis Ioannis
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Flows around structures exhibiting vortex shedding induce vibrations that can potentially damage the structure. A way to avoid it is to suppress vortex shedding by controlling the wake. Wake control of laminar flow behind a rotating cylinder is formulated herein as a dynamic optimization problem. Angular cylinder speed is the manipulated variable that is adjusted to suppress vortex shedding by minimizing lift coefficient variation. The optimal angular speed is assumed to be periodic like wake formation. The control problem is solved for different time horizons tH. The impact of tH to control is evaluated and the need for feedback is assessed.
Applications of 2D helical vortex dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Okulov, Valery; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2010-01-01
In the paper, we show how the assumption of helical symmetry in the context of 2D helical vortices can be exploited to analyse and to model various cases of rotating flows. From theory, examples of three basic applications of 2D dynamics of helical vortices embedded in flows with helical symmetry...... of the vorticity field are addressed. These included some of the problems related to vortex breakdown, instability of far wakes behind rotors and vortex theory of ideal rotors....
An investigation of the vortex method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pryor, Jr., Duaine Wright [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-05-01
The vortex method is a numerical scheme for solving the vorticity transport equation. Chorin introduced modern vortex methods. The vortex method is a Lagrangian, grid free method which has less intrinsic diffusion than many grid schemes. It is adaptive in the sense that elements are needed only where the vorticity is non-zero. Our description of vortex methods begins with the point vortex method of Rosenhead for two dimensional inviscid flow, and builds upon it to eventually cover the case of three dimensional slightly viscous flow with boundaries. This section gives an introduction to the fundamentals of the vortex method. This is done in order to give a basic impression of the previous work and its line of development, as well as develop some notation and concepts which will be used later. The purpose here is not to give a full review of vortex methods or the contributions made by all the researchers in the field. Please refer to the excellent review papers in Sethian and Gustafson, chapters 1 Sethian, 2 Hald, 3 Sethian, 8 Chorin provide a solid introduction to vortex methods, including convergence theory, application in two dimensions and connection to statistical mechanics and polymers. Much of the information in this review is taken from those chapters, Chorin and Marsden and Batchelor, the chapters are also useful for their extensive bibliographies.
Vortex bursting and tracer transport of a counter-rotating vortex pair
Misaka, T.; Holzäpfel, F.; Hennemann, I.; Gerz, T.; Manhart, M.; Schwertfirm, F.
2012-02-01
Large-eddy simulations of a coherent counter-rotating vortex pair in different environments are performed. The environmental background is characterized by varying turbulence intensities and stable temperature stratifications. Turbulent exchange processes between the vortices, the vortex oval, and the environment, as well as the material redistribution processes along the vortex tubes are investigated employing passive tracers that are superimposed to the initial vortex flow field. It is revealed that the vortex bursting phenomenon, known from photos of aircraft contrails or smoke visualization, is caused by collisions of secondary vortical structures traveling along the vortex tube which expel material from the vortex but do not result in a sudden decay of circulation or an abrupt change of vortex core structure. In neutrally stratified and weakly turbulent conditions, vortex reconnection triggers traveling helical vorticity structures which is followed by their collision. A long-lived vortex ring links once again establishing stable double rings. Key phenomena observed in the simulations are supported by photographs of contrails. The vertical and lateral extents of the detrained passive tracer strongly depend on environmental conditions where the sensitivity of detrainment rates on initial tracer distributions appears to be low.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汉京晓; 周国兵
2013-01-01
在Re=700、攻角α=60°时,利用粒子图像测速技术(PIV)研究了矩形通道内平直和柱面小翼诱发的流动结构,获得涡发生器(VG)后1～3倍弦长距离的速度场和涡量场.结果表明,三角小翼的涡结构主要分布在斜边中心和后缘角区;梯形和矩形小翼的涡结构主要分布在前缘翼梢区域和后缘区域;此外,柱面梯形小翼中心区域的涡结构明显,影响范围最大.随着流动的进行,涡结构强度逐渐减弱,三角小翼仅维持一个主涡向下继续运动;梯形和矩形小翼也仅维持一个主涡和一个后缘角涡的结构.随着斜截角的减小,前缘和中心区域诱发高强度涡结构的能力增强,影响范围也广,而后缘角涡的影响范围较小,且与底部壁面的距离较远.%The flow structure induced by plane and cylindrical shell delta winglet,trapezoidal winglet and rectangular winglet vortex generators (VGs) is investigated with the particle image velocimetry (PIV) to obtain the velocity and vorticity fields.A small rectangular wind tunnel is built to carry out experiments at Reynolds number Re=700 and attack angle α=60°.The results show that the vortex structure of plane and cylindrical shell delta winglets is mainly distributed in the central area of the inclination edge and the corner area of the trailing edge of the VG.For trapezoidal and rectangular winglets,vortices mainly distribute in the wing tip region of the leading edge area and the trailing edge area.Besides,the cylindrical shell trapezoidal winglet induces a central area vortex structure,which has the largest influential area among all types of VGs.The vortex structure induced by the leading edge of trapezoidal and rectangular winglets is generally stronger than that by trailing edge area.As the flow goes on,the strength of vortex structures degrades.Only one main vortex can be maintained along the flow direction in the case of a delta winglet,while one main vortex and one trailing edge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farzaneh-Gord M.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Throttling valves are currently utilised to reduce high-pressure natural gas flowing through the distribution pipeline to the working level of customers’ equipment. This wastes valuable energy of the gas. Due to low natural gas consumption at customer premises, it is not feasible to utilise expansion machines. In this study, a new idea is proposed to take advantage of the Vortex Tube and natural gas pressure reduction. The idea is to replace the throttling valve with a Vortex Tube in the natural gas pressure reduction system and take advantage of the generated cooling capacity. An experimental investigation was made to determine the effects of the cold orifice diameter and the energy separation of the counter-flow Vortex Tube when air and natural gas are used as the fluid. The energy separation was investigated by use of the experimentally obtained data. La reduction de la pression de gaz naturel entre les conduites de distribution haute pression et les installations des usagers est aujourd’hui assuree par des vannes de reduction de pression. Ce dispositif entraine une perte importante du contenu energetique du gaz. Les installations des usagers consommant trop peu de gaz naturel pour envisager d’avoir recours a des dispositifs d’expansion, notre etude explore les avantages potentiels de l’utilisation d’un tube Vortex pour la reduction de la pression de gaz naturel. Il s’agit de remplacer la vanne de reduction de pression par un tube Vortex dans le dispositif de reduction de la pression de gaz naturel et de tirer profit de la capacite de refroidissement produite. L’etude experimentale avait pour objectif de determiner l’effet du diametre de l’orifice froid ainsi que de l’utilisation de l’air et du gaz naturel comme fluides sur la production d’energie dans le tube Vortex a contre-courant. Le taux de recuperation de l’energie est determine a partir des mesures experimentales.
Wei, Xianggeng; Li, Jiang; He, Guoqiang
2017-04-01
The vortex valve solid variable thrust motor is a new solid motor which can achieve Vehicle system trajectory optimization and motor energy management. Numerical calculation was performed to investigate the influence of vortex chamber diameter, vortex chamber shape, and vortex chamber height of the vortex valve solid variable thrust motor on modulation performance. The test results verified that the calculation results are consistent with laboratory results with a maximum error of 9.5%. The research drew the following major conclusions: the optimal modulation performance was achieved in a cylindrical vortex chamber, increasing the vortex chamber diameter improved the modulation performance of the vortex valve solid variable thrust motor, optimal modulation performance could be achieved when the height of the vortex chamber is half of the vortex chamber outlet diameter, and the hot gas control flow could result in an enhancement of modulation performance. The results can provide the basis for establishing the design method of the vortex valve solid variable thrust motor.
Development of gas pressure vortex regulator
Uss, A. Yu.; Chernyshyov, A. V.; Krylov, V. I.
2017-08-01
The present paper describes the applications of vortex regulators and the current state of the issue on the use and development of such devices. A patent review has been carried out. Automatic control systems using a vortex regulator are considered. Based on the analysis and preliminary numerical calculation of gas flow in the working cavity of the regulator, a new design of a vortex gas pressure regulator has been developed. An experimental sample of the device was made using additive technologies and a number of tests were carried out. The results of experimental studies confirmed the adequacy of the created mathematical model. Based on further numerical studies a new design of a vortex regulator with a distributed feed of the process control flow as well as with the regulated swirl of the supply and control process flows has been developed.
Kazakidi, A; Vavourakis, V; Tsakiris, D P; Ekaterinaris, J A
2015-01-01
The fluid dynamics of cephalopods has so far received little attention in the literature, due to their complexity in structure and locomotion. The flow around octopuses, in particular, can be complicated due to their agile and dexterous arms, which frequently display some of the most diverse mechanisms of motion. The study of this flow amounts to a specific instance of the hydrodynamics problem for rough tapered cylinder geometries. The outstanding manipulative and locomotor skills of octopuses could inspire the development of advanced robotic arms, able to operate in fluid environments. Our primary aim was to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of such bio-inspired robotic models and to derive the hydrodynamic force coefficients as a concise description of the vortical flow effects. Utilizing computational fluid dynamic methods, the coefficients were computed on realistic morphologies of octopus-like arm models undergoing prescribed solid-body movements; such motions occur in nature for short durations in time, e.g. during reaching movements and exploratory behaviors. Numerical simulations were performed on translating, impulsively rotating, and maneuvering arms, around which the flow field structures were investigated. The results reveal in detail the generation of complex vortical flow structures around the moving arms. Hydrodynamic forces acting on a translating arm depend on the angle of incidence; forces generated during impulsive rotations of the arms are independent of their exact morphology and the angle of rotation; periodic motions based on a slow recovery and a fast power stroke are able to produce considerable propulsive thrust while harmonic motions are not. Parts of these results have been employed in bio-inspired models of underwater robotic mechanisms. This investigation may further assist elucidating the hydrodynamics underlying aspects of octopus locomotion and exploratory behaviors.
Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aref, H [Center for Fluid Dynamics and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Broens, M [Center for Fluid Dynamics and Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Stremler, M A [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)
2007-04-15
A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for 'exotic' wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson and Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Karman concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued to be relevant to the wake behind an oscillating body.
Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.
2007-01-01
A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...
Structure of a Steady Bathtub Vortex
Andersen, Anders; Bøhling, Lasse; Fabre, David
2010-11-01
Bathtub vortex flows constitute an important class of concentrated vortex flows which are characterised by intense axial down-flow and stress free surface. We use direct numerical simulations to explore the flow structure of a steady bathtub vortex in a cylindrical tank with a central drain-hole. We find that the qualitative structure of the meridional flow does not depend on the radial Reynolds number, whereas we observe a weak overall rotation at low radial Reynolds number and a concentrated vortex above the drain-hole at high radial Reynolds number. We present a simple analytical model which shows the same qualitative dependence on the radial Reynolds number as the simulations and which compares favourably with the results for the radial velocity and the azimuthal velocity at the surface. Finally, we describe the height dependence of the radius of the vortex core and the maximum of the azimuthal velocity at high radial Reynolds number, and we show that the data on the radius of the vortex core and the maximum of the azimuthal velocity as functions of height collapse on single curves by appropriate scaling.
Hong, Seunghyuck
2013-08-01
In this paper, we experimentally investigate the combustion dynamics in lean premixed flames in a laboratory scale backward-facing step combustor in which flame-vortex driven dynamics are observed. A series of tests was conducted using propane/hydrogen/air mixtures for various mixture compositions at the inlet temperature ranging from 300K to 500K and at atmospheric pressure. Pressure measurements and high speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to generate pressure response curves and phase-averaged vorticity and streamlines as well as the instantaneous flame front, respectively, which describe unsteady flame and flow dynamics in each operating regime. This work was motivated in part by our earlier study where we showed that the strained flame consumption speed Sc can be used to collapse the pressure response curves over a wide range of operating conditions. In previous studies, the stretch rate at which Sc was computed was determined by trial and error. In this study, flame stretch is estimated using the instantaneous flame front and velocity field from the PIV measurement. Independently, we also use computed strained flame speed and the experimental data to determine the characteristic values of stretch rate near the mode transition points at which the flame configuration changes. We show that a common value of the characteristic stretch rate exists across all the flame configurations. The consumption speed computed at the characteristic stretch rate captures the impact of different operating parameters on the combustor dynamics. These results suggest that the unsteady interactions between the turbulent flow and the flame dynamics can be encapsulated in the characteristic stretch rate, which governs the critical flame speed at the mode transitions and thereby plays an important role in determining the stability characteristics of the combustor. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.
Devade, Kiran D.; Pise, Ashok T.
2017-01-01
Ranque Hilsch vortex tube is a device that can produce cold and hot air streams simultaneously from pressurized air. Performance of vortex tube is influenced by a number of geometrical and operational parameters. In this study parametric analysis of vortex tube is carried out. Air is used as the working fluid and geometrical parameters like length to diameter ratio (15, 16, 17, 18), exit valve angles (30°-90°), orifice diameters (5, 6 and 7 mm), 2 entry nozzles and tube divergence angle 4° is used for experimentation. Operational parameters like pressure (200-600 kPa), cold mass fraction (0-1) is varied and effect of Mach number at the inlet of the tube is investigated. The vortex tube is tested at sub sonic (0 tube is observed for CMF up to 0.5. Experimental correlations are proposed for optimum COP. Parametric correlation is developed for geometrical and operational parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lifeng Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The method based on the continuous wavelet transformation to detect and characterize two-dimensional vortex is analyzed for a synthetic flow and applied to vortex detection of propeller wake. The characteristics of a vortex, such as center location, core radius, and circulation, are extracted based on the Lamb-Oseen and Rankine vortex models, the latter of which is a novel attempt. The effects of various factors such as the difference scheme, the grid and scale discretization, transform variable, and vortex model on vortex detection have been investigated thoroughly. The method is further applied to identify the tip vortex in a propeller wake.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhattacharyya, S.; Singh, Ashok
2010-01-01
vorticity on the wake formation is addressed in the present study. The variation of Strouhal number and Nusselt number with the 'effective Reynolds number', is analyzed for different values of cylinder to free stream temperature ratio. Both Strouhal number and the rate of heat transfer increases...... the effective Reynolds number and the computed data for Strouhal number and Nusselt number do not collapse for the range of temperature ratio considered here. The flow field is found to be asymmetric and the cylinder experiences a negative lift. The drag coefficient increases steadily with the rise of surface...... temperature. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Salem-Sugui, S., Jr.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Luo, H.-Q.; Zhang, R.; Gong, D.-L.
2017-01-01
We analysed the flux-flow region of isofield magnetoresistivity data obtained on three crystals of {{BaFe}}2-x Ni x As2 with T c ˜ 20 K for three different geometries relative to the angle formed between the applied magnetic field and the c-axis of the crystals. The field dependent activation energy, U 0, was obtained from the thermal assisted flux-flow (TAFF) and modified vortex-glass models, which were compared with the values of U 0 obtained from flux-creep available in the literature. We observed that the U 0 obtained from the TAFF model show deviations among the different crystals, while the correspondent glass lines obtained from the vortex-glass model are virtually coincident. It is shown that the data is well explained by the modified vortex-glass model, allowing extract of values of T g, the glass transition temperature, and {T}* , a temperature which scales with the mean field critical temperature {T}{{c}}(H). The resulting glass lines obey the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau theory and are well fitted by a theory developed in the literature by considering the effect of disorder.
Scattering of a vortex pair by a single quantum vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate
Smirnov, L. A.; Smirnov, A. I.; Mironov, V. A.
2016-01-01
We analyze the scattering of vortex pairs (the particular case of 2D dark solitons) by a single quantum vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate with repulsive interaction between atoms. For this purpose, an asymptotic theory describing the dynamics of such 2D soliton-like formations in an arbitrary smoothly nonuniform flow of a ultracold Bose gas is developed. Disregarding the radiation loss associated with acoustic wave emission, we demonstrate that vortex-antivortex pairs can be put in correspondence with quasiparticles, and their behavior can be described by canonical Hamilton equations. For these equations, we determine the integrals of motion that can be used to classify various regimes of scattering of vortex pairs by a single quantum vortex. Theoretical constructions are confirmed by numerical calculations performed directly in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We propose a method for estimating the radiation loss in a collision of a soliton-like formation with a phase singularity. It is shown by direct numerical simulation that under certain conditions, the interaction of vortex pairs with a core of a single quantum vortex is accompanied by quite intense acoustic wave emission; as a result, the conditions for applicability of the asymptotic theory developed here are violated. In particular, it is visually demonstrated by a specific example how radiation losses lead to a transformation of a vortex-antivortex pair into a vortex-free 2D dark soliton (i.e., to the annihilation of phase singularities).
Kleckner, Dustin; Irvine, William T M
2013-01-01
The idea that the knottedness (hydrodynamic Helicity) of a fluid flow is conserved has a long history in fluid mechanics. The quintessential example of a knotted flow is a knotted vortex filament, however, owing to experimental difficulties, it has not been possible until recently to directly generate knotted vortices in real fluids. Using 3D printed hydrofoils and high-speed laser scanning tomography, we generate vortex knots and links and measure their subsequent evolution. In both cases, we find that the vortices deform and stretch until a series of vortex reconnections occurs, eventually resulting several disjoint vortex rings. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion at the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.
Fractional vortex Hilbert's Hotel
Gbur, Greg
2015-01-01
We demonstrate how the unusual mathematics of transfinite numbers, in particular a nearly perfect realization of Hilbert's famous hotel paradox, manifests in the propagation of light through fractional vortex plates. It is shown how a fractional vortex plate can be used, in principle, to create any number of "open rooms," i.e. topological charges, simultaneously. Fractional vortex plates are therefore demonstrated to create a singularity of topological charge, in which the vortex state is completely undefined and in fact arbitrary.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S K Mandal
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In an effort to increase processor speeds, 3D IC architecture is being aggressively pursued by researchers and chip manufacturers. This architecture allows extremely high level of integration with enhanced electrical performance and expanded functionality, and facilitates realization of VLSI and ULSI technologies. However, utilizing the third dimension to provide additional device layers poses thermal challenges due to the increased heat dissipation and complex electrical interconnects among different layers. The conflicting needs of the cooling system requiring larger flow passage dimensions to limit the pressure drop, and the IC architecture necessitating short interconnect distances to reduce signal latency warrant paradigm shifts in both of their design approach. Additional considerations include the effects due to temperature non-uniformity, localized hot spots, complex fluidic connections, and mechanical design. This paper reviews the advances in electronic chip cooling in the last decade and provides a vision for code signing integrated cooling systems. For various heat fluxes on each side of a chip acting as discrete heat source, the current single-phase cooling technology is projected to provide adequate cooling, albeit with high pressure drops. Effectively mitigating the high temperatures surrounding local hot spots remains a challenging issue. Various forms of tabulators above the chips, different geometric arrangements of the chips positioned top and bottom wall of the duct serves very well in the heat augmentation technique with better performance
Andersen, A; Bohr, T; Stenum, B; Rasmussen, J Juul; Lautrup, B
2003-09-05
We present experiments and theory for the "bathtub vortex," which forms when a fluid drains out of a rotating cylindrical container through a small drain hole. The fast down-flow is found to be confined to a narrow and rapidly rotating "drainpipe" from the free surface down to the drain hole. Surrounding this drainpipe is a region with slow upward flow generated by the Ekman layer at the bottom of the container. This flow structure leads us to a theoretical model similar to one obtained earlier by Lundgren [J. Fluid Mech. 155, 381 (1985)
安装涡发生器的矩形截面螺旋通道内流体流动%Fluid flow in rectangular helical channels with vortex generator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张丽; 李佳其; 张春梅; 王翠华; 吴剑华
2014-01-01
对安装三角翼型涡发生器的曲率为0.05的矩形截面螺旋通道内的流场进行了实验测量，并将测量值与模拟值进行比较，二者吻合较好。利用数值模拟方法研究了矩形截面螺旋通道内涡量的演变过程，研究了曲率及Reynolds数对涡发生器有效作用距离的影响。结果表明，安装三角翼型涡发生器后，矩形截面内靠近内壁处新出现了两个common-flow-down型的二次涡，新出现的额外涡量的极值为原有涡量的2.0~2.8倍。Reynolds数越大，曲率越小，涡发生器的有效作用距离越长。当曲率为0.05，迎流角为10°，Reynolds数为5370时，其值可达翼高的79倍。%The flow field of rectangular helical channel with triangle winglet pair vortex generator was measured experimentally. The curvature of the helical channel was 0.05. The experimental data are in good agreement with the calculated data. The evolution of vorticity in the helical channel and the influence of Reynolds number and the curvature on the effective influence distance of vortex generator were investigated by numerical method. The results show that, two extra vortices in common-flow-down type emerge near the inner wall in the rectangular cross section of the helical channel with triangle winglet pair vortex generator. The values of extra vorticity are 2.0-2.8 times those of the original vorticity. The effective influence distance of the vortex generator increases with the decrease of curvature and the increase of Reynolds number. It can reach 79 times of the height of the vortex generator with the curvature of 0.05, attack angle of 10° and Reynolds number of 5370.
Experimental characteristics of vortex heaters
Piralishvili, Sh. A.; Novikov, N. N.
The performance of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is investigated experimentally for the case where the tube operates as a heater, with the mass of the heated gas remaining constant. The results obtained indicate that energy separation zones with sufficiently high (50 percent) relative heating effects can be achieved for a gas flow ratio of unity. A nomogram is presented for calculating the relative and absolute heating effects as a function of the tube geometry.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
车翠翠; 田茂诚; 冷学礼
2013-01-01
3-D numerical simulations were presented for studying the flow structures and convective heat transfer charac-teristics in a cylinder tube embedded with wing-finned vortex generators.In the numerical simulation, the winglet was upstream placed at an angle of 45 to the tube wall and 1/6 of channel was selected for studying due to symmetry.The results showed that two counter-rotating longitudinal vortices were induced downstream the winglet, forming a symmet-ric vortex pair.The flow inner vortex pair was towards the wall while the flow outer vortex pair was backwards the wall.The longitudinal vortex could improve the magnitude of velocity in the radial direction, and the maximum value in near wall region reached 80% of the average mainstream velocity downstream the winglet.As a result, the winglet booted the disturbance of the velocity boundary layer.The improved velocity field could make the temperature field in the tube more uniform.Compared with the smooth tube, the temperature gradient near the wall could improve approxi-mately an order of magnitude.The flow induced by the longitudinal vortex rushed to the wall, which strengthened the convective heat transfer significantly.The maximum value of the local Nu on the wall surface could reach 50 times of the smooth tube.The improved convective heat transfer performance lead by longitudinal vortex enhanced with the Reynolds numbers increasing.%利用三维数值模拟，分析了圆管内添加翼片后流体的流动结构和对流传热特性。模拟中，翼片与壁面呈45°倾斜放置，选取包含1个翼片的1/6通道进行研究。结果表明，翼片可在下游诱导产生2个旋转方向相反的纵向涡，形成对称的涡偶，涡偶外侧为背壁流，内侧为向壁流。纵向涡结构提高了流体在径向上的速度波动，在翼片下游靠近管壁处，最大速度可达到主流平均速度的80％，增强了对速度边界层的扰动。流场的改善使通道内的温度场分布
GENERALIZED ENERGY CONSERVATION AND UNSTABLE PERTURBATION PROPERTY IN BAROTROPIC VORTEX
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Hong; ZHANG Ming
2006-01-01
Based on a barotropic vortex model, generalized energy-conserving equation was derived and two necessary conditions of basic flow destabilization are gained. These conditions correspond to generalized barotropic instability and super speed instability. They are instabilities of vortex and gravity inertial wave respectively. In order to relate to practical situation, a barotropic vortex was analyzed, the basic flow of which is similar to lower level basic wind field of tropical cyclones and the maximum wind radius of which is 500 km.The results show that generalized barotropic instability depending upon the radial gradient of relative vorticity can appear in this vortex. It can be concluded that unstable vortex Rossby wave may appear in barotropic vortex.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李丽; 沈壮志; 沈建中; 郑霞
2014-01-01
运用Fluent软件中的大涡模型对90°弯管中的非定常湍流场进行了数值模拟，在流场计算的基础之上，采用FW-H方程研究声场行为，得到5个不同截面的声压随时间变化关系图。从模拟结果可知，流场在一定的外界条件下会产生二次涡，这些涡与涡之间的相互融合或分裂产生了一定的声压。进一步给出5个不同截面流场和声场的变化情况，以及不同时刻涡和涡之间的相互作用对声场的影响。针对流场的5个特定区域，在其截面上选取5个监测点，利用 FW-H 方程进行计算，结果发现声场中声压随时间的增加先达到极大值后迅速趋于平稳。%The unsteady turbulent flow field for 90°bend tube was numerically simulated by using the large eddy model of the fluent software.On the basis of the flow field calculation,the sound field was monitored by FW-H equation,getting five diagrams which showed the relationship that the sound pressure of different cross section changed with time.The simulation results showed that the flow field can produce secondary vortex in a certain external conditions.The merge or split between the vortex and the vortex produced a certain sound pressure.The changing situation of flow field and sound field on the five different cross sections were also showed,The interaction between vortexes in different moments influence on the sound field was confirmed.According to the five specific areas of the flow field,five monitoring points were selected on the each cross sec-tion,and then they were simulated on by FW-H calculation.The results showed that,the sound pressure in the sound field increased with time firstly,and quickly leveled off after reaching the maximum value.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡子俊; 张楠; 姚惠之; 杨子轩
2012-01-01
Vortex which is a classical flow pattern has not a strict mathematical definition so far, and vortex identification is still an important approach to distinguish them. Different vortex identifications and physical meaning are summarized in this paper as well as the Q and λ2 identifications are employed to distinguish the actual various vortices in the cavity and analyze the topologic structure of vortices, the good results are obtained.%涡作为一种经典的流动现象目前仍没有严格的数学定义,涡判据是人们识别涡的重要途径.文章对涡的各种判据及其物理意义进行了调研和总结,并将目前较为常用的Q判据和λ2判据应用于二维和三维孔腔流动中涡的识别,并对其拓扑结构进行了分析,得到了有意义的结果.
Coupled particle dispersion by three-dimensional vortex structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Troutt, T.R.; Chung, J.N.; Crowe, C.T.
1996-12-31
The primary objective of this research program is to obtain understanding concerning the role of three-dimensional vortex structures in the dispersion of particles and droplets in free shear flows. This research program builds on previous studies which focused on the nature of particle dispersion in large scale quasi two-dimensional vortex structures. This investigation employs time dependent experimental and numerical techniques to provide information concerning the particulate dispersion produced by three dimensional vortex structures in free shear layers. The free shear flows investigated include modified plane mixing layers, and modified plane wakes. The modifications to these flows involve slight perturbations to the initiation boundary conditions such that three-dimensional vortex structures are rapidly generated by the experimental and numerical flow fields. Recent results support the importance of these vortex structures in the particle dispersion process.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐彬; 项昌乐; 李明喜
2013-01-01
Ducted propeller used for vertical take-off and landing aircraft, has the outstanding advantages of aerodynamic characteristics. To increase the lift coefficient of ducted propeller system, and reduce requirement of blade tip clearance processing accuracy, different types of convex vortex restrain ring structure are added on the inner surface of duct. According to the CFD result, flow field characteristics are researched, and the mechanism of air flow separation of the diffuser is discovered, researching the influence of vortex restrain ring on flow separation control and duct lift augmentation.The results show that: With no change of the blade tip clearance dimension, the vortex restrain ring causes the factor of duct lift in the ducted propeller system,to increase by 11%.%涵道螺旋桨用于垂直起降飞行器,具备突出的气动特性优势.为增大涵道螺旋桨系统拉力系数,降低桨尖间隙加工精度的要求,通过在涵道内壁桨盘下游处增加不同类型和数量的凸型实体涡抑制环结构.通过数值仿真实验研究其流场特征,分析涵道螺旋桨扩散口气流分离现象产生的机理,并研究涡抑制环对气流分离的控制效果和对涵道增升效应的影响.数值仿真结果表明:在不改变桨尖间隙尺寸的情况下,涡抑制环能够有效提高涵道螺旋桨中涵道拉力因子,最高可达到11％.
Application of vortex method; Uzuho no tekiyo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsukiji, T. [Ashikaga Inst. of Technology, Tochigi (Japan); Shimizu, S. [Hiroshima Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1995-07-15
Basic jets such as two dimensional free jet, impact jet, axisymmetric circular free jet, and jet flowing out from a nozzle equipped with a collar at the outlet, as well as flow in such valves as disc valves, spool valves, and poppet valves are taken up to discuss their applications using the vortex method, and the results of studies made using vortex method on the analysis of jet and conditions inside valves are reported. The state of the development of large scale vortex structure in the shear layer can be simulated comparatively simply by using the vortex method. The effects of the radius and the lift of a valve on the fluid outlet angle of jet and on the discharge coefficient of orifice are analyzed. Although the shape of the spool valve near the throttle is very complicated, simplified models are used for numerical analysis. An example of calculated result in the case where the spool reciprocates is introduced. Actual vibrating phenomena can be simulated well by the vortex method for minute vibration of the poppet caused by the discharge of lump vortex. 17 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.
Experiments with vortex rings in air
Hernández, R. H.; Cibert, B.; Béchet, C.
2006-09-01
We report quantitative experimental measurements of the instability of vortex rings generated in air. Vortex rings are created by pushing air through the circular orifice of a cylindrical cavity with a flat piston driven by a loudspeaker. Hot-wire anemometry provides accurate measurements of the velocity profile at all stages of the ring formation including stable and unstable rings. Flow visualization using a laser light sheet shows that the initially undisturbed vortex ring is progressively deformed in the azimuthal direction giving rise to a wavy azimuthal and periodic pattern in the circumference of the ring. The wavy pattern is steady, i.e., it does not rotate or translate during the ring's motion. However as the vortex motion progresses in the axial direction, the displaced portions of the ring are convected away from the initial undisturbed position and the wavy pattern grows with local Reynolds number.
Hydrodynamic Helical Orientations of Nanofibers in a Vortex
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akihiko Tsuda
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this review article, I report our recent studies on spectroscopic visualizations of macroscopic helical alignments of nanofibers in vortex flows. Our designed supramolecular nanofibers, formed through self-assemblies of dye molecules, helically align in torsional flows of a vortex generated by mechanical rotary stirring of the sample solutions. The nanofiber, formed through bundling of linear supramolecular polymers, aligns equally in right- and left-handed vortex flows. However, in contrast, a one-handedly twisted nanofiber, formed through helical bundling of the supramolecular polymers, shows unequal helical alignments in these torsional flows. When the helical handedness of the nanofiber matches that of the vortex flow, the nanofiber aligns more efficiently in the flowing fluid. Such phenomena are observed not only with the artificial helical supramolecular nanofibers but also with biological nanofibers such as double-stranded DNA.
Vortex-Based Aero- and Hydrodynamic Estimation
Hemati, Maziar Sam
Flow control strategies often require knowledge of unmeasurable quantities, thus presenting a need to reconstruct flow states from measurable ones. In this thesis, the modeling, simulation, and estimator design aspects of flow reconstruction are considered. First, a vortex-based aero- and hydrodynamic estimation paradigm is developed to design a wake sensing algorithm for aircraft formation flight missions. The method assimilates wing distributed pressure measurements with a vortex-based wake model to better predict the state of the flow. The study compares Kalman-type algorithms with particle filtering algorithms, demonstrating that the vortex nonlinearities require particle filters to yield adequate performance. Furthermore, the observability structure of the wake is shown to have a negative impact on filter performance regardless of the algorithm applied. It is demonstrated that relative motions can alleviate the filter divergence issues associated with this observability structure. In addition to estimator development, the dissertation addresses the need for an efficient unsteady multi-body aerodynamics testbed for estimator and controller validation studies. A pure vortex particle implementation of a vortex panel-particle method is developed to satisfy this need. The numerical method is demonstrated on the impulsive startup of a flat plate as well as the impulsive startup of a multi-wing formation. It is clear, from these validation studies, that the method is able to accommodate the unsteady wake effects that arise in formation flight missions. Lastly, successful vortex-based estimation is highly dependent on the reliability of the low-order vortex model used in representing the flow of interest. The present treatise establishes a systematic framework for vortex model improvement, grounded in optimal control theory and the calculus of variations. By minimizing model predicted errors with respect to empirical data, the shortcomings of the baseline vortex model
Advance Ratio Effects on the Dynamic-stall Vortex of a Rotating Blade in Steady Forward Flight
2014-08-06
Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 Leading-edge vortex, Dynamic stall vortex, Vortex flows, Rotating wing REPORT...observed on rotating insect wing investigations2,9–13. A common theme among most of these investigations is the existence of a strong span-wise flow...structures by considering only the topology of the flow field. It is specifically designed to identify a large scale vortex superposed on a small-scale
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
In order to improve the anti-jamming performance of a vortex precession meter, the disciplinarian of the vortex precession and the mechanism of hydrodynamic oscillation inside the vortex precession meter are numerically investigated by using the large eddy simulation. The results show that the periodical eccentric motion of the vortexes initiates a hydrodynamic oscillation inside the vortex precession meter. The visualized time dependent flow fields indicate that the pressures at axisymmetric points oscillate with a same intensity and frequency but 180° phase shift. By using differential sensing technique,a new prototype of double-sensor vortex precession meter,aimed to improve measurement accuracy, is developed.
Simulations of Active Vortex Generators
Mansour, N. N.; Koumoutsakos, P.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
We are interested in the study, via numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the streamwise direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise voracity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations c Implement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators that have been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center and Stanford University. Jacobson and Reynolds used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. More recently, Lachowiez and Wlezien are investigating the flow generated by an electro-mechanically driven lid to be used for assertion control in aerodynamic applications. We are simulating the flows generated by these devices and we are conducting a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin. The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands ol'particle's allow for high resolution simulations
Formation of Periodic Vortex Streets Driven by the Lorents Force
池端, 義人; 本地, 弘之; 杉原, 裕司
1996-01-01
Quasi-2D periodic vortex streets, driven by the Lorentz force due to the interaction of a localized magnetic field with an electrolytic current, have been investigated experimentally using a shallow water tank with a movable bottom floor. The vortex street formation has also been investigated numerically and some simulated flow patterns are presented.
Modeling Vortex Generators in a Navier-Stokes Code
Dudek, Julianne C.
2011-01-01
A source-term model that simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier-Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force that would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of incidence of the physical vane. The model behavior was evaluated for subsonic flow in a rectangular duct with a single vane vortex generator, subsonic flow in an S-duct with 22 corotating vortex generators, and supersonic flow in a rectangular duct with a counter-rotating vortex-generator pair. The model was also used to successfully simulate microramps in supersonic flow by treating each microramp as a pair of vanes with opposite angles of incidence. The validation results indicate that the source-term vortex-generator model provides a useful tool for screening vortex-generator configurations and gives comparable results to solutions computed using gridded vanes.
Experimental observation of the collision of three vortex rings
Hernández, R. H.; Monsalve, E.
2015-06-01
We investigate for the first time the motion, interaction and simultaneous collision between three initially stable vortex rings arranged symmetrically, making an angle of 120 degrees between their straight path lines. We report results with laminar vortex rings in air and water obtained through measurements of the ring velocity field with a hot-wire anemometer, both in free flight and during the entire collision. In the air experiment, our flow visualizations allowed us to identify two main collision stages. A first ring-dominated stage where the rings slowdown progressively, increasing their diameter rapidly, followed by secondary vortex structures resulting after the rings make contact. Local portions of the vortex tubes of opposite circulation are coupled together thus creating local arm-like vortex structures moving radially in outward directions, rapidly dissipating kinetic energy. From a similar water experiment, we provide detailed shadowgraph visualizations of both the ring bubble and the full size collision, showing clearly the final expanding vortex structure. It is accurately resolved that the physical contact between vortex ring tubes gives rise to three symmetric expanding vortex arms but also the vortex reconnection of the top and lower vortex tubes. The central collision zone was found to have the lowest kinetic energy during the entire collision and therefore it can be identified as a safe zone. The preserved collision symmetries leading to the weak kinematic activity in the safe zone is the first step into the development of an intermittent hydrodynamic trap for small and lightweight particles.
Computational investigation of the temperature separation in vortex chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anish, S. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Mangalore (India); Setoguchi, T. [Institute of Ocean Energy, Saga University (Japan); Kim, H. D. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-15
The vortex chamber is a mechanical device, without any moving parts that separates compressed gas into a high temperature region and a low temperature region. Functionally vortex chamber is similar to a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RVHT), but it is a simpler and compact structure. The objective of the present study is to investigate computationally the physical reasoning behind the energy separation mechanism inside a vortex chamber. A computational analysis has been performed using three-dimensional compressible Navier Stokes equations. A fully implicit finite volume scheme was used to solve the governing equations. A commercial software ANSYS CFX is used for this purpose. The computational predictions were validated with existing experimental data. The results obtained show that the vortex chamber contains a large free vortex zone and a comparatively smaller forced vortex region. The physical mechanism that causes the heating towards periphery of the vortex chamber is identified as the work done by the viscous force. The cooling at the center may be due to expansion of the flow. The extent of temperature separation greatly depends on the outer diameter of the vortex chamber. A small amount of compression is observed towards the periphery of the vortex chamber when the outer diameter is reduced.
Interaction of a Vortex Ring with a Thin Porous Surface
Hrynuk, John; Bohl, Doug
2012-11-01
The interaction of vortex rings with thin porous screens was investigated using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV). The surface porosity, defined as the ratio of the open area to total area of the screen, was held constant at ϕ = 65% while the diameter of screen wires was varied. The three screens of varying wire diameter tested were: a fine wire (Dwire = 0.0178 cm), a medium wire (Dwire = 0.104 cm) and coarse wire (Dwire = 0.204 cm). When the vortex interacted with the fine wire screen a secondary vortex formed on the upstream face of the screen that orbited the primary vortex and then convected back up stream. The primary vortex reformed immediately downstream of the screen with significantly lower strength. For medium and large wire screens additional vorticity was generated and shed from individual wires, changing the downstream vortex behavior. Secondary vortices were observed for these larger screens but they were weaker and remained in proximity to the screen. Vortex shedding from the screen wires was observed for the medium screen which delayed the reformation of the vortex ring downstream of the screen. Shed vortex pairs, from individual wires, were observed to dominate the downstream flow for the large wire screen and no vortex ring reformation was observed. Vorticity and circulation will be used to further understand the interaction process for each of these screens.
Comparison of four different models of vortex generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez, U.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Sørensen, Niels N.
2012-01-01
A detailed comparison between four different models of vortex generators is presented in this paper. To that end, a single Vortex Generator on a flat plate test case has been designed and solved by the following models. The first one is the traditional mesh-resolved VG and the second one, called...... Actuator Vortex Generator Model (AcVG), is based on the lifting force theory of Bender, Anderson and Yagle, the BAY Model, which provides an efficient method for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of flow with VGs, and the forces are applied into the computational domain using the actuator shape...... model. This AcVG Model enables to simulate the effects of the Vortex Generators without defining the geometry of the vortex generator in the mesh and makes it easier for researchers the investigations of different vortex generator lay outs. Both models have been archived by the in house EllipSys CFD...
Vortex Breakdown Generated by off-axis Bifurcation in a cylinder with rotating covers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bisgaard, Anders; Brøns, Morten; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2006-01-01
Vortex breakdown of bubble type is studied for the flow in a cylinder with rotating top and bottom covers. For large ratios of the angular velocities of the covers, we observe numerically that the vortex breakdown bubble in the steady regime may occur through the creation of an off-axis vortex ring...
Vortex configuration in the presence of local magnetic field and locally applied stress
Wissberg, Shai; Kremen, Anna; Shperber, Yishai; Kalisky, Beena
2017-02-01
Vortex configuration is determined by the repulsive interaction, which becomes dominant with increasing vortex density, by the pinning potential, and by other considerations such as the local magnetic fields, currents flowing in the sample, or as we showed recently, by local stress applied on the sample. In this work we describe different ways to control vortex configuration using scanning SQUID microscopy.
Cascade of vortex tube collisions at ReΓ = 10 000
van Rees, Wim; Hussain, Fazle; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2011-11-01
We present simulations of the collision of two anti-parallel vortex tubes, with and without axial flow in a periodic box at ReΓ = 10 000 using a remeshed vortex method. In the non-axial flow case, after the first, well-known vortex reconnection of the tubes, a quiescent period is followed by a second vortex collision of the remaining structures. The characteristics of this second collision are an increase of energy in the small scales of the flow; remnant vorticity left behind in thread-like structures; a persistent - 7 / 3 slope in the three-dimensional energy spectrum; and a significant increase in enstrophy and helicity in the flow. Characteristics of the secondary collision are also observed during the first reconnection of the vortex tubes with axial flow. The simulations indicate that vortical flows containing initially large-scale vortical structures can transfer energy from large scales to smaller scales through a cascade of vortex collisions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苏新军; 王祺; 林宗虎
2001-01-01
通过试验，对气液两相流中相同直径的3排错列圆柱表面上旋涡的脱落与节径比、含气率的关系进行了研究.研究发现：旋涡的周期性脱落仅在含气率α小于等于0.14的范围内发生；对于横向节径比s1／d小于等于2.0的错列圆柱，隙缝流呈现双稳态的偏斜流，而横向节径比s1／d大于2.0时，双稳态的偏斜流消失；两相流斯特拉赫数随含气率的增加而减小.%The relationship between the vortex shedding from the surface ofthree row circular cylinders of the same diameter in staggered arrangement and the ratio of pitch to diameter or void friction is experimentally investigated.The results show that periodical vortex shedding happens when the void fraction is no more than 0.14.As the ratio of transverse pitch to diameter is no more than 2.0,gap-flow is bistable deflective flow.But bistable deflective flow disappears as the ratio more than 2.0.Strouhal number in two-phase flow reduces with the increase of the void friction.
Modeling Vortex Generators in the Wind-US Code
Dudek, Julianne C.
2010-01-01
A source term model which simulates the effects of vortex generators was implemented into the Wind-US Navier Stokes code. The source term added to the Navier-Stokes equations simulates the lift force which would result from a vane-type vortex generator in the flowfield. The implementation is user-friendly, requiring the user to specify only three quantities for each desired vortex generator: the range of grid points over which the force is to be applied and the planform area and angle of incidence of the physical vane. The model behavior was evaluated for subsonic flow in a rectangular duct with a single vane vortex generator, supersonic flow in a rectangular duct with a counterrotating vortex generator pair, and subsonic flow in an S-duct with 22 co-rotating vortex generators. The validation results indicate that the source term vortex generator model provides a useful tool for screening vortex generator configurations and gives comparable results to solutions computed using a gridded vane.
Simulation of Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Vortex Systems in Random Media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Wei; SUN Li-Zhen; LUO Meng-Bo
2009-01-01
Dynamics in two-dimensional vortex systems with random pinning centres is investigated using molecular dy-namical simulations. The driving force and temperature dependences of vortex velocity are investigated. Below the critical depinning force Fc, a creep motion of vortex is found at low temperature. At forces slightly above Fc, a part of vortices flow in winding channels at zero temperature. In the vortex channel flow region, we ob-serve the abnormal behaviour of vortex dynamics: the velocity is roughly independent of temperature or even decreases with temperature at low temperatures. A phase diagram that describes different dynamics of vortices is presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Dunkelman, Orr; Mendel, Florian;
2009-01-01
Vortex is a hash function that was first presented at ISC'2008, then submitted to the NIST SHA-3 competition after some modifications. This paper describes several attacks on both versions of Vortex, including collisions, second preimages, preimages, and distinguishers. Our attacks exploit flaws ...
Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig;
2016-01-01
An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Evolution of supersonic corner vortex in a hypersonic inlet/isolator model
Huang, He-Xia; Tan, Hui-Jun; Sun, Shu; Ling, Yu
2016-12-01
There are complex corner vortex flows in a rectangular hypersonic inlet/isolator. The corner vortex propagates downstream and interacts with the shocks and expansion waves in the isolator repeatedly. The supersonic corner vortex in a generic hypersonic inlet/isolator model is theoretically and numerically analyzed at a freestream Mach number of 4.92. The cross-flow topology of the corner vortex flow is found to obey Zhang's theory ["Analytical analysis of subsonic and supersonic vortex formation," Acta Aerodyn. Sin. 13, 259-264 (1995)] strictly, except for the short process with the vortex core situated in a subsonic flow which is surrounded by a supersonic flow. In general, the evolution history of the corner vortex under the influence of the background waves in the hypersonic inlet/isolator model can be classified into two types, namely, from the adverse pressure gradient region to the favorable pressure gradient region and the reversed one. For type 1, the corner vortex is a one-celled vortex with the cross-sectional streamlines spiraling inwards at first. Then the Hopf bifurcation occurs and the streamlines in the outer part of the limit cycle switch to spiraling outwards, yielding a two-celled vortex. The limit cycle shrinks gradually and finally vanishes with the streamlines of the entire corner vortex spiraling outwards. For type 2, the cross-sectional streamlines of the corner vortex spiral outwards first. Then a stable limit cycle is formed, yielding a two-celled vortex. The short-lived limit cycle forces the streamlines in the corner vortex to change the spiraling trends rapidly. Although it is found in this paper that there are some defects on the theoretical proof of the limit cycle, Zhang's theory is proven useful for the prediction and qualitative analysis of the complex corner vortex in a hypersonic inlet/isolator. In addition, three conservation laws inside the limit cycle are obtained.
Vortex cutting in superconductors
Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.
2016-08-01
Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.
The vortex street as a statistical-mechanical phenomenon
Montgomery, D.
1974-01-01
An explanation of the Karman vortex street is presented on the basis of the two-temperature canonical distribution for inviscid two-dimensional flows in Navier-Stokes fluids or guiding-center plasmas.
Vortex wakes of a flapping foil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas
2009-01-01
We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street...
Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.
1978-01-01
Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...
Manipulation of Leading-Edge Vortex Evolution by Applied Suction
Buchholz, James; Akkala, James
2016-11-01
The generation and shedding of vortices from unsteady maneuvering bodies can be characterized within a framework of vorticity transport, accounting for the effects of multiple sources and sinks of vorticity on the overall circulation of the vortex system. On a maneuvering wing, the diffusive flux of secondary vorticity from the surface is a critical contributor to the strength and dynamics of the leading-edge vortex, suggesting that flow control strategies targeting the manipulation of the secondary vorticity flux and the secondary vortex may provide an effective means of manipulating vortex development. Suction has been applied in the vicinity of the secondary vortex during the downstroke of a periodically-plunging flat-plate airfoil, and the flow evolution and aerodynamic loads are compared to the baseline case in which suction is not applied. Observation of the resulting surface pressure distribution and flow evolution suggest that the secondary flux of vorticity and the evolution of the flow field can be altered subject to appropriate position of the suction ports relative to the developing vortex structures, and at a specific temporal window in the development of the vortex. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant Number FA9550-16-1-0107 and NSF EPSCoR Grant Number EPS1101284.
Device for separation of vortex gas-dynamic energy
Leontiev, A. I.; Burtsev, S. A.
2015-10-01
A device for separation of vortex gas-dynamic energy, which combines the mechanism of separation of vortex energy used in the Ranque-Hilsch tubes and the mechanism of separation of gas-dynamic energy, is proposed for supersonic flows. A method of calculation of this device is developed. A comparison is made that showed that, when working with natural gas, the cooling depth of half of the mass flow rate proves to be 1.3 times higher than that for the vortex tube and three times higher than that for the device for separation of the gas-dynamic energy.
Optical vortex metrology for non-destructive testing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner
2009-01-01
Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis.......Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis....
Palacios, David M.
2005-08-01
An optical vortex may be characterized as a dark core of destructive interference in a beam of spatially coherent light. This dark core may be used as a filter to attenuate a coherent beam of light so an incoherent background signal may be detected. Applications of such a filter include: eye and sensor protection, forward-scattered light measurement, and the detection of extra-solar planets. Optical vortices may be created by passing a beam of light through a vortex diffractive optical element, which is a plate of glass etched with a spiral pattern, such that the thickness of the glass increases in the azimuthal direction. An optical vortex coronagraph may be constructed by placing a vortex diffractive optical element near the image plane of a telescope. An optical vortex coronagraph opens a dark window in the glare of a distant star so nearby terrestrial sized planets and exo-zodiacal dust may be detected. An optical vortex coronagraph may hold several advantages over other techniques presently being developed for high contrast imaging, such as lower aberration sensitivity and multi-wavelength operation. In this manuscript, I will discuss the aberration sensitivity of an optical vortex coronagraph and the key advantages it may hold over other coronagraph architectures. I will also provide numerical simulations demonstrating high contrast imaging in the presence of low-order static aberrations.
Cavitating vortex characterization based on acoustic signal detection
Digulescu, A.; Murgan, I.; Candel, I.; Bunea, F.; Ciocan, G.; Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Ioana, C.; Vasile, G.; Serbanescu, A.
2016-11-01
In hydraulic turbines operating at part loads, a cavitating vortex structure appears at runner outlet. This helical vortex, called vortex rope, can be cavitating in its core if the local pressure is lower that the vaporization pressure. An actual concern is the detection of the cavitation apparition and the characterization of its level. This paper presents a potentially innovative method for the detection of the cavitating vortex presence based on acoustic methods. The method is tested on a reduced scale facility using two acoustic transceivers positioned in ”V” configuration. The received signals were continuously recorded and their frequency content was chosen to fit the flow and the cavitating vortex. Experimental results showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal - vortex interaction is observed as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Also, the signal processing results were correlated with the data measured with a pressure sensor mounted in the cavitating vortex section. Finally it is shown that this non-intrusive acoustic approach can indicate the apparition, development and the damping of the cavitating vortex. For real scale facilities, applying this method is a work in progress.
Vortex dynamics in the wake of a mechanical fish
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruecker, Christoph [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Stroemungslehre und Stroemungsmaschinen, Freiberg (Germany); Bleckmann, Horst [Poppelsdorfer Schloss, Zoologisches Institut Bonn, Bonn (Germany)
2007-11-15
This study focuses on the three-dimensional flow around a mechanical fish model, which reproduces the typical undulatory body and fin motion of a carangiform swimmer. The mechanical model consists of a flexible skeleton embedded in a soft transparent silicone body, which is connected with two cams to a flapping and bending hinge generating a traveling wave motion with increasing amplitude from anterior to posterior, extending to a combined heaving and pitching motion at the fin. The model is submerged in a water tank and towed at the characteristic swimming speed for the neutral swimming mode at U/V = 1. The method of Scanning Particle Image Velocimetry was used to analyze the three-dimensional time-dependent flow field in the axial and saggital planes. The results confirm the earlier observations that the wake develops into a chain of vortex rings which travel sidewards perpendicular to the swimming direction. However, instead of one single vortex shed at each tail beat half-cycle we observed a pair of two vortex rings being shed. Each pair consists of a larger main vortex ring corresponding to the tail beat start-stop vortex, while the second vortex ring is due to the body bending motion. The existence of the second vortex reflects the role of the body in undulatory swimming. A simplified model of the fish body comparing it to a plate with a hinged flap demonstrates the link between the sequence of kinematics and vortex shedding. (orig.)
Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation
Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph
2012-01-01
Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.
Center-vortex loops with one selfintersection
Moosmann, Julain
2008-01-01
We investigate the 2D behavior of one-fold selfintersecting, topologically stabilized center-vortex loops in the confining phase of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. This coarse-graining is described by curve-shrinking evolution of center-vortex loops immersed in a flat 2D plane driving the renormalization-group flow of an effective `action'. We observe that the system evolves into a highly ordered state at finite noise level, and we speculate that this feature is connected with 2D planar high $T_c$ superconductivity in $FeAs$ systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malishevskii, A.S.; Silin, V.P.; Uryupin, S.A
2002-12-30
For the magnetically coupled waveguide and long Josephson junction we gave the analytic description of two separate velocity domains where the free motion of traveling vortex (2{pi}-kink) exists. The role of the mutual influence of waveguide and long Josephson junction is discussed. It is shown the possibility of the fast vortex motion with the velocity much larger than Swihart velocity of Josephson junction and close to the speed of light in the waveguide. The excitation of motion of such fast Josephson vortex is described.
On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halse, Karl Henning
1997-12-31
In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.
Douglass, Eric; Zhao, Yunjie; Hill, Lucas; Brenman, David; Olsen, Thomas; Wiener, Richard
2008-11-01
Chaos has been observed in the formation of Taylor Vortex pairs in Modified Taylor Couette flow with hourglass geometry. Control of chaos has been demonstrated in this system employing the RPF algorithm. Seeking alternative algorithms, we are implementing the OGY algorithm in a numerical model of a damped driven mechanical pendulum and a physical apparatus. We report on both and future plans for the Modified Taylor-Couette system. Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997). Rollins et al, Phys. Rev. E 47, R780 (1993). Wiener et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2340 (1999). E. Ott, C. Grebogi, & J. A. Yorke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1196 (1990). G. L. Baker, Am. J. Phys. 63, 832 (1995). J. A. Blackburn et al, Rev. Sci. Instr. 60, 422 (1989).
Effect of the conical-shape on the performance of vortex tube
Guen, M.; Natkaniec, C.; Kammeyer, J.; Seume, J. R.; Adjlout, L.; Imine, O.
2013-04-01
The present study focuses on the effect of conical shape in the cold side of the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube which is shown to have a considerable influence on the system performance. A vortex tube is a simple circular tube with no moving parts which is capable to divide a high pressure flow into two relatively lower pressure flows with temperatures higher and lower than the incoming flow. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic model is used to analyse the mechanisms of flow inside a vortex tube. The SST turbulence model is used to predict the turbulent flow behaviour inside the vortex tube. The geometry of a vortex tube with circumferential inlet slots as well as axial cold and hot outlet is considered. Performance curves temperature separation versus cold outlet mass fraction are calculated for a given inlet mass flow rate and varying outlet mass flow rates.
Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Hess
Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.
Scattering by a draining bathtub vortex
Dolan, Sam R.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.
2013-06-01
We present an analysis of scattering by a fluid-mechanical “black hole analogue,” known as the draining bathtub vortex: a two-dimensional flow that possesses both a sonic horizon and an ergoregion. We consider the scattering of a plane wave of fixed frequency impinging upon the vortex. At low frequency, we encounter a modified Aharonov-Bohm effect. At high frequencies, we observe regular “orbiting” oscillations in the scattering length, due to interference between contra-orbiting rays. We present approximate formulas for both effects and a selection of numerical results obtained by summing partial-wave series. Finally, we examine interference patterns in the vicinity of the vortex and highlight the prospects for experimental investigation.
Scattering by a draining bathtub vortex
Dolan, Sam R
2013-01-01
We present an analysis of scattering by a fluid-mechanical `black hole analogue', known as the draining bathtub (DBT) vortex: a two-dimensional flow which possesses both a sonic horizon and an ergoregion. We consider the scattering of a plane wave of fixed frequency impinging upon the vortex. At low frequency, we encounter a modified Aharonov-Bohm effect. At high frequencies, we observe regular `orbiting' oscillations in the scattering length, due to interference between contra-orbiting rays. We present approximate formulae for both effects, and a selection of numerical results obtained by summing partial-wave series. Finally, we examine interference patterns in the vicinity of the vortex, and highlight the prospects for experimental investigation.
Alternate powers in Serrin's swirling vortex solutions
Bělík, Pavel; Scholz, Kurt; Shvartsman, Mikhail M
2012-01-01
We consider a modification of the fluid flow model for a swirling vortex developed by J. Serrin, where velocity decreases as the reciprocal of the distance from the vortex axis. Recent studies, based on radar data of selected severe weather events, indicate that the angular momentum in a tornado may not be constant with the radius, and thus suggest a different scaling of the velocity/radial distance dependence. Motivated by this suggestion, we consider Serrin's approach with the assumption that the velocity decreases as the reciprocal of the distance from the vortex axis to the power b with a general b>0. This leads to a boundary-value problem for a system of nonlinear differential equations. We analyze this problem for particular cases, both with nonzero and zero viscosity, discuss the question of existence of solutions, and use numerical techniques to describe those solutions that we cannot obtain analytically.
Two-Way Coupling Vortex Method and Its Application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1992-01-01
Because of the success of the discrete vortex method for the simulation of large-scale vortex structure.many researchers extend this method to two-phase flow simulations,especially,to the simulation of particle dispersion in mixing layer,which is characterized by large-scale vortex structure,But the previous work is limited to one-way couplin,which neglects the effect of particles on fluid flow.In this paper a discrete vortex method involving two-way coupling for two-phase flows is frist proposed and then used in numerical simulation of two-dimensional gas-particle mixin layers The numerical results show that the introduction of particles into the mixing layer has significant effects on the creation,development and merging process of large-scale vortex structures.It makes the mean size of large-scale vortex stucture large and the distance needed for development of large-scale vortex sturcture shorter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadaoka, N.; Umegaki, K. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-01-25
A vortex-induced vibration of an array of elastically supported tubes is simulated in two-dimension by using a flow-induced vibration analysis program, which was developed in order to evaluate flow-induced vibration in various components such as heat exchangers. From a comparison of calculated results and experimental data, the following points are observed. (1) For the calculated results in a 5 {times} 5 square array, the flow pattern surrounding the first-row tubes is markedly different from that observed in the second-row or third-row tubes. This flow pattern is the same as that obtained from the experiment. (2) All tubes begin to oscillate due to unsteady fluid force and the oscillating mode is different for each row of tubes. These oscillation patterns show the same tendency in the experiments and it is concluded that the developed method can simulate vortex-induced vibration in an array of elastically supported tubes. 19 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping
2005-01-01
@@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.
U-shaped Vortex Structures in Large Scale Cloud Cavitation
Cao, Yantao; Peng, Xiaoxing; Xu, Lianghao; Hong, Fangwen
2015-12-01
The control of cloud cavitation, especially large scale cloud cavitation(LSCC), is always a hot issue in the field of cavitation research. However, there has been little knowledge on the evolution of cloud cavitation since it is associated with turbulence and vortex flow. In this article, the structure of cloud cavitation shed by sheet cavitation around different hydrofoils and a wedge were observed in detail with high speed camera (HSC). It was found that the U-shaped vortex structures always existed in the development process of LSCC. The results indicated that LSCC evolution was related to this kind of vortex structures, and it may be a universal character for LSCC. Then vortex strength of U-shaped vortex structures in a cycle was analyzed with numerical results.
Source Term Model for an Array of Vortex Generator Vanes
Buning, P. G. (Technical Monitor); Waithe, Kenrick A.
2003-01-01
A source term model was developed for numerical simulations of an array of vortex generators. The source term models the side force created by a vortex generator being modeled. The model is obtained by introducing a side force to the momentum and energy equations that can adjust its strength automatically based on a local flow. The model was tested and calibrated by comparing data from numerical simulations and experiments of a single low-profile vortex generator vane, which is only a fraction of the boundary layer thickness, over a flat plate. The source term model allowed a grid reduction of about seventy percent when compared with the numerical simulations performed on a fully gridded vortex generator without adversely affecting the development and capture of the vortex created. The source term model was able to predict the shape and size of the stream wise vorticity and velocity contours very well when compared with both numerical simulations and experimental data.
Buoyant Norbury's vortex rings
Blyth, Mark; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Salman, Hayder
2014-11-01
Norbury's vortices are a one-parameter family of axisymmetric vortex rings that are exact solutions to the Euler equations. Due to their relative simplicity, they are extensively used to model the behavior of real vortex rings found in experiments and in Nature. In this work, we extend the original formulation of the problem to include buoyancy effects for the case where the fluid that lies within the vortex has a different density to that of the ambient. In this modified formulation, buoyancy effects enter the problem through the baroclinic term of the vorticity equation. This permits an efficient numerical solution of the governing equation of motion in terms of a vortex contour method that tracks the evolution of the boundary of the vortex. Finally, we compare our numerical results with the theoretical analysis of the short-time evolution of a buoyant vortex. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through grant DPI2011-28356-C03-02 and by the London Mathematical Society.
Observation of the vortex ring interacting with free surface of water
Nagata, Hiroshi; Sugaya, Shuji; 永田 拓; 菅谷 修士
2002-01-01
Vortex structures of the vortex rings ejected parallel or perpendicular to a free surface of water were studied by means of flow visualization experiments. The emphasis is on the process of vortex deformation, induction of the flow on the free surface, evolution of surface vortices and interaction between the surface vortices and vortices in the water. Experiments were conducted under the two surface conditions, i.e. a clean surface and a surface contaminated with surfactant droplets. The ele...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘蕊; 纳丽莎; 刘丽文; 马斌; 周丽; 郭建英
2012-01-01
Objective To research characteristic of vortex in left ventricle (LV) patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction before and after PCI by vector flow mapping (VFM). Methods Forty normal persons and twenty-five patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction were examined by two-dimensional echocardiography before and after PCI. The apical three-chamber Color Doppler images in three sequent cardiac cycles were acquired and analyzed off-line with VFM. The vortex parameters of LV including longitudinal length, horizontal length, transverse position, vertical position, maximum vector speed, vortex flow, strength of vortex were measured. The differences were compared between patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction before and after PCI. Results In the same volume and early systolic stage, longitudinal diameter was longer in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction than that of normal persons (P<0. 05) , transverse position was closer to inferior infarction of heat, vortex maximum speed, vortex flow, strength of vortex were reduced (P<0. 05) ; Longitudinal diameter was shorter after PCI (P<0. 05), transverse position was closer to former ventricular apical of heat , vortex maximum, vortex flow, strength of vortex were increased (P<0. 05). Conclusions The vortex changes in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction exist a certain characteristic, the parameters of vortex were ameliorated after PCI. VFM may serve as a new approach to estimate hemodynamic of heart before and after PCI.%目的 应用血流向量成像(VFM)技术评价急性下壁心肌梗死患者经皮冠状动脉介入术(PCI)术前、术后1个月左心室内血流动力学的变化特征.方法 40例正常人和25例急性下壁心肌梗死患者PCI前、后行超声心动图检查,采集标准心尖三腔心切面连续3个心动周期的彩色血流动态图像.VFM涡流模式脱机分析,测量收缩期左室内涡流横纵径、横向位置、纵向位置,涡流
Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction
Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey
2006-05-01
We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.
Tomographic PIV measurements of a regenerating hairpin vortex
Sabatino, D. R.; Rossmann, T.
2016-01-01
The three-dimensional formation and regeneration of a hairpin vortex in a laminar boundary layer is studied in a free-surface water channel. The vortex is generated by fluid injection through a narrow slot into a laminar boundary layer (Re_{δ ^*} = 485) and recorded with tomographic particle image velocimetry. The swirling strength based on the λ _2 criterion shows that the hairpin initially forms at the upstream edge of the elongated ring vortex produced by the injection. The elongated ring vortex decays while the hairpin vortex strengthens. Because the hairpin vortex is of sufficient strength, it forms a kink in the legs as a result of inviscid induction. A bridging structure forms between the legs initially upstream of the kink. As this structure dissipates, another bridging structure forms downstream of the kink and closes the vortex loop between the legs. This pinches off the original hairpin head such that two distinct vortices result. The formation of the secondary hairpin head does not appear to be preceded by a reduction in the spanwise gap between the legs or significant change in height above the wall as has been seen when exposed to a mean turbulent profile. Instead, the formation is preceded by the stretching of the hairpin legs downstream of the kink, exposes the ejected fluid between the legs to boundary layer flow producing conditions similar to those that formed the initial hairpin vortex.
Experimental Vortex Identification and Characterization in Reacting Jets in Crossflow
Nair, Vedanth; Emerson, Ben; Lieuwen, Timothy
2016-11-01
Reacting jets in crossflow (JICF) is an important canonical flow field in combustion problems where there is strong coupling between heat release and the evolution of vortical structures. We use vortex identification studies to experimentally characterize the spatial evolution of vortex dynamics in a reacting JICF. A vortex identification algorithm was designed to operate on particle image velocimetry (PIV) data and its raw Mie scattering images. The algorithm uses the velocity fields to obtain comparisons between the strain rate and the rotation rate. Additionally, the algorithm uses the raw Mie scattering data to identify regions where the high acceleration at vortex cores has centrifuged seeding particles out of the vortex cores. Together, these methods are used to estimate the vortex location and circulation. Analysis was done on 10 kHz PIV data from a reacting JICF experiment, and the resulting vortex trajectory, and growth rate statistics are presented. Results are compared between non-reacting JICF and reacting studies performed with different jet density ratios and different levels of acoustic forcing. We observed how the density ratio, the frequency and amplitude of the acoustic forcing affected the vortex characteristics and growth rate.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李科; 胡羽; 黄兴亮; 祁海鹰
2016-01-01
为揭示龙卷旋涡内部的能量分离机理，探索这种特殊旋涡的形成条件，采用亚网格动能(k 方程)、有限容积方法对基于 Ranque-Hilsch 效应的旋涡发生器内部及外部空间可压缩强旋气流进行了大涡模拟(LES)研究。模拟结果再现了强旋气流的特征以及实验观察到的能量分离和真空度分布规律。结果表明，常温气流在强烈旋转时会形成径向温度梯度(即所谓的“能量分离”)，其根本原因是旋转流动产生的径向压力梯度和气体的可压缩性协同作用所致；同时发现，在切向进气的喷嘴喉部存在局部降温现象，这有待实验进一步证实。研究结果为深入认识龙卷旋涡特性提供了重要依据。%Large-eddy simulation(LES)of strong swirl turbulent flow in the internal and external space of a vortex tube is conducted in this paper by an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian(ALE)approach,a sub-grid-scale kinetic energy stress model and the finite volume method.The simulation results reproduced the characteristics of strong swirling flow,the energy separation and vacuum degree distribution.Numerical results suggest that the formation of a radial temperature gradient,which is called “energy separation”,is due to the radial pressure gradient and the compressi-bility of the gas generated by rotating flow.Meantime,a local cooling phenomenon near the nozzle throat was found,which will be verified in the future experiment.All the above research results provide a deep understanding of tornado-like vortex flow,which has an important reference value.
The vortex moving toward Taiwan and the influence of the central mountain range
Sun, Wen-Yih
2016-12-01
Surface friction is important to a vortex moving toward Taiwan but was ignored in several previous studies. The change of the potential vorticity comes from friction in the shallow-water equation, hence, it was applied to study the westbound vortex influenced by the central mountain range (CMR) blocking and surface friction, which is defined as friction coefficient multiplied by the square root of topographic elevation. Without surface friction, the movement of vortex is not affected by the CMR due to the conservation of potential vorticity. With small surface friction, the simulated vortex first deflects southward slightly, then rebounds gently north due to the effect of channel flow, as the previous studies. With moderate or large surface friction, when the vortex approaching Taiwan, it deforms and creates two wind maxima; one due to effect of channel flow and the other on the east of the vortex, because the slowdown vortex is pushed by the mean easterly flow behind. Meanwhile, the vortex and two wind maxima rotate cyclonically. Hence, the vortex can deflect north or south, or form a loop, that depends on the strength and location of the wind maxima. If the circulation of the vortex moves around the northern tip of Taiwan, it can induce a significant secondary vortex on the lee side. On the other hand, the secondary vortex, triggered by the flow passing over the CMR, is rather weak. This paper may provide the formation of asymmetric inner flow and the deflection of the vortex, which may be difficult to define in a more complicated atmospheric model.
INVESTIGATION OF VORTEX SHEDDING INDUCED HYDRODYNAMIC VIBRATION IN VORTEX STREET FLOWMETER
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Vortex street flowmeter has been used in steady flo w measurement for about three decades. The benefits of this type of flowmeter i nclude high accuracy,good linearty,wide measuring range,and excellent reliabilit y. However,in unsteady flow measurement,the pressure disturbance as well as the noise from the system or surrounding can reduce the signal-to-noise ra tio of the flowmeter seriously. Aimed to use vortex street flowmeters in unstea dy flow measurement,the characteristics of the vortex shedding induced hydrodyna mic vibration around the prism bluff body in a vortex street flowmeter are inves tigated numerically and by expriments. The results show that the hydrodynamic vibrations with 180° phase shift occur at the axisymmetric points of the channe l around the bluff body. The most intense vibration occurs at the points on the lateral faces close to the base of the prism. The results provide therefore a useful reference for developing an anti-interference vortex flowmeter using the differential sensing technique.
Vortex ring breakdown induced by topographic forcing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geiser, J; Kiger, K T, E-mail: kkiger@umd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20910 (United States)
2011-12-22
Detailed measurements of the vortex breakdown within a strongly forced impinging jet are presented, with the goal of studying the effects of a small topographic disturbance on the breakdown and turbulence structure. This work is related to an ongoing effort to understand the dynamics of sediment suspension within a landing rotorcraft where a mobile boundary is subject to rapid erosion and deposition. The current work compares the results of a uniform surface to that of a small radial fence placed upstream of the vortex impingement location. The result is a dramatic increase in the coherence of the three-dimensional looping exhibited by the secondary vortex, leading to a more organized and strongly perturbed mean flow. Specifically, a triple decomposition of the velocity fluctuations indicates a very intense periodic stress in the vicinity of the impingement site, followed by a significant decay. Conversely, the random component of the fluctuating stresses gradually increases to modest levels as the coherent contributions decrease, eventually becoming greater than the coherent stress. The fence produces a bifurcation in the flow through the perturbation of the secondary vortex, which in turn creates a high-and low-speed streak on either side of the fence. The subsequent dynamics leads to increased fluctuating stress in the high-speed region, and a dramatically lower stress in the low-speed region, favoring preferential erosion on either side of the topographic disturbance.
A Preliminary Study on the Self-Orgnization Process of Multi-Vortex
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Jialing; MA Jingxian; CHEN Lianshou; LUO Zhexian
2007-01-01
In this paper, the self-organization process of the initially scattered 12 meso-β and -γscale vortices evolving into a synoptic-scale typhoon-like vortex in the context of advection dynamics is numerically explored with an f-plane 2-D quasi-geostrophic vorticity equation model. The results show that the self-organization process was a step-by-step merging course, namely the two adjacent vortices first merged, then formed a tri-vortex flow pattern, and finally evolved into a resultant vortex of meso-c scale. Thus it can be seen as an interaction of binary vortices self-organization. Each initial vortex or vorticity lump confronted two ways out: it merged with an adjacent vortex, and thus became a source of the inner region vorticity of the new formed vortex; or it was stretched by the circulation of an adjacent vortex, and then became the vorticity source of the spiral band of new vortex. Similarly, each new formed vortex also confronted the two ways out, until the multi-vortex self-organized into a single vortex of lager scale. The representation precision of the initial vortex structure directly affected the speeds of the mutual rotation and merging of the resultant vortex. Therefore, it is important to provide an accurate description of initial vortex profiles. Finally, a property of the numerical solution of the self-organization for the 2-D quasi-geostrophic flow is that the total kinetic energy decays slowly, the total enstrophy decreases rapidly, and the circulation of the largest scale vortex grows quickly.
Low-frequency unsteadiness of vortex wakes over slender bodies at high angle of attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Baofeng
2014-08-01
Full Text Available A type of flow unsteadiness with low frequencies and large amplitude was investigated experimentally for vortex wakes around an ogive-tangent cylinder. The experiments were carried out at angles of attack of 60–80° and subcritical Reynolds numbers of 0.6–1.8 × 105. The reduced frequencies of the unsteadiness are between 0.038 and 0.072, much less than the frequency of Karman vortex shedding. The unsteady flow induces large fluctuations of sectional side forces. The results of pressure measurements and particle image velocimetry indicate that the flow unsteadiness comes from periodic oscillation of the vortex wakes over the slender body. The time-averaged vortex patterns over the slender body are asymmetric, whose orientation is dependent on azimuthal locations of tip perturbations. Therefore, the vortex oscillation is a type of unsteady oscillation around a time-averaged asymmetric vortex structure.
Characterizing a burst leading-edge vortex on a rotating flat plate wing
Jones, Anya R.; Medina, Albert; Spooner, Hannah; Mulleners, Karen
2016-04-01
Identifying, characterizing, and tracking incoherent vortices in highly separated flows is of interest for the development of new low-order models for unsteady lift prediction. The current work examines several methods to identify vortex burst and characterize a burst leading-edge vortex. Time-resolved stereoscopic PIV was performed on a rotating flat plate wing at Re = 2500. The burst process was found to occur at mid-span and is characterized by axial flow reversal, the entrainment of opposite-sign vorticity, and a rapid expansion of vortex size. A POD analysis revealed that variations in certain mode coefficients are indicative of the flow state changes characteristics of burst. During burst, the leading-edge vortex evolves to a region of inhomogeneous vorticity distributed over a large area. Several methods of defining the vortex size and circulation are evaluated and a combination of these can be used to characterize the leading-edge vortex both pre- and post-burst.
A parabolized stability analysis of a trailing vortex wake
Edstrand, Adam; Schmid, Peter; Taira, Kunihiko; Cattafesta, Louis
2016-11-01
To aid in understanding how best to control a trailing vortex, we perform a parabolized stability analysis on a flow past a wing at a chord-based Reynolds number of 1000. At the upstream position, the wake instability branch dominates, with only a single vortex instability present in the spectrum. With downstream progression, the growth rate of the wake instability decays, but remains unstable 10 chords downstream. With the wake mode being unstable so far downstream, these results imply that the excitation of the wake instability, despite the varying base flow, will continue to see growth and potentially disrupt the trailing vortex. Conversely, the vortex instability in its formative region rapidly decays to the stable half-plane, then at 11 chords downstream becomes unstable again. We hypothesized the renewed instability growth far downstream is developing as a result of vortex instabilities, however the excitation of these instabilities proves to be challenging in the vortex far field. From these results, control near the two-dimensional wake behind the airfoil may better interfere with the trailing vortex formation; however, to determine the optimal disturbances, an adjoint analysis is required and is included in the future work of the project. ONR Grants N00014-10-1-0832 and N00014-15-1-2403.
Wing tip vortex control by the pulsed MHD actuator
Moralev, I. A.; Biturin, V. A.; Kazansky, P. N.; Zaitsev, M. Yu.; Kopiev, Vl. A.
2016-10-01
The paper presents the experimental results and the analysis of the wingtip vortex control by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma actuator [1]. The actuator is installed on the surface of the asymmetric wing of a finite span. In a single cycle of actuator operation, the pulsed discharge is created between two electrodes and then driven by the Lorentz force in the spanwise direction. The evolution of the vortex after the actuator pulse is studied directly downstream of the wing trailing edge. The shift of the vortex position, without a significant change in the vortex circulation is the main effect obtained after the discharge pulse. The effect of the external flow velocity and the position of the actuator on the shift amplitude were studied. The authority of the flow control by the actuator is shown to reduce at higher velocity values; the position on the suction side of the airfoil is shown to be crucial for the effective actuator operation.
IUTAM Symposium on Hamiltonian Dynamics, Vortex Structures, Turbulence
Borisov, Alexey V; Mamaev, Ivan S; Sokolovskiy, Mikhail A; IUTAM BOOKSERIES : Volume 6
2008-01-01
This work brings together previously unpublished notes contributed by participants of the IUTAM Symposium on Hamiltonian Dynamics, Vortex Structures, Turbulence (Moscow, 25-30 August 2006). The study of vortex motion is of great interest to fluid and gas dynamics: since all real flows are vortical in nature, applications of the vortex theory are extremely diverse, many of them (e.g. aircraft dynamics, atmospheric and ocean phenomena) being especially important. The last few decades have shown that serious possibilities for progress in the research of real turbulent vortex motions are essentially related to the combined use of mathematical methods, computer simulation and laboratory experiments. These approaches have led to a series of interesting results which allow us to study these processes from new perspectives. Based on this principle, the papers collected in this proceedings volume present new results on theoretical and applied aspects of the processes of formation and evolution of various flows, wave a...
The Application of Enhanced k-ω Model in Simulation on Subsonic Vortex Flow%改进的K-ω模型在亚音速漩涡流动中的应用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王熙; 高正红
2012-01-01
基于非结构网格,采用经典的wilcox k-ω模型和其改进的kω-Pω模型,建立了用于模拟大攻角旋涡流动的计算方法.以尖前缘的65°三角翼为例,模拟了旋涡的产生、发展、破裂过程,验证了wilcox k-ω模型和kω-Pω模型在典型的亚音速计算状态下对复杂涡系干扰的模拟能力.通过对多种计算的流场与气动力详细结果的比较分析,就两种湍流模型对大攻角复杂旋涡流动的预测能力和敏感性等进行了评估.结果表明:kω-Pω模型通过r值区分剪切层和涡核区域,从而对涡核区域的涡黏性进行修正.对最后的模拟结果有一定的修正作用,可以作为湍流模型修正的一个方向.RANS方法在预测涡破裂点位置和二次涡的强度及位置方面仍存在很大的缺陷.%A numerical simulation method on the flow characteristics over delta wing at high angle of attack based on unstructured grids with wilcox k-a) and k-w with Pm enhancer turbulence model is investigated. To analyze the applicability of wilcox k-o> and k-(o with Pu enhancer turbulence models on simulating the vortex flow, a sharp leading edge delta wing with a leading edge sweep of 65° is applied to investigate the generation, developing and breakdown of vortex. The comparison for results obtained using wilcox k-co model and k-flow.
Shashikanth, Banavara N
2011-01-01
The vortex dynamics of Euler's equations for a constant density fluid flow in $R^4$ is studied. Most of the paper focuses on singular Dirac delta distributions of the vorticity two-form $\\omega$ in $R^4$. These distributions are supported on two-dimensional surfaces termed {\\it membranes} and are the analogs of vortex filaments in $R^3$ and point vortices in $R^2$. The self-induced velocity field of a membrane is shown to be unbounded and is regularized using a local induction approximation (LIA). The regularized self-induced velocity field is then shown to be proportional to the mean curvature vector field of the membrane but rotated by 90 degrees in the plane of normals. Next, the Hamiltonian membrane model is presented. The symplectic structure for this model is derived from a general formula for vorticity distributions due to Marsden and Weinstein (1983). Finally, the dynamics of the four-form $\\omega \\wedge \\omega$ is examined. It is shown that Ertel's vorticity theorem in $R^3$, for the constant density...
Nano magnetic vortex wall guide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Y. Yuan
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A concept of nano magnetic vortex wall guide is introduced. Two architectures are proposed. The first one is properly designed superlattices while the other one is bilayer nanostrips. The concept is verified by micromagnetic simulations. Both guides can prevent the vortex core in a magnetic vortex wall from colliding with sample surface so that the information stored in the vortex core can be preserved during its transportation from one location to another one through the guides.
Vortex Characterization for Engineering Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jankun-Kelly, M; Thompson, D S; Jiang, M; Shannahan, B; Machiraju, R
2008-01-30
Realistic engineering simulation data often have features that are not optimally resolved due to practical limitations on mesh resolution. To be useful to application engineers, vortex characterization techniques must be sufficiently robust to handle realistic data with complex vortex topologies. In this paper, we present enhancements to the vortex topology identification component of an existing vortex characterization algorithm. The modified techniques are demonstrated by application to three realistic data sets that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.
Vortex tube optimization theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewins, Jeffery [Cambridge Univ., Magdalene Coll., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bejan, Adrian [Duke Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Durham, NC (United States)
1999-11-01
The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube splits a single high pressure stream of gas into cold and warm streams. Simple models for the vortex tube combined with regenerative precooling are given from which an optimisation can be undertaken. Two such optimisations are needed: the first shows that at any given cut or fraction of the cold stream, the best refrigerative load, allowing for the temperature lift, is nearly half the maximum loading that would result in no lift. The second optimisation shows that the optimum cut is an equal division of the vortex streams between hot and cold. Bounds are obtainable within this theory for the performance of the system for a given gas and pressure ratio. (Author)
Magnetic vortex racetrack memory
Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.
2017-02-01
We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.
System Identification of a Vortex Lattice Aerodynamic Model
Juang, Jer-Nan; Kholodar, Denis; Dowell, Earl H.
2001-01-01
The state-space presentation of an aerodynamic vortex model is considered from a classical and system identification perspective. Using an aerodynamic vortex model as a numerical simulator of a wing tunnel experiment, both full state and limited state data or measurements are considered. Two possible approaches for system identification are presented and modal controllability and observability are also considered. The theory then is applied to the system identification of a flow over an aerodynamic delta wing and typical results are presented.
Riemannian geometrical constraints on magnetic vortex filaments in plasmas
de Andrade, L. C. Garcia
2005-01-01
Two theorems on the Riemannian geometrical constraints on vortex magnetic filaments acting as dynamos in (MHD) flows are presented. The use of Gauss-Mainard-Codazzi equations allows us to investigate in detail the influence of curvature and torsion of vortex filaments in the MHD dynamos. This application follows closely previous applications to Heisenberg spin equation to the investigations in magnetohydrostatics given by Schief (Plasma Physics J. 10, 7, 2677 (2003)). The Lorentz force on vor...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dincer, K.; Avci, A.; Berber, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Fac. of Eng. and Architecture, Selcuk Univ., Selcuklu, Konya (Turkey); Baskaya, S. [Dept. of Mechanical Eng., Fac. of Eng. and Architecture, Gazi Univ., Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey)
2010-08-15
Exergy analysis and performance of a Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube (RHVT) with various nozzle cross-section areas (NCSA = 3 x 3, 4 x 4, 5 x 5 mm{sup 2}) were determined under inlet pressures (P{sub i}) of 260, 300 kPa (absolute) pressurized air. The maximum difference in the temperatures of hot output and cold output streams was obtained for NCSA = 3 x 3 mm{sup 2}. The total inlet exergy (sum E{sub i}), total outlet exergy (sum E{sub O}), total lost exergy (sum E{sub Lost}) and exergy efficiency ({eta}, %) were calculated. It was determined that the exergy efficiency of the system, varied between 1% and 39%, and the highest exergy efficiency was obtained for NCSA = 3 x 3 mm{sup 2}. The exergy efficiency strongly depends on the level of P{sub i}, {xi} and v{sub cold}. Variation of the exergy efficiency decreased with decreasing P{sub i}, {xi}, v{sub cold} and the highest and lowest exergy efficiencies were found when the values of P{sub i}, {xi}, v{sub cold} reached maximum and minimum levels, respectively. (author)
Borneo vortex and mesoscale convective rainfall
Koseki, S.; Koh, T.-Y.; Teo, C.-K.
2014-05-01
We have investigated how the Borneo vortex develops over the equatorial South China Sea under cold surge conditions in December during the Asian winter monsoon. Composite analysis using reanalysis and satellite data sets has revealed that absolute vorticity and water vapour are transported by strong cold surges from upstream of the South China Sea to around the Equator. Rainfall is correspondingly enhanced over the equatorial South China Sea. A semi-idealized experiment reproduced the Borneo vortex over the equatorial South China Sea during a "perpetual" cold surge. The Borneo vortex is manifested as a meso-α cyclone with a comma-shaped rainband in the northeast sector of the cyclone. Vorticity budget analysis showed that the growth/maintenance of the meso-α cyclone was achieved mainly by the vortex stretching. This vortex stretching is due to the upward motion forced by the latent heat release around the cyclone centre. The comma-shaped rainband consists of clusters of meso-β-scale rainfall cells. The intense rainfall in the comma head (comma tail) is generated by the confluence of the warmer and wetter cyclonic easterly flow (cyclonic southeasterly flow) and the cooler and drier northeasterly surge in the northwestern (northeastern) sector of the cyclone. Intense upward motion and heavy rainfall resulted due to the low-level convergence and the favourable thermodynamic profile at the confluence zone. In particular, the convergence in the northwestern sector is responsible for maintenance of the meso-α cyclone system. At both meso-α and meso-β scales, the convergence is ultimately caused by the deviatoric strain in the confluence wind pattern but is significantly self-enhanced by the nonlinear dynamics.
Coherent vortex structures in fluids and plasmas
Tur, Anatoli
2017-01-01
This monograph introduces readers to the hydrodynamics of vortex formation, and reviews the last decade of active research in the field, offering a unique focus on research topics at the crossroads of traditional fluids and plasmas. Vortices are responsible for the process of macroscopic transport of momentum, energy and mass, and are formed as the result of spontaneous self-organization. Playing an important role in nature and technology, localized, coherent vortices are regularly observed in shear flows, submerged jets, afterbody flows and in atmospheric boundary layers, sometimes taking on the form of vortex streets. In addition, the book addresses a number of open issues, including but not limited to: which singularities are permitted in a 2D Euler equation besides point vortices? Which other, even more complex, localized vortices could be contained in the Euler equation? How do point vortices interact with potential waves?
Vortex shedding by a Savonius rotor
Botrini, M.; Beguier, C.; Chauvin, A.; Brun, R.
1984-05-01
A series of flow visualizations was performed to characterize the wake vortices of a Savonius rotor. The trials were undertaken in an attempt to account for discrepancies between theoretical and experimentally-derived power coefficients. The Savonius examined was two-bladed with a center offset. All tests were made in a water tunnel. Dye injection provided the visualization, and average velocities and velocity fluctuations were measured using a laser Doppler anemometer. A system of three vortices was found to be periodically shed by the rotor. Flow velocity fluctuation intensity peaked as a vortex was shed. The vortex shedding alternated from blade to blade, so that one was shed from a blade moving upstream.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沙毅; 刘祥松
2014-01-01
为探索旋流泵内部流场及气液两相流混输特性，该文通过32WB8-12型旋流泵外特性试验和泵最优工况流场五孔探针测量，得出泵性能曲线和5个测点静压ps、绝对速度v、圆周速度vu、径向速度vr和轴向速度vz分布情况。针对N-S方程中四项力在气液两相流动中的具体表现特性进行力学分析，说明了泵内部两相流动特点及关联因素之间约束关系。阐明了旋流泵含气混输抽吸和扬程形成的基本原理，及空化和气液两相流混输的不同特点。选择性能试验最优工况，基于改进重组化群k-ε湍流模型（RNG k-ε模型），应用Fluent软件对泵内部流场进行数值模拟，得到了3个轴面静压、速度矢量和含气率分布图。证明泵进口轴向运动为主流，气体主要集中在压力较低的进口区域。气相的引入，其微团与液相尺寸、形状及弹性模量的不同，造成两相流场惯性力、摩擦力和浮力发生变化，由此解释了外特性变化及气液抽吸与内部流动之间定性的因果关系。探讨了旋流泵内部气液两相流动速度场和过流通道发生畸变的基本原理，为建立旋流泵内部气液及空化流动模型提供实例。%In order to study the characteristics of the flow field and gas-liquid two-phase flow hydrotransport in vortex pumps, the performance test and the measurement of flow field in volute at optimal operating condition with five-hole probes were conducted on a self-built vortex pump (32WB8-12). Based on these experiments, the qv-H,qv-P,qv-η,qv-NPSHc performance curves and the absolute velocityv, circumferential velocityvu, radial velocityvr, axial velocityvz, and the flow static pressure ps, on the 5 measuring points were obtained. The obtained parabolicqv-NPSH performance curve shows the opposite tendency compared to the centrifugal pump. The mechanical properties of the four kinds of forces in gas-liquid two-phase flow were
Vortex disruption by magnetohydrodynamic feedback
Mak, Julian; Hughes, D W
2016-01-01
In an electrically conducting fluid, vortices stretch out a weak, large-scale magnetic field to form strong current sheets on their edges. Associated with these current sheets are magnetic stresses, which are subsequently released through reconnection, leading to vortex disruption, and possibly even destruction. This disruption phenomenon is investigated here in the context of two-dimensional, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamics. We derive a simple order of magnitude estimate for the magnetic stresses --- and thus the degree of disruption --- that depends on the strength of the background magnetic field (measured by the parameter $M$, a ratio between the Alfv\\'en speed and a typical flow speed) and on the magnetic diffusivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number $\\mbox{Rm}$). The resulting estimate suggests that significant disruption occurs when $M^{2}\\mbox{Rm} = O(1)$. To test our prediction, we analyse direct numerical simulations of vortices generated by the breakup of unstable shear flo...
Vortex wakes of a flapping foil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schnipper, Teis; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas
2009-01-01
and the shedding process at the sharp trailing edge in detail. This allows us to identify the origins of the vortices in the 2P wake, to understand that two distinct 2P regions are present in the phase diagram due to the timing of the vortex shedding at the leading edge and the trailing edge and to propose......We present an experimental study of a symmetric foil performing pitching oscillations in a vertically flowing soap film. By varying the frequency and amplitude of the oscillation we visualize a variety of wakes with up to 46 vortices per oscillation period, including von Karman vortex street......, inverted von Karman vortex street, 2P wake, 2P+2S wake and novel wakes ranging from 4P to 8P. We map out the wake types in a phase diagram spanned by the width-based Strouhal number and the dimensionless amplitude. We follow the time evolution of the vortex formation near the round leading edge...
Coherent Vortex Evolution in Drift Wave Turbulence
Gatto, R.; Terry, P. W.
1998-11-01
Localized structures in turbulence are subject to loss of coherence by mixing. Phase space structures, such as drift-hole, (P. W. Terry, P. H. Diamond, T. S. Hahm, Phys. Fluids B) 2 9 2048 (1990) possess a self-electric field, which if sufficiently large maintains particle trapping against the tidal deformations of ambient turbulence. We show here that intense vortices in fluid drift wave turbulence avoid mixing by suppressing ambient turbulence with the strong flow shear of the vortex edge. Analysis of turbulence evolution in the vortex edge recovers Rapid Distortion Theory (G. K. Batchelor and I. Proudman, Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math.) 7 83 (1954) as the short time limit and the shear suppression scaling theory (H. Biglari, P. H. Diamond and P. W. Terry, Phys. Fluids B) 2 1 (1990) as the long time limit. Shear suppression leads to an amplitude condition for coherence and delineates the Gaussian core from the non Gaussian tail of the probability distribution function. The amplitude condition of shear suppression is compared with the trapping condition for phase space holes. The possibility of nonlinear vortex growth will be examined by considering electron dynamics in the vortex evolution.
WAVE BOTTOM LAYERS DYNAMIC WITH SUSPENDED SEDIMENT OVER VORTEX RIPPLES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Chang-bo; BAI Yu-chuan; ZHAO Zi-dan; ZHANG Hong-wu
2004-01-01
Vortex ripple is widely formed in the coastal region, and the dynamic of vortex is quite important because it is responsible for sediment transport. The flow structure around the vortex ripples can be modeled as 2D flow due to the geometry of the flow boundaries. In this paper, 2D Large-Ed dy-Simulation (LES) method was used to predict the flow structure and the dynamic of vortex in the bottom layers under the action of the wave, the numerical simulation results show a completely process of vortex formation, evolvement and disappearance. Based on the study of flow structure, the suspended sediment transport was modeled in present paper. The simulated sediment concentrations were compared to measurements from the literature. The agreement between the time averaged simulated concentration profiles and measurements is satisfactory. For a high setting velocity, the suspended sediment is confined to the vicinity of the bed, and it is dominated by the local bottom shear stress. For a small setting velocity,the suspension is more dominated by the characteristic of vor tex. There are two suspended sediment transport peaks observed in the cross-section at the trough and crest in the half period, the second peak is due to the separation bubble taking the sediment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mao Liangjie
Full Text Available A considerable number of studies for VIV under the uniform flow have been performed. However, research on VIV under shear flow is scarce. An experiment for VIV under the shear flow with the same shear parameter at the two different Reynolds numbers was conducted in a deep-water offshore basin. Various measurements were obtained by the fiber bragg grating strain sensors. Experimental data were analyzed by modal analysis method. Results show several valuable features. First, the corresponding maximum order mode of the natural frequency for shedding frequency is the maximum dominant vibration mode and multi-modal phenomenon is appeared in VIV under the shear flow, and multi-modal phenomenon is more apparent at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow effect. Secondly, the riser vibrates at the natural frequency and the dominant vibration frequency increases for the effect of the real-time tension amplitude under the shear flow and the IL vibration frequency is the similar with the CF vibration frequency at the Reynolds number of 1105 in our experimental condition and the IL dominant frequency is twice the CF dominant frequency with an increasing Reynolds number. In addition, the displacement trajectories at the different locations of the riser appear the same shape and the shape is changed at the same shear parameter with an increasing Reynolds number under the shear flow. The diagonal displacement trajectories are observed at the low Reynolds number and the crescent-shaped displacement trajectories appear with an increasing Reynolds number under shear flow in the experiment.
Pennings, P.C.
2016-01-01
This thesis describes the mechanisms with which tip vortex cavitation is responsible for broadband pressure fluctuations on ship propellers. Hypotheses for these are described in detail by Bosschers (2009). Validation is provided by three main cavitation-tunnel experiments, one on a model propeller
Dynamics of the vortex wakes of flying and swimming vertebrates.
Rayner, J M
1995-01-01
The vortex wakes of flying and swimming animals provide evidence of the history of aero- and hydrodynamic force generation during the locomotor cycle. Vortex-induced momentum flux in the wake is the reaction of forces the animal imposes on its environment, which must be in equilibrium with inertial and external forces. In flying birds and bats, the flapping wings generate lift both to provide thrust and to support the weight. Distinct wingbeat and wake movement patterns can be identified as gaits. In flow visualization experiments, only two wake patterns have been identified: a vortex ring gait with inactive upstroke, and a continuous vortex gait with active upstroke. These gaits may be modelled theoretically by free vortex and lifting line theory to predict mechanical energy consumption, aerodynamic forces and muscle activity. Longer-winged birds undergo a distinct gait change with speed, but shorter-winged species use the vortex ring gait at all speeds. In swimming fish, the situation is more complex: the wake vortices form a reversed von Kármán vortex street, but little is known about the mechanism of generation of the wake, or about how it varies with speed and acceleration or with body form and swimming mode. An unresolved complicating factor is the interaction between the drag wake of the flapping fish body and the thrusting wake from the tail.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega, J M
2001-10-18
The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李健; 夏国栋
2013-01-01
A design for modified planar passive micromixer based on the concept of vortex-generated structure enhanced mixing is described in this work.By using computational fluid dynamics CFD-ACE+,three-dimensional numerical simulation and structural optimization for mixing were performed in order to reveal the structural influence on the flow feature and mixing characteristics.Experimental data were used to validate the numerical analysis.The computational and experimental results for the concentration distributions and flow patterns demonstrate that the expansion vortices,separated vortices and Dean vortices appear in the curved channel of this modified micromixer,which is arranged to vortex-generated structures.The combination and enhancement of the vortex system increase the fluid disturbance,effectively improving the contact area of fluid and accelerating the mixing process.Based on comprehensive consideration of mixing efficiency and pressure drop distribution,the structural design adopts the vortexgenerated structure with regular arrangement,and the gap width ratio Wd/W,thickness-width ratio B/W,and arrangement angle θa are equal to 1/4,3/10,and 120°,respectively.Significant mixing effect of fluid in the micromixer can be realized in a wide range of Reynolds number.%基于成涡结构强化混合原理设计了一种改进型的平面被动式微混合器.采用商业软件CFD-ACE+对该结构微混合器的混合特性进行了三维数值模拟和结构优化,进一步揭示该微混合器结构对通道内流体流动与混合特性的影响.结合混合通道内流体的浓度和流型分布的数值和实验结果可知,该新型微混合器在布置成涡结构的弯曲通道内形成了扩展涡、分离涡和Dean涡,实现了涡系的叠加和强化,加大了流体间的扰动,从而增加了流体的接触面积强化混合；在综合考虑流体混合强度和压降分布等因素下,成涡结构正向布置且缝宽比Wd/W=1/4,厚宽比B/W=3/10,
Confined vortices in flow machinery
Escudier, Marcel
After noting such basic aspects of vortex flows as the concepts of supercritical and subcritical flow and vortex breakdown, swirling flow behavior in various practical devices is discussed. The devices in question encompass swirl-stabilized combustion in industrial combustion chambers, fluidic vortex amplifiers that may be used as large scale valves, turbomachine outlets that can efficiently divert axial throughflow in a tangential direction, 'cyclone' separators, turbine draft tube surge phenomena, and the Ranque-Hilsch refrigeration tube.
Integrability and chaos in body-vortex interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan
2009-01-01
have fixed strengths and are intended to model vortices that have been shed by the body or elsewhere in the flow field. The flow at any given time and position is determined by the instantaneous vortex and body positions together with the instantaneous linear and angular velocity of the body...
A Stationary Vortex Phenomenon above a Low-Aspect-Ratio Wing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG Jian; ZHU Ke-Qin; TAN Guang-Kun
2004-01-01
@@ A stationary vortex phenomenon above a nondelta low-aspect-ratio wing was obtained in three-dimensional unsteady numerical simulation. Flow visualization is conducted in water channel using hydrogen bubbles. The results verify that there is a vortex trapped above the low-aspect-ratio wing and the stationary vortex consisted of two semi-balls and anti-rotation vortices which are different from the leading edge vortices on the delta wing.
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE SEPARATION IN METHANE STREAM IN RANQUE-HILSCH VORTEX TUBE
Gutak, А.D.
2015-01-01
In present numerical research, the temperature separation in methane stream within a counter flow Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube was investigated. A complete three-dimensional geometry of the vortex tube was used to generate a high-density computational grid. A vortex tube with two tangential inlet nozzles, an axial cold stream outlet and a circumferential hot stream outlet was considered. Methane was used as a fluid along with Peng-Robinson cubic equation of state. Fluid properties like total tem...
Review of Ranque-Hilsch effects in vortex tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eiamsa-ard, Smith [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Promvonge, Pongjet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)
2008-09-15
The vortex tube or Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is a device that enables the separation of hot and cold air as compressed air flows tangentially into the vortex chamber through inlet nozzles. Separating cold and hot airs by using the principles of the vortex tube can be applied to industrial applications such as cooling equipment in CNC machines, refrigerators, cooling suits, heating processes, etc. The vortex tube is well-suited for these applications because it is simple, compact, light, quiet, and does not use Freon or other refrigerants (CFCs/HCFCs). It has no moving parts and does not break or wear and therefore requires little maintenance. Thus, this paper presents an overview of the phenomena occurring inside the vortex tube during the temperature/energy separation on both the counter flow and parallel flow types. The paper also reviews the experiments and the calculations presented in previous studies on temperature separation in the vortex tube. The experiment consisted of two important parameters, the first is the geometrical characteristics of the vortex tube for example, the diameter and length of the hot and cold tubes, the diameter of the cold orifice, shape of the hot (divergent) tube, number of inlet nozzles, shape of the inlet nozzles, and shape of the cone valve. The second is focused on the thermo-physical parameters such as inlet gas pressure, cold mass fraction, moisture of inlet gas, and type of gas (air, oxygen, helium, and methane). For each parameter, the temperature separation mechanism and the flow-field inside the vortex tubes is explored by measuring the pressure, velocity, and temperature fields. The computation review is concentrated on the quantitative, theoretical, analytical, and numerical (finite volume method) aspects of the study. Although many experimental and numerical studies on the vortex tubes have been made, the physical behaviour of the flow is not fully understood due to its complexity and the lack of consistency in the
Near wake vortex dynamics of a hovering hawkmoth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hikaru Aono; Wei Shyy; Hao Liu
2009-01-01
Numerical investigation of vortex dynamics in near wake of a hovering hawkmoth and hovering aerody-namics is conducted to support the development of a biology-inspired dynamic flight simulator for flapping wing-based micro air vehicles. Realistic wing-body morphologies and kinematics are adopted in the numerical simulations. The computed results show 3D mechanisms of vortical flow structures in hawkmoth-like hovering. A horseshoe-shaped primary vortex is observed to wrap around each wing during the early down- and upstroke; the horseshoe-shaped vortex subsequently grows into a doughnut-shaped vortex ring with an intense jet-flow present in its core, forming a downwash. The doughnut-shaped vortex rings of the wing pair eventu-ally break up into two circular vortex rings as they propagate downstream in the wake. The aerodynamic yawing and roll-ing torques are canceled out due to the symmetric wing kine-matics even though the aerodynamic pitching torque shows significant variation with time. On the other hand, the time-varying the aerodynamics pitching torque could make the body a longitudinal oscillation over one flapping cycle.
Manipulation of vertical fence wake using passive vortex generators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kim Hyoung-Bum; Kim Seoung-Jun; Tu Xin-Cheng; Park Seung-Ha
2014-01-01
The effect of streamwise vortices generated from passive vortex generators was investigated to manipulate the separation bubble behind the vertical fence.The experiments were carried out in a cir-culating water channel and the velocity fields were measured using 2D and stereoscopic PIV method. The distance between the vortex generator and fence and the effect of the Reynolds number were inves-tigated.In addition,the effect of boundary layer thickness was also investigated.The averaged recircu-lation lengths were compared with that of uncontrolled fence flow.The results showed the oscillatory variation of recirculation region appeared under the existence of vortex generators.The reduction of the separation bubble became larger when the fence was submerged in the thick boundary layer with in-creasing the distance between the generator and fence.When the boundary layer is thin,vortex gene-rator can only suppress the separation bubble under the specific condition.
Vortex Interaction on Low Aspect Ratio Membrane Wings
Waldman, Rye M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.
2013-11-01
Inspired by the flight of bats and by recent interest in Micro Air Vehicles, we present measurements on the steady and unsteady behavior of low aspect ratio membrane wings. We conduct wind tunnel experiments with coupled force, kinematic, and flow field measurements, both on the wing and in the near wake. Membrane wings interact strongly with the vortices shed from the leading- and trailing-edges and the wing tips, and the details of the membrane support play an important role in the fluid-structure interaction. Membranes that are supported at the wing tip exhibit less membrane flutter, more coherent tip vortices, and enhanced lift. The interior wake can exhibit organized spanwise vortex shedding, and shows little influence from the tip vortex. In contrast, membranes with an unsupported wing tip show exaggerated static deformation, significant membrane fluttering and a diffuse, unsteady tip vortex. The unsteady tip vortex modifies the behavior of the interior wake, disrupting the wake coherence.
Vortex Tubes in Turbulence Velocity Fields at High Reynolds Numbers
Mouri, H
2008-01-01
The elementary structures of turbulence, i.e., vortex tubes, are studied using velocity data obtained in laboratory experiments for boundary layers and duct flows at microscale Reynolds numbers 332-1934. While past experimental studies focused on intense vortex tubes, the present study focuses on all vortex tubes with various intensities. We obtain the mean velocity profile. The radius scales with the Kolmogorov length. The circulation velocity scales with the Kolmogorov velocity, in contrast to the case of intense vortex tubes alone where the circulation velocity scales with the rms velocity fluctuation. Since these scaling laws are independent of the configuration for turbulence production, they appear to be universal at high Reynolds numbers.
立方体人工鱼礁背涡流的三维涡结构%The 3D vortex structure of cube artificial reef's wake vortex
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李晓磊; 栾曙光; 陈勇; 张瑞瑾
2012-01-01
The paper takes cube artificial reef as an example to make numerical simulation of 3 D flow field under the action of steady flow with CFD software. The simulation reveals the 3D vortex structure of cube artificial reef. The result shows that two symmetrical crosswise vortexes are formed and have opposite directions behind the reef af-ter water flows from the sides of reef, that a streamwise vortex is formed after water flows and falls from the top sur-face of reef, that the size of streamwise vortex is similar to the reef, that crosswise vortex determines the width of wake vortex, that streamwise vortex determines the height of wake vortex, that crosswise vortex and streamwise vor-tex have similar length and determine the length of wake vortex together, and that crosswise vortex and streamwise vortex constitute the 3D vortex structure of cube artificial reefs wake vortex.%以立方体人工鱼礁为例,应用CFD软件对其在定常流作用下的三维流场进行了数值模拟试验,以揭示立方体人工鱼礁背涡流的三维涡结构.结果表明:流过礁体侧面的水体在礁体后形成两个对称的旋转方向相反的展向涡,流经礁体上表面的水体脱落后形成一个尺寸与礁体尺寸相当的流向涡,展向涡宽度决定背涡流流场宽度,流向涡高度决定背涡流流场高度;展向涡和流向涡长度近似相等,二者的长度共同决定背涡流流场的长度;展向涡、流向涡共同构成了人工鱼礁背涡流的三维涡结构.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wenquan TAO; Junmei WU
2008-01-01
3-D numerical simulations were presented for laminar flow and heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular channel with vortex generators. The effects of Reynolds number (from 800 to 3 000), the attack angle of vortex generator (from 15° to 90°) and the shape of vortex generator were examined. The numerical results were analyzed based on the field synergy principle. It is found that the inherent mechanism of the heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal vortex can be explained by the field synergy principle, that is, the second flow generated by vortex generators results in the reduction of the intersection angle between the velocity and fluid temperature gradient. The longitudinal vortex improves the field synergy of the large downstream region of longitudinal vortex generator (LVG) and the region near (LVG); however, transverse vortex only improves the syn-ergy of the region near vortex generator. Thus, longitudinal vortex can enhance the integral heat transfer of the flow field, while transverse vortex can only enhance the local heat transfer. The synergy angle decreases with the increase of Reynolds number for the channel with LVG to differ from the result obtained from the plain channel, and the triangle winglet performs better than the rectanglar one under the same surface area condition.
Phase spectral evidence for vortex structures in turbulent mixing
Davis, M. R.
1987-07-01
A slab schlieren beam system is shown to give rise to signals which have a quadrature phase relationship to near field microphone signals when vortex structures are present in the flow. The effect is confirmed by signal recovery observations for the transient step induced by a shock tube behind the nozzle settling chamber. Close to the nozzle, the phase spectra noted for a natural unexcited jet show the presence of vortex-like structures in the flow, while further away from the nozzle the phase spectra show phase delays which increase at low Strouhal number. Phase spectral observations at a greater distance from the nozzle show that the constraint of a protruding centerbody, shock tube, or spark excitation gives rise to sets of discrete components in the flow which appear to preserve their vortex ring-like character.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭华俊; 叶立; 童正明; 林海波
2014-01-01
相对旋转两同轴套管间的涡旋流动，能够带来二次流强化传热传质作用，在航空、水处理、生态保护、生物工程和膜分离等领域都具有广泛的应用价值。本文使用Fluent软件，对同轴套管间涡旋流动及传热特性进行数值模拟，考察了内管转速、内外管壁面温差等操作参数变化对同轴套管间流体传热性能的影响，分析了涡旋流动与传热效率之间的关联关系。模拟结果表明：内管转速增加在流场中形成泰勒涡，涡流扰动增大了高温壁面与流体间的热流密度，增强了流体传热效率。增大内外管壁面温差，也可加强流体传热性能，但其强化作用不及内管转速的强化作用显著。受流场中泰勒涡影响，流体速度、温度及热流密度沿轴向的分布都呈正弦状周期性波动，在相邻两涡交界面处，流体传热性能最好，在涡中心处的传热性能最差。%The vortex flow which occurs in annulus between rotating inner cylinder and concentric fixed outer cylinder can enhance heat transfer and mass transfer performances of fluid , and has wide application value in engineering fields such as air , water treatment , ecological protection , biotechnology and mem-brane separation .The paper used fluent software to simulate the vortex flow in annulus between rotating inner cylinder and concentric fixed outer cylinder and feature of heat transfer , and investigated the effect of varying inner cylinder rotating velocities and temperature differences between the two cylinders on heat transfer performances , and analyzed the relation between flow characteristics and heat transfer efficien-cies.Results show that Taylor vortices is formed in flow field with the increase of inner cylinder rotating velocity, intensive disturbance increases the density of heat transfer between high temperature face and fluid,and strengthens the efficiency of fluid heat transfer .The increase of
Point vortex dynamics: A classical mathematics playground
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aref, Hassan
2007-01-01
The idealization of a two-dimensional, ideal flow as a collection of point vortices embedded in otherwise irrotational flow yields a surprisingly large number of mathematical insights and connects to a large number of areas of classical mathematics. Several examples are given including...... the integrability of the three-vortex problem, the interplay of relative equilibria of identical vortices and the roots of certain polynomials, addition formulas for the cotangent and the Weierstrass zeta function, projective geometry, and other topics. The hope and intent of the article is to garner further...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐凌虹; 谭思超; 高璞珍
2014-01-01
In this study , the effects of three types of longitudinal vortex generator (LVG) configurations on the flow and heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular channel were investigated and analyzed by field synergy principle .The results show that the temperature of plate fuel assembly can be decreased and the critical heat flux (CHF) of the reactor will be increased .Compared by the performance evaluation parameter ,JF factor ,the results indicate that “common flow up”combined with ellipse pole configura-tion can bring about more enhancement of heat transfer at a modest expense of the addi-tional pressure-loss .%对渐缩式纵向涡发生器与椭圆支柱共同作用下矩形通道内的流动换热性能进行了研究，与渐缩式纵向涡发生器、渐扩式纵向涡发生器和光通道的流动换热性能进行了对比，并利用场协同原理对其换热机理进行了分析。结果表明：纵向涡发生器可增强换热，有利于降低加热板的表面温度，从而提高反应堆堆芯的C H F值。采用JF因子对各矩形通道的综合流动换热性能进行了比较，结果表明，渐缩式纵向涡发生器与椭圆支柱组合结构能以较小的阻力代价得到较大的换热效果，是一种理想的强化换热方式。
Numerical Prediction of Tip Vortex Cavitation for Marine Propellers in Non-uniform Wake
Zhu, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Fang; Li, Dan
2017-07-01
Tip vortex cavitation is the first type of cavitation to take place around most marine propellers. But the numerical prediction of tip vortex cavitation is one of the challenges for propeller wake because of turbulence dissipation during the numerical simulation. Several parameters of computational mesh and numerical algorithm are tested by mean of the predicted length of tip vortex cavtiation to validate a developed method. The predicted length of tip vortex cavtiation is on the increase about 0.4 propeller diameters using the developed numerical method. The predicted length of tip vortex cavtiation by RNG k - ɛ model is about 3 times of that by SST k - ω model. Therefore, based on the validation of the present approach, the cavitating flows generated by two rotating propellers under a non-uniform inflow are calculated further. The distributions of axial velocity, total pressure and vapor volume fraction in the transversal planes across tip vortex region are shown to be useful in analyzing the feature of the cavitating flow. The strongest kernel of tip vortex cavitation is not at the position most close to blade tip but slightly far away from the region. During the growth of tip vortex cavitation extension, it appears short and thick, and then it becomes long and thin. The pressure fluctuations at the positions inside tip vortex region also validates the conclusion. A key finding of the study is that the grids constructed especially for tip vortex flows by using separated computational domain is capable of decreasing the turbulence dissipation and correctly capturing the feature of propeller tip vortex cavitation under uniform and non-uniform inflows. The turbulence model and advanced grids is important to predict tip vortex cavitation.
Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor
Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.
2015-12-01
This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, Hw, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as Hw varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small Hw, the AMF effect dominates. As Hw increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.
Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions
Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.
Simulations Of On Demand Vortex Generators
Koumoutsakos, P.; Mansour, N. N.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
The development of a two-dimensional viscous incompressible flow generated by an off center thin oscillating bd on top of a cavity is studied computationally as a prototype of vortex generators. The lid is placed asymmetrically over the cavity so that the gap size is different on either side of the cavity. An adaptive numerical scheme, based on high resolution viscous vortex methods, is used to integrate the vorticity/velocity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations with the no-slip boun.lary condition enforced on the lid and cavity walls. Depending on the a amplitude and frequency of the oscillation as well as the the gap size, vorticity is ejected in the fluid above the cavity either from the large and/or the small gap. The results of the computations complement ongoing experimental work.
Multiply Phased Traveling BPS Vortex
Kimm, Kyoungtae; Cho, Y M
2016-01-01
We present the multiply phased current carrying vortex solutions in the U(1) gauge theory coupled to an $(N+1)$-component SU(N+1) scalar multiplet in the Bogomolny limit. Our vortex solutions correspond to the static vortex dressed with traveling waves along the axis of symmetry. What is notable in our vortex solutions is that the frequencies of traveling waves in each component of the scalar field can have different values. The energy of the static vortex is proportional to the topological charge of $CP^N$ model in the BPS limit, and the multiple phase of the vortex supplies additional energy contribution which is proportional to the Noether charge associated to the remaining symmetry.