WorldWideScience

Sample records for vomiting

  1. Infant Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may produce fever, diarrhea, and sometimes nausea and abdominal pain. The infection is usually contagious; if your child ... a green-colored material) in the vomit Severe abdominal pain Strenuous, repeated vomiting Swollen or enlarged abdomen Lethargy ...

  2. Nausea and vomiting - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... touch or squeeze the skin, it doesn't bounce back the way it usually does Urinating less ... Are you vomiting anything that looks like coffee grounds? Are you vomiting undigested food? When was the ...

  3. Vomiting (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or treat mild fluid loss. What Is Oral Rehydration? When fluids are lost through vomiting or diarrhea, ... vomiting but these are available only by prescription. Rehydration Tips: Babies (Birth to 12 Months) Do not ...

  4. Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer chemotherapy or other medicines. For vomiting in children and adults, avoid solid foods until vomiting has stopped for at least six hours. Then work back to a normal diet. Drink small amounts of clear liquids to avoid dehydration. Nausea and vomiting are common. Usually, they are ...

  5. Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the vomit Rectal bleeding Seek immediate medical attention Ask someone to drive you to urgent care ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  6. Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anticipatory nausea and vomiting is identified, the more effective treatment may be. When symptoms of anticipatory nausea ... detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health ...

  7. Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About ACOG Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Morning Sickness: Nausea ... PDF Format Morning Sickness: Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Pregnancy How common is nausea and vomiting of ...

  8. Prognosis of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, evaluated the clinical features, prognosis, and prophylaxis of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the relationship between the syndrome and levels of adrenocorticotropic/antidiuretic hormones (ACTH/ADH.

  9. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  10. POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING | Yusufu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiemetics, acupuncture and other drugs are used to prevent and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting. Those that manage patients in the postoperative period should endeavour to make postoperative nausea and vomiting as unacceptable as postoperative pain. Key words: Postoperative, Nausea, Vomiting, Narcotics, ...

  11. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS — is a fairly common disease of unknown etiology that affects children of all age groups and sometimes adult population and refers to the functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the usage of Rehydron Optim for oral rehydration therapy in children. Materials and methods. The treatment of 40 children aged 3 to 11 years with CVS (15 persons and primary acetonemic syndrome (25 persons in the period of acetonemic crisis, including 15 boys and 25 girls, was analyzed. All children were observed in the outpatient department of the Regional children’s hospital of Chernivtsi. Diagnosis was established based on anamnesis, clinical and laboratory data. Patients underwent required clinico-biological tests and instrumental examinations. The dynamics of the following syndromes was investigated: pain, vomiting, dehydration and intoxication. Rehydration therapy in all cases was oral with the usage of Rehydron Optim. Results of the study and their discussion. A cyclical vomiting was observed in children with primary acetonemic syndrome with satisfactory condition in attack-free period. Migraine-like headaches prevailed in 36 patients (80 %, and the age of these patients was older than 7 years. Same children had episodes of paroxysmal autonomic failure. Almost all surveyed children had in their family history the risk factors for CVS development. All children had positive dynamics of the main basic clinical manifestations on the background of oral rehydration therapy using Rehydron Optim. Within the 1st day of oral rehydration therapy with Rehydron Optim in children, we have noted a significant decrease in the incidence of lethargy, vomiting, spastic abdominal pain, smell of acetone in the exhaled air (p < 0.05. In children with the I degree of dehydration, clinical signs of dehydration were not seen before the treatment, and children with the II degree had an

  12. Recurrent severe vomiting due to hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-ying; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Zhou-wen; Fang, Li-zheng

    2010-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis may present in many ways; severe vomiting as a prominent symptom of thyrotoxicosis is uncommon. In this paper, we report a 24-year-old Chinese male with hyperthyroidism who presented with recurrent severe vomiting. The patient had had intermittent vomiting for seven years and had lost approximately 15 kg of weight. Gastroscopic examinations revealed chronic gastritis and one occasion peptic ulcer. He was treated with antacid and proton pump inhibitors, but his symptoms had no r...

  13. Vomiting and gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, J Y; Nanayakkhara, C S; Simpson, H

    1988-01-01

    During radionuclide scans in 82 infants and children gastro-oesophageal reflux extending to the upper oesophageal/laryngeal level was detected in 636 one minute frames. Only 61 (9.6%) of these frames were associated with vomiting, defined as the appearance of milk at the mouth. Thus the absence of vomiting does not preclude appreciable gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:3415303

  14. Management of a child with vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Sunit C; Shah, Ravi; Bansal, Arun; Jayashree, M

    2013-04-01

    Vomiting is a protective reflex that results in forceful ejection of stomach contents up to and out of the mouth. It is a common complaint and may be the presenting symptom of several life-threatening conditions. It can be caused by a variety of organic and nonorganic disorders; gastrointestinal (GI) or outside of GI. Acute gastritis and gastroenteritis (AGE) are the leading cause of acute vomiting in children. Important life threatening causes in infancy include congenital intestinal obstruction, atresia, malrotation with volvulus, necrotizing enterocolitis, pyloric stenosis, intussusception, shaken baby syndrome, hydrocephalus, inborn errors of metabolism, congenital adrenal hypoplasia, obstructive uropathy, sepsis, meningitis and encephalitis, and severe gastroenteritis, and in older children appendicitis, intracranial mass lesion, diabetic ketoacidosis, Reye's syndrome, toxic ingestions, uremia, and meningitis. Initial evaluation is directed at assessment of airway, breathing and circulation, assessment of hydration status and red flag signs (bilious or bloody vomiting, altered sensorium, toxic/septic/apprehensive look, inconsolable cry or excessive irritability, severe dehydration, concern for symptomatic hypoglycemia, severe wasting, Bent-over posture). The history and physical examination guides the approach in an individual patient. The diverse nature of causes of vomiting makes a "routine" laboratory or radiologic screen impossible. Investigations (Serum electrolytes and blood gases,renal and liver functions and radiological studies) are required in any child with dehydration or red flag signs, to diagnose surgical causes. Management priorities include treatment of dehydration, stoppage of oral fluids/feeds and decompression of the stomach with nasogastric tube in patients with bilious vomiting. Antiemetic ondansetron(0.2 mg/kg oral; parenteral 0.15 mg/kg; maximum 4 mg) is indicated in children unable to take orally due to persistent vomiting, post

  15. Recurrent severe vomiting due to hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-ying; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Zhou-wen; Fang, Li-zheng

    2010-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis may present in many ways; severe vomiting as a prominent symptom of thyrotoxicosis is uncommon. In this paper, we report a 24-year-old Chinese male with hyperthyroidism who presented with recurrent severe vomiting. The patient had had intermittent vomiting for seven years and had lost approximately 15 kg of weight. Gastroscopic examinations revealed chronic gastritis and one occasion peptic ulcer. He was treated with antacid and proton pump inhibitors, but his symptoms had no relief. His presenting symptoms suggested hyperthyroidism and were confirmed by laboratory data. After a month of propylthiouracil therapy, his symptoms were relieved. It should be noted that hyperthyroidism patients can have unexplained vomiting, and that hyperthyroidism may coexist with peptic ulcer in rare cases. Awareness of such atypical presentations of hyperthyroidism may help to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:20205308

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Nausea and Vomiting “I take medicine so I won’t feel sick ...

  17. Hyperthyroidism as a cause of persistent vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, E H; Cools, B M

    2004-09-01

    A 32-year-old woman presented with persistent vomiting, epigastric pain and weight loss. A sinus tachycardia was the clue to the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On treatment with propylthiouracil and a beta-blocking agent, her symptoms resolved within one day, even though her free thyroxine level was still high. Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon, but previously reported cause of persistent vomiting.

  18. Hyperthyroidism as a cause of persistent vomiting.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Cools, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman presented with persistent vomiting, epigastric pain and weight loss. A sinus tachycardia was the clue to the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On treatment with propylthiouracil and a beta-blocking agent, her symptoms resolved within one day, even though her free thyroxine level was still high. Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon, but previously reported cause of persistent vomiting.

  19. Comorbidity in Emetophobia (Specific Phobia of Vomiting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark; Boschen, Mark J; Conlon, Elizabeth G

    2016-07-01

    Emetophobia (fear of vomiting) is an anxiety disorder in which individuals report clinical levels of fear that they may vomit or be exposed to the vomit of others. The prevalence of comorbidity of emetophobia with other conditions has previously only been investigated using self-report instruments. Sixty-four adults with emetophobia participated in an online structured clinical diagnostic interview assessing the presence of emetophobia and other conditions. Higher comorbidity for depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder were found in participants compared with general population norms. Emetophobia is commonly comorbid with other anxiety and depressive disorders. Comorbidity rates, when assessed using a structured clinical interview, were lower than previously reported using self-report alone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message Emetophobia (specific phobia of vomiting) is a clinical fear of vomiting. Individuals with emetophobia show high comorbidity with other anxiety and mood disorders. The most common comorbid conditions were generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, hypochondriasis and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinicians should ensure that they assess for the presence of comorbid conditions when treating emetophobia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Pavlovian conditioning of nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Steingrueber, Hans-Joachim; Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle

    2006-10-30

    Cancer patients undergoing cytotoxic drug treatment often experience side-effects, the most distressing being nausea and vomiting. Despite antiemetic drugs, 25-30% of the chemotherapy patients report these side-effects when being re-exposed to the stimuli that usually signal the chemotherapy session and its drug infusion. These symptoms are called anticipatory nausea and anticipatory vomiting. The present paper summarizes the evidence that anticipatory vomiting is acquired by Pavlovian conditioning, and, consequently, may be alleviated by conditioning techniques. To explore the mechanisms that induce and alleviate conditioned nausea and vomiting further, a conditioned nausea model was established in healthy humans using body rotation as the nausea-inducing treatment. The validity of this motion sickness model to examine conditioning mechanisms in the acquisition and alleviation of conditioned nausea was demonstrated. Cortisol and tumor-necrosis factor-alpha were elevated as endocrine and immunological correlates of nausea. Data in the rotation-induced motion sickness model indicated that gender is an important moderator variable to be considered in further studies. The paper concludes with a review of applications of the demonstrated conditioning principles as interventions to ameliorate distressing anticipatory nausea or anticipatory vomiting in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  1. Severe lactose intolerance with lactosuria and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosková, A; Sabacký, J; Mrskos, A; Pospísil, R

    1980-01-01

    An infant with lactose intolerance is described. A breast-fed infant developed vomiting at 3 weeks, and became dehydrated. Lactosuria, aminoaciduria, and liver damage were preesent. A milk-free diet led to rapid recovery. At 6 months a normal diet was well tolerated. PMID:7416780

  2. Hyperthyroidism as a cause of persistent vomiting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Cools, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman presented with persistent vomiting, epigastric pain and weight loss. A sinus tachycardia was the clue to the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On treatment with propylthiouracil and a beta-blocking agent, her symptoms resolved within one day, even though her

  3. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zubairi, Ishtiaq H

    2006-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are symptoms that cause major concern to oncology patients. This article explores the types of nausea and vomiting in the context of chemotherapy, and discusses their pathogenesis and management.

  4. Postoperative nausea and vomiting following orthognathic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C.; Brookes, C. D.; Rich, J.; Arbon, J.; Turvey, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with postoperative nausea (PON) and vomiting (POV) after orthognathic surgery. A review of the clinical records of consecutively enrolled subjects (2008–2012) at a single academic institution was conducted between 9/2013 and 3/2014. Data on the occurrence of PON and POV and potential patient-related, intraoperative, and postoperative explanatory factors were extracted from the medical records. Logistic models were used for the presence/absence of postoperative nausea and vomiting separately. Data from 204 subjects were analyzed: 63% were female, 72% Caucasian, and the median age was 19 years. Thirty-three percent had a mandibular osteotomy alone, 27% a maxillary osteotomy alone, and 40% had bimaxillary osteotomies. Sixty-seven percent experienced PON and 27% experienced POV. The most important risk factors for PON in this series were female gender, increased intravenous fluids, and the use of nitrous oxide, and for POV were race, additional procedures, and morphine administration. The incidence of PON and POV following orthognathic surgery in the current cohort of patients, after the introduction of the updated 2007 consensus guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting, has not decreased substantially from that reported in 2003–2004. PMID:25655765

  5. Children's vomiting following posterior fossa surgery: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundon Belinda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nausea and vomiting is a problem for children after neurosurgery and those requiring posterior fossa procedures appear to have a high incidence. This clinical observation has not been quantified nor have risk factors unique to this group of children been elucidated. Methods A six year retrospective chart audit at two Canadian children's hospitals was conducted. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was extracted. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify risk and protective factors at 120 hours after surgery and early vs. late vomiting. Results The incidence of vomiting over a ten day postoperative period was 76.7%. Documented vomiting ranged from single events to greater than 20 over the same period. In the final multivariable model: adolescents (age 12 to Conclusion The incidence of vomiting in children after posterior fossa surgery is sufficient to consider all children requiring these procedures to be at high risk for POV. Nausea requires better assessment and documentation.

  6. Diagnostic exercise: chronic vomiting in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A E; Brown, C A; Miller, D L

    2010-09-01

    An approximately one-and-a-half-year-old, neutered male, mixed-breed dog was presented for a chronic history of vomiting. Profuse diarrhea was also noted during examination. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, bone chips were removed from the stomach, and a raised, circular area of gastric mucosa was biopsied. Histologically, there was severe gastric cryptosporidiosis as well as numerous spiral bacteria, consistent with Helicobacter spp. Polymerase chain reaction revealed visible bands for the 18S ribosomal RNA gene for Cryptosporidium spp. The polymerase chain reaction product was sequenced and was found to be most similar to Cryptosporidium muris. Both the gastric location and the species of Cryptosporidium are unusual in a dog.

  7. Alternative therapy applications for postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiravalle, Paulette; McCaffrey, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    The potential for postoperative nausea and vomiting is present in any patient who undergoes surgery and both are unpleasant and potentially dangerous consequences of surgery. Three types of complementary and alternative therapies that may help patients with postoperative nausea and vomiting include acupressure, acupuncture, and aromatherapy.

  8. Vomiting and migraine-related clinical parameters in pediatric migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlitz-Markus, Tal; Haimi-Cohen, Yishai; Zeharia, Avraham

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the characteristics of vomiting in pediatric migraineurs and the relationship of vomiting with other migraine-related parameters. The cohort included children and adolescents with migraine attending a headache clinic of a tertiary pediatric medical center from 2010 to 2016. Patients were identified by a retrospective database search. Data were collected from medical files. The presence of vomiting was associated with background and headache-related parameters. The study group included 453 patients, 210 boys (46.4%) and 243 girls (53.6%), of mean age 11.3 ± 3.7 years. Vomiting was reported by 161 patients (35.5%). On comparison of patients with and without vomiting, vomiting was found to be significantly associated with male gender (54% vs 42.1%, P migraine onset (8.0 ± 3. years vs 9.6 ± 3.7 years, P migraine (67% vs 58.7%, P migraine (24.1% vs 10.1%, P migraine in both parents (9.3% vs 3.1%, P = .007), and migraine in either parent (57.5% vs 45.5%, P = .02). The higher rate of vomiting in the younger patients and the patients with awakening pain may be explained by a common underlying pathogenetic mechanism of vomiting and migraine involving autonomic nerve dysfunction/immaturity. The association of vomiting with parental migraine points to a genetic component of vomiting and migraine. It should be noted that some of the findings may simply reflect referral patterns in the tertiary clinic. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  9. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in pediatric anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) has a high incidence in children and requires prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. PONV can be reduced by the avoidance of nitrous oxide, volatile anesthetics, and the reduction of postoperative opioids. The use of dexamethasone, 5-HT3 antagonists, or droperidol alone is potent, but combinations are even more effective to reduce PONV. Droperidol has a Food and Drug Administration warning. Hence, dexamethasone and 5-HT3 antagonists should be preferred as prophylactic drugs. It is further reasonable to adapt PONV prophylaxis to different risk levels. Prolonged surgery time, inpatients, types of surgery (e.g. strabismus and ear-nose-throat surgery), and patients with PONV in history should be treated as high risk, whereas short procedures and outpatients are to be treated as low risk. Concluding from the existing guidelines and data on the handling of PONV in children at least 3 years, the following recommendations are given: outpatients undergoing small procedures should receive a single prophylaxis, outpatients at high risk a double prophylaxis, inpatients with surgery time of more than 30 min and use of postoperative opioids should get double prophylaxis, and inpatients receiving a high-risk surgical procedure or with other risk factors a triple prophylaxis (two drugs and total intravenous anesthesia). Dimenhydrinate can be used as a second choice, whereas droperidol and metoclopramide can only be recommended as rescue therapy.

  10. A Chronic Psychogenic Vomiting Case of Dramatic Response to Escitalopram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur OZTURK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the treatment of an interesting patient with vomiting for years. The patient admitted to the family health center with chronic vomiting and weight loss. Her physical examination was unremarkable. The complaint of patient in who organic pathogen were excluded by biochemical and radiological examinations was evaluated psychologically; her complaints were ended following the initiation of escitalopram therapy unlike previous treatment. In this report, we represent a specific patient for the escitalopram treatment and thanks to this, it contributes a unique sample to the literature about escitalopram usage in the treatment of chronic vomiting.

  11. Case Report: Recurrent severe vomiting due to hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-ying; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Zhou-wen; Fang, Li-zheng

    2010-03-01

    Thyrotoxicosis may present in many ways; severe vomiting as a prominent symptom of thyrotoxicosis is uncommon. In this paper, we report a 24-year-old Chinese male with hyperthyroidism who presented with recurrent severe vomiting. The patient had had intermittent vomiting for seven years and had lost approximately 15 kg of weight. Gastroscopic examinations revealed chronic gastritis and one occasion peptic ulcer. He was treated with antacid and proton pump inhibitors, but his symptoms had no relief. His presenting symptoms suggested hyperthyroidism and were confirmed by laboratory data. After a month of propylthiouracil therapy, his symptoms were relieved. It should be noted that hyperthyroidism patients can have unexplained vomiting, and that hyperthyroidism may coexist with peptic ulcer in rare cases. Awareness of such atypical presentations of hyperthyroidism may help to make a correct diagnosis.

  12. Riboflavin in cyclic vomiting syndrome: efficacy in three children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Esteve Melnikova, Anastasia; Schäppi, Michela G; Korff, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome is an episodic disorder considered to be a migraine variant. Riboflavin is efficient in the prophylactic treatment of migraines in adults. We describe the effectiveness and tolerance of riboflavin treatment in three children with cyclic vomiting syndrome. All of them fulfilled the diagnosis criteria for cyclic vomiting syndrome. They received prophylactic monotherapy with riboflavin for at least 12 months. Excellent response and tolerability was observed. Based on clinical observation in three cases, riboflavin may be an effective and safe prophylactic treatment for children with cyclic vomiting syndrome. CVS is one of the "childhood periodic syndromes" classified as a migraine subtype by the International Headache Society. Riboflavin is currently used as a prophylactic treatment in patients with migraine. Riboflavin may be an effective and safe prophylactic treatment for children with CVS. Increasing doses of riboflavin and long periods of prophylaxis may be needed in some children..

  13. Association of Marijuana Use and Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun B. Pattathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use has become one of the most commonly abused drugs in the world. It is estimated that each year 2.6 million individuals in the USA become new users and most are younger than 19 years of age. Reports describe marijuana use as high as 40–50% in male Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome patients. It is this interest in cannabis in the World, coupled with recognition of a cyclic vomiting illness associated with its chronic use that beckons a review of the most current articles, as well as a contribution from our own experiences in this area. The similarities we have demonstrated for both cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome and cyclic vomiting make the case that cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a subset of patients who have the diagnoses of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the role of marijuana should always be considered in the diagnosis of CVS, particularly in males.

  14. Nausea, Vomiting and Diarrhea: An Unusual Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Szilagyi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of a young woman who presented with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea is outlined; the etiology turned out to be a first attack of multiple sclerosis. Plausible mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Risk Factors for Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... nausea and vomiting (PONV) in children receiving dental treatment under general anesthesia .... For pediatric patients undergoing dental treatment under general anesthesia ..... Consensus guidelines for the management.

  16. Chemotherapy- and cancer-related nausea and vomiting

    OpenAIRE

    Warr, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately one half of cancer patients will experience nausea or vomiting during the course of their disease either because of the cancer itself or because of their treatment. Emesis attributable to cancer warrants a careful investigation to determine whether a treatable underlying cause is responsible. Interventions using dexamethasone and octreotide may reduce vomiting attributable to bowel obstruction. In the absence of a bowel obstruction or a correctable cause, the usual approach is a...

  17. Ice massage on chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sadeghi Shermeh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of chemotherapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of ice massage applied to the pericardium 6 (P6 or Neigaun acupuncture point on nausea– vomiting due to chemotherapy in cancer patient. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial one- blind, 114 patients were randomly divided into three groups. Ice massage group were massaged gently on the skin around P6 point of the hand with ice cube into a wet gauze pad for 7 minutes twice a day with 12-hours interval for 24 hours by the patient. Placebo group were massaged with wooden cube and the control group received no interventions. Nausea and vomiting in three groups rated by Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis (MANE Questionnaire in 4 periods of time in 24 hours was used for the assessment of nausea and vomiting. Results: There were significant decreases in the frequency of nausea (P<0.01 and vomiting (P<0.03 and a decrease in the intensity of nausea (P=0.63 and vomiting (P=0.34 in the case group. Frequency of nausea was significantly lower among placebo group than the control group (P<0.02. Conclusion: Ice massage on Neigaun point is effective on reducing the frequency of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Placebos, patient-practitioner relationship, suggestion, and the patient's view on nausea and vomiting and the role of interaction between the therapist and the patient is effective to some extent.

  18. Relationship between vomiting reflex during esophagogastroduodenoscopy and dyspepsia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Shotaro; Watanabe, Mika; Yoshida, Takeichi; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Moribata, Kosaku; Muraki, Yosuke; Shingaki, Naoki; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Kato, Jun; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Oka, Masashi; Mohara, Osamu; Ichinose, Masao

    2012-09-01

    Although frequent vomiting reflexes during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) causes suffering in patients, very few studies have investigated the characteristics of subjects who frequently develop vomiting reflexes. This study examined the incidence of the vomiting reflex and related factors, especially upper gastrointestinal symptoms, among individuals undergoing transoral EGD. Subjects included 488 consecutive adults (mean age, 56.1 ± 8.9 years) who underwent transoral EGD for gastric cancer screening between February 2010 and March 2011. All procedures were performed by an endoscopist with 15 years of experience. Based on a questionnaire survey using the frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (FSSG), symptoms (dyspepsia and acid reflux symptoms) and the number of vomiting reflexes during EGD were recorded. Of the 488 subjects, 271 (56%) developed vomiting reflexes (mean, 4.2 times). This reflex-positive group was younger (54.3 ± 9.5 years) than the reflex-negative group (58.3 ± 7.7 years, P reflex-positive group with a high FSSG dyspepsia score (2.27 ± 2.57 vs 1.23 ± 1.84; P acid reflux symptom score (1.96 ± 2.22 vs 1.34 ± 2.14; P reflex-negative group. Multivariate analysis also showed a significant correlation between these four factors and the occurrence of vomiting reflexes. Using an FSSG dyspepsia score of 1 as the cut-off offered 68% sensitivity and 57% specificity for predicting the occurrence of vomiting reflexes. Based on FSSG questionnaire responses on upper gastrointestinal symptoms, dyspepsia symptoms, in particular, are related to presence of vomiting reflexes during EGD. © 2012 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  19. Granisetron transdermal system improves refractory nausea and vomiting in gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kellie; Parkman, Henry P

    2014-06-01

    Symptoms of gastroparesis include nausea and vomiting, which can markedly diminish quality of life. Nausea and vomiting can also make treatment with oral antiemetics problematic. Our aim was to determine whether treatment-resistant nausea and vomiting in patients with gastroparesis improve after granisetron transdermal patch (GTP) therapy. In an open-label pilot study, patients with gastroparesis and symptoms of nausea and vomiting refractory to conventional treatment were treated with GTP. After 2 weeks, patients were asked to assess their therapeutic response using the Clinical Patient Grading Assessment Scale (CPGAS; +7 = completely better; 0 = no change; -7 = very considerably worse). Responders were defined as CPGAS score >0, non-responders as ≤0. Patients (n = 36) were treated with GTP. Of these 36 patients, one patient discontinued treatment due to the GTP not adhering to the skin. Of the remaining 35 patients, 18 improved, 15 remained the same, and two worsened. The average CPGAS score was +1.8 ± 0.4 (SEM) (P < 0.05 vs 0). Of the 18 patients with improvement, the average CPGAS score was +3.7 ± 0.3 (SEM), corresponding to "somewhat" to "moderately better" improvement in nausea/vomiting. Side effects occurred in nine patients: four developed constipation, three patients had skin rash, and two reported headaches. GTP was moderately effective in reducing refractory symptoms of nausea and/or vomiting from gastroparesis in 50% of patients. Mild side effects were reported by 25% of patients. GTP may be an effective treatment for nausea and vomiting in gastroparesis, and further study is warranted.

  20. The prevention and treatment of radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zyl, A.J.

    1992-11-01

    Nausea and vomiting are side-effects that are associated with chemo- and radiotherapy. A single-blind study to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous granisetron (G) with metoclopramide (M) plus dexamethasone (D) in the prophylaxis and control of nausea and emesis in patients undergoing hemi-body irradiation (HBI) was performed. G (3 mg) or M (20 mg) plus D (12 mg) were given intravenously, thirty minutes prior to the start of radiotherapy. Patients were monitored for nausea, vomiting and side-effects. Thirty-five patients were treated, 28 men and 7 women. A total of 21 (60%) patients did not vomit during the first 24 hours after the start of radiotherapy. Both G and M plus D offer safe and effective anti-emetic regimes for the prophylaxis and control of radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. However, granisetron was found to be more effective than metoclopramide plus dexamethasone in preventing nausea and vomiting. 101 refs., 40 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Ambulatory anesthesia and postoperative nausea and vomiting: predicting the probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegarty AT

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aoife T Hegarty,1 Muiris A Buckley,1 Conan L McCaul1–3 1Department of Anaesthesia, The Rotunda Hospital, 2Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, 3School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: Nausea and vomiting are distinctly unpleasant symptoms that may occur after surgery and anesthesia, and high priority is given to their prevention by patients. Research in this area is plentiful and has focused on event prediction and pharmacological prophylaxis but despite this, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV typically occurs in 20%–30% of patients in contemporary practice. Prediction of postoperative and postdischarge nausea and vomiting is particularly important in the ambulatory surgical population as these symptoms may occur following discharge from hospital and continue for up to one week when access to antiemetic therapies is limited. Many of the existing predictive scoring systems are based on data from inpatient populations and limited to the first 24 hours after surgery. Scoring systems based on data from ambulatory surgical populations to predict PONV are only moderately good. The best-performing systems in ambulatory patients are those of Sinclair and Sarin with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 and 0.74, respectively, but are limited by the short duration of follow-up and a greater emphasis on nausea than vomiting. Given that the ability to predict both PONV and postdischarge nausea and vomiting is clearly limited, emphasis has been placed on prophylactic strategies that incorporate antiemetic medication, intravenous hydration, and nonnarcotic analgesia. PONV has been reduced to <10% in institutions using multimodal approaches. Scoring systems may facilitate “risk tailoring” in which patient risk profile is used as a stratification method for pharmacointervention. Keywords: postoperative nausea and vomiting, prediction, antiemetics, anesthesia

  2. A survey of postoperative nausea and vomiting in Enugu, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve a representative sample of everyday surgery, data were collected from 8 types of common surgical procedures in 4 different operating theatres and departments: general surgery, gynecology, ophthalmology and otolaryngology. Results: In the recovery room, the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 15% and ...

  3. postoperative nausea and vomiting in korle bu teach- ing hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOfori-Adjei

    2007-12-01

    Dec 1, 2007 ... SUMMARY. Objective: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most distressing morbidities associated with surgery. Even though the incidence can be as high as 30% elsewhere no work has been done to assess the incidence in any health facility in Ghana. This study was carried out to ...

  4. Intraoperative Gastric Suctioning and Postoperative Nausea, Retching, and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    of Anesthesiologists CTZ -chemoreceptor trigger zone IV - intravenous kg. - kilogram LES - lower esophageal sphincter Mzg. -milligram ml. -milliliter...the stomach or duedenum * . -= provides the strongest stimulus for vomiting" (Guyton, 1981). Sensory impulses originating in the upper gastro ...duodenum may cause nausea and can result in intestinal contraction during gastric relax- ... , ation allowing reflux of intestinal contents into the

  5. Escitalopram for Psychogenic Nausea and Vomiting: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychogenic nausea and vomiting is defined as vomiting without any obvious organic pathology or vomiting with a psychological etiology. The treatment for such a condition is a challenge in clinical practice. The first patient was a 46-year-old married factory worker who was repeatedly hospitalized for recurring bouts of nausea and vomiting. After consultation, she was diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The frequency of nausea and vomiting decreased after treatment with daily doses of 10–20 mg escitalopram. The second patient was a 37-year-old married teacher who had bouts of nausea and vomiting and was also hospitalized repeatedly. She was diagnosed with mixed anxiety–depressive disorder. After treatment with 10 mg/day escitalopram, her episodes of nausea and vomiting decreased. Escitalopram may be an effective treatment for psychogenic nausea and vomiting associated with depression.

  6. Advantageous Use of Hypnosis in a Case of Psychogenic Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Roopa

    2016-04-01

    This case study describes in detail the role of hypnosis in treatment of a case of psychogenic vomiting. The patient, a 60-yearold woman, had been suffering for 9 months from episodes of vomiting which resulted in weight loss, dehydration, and hypokalemia. She was a conscientious woman with high standards of behavior, which did not allow an expression of the extreme hostility she felt toward her daughter-in-law. Hypnotherapeutic sessions reduced her anxiety, restored her sleep, improved mood, and helped deepen rapport, all of which created the ideal setting for Gestalt's empty chair technique. Integrating hypnosis greatly enhanced the quality of the empty chair dialogue, which by bringing about a shift in the patient's emotions from hostility to sympathy, facilitated recovery.

  7. [A teenager presenting with vomiting, general malaise and weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, M E; Visser, R; van Vliet, W; Wielders, J P; Hogeman, P H

    2004-02-28

    A 16-year-old girl had symptoms of vomiting, malaise and weight loss for two months. Blood tests revealed an elevated activity of liver enzymes and hyperthyroidism. Although the patient at first denied the possibility of pregnancy, a pregnancy was subsequently confirmed. Hyperemesis gravidarum was diagnosed based on the combination of the clinical symptoms, pregnancy and increased serum human chorionic gonadotrophin and oestradiol. Hyperemesis gravidarum also explained the demonstrated biochemical hyperthyroidism and elevated liver enzyme levels. Rapid alleviation of all the clinical symptoms was seen after termination of this unwanted pregnancy. Although vomiting, malaise and weight loss in children can have many different causes, in girls at a sexually mature age a pregnancy with possible hyperemesis gravidarum should certainly also be considered and a gynaecological examination performed.

  8. Thalidomide for control delayed vomiting in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Z.; Sun, X.; Du, X.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the efficacy and safety of thalidomide for the treatment of delayed vomiting, induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Study Design: Randomized, double-blind controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: The Oncology Department of Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Jiangsu Xuzhou, China, from January 2012 to January 2014. Methodology: A total of 78 cancer patients, who had delayed vomiting observed from 24 hours to 1 week after chemotherapy, were included in the study. Patients were divided in a treatment group (40 patients, 51.28%) and a control group (38 patients, 48.71%). The treatment group received thalidomide at an oral dose of 100 mg per night; 50 mg was added daily up to a dose of 200 mg per night, if the curative effect was suboptimal and the medicine was tolerated. Both the treatment and the control groups received a drip of 10 mg azasetron 30 minutes before chemotherapy. The control group only proportions of antiemetic effects and adverse reactions were compared using the ?2 test. Antiemetic effects and adverse reactions were assessed from Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals(95% CI). Results: The effective control rate of delayed vomiting in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group (?2=5.174, p=0.023). No significant difference was found between the two groups in other adverse effects of chemotherapy. Karnofsky scores or the overall self-evaluation of the patients (p>0.05). Conclusion: Thalidomide can effectively control the delayed vomiting of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and the adverse reactions of the agent can be tolerated.

  9. Eosinophilia in a patient with cyclical vomiting: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald S Matthew

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eosinophilic gastritis is related to eosinophilic gastroenteritis, varying only in regards to the extent of disease and small bowel involvement. Common symptoms reported are similar to our patient's including: abdominal pain, epigastric pain, anorexia, bloating, weight loss, diarrhea, ankle edema, dysphagia, melaena and postprandial nausea and vomiting. Microscopic features of eosinophilic infiltration usually occur in the lamina propria or submucosa with perivascular aggregates. The disease is likely mediated by eosinophils activated by various cytokines and chemokines. Therapy centers around the use of immunosuppressive agents and dietary therapy if food allergy is a factor. Case presentation The patient is a 31 year old Caucasian female with a past medical history significant for ulcerative colitis. She presented with recurrent bouts of vomiting, abdominal pain and chest discomfort of 11 months duration. The bouts of vomiting had been reoccurring every 7–10 days, with each episode lasting for 1–3 days. This was associated with extreme weakness and cachexia. Gastric biopsies revealed intense eosinophilic infiltration. The patient responded to glucocorticoids and azathioprine. The differential diagnosis and molecular pathogenesis of eosinophilic gastritis as well as the molecular effects of glucocorticoids in eosinophilic disorders are discussed. Conclusions The patient responded to a combination of glucocorticosteroids and azathioprine with decreased eosinophilia and symptoms. It is likely that eosinophil-active cytokines such as interleukin-3 (IL-3, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and IL-5 play pivotal roles in this disease. Chemokines such as eotaxin may be involved in eosinophil recruitment. These mediators are downregulated or inhibited by the use of immunosuppressive medications.

  10. Pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism on F-18 FDG brain PET during vomiting and symptom free periods in cyclic vomiting syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eun Joo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) is characterized by recurrent, periodic, self-limiting vomiting. However, its pathogenesis is not yet established. We investigated the changes of the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 FDG during the vomiting attack and symptom free period in two children with CVS. FDG PET study showed the markedly increased metabolism in both temporal lobes and also in the medulla and cerebellum during the vomiting period. Also, FDG PET showed the decreased metabolism in the parieto-occipital and occipital areas during the in vomiting period. The area with decreased metabolism seemed to be related with the region showing abnormalities in EEG and perfusion SPECT studies. We expect that what we observed would be a helpful finding in clarifying the pathogenesis of the CVS

  11. Treatment of nausea and vomiting in terminally ill cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glare, Paul A; Dunwoodie, David; Clark, Katherine; Ward, Alicia; Yates, Patsy; Ryan, Sharon; Hardy, Janet R

    2008-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting is a common and distressing symptom complex in patients with far-advanced cancer, affecting up to 60% of individuals at some stage of their illness. The current approach to the palliative care of patients with nausea and vomiting is based on identifying the cause, understanding its pathophysiology and knowing the pharmacology of the drugs available for its amelioration. The following six main syndromes are identified: gastric stasis, biochemical, raised intracranial pressure, vestibular, mechanical bowel obstruction and ileus. A careful history, focused physical examination and appropriate investigations are needed to elucidate the syndrome and its cause, so that therapy is rational. Drugs are the mainstay of treatment in terminal cancer, and the main classes of antiemetic agents are prokinetics, dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, anticholinergics and serotonin antagonists. Dexamethasone and octreotide are also used, especially in bowel obstruction. Non-drug measures are important in relieving the associated distress. Patients should be able to die comfortably, without tubes. Despite decades of practice affirming this approach, the evidence base is weak and well designed studies are urgently needed.

  12. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gan, Tong J; Joseph, Nicholas; Uribe, Alberto; Pandya, Jyoti; Dalal, Rohan; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a complication affecting between 20 and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain and anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu) at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, postdischarge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu), as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release and modulation of opioid neuropeptides. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing.

  13. Effect of intramuscular clebopride on postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, D F; Linhares, S; Gesser, N; Pederneiras, S G

    1985-01-01

    The antiemetic effect of clebopride, a new derivative of the orthopramide group, was compared with that of placebo in 298 women undergoing elective surgery. A group of 150 patients received premedication of 1 mg/kg of meperidine, administered intramuscularly (IM), and a group of 148 patients received premedication of 10 mg of diazepam IM. All patients received 0.5 mg of atropine IM. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with halogenated N2O/O2. In a double-blind procedure, clebopride (2 mg) or placebo was injected IM at the end of anesthesia and whenever a patient had a second episode of vomiting. Clebopride appeared to be better than placebo in the prevention of nausea (P less than or equal to 0.05) and vomiting (P less than or equal to 0.001) during the 12-hour observation period. The frequency of side effects was virtually the same in patients given clebopride and patients given placebo.

  14. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta eStoicea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV is a complication affecting between 20% and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV, through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain, anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, post-discharge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu, as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release of opioid neuropeptides and modulation. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing.

  15. Aromatherapy for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Sonia; Steels, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne; Gibbons, Kristen

    2012-04-18

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon and current therapies are not always effective for all patients. Aromatherapy has been suggested as a possible addition to the available treatment strategies. This review sought to establish what effect the use of aromatherapy has on the severity and duration of established postoperative nausea and vomiting and whether aromatherapy can be used with safety and clinical effectiveness comparable to standard pharmacological treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; CAM on PubMed; Meditext; LILACS; and ISI Web of Science as well as grey literature sources and the reference lists of retrieved articles. We conducted database searches up to August 2011. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) where aromatherapy was used to treat postoperative nausea and vomiting. Interventions were all types of aromatherapy. Aromatherapy was defined as the inhalation of the vapours of any substance for the purposes of a therapeutic benefit. Primary outcomes were the severity and duration of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Secondary outcomes were adverse reactions, use of rescue anti-emetics and patient satisfaction with treatment. Two review authors assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. As all outcomes analysed were dichotomous, we used a fixed-effect model and calculated relative risk (RR) with associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The nine included studies comprised six RCTs and three CCTs with a total of 402 participants. The mean age and range data for all participants were not reported for all studies. The method of randomization in four of the six included RCTs was explicitly stated and was adequate. Incomplete reporting of data affected the completeness of the analysis. Compared with placebo, isopropyl alcohol vapour

  16. Acupressure at acupoint P6 for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majholm, Birgitte; Møller, Ann M

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting causes discomfort in many patients despite both antiemetic prophylactics and improved anaesthetic techniques. Stimulation of acupoint P6 is described as an alternative method for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting.In a randomised, double-blinded stu......, we aimed to investigate the effect of P6 acupoint stimulation on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting within 24 h postoperatively with an acupressure wristband: Vital-Band....

  17. Caffeine for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Steinbrook

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis: Statistical comparisons were tested using bivariable linear and logistic regression for each outcome and then adjusted for high/low risk. Results: Nausea in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU was more common in the caffeine (16 of 62 patients than the placebo group (seven of 69; P = 0.02. There were no significant differences in the use of rescue antiemetics in the PACU, in the incidence of nausea or vomiting over 24 h postoperatively, nor in other outcomes (headache, fatigue, or overall satisfaction either in the PACU or at 24 h; time-to-discharge was similar for both groups. Conclusion: Caffeine was not effective in the prevention of PONV or headache, and did not improve time-to-discharge or patient satisfaction.

  18. Mitochondrial disorder caused Charles Darwin's cyclic vomiting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finsterer J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Josef Finsterer,1 John Hayman21Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftng, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: Charles Darwin (CD, “father of modern biology,” suffered from multisystem illness from early adulthood. The most disabling manifestation was cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS. This study aims at finding the possible cause of CVS in CD.Methods: A literature search using the PubMed database was carried out, and CD's complaints, as reported in his personal writings and those of his relatives, friends, colleagues, biographers, were compared with various manifestations of mitochondrial disorders (MIDs, known to cause CVS, described in the literature.Results: Organ tissues involved in CD's disease were brain, nerves, muscles, vestibular apparatus, heart, gut, and skin. Cerebral manifestations included episodic headache, visual disturbance, episodic memory loss, periodic paralysis, hysterical crying, panic attacks, and episodes of depression. Manifestations of polyneuropathy included numbness, paresthesias, increased sweating, temperature sensitivity, and arterial hypotension. Muscular manifestations included periods of exhaustion, easy fatigability, myalgia, and muscle twitching. Cardiac manifestations included episodes of palpitations and chest pain. Gastrointestinal manifestations were CVS, dental problems, abnormal seasickness, eructation, belching, and flatulence. Dermatological manifestations included painful lips, dermatitis, eczema, and facial edema. Treatments with beneficial effects to his complaints were rest, relaxation, heat, and hydrotherapy.Conclusion: CVS in CD was most likely due to a multisystem, nonsyndromic MID. This diagnosis is based upon the multisystem nature of his disease, the fact that CVS is most frequently the manifestation of a MID, the family history, the variable phenotypic expression between affected family members, the fact that symptoms were triggered by stress

  19. Intractable vomiting caused by vertebral artery compressing the medulla: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gorton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral artery compressing the medulla and causing intractable vomiting has only been reported once previously. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman with intractable nausea and vomiting causing a 50 pound weight loss and who failed medical management and whose symptoms were completely reversed following microvascular decompression (MVD.

  20. Fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H. B.; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    For patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, the ongoing development of antiemetic treatment is of significant importance. Patients consider nausea and vomiting among the most distressing symptoms of chemotherapy, and as new antiemetics have been very successful in prevention of vomiting, agents...... intravenous dose of 150 mg can replace the aprepitant 3-day oral regimen. This article focuses on the development and clinical application of fosaprepitant....

  1. The nursing care of nausea and vomiting occurred in interventional treatment for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Qing'na; Li Guoqing; Bai Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effective nursing measures of nausea and vomiting occurred in percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction. Methods: During the period from Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2011, percutaneous coronary intervention was carried out in 109 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Among the 109 patients, 21 developed nausea, 83 developed vomiting one to three times and 5 developed projectile vomiting for 4-5 times. For these patients the nursing assessment was conducted, while proper psychological care, symptomatic nursing, psychosomatic relaxation, guidance for vomiting posture, vomiting nursing, balanced replenishment of fluid, etc. were carried out in order to ensure the accomplishment of percutaneous coronary intervention. Results: After the employment of nursing measures, no recurrence of vomiting was seen in 21 patients, the percutaneous coronary intervention was uninterruptedly completed in 83 patients, and in five patients with severe vomiting the procedure was eventually accomplished. Conclusion: The effective nursing care of nausea and vomiting plays an important auxiliary role in performing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction. (authors)

  2. Pre- and Postoperative Vomiting in Children Undergoing Video-Assisted Gastrostomy Tube Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjörn Backman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of pre- and postoperative vomiting in children undergoing a Video-Assisted Gastrostomy (VAG operation. Patients and Methods. 180 children underwent a VAG operation and were subdivided into groups based on their underlying diagnosis. An anamnesis with respect to vomiting was taken from each of the children’s parents before the operation. After the VAG operation, all patients were followed prospectively at one and six months after surgery. All complications including vomiting were documented according to a standardized protocol. Results. Vomiting occurred preoperatively in 51 children (28%. One month after surgery the incidence was 43 (24% in the same group of children and six months after it was found in 40 (22%. There was a difference in vomiting frequency both pre- and postoperatively between the children in the groups with different diagnoses included in the study. No difference was noted in pre- and postoperative vomiting frequency within each specific diagnosis group. Conclusion. The preoperative vomiting symptoms persisted after the VAG operation. Neurologically impaired children had a higher incidence of vomiting than patients with other diagnoses, a well-known fact, probably due to their underlying diagnosis and not the VAG operation. This information is useful in preoperative counselling.

  3. Survival analysis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yi Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Survival analysis using Cox regression showed that the average consumption of opioids played an important role in postoperative nausea and vomiting, a result not found by logistic regression. Therefore, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients cannot be reliably determined on the basis of a single visit at one point in time.

  4. The impact of nausea and vomiting on women: a burden of early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Crowther, C; Beilby, J; Dandeaux, J

    2000-11-01

    Nausea and vomiting are troublesome symptoms occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe the impact these symptoms have on women in early pregnancy by interviewing, using a structured questionnaire, 593 pregnant women presenting with nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy. The women were asked to complete the Rhodes index of nausea and vomiting and the MOS 36 Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Symptoms of nausea and vomiting started early in pregnancy. Nausea was the most troublesome symptom experienced by women, both in its duration and intensity. Low scores for the SF-36 were found for all items, particularly physical functioning, energy and social functioning. The women described substantial effects on working, household duties and parenting activities. Findings from this study suggest nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy has a profound impact on women's general sense of well-being and day to day life activities.

  5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome masking a fatal metabolic disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, Marianne

    2013-05-01

    Disorders of fatty acid oxidation are rare but can be fatal. Hypoglycaemia with acidosis is a cardinal feature. Cases may present during early childhood or can be delayed into adolescence or beyond. We present a case of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), an extremely rare disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Our 20-year-old patient presented with cardiovascular collapse, raised anion gap metabolic acidosis and non-ketotic hypoglycaemia. She subsequently developed multi-organ failure and sadly died. She had a previous diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) for more than 10 years, warranting frequent hospital admissions. The association between CVS and MADD has been made before though the exact relationship is unclear. All patients with persistent severe CVS should have metabolic investigations to exclude disorders of fatty acid oxidation. In case of non-ketotic hypoglycaemia with acidosis, the patient should be urgently referred to a specialist in metabolic diseases. All practitioners should be aware of these rare disorders as a cause of unexplained acidosis.

  6. Rolapitant: A Review in Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Young-A; Deeks, Emma D

    2017-10-01

    Oral rolapitant (Varubi™; Varuby ® ), a long-acting neurokinin-1 (NK 1 ) receptor antagonist (RA), is indicated in the USA and EU as part of an antiemetic regimen to prevent delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in adults receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC). In randomized, phase III trials, a single oral dose of rolapitant 180 mg was effective in preventing delayed CINV compared with placebo, when each was used in combination with a 5-HT 3 RA plus dexamethasone, in adults receiving their first course of HEC or MEC. The benefits of rolapitant were maintained over multiple cycles of chemotherapy. The tolerability profile of rolapitant is similar to that of placebo and consistent with that of other NK 1 RAs. However, rolapitant differs from other existing NK 1 RAs in that it does not interact with CYP3A4, thereby negating the need for dexamethasone dose adjustments and potentially making rolapitant a more suitable option for patients receiving CYP3A4 substrates. Thus, oral rolapitant is an effective and well tolerated NK 1 RA that expands the treatment options for preventing delayed CINV in adults receiving HEC or MEC.

  7. Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Mitigation With Music Interventions
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Jason M; Conradi Stark, Jody; Vallerand, April H

    2018-01-01

    Despite three decades of studies examining music interventions as a mitigant of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), to date, no systematic review of this literature exists.
. PubMed, Scopus, PsycInfo®, CINAHL®, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched. Keywords for all databases were music, chemotherapy, and nausea.
. All studies were appraised for methodology and results.
. 10 studies met inclusion criteria for review. Sample sizes were generally small and nonrandomized. Locus of control for music selection was more often with the investigator rather than the participant. Few studies controlled for the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy administered, nor for known patient-specific risk factors for CINV.
. The existing data have been largely generated by nurse scientists, and implications for nursing practice are many, because music interventions are low-cost, easily accessible, and without known adverse effects. However, this specific body of knowledge requires additional substantive inquiry to generate clinically relevant data.

  8. Aprepitant: a promising antiemetic for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseeri, Mohamad A.

    2006-01-01

    Most patients who undergo chemotherapy have noted that nausea and vomiting are the most feared and distressing side-effects of cancer treatment (1). Nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy can be classified as acute, delayed, or anticipatory. Acute emesis generally occurs within 24 hours of chemotherapy administration; while delayed nausea and vomiting begin 24 hours after chemotherapy and may continue for up to one week. Anticipatory emesis occurs prior to chemotherapy in patients who anticipate another episode by sight, odors or memory of the place where acute nausea and vomiting occurred (2, 3). Different neurotransmitters found in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and central nervous system (CNS) mediate the pathophysiology of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). These include dopamine, histamine, acetycholine, serotonin, and substance P; which act directly and indirectly on the vomiting center located in the lateral reticular formation of the medulla (1, 4). Substance P is a member of the tachykinins family of neuropeptides. The biological activity of this substance is to induce vomiting mediated by neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptors located primarily in the GIT and the CNS (5). Both Nk1 receptors and substance P play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute and delayed CINV. (author)

  9. Is ginger beneficial for nausea and vomiting? An update of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; Kiss, Nicole; Isenring, Liz

    2015-06-01

    Nausea and vomiting can pose a significant burden to patients in a variety of clinical settings. Previous evidence suggests that ginger may be an effective treatment for these symptoms; however, current evidence has been mixed. This article discusses recent clinical trials that have investigated ginger as a treatment for multiple types of nausea and vomiting. In addition, the potential mechanisms of action of ginger will be discussed. This article identified nine studies and seven reviews that investigated ginger for morning sickness, postoperative nausea and vomiting, chemotherapy-induced, and antiretroviral-induced nausea and vomiting. All studies reported that ginger provided a significant reduction in nausea and vomiting; however, the clinical relevance of some studies is less certain. Common limitations within the literature include the lack of standardized extracts, poorly controlled or blinded studies, and limited sample size. In addition, recent evidence has provided further support for 5-HT3 receptor antagonism as a mechanism by which ginger may exert its potentially beneficial effect on nausea and vomiting. The results of studies in this article suggest that ginger is a promising treatment for nausea and vomiting in a variety of clinical settings and possesses a clinically relevant mechanism. However, further studies are required to address the limitations in the current clinical literature before firm recommendations for its use can be made.

  10. Aprepitant, Granisetron, & Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea & Vomiting in Pts. Receiving Cyclophosphamide Before a Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Nausea and Vomiting; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  11. Effect of postoperative experiences on willingness to pay to avoid postoperative pain, nausea, and vomiting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Jolanda E.; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Moons, Karel G.; Kalkman, Cor J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors assessed the willingness to pay (WTP) for "perfect" prophylactic antiemetics and analgesics in patients who were scheduled to undergo surgery during general anesthesia. Furthermore, they determined whether postoperative experiences of pain and nausea and vomiting (PONV)

  12. [Cyclic vomiting with ketosis as a cause of acute kidney dysfunction: own clinical experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowska-Nawarycz, L; Rapacka, E; Baszczyński, J; Górski, P; Czajka, J; Makowski, M; Kudzin, A

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate renal activity during cyclic vomiting with ketosis. The clinical material was obtained from 50 cases of children hospitalized in Department of Pediatrics Military Medical University within 1993-1999 what makes about 1% of all patients. The examined group consisted of 26 boys (52%) and 24 girls (48%). Three of the children were repeatedly hospitalized (3 to 8 times) because of acetonemic vomiting. The special attention during the laboratory studies was paid to evaluation of renal activity. Vomiting with ketosis were associated with temporary kidneys acute dysfunction in 46% of cases. In 98% of cases the parenteral hydration was necessary. Ketonemic vomiting with kidneys dysfunction was observed mainly with the children in pre-school age.

  13. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: incidence, characteristics and risk factors--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, C; Veiga, D; Pereira, H; Martinho, C; Abelha, F

    2013-05-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting are a common complication after surgery. The objective of the study was to identify risk factors, and to determine the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a cohort of patients in a tertiary university hospital. Prospective cohort study was conducted in a Post Anesthetic Care Unit during a period of 3 weeks. One hundred and fifty-seven adult patients subjected to scheduled non-cardiac and non-intracranial surgery were eligible for the study. Patient perioperative characteristics data were analyzed. The postoperative nausea and vomiting intensity scale and nausea visual analog scale were applied to measure postoperative nausea and vomiting at 6h and 24h after surgery. Descriptive analysis was performed and the Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact, or Chi-square tests were applied. A univariate and multivariate logistic binary regressions with calculation of odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were performed. Thirty-nine (25%) patients and 54 (34%) patients had postoperative nausea and vomiting at 6h and 24h, respectively. Of the patients who experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting, 6 (15%) had clinically significant postoperative nausea and vomiting (postoperative nausea and vomiting intensity scale>50) at 6h and 9 (23%) at 24h. The majority of patients classified nausea as mild at 6h (57%) and 24h (56%). At 6h, 3 (10%) patients classified nausea as severe, and at 24h 5 (9%) patients reported the same. The median and interquartile ranges for nausea visual analog scale were 40 (20-60) at 6h and 50 (20-60) at 24h. Six patients (14%) at 6h, and 7 (18%) at 24h had a nausea visual analog scale score>75. Patients with postoperative nausea and vomiting intensity scale>50 had higher scores in the nausea visual analog scale at 6h (75 versus 30, P2 (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.4, P=.001), previous history of postoperative nausea and vomiting (OR 2.9 95% CI 1.3-6.5, P=.009) and female patients (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1

  14. A Controlled Study Using Acupuncture as an Adjuvant to Treat Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lao, Lixing

    2001-01-01

    ...) on nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of EA as an adjuvant on N/V in chemotherapy patients who do not respond to conventional antiemetics...

  15. Sensitizing Effects of Pretreatment Measures on Cancer Chemotherapy Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Diane; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored sensitizing effects of pretreatment assessment on posttreatment chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and interactive effects of personal dispositions for information seeking. Oncology patients rated side effects experienced previously (experimental condition), or parking conditions (control). Posttreatment, nausea of experimentals was…

  16. Automated reminders increase adherence to guidelines for administration of prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Fabian O.; Klok, Toni; Hollmann, Markus W.; Kal, Jasper E.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective Correct identification of patients at high risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), prescription of PONV prophylaxis and correct administration of medication are all important for effective PONV prophylaxis. This has been acknowledged by development of guidelines

  17. Expiratory muscle control during vomiting - Role of brain stem expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.; Tan, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling the muscles involved during vomiting were examined using decerebrated cats. In one experiment, the activity of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons was recorded during induced 'fictive vomiting' (i.e., a series of bursts of coactivation of abdominal and phrenic nerves that would be expected to produce expulsion in unparalyzed animals) and vomiting. In a second, abdominal muscle electromyographic and nerve activity were compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons as they cross the midline between C1 and the obex (the procedure that is known to abolish expiratory modulation of internal intercostal muscle activity). The results of the study indicate that the abdominal muscles are controlled differently during respiration and vomiting.

  18. Is Age a Determinant for Nausea and Vomiting in Disabled Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... disabled patients under sedation or general anesthesia. In this study, we aimed ... dental procedures in patients with anxiety and fear, cognitive ... of Paediatric Dentistry, ..... management of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  19. Postoperative nausea and vomiting: Validation of the Portuguese version of the Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Intensity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalila, Veiga; Pereira, Helder; Moreno, Carlos; Martinho, Clarisse; Santos, Cristina; Abelha, Fernando José

    2013-01-01

    The Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) Intensity Scale was developed to define clinically important PONV. The aim of this study was to translate, retranslate and validate the PONV Intensity Scale for use in Portuguese Post Anesthetic Care Unit (PACU) settings. The PONV Intensity Scale was translated and back-translated in accordance with available guidelines. The research team conducted an observational and cohort prospective study in a PACU. One-hundred fifty-seven adult patients admiited after surgery over three weeks were evaluated for PONV. Measurements included nausea visual analogic scale (VAS) at 6 and 24 hours, postoperatively. We assessed reliability and observer disagreement using interclass correlation (ICC) and Information-Based Measure of Disagreement (IBMD). We compared VAS scores between patients with clinically significant (≥50) and not significant (<50) PONV. Thirty-nine patients (25%) had PONV at 6 hours and 54 (34%) had PONV at 24 hours. Thirty-six and 54 patients experienced nausea at 6 and 24 hours, respectively. Among patients with PONV, 6 patients (15%) and 9 patients (27%) had a clinically significant PONV intensity scale score at 6 and at 24 hours, respectively. The reliability was good both for PONV intensity scale score and for VAS and observer disagreement was slightly higher for VAS. The median nausea VAS scores were higher in patients with clinically significant PONV Intensity score. The PONV Intensity Scale appears to be an accurate and reliable assessment and monitoring instrument for PONV in the PACU settings. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Vomiting as a Symptom and Transmission Risk in Norovirus Illness: Evidence from Human Challenge Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Kirby

    Full Text Available In the US, noroviruses are estimated to cause 21 million cases annually with economic losses reaching $2 billion. Outbreak investigations frequently implicate vomiting as a major transmission risk. However, little is known about the characteristics of vomiting as a symptom or the amount of virus present in emesis.Emesis samples and symptomology data were obtained from previous norovirus human challenge studies with GI.1 Norwalk virus, GII.2 Snow Mountain virus, and a pilot study with GII.1 Hawaii virus. Viral titers in emesis were determined using strain-specific quantitative RT-PCR. In all four studies, vomiting was common with 40-100% of infected subjects vomiting at least once. However, only 45% of subjects with vomiting also had diarrhea. Most of the emesis samples had detectable virus and the mean viral titers were 8.0 x 105 and 3.9 x 104 genomic equivalent copies (GEC/ml for GI and GII viruses, respectively (p = 0.02. Sample pH was correlated with GII.2 Snow Mountain virus detection.Half of all subjects with symptomatic infection experienced vomiting and the average subject shed 1.7 x 108 GEC in emesis. Unlike shedding through stool, vomiting is more likely to result in significant environmental contamination, leading to transmission through fomites and airborne droplets. This quantitative data will be critical for risk assessment studies to further understand norovirus transmission and develop effective control measures. The correlation between sample pH and virus detection is consistent with a single site of virus replication in the small intestine and stomach contents becoming contaminated by intestinal reflux. Additionally, the frequency of vomiting without concurrent diarrhea suggests that epidemiology studies that enroll subjects based on the presence of diarrhea may be significantly underestimating the true burden of norovirus disease.

  1. Study of the effect of mint oil on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Hajar; Behmanesh, Fereshteh; Mohsenzadeh, Farideh; Hajahmadi, Mahmood; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2012-11-01

    Approximately 80 percent of pregnant women suffer by some degree of nausea and vomiting. But the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is rarely successful. The aim of this study was evaluation the effect of mint on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy that its treatment in some recent research has been effective. In this double blind RCT, 60 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy were sampled and divided into two groups with Block-randomized method. mint group, in addition to giving the routine training, for four consecutive nights, before sleeping, a bowel of water whit four drops of pure mint essential oil placed on the floor near their beds and in control groups were used four drops of normal saline . The severity of nausea by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and severity of vomiting by counting the number of its in 7 days prior, 4 days during, and 7 days after intervention were assessed. The results showed that the severity of nausea and vomiting did not differ between the two groups in 7days before and after intervention by using repeated measurement test. But during intervention, the severity of nausea showed a decreasing trend (especially in 4th night) in the mint and an increasing trend in the control group. The severity of nausea within 7 days after the intervention had a decreasing trend in both groups; however, the intensity was lower in the mint than saline group but not statically significant. No meaningful relationship has been detected during and after intervention for the intensity of vomiting. The results of study showed that peppermint essential oil hasn't the effect on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

  2. Transdermal granisetron: a guide to its use in preventing nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M; Duggan, Sean T; Curran, Monique P

    2012-09-01

    Transdermal granisetron (Sancuso®) is effective in the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer who are receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy for 3-5 days. Transdermal granisetron is noninferior to oral granisetron in this indication, and is generally well tolerated in this indication. Thus, transdermal granisetron provides a convenient option for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, with the potential to improve patient compliance.

  3. Effectiveness of granisetron in controlling pediatric gastroenteritis-related vomiting after discharge from the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Khajista; BinSalleeh, Hashim M; Shah, Ubaid H; AlGhamedi, Najwa; Tamim, Hani; Mubasher, Mohamed; Alrasheed, Faris; Alkanhal, Abdulrahman; AlTamimi, Saleh A

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of oral granisetron (a long-acting 5-HT3 receptor antagonist) in stopping vomiting subsequent to discharge from emergency department (ED), in 6-month-old to 8-year-old patients with gastroenteritis-related vomiting and dehydration, who had failed an initial trial of oral rehydration (ORT). Eligible patients were offered ORT on a slowly advancing schedule. Patients who tolerated the initial ORT were discharged home. Patients who vomited were randomized to receive either 40 μg/kg of granisetron or placebo, and ORT was resumed. Patients who tolerated the postrandomization ORT were discharged home with another dose of the study drug. Parents were contacted by telephone every 24 hours until complete resolution of symptoms. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with vomiting at 24 hours. Of the 900 eligible patients, 537 (60%) tolerated the initial ORT and were discharged home. Of the patients who vomited during the initial ORT, 165 were included in the final study sample (placebo, n = 82; granisetron, n = 83). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients with vomiting at 24 hours (granisetron, n = 38; placebo, n = 45; odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-1.19; P = .16). A similar trend in the proportion of patients with vomiting was noted for the entire follow-up period (granisetron, n = 43; placebo, n = 47; odds ratio, 0.73; P = .33; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.36). Granisetron was not effective in controlling gastroenteritis-related vomiting subsequent to discharge from ED. It did not change the expected course of the illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a look at complementary techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaril, Myrna E; Windle, Pamela E; Burkard, Joseph F

    2006-12-01

    Complementary modalities, used alone or in combination with pharmacologic therapies, play an important role in the prevention and management of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and post discharge nausea and vomiting (PDNV). This article will review the evidence for the effective use of complementary modalities: acupuncture and related techniques, aromatherapy, and music therapy that may be integrated in the perianesthesia nurse's plan of care to prevent or manage PONV.

  5. LOW OXYGENATION STATUS INCREASES NAUSEA-VOMITING INCIDENCE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia DY Nekada

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Data from Indonesia Basic Health Research (2013 states that the chronic renal failure in Indonesia is increasing, especially in Yogyakarta with the prevalence of chronic renal failure of 0,3%. If the patients of chronic renal failure are in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD, the kidney needs replacement therapy to help its function. This therapy is called Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT or Hemodialysis (HD. Hemodialysis therapy may influence to the imbalance of oxyhemoglobin in the blood. Patients undergoing hemodialysis may experience intradialytic nausea and vomiting. The objective of this study is to identify whether there is a relationship between pre-dialysis oxygenation status through oxygen saturation (SpO2 and respiratory rate (RR examination and the intradialytic nausea-vomiting occurrence. Method: This research is a comparative research with analytical cross sectional design. This research was conducted in hemodialysis room in Public Hospital of Panembahan Senopati Bantul. The subject of the research was taken using total sampling, by paying attention to research ethics. The total research subjects are 183 respondents. The researchers measured the oxygen saturation and patients’ respiratory rate and examined the intradialytic nausea and vomiting complaints. Result: The analysis result of Fisher’s exact in this research shows p value of 0,000 both in bivariate analysis of oxygen saturation to the nausea and vomiting occurrence and in bivariate analysis of the respiratory rate to the nausea and vomiting occurrence. The multivariate analysis employing regression logistic shows that the OR of oxygen saturation is 73,57, this means that the measurement of the abnormal oxygen saturation has the chance of seventy three times more to the nausea and vomiting occurrence, if compared to the patients with normal oxygen saturation. Conclusion and Suggestion: Intradialytic nausea and vomiting is one of the causes

  6. Effectiveness of Ginger Essential Oil on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Abdominal Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Ri; Shin, Hye Sook

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of aromatherapy with ginger essential oil on nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients. This was a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group and repeated measures. The experimental group (n = 30) received ginger essential oil inhalation. The placebo control group (n = 30) received normal saline inhalation. The level of postoperative nausea and vomiting was measured using a Korean version of the Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR) at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 h after aromatherapy administration. The data were collected from July 23 to August 22, 2012. Nausea and vomiting scores were significantly lower in the experimental group with ginger essential oil inhalation than those in the placebo control group with normal saline. In the experimental group, the nausea and vomiting scores decreased considerably in the first 6 h after inhaled aromatherapy with ginger essential oil. Findings indicate that ginger essential oil inhalation has implications for alleviating postoperative nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients.

  7. Armed rollers: does nestling's vomit function as a defence against predators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deseada Parejo

    Full Text Available Chemical defences against predators are widespread in the animal kingdom although have been seldom reported in birds. Here, we investigate the possibility that the orange liquid that nestlings of an insectivorous bird, the Eurasian roller (Coracias garrulus, expel when scared at their nests acts as a chemical defence against predators. We studied the diet of nestling rollers and vomit origin, its chemical composition and deterrent effect on a mammal generalist predator. We also hypothesized that nestling rollers, as their main prey (i.e. grasshoppers do from plants, could sequester chemicals from their prey for their use. Grasshoppers, that also regurgitate when facing to a threat, store the harmful substances used by plants to defend themselves against herbivores. We found that nestling rollers only vomit after being grasped and moved. The production of vomit depended on food consumption and the vomit contained two deterrent chemicals (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids stored by grasshoppers and used by plants to diminish herbivory, suggesting that they originate from the rollers' prey. Finally, we showed for the first time that the oral secretion of a vertebrate had a deterrent effect on a model predator because vomit of nestling rollers made meat distasteful to dogs. These results support the idea that the vomit of nestling rollers is a chemical defence against predators.

  8. [Risk factors and frequency of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients operated under general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska-Gaweł, Anna; Porzych, Katarzyna; Piskunowicz, Grazyna

    2006-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting belong to fairly frequent postoperative complications, but they occupy a distant position on the list of complications, which most probably result from a general conviction that they do not pose a direct threat to patients. The objective of this work is specification of factors facilitating occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and determination of frequency of their occurrence in patients operated under general anesthesia. Questionnaire about the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), was carried out and included 253 adult sick persons (102 female and 151 male patients), in the age between 23-76 (average 42.3 +/- 6.1 years), who had undergone operative procedure in the field of abdominal and urology surgery, orthopedic, thyroid surgery and laryngological, ophthalmology and plastic surgery, under general anesthesia. The questionnaire form included preoperative characteristics of a patient (age, sex, smoking, motion sickness and migraine headaches in history, and PONV occurring earlier), type of operative procedure, used anesthetic agents, and analgesic agents applied in postoperative analgesia. The anesthesiologist administering anesthetic was not informed about the investigation carried out and did not receive any additional pieces of advice regarding the type of applied anesthetic agents or the method of conducting postoperative analgesia. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used in the evaluation of nausea. Nausea and vomiting were assessed every two hours within the first postoperative 12 hours and every 4 hours for the next 24 hours. Nausea and vomiting were treated as two separate complications. Nausea itself occurred in 22.7% of patients; whereas vomiting in 13.2%. Both symptoms occurred in 14.2% of patients. Nausea occurred 4.1 +/- 0.8 hours after operation; whereas vomiting after 5.3 +/- 1.1 hours. Women suffered more often than men from (R = 0.678 p patients suffering from PONV earlier (R = 0

  9. [Assessment of thyroid function in women treated for vomiting in early pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Beata; Preis, Krzysztof; Swiatkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna

    2005-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism does not influence procreation ability significantly, but very often causes complications of the course of pregnancy and increases neonatal morbidity and mortality in newborns. Nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy are very common complaints in these patients. The aim of the study was to prove, that assessment of the thyroid hormones in every vomiting woman in the first trimester allows to start the proper treatment of hyperthyreosis as early as possible and improves the prognosis. Authors analyzed 22 pregnant women treated for vomiting during the first trimester in the Department of Obstetrics and 5 women treated in the Outpatient Clinic. In none of them hormonal dysfunction was diagnosed before pregnancy. In 21 patients free thyroxine (fT4) in serum was assessed. In 8 cases (38%) hyperthyreosis was diagnosed. Except the routine anti vomiting treatment, they received a beta-blocker 30 mg per day. It allowed to avoid hospitalization in three pregnant women treated in the outpatient clinic. Two patients, who had earlier two spontaneous abortions, delivered healthy babies. 1. The beta-blocker in treatment gives very good results and allows to avoid hospitalization in patients with hyperthyroidism and hyper emesis gravidarum. 2. In some patients vomiting may be the only symptom of sub clinical hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy. Assessment of the thyroid hormones levels and adequate treatment may give these women a chance for a healthy child.

  10. A brief review of current scientific evidence involving aromatherapy use for nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Pei Lin; Zakaria, Noor Salihah

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compile existing scientific evidence regarding the effects of essential oils (EOs) administered via inhalation for the alleviation of nausea and vomiting. CINAHL, PubMed, and EBSCO Host and Science Direct databases were searched for articles related to the use of EOs and/or aromatherapy for nausea and vomiting. Only articles using English as a language of publication were included. Eligible articles included all forms of evidence (nonexperimental, experimental, case report). Interventions were limited to the use of EOs by inhalation of their vapors to treat symptoms of nausea and vomiting in various conditions regardless of age group. Studies where the intervention did not utilize EOs or were concerned with only alcohol inhalation and trials that combined the use of aromatherapy with other treatments (massage, relaxations, or acupressure) were excluded. Five (5) articles met the inclusion criteria encompassing trials with 328 respondents. Their results suggest that the inhaled vapor of peppermint or ginger essential oils not only reduced the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting but also decreased antiemetic requirements and consequently improved patient satisfaction. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to methodological flaws in the existing research articles and an acute lack of additional research in this area. The existing evidence is encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before confirmation of EOs effectiveness in treating nausea and vomiting can be strongly substantiated.

  11. Dexmedetomidine versus Propofol in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynecologic laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Choubsaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Post-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV occurs in 20%-30% of patients, and is the second most common complaints after pain. This unpleasant complication can lead to rare but serious medical complications such as aspiration of gastric contents, suture dehiscence, esophageal rupture, subcutaneous emphysema, or pneumothorax. Annual PONV-related health care costs reach several hundred million dollars. Many interventions have been done to control PONV, but complications of drug interactions limit the use of drugs. For example, Dropridol has been placed on the Black Box Warning because of the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. Methods: This clinical trial recruited 80 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA class I or II who were scheduled for elective gynecologic laparoscopic surgery. They were randomly divided into two groups: Propofol and Dexmedetomidine. The data was collected by the first nurse in PACUs and the second nurse in post-surgery ward, including age, weight, smoking history, nausea, vomiting and severity of vomiting. Patients and observers were blinded to the prescribed hypnotic drugs. The severity of nausea was assessed by visual analogue scale (ranging 0 to 10 in 0-2, 2-6 and 6-24 hours. The state of nausea was also recorded. Results: The incidence of nausea and the severity of vomiting significantly decreased in the dexmedetomidine group compared to the Propofol group (PV=0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that Dexmedetomidine can reduce the incidence of nausea and severity of vomiting compared to Propofol.

  12. Definition of "persistent vomiting" in current medical literature: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Mostafa Ebraheem; Elshafay, Abdelrahman; Kansakar, Aswin Ratna; Mehyar, Ghaleb Muhammad; Dang, Nguyen Phan Hoang; Mattar, Omar Mohamed; Iqtadar, Somia; Mostafa, Mostafa Reda; Hai, Vu Ngoc; Vu, Tran Le-Huy; Ghazy, Ahmed Abdelmotaleb; Kaboub, Fatima; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Persistent vomiting is mentioned as a symptom of a large variety of systemic disorders. It is commonly used interchangeably with chronic, recurrent, or intractable vomiting and widely used as a warning sign of severe illness in dengue infection. However, it has been poorly defined in the medical literature. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review a definition of persistent vomiting in the medical literature. A systematic search was done through; PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, VHL, WHO-GHL, Grey Literature Report, POPLINE, and SIGLE for the last 10 years. Consensus on the definition was considered to be reached if at least 50% of studies described the same definition using the Delphi consensus technique. Of 2362 abstracts reviewed, 15 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Three studies used the same definition. Another 2 studies defined it as vomiting of all foods and fluid in 24 hours. Three studies defined persistent vomiting in the units of days or weeks. Four studies used the number of episodes: ≥2 episodes 15 minutes apart, >3 episodes in 12 hours, and >3 episodes within 24 hours. No consensus for the definition was found among authors. This is a point of concern that needs to be addressed by further studies.

  13. Aromatherapy for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Sonia; Steels, Elizabeth; Chang, Anne; Gibbons, Kristen

    2018-03-10

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common, unpleasant phenomenon and current therapies are not always effective for all patients. Aromatherapy has been suggested as an addition to the available treatment strategies. This review was originally published in 2012 and updated in 2017. The main objective was to establish the efficacy and safety of aromatherapy comparable to standard pharmacological treatments for PONV in adults and children. We searched CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; CINAHL; CAM on PubMed; Informit; LILACS; and ISI Web of Science as well as grey literature sources and the reference lists of retrieved articles up to March 2017. The original search was performed in August 2011. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) where aromatherapy was used to treat PONV. Interventions were all types of aromatherapy compared to placebo or with standard antiemetics. Primary outcomes were severity and duration of PONV. Secondary outcomes were adverse reactions, use of rescue antiemetics and patient satisfaction. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. For dichotomous outcome variables, we used a random-effects model and calculated risk ratio (RR) with associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI). For continuous outcome variables, we used a random-effects model and calculated standardized mean difference (SMD) with associated 95% CI. We used the GRADE software to compile 'Summary of findings' tables. We included seven new studies with 663 participants in the 2017 update; five RCTs and two CCTs. These were added to the nine previously included studies (six RCTs and three CCTs with a total of 373 participants) for a total of 16 included studies and 1036 participants in this updated review. The mean age and range data for all participants were not reported for all studies. We identified two registered trials that met the inclusion criteria for this review

  14. The Effect of Lemon Inhalation Aromatherapy on Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy: A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yavari kia, Parisa; Safajou, Farzaneh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy are amongst the most common complaints that effects on both the physical and mental conditions of the pregnant women. Due to the increasing tendency of women to use herbal medications during pregnancy, the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was investigated in this study. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Ma...

  15. Fear of Vomiting and Low Body Weight in Two Pediatric Patients: Diagnostic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Charlotte; Couturier, Jennifer; Grant, Christina; Johnson, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Fear of vomiting can be a symptom associated with several disorders, including Eating Disorders (ED), Specific Phobia (Emetophobia), Avoidant Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), making proper diagnosis challenging. At this time the literature exploring this symptom is limited, and to our knowledge very few cases have been described in the child and adolescent population. We report here the cases of one child and one adolescent presenting with significant weight loss, food restriction and fear of vomiting. The child's fear of vomiting masked a concurrent desire to achieve fitness and weight loss, which was uncovered following weight restoration. The adolescent patient, although significantly underweight and food avoidant, also expressed no concerns with body image, until weight restored. The history, course in hospital and management of these patients is discussed, along with several challenges that complicated the diagnosis.

  16. Clinical analysis of neuromyelitis optica presenting as intractable nausea, vomiting and hiccups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuehong; Pei, Shaofang; Liu, Yi; Li, Xia

    2017-10-01

    Vomiting and hiccups can be the manifestations of numerous systemic and neurological illnesses. Intractable nausea, vomiting and hiccups (INH) are reported as possible initial manifestations of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), but not correctly identified. Awareness of these atypical presentations is conducive to NMO early diagnosis and proper treatment to prevent further disability. In this paper, 12 NMO were reported, whose intractable vomiting and hiccups were the sole manifestations of the first attack and other attacks involving spinal cord and optic nerves developed later. All the patients were women and serum aquaporin 4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) of 83% patients was positive. MRI of 50% patients showed T2-weighted imaging/fluid attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity which were longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis or linear signal changes. Sixty-seven percent of patients had medulla lesions, in which dorsomedial and area postrema were involved.

  17. Prevention of nausea and vomiting in cancer patients undergoing chemo and radiotherapy: an investigational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonse, Mohammed Raees; Ravi, Rithin; Pais, Saira; Jayachander, Dipika; Hasib, A.G.; Vidyasagar, M.S.; Baliga, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting remains both a feared side effect of cancer treatment and a primary focus of many supportive care initiatives/guidelines. It is associated with severe morbidity and causes significant deterioration in quality of life of the cancer patients. The emetogenic potential of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, the radiation dose, the site of tumor, and patient risk factors like female gender, younger age, alcohol consumption and history of motion sickness are the major risk factors. A combination of dexamethasone, serotonin receptor antagonists and H2 blockers has been used with success in the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting from both moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. The present study addresses the experience of our hospital in the reduction of chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients. (author)

  18. New treatments on the horizon for chemoradiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    the proper timing, duration, and combination of antiemetic drugs for the prevention of chemoradiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (C-RINV). AREAS COVERED: The article summarises the available antiemetic studies, the evidence for antiemetic prophylaxis of C-RINV, and the future perspectives for antiemetic...... research in chemoradiotherapy. EXPERT OPINION: Antiemetic prophylaxis for patients receiving concomitant chemoradiotherapy has, for many years, been an orphan research area. The distinction between acute and delayed nausea and vomiting does not apply to fractionated radiotherapy, and prophylaxis should...... be considered to cover the entire course of treatment and not only the acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The best prophylaxis in women receiving fractionated radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin is a combination of the neurokinin receptor antagonist fosaprepitant...

  19. The Effectiveness of Ginger in the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting during Pregnancy and Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Iñaki; Allué, José

    2016-01-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites. PMID:27053918

  20. Aerosolization of a Human Norovirus Surrogate, Bacteriophage MS2, during Simulated Vomiting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Tung-Thompson

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (NoV are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Epidemiological studies of outbreaks have suggested that vomiting facilitates transmission of human NoV, but there have been no laboratory-based studies characterizing the degree of NoV release during a vomiting event. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that virus aerosolization occurs in a simulated vomiting event, and to estimate the amount of virus that is released in those aerosols. A simulated vomiting device was constructed at one-quarter scale of the human body following similitude principles. Simulated vomitus matrices at low (6.24 mPa*s and high (177.5 mPa*s viscosities were inoculated with low (108 PFU/mL and high (1010 PFU/mL concentrations of bacteriophage MS2 and placed in the artificial "stomach" of the device, which was then subjected to scaled physiologically relevant pressures associated with vomiting. Bio aerosols were captured using an SKC Biosampler. In low viscosity artificial vomitus, there were notable differences between recovered aerosolized MS2 as a function of pressure (i.e., greater aerosolization with increased pressure, although this was not always statistically significant. This relationship disappeared when using high viscosity simulated vomitus. The amount of MS2 aerosolized as a percent of total virus "vomited" ranged from 7.2 x 10-5 to 2.67 x 10-2 (which corresponded to a range of 36 to 13,350 PFU total. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document and measure aerosolization of a NoV surrogate in a similitude-based physical model. This has implications for better understanding the transmission dynamics of human NoV and for risk modeling purposes, both of which can help in designing effective infection control measures.

  1. Impact of Nausea and Vomiting on Quality of Life in Cancer Patients During Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roila Fausto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is commonly claimed that the nausea and vomiting accompanying cytotoxic chemotherapy have a negative impact on health-related quality of life. While this may seem self-evident, until a few years ago there was little empirical data demonstrating that the failure to control postchemotherapy emesis affects aspects of quality of life. In spite of their limitations, several observational studies showed that nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy induced a decrease in health-related quality of life with respect to patients without nausea and vomiting. This has also been demonstrated after the adjustment for health-related quality of life before chemotherapy that is an important prognostic factor of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Furthermore, one study suggests that the optimal time of assessment of quality of life to evaluate the impact of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is day 4 if a 3-day recall period is used or day 8 when the recall period is 7 days. In double-blind studies the efficacy, tolerability and impact on quality of life of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists was superior with respect to metoclopramide, alizapride and prochlorperazine. Similar results have been achieved with the combination of ondansetron with dexamethasone, the standard treatment for the prevention of acute emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, with respect to the metoclopramide plus dexamethasone combination. Instead, in another double-blind study, in patients submitted to moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, a 5-HT3 antagonist did not seem to significantly increase complete protection from delayed emesis and the patients' quality of life with respect to dexamethasone alone. In conclusion, the evaluation of quality of life in randomized trials comparing different antiemetic drugs for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting can add important information useful for the choice of the optimal antiemetic

  2. Why can't rodents vomit? A comparative behavioral, anatomical, and physiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C Horn

    Full Text Available The vomiting (emetic reflex is documented in numerous mammalian species, including primates and carnivores, yet laboratory rats and mice appear to lack this response. It is unclear whether these rodents do not vomit because of anatomical constraints (e.g., a relatively long abdominal esophagus or lack of key neural circuits. Moreover, it is unknown whether laboratory rodents are representative of Rodentia with regards to this reflex. Here we conducted behavioral testing of members of all three major groups of Rodentia; mouse-related (rat, mouse, vole, beaver, Ctenohystrica (guinea pig, nutria, and squirrel-related (mountain beaver species. Prototypical emetic agents, apomorphine (sc, veratrine (sc, and copper sulfate (ig, failed to produce either retching or vomiting in these species (although other behavioral effects, e.g., locomotion, were noted. These rodents also had anatomical constraints, which could limit the efficiency of vomiting should it be attempted, including reduced muscularity of the diaphragm and stomach geometry that is not well structured for moving contents towards the esophagus compared to species that can vomit (cat, ferret, and musk shrew. Lastly, an in situ brainstem preparation was used to make sensitive measures of mouth, esophagus, and shoulder muscular movements, and phrenic nerve activity-key features of emetic episodes. Laboratory mice and rats failed to display any of the common coordinated actions of these indices after typical emetic stimulation (resiniferatoxin and vagal afferent stimulation compared to musk shrews. Overall the results suggest that the inability to vomit is a general property of Rodentia and that an absent brainstem neurological component is the most likely cause. The implications of these findings for the utility of rodents as models in the area of emesis research are discussed.

  3. Treatment of vomiting and of gastric emptying suppression in primates after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, A.; Dorval, E.D.; O'Connell, L.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Total body irradiation is followed within minutes by nausea and vomiting. In dogs, the authors found that gastric emptying was suppressed for at least 3 hours after exposure to 8 Gy Cobalt-60; in addition, pretreatment with domperidone (D) could prevent vomiting without improving gastric emptying. In the present studies, the authors used a primate model to further investigate the possibility of treating radiation induced vomiting and delayed gastric emptying. Gastric emptying was measured using either (1) radionuclide imaging after intragastric administration of chicken liver tagged in vivo with 1 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid and water containing 0.2 mCi In-111-DTPA; or (2) a Tc-99 m-DPTA dilution technique. Chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied in the basal state receiving either saline (S; 1.0 ml), D (0.1 mg/kg) or metoclopramide (M; 0.15 mg/kg). All monkeys were then exposed to total body irradiation (8 Gy, Cobalt-60) after receiving either S, D or M. Vomiting was observed in 5 of 6 monkeys receiving S or D but in only one of 5 animals pretreated with M. Gastric emptying was unaffected by any drug in the basal state (S: 5.54 +- 0.86; D: 6.21 +- 1.01; P: 6.52 +- 0.95%/min; means +- SE). After irradiation, emptying was completely abolished in animals treated with S (0.2 +- 0.2%/min) or D (0.1 +- 0.1%/min; in contrast, pretreatment with M improved gastric emptying significantly (1.81 +- 0.52%/min. Thus, gastric emptying is suppressed in monkeys who vomit after exposure to total body irradiation. In addition, vomiting is prevented and suppression of gastric emptying is improved by M, a dopamine antagonist that acts centrally but not by D, a peripherally acting dopamine antagonist

  4. [Vomiting as main symptom: unusual presentation of a hyperthyroidism in a 12-year-old boy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Michaels, J; Bürk, G; Andler, W

    1997-01-01

    A twelve year old boy presented with a sudden onset of recurrent nausea and vomiting. During the past six weeks he had a weight loss of 13 kg. While he was in the hospital, persistent tachycardia and a slightly elevated blood pressure were noted. The gastroenterologic, cardiologic and neuropediatric examinations were normal. To exclude the differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, thyroid hormones were checked. They showed clearly elevated levels of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine, while thyrotropin was suppressed. The boy did not have a goiter. Under thyrostatic therapy his clinical condition improved quickly. Among our 20 patients with hyperthyroidism he was the only one whose main symptom was severe vomiting.

  5. Randomised clinical trial of Levonantradol and Chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucraft, H H; Palmer, M K [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK)

    1982-11-01

    Levonantradol is a cannabis derivative. Cannabinoid anti-emetics are being assessed in cancer chemotherapy but have been little used in radiotherapy to date. A pilot study and randomised trial compared the anti-emetic effect of a standard drug (Chlorpromazine 25 mg) with Levonantradol at two doses (0.5 and 0.75 mg) in patients receiving palliative single fraction radiotherapy to sites likely to cause nausea and vomiting. Most patients were out-patients. Both drugs were well tolerated. The frequency of vomiting was similar in all three groups in both the pilot study and randomised trial.

  6. Randomised clinical trial of Levonantradol and Chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucraft, H.H.; Palmer, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    Levonantradol is a cannabis derivative. Cannabinoid anti-emetics are being assessed in cancer chemotherapy but have been little used in radiotherapy to date. A pilot study and randomised trial compared the anti-emetic effect of a standard drug (Chlorpromazine 25 mg) with Levonantradol at two doses (0.5 and 0.75 mg) in patients receiving palliative single fraction radiotherapy to sites likely to cause nausea and vomiting. Most patients were out-patients. Both drugs were well tolerated. The frequency of vomiting was similar in all three groups in both the pilot study and randomised trial. (author)

  7. The incidence of anticipatory nausea and vomiting after repeat cycle chemotherapy: the effect of granisetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aapro, M. S.; Kirchner, V.; Terrey, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) after repeated cycles of cytotoxic chemotherapy is thought to be a conditioned response to a conditioning stimulus. Good control of acute and delayed emesis may result in a lower incidence of ANV. We have analysed data from 574 chemotherapy patients who received granisetron as their antiemetic treatment during repeat cycle chemotherapy. Per treatment cycle, less than 10% of patients displayed symptoms of anticipatory nausea and 2% or less had symptoms of anticipatory vomiting. It is concluded that the use of granisetron as an antiemetic during the acute phase of chemotherapy may result in a lower incidence of ANV in patients undergoing repeat cycle chemotherapy. PMID:8180031

  8. Treatment of heartburn and acid reflux associated with nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ruth; Maltepe, Caroline; Bozzo, Pina; Einarson, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION In addition to suffering from nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, which is being treated with antiemetics, some of my pregnant patients complain of heartburn and acid reflux. Should these symptoms also be treated and, if so, which acid-reducing medications are safe for use during pregnancy? ANSWER Increased severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is associated with the presence of heartburn and acid reflux. Antacids, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, and proton pump inhibitors can be used safely during pregnancy, as large studies have been published with no evidence of adverse fetal effects. PMID:20154244

  9. Innervation of periesophageal region of cat's diaphragm - Implication for studies of control of vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. K.; Miller, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    The extent of the region of the diaphragm around the esophagus that displays greatly reduced activity during the expulsive phase of vomiting was determined from electromyographic studies in cats to be about 0.75-1.0 cm from the esophagus. Horseradish peroxidase injected into this region retrogradely labeled motoneurons throughout most of the rostral-caudal extent of the phrenic nucleus, with the exception of caudal C6 and rostral C7. This widespread intermingling of motoneurons that innervate the region of reduced activity with other phrenic motoneurons creates a difficulty for needed follow-up studies of diaphragmatic control during vomiting.

  10. Is age a determinant for nausea and vomiting in disabled patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of most frequently encountered problems after dental treatment of mentally and/or motor disabled patients under sedation or general anesthesia. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether PONV incidence in disabled patients differs between adults ...

  11. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in outpatient repair of inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Piergaspare; Usai, Sofia; Amatucci, Chiara; Pulli, Valentina Taurisano; Illuminati, Giulio; Vietri, Francesco; Tellan, Guglielmo

    2018-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most frequent complications following anesthesia and surgery. Due to anesthesia seems to be primarily responsible for post operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in Day Surgery facilities, the aim of the study is to evaluate how different methods of anesthesia could modify the onset of postoperative nausea and vomiting in a population of patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair. Ninehundredten patients, aged between 18 and 87 years, underwent open inguinal hernia repair. The PONV risk has been assessed according to Apfel Score. Local anesthetic infiltration, performed by the surgeon in any cases, has been supported by and analgo-sedation with Remifentanil in 740 patients; Fentanyl was used in 96 cases and the last 74 underwent deep sedation with Propofol . Among the 910 patients who underwent inguinal hernia repair, PONV occurred in 68 patients (7.5%). Among patients presenting PONV, 29 received Remifentanil, whereas 39 received Fentanyl. In the group of patients receiving Propofol, no one presented PONV. This difference is statistically significant (p < .01). Moreover, only 50 patients of the total sample received antiemetic prophylaxis, and amongst these, PONV occurred in 3 subjects. Compared to Remifentanil, Fentanyl has a major influence in causing PONV. Nonetheless, an appropriate antiemetic prophylaxis can significantly reduce this undesirable complication. Key words: Day Surgery, Fentanyl, Inguinal, Hernia repair, Nausea, Vomiting.

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound in Determining the Cause of Bilious Vomiting in Neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alehossein, Mehdi; Abdi, Siamak; Pourgholami, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen; Salamati, Payman

    2012-01-01

    Plain radiography and contrast radiologic studies are traditionally the main options in evaluating neonates presenting with bilious vomiting. While ultrasonography (US) is more available, its diagnostic accuracy is in question. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of US in evaluating these patients with bilious vomiting. All neonates with bilious vomiting or bilious nasogastric tube drainage presented to a children’s hospital in a 1.5-year period were included. US were performed in all patients. The results were compared with clinical and radiological data and the final diagnosis. We used chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests for analysis. The cause of bilious vomiting for 18 of the 23 included patients was surgical. All patients labeled as surgical candidates by US ended in surgery [positive predictive value (PPV) = 100%], while only 50% of the patients with inconclusive US were operated [negative predictive value (NPV) = 50%, Confidence Interval (CI) 95%: 29%-71%]. The sensitivity and specificity of US in diagnosing intestinal atresia (n = 9) was 89% [CI 95%: (68% - 100%)] and 100%. In cases with malrotation (n = 4) and midgut volvulus (n = 2), sonographic diagnosis was in concordance with final surgical diagnosis. This study suggested that in cases in which US makes a certain diagnosis, its accuracy eliminates the need for further diagnostic tests, but if it is inconclusive, further radiological contrast studies should be tried to make the final diagnosis

  13. Multimodal prevention of pain, nausea and vomiting after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Kroman, N; Callesen, T

    2010-01-01

    Despite many one- or two-modal attempts to relieve postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and pain, postoperative issues following breast cancer surgery remain a substantial problem. Therefore, the aim of this explorative, hypothesis-generating study was to evaluate the effect of a multimodal...

  14. Binge-Eating and Vomiting: A Survey of a High School Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jo A.; Duncan, Pamela A.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 421 high school females to determine the prevalence of bulimia. Teenage vomiters were found to have higher levels of somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression, and disturbed attitudes toward food, eating, and dieting. The findings provided information useful to school personnel who work with adolescents. (JAC)

  15. Development of Foot Massage Program on Nausea and Vomiting for Cancer Patients: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Guru Prapti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to develop a foot massage program to support care activity in reducing nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Two phases, a literature review and the development of a foot massage program were conducted. The literature review was to analyze state of the art massage techniques by reviewing problems, related theories and supporting evidence. Method: Eight published studies in the English language were reviewed. A massage can be performed for different durations, from 10 minutes up to 60 minutes for three to six weeks and can be applied on various body areas. We found that the soft stroke/effleurage seems to be the best method and is most suitable for patients with cancer. It is also evident that foot massaging can be applied as a modality to reduce nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Result: We developed a foot massage program specifically for patients with cancer. The foot massage program comprised of three sessions, including 1 education session, 2 preparation session, and 3 foot massage session. In the education session, patients obtain brief information about the definition of a foot massage, the benefits and contraindication of foot massaging. During the preparation phase, foot soaking and warming up are performed. Subsequently, the foot massage is applied and should last for 30 minutes. Further research is recommended to test the effectiveness of the proposed foot massage program for nausea and vomiting in cancer patients across countries including Indonesia. Key Words: Foot massage program, chemotherapy, nausea and vomiting

  16. Postoperative nausea and vomiting at a tertiary care hospital in north

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult patients aged ≥18 years, classified as ASA I and who were scheduled for ... demographic characteristics, estimated patient's body mass index, smoking status, prior ... Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are among the most common ..... reason for this is due to the fact that pethidine which is an opioid directly ...

  17. The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone on vomiting during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Kotoe; Morioka, Nobutada; Maruyama, Takashi; Komayama, Noriaki; Nitta, Masayuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Kawamata, Takakazu; Ozaki, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Intraoperative vomiting leads to serious respiratory complications that could influence the surgical decision-making process for awake craniotomy. However, the use of antiemetics is still limited in Japan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prophylactically administered single low-dose dexamethasone on the incidence of vomiting during awake craniotomy. The frequency of hyperglycemia was also examined. We conducted a retrospective case review of awake craniotomy for glioma resection between 2012 and 2015. Of the 124 patients, 91 were included in the analysis. Dexamethasone was not used in 43 patients and the 48 remaining patients received an intravenous bolus of 4.95 mg dexamethasone at anesthetic induction. Because of stable operating conditions, no one required conscious sedation throughout functional mapping and tumor resection. Although dexamethasone pretreatment reduced the incidence of intraoperative vomiting (P = 0.027), the number of patients who complained of nausea was comparable (P = 0.969). No adverse events related to vomiting occurred intraoperatively. Baseline blood glucose concentration did not differ between each group (P = 0.143), but the samples withdrawn before emergence (P = 0.018), during the awake period (P awake craniotomy cases. However, as even a small dose of dexamethasone increases the risk for hyperglycemia, antiemetic prophylaxis with dexamethasone should be administered after careful consideration. Monitoring of perioperative blood glucose concentration is also necessary.

  18. Automated reminders decrease postoperative nausea and vomiting incidence in a general surgical population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, F. O.; Vos, N.; Siebenga, P.; Klok, T.; Hollmann, M. W.; Kal, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Guidelines to minimize the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) have been implemented in many hospitals. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that guideline adherence is suboptimal and can be improved using decision support (DS). In this study, we investigate whether DS

  19. The Effect of Ringer versus Haemaccel Preload on Incidence of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ghafourifard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is the most common and unpleasant postoperative complication. There is much controversy on preoperative fluid therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of crystalloid fluid (Ringer solution versus colloid (Haemaccel solution on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving spinal anesthesia. Methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial, 46 patients were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The crystalloid group received Ringer solution at a volume of 7 ml/kg and colloid group received 7ml/kg of 3% Modified Gelatin (Haemaccel as a preoperative intravenous bolus. We used a Verbal Rating Scale (VRS for assessing the nausea and vomiting occurrence. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver.13 and x2 test and independent t-test. Results: The result showed that the incidence of PONV was less frequent in both Ringer and Haemaccel groups, but the incidence of vomiting and the intensity of nausea was not significantly different in any time point after anesthesia. Conclusion: We conclude that preoperative fluid administration decreases the incidence of PONV, and both Crystalloids (Ringer and colloids (haemaccel solution were found to be equivalent in prevention of PONV. Therefore using of either Ringer or haemaccel solution is recommended for prevention of PONV.

  20. The Effect of Ringer versus Haemaccel Preload on Incidence of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafourifard, Mansour; Zirak, Mohammad; Broojerdi, Mohammad Hossein; Bayendor, Ali; Moradi, Abolfaz

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is the most common and unpleasant postoperative complication. There is much controversy on preoperative fluid therapy. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of crystalloid fluid (Ringer solution) versus colloid (Haemaccel solution) on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving spinal anesthesia. In this double-blinded clinical trial, 46 patients were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups. The crystalloid group received Ringer solution at a volume of 7 ml/kg and colloid group received 7ml/kg of 3% Modified Gelatin (Haemaccel) as a preoperative intravenous bolus. We used a Verbal Rating Scale (VRS) for assessing the nausea and vomiting occurrence. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver.13 and χ(2) test and independent t-test. The result showed that the incidence of PONV was less frequent in both Ringer and Haemaccel groups, but the incidence of vomiting and the intensity of nausea was not significantly different in any time point after anesthesia. We conclude that preoperative fluid administration decreases the incidence of PONV, and both Crystalloids (Ringer) and colloids (haemaccel) solution were found to be equivalent in prevention of PONV. Therefore using of either Ringer or haemaccel solution is recommended for prevention of PONV.

  1. Thalidomide for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiemetic guidelines recommend co-administration of agents to maximize the prevention of chemotherapyinduced nausea and vomiting (CINV, however, the control of delayed CINV is still not satisfactory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of thalidomide in the prevention of CINV. Methods Of 89 patients enrolled, 83 chemotherapy-naïve patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (cisplatin 70mg/m2 were randomized into two groups: standard therapy group (ondansetron on day 1, metoclopramide and dexamethasone on days one to five and thalidomide group (in addition to standard emesis prevention, patients received oral 100mg thalidomide on days one to five. Patients recorded nausea and vomiting episodes in a diary. The primary end point was the efficacy of thalidomide in controlling vomiting and nausea on days one to five post cisplatin, and the secondary end point was the safety of the thalidomide. Results No significant differences of complete response rates (no emesis, no use of rescue therapy and no nausea were observed between the two groups, while the percentages of patients with complete response of delayed vomiting on day four and day five were higher in the thalidomide group, furthermore, the complete response rate of delayed nausea for thalidomide group and standard therapy group showed significant differences. Thalidomide group showed a similar safety profile as standard emesis prevention group. Conclusion Addition of thalidomide was generally well tolerated and improved prevention of CINV in patients receiving cisplatinbased chemotherapy to some degree, especially for delayed nausea.

  2. A Controlled Study Using Acupuncture as an Adjuvant to Treat Chemotherpay-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lao, Lixing

    2000-01-01

    ...) on nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of HA as an adjuvant on N/v in chemotherapy patients who do not respond to conventional antiemetics...

  3. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in daily clinical practice: a community hospital-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilarius, D.L; Kloeg, P.H.; van der Wall, E.; van den Heuvel, J.J.G.; Gundy, C.M.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are major adverse effects of cancer chemotherapy. This study investigated: (1) the impact of CINV on patients' health-related quality of life (HRQL) in daily clinical practice; (2) the association between patient characteristics and type of

  4. Control of Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Anthracycline/Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa-Nishigaki, Minako; Kobayashi, Ryo; Suzuki, Akio; Hirose, Chiemi; Matsuoka, Rie; Mori, Ryutaro; Futamura, Manabu; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2018-02-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of most distressing adverse events during cancer chemotherapy. In breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline and cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy, CINV is poorly controlled. The prevalence of guideline-consistent antiemetic medication and control of CINV were investigated retrospectively in breast cancer patients receiving the first cycle of AC chemotherapy. Risks for CINV were analyzed by the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The effect of olanzapine added to the standard antiemetic medication on the incidence of CINV was subsequently evaluated in separate patients who received the first cycle of AC chemotherapy. Although the guideline-consistent antiemetic medication was performed in all subjects, the control rate of nausea (32%), but not vomiting (78%) was low. Risk analysis indicated that age younger than 55-year-old was a significant factor that reduces the control of both nausea and vomiting. Olanzapine (5 mg/day for 5 days), when added to the standard three-drug antiemetic medication, significantly improved the control of nausea and complete response. CINV was poorly controlled in breast cancer patients receiving AC chemotherapy, in which age younger than 55-year-old was a significant risk for both nausea and vomiting. Olanzapine was effective for improvement of the control of CINV associated with AC chemotherapy. Therefore, care should be taken to prevent CINV in young patients receiving AC chemotherapy by adding olanzapine to the standard three-drug antiemetic medication. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. [The effects of foot reflexology on nausea, vomiting and fatigue of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Hyang

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of foot reflexology on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The research was a quasi-experimental study using a non-equivalent pre-post design and was conducted from Jan. 26, to Mar. 20, 2004. The subjects consisted of 34 patients with 18 in the experimental group and 16 in control group. A pretest and 2 posttests were conducted to measure nausea, vomiting and fatigue. For the experimental group, foot reflexology, which was consisted of 4 phases for 40 minutes, was given by a researcher and 4 research assistants. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA using the SPSS WIN 10.0 program. There was a statistically significant decrease in nausea, and vomiting in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. In addition, there was a statistically significant decrease in fatigue in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. Foot reflexology was effective on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in this study. Therefore, foot reflexology can be usefully utilized as a nursing intervention in the field of cancer nursing for breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

  6. Inhibition of cisplatin-induced vomiting by selective 5-hydroxytryptamine M-receptor antagonism.

    OpenAIRE

    Miner, W. D.; Sanger, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    MDL 72222, the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) M-receptor antagonist, prevented or reduced cisplatin-induced emesis in ferrets. It is suggested that cisplatin-induced, and possibly other cytotoxic drug-induced vomiting may involve a 5-HT M-receptor mechanism.

  7. Darkened skin, vomiting, and salt cravings in a teenager · Dx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsan; Kapadia, Chirag

    2016-06-01

    Acute adrenal insufficiency crisis usually occurs after a prolonged period of nonspecific complaints due to a loss of both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids; by the time overt symptoms occur, 90% of the adrenal gland may be destroyed. Patients (such as ours) may present with symptoms such as abdominal pain, weakness, vomiting, fever, and decreased responsiveness.

  8. Association study in eating disorders: TPH2 associates with anorexia nervosa and self-induced vomiting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, M. C. T.; Meulenbelt, I.; Bartels, M.; Suchiman, E.; Middeldorp, C. M.; Houwing-Duistermaat, J. J.; van Trier, J.; Onkenhout, E. J.; Vink, J. M.; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Brandys, M. K.; Sanders, N.; Zipfel, S.; Herzog, W.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B.; Klampfl, K.; Fleischhaker, C.; Zeeck, A.; de Zwaan, M.; Herpertz, S.; Ehrlich, S.; van Elburg, A. A.; Adan, R. A. H.; Scherag, S.; Hinney, A.; Hebebrand, J.; Boomsma, D. I.; van Furth, E. F.; Slagboom, P. E.

    2011-01-01

    Twin studies suggest that genetic factors play a substantial role in anorexia nervosa (AN) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom that is shared among different types of eating disorders (EDs). We investigated the association of 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), capturing 71-91% of

  9. Association study in eating disorders: TPH2 associates with anorexia nervosa and self induced vomiting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, M.C.T.; Meulenbelt, I.; Bartels, M.; Suchiman, E.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J.; van Trier, J.; Onkenhout, E.J.; Vink, J.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Brandys, M.K.; Sanders, N.; Zipfel, S.; Herzog, W.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B.; Klampfl, K.; Fleischhaker, C.; Zeeck, A.; Zwaan, M.; Herpertz, S.; Ehrlich, S.; van Elburg, A.A.; Adan, R.A.H.; Scherag, S.; Hinney, A.; Hebebrand, J.; Boomsma, D.I.; van Furth, E.F.; Slagboom, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Twin studies suggest that genetic factors play a substantial role in anorexia nervosa (AN) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom that is shared among different types of eating disorders (EDs). We investigated the association of 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), capturing 71-91% of

  10. Association study in eating disorders : TPH2 associates with anorexia nervosa and self-induced vomiting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Landt, M. C. T. Slof-Op; Meulenbelt, I.; Bartels, M.; Suchiman, E.; Middeldorp, C. M.; Houwing-Duistermaat, J. J.; van Trier, J.; Onkenhout, E. J.; Vink, J. M.; van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Brandys, M. K.; Sanders, N.; Zipfel, S.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B.; Klampfl, K.; Fleischhaker, C.; Zeeck, A.; de Zwaan, M.; Herpertz, S.; Ehrlich, S.; van Elburg, A. A.; Adan, R. A. H.; Scherag, S.; Hinney, A.; Hebebrand, J.; Boomsma, D. I.; van Furth, E. F.; Slagboom, P. E.; Herzog, W.

    Twin studies suggest that genetic factors play a substantial role in anorexia nervosa (AN) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom that is shared among different types of eating disorders (EDs). We investigated the association of 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), capturing 71-91% of

  11. Experiences with Nausea and Vomiting During Pregnancy in Turkish Women Based on Roy Adaptation Model: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Gökçe İsbir, BSN, PhD

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings help nursing staff detect the stimuli and the behaviors of pregnant women with nausea and vomiting. Further research may evaluate the impact of a counseling program prepared under the guidance of a nursing model on nausea and vomiting in pregnancy.

  12. Ramosetron compared with granisetron for the prevention of vomiting following strabismus surgery in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Ito, M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Postoperative vomiting occurs frequently after strabismus surgery in children. Granisetron, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist, is effective for the prevention of vomiting following paediatric strabismus surgery. Ramosetron, another new antagonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor, has more potent and longer acting properties than granisetron against cisplatin induced emesis. This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of granisetron and ramosetron for the prevention of vomiting following strabismus surgery in children.
METHODS—In a randomised, double blinded manner 80 children, aged 4-10 years, received intravenously granisetron 40 µg/kg or ramosetron 6 µg/kg (n=40 each) at the end of surgery. A standard general anaesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia were used. Emetic episodes and safety assessment were performed during the first 24 hours and the next 24 hours after anaesthesia.
RESULTS—The percentage of patients who were emesis free during 0-24 hours after anaesthesia was 85% with granisetron and 90% with ramosetron, respectively (p = 0.369); the corresponding rate during 24-48 hours after anaesthesia was 70% and 95% (p = 0.003). No clinically serious adverse events caused by the study drug were observed in any of the groups.
CONCLUSION—Prophylactic antiemetic therapy with ramosetron is comparable with granisetron for the prevention of vomiting during 0-24 hours after anaesthesia in children undergoing strabismus surgery. During 24-48 hours after anaesthesia, ramosetron is more effective than granisetron for prophylaxis against postoperative vomiting.

 PMID:11371485

  13. Treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting: a quantitative systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tramèr Martin R

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relative efficacy of antiemetics for the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is poorly understood. Methods Systematic search (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, bibliographies, any language, to 8.2000 for randomised comparisons of antiemetics with any comparator for the treatment of established PONV. Dichotomous data on prevention of further nausea and vomiting, and on side effects were combined using a fixed effect model. Results In seven trials (1,267 patients, 11 different antiemetics were tested without placebos; these data were not further analysed. Eighteen trials (3,809 had placebo controls. Dolasetron 12.5–100 mg, granisetron 0.1–3 mg, tropisetron 0.5–5 mg, and ondansetron 1–8 mg prevented further vomiting with little evidence of dose-responsiveness; with all regimens, absolute risk reductions compared with placebo were 20%–30%. The anti-nausea effect was less pronounced. Headache was dose-dependent. Results on propofol were contradictory. The NK1 antagonist GR205171, isopropyl alcohol vapor, metoclopramide, domperidone, and midazolam were tested in one trial each with a limited number of patients. Conclusions Of 100 vomiting surgical patients receiving a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, 20 to 30 will stop vomiting who would not have done so had they received a placebo; less will profit from the anti-nausea effect. There is a lack of evidence for a clinically relevant dose-response; minimal effective doses may be used. There is a discrepancy between the plethora of trials on prevention of PONV and the paucity of trials on treatment of established symptoms. Valid data on the therapeutic efficacy of classic antiemetics, which have been used for decades, are needed.

  14. Ondansetron and Granisetron for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchan, Sabin; Thapa, Chitra; Shakya, Priyanka; Bhattarai, Ramesh; Shakya, Sajal

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgeries are known to be associated with a higher incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Prophylaxis of PONV is usually achieved with a single-dose antiemetic drug administered during the surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the antiemetic efficacy of two different 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5HT3) receptor antagonists, ondansetron and granisetron when given prophylactically to patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It was a randomized, double blind study, conducted in 90 patients. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A and Group B with 45 patients in each group. Patients in groupA were given 100 microgram/kg ondansetron intravenously (IV), and patients in Group B were given 40 microgram/kg granisetron. Both the drugs were diluted in 10 ml of 0.9% NaCl and were given at the end of surgery. The standard general anesthetic technique was administered to all the patients. Episodes of nausea, retching and vomiting were assessed during the first 24 hours after anesthesia. There was no statistically significant difference for demographic data and duration of surgery among the two groups (P>0.05). Evaluated nausea and vomiting scores in the first 3 hours period revealed that each of the drugs had a similar antiemetic effect (P>0.05). Between 4-12 hours also the episodes of nausea, retching as well as vomiting were statistically insignificant in both the groups. In the last 12 hours, episodes of nausea, retching and vomiting were significantly higher in ondansetron group. Granisetron, when given prophylactically, resulted in a significantly lower incidence of PONV than ondansetron in the first 24 hours.

  15. Impact of group psychotherapy in chemotherapy induced vomiting for treatment of advanced breast and lungs cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Mein, F.D.; Alharbi, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of group psychotherapy in the management of the side effects of chemotherapy treatment in advanced breast and lung cancer. One hundred patients treated with chemotherapy for advanced stage (IIIB and IV) breast and lung cancer were selected with ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. All patients received anti-emetic medications half an hour before chemotherapy. All those patients in this category who completed fist line chemotherapy with 6 cycles were included. Fifty were subjected to group discussions with other patients, family members and medical staff. This was labeled group A. The other 50 were not included in group discussion and were labeled group B. Both the group received similar standard chemotherapy and pre-medication for vomiting as per their disease and chemotherapy schedule. Breast and lung cancer patients were 29 and 21 in each arm respectively. At the end of the discharge, grade 2 and above of vomiting, according to common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) was counted for all patients in both the arms A and B, over full length of treatment for 6 cycles, and then were compared statistically. Mean with standard deviation for adverse event (vomiting) in group A and B was 6.2 + 2.6 and 13.4 + 3.8 respectively per cycle of treatment. It was observed that group psychotherapy had statistically significant effect (p-value <0.05) on the management of vomiting. Group psychotherapy can be used to reduce the incidence of vomiting in advanced breast and lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. (author)

  16. Effects of maropitant, acepromazine, and electroacupuncture on vomiting associated with administration of morphine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ronald B; Isaza, Natalie; Xie, Huisheng; Cooke, Kirsten; Robertson, Sheilah A

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate effects of maropitant, acepromazine, and electroacupuncture on morphine-related signs of nausea and vomiting in dogs and assess sedative effects of the treatments. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 222 dogs. Dogs received 1 of 6 treatments: injection of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, maropitant citrate, or acepromazine maleate or electroacupuncture treatment at 1 acupoint, 5 acupoints, or a sham acupoint. Morphine was administered after 20 minutes of electroacupuncture treatment or 20 minutes after injectable treatment. Vomiting and retching events and signs of nausea and sedation were recorded. Incidence of vomiting and retching was significantly lower in the maropitant (14/37 [37.8%]) group than in the saline solution (28/37 [75.7%]) and sham-acupoint electroacupuncture (32/37 [86.5%]) groups. The number of vomiting and retching events in the maropitant (21), acepromazine (38), 1-acupoint (35), and 5-acupoint (34) groups was significantly lower than in the saline solution (88) and sham-acupoint electroacupuncture (109) groups. Incidence of signs of nausea was significantly lower in the acepromazine group (3/37 [8.1%]) than in the sham-acupoint group (15/37 [40.5%]). Mean nausea scores for the saline solution, maropitant, and sham-acupoint electroacupuncture groups increased significantly after morphine administration, whereas those for the acepromazine, 1-acupoint electroacupuncture, and 5-acupoint electroacupuncture groups did not. Mean sedation scores after morphine administration were significantly higher in dogs that received acepromazine than in dogs that received saline solution, maropitant, and sham-acupoint electroacupuncture treatment. Maropitant treatment was associated with a lower incidence of vomiting and retching, compared with control treatments, and acepromazine and electroacupuncture appeared to prevent an increase in severity of nausea following morphine administration in dogs.

  17. The Effect of Transdermal Scopolamine for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Antor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the most common and undesirable complaints recorded in as many as 70%-80% of high-risk surgical patients. The current prophylactic therapy recommendations for PONV management stated in the Society of Ambulatory Anesthesia guidelines should start with monotherapy and patients at moderate to high risk, a combination of antiemetic medication should be considered. Consequently, if rescue medication is required, the antiemetic drug chosen should be from a different therapeutic class and administration mode than the drug used for prophylaxis. The guidelines restrict the use of dexamethasone, transdermal scopolamine, aprepitant, and palonosetron as rescue medication 6 hours after surgery. In an effort to find a safer and reliable therapy for postoperative nausea and vomiting, new drugs with antiemetic properties and minimal side effects are needed, and scopolamine may be considered an effective alternative. Scopolamine is a belladonna alkaloid, α-(hydroxymethyl benzene acetic acid 9-methyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo non-7-yl ester, acting as a nonselective muscarinic antagonist and producing both peripheral antimuscarinic and central sedative, antiemetic, and amnestic effects. The empirical formula is C17H21NO4 and its structural formula is a tertiary amine L-(2-scopolamine (tropic acid ester with scopine; MW = 303.4. Scopolamine became the first drug commercially available as a transdermal therapeutic system used for extended continuous drug delivery during 72 hours. Clinical trials with transdermal scopolamine have consistently demonstrated its safety and efficacy in postoperative nausea and vomiting. Thus, scopolamine is a promising candidate for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults as a first line monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. In addition, transdermal scopolamine might be helpful in preventing postoperative discharge nausea and vomiting owing to its long

  18. Haloperidol for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Brown, Fay; Dorman, Saskie

    2015-11-02

    Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms in patients with terminal, incurable illnesses. Both nausea and vomiting can be distressing. Haloperidol is commonly prescribed to relieve these symptoms. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2009, of Haloperidol for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in palliative care patients. To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events associated with the use of haloperidol for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in palliative care patients. For this updated review, we performed updated searches of CENTRAL, EMBASE and MEDLINE in November 2013 and in November 2014. We searched controlled trials registers in March 2015 to identify any ongoing or unpublished trials. We imposed no language restrictions. For the original review, we performed database searching in August 2007, including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and AMED, using relevant search terms and synonyms. Handsearching complemented the electronic searches (using reference lists of included studies, relevant chapters and review articles) for the original review. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of haloperidol for the treatment of nausea or vomiting, or both, in any setting, for inclusion. The studies had to be conducted with adults receiving palliative care or suffering from an incurable progressive medical condition. We excluded studies where nausea or vomiting, or both, were thought to be secondary to pregnancy or surgery. We imported records from each of the electronic databases into a bibliographic package and merged them into a core database where we inspected titles, keywords and abstracts for relevance. If it was not possible to accept or reject an abstract with certainty, we obtained the full text of the article for further evaluation. The two review authors independently assessed studies in accordance with the inclusion criteria. There were no differences in opinion between the authors with regard to the

  19. The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari Kia, Parisa; Safajou, Farzaneh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy are amongst the most common complaints that effects on both the physical and mental conditions of the pregnant women. Due to the increasing tendency of women to use herbal medications during pregnancy, the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy was investigated in this study. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. This was a randomized clinical trial in which 100 pregnant women with nausea and vomiting who had eligibility criteria were randomly divided into intervention and control groups based on four- and six-random block sampling method. Lemon essential oil and placebo were given to the intervention and control groups, respectively, to inhale it as soon as they felt nausea. The nausea, vomiting, and retch intensity were investigated 24 hours before and during the four days of treatment by means of PUQE-24 (24-hour Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis). There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the mean scores of nausea and vomiting on the second and fourth days (P = 0.017 and P = 0.039, respectively). The means of nausea and vomiting intensity in the second and fourth days in the intervention group were significantly lower than the control group. In addition, in intragroup comparison with ANOVA with repeated measures, the nausea and vomiting mean in the five intervals, showed a statistically significant difference in each group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.049, respectively). Lemon scent can be effective in reducing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

  20. Irregular menses linked to vomiting in a nonclinical sample: findings from the National Eating Disorders Screening Program in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Ziyadeh, Najat J; Vohra, Sameer; Forman, Sara; Gordon, Catherine M; Prokop, Lisa A; Keliher, Anne; Jacobs, Douglas

    2008-05-01

    Using data from an eating disorders screening initiative conducted in high schools across the United States, we examined the relationship between vomiting frequency and irregular menses in a nonclinical sample of adolescent females. A self-report questionnaire was administered to students from U.S. high schools participating in the National Eating Disorders Screening Program in 2000. The questionnaire included items on frequency of vomiting for weight control in the past 3 months, other eating disorder symptoms, frequency of menses, height, and weight. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted using data from 2791 girls to estimate the risk of irregular menses (defined as menses less often than monthly) associated with vomiting frequency, adjusting for other eating disorder symptoms, weight status, age, race/ethnicity, and school clusters. Girls who vomited to control their weight one to three times per month were one and a half times more likely (risk ratio [RR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-2.2), and girls who vomited once per week or more often were more than three times more likely (RR = 3.2; 95% CI = 2.3-4.4), to experience irregular menses than were girls who did not report vomiting for weight control. Vomiting for weight control remained a strong predictor of irregular menses even when overweight and underweight participants were excluded. Our study adds to the evidence that vomiting may have a direct effect on hormonal function in adolescent girls, and that vomiting for weight control may be a particularly deleterious component of eating disorders.

  1. Alexander disease as a cause of nocturnal vomiting in a 7-year-old girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, Harri; Haataja, Leena; Brander, Antti; Valanne, Leena; Blaser, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Alexander disease is a rare form of leukodystrophy with a highly variable clinical course. Occasionally night-time nausea and vomiting are the first symptoms of juvenile Alexander disease. A 7-year-old girl had recurrent night-time vomiting and her growth and weight gain had deteriorated after her sixth birthday. Cranial MRI demonstrated two small, symmetrical focal areas of abnormally high signal intensity in the dorsal medulla oblongata on T2-W and FLAIR images. These were suggestive of juvenile Alexander disease, and subsequent sequencing of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene revealed a heterogeneous missense mutation in the GFAP gene in exon 6. Alexander disease should be considered in young patients with atypical anorexia nervosa-type symptoms. (orig.)

  2. Early Assessment of Cost-effectiveness of Gastric Electrical Stimulation for Diabetic Nausea and Vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, Mette Winther; Rask, Peter; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl

    2017-01-01

    stimulation (GES) may be offered in selected cases, as a minimally invasive, but expensive, therapeutic option. Our aims are to evaluate the clinical effect and the cost-utility of GES as a treatment for severe diabetic recurrent nausea and/or vomiting. Methods Among 33 diabetes patients implanted with GES...... to gastrointestinal dysfunction was calculated using hospital records 12 months prior to and 12 months after implantation. Results The surgical procedures were performed without mortality or major complications. Six months after surgery 78% of the respondents had at least 50% reduction in time with nausea and 48% had....../or vomiting. The procedure is supposed as cost-effective over a 2-year time horizon....

  3. Alexander disease as a cause of nocturnal vomiting in a 7-year-old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niinikoski, Harri [University of Turku, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); Haataja, Leena [University of Turku, Department of Paediatrics, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Turku (Finland); Brander, Antti [University of Tampere, Department of Radiology, Tampere (Finland); Valanne, Leena [University of Helsinki, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Blaser, Susan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    Alexander disease is a rare form of leukodystrophy with a highly variable clinical course. Occasionally night-time nausea and vomiting are the first symptoms of juvenile Alexander disease. A 7-year-old girl had recurrent night-time vomiting and her growth and weight gain had deteriorated after her sixth birthday. Cranial MRI demonstrated two small, symmetrical focal areas of abnormally high signal intensity in the dorsal medulla oblongata on T2-W and FLAIR images. These were suggestive of juvenile Alexander disease, and subsequent sequencing of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene revealed a heterogeneous missense mutation in the GFAP gene in exon 6. Alexander disease should be considered in young patients with atypical anorexia nervosa-type symptoms. (orig.)

  4. The prevention of postoperative vomiting following strabismus surgery in children with using Promethazine and Droperidol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaigh al Islam V

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Children undergoing general anesthesia for strabismus surgery have a higher incidence of postoperative vomiting than those receiving the same anaesthesia for other types of ambulatory surgical procedures. Droperidol (0/0 75 mg/kg IV and promethazine (0.05-1.0 mg/kg were used in 100 children between 2-15 years old. Promethazine which has sedative property, anticholinergic antihistaminic, antiemetic and anti-motion sickness effects is recommended for children 0.05 mg-1.0 mg/kg of body weight IV. After induction of anesthesia and before operation and manipulation of the eye and combined with 0.5 mg/kg IM promethazine after operation. The incidence of vomiting following strabismus surgery might be reduced more than with intravenous droperidol

  5. Recent advances in pharmacotherapy of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting remain among the most feared side effects of chemotherapy for cancer patients. Significant progress has been made in the last 15 years in developing more effective and better-tolerated measures to minimize chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV. During the 1990s, the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists were first introduced for the treatment of CINV, and resulted in more effective and better tolerated treatment of CINV. Despite recent progress, however, a significant number of patients still develop CINV, particularly during the 2-5-day period (delayed emesis following chemotherapy. There is evidence that this may be an underappreciated problem on the part of some caregivers. Recently, two new antiemetics, aprepitant, the first member of the neurokinin-1 antagonists, and palonosetron, a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist, received regulatory approval in the U.S. Both represent useful additions to the therapeutic armamentarium for the management of CINV.

  6. Recent advances in pharmacotherapy of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan R Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting remain among the most feared side effects of chemotherapy for cancer patients. Significant progress has been made in the last 15 years in developing more effective and better-tolerated measures to minimize chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV. During the 1990s, the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists were first introduced for the treatment of CINV, and resulted in more effective and better tolerated treatment of CINV. Despite recent progress, however, a significant number of patients still develop CINV, particularly during the 2-5-day period (delayed emesis following chemotherapy. There is evidence that this may be an underappreciated problem on the part of some caregivers. Recently, two new antiemetics, aprepitant, the first member of the neurokinin-1 antagonists, and palonosetron, a second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist, received regulatory approval in the U.S. Both represent useful additions to the therapeutic armamentarium for the management of CINV.

  7. Rapid Intravenous Rehydration to Correct Dehydration and Resolve Vomiting in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoush AZARFAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of rapid intravenous rehydration to resolve vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted in the pediatric emergency department in a tertiary care center in Tabriz, North-West of Iran. The study participants' were 150 children with acute gastroenteritis and vomiting who were moderately dehydrated, had not responded to oral rehydration therapy and without any electrolyte abnormalities. 20–30 cc/kg of a crystalloid solution was given intravenously over 2 hours and the control group was admitted in the emergency department (ED for a standard 24 hour hydration. Effectiveness of rapid intravenous rehydration in the resolution of vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis was evaluated. Results: In 63 children of the intervention group (out of 75 vomiting was resolved after rapid IV rehydration and they were discharged. Among them, 12 that did not tolerate oral fluids were admitted. In the control group, 62 patients' vomiting was resolved in the first 4 hours after admission, and there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding resolution of vomiting. Conclusions: Rapid intravenous rehydration in children with moderate dehydration and vomiting due to gastroenteritis is effective in reducing admission rates in the ED. ÖZET: Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, akut gastroenteritli çocuklarda, hızlı intravenöz rehidratasyon tedavisinin kusma üzerine etkisini değerlendirmektir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu randomize kontrollü çalışma İran'ın Kuzeybatısındaki Tebriz ilinde üçüncü basamak çocuk acil servisinde gerçekleştirildi. Çalışmaya orta derecede dehidrate, elektrolit anormalliği olmayan ve oral rehidrasyon tedavisine yanıt vermemiş akut gastroenteritli 150 çocuk katıldı. İki saat içinde intravenöz yolla 20–30 cc/kg kristaloid çözelti verildi ve kontrol grubu standart

  8. Amisulpride in the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by cisplatin-based chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Summers, Yvonne; Daugaard, Gedske

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiemetic effect of the dopamine D2- and dopamine D3-receptor antagonist, amisulpride, in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This dose-finding, non-comparative study investigated the antiemetic effect and safety...... of increasing doses (2.5, 7.5 and 20 mg) of amisulpride against acute nausea and vomiting in the period 0-24 h after initiation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The 20 mg dose was also investigated in combination with the 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, ondansetron. The primary parameter was complete response (0...... interval: 65-94%) had a CR and 14/23 (61%) had no nausea at all. CONCLUSIONS: Amisulpride has antiemetic effect against cisplatin-induced acute nausea and vomiting. The effect against nausea is of particular interest. Randomised studies are warranted to further explore the effect and safety of amisulpride....

  9. Neuromyelitis Optica: An Often Forgotten Cause of Intractable Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Enweluzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic's disease, is a rare autoimmune disorder in which a patient's immune system affects the optic nerves and the spinal cord, leading to loss of vision and spinal cord dysfunction. We present our experience with a 38-year-old female who presented to our facility with complaints of intractable nausea and vomiting. After extensive evaluation, she was found to have neuromyelitis optica. Her symptoms completely resolved following institution of appropriate therapy. She made a significant recovery and has since been placed on chronic immunosuppressive therapy. Through this article we hope to bring attention to a significant cause of intractable nausea and vomiting that may often be forgotten in general medicine or gastroenterology services.

  10. The effect of reflexology on chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and fatigue in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afitap Özdelikara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients receiving chemotherapy struggle with the side effects of this treatment. These side effects obligate the patients to use not only the pharmacological methods but also non-pharmacological relaxing methods. This study was conducted to determine the effect of reflexology on chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and fatigue in breast cancer patients. Methods: The study was conducted as a pretest–posttest experimental design. The study was conducted with sixty patients, thirty as the control and thirty as the experimental groups. A sociodemographic form, Rhodes index of nausea, vomiting, and retching (INVR, and Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI were used to collect the data. Analysis of variance, t-test, percentage calculations, and Chi-square methods were used to evaluate the data. The data obtained were assessed using the “Statistical Package for Social Science 21.0” software. Results: It was determined that the difference between the total mean scores of INVR in the experimental and control groups was significant on the onset and first and second measurements, and the difference between total mean scores of development and distress between the groups was statistically significant in the third measurement (P < 0.05. The results of the study showed that the BFI mean scores of patients in the experimental group gradually decreased in the first, second, and third measurements (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The present study proved that reflexology decreased the experience, development, distress of nausea, vomiting, and retching as well as fatigue in the experimental group. Hence, the use of reflexology is recommended for chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and fatigue.

  11. A renal transplant patient with abdominal discomfort, vomiting and diarrhoea for 1 week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2011-08-24

    The patient is a 61-year-old diabetic male with history of renal transplant who presented to the emergency department with complaints of intermittent abdominal discomfort accompanied by multiple episodes of vomiting and diarrhoea. He had delayed seeking medical attention until his friends insisted that he come to the emergency department, since the abdominal discomfort was worsening. The patient's ECG revealed an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

  12. Palonosetron hydrochloride for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    A large number of different 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)(3) receptor antagonists have been marketed with the indication of preventing nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy--palonosetron is the most recently developed of these. Pharmacologic studies have revealed that palonosetron has a long hal...... summarize preclinical and clinical studies of palonosetron and compare the efficacy and tolerability with the other 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists, ondansetron, granisetron and dolasetron....

  13. An Internet survey of marijuana and hot shower use in adults with cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Thangam; Sengupta, Jyotirmoy; Lodhi, Atena; Schroeder, Abigail; Adams, Kathleen; Hogan, Walter J; Wang, Yanzhi; Andrews, Christopher; Storr, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic disorder characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. A large proportion of patients use marijuana to control their symptoms. Several case reports implicate marijuana as a cause of intractable vomiting with compulsive hot water bathing considered pathognomonic of "cannabinoid hyperemesis." We sought to examine the relationship between marijuana use and CVS. Patients >18 years of age diagnosed by a health care provider were invited to participate in an anonymous internet-based survey. A total of 514 patients participated and 437 completed questions about marijuana use. Mean age was 34 ± 12 years with patients being predominantly female (63%), Caucasian (92%) and from the USA (82%). Nineteen percent never used marijuana and 81% did. Fifty-four percent used marijuana for health issues and 43% for recreational purposes. Users stated that it improved nausea, appetite, general well-being, stress levels and vomiting. Users were more likely to be male and have an associated anxiety disorder. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported taking hot showers/baths for symptom relief, and this was associated with marijuana use. (OR 2.54, CI 1.50-4.31, P = 0.0006). Eighty-one percent of patients with CVS who completed an internet survey reported frequent use of marijuana. With marijuana use, patients noted the greatest improvement with stress levels, appetite and nausea. Marijuana users were more likely to be male and have associated anxiety. Hot showers were not pathognomonic of marijuana use though they were more likely to be associated with its use.

  14. Use of aspirin to facilitate vomiting in a young woman with bulimia nervosa: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J; Ramsay, R; Treasure, J

    1997-03-01

    A 25-year-old female patient with a 9-year history of bulimia nervosa gave a 2-year history of regularly ingesting up to 24 x 300 mg aspirin tablets to facilitate vomiting after a binge. Awareness of this dangerous practice is important when asking for an eating disorder history. Assessing for the possible physical sequelae of aspirin misuse and educating the patient about the risks would be an important part of the overall treatment.

  15. Investigating the effects of inhaling ginger essence on post-nephrectomy nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Hosseini, Fatemeh Sadat

    2015-12-01

    There is a knowledge gap regarding the effects of ginger essence on postoperative nausea and vomiting. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ginger essence on post-nephrectomy nausea and vomiting. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. This study was conducted from third April to first October 2014 in Labbafinejad hospital, Tehran, Iran. Totally, 120 nephrectomy patients were randomly allocated to either the treatment or the control groups. After nephrectomy, we applied two drops of ginger essence to a 2 × 2-inch gauze that was attached to the patients' collars in the treatment group to allow patients to inhale the evaporated essence along with the air room and then repeated every 30 min for two hours. The control group was similarly treated with normal saline. Nausea was assessed using a visual analogue scale every 30 min for two hours and at the sixth hour after surgery. The paired- and independent-samples t and repeated measures analysis of variance tests were used for data analysis. The means nausea intensity were in the treatment and the control groups were 7.09 ± 1.59 and 7.40 ± 1.71 at thirty minutes after surgery (P value > 0.05). However, the mean nausea intensity in the treatment group at the four subsequent times were significantly lower than the control group (P value ginger essence has positive effect on postoperative nausea and vomiting. Using ginger essence for managing postoperative nausea and vomiting is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. International Patterns of Practice in the Management of Radiation Therapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Kristopher; Zhang Liying [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lutz, Stephen [Blanchard Valley Health Systems, Findlay, Ohio (United States); Baardwijk, Angela van [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO Clinic), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Linden, Yvette van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Holt, Tanya [Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Arnalot, Palmira Foro [Parc de Salut Mar. Universitat Pompeu Fabra Barcelona (Spain); Lagrange, Jean-Leon [AP-HP Hopital Henri-Mondor, Universite Paris Est Creteil, Creteil (France); Maranzano, Ernesto [' S. Maria' Hospital, Terni (Italy); Liu, Rico [Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Kam-Hung [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wong, Lea-Choung [National University Cancer Institute (Singapore); Vassiliou, Vassilios [Bank of Cyprus Oncology Centre, Nicosia (Cyprus); Corn, Benjamin W. [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); De Angelis, Carlo; Holden, Lori; Wong, C. Shun [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chow, Edward, E-mail: Edward.Chow@sunnybrook.ca [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate international patterns of practice in the management of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV). Methods and Materials: Oncologists prescribing radiation therapy in the United States, Canada, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Italy, France, Hong Kong, Singapore, Cyprus, and Israel completed a Web-based survey that was based on 6 radiation therapy-only clinical cases modeled after the minimal-, low-, moderate-, and high-emetic risk levels defined in the antiemetic guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. For each case, respondents estimated the risks of nausea and vomiting separately and committed to an initial management approach. Results: In total, 1022 responses were received. Risk estimates and management decisions for the minimal- and high-risk cases varied little and were in line with guideline standards, whereas those for the low- and moderate-risk cases varied greatly. The most common initial management strategies were as follows: rescue therapy for a minimal-risk case (63% of respondents), 2 low-risk cases (56% and 80%), and 1 moderate-risk case (66%); and prophylactic therapy for a second moderate-risk case (75%) and a high-risk case (95%). The serotonin (5-HT){sub 3} receptor antagonists were the most commonly recommended prophylactic agents. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of a decision for prophylactic or rescue therapy were risk estimates of nausea and vomiting, awareness of the American Society of Clinical Oncology antiemetic guideline, and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology membership. Conclusions: Risk estimates and management strategies for RINV varied, especially for low- and moderate-risk radiation therapy cases. Radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting are under-studied treatment sequelae. New observational and translational studies are needed to allow for individual patient risk

  17. International Patterns of Practice in the Management of Radiation Therapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, Kristopher; Zhang Liying; Lutz, Stephen; Baardwijk, Angela van; Linden, Yvette van der; Holt, Tanya; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Maranzano, Ernesto; Liu, Rico; Wong, Kam-Hung; Wong, Lea-Choung; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Corn, Benjamin W.; De Angelis, Carlo; Holden, Lori; Wong, C. Shun; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate international patterns of practice in the management of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV). Methods and Materials: Oncologists prescribing radiation therapy in the United States, Canada, The Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Italy, France, Hong Kong, Singapore, Cyprus, and Israel completed a Web-based survey that was based on 6 radiation therapy-only clinical cases modeled after the minimal-, low-, moderate-, and high-emetic risk levels defined in the antiemetic guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. For each case, respondents estimated the risks of nausea and vomiting separately and committed to an initial management approach. Results: In total, 1022 responses were received. Risk estimates and management decisions for the minimal- and high-risk cases varied little and were in line with guideline standards, whereas those for the low- and moderate-risk cases varied greatly. The most common initial management strategies were as follows: rescue therapy for a minimal-risk case (63% of respondents), 2 low-risk cases (56% and 80%), and 1 moderate-risk case (66%); and prophylactic therapy for a second moderate-risk case (75%) and a high-risk case (95%). The serotonin (5-HT) 3 receptor antagonists were the most commonly recommended prophylactic agents. On multivariate analysis, factors predictive of a decision for prophylactic or rescue therapy were risk estimates of nausea and vomiting, awareness of the American Society of Clinical Oncology antiemetic guideline, and European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology membership. Conclusions: Risk estimates and management strategies for RINV varied, especially for low- and moderate-risk radiation therapy cases. Radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting are under-studied treatment sequelae. New observational and translational studies are needed to allow for individual patient risk

  18. Effects of Modification of Pain Protocol on Incidence of Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Snir, Nimrod; Sharfman, Zachary T.; Rinehart, Joseph B.; Calderon, Michael-David; Bahn, Esther; Harrington, Brian; Ahn, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Background: A Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) care model applies a standardized multidisciplinary approach to patient care using evidence-based medicine to modify and improve protocols. Analysis of patient outcome measures, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), allows for refinement of existing protocols to improve patient care. We aim to compare the incidence of PONV in patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasty before and after modification of our PSH pain protoco...

  19. A Case Report of a Neurobrucellosis Patient Presenting Prolonged Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikholeslami N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with various misleading clinical manifestations. One of them is the involvement of central nervous system which has a broad range of clinical manifestations. Improvement of knowledge among medical professionals about its different clinical presentation can lead them to better diagnosis and treatment. Case Report: In this report, we presented a neurobrucellosis patient with chief complaint of 4 month-nausea and vomiting.

  20. Significantly Elevated Serum Lipase in Pregnancy with Nausea and Vomiting: Acute Pancreatitis or Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting but without abdominal pain. They were found to have severely elevated lipase levels over 1,000 units/liter. In the absence of other findings of pancreatitis, they were treated with conservative measures for hyperemesis gravidarum, with eventual resolution to normal lipase levels. Although significantly elevated lipase level in pregnant patients with nausea and vomiting is a concern for acute pancreatitis, these two cases of significantly elevated serum lipase without other clinical findings of pancreatitis led to this report that serum lipase could be quite elevated in hyperemesis gravidarum and that it might not be an accurate biochemical marker for acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies are thus necessary to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

  1. Effects and Mechanisms of Transcutaneous Electroacupuncture on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nausea and vomiting are one of the major complications of chemotherapy for cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the emetic effects and mechanisms involving serotonin and dopamine of needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA at Neiguan (PC6 and Jianshi (PC5 on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancers. Seventy-two patients with chemotherapy were randomly divided into sham-TEA group (sham-TEA, n=34 and TEA group (n=38. TEA was performed at PC 6 and PC 5 (1 h, bid in combination with granisetron. Sham-TEA was delivered at nonacupoints using the same parameters. We found the following. (1 In the acute phase, the conventional antiemetic therapy using Ondansetron effectively reduced nausea and vomiting; the addition of TEA did not show any additive effects. In the delayed phase, however, TEA significantly increased the rate of complete control (P<0.01 and reduced the nausea score (P<0.05, compared with sham-TEA. (2 TEA significantly reduced serum levels of 5-HT and dopamine in comparison with sham-TEA. Those results demonstrate that needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture at PC6 using a watch-size digital stimulator improves emesis and reduces nausea in the delayed phase of chemotherapy in patients with cancers. This antiemetic effect is possibly mediated via mechanisms involving serotonin and dopamine.

  2. Granisetron versus tropisetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after total thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemisia Papadima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV are frequently encountered after thyroidectomy. For PONV prevention, selective serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT 3 receptor antagonists are considered one of the first-line therapy. We report on the efficiency of granisetron and tropisetron, with that of placebo on the prevention of PONV in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. Methods: One hundred twenty-seven patients were divided into three groups and randomized to receive intravenously, prior to induction of anesthesia, tropisetron 5 mg, or granisetron 3 mg, or normal saline. All patients received additionally 0.625 mg droperidol. All episodes of postoperative PONV during the first 24 h after surgery were evaluated. Results: Nausea visual analogue scale (VAS score was lower in tropisetron and granisetron groups than the control group at all measurements ( P<0.01 except for the 8-h measurement for tropisetron ( P=0.075. Moreover, granisetron performed better than tropisetron ( P<0.011 at 4 h and P<0.01 at all other points of time apart from the 2-h measurement. Vomiting occurred in 22.2%, 27.5%, and 37.5% in granisetron, tropisetron, and control groups, respectively ( P=0.43. Conclusions: The combination of the 5-HT 3 antagonists with droperidol given before induction of anesthesia is well tolerated and superior to droperidol alone in preventing nausea but not vomiting after total thyroidectomy.

  3. [Preventive efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron for postoperative nausea and vomiting in high risk patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Xiang; Zhu, Bo; Ye, Tie-hu

    2011-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in high-risk patients. Totally 200 patients with three key risk factors for PONV (female, non-smoking and postoperative opioid use) were equally randomized into ondansetron group and granisetron group. Ondansetron (4 mg) or granisetron (3 mg) was intravenously administered upon the completion of surgery. The episodes of nausea and vomiting were observed for 24 hours after surgery. A significantly greater proportion of patients in granisetron group achieved a complete response (i.e., no PONV or rescue medication) during the first 24 hours postoperatively versus those in ondansetron group (62.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in terms of postoperative nausea incidences (42.9% vs. 34.3%, respectively), postoperative vomiting incidences (25.5% vs. 20.2%, respectively) and postoperative rescue anti-emetics incidences (19.4% vs. 15.2%, respectively) (P>0.05). Granisetron is more effective than ondansetron in preventing PONV in high-risk patients during the first 24 hours postoperatively.

  4. Disgust- and anxiety-based emotional reasoning in non-clinical fear of vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, Johan; van Hout, Wiljo J P J; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Emotional reasoning has been described as a dysfunctional tendency to use subjective responses to make erroneous inferences about threatening outcomes in objectively safe situations (e.g., "If I feel anxious/disgusted, there must be danger/risk of becoming ill"). Prior studies found evidence for anxiety-based emotional reasoning (ER) in several anxiety disorders as well as disgust-based ER in healthy individuals scoring above the clinical cut-off on a measure of contamination fear. The current study tested whether disgust- and anxiety-based ER might be involved in fear of vomiting, a phobic disorder in which both fear/anxiety and disgust are assumed to play an important role. Non-clinical participants scoring high (>75%; n = 35) and low (emotions revealed that more pronounced ER in the high vomit fearful group was mainly driven by the emotion of disgust. Current study asked participants to imagine experienced emotions in scenarios instead of experimentally inducing real-life emotions. These findings are consistent with the view that disgust-based ER is involved in fear of vomiting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbamazepine for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiana Aragão Santana

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nausea and vomiting are major inconveniences for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Despite standard preventive treatment, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV still occurs in approximately 50% of these patients. In an attempt to optimize this treatment, we evaluated the possible effects of carbamazepine for prevention of CINV.DESIGN AND LOCATION: Prospective nonrandomized open-label phase II study carried out at a Brazilian public oncology service. METHODS: Patients allocated for their first cycle of highly emetogenic chemotherapy were continuously recruited. In addition to standard antiemetic protocol that was made available, they received carbamazepine orally, with staggered doses, from the third day before until the fifth day after chemotherapy. Considering the sparseness of evidence about the efficacy of anticonvulsants for CINV prevention, we used Simon's two-stage design, in which 43 patients should be included unless overall complete prevention was not achieved in 9 out of the first 15 entries. The Functional Living Index-Emesis questionnaire was used to measure the impact on quality of life.RESULTS:None of the ten patients (0% presented overall complete prevention. In three cases, carbamazepine therapy was withdrawn because of somnolence and vomiting before chemotherapy. Seven were able to take the medication for the entire period and none were responsive, so the study was closed. There was no impact on the patients' quality of life.CONCLUSION: Carbamazepine was not effective for prevention of CINV and also had a deleterious side-effect profile in this population.

  6. Predisposing factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynecologic tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Daiane Spitz; Costa, Amine Farias; Chaves, Gabriela Villaça

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the predictors of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in women with gynecologic tumor. The analysis was based on prospectively collected data of 82 adult patients with gynecologic tumor, who were submitted to open surgical treatment and undergoing general anesthesia. The predictors included were age ≥50 years, non-smoker, use of postoperative opioids, mechanical bowel preparation, intraoperative intravenous hydration (IH) ≥10 mL/kg/h, and IH in the immediate postoperative, first and second postoperative days (PO1 and PO2) ≥30 mL/kg. A score with predictor variables was built. A multiple logistic regression was fitted. To estimate the discriminating power of the chosen model, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated. Statistical significance was set at p value 30 mL/kg of IH in the PO2. The results of the adjusted model showed an increased risk of PONV for each 1-point increase in the score punctuation. The relative risk was higher than 2.0 for vomiting in all period and in the PO1. The ROC curve showed great discrimination of postoperative nausea and vomiting from the proposed score (AUC >0.75). The study population was at high risk of PONV. Therefore, institutional guidelines abolishing modificable variables following temporal evaluation of the effectiveness should be undertaken.

  7. Reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting by dimenhydrinate suppositories after strabismus surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welters, I D; Menges, T; Gräf, M; Beikirch, C; Menzebach, A; Hempelmann, G

    2000-02-01

    Although dimenhydrinate has been used for treatment and prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) since the fifties, there have been few controlled studies about its efficacy. We performed a double-blinded study of 301 children aged 4 to 10 yr who underwent strabismus surgery. Preanesthetic medication with midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) as well as application of either dimenhydrinate suppositories or a placebo preparation was performed 30 min before the induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with thiopentone (5-10 mg/kg) and vecuronium (0.1 mg/kg) and maintained with halothane (1%-2%) in N(2)O/O(2) (65%/35%). The incidence of PONV, requirements for rescue dimenhydrinate, and time to recovery were recorded. The overall incidence of PONV was 60.1% in the placebo group and 30.7% in the dimenhydrinate group. In the dimenhydrinate group, children had to be observed in the recovery room significantly longer than those in the placebo group. Children having received dimenhydrinate were discharged from the recovery room with lower arousal scores. We conclude that the rectal administration of dimenhydrinate is effective for the prevention of PONV, although the sedative effect may require longer postoperative monitoring. We performed a double-blinded, randomized study to investigate the effects of prophylactic rectal dimenhydrinate application on postoperative nausea and vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery. In comparison with placebo, dimenhydrinate reduced the incidence of postoperative vomiting from 60.1% to 30.7%.

  8. Outbreak of small round structured virus gastroenteritis arose after kitchen assistant vomited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, W; Haswell, P; Fryers, P T; Green, J

    1997-06-27

    A wedding reception at a North Yorkshire hotel was followed by an explosive outbreak of gastroenteritis. The attack rate among the 111 guests was 50% and vomiting was a predominant feature. The results of laboratory and epidemiological investigations were consistent with a common source outbreak of small round structured virus (SRSV) infection genotype II. The source of the outbreak was traced to a kitchen assistant who suddenly became ill on the eve of the reception and vomited into a sink used for preparing vegetables. The sink was cleaned with a chlorine based disinfectant and used the next morning to prepare a potato salad, subsequently identified as the vehicle of infection in a cohort study of guests (odds ratio 3.21; CI 1.78-5.78, p = 0.0001). No other food was associated with illness. The outbreak provides further supporting evidence of the importance of vomiting in the transmission of SRSV infection, highlights the virulence of this group of viruses, and indicates their relative resistance to environmental disinfection and decontamination. It also highlights the need for the adequate training of catering staff and the implementation and enforcement of food hygiene regulations.

  9. Ginger-Mechanism of action in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Wolfgang; Ried, Karin; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Vitetta, Luis; Sali, Avni; McKavanagh, Daniel; Isenring, Liz

    2017-01-02

    Despite advances in antiemetic therapy, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) still poses a significant burden to patients undergoing chemotherapy. Nausea, in particular, is still highly prevalent in this population. Ginger has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for gastrointestinal complaints and has been suggested as a viable adjuvant treatment for nausea and vomiting in the cancer context. Substantial research has revealed ginger to possess properties that could exert multiple beneficial effects on chemotherapy patients who experience nausea and vomiting. Bioactive compounds within the rhizome of ginger, particularly the gingerol and shogaol class of compounds, interact with several pathways that are directly implicated in CINV in addition to pathways that could play secondary roles by exacerbating symptoms. These properties include 5-HT 3 , substance P, and acetylcholine receptor antagonism; antiinflammatory properties; and modulation of cellular redox signaling, vasopressin release, gastrointestinal motility, and gastric emptying rate. This review outlines these proposed mechanisms by discussing the results of clinical, in vitro, and animal studies both within the chemotherapy context and in other relevant fields. The evidence presented in this review indicates that ginger possesses multiple properties that could be beneficial in reducing CINV.

  10. Gastric Ollulanus tricuspis infection identified in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus with chronic vomiting : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastritis, vomition and weight loss are common in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. Gastric spiral bacteria (Helicobacter spp. and the very small, viviparous nematode Ollulanus tricuspis, a stomach worm of cats, are believed to be important causes. Three sibling cheetahs at Wellington Zoo, New Zealand, developed chronic vomiting, diarrhoea and debility. Their parents were both South African-born. Response to antibacterial treatment was poor. Endoscopic examinations revealed chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis and Ollulanus infection. Treatment with oxfendazole and pyrantel embonate resulted in clinical improvement; however, 1 cheetah, which died 7 months later as a result of a ruptured liver due to hepatic amyloidosis, still had Ollulanus worms present in her stomach. Ollulanus tricuspis is a significant cause of gastritis and vomiting in captive cheetahs, lions and tigers, as well as wild cougars and tigers. The parasite has not yet been found in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the unusual characteristics of this parasite, the literature on its life history and techniques for diagnosis is reviewed.

  11. Prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: the role of palonosetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Bajetta

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Emilio Bajetta, Sara Pusceddu, Valentina Guadalupi, Monika Ducceschi, Luigi CelioMedical Oncology Unit 2, Fondazione IRCCS “Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori”, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Prevention of nausea and vomiting is the main goal of antiemetic treatment in cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. To prevent acute emesis, antiemetics should be administered just before chemotherapy and patients should be protected for up to 24 hours after chemotherapy initiation. The emetogenic potential of chemotherapeutic agents guides clinicians towards the most appropriate antiemetic prophylaxis. Current guidelines recommend the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (RA either alone or in combination with dexamethasone and/or a neurokinin-1 RA both in the acute and delayed phases. The second-generation 5-HT3RA palonosetron exhibits a longer half-life and a higher binding affinity than older antagonists. Palonosetron has been approved by the FDA for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in patients scheduled to receive either moderately (MEC or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC and for the prevention of delayed CINV in patients receiving MEC. The present review will discuss the role of palonosetron in the prevention of acute CINV.Keywords: antiemetics, chemotherapy, nausea, vomiting, serotonin-receptor antagonists, palonosetron

  12. Vomiting Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pale skin Low urine output Seek immediate medical attention Ask someone to drive you to the emergency ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  13. Vomiting blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mouth into the esophagus, stomach and duodenum) Rectal examination Tube through the nose into the stomach ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  14. Granisetron in the treatment of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Eon; Kang, Ji No

    1999-01-01

    Granisetron is a potent, the most selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and is reported to be effective in treatment of radiation-induced emesis. The antiemetic efficacy and safety of oral granisteron was evaluated in patients with receiving highly emetogenic treatment by conventional fractionated irradiation. Patients with various cancers who were being treated with irradiation were accrued into the present study. The intensity of nausea was evaluated on first 24 hours and on day-7 by patients according to the degree of interference with normal daily life as followings; a) none; b) present but no interference with normal daily life (mild); c) interference with normal daily life (moderate); and d) bedridden because of nausea (severe). Non or mild state was considered to indicate successful treatment. The efficacy of antiemetic treatment was graded as follows; a) complete response; no vomiting, no worse than mild nausea and receive no rescue antiementic therapy over the 24h period, b) major response; either one episode of vomiting or moderate/severe nausea or had received rescue medication over 24h period, or any combination of these, c) minor response; two to four episodes of vomiting over the 24h period, regardless of nausea and rescue medication, d) failure; more than four medication. The score of the most symptom m was recorded and the total score over 24 hours was summarized. The complete or major response was considered to indicate successful treatment. A total of 10 patients were enrolled into this study, and all were assessable for efficacy analysis. Total nausea control was achieved in 90% (9/10:none=60% plus mild=30%) of total patients after 7 days. The control of vomiting by granisteron was noted in seven patients (70%) of complete response and three (30%) of major response with a hundred-percent successful treatment over 7 days. The minor response or treatment failure were not observed. No significant adverse events or toxicities from granisetron were

  15. Granisetron in the treatment of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Eon; Kang, Ji No [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Granisetron is a potent, the most selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and is reported to be effective in treatment of radiation-induced emesis. The antiemetic efficacy and safety of oral granisteron was evaluated in patients with receiving highly emetogenic treatment by conventional fractionated irradiation. Patients with various cancers who were being treated with irradiation were accrued into the present study. The intensity of nausea was evaluated on first 24 hours and on day-7 by patients according to the degree of interference with normal daily life as followings; a) none; b) present but no interference with normal daily life (mild); c) interference with normal daily life (moderate); and d) bedridden because of nausea (severe). Non or mild state was considered to indicate successful treatment. The efficacy of antiemetic treatment was graded as follows; a) complete response; no vomiting, no worse than mild nausea and receive no rescue antiementic therapy over the 24h period, b) major response; either one episode of vomiting or moderate/severe nausea or had received rescue medication over 24h period, or any combination of these, c) minor response; two to four episodes of vomiting over the 24h period, regardless of nausea and rescue medication, d) failure; more than four medication. The score of the most symptom m was recorded and the total score over 24 hours was summarized. The complete or major response was considered to indicate successful treatment. A total of 10 patients were enrolled into this study, and all were assessable for efficacy analysis. Total nausea control was achieved in 90% (9/10:none=60% plus mild=30%) of total patients after 7 days. The control of vomiting by granisteron was noted in seven patients (70%) of complete response and three (30%) of major response with a hundred-percent successful treatment over 7 days. The minor response or treatment failure were not observed. No significant adverse events or toxicities from granisetron were

  16. Ondansetron in Treating Patients With Advanced Cancer and Chronic Nausea and Vomiting Not Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Nausea and Vomiting; Precancerous Condition; Small Intestine Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  17. Biopsychosocial approaches to a patient with vomiting of 10 years' duration – a case of temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Kitamura Kana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vomiting is commonly encountered in clinical medicine. When organic gastrointestinal, metabolic, and brain diseases are ruled out, many cases are considered to be functional. We experienced an adult patient with epilepsy whose main symptom was vomiting. Biopsychosocial approaches were needed to control the symptoms. Case presentation A 26-year-old female with a 10-year history of persistent vomiting was found to have temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Throughout this time, during which the vomiting had become part of a vicious cycle, her epilepsy was poorly controlled by medication. Biopsychosocial approaches were employed successfully and the patient subsequently undertook training to become a home-helper, started a job, and was able to leave her parents' house and live independently. All of her symptoms resolved after she became self-sufficient. Discussion Vomiting without impaired consciousness is seldom considered to be a manifestation of epilepsy. Difficulty in recording an electroencephalogram (EEG because of the presence of persistent vomiting delayed the diagnosis. The improvement of symptoms was thought to have been due to the patient's emotional stabilization and physical improvement, which may have stabilized the limbic system. Conclusion When an illness persists for many years and conditioning and a vicious cycle occur secondarily, systematic biopsychosocial approaches are needed in addition to general treatment. Also, secondary symptoms make the diagnosis more difficult when efforts at treatment are ineffective.

  18. Evidence for a high and a low sensitivity receptor site for radiation-induced vomiting in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, R.K.; Hugenholtz, H.; Kucharczyk, J.

    1987-01-01

    Ablation of the area postrema (AP) has been shown to prevent radiation-induced vomiting in the dog (induced by 6-8 By /sup 60/Co γ). In other species (cat, monkey) a higher dose of radiation is necessary to elicit emesis and visceral deafferentation has been more effective than AP ablation in preventing vomiting. The AP and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), an important visceral afferent terminus, are anatomically adjacent structures in the medulla oblongata. Aggressive AP ablation could affect the DMV. The author's removed the AP in 6 dogs. Previous work showed this surgery prevented vomiting following exposure to 6-8 Gy. To prove the lesion did not invade the underlying DMV, the animals were given a hypertonic saline gavage, to elicit vomiting via visceral receptors. Animals were later submitted to 15-20 Gy. Those with proved visceral afferent connections vomited. They conclude that the AP is the most sensitive site for the stimulation of radiation-induced vomiting and that a less sensitive visceral site also exists. Differences in the relative sensitivities of these 2 systems may account for published species differences

  19. The effect of granisetron dexamethasone combination on postoperative nausea and vomiting in gynecological operations

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    Ziya Kaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is one of the most frequent adverse effects of anesthesia. PONV postpones hospital stays and also delays recover and getting better, of the patients. The objective of the current study is to compare efficacy of prophylactic granisetron(40 μ/kg + dexamethasone (4 mg combination against PONV in different anesthesia models.Materials and Methods: 72 patients with an age range of 18-72 years and ASA 1 or 2 were enrolled in the present study. The patients were assigned as group 1 propofol-remifentanil (P-R, group 2 propofol- nitrous oxide (P-N2O, group 3 sevoflurane- nitrous oxide (S-N2O and group 4 sevoflurane-remifentanyl-air (S-R+H. Inductions of the patients in all groups were made with intravenous 2-3 mg/kg propofol, 1μ/kg remifentanil and 0.2 mg/kg cis-atracurium. 4 mg of dexamethasone by bolus and 40 μ/kg of granisetron by infusion were administered to the patients in all groups after induction. During the last 10 minutes of the operation, 1mg/kg tramadol was administered.Postoperative nausea and vomiting, VAS scores, and additional antiemetic needs were recorded during postoperative 48 hours.Results: Postoperative 48 hours follow up revealed that PONV was seen 27%, 16%, 38%, 48% frequencies in (P+R, (P+ N2O, (S+ N2O, (S+R+H groups, respectively.While antiemetic requirement was not observed in (P+ N2O and (S+ N2O groups, the patients in (P+R and (S+R+H groups needed additional antiemetic drugs with a frequency of 5.5% and 11% respectively.Conclusion: Granisetron, dexamethasone combination in different anesthetic models did not reveal significant difference in terms of postoperative nausea, vomiting, and additional antiemetic usage.

  20. Assessing Dehydration Employing End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide in Children With Vomiting and Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Stephen B; Johnson, David W; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Mikrogianakis, Angelo; Williamson-Urquhart, Sarah; Monfries, Nicholas; Cheng, Adam

    2017-05-23

    Serum bicarbonate reflects dehydration severity in children with gastroenteritis. Previous work in children receiving intravenous rehydration has correlated end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) with serum bicarbonate. We evaluated whether EtCO2 predicts weight change in children with vomiting and/or diarrhea. A prospective cohort study was conducted. Eligible children were 3 months to 10 years old and presented for emergency department (ED) care because of vomiting and/or diarrhea. End-tidal carbon dioxide measurements were performed after triage. The diagnostic standard was weight change determined from serial measurements after symptom resolution. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to identify a cut-point to predict 5% or more dehydration. In total, 195 children were enrolled. Among the 169 (87%) with EtCO2 measurements, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) was 30.4 (27.8 to 33.1). One hundred fifty-eight had repeat weights performed at home; the median (IQR) weight change from ED presentation to well weight was +0.06 (-0.14 to +0.30) or +0.72% (-1.2% to +2.1%). Sixteen percent (25/158) had 3% or more and 4% (6/158) had 5% or more weight gain (ie, percent dehydration). One hundred sixteen (60%) completed home follow-up and had acceptable EtCO2 recordings. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.06 to 0.62) for EtCO2 as a predictor of 5% or more dehydration. The limited accuracy of EtCO2 measurement to predict 5% or more dehydration precludes its use as a tool to assess dehydration severity in children. End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring does not have the ability to identify those children with 5% or more dehydration in a cohort of children with vomiting and/or diarrhea presenting for ED care.

  1. A 3-Month-Old With Failure to Thrive and Persistent Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, Julia A; Moses, Jonathan; Lidsky, Karen; Kim, Anne; DeSapri, Melani; Stephans, Allayne

    2017-11-01

    A 3-month-old boy was admitted from his pediatrician's office for failure to thrive and vomiting. On admission, he weighed barely more than his birth weight and was cachectic with muscle wasting. His abdomen was grossly distended but soft and nontender. A trial of nasogastric feeds resulted in a worsening of his clinical status. He was transferred to the ICU, and diagnostic imaging was concerning for a distal bowel obstruction. Surgical pathology revealed a surprising diagnosis, which is described in detail in the following case. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Síndrome de vómitos cíclicos Cyclic vomiting syndrome

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    Dency Rivas Domingo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de vómitos cíclicos es un trastorno funcional que constituye un serio problema social y que altera la dinámica familiar como consecuencia de la intensidad de los vómitos. Hicimos una revisión del tema referido a la infancia e incluimos concepto, etiologías y patogénesis más aceptadas, así como los criterios establecidos para el diagnóstico. Se citan los diagnósticos diferenciales más frecuentes, evaluación clínica y pruebas diagnósticas. Se analizan algunos aspectos del tratamiento en la fase aguda y el tratamiento abortivo y profiláctico de las crisis. Se muestran los resultados clínico-epidemiológicos en 19 pacientes tratados ambulatoriamente durante dos años en nuestra consulta especializada de gastroenterología. El síndrome de vómitos cíclicos es relativamente frecuente en nuestro servicio ambulatorio y el diagnóstico basado en los síntomas clínicos es útil en el tratamiento y evolución de estos.Cyclic vomiting syndrome is a functional disorder that constitutes a serious social problem and disturbs family dynamics due to vomiting intensity. We made a literature review on this problem in childhood and included the most accepted concepts, etiologies and pathogenesis as well as the diagnostic criteria. Most frequent differential diagnosis, the clinical evaluation and the diagnostic tests were stated. Some aspects of treatment of this disease in acute phase and the abortive and prophylactic treatment of the vomit attacks were analyzed. The clinical and epidemiological results of 19 patients treated by the outpatient service for two years in our specialized gastroenterology department were shown. Cyclic vomit syndrome is often seen in our outpatient service and the diagnosis based on clinical symptoms is useful for treatment and evolution of these patients.

  3. Investigation of an outbreak of vomiting in nurseries in South East England, May 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, M; Purcell, B; Willis, C; Amar, C F L; Kanagarajah, S; Chamberlain, D; Wooldridge, D; Morgan, J; McLauchlin, J; Grant, K A; Harvey-Vince, L; Padfield, M; Mearkle, R; Chow, J Y

    2016-02-01

    On 30 May 2012, Surrey and Sussex Health Protection Unit was called by five nurseries reporting children and staff with sudden onset vomiting approximately an hour after finishing their lunch that day. Over the following 24 h 50 further nurseries supplied by the same company reported cases of vomiting (182 children, 18 staff affected). Epidemiological investigations were undertaken in order to identify the cause of the outbreak and prevent further cases. Investigations demonstrated a nursery-level attack rate of 55 out of 87 nurseries (63·2%, 95% confidence interval 52·2-73·3). Microbiological tests confirmed the presence of Bacillus cereus in food and environmental samples from the catering company and one nursery. This was considered microbiologically and epidemiologically consistent with toxin from this bacterium causing the outbreak. Laboratory investigations showed that the conditions used by the caterer for soaking of pearl haricot beans (known as navy bean in the USA) used in one of the foods supplied to the nurseries prior to cooking, was likely to have provided sufficient growth and toxin production of B. cereus to cause illness. This large outbreak demonstrates the need for careful temperature control in food preparation.

  4. Palonosetron Prevents Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in Oral Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sento, Shinya; Kitamura, Naoya; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nakashiro, Koichi; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Sasaki, Akira; Takamaru, Natsumi; Miyamoto, Yoji; Kodani, Isamu; Ryoke, Kazuo; Mishima, Katsuaki; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of palonosetron in preventing acute and delayed nausea and vomiting in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) in oral cancer patients. Oral cancer patients receiving HEC were enrolled; among the 40 patients, 87 courses of chemotherapy were administered. On day 1, 0.75 mg palonosetron was intravenously administrated just before chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a complete response (CR) and the secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients with complete control (CC) during the acute and delayed phase. During the acute phase, 86 of 87 courses (98.9%) had CR and 84 of 87 courses (96.6%) had CC. During the delayed phase, 84 of 87 courses (96.6%) had CR and 70 of 87 courses (80.5%) had CC. Palonosetron is effective at preventing HEC-induced chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in oral cancer chemotherapeutic regimens in the acute and delayed phases. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Dronabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting unresponsive to antiemetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May MB

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Megan Brafford May,1 Ashley E Glode2 1Department of Pharmacy, Baptist Health Lexington, Lexington, KY, USA; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is one of the most common symptoms feared by patients, but may be prevented or lessened with appropriate medications. Several antiemetic options exist to manage CINV. Corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists, and neurokinin receptor antagonists are the classes most commonly used in the prevention of CINV. There are many alternative drug classes utilized for the prevention and management of CINV such as antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, and dopamine receptor antagonists. Medications belonging to these classes generally have lower efficacy and are associated with more adverse effects. They are also not as well studied compared to the aforementioned agents. This review will focus on dronabinol, a member of the cannabinoid class, and its role in CINV. Cannabis sativa L. (also known as marijuana contains naturally occurring delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol (delta-9-THC. The synthetic version of delta-9-THC is the active ingredient in dronabinol that makes dronabinol an orally active cannabinoid. Evidence for clinical efficacy of dronabinol will be analyzed in this review as monotherapy, in combination with ondansetron, and in combination with prochlorperazine. Keywords: dronabinol, cannabinoids, antiemetic, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

  6. Orofacial manifestations in outpatients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa focusing on the vomiting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Maria; Azevedo, Álvaro; Brandão, Isabel; Gomes, Pedro S

    2018-06-01

    This case-control study aims to evaluate the oral health status and orofacial problems in a group of outpatients with eating disorders (ED)-either anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN)-further focusing on the influence of vomit. Fifty-five women outpatients with AN or BN diagnosis were invited to participate, of which 33 agreed. ED outpatients and matched controls were submitted to a questionnaire and clinical oral examination. Multivariate analysis identified a significantly higher incidence of teeth-related complications (i.e., tooth decay, dental erosion, and self-reported dentin hypersensitivity), periodontal disease, salivary alterations (i.e., hyposalivation and xerostomia), and oral mucosa-related complications in ED outpatients. Dental erosion, self-reported dentin hypersensitivity, hyposalivation, xerostomia, and angular cheilitis were found to be highly correlated with the vomiting behavior. ED outpatients were found to present a higher incidence of oral-related complications and an inferior oral health status, compared to gender- and age-matched controls. Alterations verified within outpatients were acknowledged to be quite similar to those previously reported within inpatients, in both of nature and severity, thus sustaining that the cranio-maxillofacial region is significantly affected by ED, even in the early/milder forms of the condition, as expectedly verified within outpatients.

  7. Comparison of the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağan, Özgür; Taş, Nilay; Mutlu, Tuğçe; Hancı, Volkan

    The aim of our study is to compare the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine, used for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Our study was completed with 98 ASA I-II risk patients undergoing endotracheal intubation under general anesthesia. At the end of the surgery patients were randomly divided into two groups given 2mgkg -1 sugammadex (Group S) or 50μgkg -1 neostigmine plus 0.2mgkg -1 atropine (Group N). Monitoring and recording times were set as 1 hour postoperative and from 1-6, 6-12, and 12-24hours. The anti-emetic amounts administered were recorded. In the first hour postoperative 13 patients in Group N (27%) and 4 in Group S (8%) were observed to have nausea and/or vomiting and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.0016). During the 24 hours of monitoring there was no significant difference in the incidence and severity of PONV (p>0.05), however the number of patients given ondansetron for PONV treatment in Group N was statistically significantly higher than the number in Group S (16 in Group N, 6 in Group S, psugammadex for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, we found use of sugammadex had lower incidence of PONV in the postoperative 1st hour and less anti-emetic use in 24 hours of monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of sugammadex and conventional reversal on postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized, blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Onur; Turhanoglu, Selim; Ozbakis Akkurt, Cagla; Karcıoglu, Murat; Ozkan, Mustafa; Ozer, Cahit; Sessler, Daniel I; Turan, Alparslan

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether the new selective binding agent sugammadex causes less postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) than the cholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. University-affiliated hospital. One hundred American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 patients scheduled for extremity surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to neostigmine (70 μg/kg) and atropine (0.4 mg per mg neostigmine) or sugammadex 2 mg/kg for neuromuscular antagonism at the end of anesthesia, when 4 twitches in response to train-of-four stimulation were visible with fade. We recorded PONV, recovery parameters, antiemetic consumption, and side effects. Nausea and vomiting scores were lower in the sugammadex patients upon arrival in the postanesthesia care unit (med: 0 [min-max, 0-3] vs med: 0 [min-max, 0-3]; P sugammadex. Postoperative heart rates were significantly lower in all measured times patients given neostigmine. Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking antagonism with sugammadex speeds recovery of neuromuscular strength but only slightly and transiently reduces PONV compared with neostigmine and atropine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on postoperative nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Yağan

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: The aim of our study is to compare the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine, used for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV. Methods: Our study was completed with 98 ASA I-II risk patients undergoing endotracheal intubation under general anesthesia. At the end of the surgery patients were randomly divided into two groups given 2 mg kg-1 sugammadex (Group S or 50 µg kg-1 neostigmine plus 0.2 mg kg-1 atropine (Group N. Monitoring and recording times were set as 1 hour postoperative and from 1-6, 6-12, and 12-24 hours. The anti-emetic amounts administered were recorded. Results: In the first hour postoperative 13 patients in Group N (27% and 4 in Group S (8% were observed to have nausea and/or vomiting and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0016. During the 24 hours of monitoring there was no significant difference in the incidence and severity of PONV (p > 0.05, however the number of patients given ondansetron for PONV treatment in Group N was statistically significantly higher than the number in Group S (16 in Group N, 6 in Group S, p < 0.011. Conclusions: At the end of our study comparing neostigmine with sugammadex for neuromuscular blockage antagonism, we found use of sugammadex had lower incidence of PONV in the postoperative 1st hour and less anti-emetic use in 24 hours of monitoring.

  10. Prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: the role of palonosetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajetta, Emilio; Pusceddu, Sara; Guadalupi, Valentina; Ducceschi, Monika; Celio, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of nausea and vomiting is the main goal of antiemetic treatment in cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. To prevent acute emesis, antiemetics should be administered just before chemotherapy and patients should be protected for up to 24 hours after chemotherapy initiation. The emetogenic potential of chemotherapeutic agents guides clinicians towards the most appropriate antiemetic prophylaxis. Current guidelines recommend the use of 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist (RA) either alone or in combination with dexamethasone and/or a neurokinin-1 RA both in the acute and delayed phases. The second-generation 5-HT 3 RA palonosetron exhibits a longer half-life and a higher binding affinity than older antagonists. Palonosetron has been approved by the FDA for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients scheduled to receive either moderately (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and for the prevention of delayed CINV in patients receiving MEC. The present review will discuss the role of palonosetron in the prevention of acute CINV

  11. Differential pharmacology and clinical utility of rolapitant in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapoport BL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Leon Rapoport The Medical Oncology Centre of Rosebank, Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is a debilitating side effect of many cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. CINV typically manifests during two well-defined time periods (acute and delayed phases. The acute phase is the first 24 hours after chemotherapy and is largely managed with 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonists. The delayed phase, a 5-day at-risk period during which patients are not often in direct contact with their health care provider, remains a significant unmet medical need. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor antagonists have demonstrated protection against acute and delayed CINV in patients treated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy when used in combination with a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. Furthermore, recent data indicate that this protection is maintained over multiple treatment cycles. Rolapitant, a selective and long-acting NK-1 receptor antagonist, is approved as oral formulation for the prevention of delayed CINV in adults. This review discusses the differential pharmacology and clinical utility of rolapitant in preventing CINV compared with other NK-1 receptor antagonists. Keywords: antiemetics, highly emetogenic chemotherapy, moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, emesis, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists

  12. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisiere, Julien; Mousset, Pierre-Yves; Lafay, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed) until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety. PMID:29614764

  13. New approaches to chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: from neuropharmacology to clinical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Edward B; Slusher, Barbara S; Rojas, Camilo; Navari, Rudolph M

    2006-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are considered to be among the most distressing consequences of cytotoxic chemotherapies. Currently, there are several novel 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), including ondansetron, granisetron, and dolasetron. These agents provide significant improvement in the management of acute emesis but are ineffective at preventing delayed emesis. In 2003, a new 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, palonosetron HCL (Aloxi), was introduced to the U.S. market. Palonosetron was found to be effective in preventing delayed CINV. Indeed, palonosetron was the first and only 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist approved by the FDA for the prevention of both acute and delayed CINV. More recently, studies on the role of substance P in the emetic process led to the development of aprepitant (Emend) for the prevention of delayed emesis in combination with 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists. Despite these major advances, CINV remains uncontrolled in some patients. Current efforts are focused on treating refractory emesis and include both the clinical evaluation of compounds marketed for other indications and the preclinical evaluation of novel molecules targeting other transmitters in the emetic pathway. Ongoing work in pharmacogenomics has postulated several candidate genes that could be involved in emetic sensitivity and responsiveness to antiemetic therapy. Investigations into the pharmacogenomics of CINV may someday be able to aid in the identification of high risk patients and patients unlikely to respond to conventional therapies.

  14. How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Stanisiere

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP. However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety.

  15. On the mechanism of vomiting in the primary reaction period following whole-body irradiation at high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosov, K.S.; Grigor'ev, Yu.G.; Zorin, V.V.; Norkin, I.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the experiments of dogs exposed to ionizing radiations at doses of 50 and 70 Gy, an essential role of the central mechanism in the origin of early postradiation vomiting has been confirmed. Insufficient efficiency of dimethpramide, a dophaminolytics, in this case may be connected either with initiation of other (non-dophaminosensitive) structures of the chemoreceptor trigger zone or with a growing role of the reflex way of vomiting arising due to a considerable intestinal injury that causes diarrhea. The inhibition of intestinal M-cholinoreceptors by methacine prevented diarrhea but didn't change the intensity of the vomiting reaction which, however, dose not eliminate the possibility of afferentation from receptors that respond to others biologically active substances. (author)

  16. The effect of small dose bupivacaine-fentanyl in spinal anesthesia on hemodynamic nausea and vomiting in cesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedhejazi, M.; Madarek, E.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the hemodynamic, nausea and vomiting with small dose bupivacaine-fentanyl spinal anesthetic versus a conventional dose of spinal bupivacaine in parturients undergoing cesarean section. Forty patients aged 17-35 years old which underwent cesarean section were randomized into two groups. Group-A received spinal anesthesia with 8 mg of bupivacaine and 10 microg fentanyl, group B received 12 mg bupivacaine. The mean dose of ephedrine needed was 4mg in group A and 11.75 mg in group B (P=0.006). The mean ratio of lowest systolic pressure to baseline systolic pressure was 0.75 for group A and 0.65 for group B (P=0.04). Nausea and vomiting was observed in 10% of group A versus 20% in group B. Small dose of bupivacaine and fentanyl provides good spinal anesthesia for cesarean section with less hypotension, nausea and vomiting. (author)

  17. Pharmacodynamics of transdermal granisetron in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caritis, Steve; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Hui-Jun; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2016-07-01

    Limited options exist for women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) who cannot tolerate oral intake. Transdermal delivery of granisetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist, provides an effective alternative for such patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of granisetron administered intravenously (IV) and as a sustained release transdermal patch in women with NVP. We recruited 16 women with singleton gestation between 12 0/7-18 6/7 weeks who were receiving treatment for NVP and had a Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea (PUQE) score of ≥6. All consenting subjects received 1 mg of granisetron as an IV infusion over 5 minutes and blood was obtained prior to the infusion and at 10, 20, 30, and 60 minutes and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the start of the infusion. After a minimum washout of 48 hours after initiation of IV granisetron, a 52-cm(2) granisetron patch (34.3 mg) was placed on the upper arm of all subjects for 7 days. Blood was drawn prior to patch placement and daily thereafter for 9 days. The subjects were evaluated daily. The PUQE score was obtained from these subjects prior to the IV infusion and daily for 2 days after and again prior to and daily for 9 days after patch placement. Complete data were available in 15 women after IV administration and 13 women after patch placement. One woman stopped participation during the IV infusion while data were not available in 2 additional women after patch placement due to noncompliance. Peak plasma granisetron concentrations after IV and transdermal administration were similar (∼10 ng/mL). Prior to IV administration of granisetron, the PUQE score was 8.6 ± 1.8 (mean ± SD). The PUQE scores were significantly reduced for the ensuing 2 days (P Granisetron significantly improved symptoms of nausea and vomiting as gauged by the PUQE score. After IV infusion the reduction in PUQE score was observed within 1 day. When granisetron was

  18. Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, and Associations for Rome IV Functional Nausea and Vomiting Disorders in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E; Sperber, Ami D; Simrén, Magnus; Törnblom, Hans

    2018-05-29

    Functional nausea and vomiting disorders (FNVDs) are classified as chronic nausea and vomiting syndrome (CNVS) or cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) - CVS includes cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. We investigated the population prevalence of FNVDs, their characteristics, and associated factors. In the year 2015, an Internet cross-sectional health survey was completed by 5931 adults in the general populations of 3 English-speaking countries; 2100 participants were in the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom. Quota-based sampling was used to generate demographically balanced and population-representative samples. The survey collected data on demographics, healthcare visits, medications, somatic symptom severity, quality of life, and symptom-based diagnostic criteria for Rome IV FNVDs as well as for irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. Subsequent comparisons were made between Rome IV FNVD subjects and individuals without FNVDs (controls). Overall, 2.2% of the population (n=131) fulfilled symptom-based diagnostic criteria for Rome IV FNVDs - the United States (3%) had a greater prevalence than Canada (1.9%) or the United Kingdom (1.8%) (P=.02). The prevalence of CNVS was similar among the countries, ranging from 0.8% to 1.2%. However, the prevalence of CVS was higher in the United States (2%) than in Canada (0.7%) or the United Kingdom (1%) (P=.03). The proportion of subjects with CVS taking cannabis did not differ significantly among countries (P=.31), although the 7 cases of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome were in the United States. A significantly higher proportion of subjects with CVS reported a compulsive need for hot water bathing to alleviate emetic symptoms than subjects with CNVS (44% vs. 19%, P=.03); this behaviour was independent of cannabis but augmented by its use. Subjects with FNVDs had significantly greater health impairment and health care utilization than controls. On multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with FNVDs

  19. Olanzapine for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Chelkeba L

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV remains the most distressing event in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC. Objective: Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine containing regimen in preventing acute, delayed and overall phases of CINV. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, and Cochrane central register of controlled trials electronic databases were searched to identify RCTs that compared the effects of olanzapine with non-olanzapine regimen in preventing CINV. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs that compared olanzapine containing regimen with non-olanzapine regimen were included. The primary outcomes were the percentage of patients achieving no vomiting or no nausea in acute, delayed and overall phases. Results: 13 RCTs that enrolled 1686 participants were included in this meta-analysis. 852 patients were assigned to olanzapine and 834 patients were assigned to non-olanzapine regimen (other standard antiemetic regimen. The percentages of no emesis achieved were 87.5%, 76.2%, 73.6% in olanzapine versus 76.7%, 61.8%, and 56.4% in non-olanzapine regimen in acute, delayed and overall phases, respectively. The percentages of no nausea were 82%, 64.3%, 61.6% in olanzapine group versus 71.3%, 41.8%, and 40.6% in non-olanzapine group in acute, delayed and overall phases, respectively. In general, olanzapine containing regimen achieved statistical superiority to non-olanzapine regimen in no vomiting endpoint in acute phase (OR 2.16; 95%CI 1.60 to 2.91, p<0.00001; I-square=5%; p=0.40, delayed phase (OR 2.28; 95%CI 1.1.46 to 3.54, p=0.0003; I-square=65%; p=0.001 and overall phase (OR 2.48; 95%CI 1.59 to 3.86, p<0.0001; I-square=69%; p< 0.0001. Conclusion: The current meta-analysis showed that olanzapine was statistically and clinically superior to non-olanzapine regimen in preventing CINV in most domains of the parameters.

  20. The influence of dexamethasone and ketolgan on postoperative nausea and vomiting and estimation of risk factors in women undergoing gynecologic laparoscopic surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaitis, Kestutis; Svitojūte, Asta; Macas, Andrius

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dexamethasone and ketolgan on postoperative nausea and vomiting and to evaluate risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting. A prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical study was carried out. One hundred fifty-three ASA I-II women undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic operations were randomized into three groups: dexamethasone group (n=51), ketolgan group (n=51), and control group (n=51). Patients in the dexamethasone group were given 4 mg of dexamethasone intravenously before the induction of general anesthesia, the ketolgan group received 30-mg ketolgan intravenously, and control group did not receive any medication. The incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting were registered 24 hours after the surgery. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the dexamethasone group was 13.8%; in the ketolgan group, 37.3%, and in the control group, 58.9% (P=0.026). Patients with a history of migraine suffered from postoperative nausea and vomiting in 70.3% of cases and migraine-free patients in 25.8% of cases (P=0.015). Opioids for postoperative analgesia increased the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting as compared with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (P=0.00002). Preoperative medication with dexamethasone significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Avoidance of opioids for postoperative analgesia reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Migraine and motion sickness are independent risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  1. Oral ondansetron versus domperidone for symptomatic treatment of vomiting during acute gastroenteritis in children: multicentre randomized controlled trial

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    Urbino Antonio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis (AG is not only a direct cause of fluid loss but it is also a major factor of failure of oral rehydration therapy (ORT. Physicians who provide care to paediatric patients in the emergency department (ED usually prescribe intravenous fluid therapy (IVT for mild or moderate dehydration when vomiting is the major symptom. Thus, effective symptomatic treatment of vomiting would lead to an important reduction in the use of IVT and, consequently, of the duration of hospital stay and of frequency of hospital admission. Available evidence on symptomatic treatment of vomiting shows the efficacy of the most recently registered molecule (ondansetron but a proper evaluation of antiemetics drugs largely used in clinical practice, such as domperidone, is lacking. Objectives To compare the efficacy of ondansetron and domperidone for the symptomatic treatment of vomiting in children with AG who have failed ORT. Methods/Design Multicentre, double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in paediatric EDs. Children aged from 1 to 6 years who vomiting, with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of AG, and without severe dehydration will be included. After the failure of a initial ORS administration in ED, eligible children will be randomized to receive: 1 ondansetron syrup (0,15 mg/Kg of body weight; 2 domperidone syrup (0,5 mg/Kg of body weight; 3 placebo. The main study outcome will be the percentage of patients needing nasogastric or IVT after symptomatic oral treatment failure, defined as vomiting or fluid refusal after a second attempt of ORT. Data relative to study outcomes will be collected at 30 minute intervals for a minimum of 6 hours. A telephone follow up call will be made 48 hours after discharge. A total number of 540 children (i.e. 180 patients in each arm will be enrolled. Discussion The trial results would provide evidence on the efficacy of domperidone, which is largely used in

  2. Casopitant: a novel NK(1)-receptor antagonist in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are among the most feared and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The knowledge of the pathogenesis and neuropharmacology of CINV has expanded enormously over the last decades, the most significant discoveries being the role of 5......-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(3)- and neurokinin (NK)(1) receptors in the emetic reflex arch. This has led to the development of two new classes of antiemetics acting as highly selective antagonists at one of these receptors. These drugs have had a huge impact in the protection from chemotherapy-induced vomiting...

  3. Successful control of intractable nausea and vomiting requiring combined ondansetron and haloperidol in a patient with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, R M; Robinson, F; Harvey, L; Trethowan, K; Murdoch, V

    1994-01-01

    Chemically induced nausea and vomiting is a common symptom of advanced cancer effected through stimulation of dopamine (D2) or serotonin (5-HT3) receptors located in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ). These may be blocked by therapeutic doses of haloperidol and ondansetron, respectively. This case, reporting on a single patient acting as her own control, establishes that combined blockade of these receptors is sometimes required to relieve intractable nausea and vomiting. It also demonstrates the value of clinical review, audit of care, and quality assurance in the palliative care setting.

  4. Granisetron: a review of pharmacokinetics and clinical experience in chemotherapy induced - nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartinou, Anastasia; Nyktari, Vasileia; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are major side effects of chemotherapy and a great burden to patients' quality of life. Serotonin and substance P are the major neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of CINV, but in spite of new antiemetics no completely effective regime exists for its prevention or treatment. Areas covered: In this review the authors provide a detailed description of granisetron's chemistry pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, toxicity and a brief review of clinical trials involving granisetron and the management of CINV. We searched reviews, meta-analysis and randomized controlled trials (Medline, Embase and article reference lists). Expert opinion: According to current literature, granisetron 2 mg orally or 0,01mg/kg (1 mg) intravenously per day, co-administered with dexamethasone and NK-1 antagonists is the recommended regime for highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In the future the role of transdermal and subcutaneous formulations against delayed CINV will be clarified and probably enhance patients' convenience.

  5. A prospective randomized study of the effectiveness of aromatherapy for relief of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Nancy S; McCarthy, Mary S; Pierce, Roslyn M

    2014-02-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a major concern for patients having surgery under general anesthesia as it causes subjective distress along with increased complications and delays in discharge from the hospital. Aromatherapy represents a complementary and alternative therapy for the management of PONV. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of aromatherapy (QueaseEase, Soothing Scents, Inc, Enterprise, AL) versus an unscented inhalant in relieving PONV. One hundred twenty-one patients with postoperative nausea were randomized into a treatment group receiving an aromatic inhaler and a control group receiving a placebo inhaler to evaluate the effectiveness of aromatherapy. Initial and follow-up nausea assessment scores in both treatment and placebo groups decreased significantly (P aromatherapy was significantly higher in the treatment group (P Aromatherapy was favorably received by most patients and represents an effective treatment option for postoperative nausea. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. [Postoperative nausea and vomiting: a review of the 'minor-major' problem.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Neusa; Fonseca, Cristina; Neves, Aida; Landeiro, Nuno; Abelha, Fernando José

    2005-10-01

    Notwithstanding continuous investigations and the development of new drugs and techniques, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent and may contribute to the development of complications, thus increasing hospital and human costs. This article aimed at reviewing physiological mechanisms, risk factors and therapeutic approaches available to manage PONV. Several strategies to manage PONV are suggested in this article, but stress is given to guidelines published by Gan in 2003. They are the most recent contribution for risk stratification, prevention and treatment of PONV patients. Although the management of PONV has improved in recent years, it is still common among high-risk patients. Current strategy to prevent and treat PONV is not yet established and Gan guidelines should be adapted to each population and institution.

  7. Safety evaluation of aprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Aprepitant is the only neurokinin (NK(1)) receptor antagonist (RA) approved for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Aprepitant is co-administered with a 5-HT(3) RA and a corticosteroid. Although aprepitant is safe, in most clinical settings potential drug......A4, MK-0869, neurokinin(1) receptor antagonist, safety and tolerability. EXPERT OPINION: The recommended antiemetic regimen of aprepitant, a 5-HT(3) RA and a corticosteroid is safe. The combination of aprepitant, a 5-HT(3) RA and dexamethasone is now the gold standard of antiemetic treatment...... in prevention of CINV induced by HEC, or by the combination of an anthracycline and cyclophosphamide. The intravenous formulation of aprepitant used as a single dose is expected to be of benefit to cancer patients....

  8. Malignancy-associated gastroparesis: an important and overlooked cause of chronic nausea and vomiting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Dearbhla

    2014-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman was referred to a gastroenterology clinic with a 1-year history of protracted nausea and postprandial vomiting. She had a background of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a significant smoking history. Her laboratory work-up including autoimmune screen, coeliac serology and synacthen test were unremarkable. Upper gastrointestinalendoscopy and CT imaging ruled out mucosal and obstructive causes. Gastric emptying studies demonstrated a delayed gastric emptying consistent with diagnosis of gastroparesis. Concurrently, she underwent a CT of the thorax for unresolved consolidation on her chest X-ray. This revealed a locally advanced primary lung carcinoma. In this context, with all other causes excluded, her gastroparesis was deemed to represent a paraneoplastic phenomenon. Gastroparesis is a frequent, under-recognised and important complication of cancer.

  9. Significant Weight Loss, Nausea, And Vomiting Due to Strongyloidiasis:A Case Report

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    Afshin Shafaghi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is caused by infestation with Strongyloides stercoralis, a free living tropical and semitropical soil helminth that has a larval form that penetrates intact skin.Clinical manifestations may be varied from an asymptomatic infection   in immunocompetent hosts to a diffuse and fatal form in immunocompromised hosts.We report a 56-year-old man from Dezful (south-west of Iran with a 6-month history of nausea, vomiting and significant weight loss (greater than 10%. Abdominal ltrasonography had no significant findings. Upper gastrointestinal series and abdominal CT were performed. Dilated bowel loops especially in the jejunum,with decreased mucosal folds were seen. Abiopsy specimen from the third part of duodenum showed strongyloides larvae,thus albendazole 400 mg twice a day for 3   days was initiated.He responded well to this treatment regimen.  

  10. Effect of intravenous fluid therapy on postoperative vomiting in children undergoing tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, M F; Echevarría, G C; De la Fuente, N; Cabrera, F; Valderrama, A; Cabezón, R; Muñoz, H R; Cortinez, L I

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative vomiting (POV) is one of the most frequent complications of tonsillectomy in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiemetic effect of super-hydration with lactated Ringer's solution in children undergoing elective otorhinolaryngological surgery. One hundred ASA I-II children, aged 1-12 yr, undergoing elective tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, under general anaesthesia were studied. Induction and maintenance of anaesthesia were standardized with fentanyl, mivacurium, and sevoflurane in N(2)O/O(2). Subjects were assigned to one of the two groups: 10 ml kg(-1) h(-1) lactated Ringer's solution or 30 ml kg(-1) h(-1) lactated Ringer's solution. A multivariable logistic regression was used for assessing the effects of super-hydration on POV (defined as the presence of retching, vomiting, or both). A value of P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. During the first 24 h postoperative, the incidence of POV decreased from 82% to 62% (relative reduction of 24%, P=0.026). In the adjusted logistic regression model, subjects in the 10 ml kg(-1) h(-1) group had an odds ratio of POV that was 2.92 (95% confidence interval: 1.14, 7.51) for POV compared with subjects in the 30 ml kg(-1) h(-1) group. Intraoperative administration of 30 ml kg(-1) h(-1) lactated Ringer's solution significantly reduced the incidence of POV during the first 24 h postoperative. Our results support the use of super-hydration during tonsillectomy, as an alternative way to decrease the risk of POV in children.

  11. Differential clinical pharmacology of rolapitant in delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV

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    Rashad N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Noha Rashad,1 Omar Abdel-Rahman2 1Medical Oncology Department, Maadi Armed Forces Hospital, 2Clinical Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Rolapitant is a highly selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, orally administered for a single dose of 180 mg before chemotherapy with granisetron D1, dexamethasone 8 mg BID on day 2–4. It has a unique pharmacological characteristic of a long plasma half-life (between 163 and 183 hours; this long half-life makes a single use sufficient to cover the delayed emesis risk period. No major drug–drug interactions between rolapitant and dexamethasone or other cytochrome P450 inducers or inhibitors were observed. The clinical efficacy of rolapitant was studied in two phase III trials in highly emetogenic chemotherapy and in one clinical trial in moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a complete response (defined as no emesis or use of rescue medication in the delayed phase (>24–120 hours after chemotherapy. In comparison to granisetron (10 µg/kg intravenously and dexamethasone (20 mg orally on day 1, and dexamethasone (8 mg orally twice daily on days 2–4 and placebo, rolapitant showed superior efficacy in the control of delayed and overall emesis. This review aims at revising the pharmacological characteristics of rolapitant, offering an updated review of the available clinical efficacy and safety data of rolapitant in different clinical settings, highlighting the place of rolapitant in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV among currently available guidelines, and exploring the future directions of CINV management. Keywords: nausea, vomiting, chemotherapy, rolapitant, CINV

  12. A comparison of three antiemetic combinations for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ledesma, M J; López-Olaondo, L; Pueyo, F J; Carrascosa, F; Ortega, A

    2002-12-01

    In this study we compared the efficacy and safety of three antiemetic combinations in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Ninety ASA status I-II women, aged 18-65 yr, undergoing general anesthesia for major gynecological surgery, were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. A standardized anesthetic technique and postoperative analgesia (intrathecal morphine plus IV patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine) were used in all patients. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ondansetron 4 mg plus droperidol 1.25 mg after the induction of anesthesia and droperidol 1.25 mg 12 h later (Group 1, n = 30), dexamethasone 8 mg plus droperidol 1.25 mg after the induction of anesthesia and droperidol 1.25 mg 12 h later (Group 2, n = 30), or ondansetron 4 mg plus dexamethasone 8 mg after the induction of anesthesia and placebo 12 h later (Group 3, n = 30). A complete response, defined as no PONV in 48 h, occurred in 80% of patients in Group 1, 70% in Group 3, and 40% in Group 2 (P = 0.004 versus Groups 1 and 3). The incidences of side effects and other variables that could modify the incidence of PONV were similar among groups. In conclusion, ondansetron, in combination with droperidol or dexamethasone, is more effective than dexamethasone in combination with droperidol in women undergoing general anesthesia for major gynecological surgery with intrathecal morphine plus IV PCA with morphine for postoperative analgesia. The combination of ondansetron plus dexamethasone or droperidol was significantly better than the combination of dexamethasone plus droperidol in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in women undergoing general anesthesia for major gynecological surgery, with intrathecal and IV morphine (patient-controlled analgesia) for management of postoperative pain.

  13. Association of postoperative nausea/vomiting and pain with breastfeeding success

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    Ramon Abola

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful breastfeeding is a goal set forth by the World Health Organization to improve neonatal care. Increasingly, patients express the desire to breastfeed, and clinicians should facilitate successful breastfeeding. The primary aim of this study is to determine if postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV or postoperative pain are associated with decreased breastfeeding success after cesarean delivery. Methods This is a historical cohort study using the Stony Brook Elective Cesarean Delivery Database. Self-reported breastfeeding success at 4 weeks postoperative was analyzed for associations with postoperative antiemetic use and postoperative pain scores. Breastfeeding success was also analyzed for associations with patient factors and anesthetic medications. Results Overall, 86% of patients (n = 81 who intended on breastfeeding reported breastfeeding success. Breastfeeding success was not associated with postoperative nausea or vomiting as measured by post anesthesia care unit antiemetic use (15% use in successful vs. 18% use in unsuccessful, p = 0.67 or 48-h antiemetic use (28% use in successful group vs 36% use in unsuccessful group, p = 0.732. Pain visual analog scale scores at 6, 12 and 24 h postoperatively were not significantly different between patients with or without breastfeeding success. Breastfeeding success was associated with having had at least 1 previous child (86% vs 36%, p < 0.001. Patients with asthma were less likely to have breastfeeding success (45% vs 4%, p = 0.002. Conclusions Efforts to improve PONV and pain after cesarean delivery may not be effective in improving breastfeeding success. To possibly improve breastfeeding rates, resources should be directed toward patients with no previous children and patients with asthma.

  14. Treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome with co-enzyme Q10 and amitriptyline, a retrospective study

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    Preston Amy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS, which is defined by recurrent stereotypical episodes of nausea and vomiting, is a relatively-common disabling condition that is associated with migraine headache and mitochondrial dysfunction. Co-enzyme Q10 (Co-Q is a nutritional supplement that has demonstrated efficacy in pediatric and adult migraine. It is increasingly used in CVS despite the complete lack of studies to demonstrate its value in treatment Methods Using an Internet-based survey filled out by subjects with CVS or their parents, the efficacy, tolerability and subject satisfaction in CVS prophylaxis were queried. Subjects taking Co-Q (22 subjects were compared against those taking amitriptyline (162 subjects, which is the general standard-of-care. Results Subjects/parents reported similar levels of efficacy for a variety of episode parameters (frequency, duration, number of emesis, nausea severity. There was a 50% reduction in at least one of those four parameters in 72% of subjects treated with amitriptyline and 68% of subjects treated Co-Q. However, while no side effects were reported on Co-Q, 50% of subjects on amitriptyline reported side effects (P = 5 × 10-7, resulting in 21% discontinuing treatment (P = 0.007. Subjects/parents considered the benefits to outweigh the risks of treatment in 47% of cases on amitriptyline and 77% of cases on Co-Q (P = 0.008. Conclusion Our data suggest that the natural food supplement Co-Q is potentially efficacious and tolerable in the treatment of CVS, and should be considered as an option in CVS prophylaxis. Our data would likely be helpful in the design of a double-blind clinical trial.

  15. The effect of heartburn and acid reflux on the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simerpal Kaur; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heartburn (HB) and acid reflux (RF) in the non-pregnant population can cause nausea and vomiting; therefore, it is plausible that in women with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), HB/RF may increase the severity of symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether HB/RF during pregnancy contribute to increased severity of NVP. METHODS: A prospectively collected cohort of women who were experiencing NVP and HB, RF or both (n=194) was studied. The Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis and Nausea (PUQE) scale and its Well-being scale was used to compare the severity of the study cohort’s symptoms. This cohort was compared with a group of women experiencing NVP but no HB/RF (n=188). Multiple linear regression was used to control for the effects of confounding factors. RESULTS: Women with HB/RF reported higher PUQE scores (9.6±2.6) compared with controls (8.9±2.6) (P=0.02). Similarly, Well-being scores for women experiencing HB/RF were lower (4.3±2.1) compared with controls (4.9±2.0) (P=0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that increased PUQE scores (P=0.003) and decreased Well-being scores (P=0.005) were due to the presence of HB/RF as opposed to confounding factors such as pre-existing gastrointestinal conditions/symptoms, hyperemesis gravidarum in previous pregnancies and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: The present cohort study is the first to demonstrate that HB/RF are associated with increased severity of NVP. Managing HB/RF may improve the severity of NVP. PMID:19373420

  16. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by risk profile: role of netupitant/palonosetron

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    Lorusso V

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vito Lorusso National Cancer Research Centre, Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, Bari, Italy Abstract: As recommended by most recent antiemetic guidelines, the optimal prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV requires the combination of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (RA with an NK1-RA. Moreover, the major predictors of acute and delayed CINV include: young age, female sex, platinum- or anthracycline-based chemotherapy, nondrinker status, emesis in the earlier cycles of chemotherapy, and previous history of motion/morning sickness. Despite improved knowledge of the pathophysiology of CINV and advances in the availability of active antiemetics, an inconsistent compliance with their use has been reported, thereby resulting in suboptimal control of CINV in several cases. In this scenario, a new antiemetic drug is now available, which seems to be able to guarantee better prophylaxis of CINV and improvement of adherence to guidelines. In fact, netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA is a ready-to-use single oral capsule, combining an NK1-RA (netupitant and a 5-HT3-RA (palonosetron, which is to be taken 1 hour before the administration of chemotherapy, ensuring the coverage from CINV for 5 days. We reviewed the role of NEPA in patients at high risk of CINV receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In these patients, NEPA plus dexamethasone, as compared to standard treatments, achieved superior efficacy in all primary and secondary end points during the acute, delayed, and overall phases, including nausea assessment. Moreover, these results were also achieved in female patients receiving anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy. NEPA represents a real step forward in the prophylaxis of CINV. Keywords: NEPA, netupitant, NK1, CINV, vomiting, risk factors

  17. Suppression of Cisplatin-Induced Vomiting by Cannabis sativa in Pigeons: Neurochemical Evidences

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    Ihsan Ullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa (CS, family Cannabinaceae has been reported for its anti-emetic activity against cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in animal models and in clinics. The current study was designed to investigate CS for potential effectiveness to attenuate cisplatin-induced vomiting in healthy pigeons and to study the impact on neurotransmitters involved centrally and peripherally in the act of vomiting. High-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with electrochemical detector was used for the quantification of neurotransmitters 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT, dopamine (DA and their metabolites; Di-hydroxy Phenyl Acetic acid (Dopac, Homovanillic acid (HVA, and 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5HIAA centrally in specific brain areas (area postrema and brain stem while, peripherally in small intestine. Cisplatin (7 mg/kg i.v. induce emesis without lethality across the 24 h observation period. CS hexane fraction (CS-HexFr; 10 mg/kg attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis ∼ 65.85% (P < 0.05; the reference anti-emetic drug, metoclopramide (MCP; 30 mg/kg, produced ∼43.90% reduction (P < 0.05. At acute time point (3rd h, CS-HexFr decreased (P < 0.001 the concentration of 5HT and 5HIAA in the area postrema, brain stem and intestine, while at 18th h (delayed time point CS-HexFr attenuated (P < 0.001 the upsurge of 5HT caused by cisplatin in the brain stem and intestine and dopamine in the area postrema. CS-HexFr treatment alone did not alter the basal neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the brain areas and intestine except 5HIAA and HVA, which were decreased significantly. In conclusion the anti-emetic effect of CS-HexFr is mediated by anti-serotonergic and anti-dopaminergic components in a blended manner at the two different time points, i.e., 3rd and 18th h in pigeons.

  18. A Prospective Study of Postoperative Vomiting in Children Undergoing Different Surgical Procedures under General Anaesthesia

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    Jaya Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify the risk factors associated with postoperative vomiting (POV in paediatric population undergoing common surgeries. The risk factors studied for association with POV were age> 5 years, female gender, previous history of POV/motion sickness, type of surgery and duration of anaesthesia> 45 min. A total of 100 ASA grade I and II patients of either sex aged between 2-12 years undergoing elective surgical procedures were screened for the study. All patients underwent similar anaesthe-sia protocol and received two antiemetic agents (ondansetron 0.05mg.kg-1 and dexamethasone 0.15mg.kg-1 in premedication. The patients were observed for 24 hours postoperatively for the incidence of vomiting, number of times rescue antiemetic given and any adverse reaction to antiemetic.Overall 34% patients (34/100 developed POV of which 26 had only one episode and 8 patients had 2 episodes during first 24 h. Incidence of POV was 13% (13/100 in first 4 h whereas it was 29% (29/100 in late postoperative period. In early post operative period, POV was not associated significantly with any predicted risk factors. However, age>5years, duration of anaesthesia>45 minutes and history of motion sickness/POV were significantly associated in late postoperative period(4-24h. Female gender and type of surgery were not associated with increased POV. The combination antiemetic effectively prevented POV in early postoperative period (0-4h only but not in late postoperative period(0-24h.

  19. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography for diagnosing small-intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Thompson, Margret S; Scrivani, Peter V; Dykes, Nathan L; Yeager, Amy E; Freer, Sean R; Erb, Hollis N

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed on acutely vomiting dogs to compare the accuracy of radiography and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of small-intestinal mechanical obstruction and to describe several radiographic and ultrasonographic signs to identify their contribution to the final diagnosis. The sample population consisted of 82 adult dogs and small-intestinal obstruction by foreign body was confirmed in 27/82 (33%) dogs by surgery or necropsy. Radiography produced a definitive result (obstructed or not obstructed) in 58/82 (70%) of dogs; ultrasonography produced a definitive result in 80/82 (97%) of dogs. On radiographs, a diagnosis of obstruction was based on detection of segmental small-intestinal dilatation, plication, or detection of a foreign body. Approximately 30% (8/27) of obstructed dogs did not have radiographic signs of segmental small-intestinal dilatation, of which 50% (4/8) were due to linear foreign bodies. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of small-intestinal obstruction was based on detection of an obstructive lesion, sonographic signs of plication or segmental, small-intestinal dilatation. The ultrasonographic presence or absence of moderate-to-severe intestinal diameter enlargement (due to lumen dilatation) of the jejunum (>1.5 cm) was a useful discriminatory finding and, when present, should prompt a thorough search for a cause of small-intestinal obstruction. In conclusion, both abdominal radiography and abdominal ultrasonography are accurate for diagnosing small-intestinal obstruction in vomiting dogs and either may be used depending on availability and examiner choice. Abdominal ultrasonography had greater accuracy, fewer equivocal results and provided greater diagnostic confidence compared with radiography. © 2010 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  20. Self-induced vomiting and dental erosion--a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlen, Marte-Mari; Tveit, Anne Bjørg; Stenhagen, Kjersti Refsholt; Mulic, Aida

    2014-07-29

    In individuals suffering from eating disorders (ED) characterized by vomiting (e.g. bulimia nervosa), the gastric juice regularly reaches the oral cavity, causing a possible risk of dental erosion. This study aimed to assess the occurrence, distribution and severity of dental erosions in a group of Norwegian patients experiencing self-induced vomiting (SIV). The individuals included in the study were all undergoing treatment at clinics for eating disorders and were referred to a university dental clinic for examinations. One calibrated clinician registered erosions using the Visual Erosion Dental Examination (VEDE) system. Of 72 referred patients, 66 (63 females and three males, mean age 27.7 years) were or had been experiencing SIV (mean duration 10.6 years; range: 3 - 32 years), and were therefore included in the study. Dental erosions were found in 46 individuals (69.7%), 19 had enamel lesions only, while 27 had both enamel and dentine lesions. Ten or more teeth were affected in 26.1% of those with erosions, and 9% had ≥10 teeth with dentine lesions. Of the erosions, 41.6% were found on palatal/lingual surfaces, 36.6% on occlusal surfaces and 21.8% on buccal surfaces. Dentine lesions were most often found on lower first molars, while upper central incisors showed enamel lesions most frequently. The majority of the erosive lesions (48.6%) were found in those with the longest illness period, and 71.7% of the lesions extending into dentine were also found in this group. However, despite suffering from SIV for up to 32 years, 30.3% of the individuals showed no lesions. Dental erosion commonly affects individuals with ED experiencing SIV, and is more often found on the palatal/lingual surfaces than on the buccal in these individuals, confirming a common clinical assumption.

  1. Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lesley A; Azariah, Fredric; Lavender, Verna T C; Stoner, Nicola S; Bettiol, Silvana

    2015-11-12

    Cannabis has a long history of medicinal use. Cannabis-based medications (cannabinoids) are based on its active element, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and have been approved for medical purposes. Cannabinoids may be a useful therapeutic option for people with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting that respond poorly to commonly used anti-emetic agents (anti-sickness drugs). However, unpleasant adverse effects may limit their widespread use. To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of cannabis-based medications for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer. We identified studies by searching the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and LILACS from inception to January 2015. We also searched reference lists of reviews and included studies. We did not restrict the search by language of publication. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared a cannabis-based medication with either placebo or with a conventional anti-emetic in adults receiving chemotherapy. At least two review authors independently conducted eligibility and risk of bias assessment, and extracted data. We grouped studies based on control groups for meta-analyses conducted using random effects. We expressed efficacy and tolerability outcomes as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 23 RCTs. Most were of cross-over design, on adults undergoing a variety of chemotherapeutic regimens ranging from moderate to high emetic potential for a variety of cancers. The majority of the studies were at risk of bias due to either lack of allocation concealment or attrition. Trials were conducted between 1975 and 1991. No trials involved comparison with newer anti-emetic drugs such as ondansetron. Comparison with placebo People had more chance of reporting complete absence of vomiting (3 trials; 168 participants; RR 5.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 12.6; low quality evidence

  2. Olanzapine and Betamethasone Are Effective for the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting due to Metastatic Brain Tumors of Rectal Cancer

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    M. Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain lesions originating from metastasis of colorectal cancer represent 3-5% of all brain metastases and are relatively rare. Of all distant metastases of colorectal cancer, those to the liver are detected in 22-29% of cases, while those to the lungs are detected in 8-18% of cases. In contrast, brain metastasis is quite rare, with a reported incidence ranging from 0.4 to 1.8%. Treatments for metastatic brain tumors include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and supportive care with steroids, etc. Untreated patients exhibit a median survival of only approximately 1 month. The choice of treatment for brain metastasis depends on the number of lesions, the patient's general condition, nerve findings and presence of other metastatic lesions. We herein report the case of a 78-year-old male who presented with brain metastases originating from rectal carcinoma. He suffered from nausea, vomiting, anorexia and vertigo during body movement. He received antiemetics, glycerol and whole brain radiation therapy; however, these treatments proved ineffective. Olanzapine therapy was started at a dose of 1.25 mg every night. The persistent nausea disappeared the next day, and the frequency of vomiting subsequently decreased. The patient was able to consume solid food. Olanzapine is an antipsychotic that has recently been used as palliative therapy for refractory nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy. We consider that olanzapine was helpful as a means of supportive care for the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to brain metastasis.

  3. POST OPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING PROPHYLAXIS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GRANISETRON ALONE AND GRANISETRON PLUS DEXAMETHASONE AFTER ENT SURGERIES

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    Sridevi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the most frequently occurring side effects affecting one third of the cases. Objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of Granisetron alone and Granisetronplus D examethasone in preventing post - operative nausea and vomiting after ENT surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Anaesthesia and ENT departments of Santhiram Medical College and General Hospital, Nandyal from July 2014 to January 2015.60 patients belonging to physical status ASA - I and ASA - II of both sexes were selected (aged between 5 - 35 yrs.Pat ients in group - I (n=30 received Granisetron 40 mcg/kg and group – II (n=30 patients received Granisetron 40 mcg/kg and Dexamethasone 150 mcg/kg intravenously just before the start of operation. The whole postoperative period of 24 hrs was divided into 2 p hases ; early 0 - 6 hrs and late phase 6 - 24 hrs. RESULTS: Nausea and Vomiting score was significantly higher in group - I patients (P<0.05.The total incidence of nausea and vomiting was reduced from 43% in group - I to 6.6% in group - II which was statistically si gnificant (p<0.05 . CONCLUSION: Granisetron and Dexamethasone combination is more effective for the prevention of PONV in comparison to Granisetron alone in ENT surgeries

  4. Efficacy of aprepitant for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

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    Berrío Valencia, Marta Inés

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of aprepitant compared with other antiemetics for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults who underwent general anesthesia. Methods: Systematic review of randomized clinical trials with meta-analysis, that evaluated the efficacy of aprepitant in comparatison with other antiemetics for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting, antiemetic rescue and adverse effects. The search was done in The Cochrane Library, EBSCO, EMBASE, LILACS, OVID, PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Google Scholar. Heterogeneity was defined with the Cochran Q and I2 statistic, the model fixed and random effects were used, the Mantel-Haenszel for relative risk of each outcome and its respective confidence interval 95% were used. Results: There was significant difference in favor of aprepitant for the prevention of vomiting at 24 (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.38-0.7 and at 48 hours (RR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.67 but not for nausea at 24 hours (RR 1.16; 95% CI: 0.85-1.6. Conclusions: Aprepitant prevents postoperative vomiting, but not nausea, at 24 and 48 hours.

  5. Scared to lose control? General and health locus of control in females with a phobia of vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Angela L; Boyle, Christopher; Lauchlan, Fraser

    2008-01-01

    The term emetophobia (i.e., a fear of vomiting) exists as rather an elusive predicament, often eluding conventional treatment. The present study involved 149 participants, consisting of 51 emetophobics, 48 phobic controls (i.e. those who suffered from a different phobia), and 50 nonphobic controls. Participants were administered the Rotter (1966) Locus of Control Scale and the Health Locus of Control Scale by B.S. Wallston, Wallston, Kaplan, and Maides (1976). Significant differences were found among the three groups; specifically, that emetophobics had a significantly higher internal Locus of Control Scale score with regard to both general and health-related issues than did the two control groups. It is suggested that vomiting phobics may have a fear of losing control, and that their vomiting phobia is reflective of this alternative, underlying problem. More research is required to explore the association between emetophobia and issues surrounding control; however, the current study suggests that it may be helpful for therapists to consider this aspect when treating a patient with vomiting phobia. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [A boy with cyclic vomiting and an alleged furosemide allergy on the basis of a subpelvic stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.F.; Wijk, J.A. van; Horst, H.J. van der; Bokenkamp, A.

    2008-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy, known with a Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, was admitted to the hospital because of frequent vomiting since 3 days and loin pain. In previous years, he had been admitted several times for the same complaints but no cause had been identified. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen

  7. Investigating the effect of therapeutic touch on the intensity of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in breast cancer women under chemotherapy

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    Pegah Matourypour

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Therapeutic touch was effective in reducing vomiting in the intervention group. However, the patients experienced lower-intensity vomiting which may be because of presence of a therapist and probably the reduced anxiety related to an additional intervention. So, further research is recommended considering the placebo group and employing another person in addition to the therapist, who is not skilled for this technique.

  8. Relationships between nausea and vomiting, perceived stress, social support, pregnancy planning, and psychosocial adaptation in a sample of mothers: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fan-Hao; Avant, Kay C; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Fetzer, Susan J

    2008-08-01

    Women worldwide experience pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting yet tolerate this significant prenatal stressor. The physical and emotional stress caused by pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting may influence maternal psychosocial adaptation yet few studies have examined these relationships. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between nausea and vomiting, perceived stress, social support and their ability to predict maternal psychosocial adaptation among Taiwanese women during early pregnancy. A correlational, cross-sectional research design. Four prenatal clinics in Taiwan. Women (n=243) who had completed the 6-16 week of gestation consented to participate. Subjects completed four self-report questionnaires in additional to providing demographic data: Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), and the Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (PSEQ). Pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting was experienced in varying degrees by 188 (77.4%) women. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 37.6% of the variance in maternal psychosocial adaptation was explained by the severity of nausea and vomiting, perceived stress, social support, and pregnancy planning. Women at higher risk for poor maternal psychosocial adaptation have not planned their pregnancy and experience severe pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting. Severe pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting associated with high-perceived stress levels may be mediated by social support.

  9. Factors associated to post-operative nausea and vomiting following oral and maxillofacial surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Assis Filipe Medeiros; Queiroz, Salomão Israel Monteiro Lourenço; Germano, Adriano Rocha; da Silva, José Sandro Pereira

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to address and assess possible factors associated with nausea and vomiting (NV) following oral and maxillofacial surgery. A prospective study was carried out in the period from December 2013 to January 2016 targeting all attended cases in that period. For statistical analysis, Pearson chi-square and Fisher tests were used to verify association and ANOVA and Student's t tests to test for significant difference, p was defined as ≤0.05. The sample group consisted of 207 patients with an average age of 33.56 years (±13.23), and 70.5% of subjects were male. Calculations based on the predictive model showed that a female patient with prior history of nausea and vomiting who used opioids and had intra-oral surgical access would have a 96% chance of experiencing a nausea and vomiting episode. Other factors like age, being overweight, anesthesia, surgery duration, and duration of hospital stay also contribute so that these aspects must be paid careful attention prior to surgery to ensure a suitably orientated treatment that will avoid disturbances caused by post-operative nausea and vomiting. The occurrence of post-operative nausea and vomiting after oral and maxillofacial surgery was found to be more higher incidence associated to female patients who used opioids, who had a prior history of NV, whose surgery involved intra-oral access, who were in the second or third decades of their lives, who have above average weight, and who have long anesthesia when undergoing surgery, resulting in a long hospital stays.

  10. Pathogenesis-based treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting--two new agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2003-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors (female gender, younger age, alcohol consumption, history of motion sickness) are the major risk factors for CINV. The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists plus dexamethasone has significantly improved the control of acute CINV, but delayed nausea and vomiting remains a significant clinical problem. Although the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and metoclopramide have been used to prevent delayed CINV, only dexamethasone appears to have much efficacy with acceptable toxicity. Recent studies have introduced two new agents, palonosetron and aprepitant, for the prevention of both acute and delayed CINV. Palonosetron is a new 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a longer half life and a higher binding affinity than older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It improves the complete response rate (no emesis, no need for rescue) of acute and delayed CINV in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy compared to the older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The other agent, aprepitant, is the first agent available in the new drug class of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists. When added to a standard regimen of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, it improves the complete response rate of acute CINV. Aprepitant also improves the complete response of delayed CINV when compared to placebo and when used in combination with dexamethasone compared to dexamethasone alone. Acute and delayed nausea may also be improved by aprepitant when used in combination with a 5-HT3 and dexamethasone prechemotherapy or with daily dosing for 3-5 days following chemotherapy. Based on these studies, new guidelines for the prevention of CINV are proposed. Future studies may consider the use of

  11. Clostridium difficile Infection Among US Emergency Department Patients With Diarrhea and No Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M; Talan, David A; Krishnadasan, Anusha; Citron, Diane M; Paulick, Ashley L; Anderson, Lydia J; Goldstein, Ellie J C; Moran, Gregory J

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has increased and has been observed among persons from the community who have not been exposed to antibiotics or health care settings. Our aims are to determine prevalence of C difficile infection among emergency department (ED) patients with diarrhea and the prevalence among patients without traditional risk factors. We conducted a prospective observational study of patients aged 2 years or older with diarrhea (≥3 episodes/24 hours) and no vomiting in 10 US EDs (2010 to 2013). We confirmed C difficile infection by positive stool culture result and toxin assay. C difficile infection risk factors were antibiotic use or overnight health care stay in the previous 3 months or previous C difficile infection. We typed strains with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Of 422 participants, median age was 46 years (range 2 to 94 years), with median illness duration of 3.0 days and 43.4% having greater than or equal to 10 episodes of diarrhea during the previous 24 hours. At least one risk factor for C difficile infection was present in 40.8% of participants; 25.9% were receiving antibiotics, 26.9% had health care stay within the previous 3 months, and 3.3% had previous C difficile infection. Forty-three participants (10.2%) had C difficile infection; among these, 24 (55.8%) received antibiotics and 19 (44.2%) had health care exposure; 17 of 43 (39.5%) lacked any risk factor. Among participants without risk factors, C difficile infection prevalence was 6.9%. The most commonly identified North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NAP) strains were NAP type 1 (23.3%) and NAP type 4 (16.3%). Among mostly adults presenting to US EDs with diarrhea and no vomiting, C difficile infection accounted for approximately 10%. More than one third of patients with C difficile infection lacked traditional risk factors for the disease. Among participants without traditional risk factors, prevalence of C difficile infection was

  12. Clinical roundtable monograph: New data in emerging treatment options for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Gary R; Navari, Rudolph M; Rugo, Hope S

    2014-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) has long been one of the most troublesome adverse effects of chemotherapy, leading to significant detriments in quality of life and functioning, increased economic costs, and, in some cases, the discontinuation of effective cancer therapy. The past 2 decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of effective antiemetic agents, with the introduction of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT₃]) receptor antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, and palonosetron), the neurokinin-1 (NK₁) receptor antagonists (aprepitant and fosaprepitant), and the identification of other agents that have demonstrated efficacy against CINV, including corticosteroids. These agents often provide excellent control of emesis. Nausea, however, has proven more intractable, particularly in the days after administration of chemotherapy. Newer antiemetic agents under study may provide additional CINV control, particularly against delayed nausea. New agents undergoing review by the US Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of CINV include the novel NK₁ receptor antagonist rolapitant and a fixed-dose combination consisting of the novel NK₁ receptor antagonist netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA). Adherence to clinical practice guidelines has been shown to significantly improve CINV control. As antiemetic therapy continues to evolve, it will be important for clinicians to stay informed of new developments and changes in guidelines.

  13. Risk of severe and refractory postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing diep flap breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Michele A; Basdag, Basak; Kalmar, Christopher L; Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Jacobs, Lisa K; Thomsen, Robert W; Rosson, Gedge D

    2014-02-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are commonly feared after general anesthesia and can impact results. The primary aim of our study was to examine incidence and severity of PONV by investigating complete response, or absence of PONV, to prophylaxis used in patients undergoing DIEP flaps. Our secondary aims were definition of the magnitude of risk, state of the art of interventions, clinical sequelae of PONV, and interaction between these variables, specifically for DIEP patients. A retrospective chart review occurred for 29 patients undergoing DIEP flap breast reconstruction from September 2007 to February 2008. We assessed known patient and procedure-specific risks for PONV after DIEPs, prophylactic antiemetic regimens, incidence, and severity of PONV, postoperative antiemetic rescues, and effects of risks and treatments on symptoms. Three or more established risks existed in all patients, with up to seven risks per patient. Although 90% of patients received diverse prophylaxis, 76% of patients experienced PONV, and 66% experienced its severe form, emesis. Early PONV (73%) was frequent; symptoms were long lasting (average 20 hours for nausea and emesis); and multiple rescue medications were frequently required (55% for nausea, 58% for emesis). Length of surgery and nonsmoking statistically significantly impacted PONV. We identify previously undocumented high risks for PONV in DIEP patients. High frequency, severity, and refractoriness of PONV occur despite standard prophylaxis. Plastic surgeons and anesthesiologists should further investigate methods to optimize PONV prophylaxis and treatment in DIEP flap patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Report of Nausea and Vomiting with Discontinuation of Chronic Use of Salvia divinorum

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    C. R. Travis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3–5 cigarettes of the herb “Salvia” consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace.

  15. A Report of Nausea and Vomiting with Discontinuation of Chronic Use of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, C R; Ray, G A; Marlowe, K F

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3-5 cigarettes of the herb "Salvia" consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace.

  16. Dronabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting unresponsive to antiemetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Megan Brafford; Glode, Ashley E

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common symptoms feared by patients, but may be prevented or lessened with appropriate medications. Several antiemetic options exist to manage CINV. Corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists, and neurokinin receptor antagonists are the classes most commonly used in the prevention of CINV. There are many alternative drug classes utilized for the prevention and management of CINV such as antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, and dopamine receptor antagonists. Medications belonging to these classes generally have lower efficacy and are associated with more adverse effects. They are also not as well studied compared to the aforementioned agents. This review will focus on dronabinol, a member of the cannabinoid class, and its role in CINV. Cannabis sativa L. (also known as marijuana) contains naturally occurring delta-9-tetrahydrocannibinol (delta-9-THC). The synthetic version of delta-9-THC is the active ingredient in dronabinol that makes dronabinol an orally active cannabinoid. Evidence for clinical efficacy of dronabinol will be analyzed in this review as monotherapy, in combination with ondansetron, and in combination with prochlorperazine

  17. A Comparison of Dysautonomias Comorbid with Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome and with Migraine

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    Gisela Chelimsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS shares many features with migraine headache, including auras, photophobia, and antimigrainous treatment response being traditionally viewed as a migraine variant. Aims. To determine whether CVS is associated with the same disorders as migraine headache, and compare these associations to those in healthy control subjects. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients utilizing the ODYSA instrument, evaluating the probability of 12 functional/autonomic diagnoses, CVS, migraine, orthostatic intolerance (OI, reflex syncope, interstitial cystitis, Raynaud's syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, functional abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Control subjects were age-matched gender-matched friends. Patients had to fulfill criteria for CVS or migraine, while control subjects could not. Results. 103 subjects were studied, 21 with CVS, 46 with migraine and 36 healthy controls. CVS and migraine did not differ in the relative frequencies of fibromyalgia, OI, syncope, and functional dyspepsia. However, CVS patients did demonstrate a significantly elevated frequency of CRPS. Conclusions. Although CVS and migraine clearly share many of the same comorbidities, they do differ in one important association, suggesting that they may not be identical in pathophysiology. Since OI is common in CVS, treatment strategies could also target this abnormality.

  18. Granisetron Extended-Release Injection: A Review in Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-12-01

    An extended-release (ER) subcutaneously injectable formulation of the first-generation 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist granisetron is now available in the USA (Sustol ® ), where it is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or anthracycline and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy regimens in adults. Granisetron ER is administered as a single subcutaneous injection and uses an erosion-controlled drug-delivery system to allow prolonged granisetron release. Primary endpoint data from phase III studies after an initial cycle of chemotherapy indicate that, when used as part of an antiemetic regimen, granisetron ER injection is more effective than intravenous ondansetron in preventing delayed CINV following highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC); is noninferior to intravenous palonosetron in preventing both acute CINV following MEC or HEC and delayed CINV following MEC; and is similar, but not superior, to palonosetron in preventing delayed CINV following HEC. The benefits of granisetron ER were seen in various patient subgroups, including those receiving anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide-based HEC, and (in an extension of one of the studies) over multiple MEC or HEC cycles. Granisetron ER injection is generally well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that of ondansetron or palonosetron. Thus, granisetron ER injection expands the options for preventing both acute and delayed CINV in adults with cancer receiving MEC or anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide-based HEC.

  19. Prophylaxis and management of antineoplastic drug induced nausea and vomiting in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Totadri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antineoplastic drug induced nausea and vomiting (AINV is a major adverse event which deeply impacts the quality of life of children with cancer. It additionally causes distress to parents and negatively impacts compliance to therapy. A robust AINV prophylaxis regimen is essential to achieve complete control; and prevent anticipatory, breakthrough and refractory AINV. With a wide array of available anti-emetics, standard guidelines for their use are crucial to ensure uniform and optimum prophylaxis. Chemotherapeutic agents are classified as having high, moderate, low or minimal emetic risk based on their potential to cause emesis in the absence of prophylaxis. Three drug regimen with aprepitant, ondansetron/granisetron and dexamethasone is recommended for protocols with high emetic risk. Although approved in children ≥12 years, there is mounting evidence for the use of aprepitant in younger children too. In protocols with moderate and low emetic risk, combination of ondansetron/granisetron and dexamethasone; and single agent ondansetron/granisetron are recommended, respectively. Metoclopramide is an alternative when steroids are contraindicated. Olanzapine and lorazepam are useful drugs for breakthrough AINV and anticipatory AINV. Knowledge of pediatric dosage, salient adverse events, drug interactions as well as cost of drugs is essential to prescribe anti-emetics accurately and safely in resource constrained settings. Non pharmacological interventions such as hypnosis, acupressure and psychological interventions can benefit a sub-group of patients without significant risk of adverse events.

  20. Nausea, vomiting, and heartburn in pregnancy: a prospective look at risk, treatment, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Christopher R; Zelig, Craig; Napolitano, Peter G; Ko, Cynthia W

    2012-08-01

    To examine risk factors, treatment, and outcomes for nausea/vomiting (N/V) and heartburn during pregnancy. We included 2731 women from a prospective cohort study of gallbladder disease in pregnancy. Subjects completed questionnaires at enrollment, early third trimester, and 4-6 weeks postpartum. We used logistic regression to examine independent predictors of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Ninety-five percent of pregnant women experienced either heartburn and/or N/V. Independent predictors for heartburn included prepregnancy heartburn (OR 5.28, 95% CI 3.78-7.37), multigravidity, prepregnancy body mass index, and pregnancy weight gain. Independent predictors for N/V included prepregnancy N/V (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.52-3.31), other digestive problems prepregnancy, younger age, single gestation, and carrying a female fetus. 11% of women with N/V and 47% of women with heartburn used pharmacologic therapy. Infants born to women with heartburn had significantly higher birth weights (p = 0.03), but gestational age at delivery was not significantly different. N/V was not associated with birth weight or gestational age at delivery. 19.7% of women with heartburn during pregnancy reported postpartum heartburn. Heartburn and N/V are common pregnancy symptoms, particularly among women with a history of such symptoms. Neither condition appears to adversely affect the outcome of pregnancy. Pregnancy-related heartburn predisposes to early postpartum heartburn.

  1. PATIENT POSITION AS A POSSIBLE RISK FACTOR FOR POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING (PONV IN GYNECOLOGIC LAPAROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Ćirić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV are still a significant problem in modern anesthetic practice. Discomfort caused by PONV intensifies other unpleasant elements of recovery, such as pain, frustration or fear. PONV also generates aversion to future anesthesia and have a negative impact on staff and patient's family. PONV can increase the cost of completing a surgical procedure, because it extends the time a patient spends in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU or delay discharge of ambulatory patients. It is generally accepted that the incidence of PONV after general anesthesia for various types of surgery in the last decade is still between 20-30%, and 70% in laparoscopic abdominal surgery. The incidence is three times higher in females compared to males. Many factors are involved in triggering PONV, such as patientrelated factors, the type of surgery, anesthesia management, etc. The results of this study suggest that the patient positioning (modified supine lithotomy position with ''Trendelenburg" increases the risk of PONV in gynecologic laparoscopy.

  2. Efficacy of Ginger in Control of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Doxorubicin-Based Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mansour; Porouhan, Pezhman; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Nasrollahi, Hamid; Hamedi, Seyed Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most serious side effects of chemotherapy, in some cases leading to treatment interruption or chemotherapy dose reduction. Ginger has long been known as an antiemetic drug, used for conditions such as motion sickness, nausea-vomiting in pregnancy, and post-operation side effects. One hundred and fifty female patients with breast cancer entered this prospective study and were randomized to receive ginger (500 mg ginger powder, twice a day for 3 days) or placebo. One hundred and nineteen patients completed the study: 57 of them received ginger and 62 received ginger for the frst 3 chemotherapy cycles. Mean age in all patients was 48.6 (25-79) years. After 1st chemotherapy, mean nausea in the ginger and control arms were 1.36 (±1.31) and 1.46 (±1.28) with no statistically significant difference. After the 2nd chemotherapy session, nausea score was slightly more in the ginger group (1.36 versus 1.32). After 3rd chemotherapy, mean nausea severity in control group was less than ginger group [1.37 (±1.14), versus 1.42 (±1.30)]. Considering all patients, nausea was slightly more severe in ginger arm. In ginger arm mean nausea score was 1.42 (±0.96) and in control arm it was 1.40 (±0.92). Mean vomiting scores after chemotherapy in ginger arm were 0.719 (±1.03), 0.68 (±1.00) and 0.77 (±1.18). In control arm, mean vomiting was 0.983 (±1.23), 1.03 (±1.22) and 1.15 (±1.27). In all sessions, ginger decreased vomiting severity from 1.4 (±1.04) to 0.71 (±0.86). None of the differences were significant. In those patients who received the AC regimen, vomiting was less severe (0.64±0.87) compared to those who received placebo (1.13±1.12), which was statistically significant (p-value <0.05). Further and larger studies are needed to draw conclusions.

  3. Chronic recurrent vomiting associated with primary gastric volvulus in infant: A case report and review of literature

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    Maheshkumar Manilal Vaghela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon entity found in the paediatric population. We are reporting a case of chronic gastric volvulus presented to us with the complaints of recurrent vomiting after each feed. The vomiting was projectile, nonbilious, and the content was milk. The patient was evaluated by clinical and radiological means in the form of the X-ray abdomen, ultrasound abdomen, upper gastrointestinal (GI contrast study, and computed tomography scan of the abdomen. The upper GI contrast study was suggestive of gastric volvulus. The patient was operated and gastropexy was done. There was lax gastrocolic ligament with increased distance between stomach and transverse colon without any obvious gastric volvulus. Postsurgery, the patient was symptom-free.

  4. Content Analysis of Vomit and Diarrhea Cleanup Procedures To Prevent Norovirus Infections in Retail and Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Morgan G; Dubé, Anne-Julie; Leone, Cortney M; Moore, Christina M; Fraser, Angela M

    2016-11-01

    Human noroviruses are the leading cause of foodborne disease in the United States, sickening 19 to 21 million Americans each year. Vomit and diarrhea are both highly concentrated sources of norovirus particles. For this reason, establishing appropriate cleanup procedures for these two substances is critical. Food service establishments in states that have adopted the 2009 or 2013 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code are required to have a program detailing specific cleanup procedures. The aim of our study was to determine the alignment of existing vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures with the 11 elements recommended in Annex 3 of the 2011 Supplement to the 2009 Food Code and to determine their readability and clarity of presentation. In July 2015, we located vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures by asking Norovirus Collaborative for Outreach, Research, and Education stakeholders for procedures used by their constituency groups and by conducting a Google Advanced Search of the World Wide Web. We performed content analysis to determine alignment with the recommendations in Annex 3. Readability and clarity of presentation were also assessed. A total of 38 artifacts were analyzed. The mean alignment score was 7.0 ± 1.7 of 11 points; the mean clarity score was 6.7 ± 2.5 of 17 points. Only nine artifacts were classified as high clarity, high alignment. Vomit and diarrhea cleanup procedures should align with Annex 3 in the Food Code and should, as well, be clearly presented; yet, none of the artifacts completely met both conditions. To reduce the spread of norovirus infections in food service establishments, editable guidelines are needed that are aligned with Annex 3 and are clearly written, into which authors could insert their facility-specific information.

  5. The Effect of Pharyngeal Packing during Nasal Surgery on the Incidence of Post Operative Nausea, Vomiting, and Sore Throat

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    Ali Karbasfrushan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nausea and vomiting after ear, nose and throat (ENT surgery is one of the most common and notable problems facing anesthesiologists in this area. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a pharyngeal pack on the severity of nausea, vomiting, and sore throat among patients after ear, pharynx, and throat surgeries.   Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical study was performed in 140 patients (61 men and 79 women; age range, 20–40 years who had undergone nasal surgery in 2010. Patients were divided into two groups: the first group were treated using a pharyngeal pack (case group and the second group were managed without a pharyngeal pack (control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test. SPSS software was used for data analysis.   Results: The mean severity of nausea and vomiting in the two groups was 2.057, 1.371 and 1.100, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. However, the mean severity of sore throat was 1.714 in the group with the pharyngeal pack and 1.385 in the group without pharyngeal pack (P=0.010.   Conclusion:  Not only does a pharyngeal pack in ENT surgery not reduce the extent and severity of nausea and vomiting, but it also increases the severity of sore throat in patients when leaving the recovery room and discharging hospital.

  6. Postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis: A comparative study of ondansetron, granisetron and granisetron and dexamethasone combination after modified radical mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Pushplata; Jain, Shilpi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is commonly seen after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). In this randomized double-blind prospective study we compared the efficacy of ondansetron, granisetron and granisetron and dexamethasone combination for prevention of PONV following MRM in female patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 patients (20-60 years of age) undergoing elective MRM were randomly allocated to one of the three groups of 25 patients each. Group O received...

  7. RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND STUDY COMPARING ONDANSETRON, PALONOSETRON & GRANISETRON TO PREVENT POST OPERATIVE NAUSEA & VOMITING AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERIES UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of intravenously administered 5-HT3 receptor antagonists namely Ondansetron, Palonosetron and Granisetron given as prophylaxis for postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries under general anaesthesia. A single dose of palonosetron (0.75 µg when given prophylactically results in a significantly lower incidence of PONV after laparoscopic surgeries than ondansetron (4mg and granisetron (2.5mg during the first 24 hours

  8. Granisetron plus dexamethasone for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Min; Zhou, Chengmao; Huang, Bing; Ruan, Lin; Liang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of granisetron plus dexamethasone for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Methods We searched the literature in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI. Results In total, 11 randomized controlled trials were enrolled in this analysis. The meta-analysis showed that granisetron in combination with dexamethasone was significantly more effective than granisetron alone...

  9. Palonosetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with high dose methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadaraja, Sambavy; Mamoudou, Aissata Diop; Thomassen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    High dose methotrexate (HD-MTX), used in the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), is moderately emetogenic. First generation 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists are effective prophylactic agents but require multiple administrations. Palonosetron has a half life of 36-42 hours...... of palonosetron (5 µg/kg) for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children 18 years of age with ALL treated with HD-MTX, 5 g/m(2)....

  10. Preoperative use of granisetron plus dexamethasone and granisetron alone in prevention of post operative nausea and vomiting in tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M R; Haq, M F; Islam, M A; Meftahuzzaman, S M; Sarkar, S C; Rashid, H; Rashid, H U

    2011-07-01

    This prospective study was done for to see the efficacy of preoperative use of granisetron plus dexamethasone (Group A) & granisetron (Group B) alone for the postoperative prevention of nausea & vomiting after tonsillectomy operation. One hundred patients undergoing tonsillectomy & adenoidectomy operation under general anaesthesia who were admitted in the Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period from July 2008 to June 2009 with American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade I & II with age 3-40 years, body weight 10-60 kgs, were studied. Observation of this study was analyzed in the light of comparison between the two groups. All results were expressed as mean±SEM. Age in Group A 15.98±1.028 & Group B 17.18±0.961 years; Weight in Group A 38.40±1.492 & Group B 39.76±1.561 kgs and operational duration in Group A 52.60±0.786 & Group B 52.70±0.823 minutes. The studied groups were statistically matched for age, weight, duration of surgery. We observed that the effects of combination of granisetron & dexamthasone are more than granisetron alone in prevention of nausea & vomiting after tonsillectomy operation. The frequency of vomiting was 4% in combination & 16% in single therapy which is statically significant (p<0.05).

  11. Prevalence and correlates of self-induced vomiting as weight-control strategy among adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Ho, Jow-Fei; Lin, Che-Hung; Hsu, Wen-Yen; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the prevalence and correlates of self-induced vomiting to control body weight among adolescents in Taiwan. Over the past decades, the rate of obesity among children in Taiwan has nearly tripled. Educational authorities have devoted considerable effort to prevent the increase in childhood obesity. An observational exploratory design to investigate the problem of using unhealthy weight-reduction strategy. This study consists of a cross-sectional study aimed at collecting national representative data. We chose 120 representative schools using a three-stage stratified systematic sampling design with probability proportionate to the size of the population in Taiwan. Participants consisted of 8673 girls and 7043 boys, aged 10-18 old. Of the participants, 13% reported using self-induced vomiting, the prevalence being highest in participants aged 10-12 (15·9%) and lowest in participants aged 16-18 (7·5%). Several factors were significantly and positively associated with the use of self-induced vomiting as a weight-loss strategy, specifically subjects who (1) watched television, used computer, surfed the Internet or played video games for greater than or equal to two hours/day, (2) consumed fried food every day and (3) ate night-time snacks every day (odds ratio = 1·55, 2·10 and 1·51, respectively; p strategy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Clinical observation of ondansetron administration at different time in preventing nausea and vomiting after pediatric strabismus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Gang Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the efficacy of ondansetron by intravenous injection at different time in preventing nausea and vomiting after pediatric strabismus surgery. METHODS: Totally 90 children aged 3-11y were randomly selected for pediatric strabismus surgery from June 2013 to August 2013 in our hospital. The ASA grade of all children were Ⅰ-Ⅱ. Children were randomly divided into three groups with 30 cases each. Group A received intravenous drip of ondansetron 0.1mg/kg before surgery. Group B received intravenous drip of ondansetron 0.1mg/kg after surgery. Group C as control group was not given ondansetron. The number and severity of nausea and vomiting were observed within 24h after surgery. RESULTS: There were no statistical significance in patients' gender, weight, age, duration of anesthesia, ketamine dosage and vital signs intraoperative between the three groups(P>0.05. The incidence rate of postoperative nausea and vomiting(PONVof group A and B were significantly lower than group C(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Using ondansetron is effective and safe in preventing PONV before and at the end of the pediatric strabismus surgery, which can also improve safety and be lower cost. It is a worthy promoting antiemetic approach for eye surgery.

  13. Comparison of two instruments for assessing risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Rachna; Hola, Eric T; Adamson, Robert T; Mathis, A Scott

    2008-03-01

    Two instruments for assessing patients' risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were compared. The existing protocol (protocol 1) assessed PONV risk using 16 weighted risk factors and was used for both adults and pediatric patients. The new protocol (protocol 2) included a form for adults and a pediatric-specific form. The form for adults utilized the simplified risk score, calculated using a validated, nonweighted, 4-point scale, and categorized patients' risk of PONV as low, moderate, or high. The form for pediatric patients used a 7-point, non-weighted scale and categorized patients' risk of PONV as moderate or high. A list was generated of all patients who had surgery during August 2005, for whom protocol 1 was used, and during April 2006, for whom protocol 2 was used. Fifty patients from each time period were randomly selected for data analysis. Data collected included the percentage of the form completed, the development of PONV, the number of PONV risk factors, patient demographics, and the appropriateness of prophylaxis. The mean +/- S.D. number of PONV risk factors was significantly lower in the group treated according to protocol 2 ( p = 0.001), but fewer patients in this group were categorized as low or moderate risk and more patients were identified as high risk (p < 0.001). More patients assessed by protocol 2 received fewer interventions than recommended (p < 0.001); however, the frequency of PONV did not significantly differ between groups. Implementation of a validated and simplified PONV risk-assessment tool appeared to improve form completion rates and appropriate risk assessment; however, the rates of PONV remained similar and fewer patients received appropriate prophylaxis compared with patients assessed by the existing risk-assessment tool.

  14. Nitrous oxide-related postoperative nausea and vomiting depends on duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, Philip J; Wu, Christine Yx

    2014-05-01

    Inclusion of nitrous oxide in the gas mixture has been implicated in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in numerous studies. However, these studies have not examined whether duration of exposure was a significant covariate. This distinction might affect the future place of nitrous oxide in clinical practice. PubMed listed journals reporting trials in which patients randomized to a nitrous oxide or nitrous oxide-free anesthetic for surgery were included, where the incidence of PONV within the first 24 postoperative hours and mean duration of anesthesia was reported. Meta-regression of the log risk ratio for PONV with nitrous oxide (lnRR PONVN2O) versus duration was performed. Twenty-nine studies in 27 articles met the inclusion criteria, randomizing 10,317 patients. There was a significant relationship between lnRR PONVN2O and duration (r = 0.51, P = 0.002). Risk ratio PONV increased 20% per hour of nitrous oxide after 45 min. The number needed to treat to prevent PONV by avoiding nitrous oxide was 128, 23, and 9 where duration was less than 1, 1 to 2, and over 2 h, respectively. The risk ratio for the overall effect of nitrous oxide on PONV was 1.21 (CIs, 1.04-1.40); P = 0.014. This duration-related effect may be via disturbance of methionine and folate metabolism. No clinically significant effect of nitrous oxide on the risk of PONV exists under an hour of exposure. Nitrous oxide-related PONV should not be seen as an impediment to its use in minor or ambulatory surgery.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of a granisetron transdermal system for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Julian; Smeets, Jean; Drenth, Henk-Jan; Gill, David

    2009-12-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of granisetron transdermal formulation and examine its possible relationship with age, gender, and renal function. This article describes a Phase I PK study and a post hoc pooled population PK analysis. The Phase I study was a randomized, cross-over study that assessed PK parameters of three granisetron patch sizes and oral granisetron. The pooled population PK analysis included data from three trials in healthy subjects (n = 48) and from Phase II and III studies in patients with cancer (n = 793). The population PK model was used to investigate granisetron exposure and its possible relationship with age, gender, and renal function. Following oral dosing, plasma granisetron concentration was quantifiable at 1 h, and maximal mean concentration (4.7 ng/mL) was reached 2 h after administration. With transdermal application, maximal concentration was reached 48 h post-application; t(1/2) was 36 h. With oral dosing, overall exposure after 5 days was 306 ng/mL.h, and C(avg) 2.6 ng/mL. This corresponded to an AUC(0-infinity) for the 52 cm(2) patch of 420 ng/mL.h and C(avg) 2.2 ng/mL over 6 days. Clearance was not affected by age, gender, weight, or renal function. The 52 cm( 2) granisetron patch achieves a similar exposure to that of a 2 mg oral dose and provides continuous delivery of granisetron over 6 days. The patch may have utility in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting where prolonged drug delivery is advantageous. No dose adjustments would be needed based on age or renal function.

  16. Olanzapine is effective for refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Sierra; Seibert, Laurel; Green, Myke R

    2014-01-01

    The role of olanzapine added to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine for the treatment of refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is incompletely characterized in all levels of chemotherapy emetogenicity. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of the addition of olanzapine in adults experiencing refractory CINV stratified by chemotherapy emetogenicity. Thirty-three adults who experienced CINV refractory to guideline-recommended prophylaxis and breakthrough antiemetics (dopamine antagonists and benzodiazepines) and received at least one dose of olanzapine 5-10 mg per os were evaluated. Failure was defined as >5 emesis events in 24 h or more than 10 cumulative doses of rescue antiemetics following first olanzapine dose per treatment cycle. Post hoc analyses investigated variables impacting olanzapine efficacy. The addition of olanzapine demonstrated an overall success rate of 70 %. This success rate did not differ between chemotherapy regimens of high versus low-to-moderate emetogenicity (p = 0.79), prophylaxis with serotonin antagonist plus corticosteroid and aprepitant versus serotonin antagonist alone (p = 0.77), or age over 50 versus ≤50 years (p > 0.99). A trend toward greater benefit was seen in women (p = 0.08). The addition of olanzapine to a dopamine antagonist and benzodiazepine demonstrated high efficacy rates for refractory CINV irrespective of chemotherapy emetogenicity. The high success rates among all groups suggests that incomplete resolution of CINV with prophylactic serotonin antagonists and breakthrough dopamine antagonists plus benzodiazepine may benefit from the addition of olanzapine regardless of gender, degree of chemotherapy emetogenicity, number of prophylactic antiemetics, or age. The trend toward greater control of emesis in women merits further investigation.

  17. Ultrasound assessment of severe dehydration in children with diarrhea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adam C; Shah, Sachita P; Umulisa, Irenee; Munyaneza, Richard B Mark; Dushimiyimana, Jean Marie; Stegmann, Katrina; Musavuli, Juvenal; Ngabitsinze, Protogene; Stulac, Sara; Epino, Henry M; Noble, Vicki E

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the test characteristics for two different ultrasound (US) measures of severe dehydration in children (aorta to inferior vena cava [IVC] ratio and IVC inspiratory collapse) and one clinical measure of severe dehydration (the World Health Organization [WHO] dehydration scale). The authors enrolled a prospective cohort of children presenting with diarrhea and/or vomiting to three rural Rwandan hospitals. Children were assessed clinically using the WHO scale and then underwent US of the IVC by a second clinician. All children were weighed on admission and then fluid-resuscitated according to standard hospital protocols. A percent weight change between admission and discharge of greater than 10% was considered the criterion standard for severe dehydration. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created for each of the three tests of severe dehydration compared to the criterion standard. Children ranged in age from 1 month to 10 years; 29% of the children had severe dehydration according to the criterion standard. Of the three different measures of dehydration tested, only US assessment of the aorta/IVC ratio had an area under the ROC curve statistically different from the reference line. At its best cut-point, the aorta/IVC ratio had a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 59%, compared with 93% and 35% for IVC inspiratory collapse and 73% and 43% for the WHO scale. Ultrasound of the aorta/IVC ratio can be used to identify severe dehydration in children presenting with acute diarrhea and may be helpful in guiding clinical management. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Effects of Modification of Pain Protocol on Incidence of Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Snir, Nimrod; Sharfman, Zachary T; Rinehart, Joseph B; Calderon, Michael-David; Bahn, Esther; Harrington, Brian; Ahn, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    A Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) care model applies a standardized multidisciplinary approach to patient care using evidence-based medicine to modify and improve protocols. Analysis of patient outcome measures, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), allows for refinement of existing protocols to improve patient care. We aim to compare the incidence of PONV in patients who underwent primary total joint arthroplasty before and after modification of our PSH pain protocol. All total joint replacement PSH (TJR-PSH) patients who underwent primary THA (n=149) or TKA (n=212) in the study period were included. The modified protocol added a single dose of intravenous (IV) ketorolac given in the operating room and oxycodone immediate release orally instead of IV Hydromorphone in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU). The outcomes were (1) incidence of PONV and (2) average pain score in the PACU. We also examined the effect of primary anesthetic (spinal vs . GA) on these outcomes. The groups were compared using chi-square tests of proportions. The incidence of post-operative nausea in the PACU decreased significantly with the modified protocol (27.4% vs . 38.1%, p=0.0442). There was no difference in PONV based on choice of anesthetic or procedure. Average PACU pain scores did not differ significantly between the two protocols. Simple modifications to TJR-PSH multimodal pain management protocol, with decrease in IV narcotic use, resulted in a lower incidence of postoperative nausea, without compromising average PACU pain scores. This report demonstrates the need for continuous monitoring of PSH pathways and implementation of revisions as needed.

  19. Reviewing current and emerging antiemetics for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, James J

    2015-01-01

    This review provides background information on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) classification and pathophysiology and reviews various antiemetic agents for CINV prophylaxis, including corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs), tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists (NK1 RAs), and olanzapine. Other less commonly used agents are briefly discussed. Practical considerations are reviewed as well, including emetogenicity of chemotherapeutic regimens, patient-specific risk factors for CINV, principles of CINV management, health economics outcome research, and quality of life. Available data on the newly FDA-approved antiemetic combination netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) is also reviewed. Prevention of CINV is an important goal in managing patients with cancer and is especially difficult with respect to nausea and delayed CINV. Corticosteroids are a mainstay of CINV prophylaxis and are usually given in combination with other therapies. The 5-HT3 RA palonosetron has shown increased efficacy over other agents in the same class for prevention of delayed emesis with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy and NK1 RAs improve emesis prevention in combination with 5-HT3 RAs and dexamethasone. Olanzapine has shown efficacy for CINV prophylaxis and the treatment of breakthrough CINV. The new combination therapy, NEPA, has been shown to be efficacious for the prevention of acute, delayed, and overall CINV. Risk factors that have been identified for CINV include gender, age, and alcohol intake. It is important to assess the emetogenicity of chemotherapy regimens as well as the potential impact of patient risk factors in order to provide adequate prophylaxis. Acute and delayed CINV are severe, burdensome side effects of chemotherapy; however, new data on prevention and the discovery of new agents can further improve CINV control.

  20. Nausea and vomiting after exposure to non-ionic contrast media: incidence and risk factors focusing on preparatory fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Yoon, Soon Ho; Choi, Young Hun; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Whal; Goo, Jin Mo

    2018-04-25

    To prospectively evaluate the incidence of nausea and vomiting after exposure to non-ionic iodinated contrast media (ICM), and to identify potential risk factors, with a focus on fasting duration for solid food and fluids, separately. From January to March 2017, 1175 patients (605 males, 570 females; median age, 60 years; range, 20-91 years) undergoing ICM-enhanced CT were included in this study. Patients received instructions for a 6 h preparatory fast from solid food. Nausea and vomiting after ICM exposure were assessed on a 3-point scale (mild, moderate, severe). Patients' characteristics and the fasting duration were evaluated to identify risk factors using logistic regression analysis. Of the 1175 patients, 34 (2.9%; 95% CI, 2.0-4.0%) experienced mild nausea. No patients experienced vomiting (95% CI, 0.0000-0.0005%). 1173 (99.8%) carried out a 6 h fast, and the median fasting durations were 14 h for solid food (IQR, 12.5-15.5 h) and 11 h for fluid (IQR, 0-13.5 h), respectively. Fasting durations for solid food and fluids were not associated with nausea on uni-variate regression analyses (p = 0.282-1.000 andP=0.146-1.000, respectively). Multi-variate regression analysis revealed that a history of drug hypersensitivity (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 1.85-17.52; p = .039) was independent risk factors for nausea, whereas iobitridol was less nauseous (OR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.90; p = .032). Mild nausea occurred in 2.9% of patients and none vomited in our study population with a 6 h preparatory fast from solid food. Many patients underwent excessive fasting for fluids as well as solid food and their fasting durations were not associated with nausea. Advances in knowledge: We firstly evaluated fasting durations for solid food and fluids, and their impacts on vomiting or nausea after ICM exposure with an instruction of 6 h preparatory fast for solid food: many patients underwent excessive fasting for fluids and the fasting duration was unrelated to

  1. The anti-asthmatic drug pranlukast suppresses the delayed-phase vomiting and reverses intracellular indices of emesis evoked by cisplatin in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Zhong, Weixia; Kim, William D; Narlesky, Matthew; Adams, Joia; Dong, Fanglong

    2017-08-15

    The introduction of second generation serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT 3 ) antagonist palonosetron combined with long-acting substance P neurokinin NK 1 receptor (NK 1 ) antagonists (e.g. netupitant) has substantially improved antiemetic therapy against early- and delayed-phases of emesis caused by highly emetogenic chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. However, the improved efficacy comes at a cost that many patients cannot afford. We introduce a new class of antiemetic, the antiasthmatic leukotriene CysLT1 receptor antagonist pranlukast for the suppression of cisplatin-evoked vomiting. Pranlukast (10mg/kg) by itself significantly reduced the mean frequency of vomits (70%) and fully protected least shrews from vomiting (46%) during the delayed-phase of cisplatin (10mg/kg)-evoked vomiting. Although, pranlukast tended to substantially reduce both the mean frequency of vomits and the number of shrews vomiting during the early-phase, these reductions failed to attain significance. When combined with a first (tropisetron)- or a second (palonosetron)-generation 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, pranlukast potentiated their antiemetic efficacy during both phases of vomiting. In addition, pranlukast by itself prevented several intracellular signal markers of cisplatin-evoked delayed-vomiting such as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PKA. When pranlukast was combined with either palonosetron or tropisetron, these combinations suppressed the evoked phosphorylation of: i) ERK1/2 during both acute- and delayed-phase, ii) PKCα/β at the peak acute-phase, and iii) PKA at the peak delayed-phase. The current and our published findings suggest that overall behavioral and intracellular signaling effects of pranlukast via blockade of CysLT1 receptors generally appear to be similar to the NK 1 receptor antagonist netupitant with some differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The value of integrating pre-clinical data to predict nausea and vomiting risk in humans as illustrated by AZD3514, a novel androgen receptor modulator

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    Grant, Claire, E-mail: claire.grant@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Ewart, Lorna [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Da Vinci Building, Melbourn Science Park, Cambridge Road, Melbourn, Royston SG8 6HB (United Kingdom); Muthas, Daniel [Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity iMED, AstraZeneca, Pepparedsleden 1, 431 83 Mölndal (Sweden); Deavall, Damian [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Smith, Simon A. [Oncology Translational Medicine Unit, Early Clinical Development, AstraZeneca, Da Vinci Building, Melbourn Science Park, Melbourn, Royston SG8 6HB (United Kingdom); Clack, Glen [Translational Medicine Unit, Early Clinical Development, AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Newham, Pete [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Darwin Building, Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    Nausea and vomiting are components of a complex mechanism that signals food avoidance and protection of the body against the absorption of ingested toxins. This response can also be triggered by pharmaceuticals. Predicting clinical nausea and vomiting liability for pharmaceutical agents based on pre-clinical data can be problematic as no single animal model is a universal predictor. Moreover, efforts to improve models are hampered by the lack of translational animal and human data in the public domain. AZD3514 is a novel, orally-administered compound that inhibits androgen receptor signaling and down-regulates androgen receptor expression. Here we have explored the utility of integrating data from several pre-clinical models to predict nausea and vomiting in the clinic. Single and repeat doses of AZD3514 resulted in emesis, salivation and gastrointestinal disturbances in the dog, and inhibited gastric emptying in rats after a single dose. AZD3514, at clinically relevant exposures, induced dose-responsive “pica” behaviour in rats after single and multiple daily doses, and induced retching and vomiting behaviour in ferrets after a single dose. We compare these data with the clinical manifestation of nausea and vomiting encountered in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving AZD3514. Our data reveal a striking relationship between the pre-clinical observations described and the experience of nausea and vomiting in the clinic. In conclusion, the emetic nature of AZD3514 was predicted across a range of pre-clinical models, and the approach presented provides a valuable framework for predicition of clinical nausea and vomiting. - Highlights: • Integrated pre-clinical data can be used to predict clinical nausea and vomiting. • Data integrated from standard toxicology studies is sufficient to make a prediction. • The use of the nausea algorithm developed by Parkinson (2012) aids the prediction. • Additional pre-clinical studies can be used

  3. Olanzapine for the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: A Comparative Study From Sudan

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    Alaa A.M. Osman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is a distressing adverse effect. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA–containing regimens are the standard regimens for CINV prophylaxis in patients with cancer receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC. NK1RA agents are expensive and were not registered in Sudan. Recently, regimens containing olanzapine, the available and affordable medication in Sudan, were introduced as another option. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of an olanzapine-containing regimen with the antiemetic regimen that was currently used in our institute for CINV prophylaxis in HEC/MEC settings. Patients and Methods: The study prospectively compared an olanzapine-containing regimen (acute phase: olanzapine, ondansetron, dexamethasone; delayed phase: olanzapine, ondansetron with an ondansetron/dexamethasone regimen (acute phase: ondansetron, dexamethasone; delayed phase: ondansetron in adult patients with cancer receiving HEC or MEC. The study outcomes were complete response (CR; no emesis and no rescue medications and nausea control (no nausea, which were assessed in the acute (0 to 24 hours, delayed (24 to 120 hours, and overall (0 to 120 hours phases. Results: The study included 131 patients (olanzapine-containing: 50 patients; ondansetron/dexamethasone: 81 patients. CR and nausea control were higher in the olanzapine-containing than in the ondansetron/dexamethasone regimen (CR: acute phase, 86% v 71.6%; P = .086; delayed phase, 72% v 30.9%; P < .001; overall phase, 66% v 25.9%; P < .001; nausea control: acute phase, 86% v 74.1%; P = .127; delayed phase, 76% v 34.6%; P < .001; overall phase, 72% v 29.6%; P < .001. The major toxicity of olanzapine was grade 1 and 2 sedation or drowsiness (25 patients. Conclusion: An olanzapine-containing regimen has better efficacy for prevention of CINV in the HEC/MEC setting. Oncologists working in a limited-resource setting should be familiar

  4. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS: is there a difference based on onset of symptoms - pediatric versus adult?

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    Kumar Nilay

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS is a well-recognized functional gastrointestinal disorder in children but its presentation is poorly understood in adults. Genetic differences in pediatric-onset (presentation before age 18 and adult-onset CVS have been reported recently but their clinical features and possible differences in response to therapy have not been well studied. Methods This was a retrospective review of 101 CVS patients seen at the Medical College of Wisconsin between 2006 and 2008. Rome III criteria were utilized to make the diagnosis of CVS. Results Our study population comprised of 29(29% pediatric-onset and 72 (71% adult-onset CVS patients. Pediatric-onset CVS patients were more likely to be female (86% vs. 57%, p = 0.005 and had a higher prevalence of CVS plus (CVS + neurocognitive disorders as compared to adult-onset CVS patients (14% vs. 3%, p = 0.05. There was a longer delay in diagnosis (10 ± 7 years in the pediatric-onset group when compared to (5 ± 7 years adult-onset CVS group (p = 0.001. Chronic opiate use was less frequent in the pediatric-onset group compared to adult-onset patients (0% vs. 23%, p = 0.004. Aside from these differences, the two groups were similar with regards to their clinical features and the time of onset of symptoms did not predict response to standard treatment. The majority of patients (86% responded to treatment with tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants (topiramate, coenzyme Q-10, and L-carnitine. Non-response to therapy was associated with coalescence of symptoms, chronic opiate use and more severe disease as characterized by longer episodes, greater number of emergency department visits in the year prior to presentation, presence of disability and non-compliance on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only compliance to therapy was associated with a response. (88% vs. 38%, Odds Ratio, OR 9.6; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.18-77.05. Conclusion Despite reported

  5. A physiological perspective for utility or futility of alcohol-based hand rub gel against nausea-vomiting: is it P-6 acupoint or transnasal aroma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Mazumdar, Ashish; Stellini, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Nausea-vomiting is a common and unpleasant phenomenon with numerous underlying mechanisms and pathways that are not always well elucidated. In clinical practice, refractory nausea-vomiting is encountered in several settings. Antiemetic medications may reduce these symptoms but are not always effective in all patients. In the absence of a well-defined optimal strategy for management of nausea-vomiting, the search for better approaches to treat this distressing symptom continues. One of the alternative treatment approaches is a compounded formulation called ABHR gel that is comprised of multiple antiemetic medications and has been shown to be useful for symptomatic relief in some patients with refractory nausea-vomiting. It has been suggested that alternative mechanisms should be explored to explain the perceived efficacy of ABHR gel, because transdermal absorption leading to nil-to-minimal or subtherapeutic blood concentrations of active ingredients does not explain the role of ABHR gel in the treatment of nausea-vomiting. In the current paper, we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain ABHR transdermal gel's efficacy. Compounded ABHR transdermal gel formulation's efficacy in antagonizing nausea-vomiting that has been recently questioned may be explained by alternative mechanisms mediated through the P-6 acupoint stimulation and facial-nasal, cooling-related counterstimulation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. A pilot study to assess the pharmacy impact of implementing a chemotherapy-induced nausea or vomiting collaborative disease therapy management in the outpatient oncology clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kasey; Letton, Cathy; Maldonado, Andy; Bodiford, Andrew; Sion, Amy; Hartwell, Rebekah; Graham, Anastasia; Bondarenka, Carolyn; Uber, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    Background Collaborative drug therapy management is a formal partnership between a pharmacist and physician to allow the pharmacist to manage a patient's drug therapy. Literature supports collaborative disease therapy management can improve patient outcomes, improve medication adherence, enhance medication safety, and positively influence healthcare expenditures. Chemotherapy induced nausea or vomiting is considered one of the most distressing and feared adverse events among patients receiving chemotherapy. Chemotherapy induced nausea or vomiting can impact a patient's quality of life and may affect compliance with the treatment plan. Purpose The objective of this pilot study was to determine the pharmacy impact of implementing a chemotherapy induced nausea or vomiting collaborative disease therapy management protocol in the outpatient oncology clinics at a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer center associated with an academic medical center. The primary endpoint was to determine the number and type of chemotherapy induced nausea or vomiting clinical interventions made by the oncology pharmacists. Secondary endpoints included comparing patient's Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer scores and revenue of pharmacists' services. Methods The credentialed oncology pharmacists were consulted by an oncologist to manage chemotherapy induced nausea or vomiting. Patients were included in the chemotherapy induced nausea or vomiting collaborative disease therapy management if they were seen in an outpatient oncology clinic from October 2016 to January 2017 and had a referral from a qualified provider to help manage chemotherapy induced nausea or vomiting. Patients admitted to the hospital at the time of consult were excluded from the study. The pharmacists interviewed patients and provided recommendations. The pharmacists followed up with the patient via a telephone call or during the next scheduled clinic visit to assess their symptoms

  7. Knowledge of and willingness to try acupuncture for postoperative nausea and vomiting: an Australian survey of surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Evan M; Trinca, Jane; Zheng, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Level 1 evidence supports the use of acupuncture as a safe and effective treatment for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, to date, very few hospitals in Western countries have incorporated this technique into their management strategies. To conduct a survey to establish patients' knowledge and opinions of acupuncture as a treatment option for the management of PONV in a large Western teaching hospital that did not offer acupuncture. Over a 4-week period, a self-completed, anonymous questionnaire survey was distributed to 171 consecutive patients attending the preadmission clinic pending surgery. Overall, 161 participants met the selection criteria and completed the survey (100%). The majority of them had a European background (88.8%) and were over 40 years old (87.6%). Seventy-eight participants (48%) had a history of nausea and vomiting and 39 (24%) had suffered from PONV. One hundred and four (65%) and 110 (68%) patients, respectively, stated that they would be willing to try acupuncture in hospital or at home following surgery to prevent or reduce PONV. Only 25 (15.5%) participants knew that acupuncture could be used to treat nausea and vomiting; however, 140 (87%) indicated that they would be willing to try the therapy after being informed of the potential benefit of acupuncture for PONV prevention/reduction. Those with previous experience of acupuncture were ~3.9 times more likely to be willing to use acupuncture for PONV than those without. Patients attending an Australian tertiary hospital showed an overwhelming interest in acupuncture to manage PONV. This provides strong support for the potential implementation of acupuncture in an acute hospital setting. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Effect of Acupressure on Nausea, Vomiting, Anxiety and Pain among Post-cesarean Section Women in Taiwan

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    Huei-Mein Chen

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acupressure for controlling post-cesarean section (CS symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, anxiety perception and pain perception. A total of 104 eligible participants were recruited by convenience sampling of operating schedules at two hospitals. Participants assigned to the experimental group received acupressure, and those assigned to the control group received only postoperative nursing instruction. The experimental group received three acupressure treatments before CS and within the first 24 hours after CS. The first treatment was performed the night before CS, the second was performed 2-4 hours after CS, and the third was performed 8-10 hours after CS. The measures included the Rhodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting, Visual Analog Scale for Anxiety, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Visual Analog Scale for Pain, and physiologic indices. Statistical methods included percentages, mean value with standard deviation, t test and repeated measure ANOVA. The use of acupressure reduced the incidence of nausea, vomiting or retching from 69.3% to 53.9%, compared with control group (95% confidence interval = 1.65-0.11; p = 0.040 2-4 hours after CS and from 36.2% to 15.4% compared with control group (95% confidence interval = 0.59-0.02; p = 0.024 8-10 hours after CS. Results indicated that the experimental group had significantly lower anxiety and pain perception of cesarean experiences than the control group. Significant differences were found in all physiologic indices between the two groups. In conclusion, the utilization of acupressure treatment to promote the comfort of women during cesarean delivery is strongly recommended.

  9. Ondansetron versus granisetron in the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, R; Hafiz, M G; Rokeya, B; Jamal, C Y; Islam, A

    2011-10-01

    Effect of ondansetron and granisetron were evaluated in sixty (60) children (age 4-11 years) irrespective of sex, diagnosed case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received high dose methotrexate and did not receive any antiemetic 24 hours prior to HDMTX. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, single center study. Of 60 children, 30 received oral ondansetron (4mg) and rest 30 granisetron (1mg) half an hour before therapy. Drugs were randomly allocated with appropriate code. The patients were followed up from day 1 to day 5 of therapy. Episodes of nausea and vomiting were recorded and scorings was done every 24 hours following chemotherapy. No significant difference was found between two groups according to acute emesis (Day-1) (p=0.053). In day two and day three it was significant (pgranisetron and 70% in children who received ondansetron. Delayed (Day 2-4) CINV were controlled in 80% of children who received granisetron and 43.4% who received ondansetron (pGranisetron group required additional doses only 3.3% cases and ondanseton group 30% cases on the second day (pgranisetron group due to adverse effects of antiemetic drug itself (p=0.001). Maximum episodes of vomiting were found on the second day in ondansetron group 33.3% and in granisetron group 3.3% (p=0.003). Though adverse effects like headache, constipation, abdominal pain and loose motion were common in both group of children but their number was much less in children who received granisetron. On second day of therapy score of nausea and vomiting was maximum in ondansetron and minimum in granisetron treated on day 4 and the result was significant. So, to prevent acute and delayed CINV in children with ALL, oral graniseteron can be considered as more effective and well tolerated with minimum adverse effects compared with ondansetrons.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROPHYLACTIC METOCLOPRAMIDE VERSUS ONDANSETRON FOR CONTROL OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING (PONV ASSOCIATED WITH IV TRAMADOL

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    Anjali P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: This prospective double blind randomized study was conducted to compare: 1. The efficacy and safety of prophylactic administration of Metoclopramide versus Ondansetron in the control of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving intravenous Tr amadol as postoperative analgesic. 2. To study the incidence of post operative nausea and vomiting with IV bolus Tramadol. METHODS: 90 patients ASA grade I and II, age 18 - 60 years, posted for hernia, hydrocele and other peripheral lower limb surgeries under subarachnoid block were selected . Patients were randomly allocated into three groups of thirty each. All surgeries were performed under subarachnoid block and received IV Tramadol 100 m g 8 hourly for 24 hours as post - operative analgesic. Group N received no prophylactic antiemetic. Group M received 10 mg Metoclopramide 12 hourly. Group O received 4 mg Ondansetron 12 hourly. Vital signs, nausea, vomiting, pain, sedation, need for rescue a ntiemetic, rescue analgesic and adverse effects were recorded for 24 hours. RESULTS: Ondansetron group (Group O significantly reduced the incidence of PONV as compared to Metoclopramide (Group M and no antiemetic group (Group N .But Metoclopramide was fo und to be not significantly effective in controlling PONV in patients receiving Tramadol as analgesic. None of the patients in Group O required rescue antiemetic as compared to 13.3% patients in Group M and 26.7% patients in Group N. There was statisticall y no significant difference between the 3 groups with respect to requirement of rescue analgesic. No major adverse effects were observed which can be attributed to either Metoclopramide or Ondansetron. CONCLUSION: Ondansetron was more effective than Metoclopramide in controlling PONV, in patients receiving IV Tramadol as post-operative analgesia

  11. Palonosetron: an evidence-based choice in prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celio, Luigi; Agustoni, Francesco; Testa, Isabella; Dotti, Katia; de Braud, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the second-generation, 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist (5-HT(3) RA) palonosetron was approved by the FDA for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. We reviewed the current knowledge on the role of palonosetron against acute and delayed emesis in patients with solid tumors undergoing single-day moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. A literature review in PubMed was performed to update currently available preclinical and clinical evidence on palonosetron, prioritizing randomized clinical trials. The distinct pharmacology of palonosetron provides a rationale behind the improved efficacy observed with the drug in prevention of delayed symptoms. This may be explained by allosteric binding properties and by palonosetron-triggered receptor internalization, which result in prolonged inhibition of the 5-HT(3) receptor function. Very recent pharmacology experiments have also suggested that palonosetron would be able to differentially inhibit 5-HT(3)/neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptor signaling cross-talk. In two recent meta-analyses, palonosetron was shown to be more effective than other available 5-HT(3) RAs in preventing acute and delayed nausea and vomiting for both HEC and MEC. Recent findings also suggest that a single-day regimen of palonosetron plus dexamethasone (both drugs administered intravenously) may provide a reasonable therapeutic alternative to reduce the total dexamethasone dose administered in patients undergoing moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. On the basis of accumulating data, the evidence-based international guidelines devised from the major organizations have been recently updated to recommend the use of palonosetron plus 3-day dexamethasone for the optimal prevention of nausea and vomiting due to moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. There is still a need to investigate the efficacy of palonosetron in combination with an NK-1 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone in well

  12. Mechanisms of Broad-Spectrum Antiemetic Efficacy of Cannabinoids against Chemotherapy-Induced Acute and Delayed Vomiting

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    Nissar A. Darmani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is a complex pathophysiological condition and consists of two phases. The conventional CINV neurotransmitter hypothesis suggests that the immediate phase is mainly due to release of serotonin (5-HT from the enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, while the delayed phase is a consequence of release of substance P (SP in the brainstem. However, more recent findings argue against this simplistic neurotransmitter and anatomical view of CINV. Revision of the hypothesis advocates a more complex, differential and overlapping involvement of several emetic neurotransmitters/modulators (e.g. dopamine, serotonin, substance P, prostaglandins and related arachidonic acid derived metabolites in both phases of emesis occurring concomitantly in the brainstem and in the GIT enteric nervous system (ENS [1]. No single antiemetic is currently available to completely prevent both phases of CINV. The standard antiemetic regimens include a 5-HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone for the prevention of acute emetic phase, combined with an NK1 receptor antagonist (e.g. aprepitant for the delayed phase. Although NK1 antagonists behave in animals as broad-spectrum antiemetics against different emetogens including cisplatin-induced acute and delayed vomiting, by themselves they are not very effective against CINV in cancer patients. Cannabinoids such as D9-THC also behave as broad-spectrum antiemetics against diverse emetic stimuli as well as being effective against both phases of CINV in animals and patients. Potential side effects may limit the clinical utility of direct-acting cannabinoid agonists which could be avoided by the use of corresponding indirect-acting agonists. Cannabinoids (both phyto-derived and synthetic behave as agonist antiemetics via the activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in both the brainstem and the ENS emetic loci. An endocannabinoid antiemetic tone may exist since inverse CB1

  13. Effect of Ginger and Chamomile on Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Chemotherapy in Iranian Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaati, Fateme; Najafi, Safa; Kashaninia, Zahra; Sadeghi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) places a significant burden on the patient. Herbal agents are the most commonly complementary therapies used among the public. This study was done to determine the effect of ginger and chamomile capsules on nausea and vomiting in cases undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer (BC). In a randomized, double-blind and clinical trial study, 65 women with BC undergoing chemotherapy were referred to Breast Cancer Research Center, Tehran, Iran, between May 2013 to June 2014. Regimen for ginger group for 5 days before and 5 days after chemotherapy was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of powdered ginger root in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of dexamethasone, metoclopramide and aprepitant (DMA) capsules. Chamomile group similarly was: 2 times a day and 500 mg capsules of Matricaria chamomilla extract in addition to a routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules. Control group, routine antiemetic regimen consisting of DMA capsules. There were no significant differences between the ginger, chamomile and control groups regarding age. Drugs used for chemotherapy were identical and duration of disease was also matched (1-4 months). Ginger and chamomile were both significantly effective for reducing the frequency of vomiting, there being no significant difference between the ginger and chamomile groups. Moreover, unlike the chamomile, ginger significantly influenced the frequency of nausea. According to the findings of this study, it should be declared that taking ginger capsules (1 g/day) might relieve CINV safely. Nurses dealing directly with cancer patients should be responsible for providing educational programs for patients and their families about how to deal with their drug regimens and associated side effects.

  14. Treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke

    2016-10-01

    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Conference Proceedings Index, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from inception to September 2014. References from studies and literature reviews identified were also examined. Obstetric Medicine was hand-searched, as were websites of relevant organisations. Costs came from NHS sources. A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered the implied values of treatments. Seventy

  15. Translation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of the Rhodes Index of Nausea, Vomiting and Retching (INVR) scale for the assessment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, S; Shahidsales, S; Ghavam Nasiri, M R; Pilling, M; Molassiotis, A; Walshe, C

    2014-11-01

    No tools are available to assess or measure the experience of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) for Persian/Farsi speakers. The purpose of this study is to translate the Rhodes Index of Nausea, Vomiting and Retching (INVR) scale for use with Persian-speaking cancer patients. A sample of 94 cancer patients were recruited from a cancer research centre in Mashhad-Iran. A standard two phase process of scale translation and validation was conducted. In phase I, standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure was used to translate the original version of the INVR questionnaire into Persian. The translated questionnaire was reviewed and revised and a Persian version of the scale was produced. In the second phase, a multiphase instrumentation study describing the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the translated version was conducted. The inter-item correlation measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. Test/re-test reliability was measured by the weighted kappa and was between 0.63 and 0.79, indicating 'substantial agreement' and stability between the initial and subsequent administrations for each item. These results demonstrate that the Persian version of the INVR is acceptable for use among Iranian cancer patients. Researchers could use this study as a model for future translation and application of psychometric instrumentation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Prevention of dimethylsulfoxide-related nausea and vomiting by prophylactic administration of ondansetron for patients receiving autologous cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Seth; Wickline, Mihkaila; Linenberger, Michael; Gooley, Ted; Holmberg, Leona

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ondansetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting from dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) during autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) infusion. Nonrandomized cohort using historical control. Comprehensive cancer center outpatient infusion department. 50 patients receiving ASCT in the outpatient setting. Patients were assessed for nausea and vomiting on their infusion day using the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Antiemesis Tool (MAT) at arrival, pre-ASCT infusion, pre-ondansetron administration, prior to the first bag, and after each bag of stem cells. A standard script was used to ensure consistency. Ondansetron, 16 mg IV, was administered 30-90 minutes prior to each ASCT infusion. Number and volume of stem cells bags, as well as infusion rate and emesis episodes, were recorded. Nausea scores and vomiting episodes were compared to historical data. Subjectivity of nausea, potential Hawthorne Effect. Forty-five percent of patients had an MAT score greater than 2 on arrival, decreasing to 18% after receiving ondansetron before the first bag. Twenty-four percent had MAT increases of more than two points by infusion end compared to 58% in the historic control group. Eighteen percent of patients vomited compared to 28% of historic controls. The administration of 16 mg of IV ondansetron significantly reduced DMSO-related nausea and episodes of vomiting in patients receiving ASCT. Prophylactic administration of ondansetron had a positive effect on reducing nausea symptoms and episodes of vomiting during ASCT infusions. These results prompted a change in clinical practice. More research is required to determine whether the inclusion of other antiemetic agents would provide even greater benefit. To date, no other published studies have explored the benefits of premedicating patients with ondansetron prior to ASCT infusions. This study is the first to establish efficacy of ondansetron for an unlabeled indication. These

  17. Can granisetron injection used as primary prophylaxis improve the control of nausea and vomiting with low- emetogenic chemotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Chan Huan; Phua, Gillian; Abdul Kassim, Mohd Shainol; Poh, Wong Kar; Sriraman, Malathi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the risk of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among patients receiving low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with and without granisetron injection as the primary prophylaxis in addition to dexamethasone and metochlopramide. This was a single-centre, prospective cohort study. A total of 96 patients receiving LEC (52 with and 42 without granisetron) were randomly selected from the full patient list generated using the e-Hospital Information System (e-His). The rates of complete control (no CINV from days 1 to 5) and complete response (no nausea or vomiting in both acute and delayed phases) were identified through patient diaries which were adapted from the MASCC Antiemesis Tool (MAT). Selected covariates including gender, age, active alcohol consumption, morning sickness and previous chemotherapy history were controlled using the multiple logistic regression analyses. Both groups showed significant difference with LEC regimens (pgranisetron group indicated a higher complete response rate in acute emesis (adjusted OR: 0.1; 95%CI 0.02-0.85; p=0.034) than did the non-granisetron group. Both groups showed similar complete control and complete response rates for acute nausea, delayed nausea and delayed emesis. Granisetron injection used as the primary prophylaxis in LEC demonstrated limited roles in CINV control. Optimization of the guideline-recommended antiemetic regimens may serve as a less costly alternative to protect patients from uncontrolled acute emesis.

  18. Cannabinoid hyperemesis and the cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults: recognition, diagnosis, acute and long-term treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumentrath, Christian G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS and the cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults (CVS are both characterized by recurrent episodes of heavy nausea, vomiting and frequently abdominal pain. Both syndromes are barely known among physicians. Literature is inconsistent concerning clinical features which enable differentiation between CVS and CHS. We performed a literature review using the LIVIVO search portal for life sciences to develop a pragmatic approach towards these two syndromes. Our findings indicate that complete and persistent resolution of all symptoms of the disease following cannabis cessation is the only reliable criterion applicable to distinguish CHS from CVS. Psychiatric comorbidities (e.g. panic attacks, depression, history of migraine attacks and rapid gastric emptying may serve as supportive criteria for the diagnosis of CVS. Compulsive bathing behaviour, a clinical observation previously attributed only to CHS patients is equally present in CVS patients. Long-term follow-up is essential in order to clearly separate CHS from CVS. However, long-term follow-up of CVS and CHS cases is seldom. We provide a standard operating procedure applicable to a broad spectrum of health care facilities which addresses the major issues of CVS and CHS: awareness, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

  19. Casopitant: a novel NK1-receptor antagonist in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

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    Christina Ruhlmann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Christina Ruhlmann, Jørn HerrstedtOdense University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Odense, DenmarkAbstract: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV are among the most feared and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The knowledge of the pathogenesis and neuropharmacology of CINV has expanded enormously over the last decades, the most significant discoveries being the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3- and neurokinin (NK1 receptors in the emetic reflex arch. This has led to the development of two new classes of antiemetics acting as highly selective antagonists at one of these receptors. These drugs have had a huge impact in the protection from chemotherapy-induced vomiting, whereas the effect on nausea seems to be limited. The first NK1 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, became clinically available in 2003, and casopitant, the second in this class of antiemetics, has now completed phase III trials. This review delineates the properties and clinical use of casopitant in the prevention of CINV.Keywords: casopitant, GW679769, NK1 receptor antagonist, chemotherapy, emesis

  20. Efficacy of intravenous ondansetron to prevent vomiting episodes in acute gastroenteritis: a randomized, double blind, and controlled trial

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    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases of childhood. Its symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. In the emergency ward, intravenous rather than oral rehydration is usually preferred because of the high likelihood of emesis. Treatments to reduce emesis are of value in improving the rehydration procedure. Our study is a double-blind randomized trial and proposes the use of ondansetron as an anti-emetic drug to treat children with acute gastroenteritis. Seventy-four in-patients, aged 3 months to 15 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an ondansetron or placebo group. Inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis and the absence of other diseases or allergies to drugs. A single bolus (0.15 mg/kg of ondansetron was injected intravenously; normal 0.9% saline solution was used as a placebo. This treatment induced vomiting cessation in the ondansetron group significantly in comparison to the placebo group. The length of the hospital stay and the oral rehydration fluid volume were similar in the two groups and no adverse effects were noticed. Thus, safety, low cost, and overall bene­fit of ondansetron treatment suggests that this drug can be administered successfully to children with acute gastroenteritis.

  1. Doxylamine succinate–pyridoxine hydrochloride (Diclegis for the management of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: an overview

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    Nuangchamnong N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nina Nuangchamnong, Jennifer Niebyl Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa, IA, USA Abstract: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP is common and often undertreated, in part due to fears of adverse effects of medications on the fetus during early pregnancy. In April 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved doxylamine succinate 10 mg and pyridoxine hydrochloride (a vitamin B6 analog 10 mg as a delayed-release combination pill called Diclegis for the treatment of NVP. Diclegis is currently the only medication that is FDA-approved for the indication of NVP. This review addresses the historical context, safety, efficacy, pharmacology, and practical role of doxylamine and pyridoxine for the management of NVP. The reintroduction of this doxylamine–pyridoxine combination pill into the American market fills a therapeutic gap in the management of NVP left by the removal of the same active drugs marketed over 30 years ago in the form of Bendectin. The substantial amount of safety data accumulated over the years makes it one of the few drugs that qualify for FDA Pregnancy Category A status. In the hierarchical approach to pharmacological treatment of NVP, the combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine should thus be first-tier. Keywords: doxylamine, pyridoxine, vitamin B6, nausea, vomiting, pregnancy

  2. [The Effectiveness of Epidural Droperidol for Prophylaxis of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Comparative Study of Droperidol and Adrenaline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyonaga, Shinya; Shinozuka, Norihiro; Dobashi, Tamae; Iiyori, Nao; Sudo, Tomoko

    2016-05-01

    Intravenous droperidol has strong evidence for antiemetic efficacy in high risk patients for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However it is not clear whether continuous epidural administration of doroperidol prevent PONV. It has been reported that epidural adrenaline decreases PONV; therefore we prospectively compared the effectiveness of epidural droperidol and adrenaline for prophylaxis of PONV. Eighty-six patients were scheduled for abdominal gynecological surgery under general-epidural anesthesia in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to droperidol group or adrenaline group. We investigated the incidences of PONV, the frequency of using the antiemetics. There was no statistical difference between the groups. The incidences of PONV were 27.9% (doropeidol group) and 58.1% (adrenaline group), respectively (P = 0.0046). The frequency of the anti-emetics use were 18.6% and 41.9%, respectively (P = 0.0189). There was one patient who needed cancellation of continuous epidural administration for vomiting in adrenaline group, but no patient in doropeidol group. The results suggest that epidural droperidol effectively decreases PONV in high risk patients. However epidural adrenaline might be ineffective.

  3. Investigating the effect of therapeutic touch on the intensity of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in breast cancer women under chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matourypour, Pegah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Zare, Zahra; Mehrzad, Valiolah; Dehghan, Mojtaba; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the worst and the most prevalent complications experienced by 70-80% of patients. Complementary treatments including therapeutic touch are cost-effective and low-risk, independent nursing interventions. Present research aims at investigating the effect of therapeutic touch on the intensity of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in these patients. As a single-blind, randomized clinical trial, the present research was carried out on women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy in Isfahan, Iran. The subjects were divided into three groups of control, placebo, and intervention. The intervention was applied to each patient once for 20 min on the aura (human energy field) focusing on solar chakra. Data gathering instruments included demographic questionnaire and acute vomiting intensity scale. There was a significant difference among the three groups (and also after the intervention) (P touch was effective in reducing vomiting in the intervention group. However, the patients experienced lower-intensity vomiting which may be because of presence of a therapist and probably the reduced anxiety related to an additional intervention. So, further research is recommended considering the placebo group and employing another person in addition to the therapist, who is not skilled for this technique.

  4. Nausea and vomiting in fractionated radiotherapy: a prospective on-demand trial of tropisetron rescue for non-responders to metoclopramide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miralbell, R.; Behrouz, F.; Coucke, P.

    1995-01-01

    A prospective trial was performed to better assess the risk of nausea and vomiting and the rescue value of tropisetron (TRO), a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, in 88 patients undergoing fractionated radiotherapy to the abdomen or to large supradiaphragmatic fields and failing a first anti-emetic trial with metoclopramide (MET). Nausea was graded 0 (absent), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate) and 3 (severe). Nausea requiring anti-emetics (≥ grade 2) was present in 64% of the patients. MET was able to control nausea (≤ grade 1) in 26 of 58 patients (45%) who developed ≥ grade 2 nausea during radiation treatment (2 patients vomiting without nausea included). 34 patients required TRO, and 31 experienced immediate relief. However, nausea (≥ grade 2) recurred in 7 patients from 1 to 3 weeks after starting TRO. Sex, age, field type and field size (cm 2 ) did not influence the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting. Only 24/88 patients vomited after starting radiotherapy. MET helped to eliminate emesis in one third of these patients. TRO helped to control vomiting in 73% of the salvaged patients. Constipation was observed in 8 patients on TRO and was a reason to stop the medication in 4 cases. (author)

  5. Use of granisetron transdermal system in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Tuca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Albert TucaPalliative Care Hospital Team, Palliative Care Department, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Until now only intravenous and oral formulations of 5HT3 receptor antagonists have been available. Recently a new formulation of a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, transdermal granisetron, has been developed, and approved by the FDA. Three phase I studies to evaluate its pharmacokinetic profile have shown that granisetron administered by a transdermal delivery system is absorbed by passive diffusion and maximal concentration is reached 48 hours after patch application. The patch of 52 cm2, which contains 34.3 mg of granisetron, releases 3.3 mg of the drug every day and maintains a stable average plasma concentration of 2.2 ng/mL over 6 days, similar to levels obtained with 2 mg of oral granisetron, administered every day during the same period of time. Two randomized as yet unpublished clinical trials (phase II/III have been conducted to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy of transdermal granisetron in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy, compared with 2 mg of oral granisetron. More than 800 cancer patients were included in the trials. The rate of complete control of acute emesis was 49% for the phase II trial and 60% for the phase III trial. Neither trial showed a statistically significant difference between transdermal and oral granisetron. The control of delayed emesis was observed in 46% of patients, and there were no statistically significant differences between transdermal and oral granisetron. The most common adverse effects in both trials were constipation (<7% and headache (<1%; there were no statistically significant differences between transdermal and oral granisetron. These data show that transdermal granisetron is effective and safe in controlling acute emesis induced by chemotherapy with both moderate and high

  6. Comparison of granisetron, metoclopramide and gastric decompression for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after fast track cardiac anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Aghadavoudi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Different methods have been suggested to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV, but the efficacy of these methods has not been fully studied in fast track cardiac anesthesia (FTCA.
    • METHODS: In a randomized double blind clinical trial study, 120 patients aged 18-70 years with ASA II or III, undergoing elective cardiac surgery, were selected. They were divided randomly into four groups. In group M, group G and group P, intravenous (IV metoclopramide (0.1 mg/kg, granisetron (0.01 mg/kg, and normal saline were administered, respectively, about thirty minutes before extubation in the intensive care unit (ICU. In group N, a nasogastric (NG tube was inserted after tracheal intubation in the operating room and removed about thirty minutes before extubation in the ICU. The incidence and severity of nausea and the episodes of vomiting were recorded by a blinded investigator at the time of extubation and performed regularly for a maximum of 24 hours. Assessment of severity of nausea was scored using a visual analogue scale (VAS device. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA, chi-squared and Kruskal- Wallis and repeated measures tests.
    • RESULTS: Overall the 24-h incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the G and M groups than in the P and N groups (10% and 16.7% vs. 33.3% and 40%, respectively; P < 0.02. Postoperative rescue medication was significantly less required in the G and M groups compared to the other two groups (P < 0.01. Less satisfaction, according to PONV status, was observed in the P and N groups (P < 0.01.
    • CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, metoclopramide and granisetron, but not gastric decompression, are effective regimens for preventing PONV after FTCA. Given the economics and a considerable background incidence in patients exhibiting PONV, we suggest metoclopramide as a routine prophylactic antiemetic in FTCA

    • Prophylactic gabapentin for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pandey Chandra

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available Background: Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug. Its antiemetic effect is demonstrated in chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed onset of nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients. Aim: To evaluate the antiemetic effect of gabapentin on incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Settings and Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive 600 mg gabapentin or matching placebo two hours before surgery. Standard anaesthesia technique was used. Fentanyl was used as rescue postoperative analgesic. Ondansetron 4 mg was used intravenously as rescue medication for emesis. The total number of patients who had nausea or vomiting, and its severity and total fentanyl consumption in the first 24 hours were recorded. Statistical Analysis: "Z test" was used to test the significance of severity of post-operative nausea and vomiting between groups. Fentanyl consumed in each group (Mean±SD within 24 hrs was compared using student t test. P value< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no demographic difference between the two groups. Incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting within 24 hrs after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was significantly lower in gabapentin group (46/125 than in the placebo group (75/125 (37.8% vs 60%; P =0.04. There was a significantly decreased fentanyl consumption in gabapentin group (221.2±92.4 µg as compared to placebo group (505.9±82.0 µg; P =0.01. Conclusion: Gabapentin effectively suppresses nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and post-operative rescue analgesic requirement.

    • Associations between Nausea, Vomiting, Fatigue and Health-Related Quality of Life of Women in Early Pregnancy: The Generation R Study.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Guannan Bai

      Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the independent associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy in the Generation R study, which is a prospective mother and child cohort. Analyses were based on 5079 women in early pregnancy in the Rotterdam area, the Netherlands. The information on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in the previous three months was measured in the questionnaire at enrollment, as well as potential confounders (i.e., maternal/gestational age, ethnic background, educational level, parity, marital status, body mass index, tobacco and alcohol use, chronic/infectious conditions, uro-genital conditions/symptoms, sleep quality, headache, anxiety, and depression. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the 12-item Short Form Health Survey and physical and mental component summary scores were calculated. Multivariate regression models were performed to evaluate the independent associations of the presence of nausea, vomiting and fatigue with health-related quality of life, adjusting for potential confounders. 33.6% of women experienced daily presence of nausea, 9.6% for vomiting and 44.4% for fatigue. Comparing with women who never reported nausea, vomiting and fatigue, women with daily presence of at least one of these symptoms had significantly lower scores of physical component summary and mental component summary, after adjusting for potential confounders. Our study shows how common nausea, vomiting and fatigue are among women in early pregnancy and how much each of these symptoms negatively impact on health-related quality of life. We call for awareness of this issue from health care professionals, pregnant women and their families.

    • Effects of Slow-stroke Back Massage on Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in the Pediatrics with Acute Leukemia: a Challenge of Controlling Symptoms

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mojtaba Miladinia

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Introduction Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of chemotherapy in the pediatrics with cancer which affect their quality of life. Use of some methods of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is problematic. Because, leukemia patients are at risk of infection and bleeding, therefore the use of acupressure, acupuncture, and deep massage can be risky in these patients. Slow- stroke back massage is applied on the surface of body, so does not have complications. No study has addressed the effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatrics with acute leukemia in the world.  Material and methods This study was a two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT, double blind and repeated measures design. In this RCT, 45 school age children with acute leukemia were placed in the massage and control groups. Before start of the study, at the day of chemotherapy administration (day 1th, only nausea and vomiting were measured. Then during 6 days next (day 2 through 7, the intervention group received 5-minutes Super Smash Bros. Melee (SSBM, immediately before start of each session of chemotherapy. Nausea was measured during chemotherapy, 0.5 h and 3 h after each session of chemotherapy in the two groups. Also vomiting was recorded during 24 h after each session of chemotherapy. Repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square, and t-test were used for analysis. Results Most of pediatrics were male (58.13%, and suffered from Acute myeloid leukemia (AML (81.7%. The repeated measure analysis showed that in the intervention group, the SSBM reduced progressive mean of nausea severity and frequency of vomit over time. While, this side effects have slightly increased over time in the control group. Conclusion The results of this study are suggesting that SSBM, as a non-pharmacologic, easy and safe method, is effective in controlling Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in the pediatrics with acute leukemia.

    • Experimental study of the role of blocking of 5-HT3 serotonin receptors and D2 dophamin receptors in the mechanism of early radiation vomiting in monkeys

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Martirosov, K.S.; Grigor'ev, Yu.G.; Zorin, V.V.; Andrianova, I.E.

      2000-01-01

      Specific activity of Latranum and Dimetphramidum is studied using experimental model of early radiation vomiting on 17 monkeys, mass 6-9 kg inherent on usual ration of vivarium. The experiments with M. fasciculata monkeys exposed to 137 Cs γ-radiation with a dose of 6.9 Gy showed that Latranum, a blocker of serotonin 5-HT 3 receptors, is a more efficient antimetric than Dimetphramidum, a D 2 dophamin lytic. This suggested by fewer animals with emetic reaction of by less severe vomiting in case they have any. The results agree well with a hypothesis that serotonin receptors are dominant in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of monkeys [ru

    • Granisetron plus dexamethasone for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery: A meta-analysis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhu, Min; Zhou, Chengmao; Huang, Bing; Ruan, Lin; Liang, Rui

      2017-06-01

      Objective This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of granisetron plus dexamethasone for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Methods We searched the literature in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI. Results In total, 11 randomized controlled trials were enrolled in this analysis. The meta-analysis showed that granisetron in combination with dexamethasone was significantly more effective than granisetron alone in preventing PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopy surgery. No significant differences in adverse reactions (dizziness and headache) were found in association with dexamethasone. Conclusion Granisetron in combination with dexamethasone was significantly more effective than granisetron alone in preventing PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, with no difference in adverse reactions between the two groups. Granisetron alone or granisetron plus dexamethasone can be used to prevent PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery.

    • Antenatal Bartter syndrome presenting with vomiting and constipation mimicking subacute intestinal obstruction in a 20-day-old neonate.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Abdelgadir, Ibtihal Siddiq; Elgharbawy, Fawzia; Salameh, Khalil Mohamad; Juma, Baha Eldin

      2017-11-14

      Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a rare condition that can present with different clinical features. These features include early onset maternal polyhydramnios, failure to thrive, prematurity and nephrocalcinosis.We are presenting this 20-day-old girl who had an antenatal history of polyhydramnios. She developed persistent non-bilious vomiting that was associated with constipation soon after birth. She presented with failure to thrive and features suggestive of intestinal obstruction. On the initial evaluation, she was noted to have hypokalaemic, hyponatraemic metabolic alkalosis. The initial work-up was done to exclude surgical and renal causes of her presentation, and the diagnosis was confirmed by gene analysis to be type III-classic Bartter syndrome. She was closely monitored for her growth and development with the appropriate salt replacement therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

    • Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in Asian women with breast cancer receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bourdeanu, Laura; Frankel, Paul; Yu, Wai; Hendrix, Gregory; Pal, Sumanta; Badr, Lina; Somlo, George; Luu, Thehang

      2012-01-01

      Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) remain among the most frequently reported distressing side effects associated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy despite significant advances in antiemetic management. The main risk factor for severity of CINV is the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapeutic agents. However, patient-related risk factors have been identified, including genetic makeup. Although studies have noted that ethnicity influences nausea and vomiting in other contexts, there is a paucity of research regarding the impact of ethnicity on CINV. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether Asian women receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy experience more CINV than non-Asians. A retrospective, comparative, correlational chart review was performed to abstract the relevant variables. Data from a convenience sample of 358 women with breast cancer who received chemotherapy with doxorubicin between 2004 and 2008 at City of Hope in Duarte, California, were evaluated. The sample consisted of Caucasians (45%), Hispanics (27.7%), Asians (19.8%), and African Americans (7.5%). The results indicate that Asian women with breast cancer undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy experienced statistically significantly more clinically important CINV than their non-Asian counterparts. The data were collected retrospectively, with a certain population distribution at a specific time. This study provides interesting preliminary evidence that Asian ethnicity plays a role in the development of severe CINV. When managing chemotherapy toxicities in women with breast cancer, health-care providers should tailor therapy to individual risk profiles. Specifically, consideration of antiemetic therapy should accommodate patient characteristics, such as Asian descent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    • Phase III trial of casopitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Herrstedt, Jørn; Apornwirat, Wichit; Shaharyar, Ahmed

      2009-01-01

      PURPOSE: The purpose of this phase III trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of regimens containing casopitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the first cycle in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemo...

    • The effect of intravenous dextrose administration for prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Firouzian, Abolfazl; Kiasari, Alieh Zamani; Godazandeh, Gholamali; Baradari, Afshin Gholipour; Alipour, Abbas; Taheri, Arman; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Montazemi, Maryam

      2017-10-01

      Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common and distressing complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravenous (IV) dextrose administration for the prophylaxis of PONV after LC. In a double-blind, randomised controlled trial, a total of 150 female patients who were scheduled for elective LC were randomly assigned into two groups (A and B). Thirty minutes before induction of anaesthesia, patients received an infusion of 500 cc lactated Ringer's solution (Group A) and 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's solution (Group B) and over a period of 30 min. All patients rated their nausea and vomiting intensity using the verbal rating scale immediately at post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) arrival; 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after arriving at the PACU and 6, 12 and 24 h after surgery. There was a statistically significant time trend and group effect along with significant differences in time/group interaction effect in both groups for nausea and vomiting scores ( P Dextrose administration reduced the odds of vomiting events compared to placebo (estimate: -0.87, odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.64). Administration of IV dextrose before anaesthesia induction may be recommended as an effective, and safe method for the prophylaxis of PONV after LC.

    • Daily and Momentary Mood and Stress Are Associated with Binge Eating and Vomiting in Bulimia Nervosa Patients in the Natural Environment

      Science.gov (United States)

      Smyth, Joshua M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Heron, Kristin E.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Engel, Scott G.

      2007-01-01

      The relation of mood and stress to binge eating and vomiting in the natural environments of patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) was examined using real-time data collection. Women (n = 131; mean age = 25.3 years) with BN carried a palmtop computer for 2 weeks and completed ratings of positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), anger/hostility (AH),…

    • The Preliminary Effects of Massage and Inhalation Aromatherapy on Chemotherapy-Induced Acute Nausea and Vomiting: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zorba, Pinar; Ozdemir, Leyla

      2017-04-20

      Despite pharmacological treatment, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are observed in patients. This quasi-randomized controlled pilot study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary effects of massage and inhalation aromatherapies on chemotherapy-induced acute nausea/vomiting. Seventy-five patients with breast cancer were randomly grouped into 1 of 3 groups: massage (n = 25), inhalation (n = 25), and control (n = 25). The patients in the massage group received 20-minute aromatherapy foot massage, whereas those in the inhalation group received 3-minute inhalation aromatherapy before their second, third, and fourth chemotherapy cycles. The control group underwent only the routine treatment. A nausea, vomiting, and retching patient follow-up form was used to evaluate nausea severity by visual analog scale and frequency of vomiting and retching. The incidence of nausea and retching was significantly higher in the control group than in the other groups in the third and fourth chemotherapy cycles (P aromatherapy groups than in the control group. Nausea and retching incidence was reduced in the aromatherapy groups compared with that in the control group. Nonpharmacological approaches are recommended for managing CINV. Massage and inhalation aromatherapy seems promising regarding the management of CINV.

    • Associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy: The generation r study

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      G. Bai (Guannan); I.J. Korfage (Ida); E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Mautner, E. (Eva); H. Raat (Hein)

      2016-01-01

      textabstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the independent associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy in the Generation R study, which is a prospective mother and child cohort. Analyses were based on 5079 women in early

    • Randomized controlled trial of total intravenous anesthesia with propofol versus inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane-nitrous oxide: postoperative nausea with vomiting and economic analysis

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Visser, K.; Hassink, E. A.; Bonsel, G. J.; Moen, J.; Kalkman, C. J.

      2001-01-01

      To assess the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol versus inhalational anesthesia with isoflurane-nitrous oxide, the authors performed a randomized trial in 2,010 unselected surgical patients in a Dutch academic institution. An

    • Oral Ondansetron in Management of Dehydrating Diarrhea with Vomiting in Children Aged 3 Months to 5 Years: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Danewa, Arun Singh; Shah, Dheeraj; Batra, Prerna; Bhattacharya, Swapan Kumar; Gupta, Piyush

      2016-02-01

      To evaluate the role of oral ondansetron in facilitating successful rehydration of under-5-year-old children suffering from acute diarrhea with vomiting and some dehydration. Children (n = 170) aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea with vomiting and some dehydration were enrolled in this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The participants were randomized to receive either single dose of oral ondansetron (n = 85) or placebo (n = 85) in addition to standard management of dehydration according to World Health Organization guidelines. Failure of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), administration of unscheduled intravenous fluids, and amount of oral rehydration solution intake in 4 hours were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcome measures included duration of dehydration correction, number of vomiting episodes, adverse effects, and caregiver satisfaction. Failure of ORT was significantly less in children receiving ondansetron compared with those receiving placebo (31% vs 62%; P children in the ondansetron group received intravenous fluids compared with those in the placebo group, but it was not statistically significant (P = .074; relative risk 0.56, 95% CI 0.30-1.07). The oral rehydration solution consumption was significantly more in the ondansetron group (645 mL vs 554 mL; mean difference 91 mL; 95% CI: 35-148 mL). Patients in the ondansetron group also showed faster rehydration, lesser number of vomiting episodes, and better caregiver satisfaction. A single oral dose of ondansetron, given before starting ORT to children <5 years of age with acute diarrhea and vomiting results in better oral rehydration. Clinical Trial Registry of India: CTRI-2011/07/001916. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of point plaster therapy with ginger powder in preventing nausea and vomiting occurred after platinum-based interventional chemotherapy in patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haiyan; Yang Yang; Meng Zhiqiang; Chen Leihua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the point plaster therapy with ginger powder combined with ondansetron hydrochloride in preventing nausea and vomiting usually occurred after platinum-based interventional chemotherapy in patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer, and to compared its effectiveness with that by using ondansetron hydrochloride only. Method: Sixty-two patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer, who were scheduled to receive platinum-based interventional chemotherapy, were randomly and equally divided into two groups with 31 cases in each group. The patients in the study group (n = 31) were given point plaster therapy, i.e. externally applying ginger powder (20 g) to the point of Shenque, for four days together with arterial infusion of ondansetron hydrochloride (8 mg) during interventional procedure,while the patients in the control group (n = 31) were given point plaster therapy with placebo (potato powder) together with arterial infusion of ondansetron hydrochloride (8 mg) during interventional procedure. The questionnaire of INVR (index form for evaluating nausea and vomiting) was used to assess the effectiveness, and the results were compared between two groups. Results: The incidence of nausea and vomiting in study group was significantly lower than that in control group at all observed points of time during the period of 0 -72 hours after the treatment (P 0.05). After the treatment the scores of nausea, vomiting and retching in the study group were 0.45, 0.25 and 0.19 respectively, while these in the control group were 2.77, 0.87 and 0.97 respectively, the differences between two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The external application of ginger powder to points of Shenque can markedly decrease the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting after platinum-based interventional chemotherapy in patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer. (authors)

  2. Impact and management of chemotherapy/radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the perceptual gap between oncologists/oncology nurses and patients: a cross-sectional multinational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidall, Cheryl; Fernández-Ortega, Paz; Cortinovis, Diego; Jahn, Patrick; Amlani, Bharat; Scotté, Florian

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy/radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV/RINV) can affect half of oncology patients, significantly impacting daily life. Nausea without vomiting has only recently been thought of as a condition in its own right. As such, the incidence of nausea is often underestimated. This survey investigated the incidence and impact of CINV/RINV in patients compared with estimations of physicians/oncology nurses to determine if there is a perceptual gap between healthcare professionals and patients. An online research survey of physicians, oncology nurses and patients was conducted across five European countries. Participants had to have experience prescribing/recommending or have received anti-emetic medication for CINV/RINV treatment. Questionnaires assessed the incidence and impact of CINV/RINV, anti-emetic usage and compliance, and attribute importance of anti-emetic medication. A total of 947 (375 physicians, 186 oncology nurses and 386 patients) participated in this survey. The incidence of nausea was greater than vomiting: 60 % of patients reported nausea alone, whereas 18 % reported vomiting. Physicians and oncology nurses overestimated the incidence of CINV/RINV but underestimated its impact on patients' daily lives. Only 38 % of patients reported full compliance with physicians'/oncology nurses' guidelines when self-administering anti-emetic medication. Leading factors for poor compliance included reluctance to add to a pill burden and fear that swallowing itself would induce nausea/vomiting. There is a perceptual gap between healthcare professionals and patients in terms of the incidence and impact of CINV/RINV. This may lead to sub-optimal prescription of anti-emetics and therefore management of CINV/RINV. Minimising the pill burden and eliminating the requirement to swallow medication could improve poor patient compliance with anti-emetic regimens.

  3. Intra-operative lidocaine in the prevention of vomiting after elective tonsillectomy in children: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Ghislaine C; Altermatt, Fernando R; Paredes, Sebastian; Puga, Valentina; Auad, Hernán; Veloso, Ana M; Elgueta, María F

    2018-05-01

    Postoperative vomiting (POV) is a frequent complication of tonsillectomy in children. In adult patients undergoing abdominal surgeries, the use of intravenous lidocaine infusion can prevent POV. To evaluate the anti-emetic effect of an intravenous lidocaine infusion used as an adjuvant to general anaesthesia, in children undergoing elective ear, nose and throat surgery. Double-blind, randomised, controlled study. Hospital-based, single-centre study in Chile. ASA I-II children, aged 2 to 12 years, scheduled for elective tonsillectomy. We standardised the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Patients were randomly allocated to lidocaine (1.5 mg kg intravenous lidocaine over 5 min followed by 2 mg kg h) or 0.9% saline (at the same rate and volume). Infusions were continued until the end of the surgery. Presence of at least one episode of vomiting, retching or both in the first 24 h postoperatively (POV). Plasma concentrations of lidocaine and postoperative pain. Ninety-two children were enrolled. Primary outcome data were available for 91. In the Lidocaine group, 28 of 46 patients (60.8%) experienced POV, compared with 37 of 45 patients (82.2%) in the Saline group [difference in proportions 21.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8 to 38.8), P = 0.024]. The intention-to-treat analysis showed that when we assumed that the patient in the Saline group lost to follow-up did not have POV, the difference in proportions decreased to 19.6% (95% CI, 0.9 to 37.2), with an unadjusted odds ratio of 0.38 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.97, P = 0.044). The odds of having POV were 62% less likely in those patients receiving lidocaine compared with patients in the Saline group. The mean lidocaine plasma concentration was 3.91 μg ml (range: 0.87 to 4.88). Using an intravenous lidocaine infusion as an adjuvant to general anaesthesia decreased POV in children undergoing elective tonsillectomy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01986309.

  4. Efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A quantitative systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tramer, M.R.; Reynolds, D.J.M.; Stoner, N.S.; Moore, R.A.; McQuay, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    5-HT 3 receptor antagonists are used to treat radiation-induced sickness. The purpose of this study was to define anti-emetic efficacy and potential for harm of these drugs in radiotherapy. A systematic search, critical appraisal and quantitative analysis of relevant data using the number-needed-to-treat or harm (NNT/H) were conducted. Acute (0 to 24 h) and delayed (beyond 24 h) anti-emetic efficacy were analysed separately. Data from 1,404 patients were found in 40 trials published in 36 reports. Data from 197 patients receiving ondansetron or granisetron in five randomised trials were regarded as valid according to preset criteria. One placebo-controlled trial had 10 patients per group and in this ondansetron was not significantly different from placebo. In a larger (n=105) placebo-controlled trial, ondansetron was significantly more efficacious than metoclopramide for complete control of acute vomiting (NNT 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.3) and acute nausea (NNT 3.6, 95% CI 2.2-10.2). Three trials reported delayed outcomes with ondansetron or granisetron: there was no evidence of any difference compared with placebo or other anti-emetics. Two trials reported no acute or delayed but a 'worst day' outcome; in these ondansetron's antivomiting effect was significantly better than placebo (NNT 4.4, 95% CI 2.5-23) or prochlorperazine (NNT 3.8, 95% CI 2.4-10.3), but not its antinausea effect. Constipation and headache were associated significantly with 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists compared with other anti-emetics or placebo (NNH 6.4 and 17.1, respectively). Only 14% of published data enabled valid estimation of the anti-emetic efficacy of 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists in radiotherapy. There was some evidence that these drugs prevent acute vomiting: 40% of treated patients will benefit (NNT approximately 2.5). The evidence for nausea was less clear. There was no evidence that these drugs are of any benefit beyond 24 h. There was evidence that they produce specific

  5. Use of granisetron transdermal system in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuca, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Until now only intravenous and oral formulations of 5HT 3 receptor antagonists have been available. Recently a new formulation of a 5HT 3 receptor antagonist, transdermal granisetron, has been developed, and approved by the FDA. Three phase I studies to evaluate its pharmacokinetic profile have shown that granisetron administered by a transdermal delivery system is absorbed by passive diffusion and maximal concentration is reached 48 hours after patch application. The patch of 52 cm 2 , which contains 34.3 mg of granisetron, releases 3.3 mg of the drug every day and maintains a stable average plasma concentration of 2.2 ng/mL over 6 days, similar to levels obtained with 2 mg of oral granisetron, administered every day during the same period of time. Two randomized as yet unpublished clinical trials (phase II/III) have been conducted to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy of transdermal granisetron in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy, compared with 2 mg of oral granisetron. More than 800 cancer patients were included in the trials. The rate of complete control of acute emesis was 49% for the phase II trial and 60% for the phase III trial. Neither trial showed a statistically significant difference between transdermal and oral granisetron. The control of delayed emesis was observed in 46% of patients, and there were no statistically significant differences between transdermal and oral granisetron. The most common adverse effects in both trials were constipation (<7%) and headache (<1%); there were no statistically significant differences between transdermal and oral granisetron. These data show that transdermal granisetron is effective and safe in controlling acute emesis induced by chemotherapy with both moderate and high emetogenic potential. Efficacy and safety of transdermal granisetron are fully comparable with that of oral granisetron. More clinical trials using regimens of 2 or 3 drugs

  6. Performance and customization of 4 prognostic models for postoperative onset of nausea and vomiting in ear, nose, and throat surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jörg M; Junger, Axel; Hartmann, Bernd; Little, Simon; Schnöbel, Rose; Mann, Valesco; Jost, Andreas; Welters, Ingeborg D; Hempelmann, Gunter

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of 4 published prognostic models for postoperative onset of nausea and vomiting (PONV) by means of discrimination and calibration and the possible impact of customization on these models. Prospective, observational study. Tertiary care university hospital. 748 adult patients (>18 years old) enrolled in this study. Severe obesity (weight > 150 kg or body mass index > 40 kg/m) was an exclusion criterion. All perioperative data were recorded with an anesthesia information management system. A standardized patient interview was performed on the postoperative morning and afternoon. Individual PONV risk was calculated using 4 original regression equations by Koivuranta et al, Apfel et al, Sinclair et al, and Junger et al Discrimination was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Calibration was tested using Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics. New predictive equations for the 4 models were derived by means of logistic regression (customization). The prognostic performance of the customized models was validated using the "leaving-one-out" technique. Postoperative onset of nausea and vomiting was observed in 11.2% of the specialized patient population. Discrimination could be demonstrated as shown by areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.62 for the Koivuranta et al model, 0.63 for the Apfel et al model, 0.70 for the Sinclair et al model, and 0.70 for the Junger et al model. Calibration was poor for all 4 original models, indicated by a P value lower than 0.01 in the C and H statistics. Customization improved the accuracy of the prediction for all 4 models. However, the simplified risk scores of the Koivuranta et al model and the Apfel et al model did not show the same efficiency as those of the Sinclair et al model and the Junger et al model. This is possibly a result of having relatively few patients at high risk for PONV in combination with an information loss caused by too few dichotomous

  7. Efficacy of 5-HT{sub 3} receptor antagonists in radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: A quantitative systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramer, M.R. [Pain Research and Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, University of Oxford, Oxford Radcliffe Hospital, The Churchill, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Reynolds, D.J.M. [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, Radcliffe Hospital (United Kingdom); Stoner, N.S. [ICRF Department of Medical Oncology, Oxford Radcliffe Hospital (United Kingdom); Moore, R.A.; McQuay, H.J. [Pain Research and Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, University of Oxford, Oxford Radcliffe Hospital, The Churchill, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    5-HT{sub 3} receptor antagonists are used to treat radiation-induced sickness. The purpose of this study was to define anti-emetic efficacy and potential for harm of these drugs in radiotherapy. A systematic search, critical appraisal and quantitative analysis of relevant data using the number-needed-to-treat or harm (NNT/H) were conducted. Acute (0 to 24 h) and delayed (beyond 24 h) anti-emetic efficacy were analysed separately. Data from 1,404 patients were found in 40 trials published in 36 reports. Data from 197 patients receiving ondansetron or granisetron in five randomised trials were regarded as valid according to preset criteria. One placebo-controlled trial had 10 patients per group and in this ondansetron was not significantly different from placebo. In a larger (n=105) placebo-controlled trial, ondansetron was significantly more efficacious than metoclopramide for complete control of acute vomiting (NNT 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.3) and acute nausea (NNT 3.6, 95% CI 2.2-10.2). Three trials reported delayed outcomes with ondansetron or granisetron: there was no evidence of any difference compared with placebo or other anti-emetics. Two trials reported no acute or delayed but a 'worst day' outcome; in these ondansetron's antivomiting effect was significantly better than placebo (NNT 4.4, 95% CI 2.5-23) or prochlorperazine (NNT 3.8, 95% CI 2.4-10.3), but not its antinausea effect. Constipation and headache were associated significantly with 5-HT{sub 3} receptor antagonists compared with other anti-emetics or placebo (NNH 6.4 and 17.1, respectively). Only 14% of published data enabled valid estimation of the anti-emetic efficacy of 5-HT{sub 3} receptor antagonists in radiotherapy. There was some evidence that these drugs prevent acute vomiting: 40% of treated patients will benefit (NNT approximately 2.5). The evidence for nausea was less clear. There was no evidence that these drugs are of any benefit beyond 24 h. There was

  8. Use of medications and resources for treatment of nausea, vomiting, or constipation in hospitalized patients treated with analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong-Churl; Kim, Myoung S; Chow, Wing; Jang, Eun-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Hospitalized patients often experience adverse events of the gastrointestinal tract due to analgesic treatment. The objectives of this study were to estimate use of medications for treatment of nausea, vomiting, or constipation (NVC medications) after initiation of analgesic treatment, and to compare differences in length of stay and treatment costs between patients who received NVC medications and those who did not. This retrospective cohort study used the Premier Perspective data from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 and stratified inpatients into 4 groups based on the first analgesic agent they were given. Patients were observed for 14 days after the first analgesic use until a regimen change, first use of NVC medication, or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Data were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model and a generalized linear model. This study found that 239,183 (55.1%) of 434,304 patients received NVC medications after analgesic administration. Compared with oral nonopioid analgesics, the risk of using NVC medication was 4.8 times higher for injectable opioid analgesics after controlling for confounders. Patients who received NVC medications were hospitalized 0.26 days longer (P hospital resources.

  9. Postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis: A comparative study of ondansetron, granisetron and granisetron and dexamethasone combination after modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushplata Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV is commonly seen after modified radical mastectomy (MRM. In this randomized double-blind prospective study we compared the efficacy of ondansetron, granisetron and granisetron and dexamethasone combination for prevention of PONV following MRM in female patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 patients (20-60 years of age undergoing elective MRM were randomly allocated to one of the three groups of 25 patients each. Group O received ondansetron 4 mg, Group G received granisetron 40 mcg/kg and group granisetron and dexamethasone (G + D received granisetron 40 mcg/kg + dexamethasone 8 mg prior to induction. All episodes of PONV within 24 h after induction of anesthesia were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis test (nonparametric ANOVA. Results: The incidence of complete response (no PONV, no rescue medication was 96% with G+D, as compared with 86% with granisetron and 4% with ondansetron during 0-3h after surgery which was clinically significant (P < 0.05. Similarly clinically significant response was seen during 3-6, 6-9, 9-12 and 12-24 h of surgery. Conclusion: Granisetron and dexamethasone combination is more effective for prevention of PONV in comparison to individual ondansetron and granisetron in MRM.

  10. Observational Case Series Evaluation of the Granisetron Transdermal Patch System (Sancuso) for the Management of Nausea/Vomiting of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tran N; Adler, Michael T; Ouillette, Holly; Berens, Pamela; Smith, Judith A

    2017-07-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to observe the efficacy of antiemetic therapy (no emesis/retching episodes and no rescue medication use) when granisetron is administered via a transdermal patch system (TDS) in women who are 6 to 14 weeks pregnant when compared with oral ondansetron by evaluating the frequency of the use of rescue medications for control of nausea/vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). Methods  This was an observational case series study to observe the potential benefits of granisetron TDS compared with oral ondansetron for management of NVP in pregnant patients during the first trimester. Dates of data collection were September 1, 2014, through December 31, 2015. There was no direct contact with patient. The oral ondansetron and granisetron TDS patients were matched by age, 4:1. The proportion of patients who received rescue antiemetics was calculated from those patients who continued to experience NVP. Risk factors for NVP were identified and compared between groups. Descriptive statistics were used to describe study results. Results  Patients were prescribed rescue antiemetics in 0/3 patients in the granisetron TDS group compared with 2/12 patients in the oral ondansetron group. Conclusion  Prospective efficacy studies on the use of granisetron TDS for management of NVP are needed to confirm this clinical observation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Controlled breathing with or without peppermint aromatherapy for postoperative nausea and/or vomiting symptom relief: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Debra S; Johnson, Nancy T; Miller, Jacqueline A; Torbush, Pauline H; Hardin, Janis S; Knowles, Susan S; Nance, Jennifer; Fox, Tara H; Tart, Rebecca Creech

    2014-02-01

    With little scientific evidence to support use of aromatherapy for postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV) symptoms, this study evaluated controlled breathing with peppermint aromatherapy (AR) and controlled breathing alone (CB) for PONV relief. A single blind randomized control trial design was used. On initial PONV complaint, symptomatic subjects received either CB (n = 16) or AR (n = 26) intervention based on randomization at enrollment. A second treatment was repeated at 5 minutes if indicated. Final assessment occurred 10 minutes post initial treatment. Rescue medication was offered for persistent symptoms. Among eligible subjects, PONV incidence was 21.4% (42/196). Gender was the only risk factor contributing to PONV symptoms (P = .0024). Though not statistically significant, CB was more efficacious than AR, 62.5% versus 57.7%, respectively. CB can be initiated without delay as an alternative to prescribed antiemetics. Data also support use of peppermint AR in conjunction with CB for PONV relief. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic characterization of a novel Iflavirus associated with vomiting disease in the Chinese oak silkmoth Antheraea pernyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Geng

    Full Text Available Larvae of the Chinese oak silkmoth (Antheraea pernyi are often affected by AVD (A. pernyi vomiting disease, whose causative agent has long been suspected to be a virus. In an unrelated project we discovered a novel positive sense single-stranded RNA virus that could reproduce AVD symptoms upon injection into healthy A. pernyi larvae. The genome of this virus is 10,163 nucleotides long, has a natural poly-A tail, and contains a single, large open reading frame flanked at the 5' and 3' ends by untranslated regions containing putative structural elements for replication and translation of the virus genome. The open reading frame is predicted to encode a 3036 amino acid polyprotein with four viral structural proteins (VP1-VP4 located in the N-terminal end and the non-structural proteins, including a helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and 3C-protease, located in the C-terminal end of the polyprotein. Putative 3C-protease and autolytic cleavage sites were identified for processing the polyprotein into functional units. The genome organization, amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the virus is a novel species of the genus Iflavirus, with the proposed name of Antheraea pernyi Iflavirus (ApIV.

  13. Relationship between vomiting and taste aversion learning in the ferret: studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride, and amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, B M; Hunt, W A

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between emesis and taste aversion learning was studied in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) following exposure to ionizing radiation (50-200 cGy) or injection of lithium chloride (1.5-3.0 mEq/kg, ip). When 10% sucrose or 0.1% saccharin was used as the conditioned stimulus, neither unconditioned stimulus produced a taste aversion, even when vomiting was produced by the stimulus (Experiments 1 and 2). When a canned cat food was used as the conditioned stimulus, lithium chloride, but not ionizing radiation, produced a taste aversion (Experiment 3). Lithium chloride was effective in producing a conditioned taste aversion when administration of the toxin was delayed by up to 90 min following the ingestion of the canned cat food, indicating that the ferrets are capable of showing long-delay learning (Experiment 4). Experiment 5 examined the capacity of amphetamine, which is a qualitatively different stimulus than lithium chloride or ionizing radiation, to produce taste aversion learning in rats and cats as well as in ferrets. Injection of amphetamine (3 mg/kg, ip) produced a taste aversion in rats and cats but not in ferrets which required a higher dose (> 5 mg/kg). The results of these experiments are interpreted as indicating that, at least for the ferret, there is no necessary relationship between toxin-induced illness and the acquisition of a CTA and that gastrointestinal distress is not a sufficient condition for CTA learning.

  14. Ramosetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting during 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy for pancreatico-biliary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui-Kyu; Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun-Whe; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue; Ha, Sung-W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of ramosetron for the prevention of chemoradiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CRINV) in patients receiving upper abdominal irradiation with concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Between November 2006 and April 2007, 25 patients with pancreatico-biliary cancer underwent adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. A total dose of 40 Gy was delivered using 2 Gy/fraction, 5 days a week, with 2 weeks of planned rest after 20 Gy. Concomitant 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m 2 /day i.v. bolus) was administered for the first 3 days of each split course. During the first course of chemoradiotherapy, all patients had prophylactic metoclopramide before treatment and those refractory to metoclopramide received rescue medication with ondansetron. During the second course of chemoradiotherapy, prophylactic ramosetron was given to patients who were refractory to ondansetron. Response to antiemetics was scored in four tiers: none, no CRINV; mild, did not interfere with normal daily life; moderate, interfered with normal daily life and severe, patient bedridden because of CRINV. Fifty-six percent of the patients (14 of 25) had moderate CRINV despite metoclopramide, and received ondansetron. Ten patients who experienced moderate CRINV despite the ondansetron had prophylactic ramosetron, and 60% of the patients (6 of 10) had the symptom improved. Ramosetron proved to be an effective alternative for the control of CRINV during upper abdominal irradiation with concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. (author)

  15. The Effects of the Bali Yoga Program for Breast Cancer Patients on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Results of a Partially Randomized and Blinded Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestin, Annélie S; Dupuis, Gilles; Lanctôt, Dominique; Bali, Madan

    2017-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been shown to be beneficial in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, conclusive results are lacking in order to confirm its usefulness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized yoga intervention could reduce these adverse symptoms. This was a partially randomized and blinded controlled trial comparing a standardized yoga intervention with standard care. Eligible patients were adults diagnosed with stages I to III breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Patients randomized to the experimental group participated in an 8-week yoga program. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after 8 weeks. Results suggest the yoga program is not beneficial in managing these adverse symptoms. However, considering preliminary evidence suggesting yoga's beneficial impact in cancer symptom management, methodological limitations should be explored and additional studies should be conducted.

  16. Double-blind comparison of granisetron, promethazine, or a combination of both for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in females undergoing outpatient laparoscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tong J; Candiotti, Keith A; Klein, Stephen M; Rodriguez, Yiliam; Nielsen, Karen C; White, William D; Habib, Ashraf S

    2009-11-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postdischarge nausea and vomiting (PDNV) are common problems after surgery. Prophylactic combination antiemetic therapy is recommended for patients at high risk for developing PONV and PDNV. Granisetron, a serotonin antagonist, is an effective antiemetic that is devoid of sedative side effect. Although promethazine is effective, commonly used doses are associated with sedation. This study investigates the combination of low doses of granisetron and promethazine for the prevention of PONV. Women undergoing ambulatory gynecological laparoscopy were enrolled. A standard general anesthetic regimen was prescribed. Fifteen minutes before the expected end of surgery, the patients were randomly assigned to receive granisetron 0.1 mg iv, promethazine 6.25 mg iv, or a combination of the two drugs. Prophylaxis with oral promethazine 12.5 mg, granisetron 1 mg, or both was started in the respective groups 12 hr after the end of surgery and continued every 12 hr until postoperative day 3 (a total of five oral doses). The following outcomes were recorded: total response rate (defined as no vomiting, no more than mild nausea, and no use of rescue antiemetic); incidence of nausea, vomiting, and use of rescue antiemetics; severity of nausea; patient activity level; and patient satisfaction with PONV management. Patients in the combination group had a higher total response rate at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hr after surgery compared with those who received promethazine alone (at 24 hr, Combination 69.6%, Promethazine 36.2%, Granisetron 53.3%; P = 0.0079). The maximum nausea scores were also lower in the combination group at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hr (Combination 1.7 +/- 2.2, Promethazine 4.0 +/- 3.6, Granisetron 3.1 +/- 3.2 at 24 hr; P granisetron and promethazine combination was more effective in reducing PONV and PDNV than promethazine monotherapy. The combination also reduced the severity of nausea.

  17. Anticipatory Nausea, Risk Factors, and Its Impact on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Results From the Pan European Emesis Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Alexander; Lee, Paul H; Burke, Thomas A; Dicato, Mario; Gascon, Pere; Roila, Fausto; Aapro, Matti

    2016-06-01

    Anticipatory (prechemotherapy) nausea (AN) is a classic conditioned symptom not responding well to current antiemetics. Minimal work has been done to assess its risk factors and impact on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). To evaluate risk factors for AN and assess its impact on CINV development. We analyzed data (n = 991) from a prospective observational multisite study in eight European countries over three cycles of chemotherapy. Patient/treatment characteristics were collected before chemotherapy. History of nausea/vomiting (yes/no), patient expectation of CINV (0-100 mm visual analog scale, [VAS]), and prechemotherapy anxiety (0-100 mm VAS) also were collected before chemotherapy. A patient-completed diary during each chemotherapy cycle obtained information on AN in the 24 hours before chemotherapy administration and nausea and vomiting (episodes of vomiting and severity of nausea) daily for five days after administration of chemotherapy (0-100 mm VAS). AN was reported by 8.3%-13.8% of patients, increasing in frequency and intensity over each cycle. Every 1 mm increase in AN on the VAS was significantly associated with 2%-13% of increase in the likelihood of CINV (all P-values <0.05). Key predictors of AN in Cycle 1 included metastatic disease and prechemotherapy anxiety. However, predictors of AN in subsequent cycles included prechemotherapy anxiety and AN and CINV experience in the previous cycle, the latter being the strongest predictor (odds ratio = 3.30-4.09 for CINV outcomes over the cycles). AN is a challenging symptom, and its prevention needs to consider better CINV prevention in the previous cycles as well as managing prechemotherapy anxiety. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combination of gabapentin and ramosetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after gynecologic laparoscopic surgery: a prospective randomized comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Mi; Huh, Jin; Lee, Soo Kyung; Park, Eun Young; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Hyo Ju

    2017-05-19

    As a drug originally introduced for its anticonvulsant effects, gabapentin has been recently shown to be effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in various clinical settings. This study compared the antiemetic efficacy of oral gabapentin, intravenous ramosetron and gabapentin plus ramosetron in patients receiving fentanyl-based patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. One hundred and thirty two patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia were allocated randomly into three groups: group G received 300 mg oral gabapentin 1 h before anesthesia, group R received 0.3 mg intravenous ramosetron at the end of surgery, and group GR received a combination of 300 mg oral gabapentin 1 h before anesthesia and 0.3 mg intravenous ramosetron at the end of surgery. Postoperative nausea, retching, vomiting, rescue antiemetic drug use, pain, rescue analgesic requirements and adverse effects were assessed at 0-2, 2-24 and 24-48 h after surgery. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was defined as the presence of nausea, retching or vomiting. The incidence of complete response (no PONV and no rescue antiemetics up to 48 h postoperatively) was significantly higher in group GR (26/40, 65%) than group G (16/40, 40%; P = 0.025) and group R (18/44, 41%; P = 0.027), whereas there was no significant difference between group G and group R (P = 0.932). There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of emetic episodes, use of rescue antiemetics, severe emesis, use of rescue analgesics or any adverse effects. Postoperative pain scores were also similar among groups. The combination with gabapentin and ramosetron is superior to either drug alone for prevention of PONV after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02617121 , registered November 25, 2015.

  19. Pre-operative rectal indomethacin for reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazouki, A.; Cheraghali, R.; Saeedimotahhar, H.; Jesmi, F.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-operative indomethacin suppository on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design: A double blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Place and Duration of Study: Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from February 2010 to September 2012. Methodology: One hundred and thirty patients, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomly divided into case and control groups. Sixty-five patients received indomethacin suppository and 70 patients received rectal placebo in the case and control groups respectively. All patients underwent the same protocol in laparoscopic surgery and anesthesia, then nausea and vomiting was recorded after 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours postoperatively and compared between the two groups. Independent-sample t-test or Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. Level of statistical significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: Patients' nausea was statistically lower in the case group at the 1st hour (43.1 vs. 92.9%), 6th hour (20.0 vs. 68.6%) and 12th hour (7.7 vs. 24.3%) after surgery (for all periods, P < 0.001). Fewer patients in the case group experienced vomiting at the first (13.8 vs. 51.4%) and 6th hour (0 vs. 20%) after surgery (for both P < 0.001). The use of pethidine was also statistically less in the case group in the same hours after surgery (for all of them, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Rectal indomethacin before laparoscopic cholecystectomy led to lower postoperative nausea and vomiting. (author)

  20. The effect of crystalloid versus Low molecular weight colloid solution on post-operative nausea and vomiting after ambulatory gynecological surgery - a prospective randomized trial

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Ivan

    2012-07-31

    AbstractBackgroundIntravenous fluid is recommended in international guidelines to improve patient post-operative symptoms, particularly nausea and vomiting. The optimum fluid regimen has not been established. This prospective, randomized, blinded study was designed to determine if administration of equivolumes of a colloid (hydroxyethyl starch 130\\/0.4) reduced post operative nausea and vomiting in healthy volunteers undergoing ambulatory gynecologic laparoscopy surgery compared to a crystalloid solution (Hartmann’s Solution).Methods120 patients were randomized to receive intravenous colloid (N = 60) or crystalloid (N = 60) intra-operatively. The volume of fluid administered was calculated at 1.5 ml.kg-1 per hour of fasting. Patients were interviewed to assess nausea, vomiting, anti-emetic use, dizziness, sore throat, headache and subjective general well being at 30 minutes and 2, 24 and 48 hours post operatively. Pulmonary function testing was performed on a subgroup.ResultsAt 2 hours the proportion of patients experiencing nausea (38.2 % vs 17.9%, P = 0.03) and the mean nausea score were increased in the colloid compared to crystalloid group respectively (1.49 ± 0.3 vs 0.68 ± 0.2, P = 0.028). The incidence of vomiting and anti-emetic usage was low and did not differ between the groups. Sore throat, dizziness, headache and general well being were not different between the groups. A comparable reduction on post-operative FVC and FEV-1 and PEFR was observed in both groups.ConclusionsIntra-operative administration of colloid increased the incidence of early postoperative nausea and has no advantage over crystalloid for symptom control after gynaecological laparoscopic surgery.

  1. Effect of Aromatherapy with Peppermint Oil on the Severity of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: A Single-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulaeerad, Narges; Ozgoli, Giti; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Ghasemi, Erfan; Salehimoghaddam, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common complaints in the first half of pregnancy. These symptoms can significantly affect a person's personal and professional life. Aromatherapy is one of the types of complementary medicine that is used in the treatment of nausea and vomiting. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aromatherapy with peppermint oil on the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). This was a single-blind clinical trial that was conducted on 56 pregnant women with mild to moderate severity of NVP and 6 to 20 weeks of gestational age. After the determination of gestational age and base severity of NVP in each woman, they were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: peppermint oil (n=28) or placebo (n=28). Inhalation aromatherapy was done for four days and at the end of each day, they responded to the Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis/Nausea questionnaire (PUQE). The data obtained were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and ANOVA with repeated measures using SPSS software version 22. Also, the level of significance was paromatherapy with peppermint oil and placebo were the same in this study. This similarity can be due to psychological impacts of intervention on pregnant women.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFICACY OF ONDANSETRON AND GRANISETRON IN PREVENTION OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERIES UNDER GENERAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illendula Upendranath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Postoperative nausea and vomiting is one of the many side effects of patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries under general anaesthesia. Its prevention is major concern of anaesthesiologist managing the case. To this effect, many drugs have been used and use of serotonin (5-HT3 receptor antagonists like ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron and dolasetron has been compared in many studies. This study was undertaken to study the efficacy of ondansetron, granisetron and their side effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients were allocated into two groups, each group consisting of 50 patients. Group O received ondansetron 4 mg IV before induction. Group G received granisetron 1 mg IV before induction. The incidences of PONV were recorded within the first 24 hours after surgery at intervals of 0-2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours. Episodes of PONV were identified by spontaneous complaints by the patients or by direct questioning. RESULTS In present study, incidence of nausea at different intervals in granisetron group is less than in the ondansetron group, which is statistically significant (p <0.05. The incidence of nausea was 36% in Group O and 12% in Group G, which was significantly low. The incidence of retching was 22% in Group O and it was less in Group G that is 2%. Greater percentage of patients in Group O (16% experienced vomiting compared to Group G (2%. CONCLUSION The overall frequency of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV was less in Group G than Group O.

  3. Comparison of palonosetron, granisetron, and ramosetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Suk; Lee, Kwang-Beom; Lim, Soyi; Chang, Young Gin

    2015-09-03

    Selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists are reported to have potent antiemetic effects for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of palonosetron, granisetron, and ramosetron for the prevention of PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery. In this prospective, randomized observational study, 105 healthy female patients who were undergoing laparocopic hystectomy under general anaesthesia were enrolled (clinical trial number: NCT01752374, www.clinicaltrials.gov ). Patients were divided into three groups: the palonostron (0.075 mg i.v.; n = 35), the granisetron group (3 mg i.v.; n = 35), and the ramosetron group (0.3 mg i.v.; n = 35). The treatments were given before the end of surgery. The incidence of PONV, severity of nausea/vomiting, and the use of rescue antiemetic requirements during the first 48 h after surgery were evaluated. The overall incidence of PONV was 33.3 % for this series. The number of complete responders at 48 h after the surgery was 21 (60.0 %) for palonosetron, 24 (68.6 %) for granisetron, and 26 (71.4 %) for ramosetron, representing no statistical difference (P = 0.086). There were no significant differences in the overall incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and complete responders for palonosetron, granisetron and ramosetron group. NCT01752374 , www.clinicaltrials.gov .

  4. A randomized, double-blinded comparison of ondansetron, granisetron, and placebo for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after supratentorial craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Virendra; Mitra, Jayanta K; Rath, Girija P; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Bithal, Parmod K; Dash, Hari H

    2009-07-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent and distressing complications after neurosurgical procedures. We evaluated the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron to prevent PONV after supratentorial craniotomy. In a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial, 90 adult American Society of Anesthesiologists I, II patients were included in the study. A standard anesthesia technique was followed. Patients were divided into 3 groups to receive either placebo (saline), ondansetron 4 mg, or granisetron 1 mg intravenously at the time of dural closure. After extubation, episodes of nausea and vomiting were noted for 24 hours postoperatively. Statistical analysis was performed using chi2 test and 1-way analysis of variance. Demographic data, duration of surgery, intraoperative fluids and analgesic requirement, and postoperative pain (visual analog scale) scores were comparable in all 3 groups. It was observed that the incidence of vomiting in 24 hours, severe emetic episodes, and requirement of rescue antiemetics were less in ondansetron and granisetron groups as compared with placebo (Pgranisetron 1 mg are comparably effective at preventing emesis after supratentorial craniotomy. However, neither drugs prevented nausea effectively.

  5. Effects of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Pei Lin; Salihah, Noor; Mazlan, Nik

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on nausea, vomiting and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in chemotherapy breast cancer patients. Single-blind, controlled, randomized cross-over study. Patients received 5-day aromatherapy treatment using either ginger essential oil or fragrance-matched artificial placebo (ginger fragrance oil) which was instilled in a necklace in an order dictated by the treatment group sequence. Two oncology clinics in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. VAS nausea score, frequency of vomiting and HRQoL profile (EORTC QLQ-C30 scores). Sixty female patients completed the study (age=47.3±9.26 years; Malay=98.3%; on highly emetogenic chemotherapy=86.7%). The VAS nausea score was significantly lower after ginger essential oil inhalation compared to placebo during acute phase (P=0.040) but not sustained for overall treatment effect (treatment effect: F=1.82, P=0.183; time effect: F=43.98, Paromatherapy on vomiting [F(1, 58)=0.29, P=0.594]. However, a statistically significant change from baseline for global health status (Paromatherapy is an effective complementary therapy for CINV. The findings for HRQoL were however encouraging with significant improvement in several domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enterogastric reflux and gastric clearance of refluxate in normal subjects and in patients with and without bile vomiting following peptic ulcer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, C.; Hulks, G.; Cuschieri, A.

    1986-01-01

    A noninvasive scintigraphic technique was used to estimate enterogastric reflux and subsequent gastric evacuation of refluxate in 35 normal, healthy subjects and 55 patients previously treated by vagotomy or partial gastrectomy. Reflux was provoked by a milk drink and quantitated by counting 99Tcm-EHIDA activity within the gastric area during gamma camera imaging. Seven normal subjects (20%) showed reflux of 5-18% of initial activity (mean: 10%), with peak values occurring at 5-30 minutes (mean: 14 minutes) following the milk. Gastric evacuation of activity in these subjects was monoexponential (r = 0.993, T1/2 = 24.1 minutes). Reflux occurred more frequently than normal in patients with truncal vagotomy and drainage (22/28 patients) and partial gastrectomy (20/21 patients). All of 16 patients with Billroth II anastomoses exhibited reflux, which was excessive compared with refluxing normal subjects (mean: 25%; p less than 0.01) and occurred later into the study (mean: 34 minutes; p less than 0.01). Ten of 11 asymptomatic patients showed reflux of similar amounts of activity (mean: 21%) compared with 16 patients who complained of bile vomiting (mean: 22%). However, asymptomatic patients exhibited gastric evacuation of refluxate at a rate similar to that of refluxing normal subjects, while bile vomiters showed significant gastric retention of refluxate at 25-30 minutes following peak gastric activity (p less than 0.05). This result confirms that post-operative bile vomiting is essentially a problem of gastric emptying

  7. Efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture with different acupoints for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Hu, Shu-xiang; Liu, Bao-hu; Zhao, Tian-yi; Li, Bo; Liu, Yan; Li, Ming-yue; Pan, Xing-fang; Guo, Yong-ming; Chen, Ze-lin; Guo, Yi

    2015-05-12

    Many patients experience nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy treatment. Evidence demonstrates that electroacupuncture is beneficial for controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). However, the acupoint or matching acupoint with the best efficacy for controlling CINV still remains unidentified. This study consists of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with four parallel arms: a control group and three electroacupuncture groups (one with Neiguan (PC6), one with Zhongwan (CV12), and one with both PC6 and CV12). The control group received standard antiemetic only, while the other three groups received electroacupuncture stimulation with different acupoints besides the standard antiemetic. The intervention is done once daily from the first day (day 1) to the fourth day (day 4) during chemotherapy treatment. The primary outcome measures include frequency of nausea, vomiting and retching. The secondary outcome measures are the grade of constipation and diarrhea, electrogastrogram, assessment of quality of life, assessment of anxiety and depression, and other adverse effects during the chemotherapy. Assessments are scheduled from one day pre-chemotherapy (day 0) to the fifth day of chemotherapy (day 5). Follow-ups are done from day 6 to day 21. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electro-acupuncture with different acupoints in the management of CINV. The register number of randomized controlled trial is NCT02195908 . The date of registration was 21 July 2014.

  8. Development and validation of a risk score to predict the probability of postoperative vomiting in pediatric patients: the VPOP score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdaud, Nathalie; Devys, Jean-Michel; Bientz, Jocelyne; Lejus, Corinne; Hebrard, Anne; Tirel, Olivier; Lecoutre, Damien; Sabourdin, Nada; Nivoche, Yves; Baujard, Catherine; Nikasinovic, Lydia; Orliaguet, Gilles A

    2014-09-01

    Few data are available in the literature on risk factors for postoperative vomiting (POV) in children. The aim of the study was to establish independent risk factors for POV and to construct a pediatric specific risk score to predict POV in children. Characteristics of 2392 children operated under general anesthesia were recorded. The dataset was randomly split into an evaluation set (n = 1761), analyzed with a multivariate analysis including logistic regression and backward stepwise procedure, and a validation set (n = 450), used to confirm the accuracy of prediction using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROCAUC ), to optimize sensitivity and specificity. The overall incidence of POV was 24.1%. Five independent risk factors were identified: stratified age (>3 and 13 years: adjusted OR 2.46 [95% CI 1.75-3.45]; ≥6 and ≤13 years: aOR 3.09 [95% CI 2.23-4.29]), duration of anesthesia (aOR 1.44 [95% IC 1.06-1.96]), surgery at risk (aOR 2.13 [95% IC 1.49-3.06]), predisposition to POV (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 1.43-2.31]), and multiple opioids doses (aOR 2.76 [95% CI 2.06-3.70], P risk score ranged from 0 to 6. The model yielded a ROCAUC of 0.73 [95% CI 0.67-0.78] when applied to the validation dataset. Independent risk factors for POV were identified and used to create a new score to predict which children are at high risk of POV. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Injection dexamethasone in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting: a comparison with placebo in the patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashmiri, Z.U.A.; Sheikh, Z.; Haider, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of intravenous dexamethasone for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (lap-chole) and comparing it with normal saline (placebo). After the approval of the hospital's ethical committee, the study was conducted on 60 patients who were randomly divided into two groups, each group containing 30 patients. All belonged to A.S.A-I and A.S.A-II. Randomization was done by envelope draw method. Injections dexamethasone (8 mg in 2mls) and normal saline ( 2 mls ) were given intravenously to respective groups just before induction of anesthesia. Fisher's exact test was applied to compare proportion of PONV between two groups for the recovery room data, while Chi-square test was applied to compare the proportion of PONV between two groups during first 12 hours and second 12 hours. The p-value was calculated at the level of significance chosen as 0.05. In the recovery room where the patient stayed for one hour 10% of patients in the dexamethasone group in comparison with 33% of the patients in the placebo group experienced PONV (p=0.028). In the ward, during first 12 hours observation period, 27% of the patients in the dexamethasone group in comparison with 43% of the patients in the placebo group experienced PONV (p=0.176). During the second 12 hours observation period, 30% of the patients in the dexamethasone in comparison with 80% of the patients in the placebo group experienced PONV (p<0.001). (author)

  10. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for Japanese pregnant women with and without nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kohei; Jwa, Seung-Chik; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Morisaki, Naho; Sago, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-05-01

    No previous study has shown the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in early pregnancy with consideration of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a FFQ in early pregnancy for Japanese pregnant women. We included 188 women before 15 weeks of gestation and compared estimated nutrient intake and food group intake based on a modified FFQ with that based on 3-day dietary records (DRs). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, adjusting energy intake and attenuating within-person error, were calculated. Subgroup analysis for those with and without NVP was conducted. We also examined the degree of appropriate classification across categories between FFQ and DRs through division of consumption of nutrients and food groups into quintiles. Crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of nutrients ranged from 0.098 (sodium) to 0.401 (vitamin C), and all of the 36 nutrients were statistically significant. In 27 food groups, correlation coefficients ranged from -0.015 (alcohol) to 0.572 (yogurt), and 81% were statistically significant. In subgroup analysis, correlation coefficients in 89% of nutrients and 70% of food groups in women with NVP and 97% of nutrients and 74% of food groups in women without NVP were statistically significant. On average, 63.7% of nutrients and 60.4% of food groups were classified into same or adjacent quintiles according to the FFQ and DRs. The FFQ is a useful instrument, regardless of NVP, for assessing the diet of women in early pregnancy in Japan. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of ramosetron with ondansetron for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting in high-risk patients

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    Sandip Agarkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV has an 80% incidence in high-risk patients. This is despite the availability of several antiemetic drugs. Selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT 3 receptor antagonists are considered first-line for prophylaxis, ondansetron being the most commonly used agent. Ramosetron, another selective 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, is more potent and longer acting than ondansetron. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy of ramosetron in comparison with ondansetron in patients at a high risk of PONV. Methods: This was a prospective randomised double-blind study carried out over a 6-month period in which 206 patients with at least two risk factors for PONV were randomised to receive ramosetron 0.3 mg or ondansetron 8 mg, 30 min before the end of surgery. The incidence of PONV, severity of nausea and need for rescue antiemetic were recorded over the next 24 h. Primary outcome was the incidence of PONV. Secondary outcomes included severity of nausea and need for rescue. The data were analysed using the Predictive Analytics Software (PASW, version 18: Chicago, IL, USA. Results: The incidence of PONV was found to be 35% in the ramosetron group as opposed to 43.7% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.199. Need for rescue antiemetic was 23.3% in the ramosetron group and 32% in the ondansetron group (P = 0.156 in the 24 h following surgery. Conclusion: Ramosetron 0.3 mg and ondansetron 8 mg were equally effective in reducing the incidence of PONV in high risk patients.

  12. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire for Japanese pregnant women with and without nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

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    Kohei Ogawa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: No previous study has shown the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in early pregnancy with consideration of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a FFQ in early pregnancy for Japanese pregnant women. Method: We included 188 women before 15 weeks of gestation and compared estimated nutrient intake and food group intake based on a modified FFQ with that based on 3-day dietary records (DRs. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, adjusting energy intake and attenuating within-person error, were calculated. Subgroup analysis for those with and without NVP was conducted. We also examined the degree of appropriate classification across categories between FFQ and DRs through division of consumption of nutrients and food groups into quintiles. Results: Crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of nutrients ranged from 0.098 (sodium to 0.401 (vitamin C, and all of the 36 nutrients were statistically significant. In 27 food groups, correlation coefficients ranged from −0.015 (alcohol to 0.572 (yogurt, and 81% were statistically significant. In subgroup analysis, correlation coefficients in 89% of nutrients and 70% of food groups in women with NVP and 97% of nutrients and 74% of food groups in women without NVP were statistically significant. On average, 63.7% of nutrients and 60.4% of food groups were classified into same or adjacent quintiles according to the FFQ and DRs. Conclusions: The FFQ is a useful instrument, regardless of NVP, for assessing the diet of women in early pregnancy in Japan.

  13. The impact of 5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor antagonists on chemotherapy treatment adherence, treatment delay, and nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Swetha Rao; Grabner, Michael; Quimbo, Ralph A; Rugo, Hope S

    2015-01-01

    To determine the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) and chemotherapy treatment delay and adherence among patients receiving palonosetron versus other 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist (5-HT3 RA) antiemetics. This retrospective claims analysis included adults with primary malignancies who initiated treatment consisting of single-day intravenous highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately EC (MEC) regimens. Treatment delay was defined as a gap in treatment at least twice the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-specified cycle length, specific to each chemotherapy regimen. Treatment adherence was determined by the percentage of patients who received the regimen-specific recommended number of chemotherapy cycles within the recommended time frame. We identified 1,832 palonosetron and 2,387 other 5-HT3 RA ("other") patients who initiated HEC therapy, and 1,350 palonosetron users and 1,379 patients on other antiemetics who initiated MEC therapy. Fewer patients receiving palonosetron experienced CINV versus other (HEC, 27.5% versus 32.2%, P=0.0011; MEC, 36.1% versus 41.7%, P=0.0026), and fewer treatment delays occurred among patients receiving palonosetron versus other (HEC, 3.2% versus 6.0%, PHEC, 74.7% versus 69.7%, P=0.0004; MEC, 43.1% versus 37.3%, P=0.0019) and dosage (HEC, 27.3% versus 25.8%, P=0.0004; MEC, 15.0% versus 12.6%, P=0.0019). Palonosetron more effectively reduced occurrence of CINV in patients receiving HEC or MEC compared with other agents in this real-world setting. Additionally, patients receiving palonosetron had better adherence and fewer treatment delays than patients receiving other 5-HT3 RAs.

  14. A Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Study of Dose Comparison of Ramosetron to Prevent Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka-Rham Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to determine the optimal dose titration of ramosetron to prevent the Rhodes Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (RINVR. Methods. Patients treated with folic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin were randomized into three groups (0.3 mg, 0.45 mg, and 0.6 mg ramosetron before chemotherapy. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics using RINVR were evaluated. Results. Seventeen, 15, and 18 patients received ramosetron at doses of 0.3 mg, 0.45 mg, and 0.6 mg, respectively. Tmax (h, Cmax (ng/mL, and AUClast (ng·h/mL were associated with dose escalation significantly, showing a reverse correlation with the RINVR during chemotherapy. Acute CINV was observed in four patients (22.2%, two patients (14.3%, and one (5.6% patient and a delayed CINV on day 7 was found in eight (47%, three (21.4%, and five (27.8% patients in each group. The complete response rate was increased with dose escalation (35.3%, 50.0%, and 72.2% in each group and also showed the tendency for decreasing moderate-to-severe CINV. Conclusions. This study shows a trend regarding the dose-response relationship for ramosetron to prevent CINV, including delayed emesis. It suggested that dose escalation should be considered in patients with CINV in a subsequent cycle of chemotherapy, and an individual approach using RINVR could be useful to monitor CINV.

  15. Relationships Among Smoking, Drinking, Betel Quid Chewing and Pregnancy-Related Nausea and Vomiting in Taiwanese Aboriginal Women

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    Fan-Hao Chou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the associations among smoking, drinking, betel quid chewing and pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting (N/V in Taiwanese aboriginal women. A total of 901 aboriginal women from 11 hospitals were recruited into this study. A structured questionnaire on demographic and obstetric information, smoking history, alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing habits, and N/V by checklist was used to collect data. The findings of this study indicated that the prevalence of N/V, maternal smoking, drinking, and betel quid chewing were 75.6% (n = 682, 22.8% (n = 201, 31.9% (n = 287, and 34.7% (n = 313 respectively. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, body mass index and antiemetics use revealed significant relationships between smoking habits and N/V before confirmation of pregnancy and during pregnancy. In comparison with those who did not smoke, women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day before pregnancy were 1.65 times more likely to develop N/V; and women smoking in excess of 10 cigarettes a day during pregnancy were 2.79 times more likely to develop N/V. Based on the findings of this study, smoking was associated, with a dose-response effect, with pregnancy-related N/V. Reducing the intake of cigarettes could decrease the risk of pregnancy-related N/V. Health care providers should help these women decrease their uncomfortable symptoms and improve their experiences of pregnancy and birth outcome during critical times.

  16. Hollow silicon microneedle array based trans-epidermal antiemetic patch for efficient management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbikar, Bhushan N.; Kumar S., Harish; Kr., Sindhu; Srivastava, Rohit

    2015-12-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is a serious health concern in the treatment of cancer patients. Conventional routes for administering anti-emetics (i.e. oral and parenteral) have several drawbacks such as painful injections, poor patient compliance, dependence on skilled personnel, non-affordability to majority of population (parenteral), lack of programmability and suboptimal bioavailability (oral). Hence, we have developed a trans-epidermal antiemetic drug delivery patch using out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array. Microneedles are pointed micron-scale structures that pierce the epidermal layer of skin to reach dermal blood vessels and can directly release the drug in their vicinity. They are painless by virtue of avoiding significant contact with dermal sensory nerve endings. This alternate approach gives same pharmacodynamic effects as par- enteral route at a sparse drug-dose requirement, hence negligible side-effects and improved patient compliance. Microneedle design attributes were derived by systematic study of human skin anatomy, natural micron-size structures like wasp-sting and cactus-spine and multi-physics simulations. We used deep reactive ion etching with Bosch process and optimized recipe of gases to fabricate high-aspect-ratio hollow silicon microneedle array. Finally, microneedle array and polydimethylsiloxane drug reservoir were assembled to make finished anti-emetic patch. We assessed microneedles mechanical stability, physico-chemical properties and performed in-vitro, ex- vivo and in-vivo studies. These studies established functional efficacy of the device in trans-epidermal delivery of anti-emetics, its programmability, ease of use and biosafety. Thus, out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array trans-epidermal antiemetic patch is a promising strategy for painless and effective management of CINV at low cost in mainstream healthcare.

  17. Low doses of haloperidol combined with ondansetron are not effective for prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in susceptible patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Gil, Leonor; López-Olaondo, Luis; Pueyo, Javier; Callejas, Raquel; Duque, Paula; Carrascosa, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    In this observational study we reviewed the efficacy and side effects of different antiemetic combinations used in our hospital for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) prophylaxis in high-risk women undergoing highly emetogenic surgery. After reviewing retrospectively the medical records of patients undergoing highly emetogenic elective surgeries under general anaesthesia, we selected 368 women whose Apfel risk score was ≥ 3 and receiving a combination of 2 antiemetics for PONV prophylaxis. We analysed the incidence of PONV at 2, 6, 12 and 24h after surgery, antiemetic rescue requirements, pattern of occurrence of PONV, side effects and level of sedation were also assessed. The main goal was complete response defined as no PONV within 24h after surgery. Ondansetron 4mg i.v. plus dexamethasone 8mg i.v. (O&Dex), haloperidol 1mg i.v. (O&Hal1), haloperidol 2mg i.v. (O&Hal2) or droperidol 1.25mg i.v. (O&Dro) were the combinations most frequently used. The complete response was better in groups O&Dex: 68.5% (CI: 58-78), O&Hal2: 64.1% (CI: 53-74) and O&Dro 63% (CI: 52-73) than in group O&Hal1: 41.3% (CI: 31-52) (p<0,01). Peak incidence of PONV occurred within the 2-6h period. The incidence of side effects was higher in group O&Hal2. In high risk patients for PONV who underwent highly emetogenic surgeries, the efficacy of low-dose haloperidol (1mg) in combination is limited. Higher doses (2mg) are more effective but its use is associated with a high incidence of side effects. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Pattern of prophylaxis administration for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: an analysis of city-based health insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fumiaki; Higashi, Takahiro

    2013-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) substantially affects patient quality of life. Although several guidelines have recommended the use of 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5HT3) receptor antagonists with glucocorticoids to alleviate acute CINV, studies in other countries have reported that these recommendations were often not followed. We aimed to assess antiemetic use in community practices just before the Japanese Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Antiemetics were published. Using the insurance claims submitted to a public insurance program that covers residents up to 75 years old operated by a city with a population of 250,000, we examined the concurrent use of 5HT3 receptor antagonists and glucocorticoids with high or moderate emetic risk chemotherapy. Overall, 448 patients received high or moderate emetic risk chemotherapy 1,342 times during the study period. The recommended antiemetic therapy was provided in 61.9 % (95 % confidence interval 55.5-68.3 %) of the treated patients, but the moderate emetic risk chemotherapy group received the recommended antiemetic therapy less frequently than the high emetic risk chemotherapy group (55.5 vs. 82.1 %, P chemotherapy were associated with the recommended antiemetic therapy. Breast and lung cancer patients receiving high emetic risk chemotherapy received the recommended antiemetics in 100 % of cases, while only 67 % of patients with other cancer types received the recommended antiemetics. Despite several limitations associated with analysis of insurance claims, our study indicates that substantial room for improvement exists in the practice of preventing CINV.

  19. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...

  20. Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFICACY OF GRANISETRON AND ONDANSETRON IN THE PREVENTION OF POST OPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN LSCS PATIENTS UNDER SPINAL ANAESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesh Babu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most common and distressing symptoms that follow anaesthesia and surgery are pain and vomiting problems. Pain causes greater amount of suffering, but in some instances nausea and vomiting may be more distressing, particularly after minor surgery. Spinal anaesthesia has been shown to be easy, rapid and safe techniqu e for caesarean section. Nevertheless, it has some minor side effects, including nausea and vomiting in more than 66% of the cases. (Ref (Chestnut D H 1987. The abrupt diaphragmatic contractions, and protrusion of the abdominal viscera causes surgery mor e difficult, aspiration is a hazard. Hence we intended to compare the preventive and therapeutic effects of Granisetron and Ondansetron on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV in patients undergoing elective Lower segment caesarian sec tion under spinal anaesthesia. OBJECTIVES: Post - operative nausea and vomiting (PONV are commonly reported adverse events after surgery and can contribute to the development of aspiration, wound dehiscence, and increased bleeding. Prophylaxis with antiemet ic has been shown to reduce the incidence of PONV as well as improve patient satisfaction. The main aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of Granisetron with that of Ondansetron and placebo in the prevention of post - operative nausea and v omiting in patients undergoing lower segment caesarian section under spinal anaesthesia. This study is also intended to know the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in this group of patients. Incidence of adverse effects of ondansetron and grani setron were also noted in this study. METHODS : With prior approval from the Institutional ethical committee and written informed consent, 75 patients of ASA grade I, aged between 20 – 30 years, body weight ranging from 45kg to 65 kg were studied. All the patients were subjected to elective caesarian section. RESULTS : We have studied 75 patients of ASA

  2. The impact of 5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor antagonists on chemotherapy treatment adherence, treatment delay, and nausea and vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palli, Swetha Rao; Grabner, Michael; Quimbo, Ralph A; Rugo, Hope S

    2015-01-01

    To determine the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) and chemotherapy treatment delay and adherence among patients receiving palonosetron versus other 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist (5-HT 3 RA) antiemetics. This retrospective claims analysis included adults with primary malignancies who initiated treatment consisting of single-day intravenous highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately EC (MEC) regimens. Treatment delay was defined as a gap in treatment at least twice the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-specified cycle length, specific to each chemotherapy regimen. Treatment adherence was determined by the percentage of patients who received the regimen-specific recommended number of chemotherapy cycles within the recommended time frame. We identified 1,832 palonosetron and 2,387 other 5-HT 3 RA (“other”) patients who initiated HEC therapy, and 1,350 palonosetron users and 1,379 patients on other antiemetics who initiated MEC therapy. Fewer patients receiving palonosetron experienced CINV versus other (HEC, 27.5% versus 32.2%, P=0.0011; MEC, 36.1% versus 41.7%, P=0.0026), and fewer treatment delays occurred among patients receiving palonosetron versus other (HEC, 3.2% versus 6.0%, P<0.0001; MEC, 17.0% versus 26.8%, P<0.0001). Compared with the other cohort, patients receiving palonosetron were significantly more adherent to the index chemotherapy regimen with respect to the recommended time frame (HEC, 74.7% versus 69.7%, P=0.0004; MEC, 43.1% versus 37.3%, P=0.0019) and dosage (HEC, 27.3% versus 25.8%, P=0.0004; MEC, 15.0% versus 12.6%, P=0.0019). Palonosetron more effectively reduced occurrence of CINV in patients receiving HEC or MEC compared with other agents in this real-world setting. Additionally, patients receiving palonosetron had better adherence and fewer treatment delays than patients receiving other 5-HT 3 RAs

  3. The relationship of intravenous dextrose administration during emergence from anesthesia to postoperative nausea and vomiting: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parul; Meineke, Minhthy N; Rasmussen, Thomas; Anderson, Donald L; Brown, Jennifer; Siddighi, Sam; Applegate, Richard L

    2013-07-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) may occur despite antiemetic prophylaxis and is associated with unanticipated hospital admission, financial impact, and patient dissatisfaction. Previous studies have shown variable impact of IV dextrose on PONV. We sought to determine the relationship of IV dextrose administered during emergence from anesthesia to PONV. This was a prospective, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Adult female ASA physical status I and II nondiabetic patients scheduled for outpatient gynecologic, urologic, or breast surgery were randomly assigned to infusion of 250 mL lactated Ringer's solution (group P; n = 75) or dextrose 5% in lactated Ringer's solution (group D; n = 87) over 2 hours beginning with surgical closing. Blood glucose was determined using a point-of-care device before transfer to the operating room, in the operating room immediately before study fluid infusion, and in the recovery room after study fluid infusion. No antiemetics were given before arrival in the recovery room. PONV scores were recorded at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes and 24 hours after arrival in the recovery room. Medication administration was recorded. Data from 162 patients with normal baseline blood glucose were analyzed. There were no significant intergroup differences in demographics, history of PONV, or tobacco use. There was no significant intergroup difference in PONV during the first 2 hours after anesthesia (group D 52.9% vs group P 46.7%; difference, 6.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9.2% to 21.6%; P = 0.43). Patients in groups D or P who developed PONV within 2 hours of anesthesia had similar number of severity scores ≥1 during recovery stay (1.5 vs 1.0; difference, 0; 95% CI, 0%-0%; P = 0.93); and similar proportions of: PONV onset within 30 minutes of recovery room arrival (65.2% vs 57.1%; difference, 8.1%; 95% CI, -13.1% to 28.8%; P = 0.46); more than 1 dose of antiemetic medication (56.5% vs 62.9%; difference, 6.3%; 95% CI, -26

  4. The effect of maropitant on intraoperative isoflurane requirements and postoperative nausea and vomiting in dogs: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Adam; Rioja, Eva; Elmer, Tim; Dugdale, Alex

    2017-07-01

    To establish if preoperative maropitant significantly reduced intraoperative isoflurane requirements and reduced clinical signs associated with postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in dogs. Randomized clinical trial. Twenty-four healthy, client-owned dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. Premedication involved acepromazine (0.03 mg kg -1 ) combined with methadone (0.3 mg kg -1 ) intramuscularly 45 minutes before anaesthetic induction with intravenous (IV) propofol, dosed to effect. Meloxicam (0.2 mg kg -1 ) was administered intravenously. Dogs were randomly assigned to administration of saline (group S; 0.1 mL kg -1 , n=12) or maropitant (group M; 1 mg kg -1 , n=12) subcutaneously at time of premedication. Methadone (0.1 mg kg -1 IV) was repeated 4 hours later. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen, dosed to effect by an observer unaware of group allocation. The dogs were assessed hourly, starting 1 hour postoperatively, using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Score (GCPS), and for ptyalism and signs attributable to PONV [score from 0 (none) to 3 (severe)] by blinded observers. Owners completed a questionnaire at the postoperative recheck. Overall mean±standard deviation end-tidal isoflurane percentage was lower in group M (1.19±0.26%) than group S (1.44±0.23%) (p=0.022), but was not significantly different between groups at specific noxious events (skin incision, ovarian pedicle clamp application, cervical clamp application, wound closure). Cardiorespiratory variables and postoperative GCPS were not significantly different between groups. Overall, 50% of dogs displayed signs attributable to PONV, with no difference in PONV scores between groups (p=0.198). No difference in anaesthetic recovery was noted by owners between groups. Maropitant reduced overall intraoperative isoflurane requirements but did not affect the incidence of PONV. Maropitant provided no significant benefits to dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy

  5. Impact of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Swu-Jane

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1st generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs, and palonosetron, a 2nd generation 5-HT3 RA, are indicated for the prevention of chemotherapy (CT-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV associated with moderately (MEC and highly emetogenic CT agents (HEC. This study explores the impact of step therapy policies requiring use of an older 5-HT3 RA before palonosetron on risk of CINV associated with hospital or emergency department (ED admissions. Methods Patients who received cyclophosphamide post breast cancer (BC surgery or who were diagnosed with lung cancer on carboplatin (LC-carboplatin or cisplatin (LC-cisplatin were selected from PharMetrics’ (IMS LifeLink claims dataset (2005-2008. Patients were followed for 6 months from initial CT administration for CINV events identified through ICD-9-CM codes. Patients were grouped into those initiated with older, generic 5-HT3 RAs (ondansetron, granisetron, and dolasetron and those initiated and maintained on palonosetron throughout study follow-up. CINV events and CINV days were analyzed using multivariate regressions controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results Eligible patients numbered 3,606 in BC, 4,497 in LC-carboplatin and 1,154 in LC-cisplatin cohorts, with 52%, 40%, and 34% in the palonosetron group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two 5-HT3 RA groups in age or Charlson Comorbidity Index among the two MEC cohorts (BC and LC-carboplatin. Among the LC-cisplatin cohort, palonosetron users were older with more males than the older 5-HT3 RA group (age: 60.1 vs. 61.3; males, 66.9% vs. 56.9%. Compared to the older 5-HT3 RAs, the palonosetron groups incurred 22%-51% fewer 5-HT3 RA pharmacy claims, had fewer patients with CINV events (3.5% vs. 5.5% in BC, 9.5% vs. 12.8% in LC-carboplatin, 16.4% vs. 21.7% in LC-cisplatin, and had lower risk for CINV events (odds ratios 0.62, 0.71, or 0.71, respectively; p 3 RA group (p

  6. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS): is there a difference based on onset of symptoms--pediatric versus adult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nilay; Bashar, Qumseya; Reddy, Naveen; Sengupta, Jyotirmoy; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin; Schroeder, Abigail; Hogan, Walter J; Venkatesan, Thangam

    2012-05-28

    Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) is a well-recognized functional gastrointestinal disorder in children but its presentation is poorly understood in adults. Genetic differences in pediatric-onset (presentation before age 18) and adult-onset CVS have been reported recently but their clinical features and possible differences in response to therapy have not been well studied. This was a retrospective review of 101 CVS patients seen at the Medical College of Wisconsin between 2006 and 2008. Rome III criteria were utilized to make the diagnosis of CVS. Our study population comprised of 29(29%) pediatric-onset and 72 (71%) adult-onset CVS patients. Pediatric-onset CVS patients were more likely to be female (86% vs. 57%, p = 0.005) and had a higher prevalence of CVS plus (CVS + neurocognitive disorders) as compared to adult-onset CVS patients (14% vs. 3%, p = 0.05). There was a longer delay in diagnosis (10 ± 7 years) in the pediatric-onset group when compared to (5 ± 7 years) adult-onset CVS group (p = 0.001). Chronic opiate use was less frequent in the pediatric-onset group compared to adult-onset patients (0% vs. 23%, p = 0.004). Aside from these differences, the two groups were similar with regards to their clinical features and the time of onset of symptoms did not predict response to standard treatment. The majority of patients (86%) responded to treatment with tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants (topiramate), coenzyme Q-10, and L-carnitine. Non-response to therapy was associated with coalescence of symptoms, chronic opiate use and more severe disease as characterized by longer episodes, greater number of emergency department visits in the year prior to presentation, presence of disability and non-compliance on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only compliance to therapy was associated with a response. (88% vs. 38%, Odds Ratio, OR 9.6; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.18-77.05). Despite reported genetic differences, the clinical features and

  7. Haloperidol Versus Ondansetron for Treatment of Established Nausea and Vomiting Following General Anesthesia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck-Karam, Vanda G; Siddik-Sayyid, Sahar M; Barakat, Hanane B; Korjian, Serge; Aouad, Marie T

    2017-02-01

    Haloperidol is an antipsychotic. At low doses, it is a useful agent for the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, its use for treating established PONV has not been well studied. This randomized double-blinded trial tested whether haloperidol is noninferior to ondansetron for the early treatment of established PONV in adult patients undergoing general anesthesia. The primary outcome is whether patients were PONV free during the first 4 hours. The noninferiority margin was set at 15%. One hundred twenty patients with PONV received either haloperidol 1 mg intravenously (n = 60) or ondansetron 4 mg intravenously (n = 60). Data from 112 patients (59 in the haloperidol group and 53 in the ondansetron group) were analyzed. Thirty-five patients (52%) in the haloperidol group received 1 or 2 prophylactic antiemetics compared with 42 (79%) in the ondansetron group. Haloperidol was noninferior to ondansetron for the end point of complete response to treatment (defined as the rate of PONV-free patients) for the early (0-4 hour) and the 0- to 24-hour postoperative periods by both the per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. In the per-protocol analysis, complete responses in the early period were noted in 35 of 59 patients (59%) and 29 of 53 patients (55%) for the haloperidol and ondansetron groups, respectively (difference 5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -13% to 22 %), and in the 0- to 24-hour period in 31 of 59 patients (53%) and 26 of 53 patients (49%) for the haloperidol and ondansetron groups, respectively (difference 4%; 95% CI of the difference: -15% to 21%). In the intention-to-treat analysis, complete responses in the early period were noted in 35 of 60 patients (58%) and 29 of 60 patients (48%) for the haloperidol and ondansetron groups, respectively (difference 10%; 95% CI of difference: -8% to 27%) and in the 0- to 24-hour period in 31 of 60 patients (52%) and 26 of 60 patients (43%) for the haloperidol and ondansetron groups

  8. Impact of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Swu-Jane; Hatoum, Hind T; Buchner, Deborah; Cox, David; Balu, Sanjeev

    2012-07-23

    1st generation 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs), and palonosetron, a 2nd generation 5-HT3 RA, are indicated for the prevention of chemotherapy (CT)-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) associated with moderately (MEC) and highly emetogenic CT agents (HEC). This study explores the impact of step therapy policies requiring use of an older 5-HT3 RA before palonosetron on risk of CINV associated with hospital or emergency department (ED) admissions. Patients who received cyclophosphamide post breast cancer (BC) surgery or who were diagnosed with lung cancer on carboplatin (LC-carboplatin) or cisplatin (LC-cisplatin) were selected from PharMetrics' (IMS LifeLink) claims dataset (2005-2008). Patients were followed for 6 months from initial CT administration for CINV events identified through ICD-9-CM codes. Patients were grouped into those initiated with older, generic 5-HT3 RAs (ondansetron, granisetron, and dolasetron) and those initiated and maintained on palonosetron throughout study follow-up. CINV events and CINV days were analyzed using multivariate regressions controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Eligible patients numbered 3,606 in BC, 4,497 in LC-carboplatin and 1,154 in LC-cisplatin cohorts, with 52%, 40%, and 34% in the palonosetron group, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two 5-HT3 RA groups in age or Charlson Comorbidity Index among the two MEC cohorts (BC and LC-carboplatin). Among the LC-cisplatin cohort, palonosetron users were older with more males than the older 5-HT3 RA group (age: 60.1 vs. 61.3; males, 66.9% vs. 56.9%). Compared to the older 5-HT3 RAs, the palonosetron groups incurred 22%-51% fewer 5-HT3 RA pharmacy claims, had fewer patients with CINV events (3.5% vs. 5.5% in BC, 9.5% vs. 12.8% in LC-carboplatin, 16.4% vs. 21.7% in LC-cisplatin), and had lower risk for CINV events (odds ratios 0.62, 0.71, or 0.71, respectively; pRAs. Further studies on impact of step therapy policy are

  9. The impact of 5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor antagonists on chemotherapy treatment adherence, treatment delay, and nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palli SR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Swetha Rao Palli,1 Michael Grabner,1 Ralph A Quimbo,1 Hope S Rugo2 1HealthCore, Wilmington, DE, 2University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To determine the incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV and chemotherapy treatment delay and adherence among patients receiving palonosetron versus other 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist (5-HT3 RA antiemetics. Materials and methods: This retrospective claims analysis included adults with primary malignancies who initiated treatment consisting of single-day intravenous highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or moderately EC (MEC regimens. Treatment delay was defined as a gap in treatment at least twice the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-specified cycle length, specific to each chemotherapy regimen. Treatment adherence was determined by the percentage of patients who received the regimen-specific recommended number of chemotherapy cycles within the recommended time frame. Results: We identified 1,832 palonosetron and 2,387 other 5-HT3 RA (“other” patients who initiated HEC therapy, and 1,350 palonosetron users and 1,379 patients on other antiemetics who initiated MEC therapy. Fewer patients receiving palonosetron experienced CINV versus other (HEC, 27.5% versus 32.2%, P=0.0011; MEC, 36.1% versus 41.7%, P=0.0026, and fewer treatment delays occurred among patients receiving palonosetron versus other (HEC, 3.2% versus 6.0%, P<0.0001; MEC, 17.0% versus 26.8%, P<0.0001. Compared with the other cohort, patients receiving palonosetron were significantly more adherent to the index chemotherapy regimen with respect to the recommended time frame (HEC, 74.7% versus 69.7%, P=0.0004; MEC, 43.1% versus 37.3%, P=0.0019 and dosage (HEC, 27.3% versus 25.8%, P=0.0004; MEC, 15.0% versus 12.6%, P=0.0019. Conclusion: Palonosetron more effectively reduced occurrence of CINV in patients receiving HEC or MEC compared with

  10. Anesthesiologists' practice patterns for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ambulatory Post Anesthesia Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claybon Louis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When patients are asked what they find most anxiety provoking about having surgery, the top concerns almost always include postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV. Only until recently have there been any published recommendations, mostly derived from expert opinion, as to which regimens to use once a patient develops PONV. The goal of this study was to assess the responses to a written survey to address the following questions: 1 If no prophylaxis is administered to an ambulatory patient, what agent do anesthesiologists use for treatment of PONV in the ambulatory Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU?; 2 Do anesthesiologists use non-pharmacologic interventions for PONV treatment?; and 3 If a PONV prophylaxis agent is administered during the anesthetic, do anesthesiologists choose an antiemetic in a different class for treatment? Methods A questionnaire with five short hypothetical clinical vignettes was mailed to 300 randomly selected USA anesthesiologists. The types of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for PONV treatment were analyzed. Results The questionnaire was completed by 106 anesthesiologists (38% response rate, who reported that on average 52% of their practice was ambulatory. If a patient develops PONV and received no prophylaxis, 67% (95% CI, 62% – 79% of anesthesiologists reported they would administer a 5-HT3-antagonist as first choice for treatment, with metoclopramide and dexamethasone being the next two most common choices. 65% (95% CI, 55% – 74% of anesthesiologists reported they would also use non-pharmacologic interventions to treat PONV in the PACU, with an IV fluid bolus or nasal cannula oxygen being the most common. When PONV prophylaxis was given during the anesthetic, the preferred PONV treatment choice changed. Whereas 3%–7% of anesthesiologists would repeat dose metoclopramide, dexamethasone, or droperidol, 26% (95% confidence intervals, 18% – 36% of practitioners would re

  11. Effect of Persian Medicine Remedy on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer: A Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Shokri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a side effect, and has negative effect on quality of life and continuation of chemotherapy. Despite new regimen and drugs, the problems still remain and standard guidelines, effective treatment and supportive care for refractory CINV are still not yet established. Persian medicine, the old Iranian medical school, offer Persumac (prepared from Rhus Coriaria and Bunium Persicum Boiss). Objective The specific objectives were to assess the effect of Persumac on the number and severity of nausea and vomiting in refractory CINV in acute and delayed phase. Methods This randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial study was carried out on 93 patients with breast cancer and refractory CINV, who received outpatient high emetogenic chemotherapy in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2015 to May 2016. The study has three stages: in stage I patients received a questionaire and completed it after chemotherapy. In stage II they were randomly divided into intervention group with Persumac and control group with placebo (lactose were used). In stage III, wash out and crossover was conducted. Both groups in all stages received standard antiemetic therapy for CINV. The following were set as the inclusion criteria of the study: female, Age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, history of refractory CINV, normal blood tests and at least three courses of chemotherapy remaining. Exclusion criteria of this study were: Total or upper abdominal radiation therapy along with chemotherapy, drugs/therapy for nausea and vomiting not prescribed in this study, hypersensitivity to Sumac or Bunium Persicum, use of sumac and Bunium Persicum in seven days prior to the intervention, clinical diagnosis of digestion disorders, non-chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, milk allergy, loss of two consecutive or three intermittent doses of Persumac or placebo. Outcomes were gathered by Persian questionnaire. Number

  12. Comparison between Antiemetic Effects of Palonosetron and Granisetron on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Japanese Patients Treated with R-CHOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Mayako; Mori, Yasuo; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kato, Koji; Kamezaki, Kenjiro; Takenaka, Katsuto; Shiratsuchi, Motoaki; Kadoyama, Kaori; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Akashi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the antiemetic effect of palonosetron, not combined with dexamethasone and aprepitant, on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting was evaluated in patients with malignant lymphoma receiving first-line rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy, and was compared to that of granisetron. A total of 74 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma were included in this study (April 2007 to December 2015). Palonosetron (0.75 mg) or granisetron (3 mg) was intravenously administered before R-CHOP therapy. The proportions of patients with complete response (CR) during the overall (0-120 h after the start of R-CHOP therapy), acute (0-24 h) and delayed (24-120 h) phases were evaluated. CR was defined as no vomiting and no use of antiemetic rescue medication. A total of 32 and 42 patients were treated with palonosetron and granisetron, respectively. The CR rate in the palonosetron group was significantly higher than that in the granisetron group during the delayed phase (90.6 and 61.9%, respectively; p=0.007). Logistic regression analysis showed that use of palonosetron improved the CR rate during the delayed phase, compared to use of granisetron. Female sex, age less than 60 years, no habitual alcohol intake, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) score of 1 were significant risk factors associated with non-CR. The findings of this study suggested the superiority of palonosetron to granisetron, without accompanying dexamethasone and aprepitant, for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with malignant lymphoma.

  13. A Phase II study of palonosetron, aprepitant, dexamethasone and olanzapine for the prevention of cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with thoracic malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Kazuhisa; Murakami, Haruyasu; Yokoyama, Kouichi; Omori, Shota; Wakuda, Kazushige; Ono, Akira; Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Naito, Tateaki; Nishiyama, Fumie; Kikugawa, Mami; Kaneko, Masayo; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Koizumi, Satomi; Mori, Keita; Isobe, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toshiaki

    2017-09-01

    The three-drug combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist, a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone is recommended for patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. However, standard antiemetic therapy is not completely effective in all patients. We conducted an open-label, single-center, single-arm Phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine in combination with standard antiemetic therapy in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with thoracic malignancy receiving their first cycle of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients received 5 mg oral olanzapine on Days 1-5 in combination with standard antiemetic therapy. The primary endpoint was complete response (no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy) during the overall Phase (0-120 h post-chemotherapy). Twenty-three men and seven women were enrolled between May and October 2015. The median age was 64 years (range: 36-75 years). The most common chemotherapy regimen was 75 mg/m2 cisplatin and 500 mg/m2 pemetrexed, which was administered to 14 patients. Complete response rates in acute (0-24 h post-chemotherapy), delayed (24-120 h post-chemotherapy) and overall phases were 100%, 83% and 83% (90% confidence interval: 70-92%; 95% confidence interval: 66-93%), respectively. There were no Grade 3 or Grade 4 adverse events. Although four patients (13%) experienced Grade 1 somnolence, no patients discontinued olanzapine. The addition of 5 mg oral olanzapine to standard antiemetic therapy demonstrates promising efficacy in preventing cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and an acceptable safety profile in patients with thoracic malignancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. PC6 acupoint stimulation for the prevention of postcardiac surgery nausea and vomiting: a protocol for a two-group, parallel, superiority randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire; Rapchuk, Ivan; Shekar, Kiran; Marshall, Andrea P; Comans, Tracy; Doi, Suhail; McDonald, John; Spooner, Amy

    2014-11-13

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are frequent but unwanted complications for patients following anaesthesia and cardiac surgery, affecting at least a third of patients, despite pharmacological treatment. The primary aim of the proposed research is to test the efficacy of PC6 acupoint stimulation versus placebo for reducing PONV in cardiac surgery patients. In conjunction with this we aim to develop an understanding of intervention fidelity and factors that support, or impede, the use of PC6 acupoint stimulation, a knowledge translation approach. 712 postcardiac surgery participants will be recruited to take part in a two-group, parallel, superiority, randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to receive a wrist band on each wrist providing acupressure to PC six using acupoint stimulation or a placebo. Randomisation will be computer generated, use randomly varied block sizes, and be concealed prior to the enrolment of each patient. The wristbands will remain in place for 36 h. PONV will be evaluated by the assessment of both nausea and vomiting, use of rescue antiemetics, quality of recovery and cost. Patient satisfaction with PONV care will be measured and clinical staff interviewed about the clinical use, feasibility, acceptability and challenges of using acupressure wristbands for PONV. Ethics approval will be sought from appropriate Human Research Ethics Committee/s before start of the study. A systematic review of the use of wrist acupressure for PC6 acupoint stimulation reported minor side effects only. Study progress will be reviewed by a Data Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) for nausea and vomiting outcomes at n=350. Dissemination of results will include conference presentations at national and international scientific meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals. Study participants will receive a one-page lay-summary of results. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry--ACTRN12614000589684. Published by the BMJ

  15. Liver failure with coagulopathy, hyperammonemia and cyclic vomiting in a toddler revealed to have combined heterozygosity for genes involved with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Valerie; Boles, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    A girl with a 2 month history of cyclic episodes of vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy lasting 2-3 days each presented with acute hepatopathy (ALT 3,500 IU/L) with coagulopathy (PT 55 s) and hyperammonemia (207 μmol/L) at age 1½ years. Biochemical and molecular analyzes revealed ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. While laboratory signs of mild hepatocellular dysfunction are common in OTC deficiency, substantial liver failure with coagulopathy is generally not seen, although four others cases have been reported, three of which presented with cyclic vomiting. Further evaluation in our case revealed elevated urine (198.8 μg/g creatinine) and liver (103 μg/g dry weight) copper content, and a heterozygous mutation in the Wilson disease gene, ATP7B. Our patient, now aged 5 years, has remained in excellent health with normal growth and development on fasting avoidance, a modified vegan diet, and sodium phenylbutyrate.These five cases demonstrate that generalized liver dysfunction/failure is a potential serious complication of OTC deficiency, although not a common one, and suggests that an ALT and PT should be obtained in OTC patients during episodes of hyperammonemia. Cyclic vomiting is a known presentation of OTC deficiency; it is not known if comorbid liver failure predisposes toward this phenotype. We propose that the heterozygote state in ATP7B increases the liver copper content, thus predisposing our patient with OTC deficiency to develop liver failure during a hyperammonemic episode. Our present case is an example of the opportunity of molecular diagnostics to identify putative modifier genes in patients with atypical presentations of genetic disorders.

  16. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-24

    Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  17. Efficacy of granisetron and aprepitant in a patient who failed ondansetron in the prophylaxis of radiation induced nausea and vomiting: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Leigha; Pasetka, Mark; McDonald, Rachel; Hunyh, Lise; Raman, Srinivas; DeAngelis, Carlo; Chow, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) is a toxicity that can occur in 40-80% of individuals who receive radiation treatment. Current guidelines recommend 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) for prophylaxis of RINV for moderate and highly emetogenic radiotherapy; however, certain patients may suffer from RINV despite prophylaxis. This report details the case of a 47-year-old female with extensive bony involvement to the spine from breast cancer presenting with lower back pain. To palliate her symptoms, the patient underwent a course of irradiation to the lumbar spine and was prescribed ondansetron as an antiemetic. However, the patient experienced severe nausea and emesis and was subsequently switched to granisetron and aprepitant. The patient completed the remainder of the radiation treatment with no further emesis and minimal nausea, representing the first documented success of granisetron and aprepitant for RINV after failure on ondansetron. In chemotherapy, switching 5-HT3 RAs after failure on the first is successful in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), yet this has not been previously reported in radiation. In this patient, granisetron and aprepitant were successful in substantially reducing nausea and preventing further emesis, and may represent an alternative antiemetic regimen for RINV prophylaxis and salvage.

  18. Ondansetron, granisetron, and dexamethasone compared for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy : A randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhan, Yamac; Erhan, Elvan; Aydede, Hasan; Yumus, Okan; Yentur, Alp

    2008-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomies are associated with an appreciably high rate of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of ondansetron, granisetron, and dexamethasone for the prevention of PONV in patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical class I-II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. All patients received a similar standardized anesthesia and operative treatment. Patients were randomly divided into four groups (n = 20 each). Group 1, consisting of control patients, received 0.9% NaCl; group 2 patients received ondansetron 4 mg i.v.; group 3 patients received granisetron 3 mg i.v.; and group 4 patients received dexamethasone 8 mg i.v., all before the induction of anesthesia. Both nausea and vomiting were assessed during the first 24 h after the procedure. The total incidence of PONV was 75% with placebo, 35% with ondansetron, 30% with granisetron, and 25% with dexamethasone. The incidence of PONV was significantly less frequent in groups receiving antiemetics (p granisetron, and ondansetron were not significant. Prophylactic dexamethasone 8 mg i.v. significantly reduced the incidence of PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Dexamethasone 8 mg was as effective as ondansetron 4 mg and granisetron 3 mg, and it was more effective than placebo.

  19. Geranisetron versus gabapentin in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery in adults: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Heidari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV after middle ear surgery is high. In this study we want to compare the effects of intravenous granisetron and oral gabapentin as a premedication before surgery on the incidence and severity of PONV after middle ear surgery in adult patents. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 90 patients that were randomly divided into the three groups of 30 in each. Group I received granisetron 3 mg iv 2 minutes before induction of anesthesia; Group II received oral gabapentin 300 mg 1 hour before anesthesia and Group III received placebo. The incidence and severity of PONV were recorded each 15 minutes in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU and each 8 hours until 24 hours after discharge from the PACU. Result: The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting at different time intervals in Groups I and Group II was significantly lower compared with Group III (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects of study drug administration including respiratory depression, apnea, extra pyramidal disorders, drowsiness, dizziness, vertigo and headache in three groups. Conclusion: The study was shown that using gabapentin and granisetron have equal anti-emetic effects, but significant differences were seen between these two groups compared to the control group. These submit the efficiency of these drugs in preventing PONV.

  20. COMPARISON BETWEEN ACUPRESSURE AND PALONOSETRON IN PREVENTION OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LAPAROSCOPIC TUBAL STERILISATION. A RANDOMISED CONTROL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES To compare the effectiveness of acupressure at P6 point and palonosetron in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic tubal sterilisation. METHODS AND MATERIALS After obtaining institutional ethical clearance and patient consent, this study was conducted during the period of July 2015 to November 2015. Patients undergoing laparoscopic tubal sterilisation belonging to ASA 1 and 2 were included, and patients with hypertension, diabetes neurological diseases, peripheral vascular diseases, local skin diseases, patients on antiemetics and unwilling patients were excluded from the study. Randomisation done by sealed envelope method into two groups of sample size 25 each; group A (acupressure, at P6 point and group B (palonosetron 0.075 mg IV. Acupressure band and Inj palonosetron were given just before the induction of anaesthesia. Episodes of PONV were recorded at 0-2 hours, 2-6 hours, 6- 12 hours and evaluated separately as none, mild, moderate and severe. Rescue antiemetic was given to those who had episode of vomiting. Data analysed using Student ‘t’ test and P value <0.05 considered to be significant. RESULTS Between two group comparisons no significant differences in terms of severity of PONV was observed and Group B showed no incidence of PONV. CONCLUSION Acupressure being non-invasive, non-pharmacological, inexpensive and better patient acceptability can be effectively used as an alternative for the prophylaxis of PONV. However, palonosetron was more effective than acupressure in preventing PONV.

  1. "My child can't keep anything down!" Interviewing parents who bring their preschoolers to the emergency department for diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer M; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor A; Black, Karen J L

    2010-04-01

    Viral gastroenteritis with dehydration is one of the most frequent reasons for visits to pediatric emergency departments (ED). Parental intervention before presentation to the ED can make a significant difference in the course of a child's illness. There is a discrepancy between medical knowledge of dehydration and parental fears and understanding. This project is part of a larger program of research developing an educational tool for parents of preschoolers with diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. The primary objective was to develop an interview guide. From initial data, the researchers explored parental motivations for bringing their children to the ED. Ten families were recruited after their visit to a pediatric ED in the fall of 2007. Included were families of children younger than 4 years who experienced vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. Interviews were conducted over the telephone and were transcribed. The interview guide was edited in an iterative process. Thematic analysis focused on parents' decision to take their child to the ED. Making the decision to take a child to the ED is a complex process for parents. This decision involves expectations developed from community-level, family-level, and child factors. Issues of access to care affect parents' decision, including perceived level of urgency, travel time, and modes of transport available. A framework is proposed, which outlines the most important factors our sample of parents reported when deciding whether to take their ill child to the ED. The interview guide developed will facilitate collection of further information.

  2. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Adapted Rhodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting for Pediatrics by Child (ARINVc) and by Parent (ARINVp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay Didişen, Nurdan; Yavuz, Betül; Yardimci, Figen; Basbakkal, D Zümrüt

    2018-04-01

    The study was conducted methodologically to adapt the Adapted Rhodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting for Pediatrics by Child (ARINVc) and Adapted Rhodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting for Pediatrics by Parent (ARINVp) into Turkish. The scales are administered to children who receive chemotherapy and to their parents, respectively. The study sample consisted of 8- to 18-year-old children who were hospitalized in the pediatric oncology and hematology clinics of a university hospital, met the sampling criteria, and agreed to participate in the research. The study data were collected with the Sociodemographic Attributes Information Form, ARINVc, and ARINVp using the face-to-face interview method. The mean ages of the children and their mothers and fathers who participated in the study were 13.26 ± 2.01, 36.33 ± 5.10, and 40.17 ± 4.94 years, respectively. The mean total scores obtained from the ARINVc and ARINVp were 5.43 ± 4.06 and 5.70 ± 3.77, respectively. While Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients of the scales were .85 for the ARINVc and .84 for the ARINVp, the item-total correlation coefficients were between 0.60 and 0.89 for the ARINVc and between 0.66 and 0.85 for the ARINVp ( P < .01). The Turkish versions of ARINVc and ARINVp were determined to be valid and reliable scales.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-associated nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Estelle; Visser, Janicke; Koen, Nelene; Musekiwa, Alfred

    2014-03-19

    Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) occur commonly. Possible harmful side-effects of conventional medicine to the fetus create the need for alternative options to relieve NVP. This systematic review (SR) investigated current evidence regarding orally administered ginger for the treatment of NVP. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of ginger in treating NVP. The secondary objective was to assess the safety of ginger during pregnancy. A comprehensive electronic bibliographic database search was carried out. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the efficacy of orally administered ginger, as treatment for NVP in pregnant women at any stage of pregnancy, published in English, were included. Two researchers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. RevMan5 software (Cochrane Collaboration) was used for data analysis. p Ginger significantly improved the symptoms of nausea when compared to placebo (MD 1.20, 95% CI 0.56-1.84, p = 0.0002, I² = 0%). Ginger did not significantly reduce the number of vomiting episodes during NVP, when compared to placebo, although there was a trend towards improvement (MD 0.72, 95% CI -0.03-1.46, p = 0.06, I² = 71%). Subgroup analyses seemed to favor the lower daily dosage of ginger for nausea relief. Ginger did not pose a significant risk for spontaneous abortion compared to placebo (RR 3.14, 95% CI 0.65-15.11, p = 0.15; I² = 0%), or to vitamin B₆ (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.17-1.42, p = 0.19, I² = 40%). Similarly, ginger did not pose a significant risk for the side-effects of heartburn or drowsiness. This review suggests potential benefits of ginger in reducing nausea symptoms in pregnancy (bearing in mind the limited number of studies, variable outcome reporting and low quality of evidence). Ginger did not significantly affect vomiting episodes, nor pose a risk for side-effects or adverse events during pregnancy. Based on evidence from this SR, ginger could be considered a harmless and possibly

  4. Prophylaxis of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Using 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvo, Nadia; Doble, Brett [Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Khan, Luluel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amirthevasar, Gayathri [Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Dennis, Kristopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pasetka, Mark; DeAngelis, Carlo [Department of Oncology Pharmacy, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tsao, May [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chow, Edward, E-mail: Edward.Chow@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) compared with other antiemetic medication or placebo for prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Methods and Materials: We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and Web of Science. We also hand-searched reference lists of included studies. Randomized, controlled trials that compared a 5-HT3 RA with another antiemetic medication or placebo for preventing radiation-induced nausea and vomiting were included. We excluded studies recruiting patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager (v5) software. Relative risks were calculated using inverse variance as the statistical method under a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: Eligibility screening of 47 articles resulted in 9 included in the review. The overall methodologic quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of 5-HT3 RAs vs. placebo showed significant benefit for 5-HT3 RAs (relative risk [RR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.86 for emesis; RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96 for nausea). Meta-analysis comparing 5-HT3 RAs vs. metoclopramide showed a significant benefit of the 5-HT3 RAs for emetic control (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15-0.47). Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are superior to placebo and other antiemetics for prevention of emesis, but little benefit was identified for nausea prevention. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are suggested for prevention of emesis. Limited evidence was found regarding delayed emesis, adverse events, quality of life, or need for rescue medication. Future randomized, controlled trials should evaluate different 5-HT3 antiemetics and new agents with novel mechanisms of action such at the NK

  5. Relationship between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with breast cancer: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Pan, Ting; Zou, Wenjing; Sun, Ye; Cai, Yun; Wang, Rui; Han, Pingping; Zhang, Zhe; He, Qunying; Ye, Feng

    2016-11-09

    The theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitution involves genetic characteristics, psychological factors, organ functions, and many other aspects. Studies have shown that TCM constitution is associated with HLA polymorphisms and has a genetic basis. A large number of Chinese studies have suggested that the clinical evolution of breast cancer may differ among patients with different TCM constitutions. In addition, patients with breast cancer and different TCM constitutions may have different degrees of myelosuppression after chemotherapy. Some studies have revealed that some constitutions may become predictive factors for death and morbidity of some diseases. The study was to investigate the risk factors among TCM constitutions for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients with primary breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. From September 2008 to January 2014, 612 patients who underwent surgery and chemotherapy for breast cancer in three hospitals in Xi'an, Shanxi province, underwent TCM constitution assessment using the Nine Basic Constitutions in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire before chemotherapy. CINV was monitored during treatments. Patients were asked to complete the Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire. The most severe CINV grade during chemotherapy was recorded according to the WHO standard. The relationships between TCM constitutions, CINV, and clinical and pathological characteristics of the cancers were assessed. There were no differences in the incidence of CINV among breast cancer patients receiving different chemotherapy regimens, and among patients with different TCM constitutions. The wetness-heat score was an independent risk factor for severe CINV (grade III-IV) (OR = 1.012, 95 % CI: 1.007-1.021, P < 0.001). In-depth analyses of the wetness-heat constitution showed that bitter taste/smelly mouth was an independent risk factor for severe CINV (OR = 1.209, 95 % CI: 1.035-1.412, P = 0

  6. Prophylaxis of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Using 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo, Nadia; Doble, Brett; Khan, Luluel; Amirthevasar, Gayathri; Dennis, Kristopher; Pasetka, Mark; DeAngelis, Carlo; Tsao, May; Chow, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonists (5-HT3 RAs) compared with other antiemetic medication or placebo for prophylaxis of radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. Methods and Materials: We searched the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, and Web of Science. We also hand-searched reference lists of included studies. Randomized, controlled trials that compared a 5-HT3 RA with another antiemetic medication or placebo for preventing radiation-induced nausea and vomiting were included. We excluded studies recruiting patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy. When appropriate, meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager (v5) software. Relative risks were calculated using inverse variance as the statistical method under a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Results: Eligibility screening of 47 articles resulted in 9 included in the review. The overall methodologic quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of 5-HT3 RAs vs. placebo showed significant benefit for 5-HT3 RAs (relative risk [RR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57–0.86 for emesis; RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73–0.96 for nausea). Meta-analysis comparing 5-HT3 RAs vs. metoclopramide showed a significant benefit of the 5-HT3 RAs for emetic control (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.15–0.47). Conclusion: 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are superior to placebo and other antiemetics for prevention of emesis, but little benefit was identified for nausea prevention. 5-Hydroxytryptamine-3 RAs are suggested for prevention of emesis. Limited evidence was found regarding delayed emesis, adverse events, quality of life, or need for rescue medication. Future randomized, controlled trials should evaluate different 5-HT3 antiemetics and new agents with novel mechanisms of action such at

  7. A prospective cohort study of patient-reported vomiting, retching, nausea and antiemetic use during neoadjuvant long-course radiation therapy and concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher Dennis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Antiemetic guidelines suggest daily prophylaxis with a serotonin3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3RA as an option for patients receiving long-course neoadjuvant radiation therapy and concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for rectal cancer, despite the risks that 5-HT3RA-induced constipation may pose. We explored the incidence of patient-reported vomiting, retching, nausea and antiemetic intake among patients in this setting to determine if these risks are justified. Materials and methods: We carried out a single-centre non-randomised prospective cohort study of adult patients receiving long-course neoadjuvant radiation therapy and concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma. Patients recorded symptoms and medication intake daily until 7 days following treatment completion. Results: From 33 evaluable patients, we collected 1407 days of patient-reported data. Vomiting was reported by 7 patients (21%, retching by 5(15% and nausea by 21(64%. No patients were administered prophylactic antiemetics. The median number of days with vomiting was 2, and the cumulative number of days for all affected patients was 22 (1.6% of 1407 evaluable days. There were no differences in PTV or small bowel loop V15Gy, V45Gy and V50Gy volumes between patients that did and did not vomit. Conclusions: The cumulative incidence of days with vomiting was only 1.6%. 5-HT3RA prophylaxis during long-course neoadjuvant treatment seems unnecessary. Keywords: Antiemetic, Nausea, Patient-reported outcome, Radiation therapy, Rectal cancer, Vomiting

  8. Fosaprepitant versus ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients who undergo gynecologic abdominal surgery with patient-controlled epidural analgesia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Tomohiro; Kume, Katsuyoshi; Kakuta, Nami; Hamaguchi, Eisuke; Tsutsumi, Rie; Kawanishi, Ryosuke; Fukuta, Kohei; Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is the most common postoperative complication. The postoperative use of opioids is known to increase the incidence. We compared fosaprepitant, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, and ondansetron for their preventive effects on PONV in patients who underwent gynecologic abdominal surgery with patient-controlled epidural analgesia. This prospective, double-blind, randomized study comprised 44 patients who underwent gynecologic abdominal surgery. They were randomly allocated to receive 150 mg intravenous fosaprepitant (n = 24; NKI group) or 4 mg ondansetron (n = 20; ONS group) before anesthesia, which was maintained with volatile anesthetics, remifentanil, fentanyl, and rocuronium. All patients received postoperative fentanyl by patient-controlled epidural anesthesia. The incidence of nausea and vomiting, complete response rate (i.e., no vomiting and no rescue antiemetic use), rescue antiemetic use, nausea score (0-3), and visual analog scale score (VAS 0-10) for pain were recorded at 2, 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery. No (0 %) patient in the NKI group experienced vomiting after surgery; however, 4-6 (20-30 %) of 20 patients in the ONS group experienced vomiting. This difference was significant at 0-24, 0-48, and 0-72 h. During the study period, no significant differences existed between the NK1 and ONS groups in the incidence of PONV, complete response rate, rescue antiemetic use, nausea score, and VAS score for pain. Compared to ondansetron, fosaprepitant more effectively decreased the incidence of vomiting in patients who underwent gynecologic abdominal surgery with patient-controlled epidural analgesia.

  9. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving multiple-day highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: role of transdermal granisetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Mattia, Consalvo

    2016-08-01

    Granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS) is the first 5-HT3 drug to be transdermally delivered and represents a convenient alternative to oral and intravenous antiemetics for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. GTDS is effective and well tolerated in patients receiving multiple-day moderate-to-highly emetogenic chemotherapy. In this setting noninferiority studies showed similar efficacy when GTDS was compared with intravenous and oral granisetron and intravenous palonosetron. GTDS has shown good cardiovascular safety; however, special caution is needed in patients at risk for developing excessive QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmias. So far, GTDS has been investigated for intravenous prevention in comparison with granisetron and palonosetron; however, further prospects open the route to future clinical investigations.

  10. Slow-release granisetron (APF530) versus palonosetron for chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting: analysis by American Society of Clinical Oncology emetogenicity criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, Harry; Boccia, Ralph; Cooper, William; O'Boyle, Erin; Gralla, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    APF530 is a novel sustained-release formulation of granisetron. In a Phase III trial, APF530 500 mg was noninferior to palonosetron 0.25 mg in preventing acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after moderately (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and delayed CINV after MEC, but not superior in preventing delayed CINV after HEC. Emetogenicity was classified by Hesketh criteria; this reanalysis uses newer American Society of Clinical Oncology criteria. Complete responses (no emesis or rescue medication) after cycle one were reanalyzed after reclassification of MEC and HEC by American Society of Clinical Oncology criteria. APF530 maintained noninferiority to palonosetron. Single-dose APF530 is a promising alternative to palonosetron for preventing acute and delayed CINV after MEC or HEC. The Clinicaltrials.gov identifier for this study is NCT00343460.

  11. Diaphragmatic rupture causing repeated vomiting in a combined abdominal and head injury patient: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symeonidis Dimitrios

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diaphragmatic rupture after blunt abdominal injury is a rare trauma condition. Delayed diagnosis is not uncommon especially in the emergency room setting. Associated injuries often shift diagnosis and treatment priorities towards other more life-threatening conditions. Case presentation We present a challenging case of a young male with combined abdominal and head trauma. Repeated episodes of vomiting dominated on clinical presentation that in the presence of a deep scalp laceration and facial bruising shifted differential diagnosis towards a traumatic brain injury. However, a computed tomography scan of the brain ruled out any intracranial pathology. Finally, a more meticulous investigation with additional imaging studies confirmed the presence of diaphragmatic rupture that justified the clinical symptoms. Conclusions The combination of diaphragmatic rupture with head injury creates a challenging trauma scenario. Increased level of suspicion is essential in order to diagnose timely diaphragmatic rupture in multiple trauma patients.

  12. Prophylaxis of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Adolescent Patients: A Review with Emphasis on Combination of Fixed-Dose Ondansetron and Transdermal Scopolamine

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    Joseph V. Pergolizzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is a relatively common occurrence (20–30% that delays discharge and, if persistent, can lead to serious complications. The incidence of PONV is a function of patient characteristics, the type and duration of surgery, the type of anesthesia, and the choice of pre-, intra-, and postoperative pharmacotherapy. There are no completely effective antiemetic agents for this condition, but recommendations for treatment strategies are separately available for pediatric and adult patients. Left unclear is whether adolescents should be guided by the pediatric or the adult recommendations. We review the developmental physiology of the relevant physiological factors (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. We also review the clinical evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination of ondansetron (4 mg, i.v. and transdermal scopolamine (1.5 mg.

  13. Haloperidol plus dexamethasone versus dexamethasone alone to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery: a randomized, controlled and double-blind study

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    Nelson Javier González

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND AND GOAL OF THE STUDY: haloperidol is an effective antiemetic drug. We sought to determine whether haloperidol and dexamethasone prophylaxis schemes decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: we enrolled 160 non-smoking females who received a standardized anesthesia technique including 8 mg of dexamethasone at the beginning of surgery. They were then randomized to receive either 1.5 mg of haloperidol (DH group or placebo (DP group 30 minutes before the end of surgery. The incidence of PONV was assessed by a blinded investigator at 30 minutes and at 2, 6 and 24 hours in the postoperative period. Analgesic requirements, ocular opening time and sedation were also assessed. The quantitative variables of normal distribution were evaluated with the t-student test and the ones with abnormal distribution, with the U-Mann Whitney test. Qualitative variables were evaluated with the Fisher test.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: both groups were homogeneous in demographic characteristics (30.1 vs. 29.5 years, 55.9 vs. 56 kg and history of PONV in 21.5% vs. 21.2% in DH group vs. DP group, respectively. At 6 hours postoperatively we found no difference in the incidence of nausea (22.5% vs. 27.5%; RR: 0.81, CI 95%: 0.56 -1

  14. Nevasic audio program for the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: A feasibility study using a randomized controlled trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian, Saeed; Walshe, Catherine; Shahidsales, Soodabeh; Ghavam Nasiri, Mohammad Reza; Pilling, Mark; Molassiotis, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Pharmacological therapy is only partially effective in preventing or treating chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Therefore, exploring the complementary role of non-pharmacological approaches used in addition to pharmacological agents is important. Nevasic uses specially constructed audio signals hypothesized to generate an antiemetic reaction. The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of Nevasic to control CINV. A mixed methods design incorporating an RCT and focus group interviews. For the RCT, female breast cancer patients were randomized to receive either Nevasic plus usual care, music plus usual care, or usual care only. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and linear mixed-effects models. Five focus group interviews were conducted to obtain participants' views regarding the acceptability of the interventions in the trial. 99 participants were recruited to the RCT and 15 participated in focus group interviews. Recruitment targets were achieved. Issues of Nevasic acceptability were highlighted as weaknesses of the program. This study did not detect any evidence for the effectiveness of Nevasic; however, the results showed statistically significant less use of anti-emetics (p = 0.003) and borderline non-significant improvement in quality of life (p = 0.06). Conducting a non-pharmacological intervention using such an audio program is feasible, although difficulties and limitations exist with its use. Further studies are required to investigate the effectiveness of Nevasic from perspectives such as anti-emetic use, as well as its overall effect on the levels of nausea and vomiting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nausea and Vomiting following Balanced Xenon Anesthesia Compared to Sevoflurane: A Post-Hoc Explorative Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Astrid V Fahlenkamp

    Full Text Available Like other inhalational anesthetics xenon seems to be associated with post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV. We assessed nausea incidence following balanced xenon anesthesia compared to sevoflurane, and dexamethasone for its prophylaxis in a randomized controlled trial with post-hoc explorative analysis.220 subjects with elevated PONV risk (Apfel score ≥2 undergoing elective abdominal surgery were randomized to receive xenon or sevoflurane anesthesia and dexamethasone or placebo after written informed consent. 93 subjects in the xenon group and 94 subjects in the sevoflurane group completed the trial. General anesthesia was maintained with 60% xenon or 2.0% sevoflurane. Dexamethasone 4mg or placebo was administered in the first hour. Subjects were analyzed for nausea and vomiting in predefined intervals during a 24h post-anesthesia follow-up.Logistic regression, controlled for dexamethasone and anesthesia/dexamethasone interaction, showed a significant risk to develop nausea following xenon anesthesia (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.02-5.19, p = 0.044. Early-onset nausea incidence was 46% after xenon and 35% after sevoflurane anesthesia (p = 0.138. After xenon, nausea occurred significantly earlier (p = 0.014, was more frequent and rated worse in the beginning. Dexamethasone did not markedly reduce nausea occurrence in both groups. Late-onset nausea showed no considerable difference between the groups.In our study setting, xenon anesthesia was associated with an elevated risk to develop nausea in sensitive subjects. Dexamethasone 4mg was not effective preventing nausea in our study. Group size or dosage might have been too small, and change of statistical analysis parameters in the post-hoc evaluation might have further contributed to a limitation of our results. Further trials will be needed to address prophylaxis of xenon-induced nausea.EU Clinical Trials EudraCT-2008-004132-20 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793663.

  16. Comparison of palanosetron, granisetron and ondansetron as anti-emetics for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing middle ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anjana; Saha, Debdas; Hembrom, Bani P; Roy, Amit; Naaz, Anjum

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of palanosetron (0.25 mg), granisetron (3.0 mg) and ondansetron (8.0 mg) used as anti-emetics for the prevention of postoperative nausea/vomiting in patients undergoing middle ear surgery. The study was done among 75 adult patients (age group 30-45 years) of which 50 were males and rest (25) females, all of ASA I and ASA II. The patients were randomly allocated into 3 equal groups: Group I (n = 25) received injection palanosetron (0.25 mg) IV, group II (n = 25) received injection granisetron (3 mg) IV and group III (n = 25) received injection ondansetron (8.0 mg) IV at the end of the surgical procedure. A standard general anaesthesia technique was employed. Emetic episodes and safety assessments were performed during two periods of 0-6 hours in the postanaesthesia care unit and 6-24 hours in the ward after anaesthesia. The incidence of emesis-free patients during the 0-6 hours period was 100% for group I; 72% for group II and 56% for group III. During the 6-24 hours period incidence of emesis-free patients were 96% for group I; 56% for group II and 32% for group III. So to conclude, a single dose of palanosetron (0.25 mg) is a superior anti-emetic to granisetron (3.0 mg) or ondansetron (8.0 mg) in complete prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after middle ear surgery during the first 24 hours period.

  17. Use of transdermal and intravenous granisetron and the ability of the Hesketh score to assess nausea and vomiting induced by multiday chemotherapy

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    Boccia RV

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ralph V Boccia,1 Gemma Clark,2 Julian D Howell21Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2ProStrakan Pharmaceuticals, Galashiels, UKPurpose: Hesketh scores define emetogenicity of single-agent and multiagent single-day chemotherapy. This analysis determined the emetogenicity of multiagent, multiday chemotherapy and the Granisetron Transdermal System (GTDS; Sancuso®.Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase III noninferiority trial of GTDS versus oral granisetron in patients receiving 3 days of multiagent moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy, regardless of granisetron formulation. Emesis was defined as vomiting/retching or the use of rescue medication. Logistic regression and classification trees were used to determine the optimal combination of Hesketh scores over the multiagent, multiday regimens for the prediction of emesis.Results: Of 393 patients, 272 (69.2% were chemotherapy naïve. The most common types of cancer were lung (30.5% and gynecologic (21.9%. The most common chemotherapeutic regimen (in 14.2% of patients was cisplatin plus etoposide on days 1–3. The best binary emesis predictor was day 1 Hesketh score. Patients with a day 1 Hesketh score of 5 had the highest rate of emesis (62.5% versus patients with a score < 5 (31.7%. For patients with day 1 Hesketh score < 5, only 14.3% of those receiving only one drug on day 1 experienced emesis.Conclusion: Hesketh emetogenicity scores of individual agents are applicable to multiday, multiagent chemotherapeutic regimens in patients receiving antiemetics.Keywords: chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, emetogenicity, granisetron, clinical trial, retrospective analysis

  18. Aprepitant plus granisetron and dexamethasone for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with gastric cancer treated with S-1 plus cisplatin.

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    Oyama, Katsunobu; Fushida, Sachio; Kaji, Masahide; Takeda, Toshiya; Kinami, Shinichi; Hirono, Yasuo; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiro; Yabushita, Kazuhisa; Hirosawa, Hisashi; Takai, Yuki; Nakano, Tatsuo; Kimura, Hironobu; Yasui, Toshiaki; Tsuneda, Atsushi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a new combination antiemetic therapy comprising aprepitant, granisetron, and dexamethasone in gastric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with cisplatin and S-1. Gastric cancer patients scheduled to receive their first course of chemotherapy with cisplatin (60 mg/m(2)) and S-1 (80 mg/m(2)) were treated with a new combination antiemetic therapy aprepitant, granisetron, and dexamethasone on day 1; aprepitant and dexamethasone on days 2 and 3; and dexamethasone on day 4. The patients reported vomiting, nausea, use of rescue therapy, and change in the amount of diet intake, and completed the Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR; no emesis and use of no rescue antiemetics) during the overall study phase (0-120 h after cisplatin administration). The secondary endpoints included complete protection (CP; CR plus no significant nausea); change in the amount of diet intake; and the impact of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) on daily life during the overall, acute (0-24 h), and delayed (24-120 h) phases. Fifty-three patients were included. CR was achieved in 88.7, 98.1, and 88.7% of patients in the overall, acute, and delayed phases, respectively. The corresponding rates of CP were 67.9, 96.2, and 67.9%. Approximately half of the patients had some degree of anorexia. FLIE results indicated that 79.5% of patients reported "minimal or no impact of CINV on daily life". Addition of aprepitant to standard antiemetic therapy was effective in gastric cancer patients undergoing treatment with cisplatin and S-1.

  19. Polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 Genes Contribute to the Variability in Granisetron Clearance and Exposure in Pregnant Women with Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Martha L; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Huijun; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2016-12-01

    Nausea and vomiting affect up to 90% of pregnant women. Granisetron is a potent and highly selective serotonin receptor antagonist and is an effective antiemetic. Findings from a prior study in pregnant women demonstrated a large interindividual variability in granisetron exposure. Granisetron is primarily metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP1A1 and CYP3A and is likely a substrate of the ABCB1 transporter. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A, CYP1A1, and ABCB1 can alter drug metabolism. This study evaluated the influence of polymorphisms in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP1A1, and ABCB1 on the pharmacokinetic properties of granisetron in pregnant women. The study enrolled 16 pregnant women (gestational age of 12-19 wks). All patients had nausea and vomiting and were treated with granisetron 1 mg. Granisetron plasma concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The patients' genotype was determined using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was assessed by comparing observed and expected genotype frequencies, using the exact test. Intravenous granisetron clearance was used as the dependent variable for analysis of associations. Of 16 patients, 25% were homozygous for the allele variant CYP3A5*3 and had a significantly lower granisetron clearance and increased area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) compared with nonhomozygous patients. Approximately one-third of patients (n=5) were carriers for the allele variant CYP1A1*2A and had a significantly higher granisetron clearance and decreased AUC. We did not find significant differences in the AUC or clearance for any SNPs in CYP3A4 and ABCB1 genes. Polymorphisms in CYP3A5 and CYP1A1 account for some of the variability in systemic clearance and exposure of granisetron in pregnant women. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Randomized, double-blind, crossover study of palonosetron compared with granisetron for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Weihua; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Juntian; Zhang, Shucai; Wang, Jinghui; Chen, Qiang; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Liangxi; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Jianjin; Shen, Hong; Lin, Tongyu

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of palonosetron and granisetron in a Chinese population receiving highly emetogenic cisplatin-based chemotherapy or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients were stratified by chemotherapy with cisplatin (yes/no) and then randomly assigned to receive either palonosetron (0.25 mg i.v.) in the first cycle followed by granisetron (3 mg i.v.) in the second cycle or vice versa. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with complete response 0-24 h post-chemotherapy administration. The proportions of patients with complete response 24-120 and 0-120 h following chemotherapy were also compared. Of the 144 patients randomized, 36 (25%) received 60-80 mg/m(2) cisplatin; 66 of 72 patients in the palonosetron to granisetron group and 56 of 72 patients in the granisetron to palonosetron group completed treatment with both antiemetics. The efficacy and safety analyses included 128 palonosetron treatments and 138 granisetron treatments. Palonosetron consistently produced numerically higher complete response rates than granisetron in the acute phase (0-24 h, 71.09 vs. 65.22%), the delayed phase (24-120 h, 60.16 vs. 55.80%), and overall (0-120 h, 53.13 vs. 50.00%) though the differences were not significant. Both palonosetron and granisetron were well tolerated. Palonosetron was well tolerated and effective in preventing acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in a Chinese population. When used as monotherapy, 0.25-mg palonosetron was not inferior to 3-mg granisetron for preventing vomiting following highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.

  1. [Efficacy of granisetron for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia treated with a combination of anthracycline and cytarabine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takashi; Tanimoto, Kazuki; Ishibashi, Makoto; Okamura, Seiichi

    2012-08-01

    In Japan, the combination of anthracycline and cytarabine(Ara-C)is a standard therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia(AML). Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting(CINV)are frequently reported as side effects related to the administration of these regimens. In our hospital, patients received prophylactic granisetron at a dose of 3 mg daily during chemotherapy. However, granisetron is known to induce constipation as a side effect. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a single dose of granisetron administered throughout the entire period of chemotherapy in AML patients receiving anthracycline and Ara-C combination therapy, and also examined the incidence of constipation during chemotherapy. From July 2008 to December 2010, all patients with AML treated using anthracycline and Ara-C combination therapy were registered in the study. This retrospective study investigated the patients' background and the incidence of CINV and constipation from the patients' records. The efficacy of granisetron was measured on each day using the complete regression(no vomiting and no rescue medication; CR)rate. A total of 45 patients were included in the study(27 male; 18 female), and received a total 68 courses(56 of induction therapy; 12 of consolidation therapy)of the regimens. The CR rate and the incidence of constipation on the final day of chemotherapy were 61. 8% and 63. 2%, respectively. As the duration of chemotherapy increased, the CR rate tended to decrease, whereas the incidence of constipation tended to increase. The CR rate in this study was 61. 8%, thus indicating that there is still room for improvement. The combination of dexamethasone and a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, or the changeover from granisetron to palonosetron could therefore increase the CR rate.

  2. Comparison of the Effect of Ondansetrone - Dexamethasone, Dexamethasone – Metoclopeamide and Ondansetron - Normal Saline in Decreasing Post Operative Nausa and Vomitting (PONV after Middle Ear Surgery

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    Haddadi Soudabeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of post-operative nausea and vomitting (PONV is increased after middle ear surgery and it may complicate and interact with reconstruction after surgery, so prevention and treatment of these complications are necessary.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of anti-emetic combinations in decreasing the PONV after middle ear surgery.Materials and methods: This double blind clinical trial was carried out during 2007-2008 on 111 patients of 15-45 years old with ASA I-II who were candidates for elective middle ear surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were divided into three groups. Patients in the ON group received Ondansetrone 0.1mg/kg + Nacl 0.9% 2cc, OD group received Ondansetrone 0.1mg/kg + Dexamethasone 0.15mg/kg and MD group received Dexamethasone 0.15mg/kg+ Metoclopramide 0.15mg/kg intravenously just before the end of surgery. The patients were evaluated for nausea, vomiting, need of anti-emetic drugs and drug dosage in recovery, 1-6, 6-12 and 12-24 hours after operation and then all data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software, Chi-square, ANOVA and t- Test. P<0.05 was significant.Results: There were no significant differences among three groups in age and sex. The incidence of PONV among 3 groups was not significantly different during 24 hours after operation. (P=0.271 but the incidence of PONV in the first six hours was different among 3 groups (P=0.007 (ON: 8.1%, OD: 0%, MD: 21.6%. Also Metoclopramide consumption was significant between three groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the need to anti-emetic drugs in first 6 hours was the least in OD group, but the difference in the incidence of PONV was not significant otherwise.

  3. Evaluating the antiemetic administration consistency to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with the standard guidelines: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazin, Afsaneh; Eslami, Davood; Sahebi, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting (NV) are the most prevalent adverse effects of chemotherapy (CT). This study was conducted to evaluate adherence of the health care team to standard guidelines for antiemetics usage to prevent acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in a large CT center. A prospective study was performed during an 11-month period on patients receiving CT. A form was designed to collect patients' demographic information and their chemotherapeutic and antiemetic regimen data. The Likert scale was used to measure the effectiveness of the antiemetics in patients. In this study, the effect of patient-related risk factors on the incidence rate of CINV was examined. Based on the results, CINV events were reported by 74.4% of patients. The antiemetic regimen of 71.2% of the patients complied with the guidelines. The complete response, complete protection, and complete control end points did not differ significantly between patients undergoing guidelines-consistent prophylaxis or guidelines-inconsistent prophylaxis. The females clearly showed a higher incidence rate of CINV ( P =0.001) during the first course of CT ( P =0.006). A history of motion sickness did not affect the incidence of NV. The maximum compliance error occurred for the use of aprepitant, as 16.16% of the patients who were receiving aprepitant did not comply with its instructions. The results of this study highlight how CINV was controlled in this center, which was significantly lower than that of the global standard. Perhaps, factors such as noncompliance to antiemetic regimens with standard guidelines and the failure to adhere to the administration instructions of the antiemetics were involved in the incomplete control of CINV.

  4. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Aprepitant on the Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting and Quality of Life with Functional Living Index Emesis

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    Görkem Aksu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Functional Living Index Emesis (FLIE is developed to evaluate the relationship between emesis and it's effects on patient's daily life and is far more relevant to detect the effectiveness of antiemetic treatment compared with self-diary reports. In this study, the efficacy of oral neurokinin-1 antagonist aprepitant on the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and quality of life is evaluated with FLIE. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Material and Methods: Sixty patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC receiving a chemotherapy regimen consisting of Cisplatin and Docetaxel were evaluated. The patients were prospectively randomized to two groups before the first cycle of chemotherapy. Patients in Group A (31 patients received 3 daily doses of aprepitant along with oral ondansetron and dexamethasone. The patients in group B (29 patients received only ondansetron and dexamathasone. The efficacy of both regimens was evaluated by a modified Turkish version of FLIE scale consisting of 18 questions. Results: The number of patients with complete response was 31 in the whole group. Of these 18 patients (58% were in Group A (Aprepitant and 13 patients in group B (42%. Median FLIE score in group A was 24.97 (±12.45 while it was 38.1 (±26.987 in group B and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.022. Total score >20 was seen in only 5 of 31 patients in aprepitant group (16% showing the significant efficiency of aprepitant on quality of life, while in group B, 13 of 29 patients (44% had total scores >20 (p=0.02. Conclusion: Regarding these findings, it is certain to state that aprepitant in combination with other drugs optimizes protection against both nausea and vomiting compared to the prior standard of care, and must be recommended as first-line therapy for patients who are treated with moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

  5. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Diarrhea and Vomiting Disease Among Children and Adults in a Community Cohort in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Candice; Tinoco, Yeny O; Loli, Sebastian; Razuri, Hugo; Soto, Giselle; Silva, María; Galvan, Patricia; Kambhampati, Anita; Parashar, Umesh D; Kasper, Matthew R; Bausch, Daniel G; Simons, Mark P; Lopman, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Data on norovirus epidemiology among all ages in community settings are scarce, especially from tropical settings. We implemented active surveillance in 297 households in Peru from October 2012 to August 2015 to assess the burden of diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to norovirus in a lower-middle-income community. During period 1 (October 2012-May 2013), we used a "traditional" diarrhea case definition (≥3 loose/liquid stools within 24 hours). During period 2 (June 2013-August 2015), we used an expanded case definition of AGE (by adding ≥2 vomiting episodes without diarrhea or 1-2 vomiting episodes plus 1-2 loose/liquid stools within 24 hours). Stool samples were tested for norovirus by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. During period 1, overall diarrhea and norovirus-associated diarrhea incidence was 37.2/100 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.2-41.7) and 5.7/100 PY (95% CI, 3.9-8.1), respectively. During period 2, overall AGE and norovirus-associated AGE incidence was 51.8/100 PY (95% CI, 48.8-54.9) and 6.5/100 PY (95% CI, 5.4-7.8), respectively. In both periods, children aged accounting for 35% (7/20) of all cases in this age group. Noroviruses were identified in 7% (23/335) of controls free of gastroenteric symptoms. Norovirus was a significant cause of AGE in this community, especially among children definition resulted in a 20% improvement for detection of norovirus cases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Addition of 3-day aprepitant to ondansetron and dexamethasone for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma receiving 5-day cisplatin-based chemotherapy

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    Raafat Abdel-Malek

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This triple anti-emetic regimen showed efficacy in controlling the multi-day cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to compare between 3-day and 7-day aprepitant for multi-day cisplatin regimens.

  7. A randomized, double-blind, multicentre study comparing daily 2 and 5 mg of tropisetron for the control of nausea and vomiting induced by low-dose cisplatin- or non-cisplatin-containing chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, ANM; vanderGraaf, WTA; Wils, JA; vanHeukelom, LS; vanderLinden, GHM; DullemondWestland, AC; Nooy, M; vanderHeul, C; deBruijn, KM; deVries, EGE

    Background: This study compares efficacy safety and tolerability of 2 and 5 mg tropisetron in prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by low-dose cisplatin- or non-cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. Patients and methods: 152 chemotherapy-naive cancer patients were randomized in a double-blind

  8. Efficacy and safety of aprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the first cycle of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy in Korean patients with a broad range of tumor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Jang, Joung-Soon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Sung, Yong Lee; Cho, Chi-Heum; Lee, Myung-Ah; Kim, Do-Jin; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Lee, Kil Yeon; Sym, Sun Jin; Lim, Myong Choel; Jung, Hun; Cho, Eun Kim; Min, Kyung Wan

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 3-day aprepitant regimen for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during the first cycle of non-anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide (AC)-based moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) based on government guidelines in Korean patients. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase IV trial (NCT01636947) enrolled adult South Korean patients with a broad range of tumor types who were scheduled to receive a single dose of ≥1 MEC agent. Patients were randomized to a 3-day regimen of aprepitant (aprepitant regimen) or placebo (control regimen) on top of ondansetron plus dexamethasone. The primary and key secondary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of subjects who achieved no vomiting and complete response (CR) during the overall phase. Of the 494 randomized subjects, 480 were included in the modified intent-to-treat population. Response rates for no vomiting and CR in the overall phase were numerically higher for the aprepitant regimen compared with the control regimen groups, but failed to reach statistical significance (no vomiting 77.2 vs 72.0%; p = 0.191; CR 73.4 vs 70.4%; p = 0.458). Both the aprepitant and control regimens were generally well tolerated. A 3-day aprepitant regimen was numerically better but not statistically superior to a control regimen with respect to the achievement of no vomiting or CR during the overall phase in a non-AC MEC Korean population based on government reimbursement guidelines. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01636947 ( https://clinicaltrials.Gov/ct2/show/NCT01636947 ).

  9. A prospective randomized comparative clinical trial comparing the efficacy between ondansetron and metoclopramide for prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing fractionated radiotherapy to the abdominal region

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    Park, Hee Chul; Suh, Chang Ok; Seong, Jin Sil; Cho, Jae Ho; Lim, John Jihoon; Park, Won; Song, Jae Seok; Kim, Gwi Eon [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    This study is a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy and complication of anti-emetic drugs for prevention of nausea and vomiting after radiotherapy which has moderate emetogenic potential. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the anti-emetic efficacy at ondansetron(Zofran) 8 mg bid dose (Group O) is better than the efficacy of metoclopramide 5 mg tid dose (Group M) in patients undergoing fractionated radiotherapy to the abdominal region. Study entry was restricted to those patients who met the following eligibility criteria: histologically confirmed malignant disease; no distant metastasis; performance status of not more than ECOG grade 2; no previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Between March 1997 and February 1998, 60 patients enrolled in this study. All patients signed a written statement of informed consent prior to enrollment. Blinding was maintained by dosing identical number of tables including one dose of matching placebo for Group O. The extent of nausea, appetite loss, and the number of emetic episodes were recorded everyday using diary card. The mean score of nausea, appetite loss and the mean number of emetic episodes were obtained in a weekly interval. Prescription error occurred in one patient. And diary cards have not returned in 3 patients due to premature refusal of treatment. Card from one patient was excluded from the analysis because she had a history of treatment for neurosis. As a result, the analysis consisted of 55 patients. Patient characteristics and radiotherapy characteristics were similar except mean age was 52.9{+-} 11.2 in group M, 46.5{+-}9.6 in group O. The difference of age was statistically significant. The mean score of nausea, appetite loss and emetic episodes in a weekly interval was higher in group M than O. In group M, the symptoms were most significant at 5th week. In a panel data analysis using mixed procedure, treatment group was only significant factor detecting the difference of

  10. A prospective randomized comparative clinical trial comparing the efficacy between ondansetron and metoclopramide for prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing fractionated radiotherapy to the abdominal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Chul; Suh, Chang Ok; Seong, Jin Sil; Cho, Jae Ho; Lim, John Jihoon; Park, Won; Song, Jae Seok; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2001-01-01

    This study is a prospective randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy and complication of anti-emetic drugs for prevention of nausea and vomiting after radiotherapy which has moderate emetogenic potential. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the anti-emetic efficacy at ondansetron(Zofran) 8 mg bid dose (Group O) is better than the efficacy of metoclopramide 5 mg tid dose (Group M) in patients undergoing fractionated radiotherapy to the abdominal region. Study entry was restricted to those patients who met the following eligibility criteria: histologically confirmed malignant disease; no distant metastasis; performance status of not more than ECOG grade 2; no previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Between March 1997 and February 1998, 60 patients enrolled in this study. All patients signed a written statement of informed consent prior to enrollment. Blinding was maintained by dosing identical number of tables including one dose of matching placebo for Group O. The extent of nausea, appetite loss, and the number of emetic episodes were recorded everyday using diary card. The mean score of nausea, appetite loss and the mean number of emetic episodes were obtained in a weekly interval. Prescription error occurred in one patient. And diary cards have not returned in 3 patients due to premature refusal of treatment. Card from one patient was excluded from the analysis because she had a history of treatment for neurosis. As a result, the analysis consisted of 55 patients. Patient characteristics and radiotherapy characteristics were similar except mean age was 52.9± 11.2 in group M, 46.5±9.6 in group O. The difference of age was statistically significant. The mean score of nausea, appetite loss and emetic episodes in a weekly interval was higher in group M than O. In group M, the symptoms were most significant at 5th week. In a panel data analysis using mixed procedure, treatment group was only significant factor detecting the difference of weekly

  11. The effect of dexketoprofen pre-emptively administered on the consumption of tramadol and the incidence of nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea D.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study has been to assess the comparative use of the two NSAIDs, dexketoprofen and ketoprofen, for postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy mainly following: the quality of the analgesia, the incidence of potential adverse effects (for example, postoperative nausea and vomiting and the rescue analgesics consumption (tramadol. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study included 90 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups: group D (n = 45 - patients that have received dexketoprofen 50 mg in dilution with10 ml saline solution iv., 30 minutes before the induction and group K (n = 45 - patients that have received ketoprofen 100 mg in dilution with 10 ml saline solution iv., 30 minutes before the induction (preemptive analgesia. Surgical interventions were conducted under general anaesthesia, with identical protocol for the two groups of study. Post-surgery analgesic regime consisting in 4 g of paracetamol administered for example in the first 24 hours, was started immediately after surgery. Boluses of tramadol of 100 mg (until 400 mg /daily have been used as rescue analgesia. The main objectives of our study have been: post-surgery analgesia (VAS at mobilization, 0-100 mm at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery,the consumption of tramadol, incidence of PONV and the length of hospitalization period (LOS. Secondary objectives of the study have been: the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the incidence of postsurgery blood losses. In the two study groups there have not been any differences concerning demographic data, post-surgery gastro-intestinal symptoms, postsurgery loss of blood and the hospitalization period. VAS was significantly lower in group D vs. K, at 0 and 6 hours after the surgery (p <0,05. The incidence of PONV was lower in the group of patients who received preemptive analgesia with dexketoprofen (p <0

  12. Impact of 5-HT(3) RA selection within triple antiemetic regimens on uncontrolled highly emetogenic chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzberg, Lee; Jackson, James; Jain, Gagan; Balu, Sanjeev; Buchner, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    It is recommended that patients initiate triple antiemetic therapy with one of the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists (5-HT(3) RAs), aprepitant (or its intravenous prodrug fosaprepitant) and dexamethasone prior to the start of highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). However, the impact of 5-HT(3) RA selection within triple antiemetic regimens on the risk of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with HEC has not been well studied. To assess the likelihood of an uncontrolled CINV event following antiemetic prophylaxis with the 5-HT(3) RA palonosetron + aprepitant/fosaprepitant + dexamethasone (palonosetron cohort) versus any of the other 5-HT(3) RAs + aprepitant/fosaprepitant + dexamethasone (other 5-HT(3) RA cohort) among single-day HEC cycles. Single-day HEC cycles (a gap of at least 5 days between two administrations) among patients with a cancer diagnosis and receiving antiemetic prophylaxis with the aforementioned regimens between 1/1/2006 and 6/30/2010 were identified from the IMS LifeLink claims database. Uncontrolled CINV events were identified through ICD-9-CM codes (nausea and vomiting), Current Procedural Terminology codes (hydration), rescue medications and/or use of antiemetic therapy from days 2-5 following HEC administration. Risks for an uncontrolled CINV event among all patients, and within breast cancer and multiple cancer subpopulations, were analyzed at cycle level using logistic multivariate regression models. A total of 8018 cycles for the palonosetron cohort and 1926 cycles for the other 5-HT(3) RA cohort (3574 and 978 patients, respectively) were analyzed. Single-day HEC cycles received by the palonosetron cohort had a significantly lower unadjusted risk of an uncontrolled CINV event (17.5 vs 20.7% for the other 5-HT(3) RA cohort; p = 0.0010), with a 17% lower adjusted risk for palonosetron-administered cycles (odds ratio: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.73-0.94; p = 0.0042). Results in the breast cancer and multiple cancer

  13. A prospective randomized double-blind trial comparing ondansetron versus prochlorperazine for the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestman, T.J.; Roberts, J.T.; Upadhyaya, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    In a multicentre, international double-blind trial, patients undergoing courses of five or more daily radiotherapy treatments to the upper abdomen were randomized to receive either oral ondansetron 8 mg t.d.s. or oral prochlorperazine 10 mg t.d.s. throughout their radiation course in order to try to prevent nausea and vomiting. A total of 192 patients were recruited, 135 of whom were included in the efficacy analysis; of these, 70 received ondansetron and 65 prochlorperazine. Forty-three (61%) of the patients prescribed ondansetron and 23 (35%) of those given prochlorperazine had a complete response, with no emetic episodes throughout their treatment course. There was, however, no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the incidence and severity of nausea. Seventeen (24%) of the patients on ondansetron and 19 (29%) of those given prochlorperazine were treatment failures, experiencing more than five emetic episodes on their worst day during the study. Both drugs were well tolerated, although constipation was seen more commonly with ondansetron. (author)

  14. High-dose metoclopramide + lorazepam versus low-dose metoclopramide + lorazepam + dehydrobenzperidol in the treatment of cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Hannibal, J; Hallas, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    In a randomized double-blind, cross-over trial of 34 patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy (20-100 mg/m2), the antiemetic effect of high-dose metoclopramide (HDM) (10 mg/kg iv. loading dose + 7 hours continuous infusion) + lorazepam (L) (2.5 mg x 4 po) was compared with low......-dose metoclopramide (LDM) (70 mg) + L (2.5 mg x 2 po) + dehydrobenzperidol (5 mg x 2 im). Among the 29 patients who completed the cross-over, HDM significantly reduced the number of vomiting episodes (p = 0.002) and the degree of nausea (p = 0.004). Seventeen patients preferred the HDM and 4 the LDM regimen (p = 0.......01). Sedation was seen in all but 1 patient, and was graded as severe in 6 patients receiving the HDM and in 2 patients receiving the LDM regimen. No extrapyramidal adverse reactions were seen. We conclude that high-dose metoclopramide + lorazepam is a safe antiemetic regimen and significantly superior to low...

  15. Granisetron in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) - is there still a role after comparison with palonosetron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggrell, Sheila A

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) has a negative impact on the lives of subjects receiving chemotherapy. In 2009, the second generation 5-HT 3 -receptor antagonist, palonosetron, which is longer-acting than granisetron, was shown, as part of dual therapy with dexamethasone, to be superior to intravenous granisetron in the delayed phase of CINV. Area covered: In an attempt to maintain plasma levels of granisetron during the delayed phase of CINV, longer-acting preparations of granisetron have been manufactured. In addition to comparing intravenous/oral granisetron with palonosetron, this review considers the new longer-acting preparations of granisetron (transdermal and subcutanous) with emphasis on whether they are effective in the delayed phase of CINV. Expert opinion: Comparison of intravenous/oral granisetron and palonosetron, as part of triple therapy against the delayed phase of CINV, do not give clear-cut results as to non-inferiority or superiority of either agent. Subcutaneous granisetron is more convenient to use than transdermal granisetron, and has been shown to be non-inferior to palonosetron, as part of dual therapy, in the treatment of the acute and delayed phases of CINV. At present, it seems likely that there will be ongoing roles for intravenous and subcutaneous granisetron in CINV, but further data is required to ascertain the future of transdermal granisetron.

  16. Granisetron versus Granisetron-Dexamethasone for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Strabismus Surgery: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Efficacy of granisetron and combination of granisetron and dexamethasone was evaluated for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV in children undergoing elective strabismus surgery. Methods. A total of 136 children (1–15 years were included. Children received either granisetron (40 mcg/kg [group G] or combination of granisetron (40 mcg/kg and dexamethasone (150 mcg/kg [group GD]. Intraoperative fentanyl requirement and incidence and severity of oculocardiac reflex were assessed. PONV severity was assessed for first 24 hours and if score was >2, it was treated with metoclopramide. Postoperative analgesia was administered with intravenous fentanyl and ibuprofen. Results. The demographic profile, muscles operated, and fentanyl requirement were comparable. Complete response to PONV in first 24 hours was observed in 75% (51/68 of children in group G and 76.9% (50/65 of children in group GD, which was comparable statistically (p=0.96, Fisher exact test; OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.50, 2.46. Incidence of PONV between 0 and 24 hours was comparable. One child in group G required rescue antiemetic in first 24 hours and none of the children had severe PONV in group GD. There was no significant difference in incidence or severity of oculocardiac reflex. Conclusion. Dexamethasone did not increase efficacy of granisetron for prevention of PONV in elective pediatric strabismus surgery. Registration number of clinical trial was CTRI/2009/091/001000.

  17. Comparison of the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si-Jia; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Lin, Yi-Xin; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Our purpose was to assess the prophylactic antiemetic effects of ondansetron versus granisetron for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, Foreign Medical Journal Full-Text Service, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Whole Article Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, and the Google Scholar. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous data. The χ(2) test and I(2) value were used to assess heterogeneity. The merged early incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in ondansetron group (42.9%) was higher than granisetron group (34.3%) (RR = 1.25, 95% CI, 0.82-1.92, P=0.31, I(2) = 48%). The merged total incidence of PONV in ondansetron group (38.7%) was higher than granisetron group (34.2%) (RR = 1.13, 95% CI, 0.82-1.56, P = 0.46, I(2) = 39%), although these differences were not statistically significant. Ondansetron is equivalent to granisetron for preventing early and total incidence of PONV after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  18. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in the head of the pancreas with anorexia and vomiting in a 69-year-old man: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Bu, Xianmin; Tian, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare condition of unclear etiology that is commonly observed in the lung but rarely in the pancreas. WHO classified IMT as a potentially malignant or aggressive tumor. In the present report, the case of a 69-year-old male patient with an IMT in the head of the pancreas, who experienced anorexia, nausea and vomiting, is presented. The patient's clinical symptoms were nonspecific, and the imaging findings revealed a hypovascularized pancreatic mass with stenosis of the descending duodenum. The electronic endoscopy findings revealed protruding lesions in the duodenal bulb and the descending duodenum. Biopsies of the mass were conducted with an electronic endoscope, but were not diagnostic. Subsequent duodenopancreatectomy aided in determining a pathological diagnosis of IMT, based on the histology and immunohistochemistry results. The patient experienced a recovery without further incident, as observed during a regular follow-up 3 years later. IMT in the head of the pancreas is rare, particularly in adults. In the present study, an extremely rare case of IMT involving the head of the pancreas in an adult patient is presented, and the therapeutic options for this condition are discussed.

  19. A Review of NEPA, a Novel Fixed Antiemetic Combination with the Potential for Enhancing Guideline Adherence and Improving Control of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Hesketh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination antiemetic regimens targeting multiple molecular pathways associated with emesis have become the standard of care for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV related to highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapies. Antiemetic consensus guidelines from several professional societies are widely available and updated regularly as new data emerges. Unfortunately, despite substantial research supporting the notion that guideline conformity improves CINV control, adherence to antiemetic guidelines is unsatisfactory. While studies are needed to identify specific barriers to guideline use and explore measures to enhance adherence, a novel approach has been taken to improve clinician adherence and patient compliance, with the development of a new combination antiemetic. NEPA is an oral fixed combination of a new highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA, netupitant, and the pharmacologically and clinically distinct 5-HT3 RA, palonosetron. This convenient antiemetic combination offers guideline-consistent prophylaxis by targeting two critical pathways associated with CINV in a single oral dose administered only once per cycle. This paper will review and discuss the NEPA data in the context of how this first combination antiemetic may overcome some of the barriers interfering with adherence to antiemetic guidelines, enhance patient compliance, and offer a possible advance in the prevention of CINV for patients.

  20. A comparison of the effects of droperidol and the combination of droperidol and ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Awad, Imad T

    2012-02-03

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare the prophylactic antiemetic efficacy of the combination of ondansetron and droperidol with that of droperidol alone in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind controlled trial. University affiliated teaching hospital after induction of standardized general anesthesia. PATIENTS: 64 ASA physical status I or II patients aged 18 to 80 years, undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. INTERVENTION: Following induction of general anesthesia, patients received either droperidol 1.25 mg intravenously (IV; n = 30; Group D) or the combination of droperidol 1.25 mg IV and ondansetron 4 mg IV (n = 34; Group D+O). MEASUREMENTS: Number and severity of nausea episodes, number of emetic episodes, total analgesic consumption, and rescue antiemetic administration were assessed at 1, 3, and 24 hours after admission to the recovery room. Data were analyzed using Fisher\\'s Exact test and unpaired Student\\'s t-test; a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The proportions of patients who experienced nausea (70% and 53% for D and D+O groups, respectively) and vomiting (30% and 19% for D and D+O groups, respectively) were similar in the two groups. The frequency of moderate and severe nausea (requiring administration of antiemetic) was less in group D + O (7%) compared with group D (19%; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who received the combination of droperidol and ondansetron experienced less severe nausea compared with patients who received droperidol alone.

  1. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Ramosetron for Prevention of Post Operative Nausea and Vomiting after Intrathecal Morphine in Patients Undergoing Gynecological Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangnamthip, Suratsawadee; Chinachoti, Thitima; Amornyotin, Somchai; Wongtangman, Karuna; Sukantarat, Numphung; Noitasaeng, Papiroon

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after intrathecal morphine is high. Ramosetron is a 5-HT₃ antagonist that has been shown to reduce PONV in general anesthesia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Ramosetron in preventing PONV MATERIAL AND METHOD: 165 patients undergoing elective gynecological surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to two groups: the Ramosetron group (0.1 mg orally, n = 82), and the placebo group (oral corn starch, n = 83). The incidence of PONV severity of nausea and use of rescue antiemetic during the first 24 hour after surgery were evaluated. The incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the Ramosetron group compared with the placebo group (24.4% vs. 44.6%, number needed to treat (NNT) = 5.0). The severity of nausea was significantly lower in the Ramosetron group compared with the placebo group (20.7% vs. 39.8%, NNT = 6.0) in the 24 hour period. Oral Ramosetron 0.1 mg was more effective than placebo in PONV prevention and reduced the incidence of moderate to severe nausea after intrathecal morphine in the first 24 hour after gynecological surgery.

  2. Current Evidence on Auricular Therapy for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yu Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular therapy (AT has been historically viewed as a convenient approach adjunct to pharmacological therapy for cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV. The aim of this study was to assess the evidence of the therapeutic effect of AT for CINV management in cancer patients. Relevant randomized controlled trials were retrieved from 12 electronic databases without language restrictions. Meanwhile, manual search was conducted for Chinese journals on complementary medicine published within the last five years, and the reference lists of included studies were also checked to identify any possible eligible studies. Twenty-one studies with 1713 participants were included. The effect rate of AT for managing acute CINV ranged from 44.44% to 93.33% in the intervention groups and 15% to 91.67% in the control groups. For delayed CINV, it was 62.96% to 100% and 25% to 100%, respectively. AT seems to be a promising approach in managing CINV. However, the level of evidence was low and the definite effect cannot be concluded as there were significant methodological flaws identified in the analyzed studies. The implications drawn from the 21 studies put some clues for future practice in this area including the need to conduct more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials.

  3. Current Evidence on Auricular Therapy for Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Alexander; Wang, Tao; Suen, Lorna K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Auricular therapy (AT) has been historically viewed as a convenient approach adjunct to pharmacological therapy for cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The aim of this study was to assess the evidence of the therapeutic effect of AT for CINV management in cancer patients. Relevant randomized controlled trials were retrieved from 12 electronic databases without language restrictions. Meanwhile, manual search was conducted for Chinese journals on complementary medicine published within the last five years, and the reference lists of included studies were also checked to identify any possible eligible studies. Twenty-one studies with 1713 participants were included. The effect rate of AT for managing acute CINV ranged from 44.44% to 93.33% in the intervention groups and 15% to 91.67% in the control groups. For delayed CINV, it was 62.96% to 100% and 25% to 100%, respectively. AT seems to be a promising approach in managing CINV. However, the level of evidence was low and the definite effect cannot be concluded as there were significant methodological flaws identified in the analyzed studies. The implications drawn from the 21 studies put some clues for future practice in this area including the need to conduct more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials. PMID:25525445

  4. The cannabis hyperemesis syndrome characterized by persistent nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and compulsive bathing associated with chronic marijuana use: a report of eight cases in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Co, Maria; Batke, Mihaela; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2010-11-01

    The cannabis hyperemesis syndrome, which is associated with chronic cannabis use, was recently reported in seven case reports and one clinical series of ten patients from Australia. We further characterize this syndrome with eight well-documented cases in the United States and report results of cannabis discontinuation and cannabis rechallenge. Patients were identified by the three investigators in gastroenterology clinic or inpatient wards at William Beaumont Hospital from January to August 2009 based on chronic cannabis use; otherwise unexplained refractory, recurrent vomiting; and compulsive bathing. Charts were retrospectively analyzed with follow-up data obtained from subsequent physician visits and patient interviews. The eight patients on average were 32.4 ± 4.1 years old. Five were male. The mean interval between the onset of cannabis use and development of recurrent vomiting was 19.0 ± 3.7 years. Patients had a mean of 7.1 ± 4.3 emergency room visits, 5.0 ± 2.7 clinic visits, and 3.1 ± 1.9 admissions for this syndrome. All patients had visited at least one other hospital in addition to Beaumont Hospital. All patients had vomiting (mean vomiting episodes every 3.0 ± 1.7 h), compulsive bathing (mean = 5.0 ± 2.0 baths or showers/day; mean total bathing time = 5.0 ± 5.1 h/day), and abdominal pain. Seven patients took hot baths or showers, and seven patients experienced polydipsia. Four out of five patients who discontinued cannabis use recovered from the syndrome, while the other three patients who continued cannabis use, despite recommendations for cessation, continued to have this syndrome. Among those four who recovered, one patient had recurrence of vomiting and compulsive bathing with cannabis resumption. Cannabis hyperemesis is characterized by otherwise unexplained recurrent nausea and vomiting, compulsive bathing, abdominal pain, and polydipsia associated with chronic cannabis use. This syndrome can occur in the United States as well as in

  5. Efficacy of aprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with a moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimen: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study in patients with gynecologic cancer receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Sonoda, Kenzo; Shimokawa, Mototsugu; Ohgami, Tatsuhiro; Saito, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Shinji; Sakai, Kunihiro; Ichinoe, Akimasa; Ueoka, Yousuke; Hasuo, Yasuyuki; Nishida, Makoto; Masuda, Satohiro; Kato, Kiyoko

    2016-06-01

    Substance P contributes to the hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to paclitaxel in a rat model. Aprepitant acts as an inhibitor of the binding of substance P to the neurokinin-1 receptor and, consequently, may reduce the frequency of paclitaxel-induced HSR. While aprepitant has a prophylactic effect against vomiting caused by high-dose cisplatin, the benefits of aprepitant have not been clearly demonstrated in patients receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC) combination chemotherapy. We conducted a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study in Japanese patients with gynecologic cancer who received TC combination chemotherapy. Patients received aprepitant or placebo together with both a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone prior to chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with HSR, and the secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients with "no vomiting", "no significant nausea", and complete response, respectively. Of the 324 randomized patients, 297 (151 in the aprepitant group; 146 in the placebo group) were evaluated. The percentage of patients with HSR (9.2 vs. 7.5 %, respectively; P = 0.339) was not significantly different between the groups. The percentage of "no vomiting" patients (78.2 vs. 54.8 %; P gynecologic cancer patients receiving TC combination chemotherapy.

  6. A randomized study of the efficacy and safety of transdermal granisetron in the control of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy in Korean patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Hong, Yong Sang; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Park, Seong Joon; Sym, Sun Jin; Shin, Dong Bok; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Jin Seok; Kim, Tae Won

    2015-06-01

    The granisetron transdermal system (GTS) showed non-inferior efficacy to oral granisetron to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during multiday chemotherapy. We compared the efficacy and safety of GTS with that of intravenous and oral granisetron in Korean patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). A total of 276 patients were randomized into GTS (n = 139, one patch on days 1-4) or control group (n = 137, intravenous on day 1 and oral on days 2-4). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving complete response (CR) from chemotherapy initiation until 24 h after the final administration. Out of 234 patients (112 in GTS and 122 in control group) included in the per protocol analysis, 97.9 % had gastrointestinal cancer and 76.9 % received 3-day chemotherapy. The GTS showed non-inferior efficacy achieving CR in 75.0 % of the patients; 74.6 % of the patients in the control group achieved CR (95 % confidence interval -10.73 to 11.55 %). The CR rate did not change after subgroup analyses by sex, age, and chemotherapy naivety and analysis per day and overall days of treatment. The GTS group showed sustained CR from day 1 to day 4. Patients' satisfaction, assessed using Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLI-E), showed no difference. Both treatments were well tolerated and safe. The GTS showed non-inferior efficacy to intravenous and oral granisetron. The safety, tolerability, and FLI-E scores of the GTS were comparable to those of control group. The GTS offers a convenient alternative option for relieving CINV in patients receiving MEC.

  7. Transdermal granisetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting following moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy in Chinese patients: a randomized, double-blind, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu-Qing; Sun, Xin-Chen; Qin, Shu-Kui; Chen, Ying-Xia; Zhang, He-Long; Cheng, Ying; Chen, Zhen-Dong; Shi, Jian-Hua; Wu, Qiong; Bai, Yu-Xian; Han, Bao-Hui; Liu, Wei; Ouyang, Xue-Nong; Liu, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Yong-Qiang; Xu, Jian-Ming; Yu, Shi-Ying

    2016-12-01

    The granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS) has been demonstrated effectiveness in the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in previous studies. This is the first phase III study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of GTDS in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) in China. A total of 313 patients were randomized into the GTDS group (one transdermal granisetron patch, 7 days) or the oral granisetron group (granisetron oral 2 mg/day, ≥2 days). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving complete control (CC) from chemotherapy initiation until 24 h after final administration (PEEP). Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Two hundred eighty-one patients were included in the per protocol analysis. During PEEP, CC was achieved by 67 (47.52%) patients in the GTDS group and 83 (59.29%) patients in the oral granisetron group. There was no statistical significance between the groups (P=0.0559). However, the difference of the CC percentage mainly occurred on the first day of chemotherapy between the groups. The CC was 70.13% on day 1 in the GTDS group, which was significantly lower than that of 91.03% in the oral granisetron group in the full analysis set. In the following days of chemotherapy, the CC was similar between the groups. In terms of cisplatin-contained regimen and female, there was statistical significance between the groups. Both treatments were well tolerated and safe. The most common adverse event was constipation. GTDS provided effective and well-tolerated control of CINV in Chinese patients, especially to non-cisplatin-contained regimen.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study Comparing the Impact of Aprepitant and Fosaprepitant on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Treated for Gynecologic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, John P; Rettenmaier, Mark A; Brown, John V; Mendivil, Alberto; Abaid, Lisa N; Lopez, Katrina L; Goldstein, Bram H

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the response rates and daily living activities of patients with newly diagnosed gynecologic cancer treated with fosaprepitant or aprepitant in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Eligible participants were randomized to either intravenous fosaprepitant (150 mg, day 1) or oral aprepitant (125 mg on day 1 and 80 mg on days 2-3) before undergoing weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/2)(2) and monthly carboplatin (AUC 6)-based chemotherapy. In addition, standard premedications (eg, ranitidine, dexamethasone, and diphenhydramine) were administered intravenously on day 1. Response evaluation and impact on daily life were measured throughout the acute phase (0-24 hours), delayed period (days 2-4), and overall phase (0-120 hours) of the patients' initial chemotherapy cycle via the Functional Living Index-Emesis. In the current investigation, 20 gynecologic cancer subjects were treated with either fosaprepitant (n = 10) or aprepitant (n = 10) before their first chemotherapy cycle. We observed 7 overall complete responses (70%, no emetic episodes or rescue medications) in the aprepitant group and 6 (60%) in the fosaprepitant cohort (P = 0.660). In addition, both treatment groups reported similarly, favorable rates of daily living activities throughout the acute (P = 0.626) and delayed (P = 0.648) phases of cycle 1 chemotherapy. The findings from the current analysis suggest that intravenous fosaprepitant and oral aprepitant confer beneficial antiemetic prevention. Moreover, the 2 medications theoretically afford a favorable impact on daily living, thereby potentially facilitating the completion of a patient's clinically prescribed chemotherapy regimen.

  9. Gender-Specific Differences in Low-Dose Haloperidol Response for Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: A Register-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettner, Florian; Janitza, Silke; Prüll, Kathrin; Weninger, Ernst; Mansmann, Ulrich; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jovanovic, Alexander; Pollwein, Bernhard; Chappell, Daniel; Zwissler, Bernhard; von Dossow, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most common and distressing complications after general anesthesia and surgery, with young non-smoking females receiving postoperative opioids being high-risk patients. This register-based study aims to evaluate the effect of low-dose haloperidol (0.5 mg intravenously) directly after induction of general anesthesia to reduce the incidence of PONV in the postoperative anesthesiological care unit (PACU). Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the association between low-dose haloperidol and the occurrence of PONV using a patient registry containing 2,617 surgical procedures carried out at an university hospital. Haloperidol 0.5 mg is associated with a reduced risk of PONV in the total collective (adjusted odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: [0.56, 0.99], p = 0.05). The results indicate that there is a reduced risk in male patients (adjusted odds ratio = 0.45, 95% confidence interval: [0.28, 0.73], p = 0.001) if a dose of 0.5 mg haloperidol was administered while there seems to be no effect in females (adjusted odds ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: [0.71, 1.46], p = 0.93). Currently known risk factors for PONV such as female gender, duration of anesthesia and the use of opioids were confirmed in our analysis. This study suggests that low-dose haloperidol has an antiemetic effect in male patients but has no effect in female patients. A confirmation of the gender-specific effects we have observed in this register-based cohort study might have major implications on clinical daily routine.

  10. Rikkunshito for Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Lung Cancer Patients: Results from 2 Prospective, Randomized Phase 2 Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Harada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The herbal medicine rikkunshito has the potential to improve chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV by stimulating ghrelin secretion. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rikkunshito in preventing CINV for patients with lung cancer. Two separate prospective, randomized, phase II parallel design studies were conducted in patients with lung cancer. Fifty-eight and sixty-two patients scheduled to receive highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC, respectively, were randomized 1:1 to receive either standard antiemetic therapy in accordance with international guidelines (S group or standard antiemetic therapy plus oral rikkunshito (R group. The primary endpoint was overall complete response (CR—that is, no emesis and rescue medication in the first 120 h post-chemotherapy. Secondary endpoints included CR in the acute (0–24 h and delayed (>24–120 h phases and safety. Fifty-seven patients (S group, 28; R group, 29 receiving HEC and sixty-two patients (S group, 30; R group, 32 receiving MEC with comparable characteristics were evaluated. The CR rates were similar across the S and R groups for the HEC study in the overall (67.9% vs. 62.1%, acute (96.4% vs. 89.6%, and delayed (67.9% vs. 62.1% phases, respectively, and for the MEC study in the overall (83.3% vs. 84.4%, acute (100% vs. 100%, and delayed (83.3% vs. 84.4% phases, respectively. No severe adverse events were observed. Although rikkunshito was well tolerated, it did not demonstrate an additional preventative effect against CINV in lung cancer patients receiving HEC or MEC.Clinical Trial Registry Information: This study is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN Clinical Trial Registry1, identification numbers UMIN 000014239 and UMIN 000014240.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of an aprepitant regimen for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with breast cancer in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphreys S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Humphreys,1 James Pellissier,2 Alison Jones3 1Market Access Department, Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, UK; 2Health Economic Statistics, Merck Research Laboratories, Upper Gwynedd, PA, USA; 3Department of Medical Oncology, University College Hospital, London, UK Purpose: Prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV remains an important goal for patients receiving chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to define, from the UK payer perspective, the cost-effectiveness of an antiemetic regimen using aprepitant, a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, for patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Methods: A decision-analytic model was developed to compare an aprepitant regimen (aprepitant, ondansetron, and dexamethasone with a standard UK antiemetic regimen (ondansetron, dexamethasone, and metoclopramide for expected costs and health outcomes after single-day adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. The model was populated with results from patients with breast cancer participating in a randomized trial of CINV preventative therapy for cycle 1 of single-day chemotherapy. Results: During 5 days after chemotherapy, 64% of patients receiving the aprepitant regimen and 47% of those receiving the UK comparator regimen had a complete response to antiemetic therapy (no emesis and no rescue antiemetic therapy. A mean of £37.11 (78% of the cost of aprepitant was offset by reduced health care resource utilization costs. The predicted gain in quality-adjusted lifeyears (QALYs with the aprepitant regimen was 0.0048. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER with aprepitant, relative to the UK comparator, was £10,847/QALY, which is well below the threshold commonly accepted in the UK of £20,000–£30,000/QALY. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that aprepitant is cost-effective for preventing CINV associated with chemotherapy for patients with breast cancer in the UK health

  12. Efficacy and safety of rolapitant for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting over multiple cycles of moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Bernardo; Schwartzberg, Lee; Chasen, Martin; Powers, Dan; Arora, Sujata; Navari, Rudolph; Schnadig, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Rolapitant, a novel neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (RA), was shown to protect against delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during the first cycle of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) in randomized, double-blind trials. This analysis explored the efficacy and safety of rolapitant in preventing CINV over multiple cycles of MEC or HEC. Patients in one phase III MEC, one phase II HEC, and two phase III HEC clinical trials were randomized to receive oral rolapitant (180 mg) or placebo in combination with a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 RA and dexamethasone. Regardless of response in cycle 1, patients could continue the same antiemetic treatment for up to six cycles. On days 6-8 of each subsequent chemotherapy cycle, patients reported the incidence of emesis and/or nausea interfering with normal daily life. Post hoc analyses of pooled safety and efficacy data from the four trials were performed for cycles 2-6. Significantly more patients receiving rolapitant than control reported no emesis or interfering nausea (combined measure) in cycles 2 (p = 0.006), 3 (p cycles 1-6, time-to-first emesis was significantly longer with rolapitant than with control (p cycles 2-6 was similar in rolapitant (5.5%) and control (6.8%) arms. No cumulative toxicity was observed. Over multiple cycles of MEC or HEC, rolapitant provided superior CINV protection and reduced emesis and nausea interfering with daily life compared with control and remained well tolerated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Eliminating Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Outpatient Surgery with Multimodal Strategies including Low Doses of Nonsedating, Off-Patent Antiemetics: Is “Zero Tolerance“ Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Skledar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For ondansetron, dexamethasone, and droperidol (when used for prophylaxis, each is estimated to reduce risk of postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV by approximately 25%. Current consensus guidelines denote that patients with 0–1 risk factors still have a 10–20% risk of encountering PONV, but do not yet advocate routine prophylaxis for all patients with 10–20% risk. In ambulatory surgery, however, multimodal prophylaxis has gained favor, and our previously published experience with routine prophylaxis has yielded PONV rates below 10%. We now propose a “zero-tolerance” antiemetic algorithm for outpatients that involves routine prophylaxis by first avoiding volatile agents and opioids to the extent possible, using locoregional anesthesia, multimodal analgesia, and low doses of three nonsedating off-patent antiemetics. Routine oral administration (immediately on arrival to the ambulatory surgery suite of perphenazine 8 mg (antidopaminergic or cyclizine 50 mg (antihistamine, is followed by dexamethasone 4 mg i.v. after anesthesia induction (dexamethasone is avoided in diabetic patients. At the end of surgery, ondansetron (4 mg i.v., now off-patent is added. Rescue therapy consists of avoiding unnecessary repeat doses of drugs acting by the same mechanism: haloperidol 2 mg i.v. (antidopaminergic is prescribed for patients pretreated with cyclizine or promethazine 6.25 mg i.v. (antihistamine for patients having been pretreated with perphenazine. If available, a consultation for therapeutic acupuncture procedure is ordered. Our approach toward “zero tolerance” of PONV emphasizes liberal identification of and prophylaxis against common risks.

  14. The cost of antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving platinum-containing regimens in daily practice in Japan: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Shota; Hinotsu, Shiro; Hori, Katsuhito; Furuse, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Takehiro; Kawakami, Junichi; Ozono, Seiichiro; Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawakami, Koji

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in daily practice in Japan. This was a retrospective observational study using medical records. Eligible patients were those with bladder or testicular cancer receiving platinum-containing highly emetogenic chemotherapy. The incidence of CINV on days 1-5 in single-day chemotherapy and on days 1-9 in multiple-day chemotherapy, and the costs of antiemetic therapy directly associated with the administration of antiemetics were estimated. The analysis of costs was performed from a hospital perspective. A total of 54 patients or 169 chemotherapy courses were included. In all chemotherapy courses 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists were used on the day(s) that platinum-containing agents were administered and frequently used on subsequent days. In contrast, the use of corticosteroids was infrequent. Acute CINV in single-day chemotherapy was well controlled, but the incidences of delayed CINV in single-day chemotherapy and CINV in multiple-day chemotherapy were relatively high. The costs for antiemetic therapy were $484.65 in courses with CINV and $318.56 in courses without CINV, and the difference was approximately $170 per chemotherapy course, which was considered to be mainly imputable to the prevalence of CINV. The cost of antiemetic therapy for CINV is substantial in Japan as well as in other countries, and it is suggested that the onset of CINV is a possible cost driver. The improvements in antiemetic therapy may contribute not only to improved patient well-being but also to a reduction of economic burden.

  15. Emetogenicity-risk procedures in same day surgery center of an academic university hospital in United States: a retrospective cost-audit of postoperative nausea vomiting management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Haber, Halim

    2014-06-01

    Despite the variable results of published studies, it is imperative for ambulatory surgery centers to self-audit local cost-implications for post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) management. Our retrospective cost-audit assessed if there were comparative peri-anesthesia care cost-trends among patients who had undergone Low-Emetogenicity-Risk Procedures (LERP), Moderate-Emetogenicity-Risk Procedures (MERP) and Severe-Emetogenicity-Risk Procedures (SERP). This study was a review of Same Day Surgery Center practices in an academic university hospital setting during a three-year period (2010-2012). The patient lists were accessed from CIS and CITRIX App Bar for time audit and OR (operating room) schedule reports. Subsequently, OR pharmacy department ran a search for peri-operative anti-emetics and opioids that were billed for the patients at Same Day Surgery Center for the review period. The primary outcomes were the comparative costs/charges of these medications and comparative durations/ charges for these patients' stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Secondary outcomes analyzed in the study included peri-anesthesia durations. A total of 8,657 patient records were analyzed. Almost all analyzed variables revealed statistically significant inter-variable positive correlations. The patients' age was significantly (P < 0.001) different among LERP/MERP/SERP patients (LERP: 48.8 +/- 14.7 years; MERP: 61.8 +/- 14.6 years; SERP: 51.3 +/- 14.5 years). In regards to primary and secondary outcomes, the statistical significant differences among LERP/MERP/SERP patients (after correcting for both patients' age as well as patients' sex) were only achieved for preoperative times (P = 0.002; Power = 0.9), operating room recovery times (P = 0.003; Power = 0.9), PACU stay times (P < 0.001; Power = 1.0), and PACU charges (P < 0.001; Power = 1.0). PACU stay times and PACU charges were significantly higher in patients who had undergone SERP as compared to patients who had

  16. Cost-utility and budget impact analyses of the use of NEPA for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restelli, Umberto; Saibene, Gabriella; Nardulli, Patrizia; Di Turi, Roberta; Bonizzoni, Erminio; Scolari, Francesca; Perrone, Tania; Croce, Davide; Celio, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of resources allocation and sustainability of the use of netupitant+palonosetron (NEPA) for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) prophylaxis assuming the Italian National Health Service (NHS) perspective. A published Markov model was adapted to assess the incremental cost-utility ratio of NEPA compared with aprepitant (APR) + palonosetron (PALO), fosaprepitant (fAPR) + PALO, APR + ondansetron (ONDA), fAPR + ONDA in patients receiving a highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and with APR + PALO and fAPR + PALO in patients receiving a moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). Oncology hospital department in Italy. A Markov model was used to determine the impact of NEPA on the budget of the Italian NHS on a 5-day time horizon, corresponding to the acute and delayed CINV prophylaxis phases. Direct medical costs considered were related to antiemetic drugs, adverse events management, CINV episodes management. Clinical and quality of life data referred to previously published works. The budget impact analysis considered the aforementioned therapies plus PALO alone (for HEC and MEC) on a 5-year time horizon, comparing two scenarios: one considering the use of NEPA and one not considering its use. Incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and differential economic impact for the Italian NHS between the two scenarios considered. NEPA is more effective and less expensive (dominant) compared with APR + PALO (for HEC and MEC), fAPR + PALO (for HEC and MEC), APR + ONDA (for HEC), fAPR + ONDA (for HEC). The use of NEPA would lead to a 5-year cost decrease of €63.7 million (€42.7 million for HEC and €20.9 million for MEC). NEPA allows an efficient allocation of resources for the Italian NHS and it is sustainable, leading to a cost decrease compared with a scenario which does not consider its use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  17. Efficacy of oral palonosetron compared to intravenous palonosetron for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: a phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Ralph; Grunberg, Steven; Franco-Gonzales, Edwin; Rubenstein, Edward; Voisin, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Palonosetron (Aloxi(®), Onicit(®)) is a pharmacologically unique 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (RA) approved as a single IV injection for the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy (CINV) of either moderate or highly emetogenic potential (MEC and HEC, respectively). An oral palonosetron formulation has been developed and compared to the IV formulation. In this multinational, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging trial, 651 patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the following as a single dose prior to moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: oral palonosetron 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg or IV palonosetron 0.25 mg. Patients were also randomized (1:1) to receive dexamethasone 8 mg IV or matched placebo on day 1. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR; no emesis, no rescue therapy) during the acute phase (0-24 h). Acute CR rates were 73.5, 76.3, 74.1, and 70.4 % for all patients receiving the palonosetron 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mg oral doses, and for IV palonosetron 0.25 mg, respectively; delayed CR (24-120 h) rates were 59.4, 62.5, 60.1, and 65.4 %, and overall CR (0-120 h) rates were 53.5, 58.8, 53.2, and 59.3 %, respectively. The addition of dexamethasone improved emetic control (acute CR rate) by at least 15 % for all groups except oral palonosetron 0.25 mg, where the acute CR improvement was approximately 7 %. Adverse events were similar in nature, incidence, and intensity for all oral and IV palonosetron groups, and were the expected adverse events for 5-HT3 RAs (primarily headache and constipation). Oral palonosetron has a similar efficacy and safety profile as IV palonosetron 0.25 mg and may be the preferred formulation in certain clinical situations. Among the tested oral treatments, a palonosetron 0.50-mg oral dose has been favored for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy due to a numerical gain in efficacy without a side effect disadvantage.

  18. NEPA, a new fixed combination of netupitant and palonosetron, is a cost-effective intervention for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Cawston

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of NEPA, an oral fixed combination netupitant (NETU, 300 mg and palonosetron (PA, 0.5 mg compared with aprepitant and palonosetron (APPA or palonosetron (PA alone, to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in patients undergoing treatment with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC in the UK. Scope: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were undertaken to compare NEPA with currently recommended anti-emetics. Relative effectiveness was estimated over the acute (day 1 and overall treatment (days 1–5 phases, taking complete response (CR, no emesis and no rescue medication and complete protection (CP, CR and no more than mild nausea [VAS scale <25 mm] as primary efficacy outcomes. A three-health-state Markov cohort model, including CP, CR and incomplete response (no CR for HEC and MEC, was constructed. A five-day time horizon and UK NHS perspective were adopted. Transition probabilities were obtained by combining the response rates of CR and CP from NEPA trials and odds ratios from the meta-analysis. Utilities of 0.90, 0.70 and 0.24 were defined for CP, CR and incomplete response, respectively. Costs included medications and management of CINV-related events and were obtained from the British National Formulary and NHS Reference Costs. The expected budgetary impact of NEPA was also evaluated. Findings: In HEC patients, the NEPA strategy was more effective than APPA (quality-adjusted life days [QALDs] of 4.263 versus 4.053; incremental emesis-free and CINV-free days of +0.354 and +0.237, respectively and was less costly (£80 versus £124, resulting in NEPA being the dominant strategy. In MEC patients, NEPA was cost effective, cumulating in an estimated 0.182 extra QALDs at an incremental cost of £6.65 compared with PA. Conclusion: Despite study limitations (study setting, time horizon, utility measure, the results suggest NEPA is cost

  19. Nausea still the poor relation in antiemetic therapy? The impact on cancer patients' quality of life and psychological adjustment of nausea, vomiting and appetite loss, individually and concurrently as part of a symptom cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirri, Carlo; Bayliss, Evan; Trotter, James; Olver, Ian N; Katris, Paul; Drummond, Peter; Bennett, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Despite significant antiemetic advances, almost 50% of treated cancer patients still experience nausea and vomiting (N&V). The goal of antiemetic therapy--complete prevention of treatment-induced nausea and/or vomiting (TIN+/-V)--remains elusive for several reasons. Potentially, N&V may be part of a symptom cluster where co-occurring symptoms negatively affect antiemetic management. Consequently, we examined TIN+/-V incidence and the impact of nausea, vomiting and symptom cluster(s) containing them, respectively, on patients' quality of life (QoL) and psychological adjustment across treatment. A longitudinal secondary analysis was performed on data from a prospective, observational QoL study involving 200 newly diagnosed cancer patients who underwent combined modality treatment. QoL, psychological adjustment and patient/clinical characteristics were examined at pretreatment, on-treatment (8 weeks) and post-treatment. Overall, 62% of patients experienced TIN+/-V, with TIN (60%) doubling TIV incidence (27 %). Exploratory factor analyses of QoL scores at each treatment time point identified a recurrent gastrointestinal symptom cluster comprising nausea, vomiting and appetite loss. Approximately two thirds of patients reported co-occurrence of all three symptoms, which exerted synergistic effects of multiplicative proportions on overall QoL. Patients who reported co-occurrence of these symptoms during treatment experienced significantly greater QoL impairment (physical, role and social functioning, fatigue, N&V, appetite loss, overall physical health, overall QOL) and psychological distress (cancer distress, premorbid neuroticism) than those unaffected (0.001 > p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, nausea was more pervasive than vomiting or appetite loss across treatment and had a greater impact on overall QoL. While antiemetic therapy was effective for vomiting and helped prevent/relieve associated appetite loss, the benefits for appetite loss were seemingly constrained by its

  20. Aprepitant, granisetron, and dexamethasone versus palonosetron and dexamethasone for prophylaxis of cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer: a randomized crossover phase II trial (KDOG 1002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishido, Kenji; Higuchi, Katsuhiko; Azuma, Mizutomo; Sasaki, Tohru; Tanabe, Satoshi; Katada, Chikatoshi; Yano, Takafumi; Wada, Takuya; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a randomized trial to compare the safety and effectiveness of aprepitant, granisetron, and dexamethasone (AGD) with those of palonosetron and dexamethasone (PD) in patients who received highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Patients with esophageal or gastric cancer who were scheduled to receive HEC including at least 60 mg/m of cisplatin as the first-line treatment were randomly assigned to receive AGD (oral aprepitant 125 mg on day 1 and 80 mg on days 2-3; intravenous granisetron 3 mg on day 1; intravenous dexamethasone 6.6 mg on day 1 and oral dexamethasone 4 mg on days 2-3) or PD (intravenous palonosetron 0.75 mg on day 1; intravenous dexamethasone 13.2 mg on day 1 and oral dexamethasone 8 mg on days 2-3). The primary endpoint was a complete response during the overall study period (0-120 h after the start of chemotherapy) in the first cycle. Eighty-five patients were enrolled, and 84 were eligible. The complete response rate did not differ between the treatment groups, but the proportion of patients with no vomiting was significantly higher in the AGD group than in the PD group (81.4 vs. 58.5%; P=0.031). The results of a quality-of-life survey indicated that the proportion of patients with no or minimal impact on daily life in the vomiting domain was significantly higher in the AGD group (79.1 vs. 53.7%; P=0.020). The primary endpoint of complete response was not achieved, but AGD seems to be more effective than PD for the prevention of HEC-induced vomiting.

  1. Profile of netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA fixed dose combination and its potential in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navari RM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rudolph M Navari Cancer Care Program, Eastern Europe, World Health Organization, Mishawaka, IN, USA; Indiana University School of Medicine, South Bend, IN, USA; South Bend Medical Services Corporation, IN, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Netupitant, is a new NK-1 receptor antagonist with a high binding affinity, a long half-life of 90 hours, is metabolized by CYP3A4, and is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. NEPA is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron which has recently been employed in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC and HEC. The clinical trials demonstrated that NEPA (300 mg of netupitant plus 0.50 mg of palonosetron significantly improved the prevention of CINV compared to the use of palonosetron alone in patients receiving either HEC or MEC. The clinical efficacy was maintained over multiple cycles of chemotherapy. NEPA (Akynzeo® has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA to treat nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Keywords: 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, NK-1 receptor antagonists, palonosetron, netupitant, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

  2. Efficacy of ginger for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients receiving adriamycin-cyclophosphamide regimen: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamlikitkul, Lucksamon; Srimuninnimit, Vichien; Akewanlop, Charuwan; Ithimakin, Suthinee; Techawathanawanna, Sirisopa; Korphaisarn, Krittiya; Chantharasamee, Jomjit; Danchaivijitr, Pongwut; Soparattanapaisarn, Nopadol

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of ginger for reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in breast cancer patients receiving adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (AC) regimens. We enrolled breast cancer patients receiving AC who experienced moderate to severe nausea or vomiting during the first chemotherapy cycle. Subjects were randomized to receive a 500-mg ginger capsule or placebo twice a day for 5 days starting on the first day of the second AC cycle and were switched to the other treatment in the third cycle. All participants also received ondansetron and dexamethasone for CINV prophylaxis. Nausea severity was recorded once a day during the first 5 days of each cycle. The primary outcome was reduction in nausea score. Thirty-four subjects (68 cycles of AC) were enrolled. Mean (range) maximum nausea score in the first AC cycle was 58 (40-90). Thirty-three subjects (97 %) received the same AC doses in the second as in the third cycle. Mean (±standard error) maximum nausea scores in patients receiving ginger and placebo were 35.36 (±4.43) and 32.17 (±3.71), respectively. The difference in mean maximum nausea scores was 3 (95 % confidence interval, -3 to 9; P = 0.3). There were no significant differences between ginger and placebo in terms of vomiting incidence and severity, rescue medication use, chemotherapy compliance, and adverse events. Ginger (500 mg) twice daily was safe, but conferred no additional benefit in terms of reducing nausea severity in breast cancer patients receiving AC and ondansetron and dexamethasone for CINV prophylaxis.

  3. Fosaprepitant Dimeglumine, Palonosetron Hydrochloride, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Cisplatin in Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-13

    Nausea and Vomiting; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  4. Randomized, double-blind, phase III trial of palonosetron versus granisetron in the triplet regimen for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after highly emetogenic chemotherapy: TRIPLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Yamanaka, T; Hashimoto, H; Shimada, Y; Arata, K; Matsui, R; Goto, K; Takiguchi, T; Ohyanagi, F; Kogure, Y; Nogami, N; Nakao, M; Takeda, K; Azuma, K; Nagase, S; Hayashi, T; Fujiwara, K; Shimada, T; Seki, N; Yamamoto, N

    2016-08-01

    There has been no phase III study of comparing the efficacy of first- and second-generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in the triplet regimen with dexamethasone and aprepitant for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Patients with a malignant solid tumor who would receive HEC containing 50 mg/m(2) or more cisplatin were randomly assigned to either palonosetron (0.75 mg) arm (Arm P) or granisetron (1 mg) arm (Arm G), on day 1, both arms with dexamethasone (12 mg on day 1 and 8 mg on days 2-4) and aprepitant (125 mg on day 1 and 80 mg on days 2-3). The primary end point was complete response (CR; no vomiting/retching and no rescue medication) at the 0-120 h period and secondary end points included complete control (CC; no vomiting/retching, no rescue medication, and no more than mild nausea) and total control (TC; no vomiting/retching, no rescue medication, and no nausea). Between July 2011 and June 2012, 842 patients were enrolled. Of 827 evaluable, 272 of 414 patients (65.7%) in Arm P had a CR at the 0-120 h period when compared with 244 of 413 (59.1%) in Arm G (P = 0.0539). Both arms had the same CR rate of 91.8% at the acute (0-24 h) period, while at the delayed (24-120 h) period, Arm P had a significantly higher CR rate than Arm G (67.2% versus 59.1%; P = 0.0142). In secondary end points, Arm P had significantly higher rates than Arm G at the 0-120 h period (CC rate: 63.8% versus 55.9%, P = 0.0234; TC rate: 47.6% versus 40.7%, P = 0.0369) and delayed periods (CC rate: 65.2% versus 55.9%, P = 0.0053; TC rate: 48.6% versus 41.4%, P = 0.0369). The present study did not show the superiority of palonosetron when compared with granisetron in the triplet regimen regarding the primary end point. UMIN000004863. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Higher dose of palonosetron versus lower dose of palonosetron plus droperidol to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after eye enucleation and orbital hydroxyapatite implant surgery: a randomized, double-blind trial

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    Hu X

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Hu, Fang Tan, Lan Gong Department of Anesthesiology, The Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai, China Objective: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is commonly observed after eye enucleation and orbital hydroxyapatite implant surgery. This prospective, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that compared with monotherapy using a higher dose of palonosetron, using a lower dose of palonosetron in combination with droperidol could reduce the incidence of PONV and achieve similar prophylaxis against PONV after the aforementioned surgery.Patients and methods: A total of 129 patients who were in the American Society of Anesthesiologists Classes I and II, aged between 18 and 70 years, and scheduled for eye enucleation and orbital hydroxyapatite implant surgery, were enrolled in this study. They were randomized into three groups: Group P2.5 (2.5 µg/kg palonosetron, Group P7.5 (7.5 µg/kg palonosetron, and Group P+D (2.5 µg/kg palonosetron and 15 µg/kg droperidol. Patients received the different antiemetic regimens intravenously 5 min before surgery. The severity of nausea and vomiting and the complete response (CR rate during a 72-h postoperative period were assessed.Results: All patients completed the trial. The nausea score of Group P2.5 was significantly higher than those of the other two groups at 0–4 h and 24–48 h (P<0.05. Vomiting scores among all groups were similar during all intervals (P>0.05. Compared with Group P2.5, the CR rate was significantly improved at all intervals in Group P+D, except at 4–72 h, and was also elevated at 24–72 h in Group P7.5 (P<0.05. Fewer patients in Group P2.5 did not experience any nausea or vomiting throughout the study (49% compared with those in Group P7.5 (67% and Group P+D (81%; P<0.01.Conclusion: Combining low-dose palonosetron with droperidol potentiated prophylaxis

  6. [Comparison of antiemesis effects of granisetron, aprepitant and dexamethasone to palonosetron, aprepitant and dexamethasone in treatment of high-emetic risk chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting - a retrospective study for efficacy and safety in a single institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Hiroshi; Goto, Hiroaki; Myojo, Tomohiro

    2013-05-01

    Nausea and vomiting are among the most problematic symptoms experienced by patients with cancer who are receiving chemotherapy. 5-hydroxytryptamine 3(5-HT3)-receptor antagonists, NK1 receptor antagonists(aprepitant)and dexamethasone are now the standard therapies for preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting(CINV)that follow highly emetogenic chemotherapy, such as cisplatin and anthracycline. However, since it is not cleared which 5-HT3-recepter antagonist is a proper treatment for combined use with aprepitant and dexamethasone, we conducted a questionnaire survey, which used the numerical rating scale(NRS), for comparing palonosetron with granisetron in the same patient. Palonosetron showed a significant improvement of nausea for both acute(within 24 hours)and delayed phase(24-120 hours later), regardless of the type of chemotherapy(cisplatin or anthracycline-based regimen). Furthermore, palonosetron had a tolerable safety profile. Our study suggests that palonosetron-based antiemetic treatment will be a preferred choice for preventing CINV following highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of transdermal granisetron for the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with moderately and highly emetogenic multi-day chemotherapy: a randomized, double-blind, phase III study.

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    Boccia, Ralph V; Gordan, Lucio N; Clark, Gemma; Howell, Julian D; Grunberg, Steven M

    2011-10-01

    A novel transdermal formulation of granisetron (the granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS)) has been developed to deliver granisetron continuously over 7 days. This double-blind, phase III, non-inferiority study compared the efficacy and tolerability of the GTDS to daily oral granisetron for the control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Six hundred forty-one patients were randomized to oral (2 mg/day, 3-5 days) or transdermal granisetron (one GTDS patch, 7 days), before receiving multi-day chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was complete control of CINV (no vomiting/retching, no more than mild nausea, no rescue medication) from chemotherapy initiation until 24 h after final administration. The prespecified non-inferiority margin was 15%. Five hundred eighty-two patients were included in the per protocol analysis. The GTDS displayed non-inferiority to oral granisetron: complete control was achieved by 60% of patients in the GTDS group, and 65% in the oral granisetron group (treatment difference, -5%; 95% confidence interval, -13-3). Both treatments were well tolerated, the most common adverse event being constipation. The GTDS provides effective, well-tolerated control of CINV associated with moderately or highly emetogenic multi-day chemotherapy. It offers a convenient alternative route for delivering granisetron for up to 7 days that is as effective as oral granisetron.

  8. Additive effect of rikkunshito, an herbal medicine, on chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and anorexia in uterine cervical or corpus cancer patients treated with cisplatin and paclitaxel: results of a randomized phase II study (JORTC KMP-02).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Watari, Hidemichi; Kanno, Maki; Ohba, Yoko; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Miyaji, Tempei; Oyamada, Shunsuke; Nomura, Eiji; Kato, Hidenori; Sugiyama, Toru; Asaka, Masahiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Uezono, Yasuhito; Iwase, Satoru

    2017-09-01

    Rikkunshito, an herbal medicine, is widely prescribed in Japan for the treatment of anorexia and functional dyspepsia, and has been reported to recover reductions in food intake caused by cisplatin. We investigated whether rikkunshito could improve chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and anorexia in patients treated with cisplatin. Patients with uterine cervical or corpus cancer who were to receive cisplatin (50 mg/m² day 1) and paclitaxel (135 mg/m² day 0) as first-line chemotherapy were randomly assigned to the rikkunshito group receiving oral administration on days 0-13 with standard antiemetics, or the control group receiving antiemetics only. The primary endpoint was the rate of complete control (CC: no emesis, no rescue medication, and no significant nausea) in the overall phase (0-120 hours). Two-tailed panorexia. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  9. [Comparison of 1 mg/body and 3 mg/body of intravenous granisetron for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and adverse events in hematological malignancy patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Shinya; Hori, Katsuhito; Ono, Takaaki; Ohnishi, Kazunori; Kawakami, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Granisetron is a selective 5-hydroxy tryptamine3 receptor antagonist and widely used for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Recommended dose of intravenous granisetron in the USA and Europe has been set at 0.01 mg/kg (1 mg/body) in the antiemetic treatment guidelines established by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and National Comprehension Cancer Network. In contrast, the approved dose in Japan is 0.04 mg/kg (3 mg/body). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared 1 mg/body with 3 mg/body of intravenous granisetron for CINV had been reported in Japan. In these RCTs, however, hematological malignancy patients were excluded. We performed observational retrospective study to compare 1 mg/body with 3 mg/body of intravenous granisetron for the prevention of CINV and adverse events in hematological malignancy patients. Number of the patients and chemotherapy courses were 15 and 30 in the 1 mg/body group, and 15 and 27 in the 3 mg/body group, respectively. No nausea rates in the 1 and 3 mg/body group were 83% and 89% of courses, respectively. No vomiting rates in the 1 and 3 mg/body group were 97% and 100% of courses, respectively. The incidences of constipation in the 1 and 3 mg/body group were 34% and 45% of courses, respectively. Anaphylaxis and headache did not occur in both groups. Our findings suggested that 1 mg/body of intravenous granisetron can prevent from CINV in hematological malignancy patients, as well as 3 mg/body.

  10. Comparative clinical effectiveness of various 5-HT3 RA antiemetic regimens on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with hospital and emergency department visits in real world practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoum, Hind T; Lin, Swu-Jane; Buchner, Deborah; Cox, David

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the risk of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) events for various 5-HT(3) RAs in patients who received moderately (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) by evaluating hospital or emergency department (ED) admissions. PharMetrics claims database was used to identify patients diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) who were initiated on cyclophosphamide-based adjuvant chemotherapy or with lung cancer (LC) initiated on carboplatin-based or cisplatin-based chemotherapy between 2005 and 2008. Patients were stratified in two groups: those initiated and maintained on palonosetron versus those treated with any other 5-HT(3) RA regimens in the 6-month post first chemotherapy. Risk for CINV events, identified by ICD-9-CM for nausea, vomiting, and/or dehydration, were estimated using logistic regressions, controlling for age, gender, comorbidity, and total chemotherapy doses or days. Of the 4,868 cyclophosphamide-treated BC, 5,414 carboplatin-treated LC, and 1,692 cisplatin-treated LC identified, there were 1,864 BC (38.5%), 1,806 carboplatin-treated LC (33.4%), and 390 cisplatin-treated LC (23.0%) in the palonosetron-only group. Palonosetron-only group had significantly lower probability of CINV events associated with ED/hospital admissions in all three cohorts (3.5% vs. 6.3% in BC, 9.5% vs. 13.8% in carboplatin-treated LC, and 16.4% vs. 22.6% in cisplatin-treated LC, all at p HEC had significantly lower risk of CINV events associated with hospital/ED admissions if initiated and maintained on palonosetron relative to patients receiving 5-HT(3) RA regimens.

  11. Open-label observational study to assess the efficacy and safety of aprepitant for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in Indian patients receiving chemotherapy with highly emetogenic chemotherapy/moderately emetogenic chemotherapy regimens

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    Hingmire Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Currently, there is limited data on the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in Indian population with aprepitant containing regimens. Aims: The aim was to assess the Efficacy and Safety of Aprepitant for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with highly emetogenic chemotherapy/moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC/MEC regimens. Settings and Design: Investigator initiated, multicentric, open-label, prospective, noncomparative, observational trial. Subjects and Methods: Triple drug regimen with aprepitant, palonosetron, and dexamethasaone administration was assessed for the prevention of CINV during acute, delayed, and the overall phase (OP for HEC/MEC Regimens. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR; no emesis and no use of rescue medication and the key secondary endpoint was the complete control (CC; no emesis, no rescue medication and no more than mild nausea during the OP. Statistical Analysis Used: Perprotocol efficacy was analyzed for the first cycle with results represented in terms of CR/CC rates using descriptive statistics. Results: Seventy-five patients were included in the study with median age of 49.7 years and 89.7% being females. The CR rate (OP for patients administered HEC or MEC regimens during the first cycle were 92% and 90.9%, respectively. Similarly, the CC rates (OP were 75% and 90% for these regimens, respectively. 7 (9.2% patients reported adverse drug reactions that were mild and transient with no reports of any serious adverse events. Conclusions: Use of aprepitant containing regimen for patients receiving HEC/MEC regimen resulted in significantly high CR and CC response rates, which further consolidate its potential role to improve patient quality of life and compliance to disease management.

  12. Addition of the Neurokinin-1-Receptor Antagonist (RA) Aprepitant to a 5-Hydroxytryptamine-RA and Dexamethasone in the Prophylaxis of Nausea and Vomiting Due to Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Cisplatin

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    Jahn, Franziska, E-mail: franziska.jahn@uk-halle.de [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Riesner, Anica [Department of Gastroenterology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Jahn, Patrick [Nursing Research Unit, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Sieker, Frank; Vordermark, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Jordan, Karin [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a prospective, observational study, the safety and efficacy of the addition of the neurokinin-1-receptor antagonist (NK1-RA) aprepitant to concomitant radiochemotherapy, for the prophylaxis of radiation therapy–induced nausea and vomiting. Patients and Methods: This prospective observational study compared the antiemetic efficacy of an NK1-RA (aprepitant), a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA, and dexamethasone (aprepitant regimen) versus a 5-hydroxytryptamine-RA and dexamethasone (control regimen) in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Germany. The primary endpoint was complete response in the overall phase, defined as no vomiting and no use of rescue therapy in this period. Results: Fifty-nine patients treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin were included in this study. Thirty-one patients received the aprepitant regimen and 29 the control regimen. The overall complete response rates for cycles 1 and 2 were 75.9% and 64.5% for the aprepitant group and 60.7% and 54.2% for the control group, respectively. Although a 15.2% absolute difference was reached in cycle 1, a statistical significance was not detected (P=.22). Furthermore maximum nausea was 1.58 ± 1.91 in the control group and 0.73 ± 1.79 in the aprepitant group (P=.084); for the head-and-neck subset, 2.23 ± 2.13 in the control group and 0.64 ± 1.77 in the aprepitant group, respectively (P=.03). Conclusion: This is the first study of an NK1-RA–containing antiemetic prophylaxis regimen in patients receiving concomitant radiochemotherapy. Although the primary endpoint was not obtained, the absolute difference of 10% in efficacy was reached, which is defined as clinically meaningful for patients by international guidelines groups. Randomized phase 3 studies are necessary to further define the potential role of an NK1-RA in this setting.

  13. Palonosetron versus other 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with emetogenic chemotherapy in a hospital outpatient setting in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Chris; Gayle, Julie; Balu, Sanjeev; Buchner, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the rate of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) after initiating antiemetic prophylaxis with palonosetron versus other 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists (RAs) in patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies (lymphoma and leukemia) and receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) in a hospital outpatient setting. Patients aged ≥ 18 years and diagnosed with hematologic malignancies initiating HEC or MEC and antiemetic prophylaxis with palonosetron (Group 1) and other 5-HT₃ RAs (Group 2) for the first time in a hospital outpatient setting between 4/1/2007 and 3/31/2009 were identified from the Premier Perspective Database. Within each cycle, CINV events were identified (in the hospital outpatient, inpatient, and emergency room settings) through ICD-9 codes for nausea, vomiting, and/or volume depletion (from each CT administration day 1 until the end of the CT cycle), or use of rescue medications (day 2 until the end of the CT cycle). Negative binomial distribution generalized linear multivariate regression model estimating the CINV event rate on CT, specific CT cycles, and cancer diagnosis (leukemia/lymphoma)-matched groups in the follow-up period (first of 8 cycles or 6 months) was developed. Of 971 identified patients, 211 initiated palonosetron (Group 1). Group 1 patients comprised of more females [50.2 vs. 41.4%; p = 0.0226], Whites [74.4 vs. 70.4%, and Hispanics [7.6 vs. 6.3%; all races p = 0.0105], received more HEC treatments [89.6 vs. 84.2%; all CT types p = 0.0129], and had more lymphoma diagnosed patients [89.6 vs. 76.3%; all cancer types p = 0.0033] at baseline. After controlling for differences in several demographic and clinical variables, the regression model predicted a 20.4% decrease in CINV event rate per CT cycle for Group 1 versus Group 2 patients. Study limitations include potential lack of generalizability, absence of data on certain

  14. The efficacy and safety of palonosetron compared with granisetron in preventing highly emetogenic chemotherapy-induced vomiting in the Chinese cancer patients: a phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel, comparative clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaocai; Liu, Wenchao; Wang, Ling; Liang, Houjie; Huang, Ying; Si, Xiaoming; Zhang, Helong; Liu, Duhu; Zhang, Hongmei

    2009-01-01

    This clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Palonosetron in preventing chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) among the Chinese cancer patients. Two hundred and forty patients were scheduled to be enrolled and randomized to receive a single intravenous dose of palonosetron 0.25 mg, or granisetron 3 mg, 30 min before receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the complete response (CR) rate for acute CIV (during the 0-24-h interval after chemotherapy). Secondary endpoints included the CR rates for delayed CIV (more than 24 h after chemotherapy). Two hundred and eight patients were accrued and received study medication. CR rates for acute CIV were 82.69% for palonosetron and 72.12% for granisetron, which demonstrated that palonosetron was not inferior to granisetron in preventing acute CIV. Comparisons of CR rates for delayed CIV yielded no statistical difference between palonosetron and granisetron groups and did not reveal non-inferiority of palonosetron to granisetron. Adverse events were mostly mild to moderate, with quite low rates among the two groups. A single dose (0.25 mg) of palonosetron is not inferior to a single dose (3 mg) of granisetron in preventing CIV and possesses an acceptable safety profile in the Chinese population.

  15. A prospective, randomized, double blind and placebo-control study comparing the additive effect of oral midazolam and clonidine for postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis in granisetron premedicated patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystecomy

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    Ghanshyam Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV continues to be a major challenge in perioperative care in spite of introduction of newer antiemetics with better efficacy and safety profiles. Therefore, we evaluated the additive effect of oral midazolam and clonidine for PONV prophylaxis in granisetron premedicated patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, randomized fashion, 120 selected cases were randomized into three groups: I, II or III to receive a tablet of midazolam (15 mg, n = 36, clonidine (150 mcg, n = 40, or glucose as placebo (5 g, n = 44 orally, 1 h before anesthesia. Occurrence of PONV along with need for rescue antiemetic during the first postoperative day was compared between groups as a primary outcome. Results: Episodes of PONV reduced significantly in Group II (15% as compared to group I and III (22.2%, 59% at various time points during the period of observation (P = 0.002. Need for rescue antiemetic was significantly lower in group I (13.88% and II (5% as compared to group III (52.27%, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Oral clonidine is better adjuvant for PONV prophylaxis, as compared to midazolam, in granisetron premedicated patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  16. Efficacy of Single-dose and 2-dose Intravenous Administration of Ramosetron in Preventing Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting After Laparoscopic Gynecologic Operation: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Phase 2 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Banghyun; Kim, Kidong; Suh, Dong Hoon; Shin, Hyun-Jung; No, Jae Hong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Hwang, Jung Won; Do, Sang Hwan; Kim, Yong Beom

    2017-06-01

    This randomized trial investigated whether a 2-dose administration of intravenous ramosetron (5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist) is more effective than a single-dose administration in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in 89 patients who were scheduled to undergo laparoscopic operation for benign gynecologic diseases and to receive intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for relief of postoperative pain. After assignment at a ratio of 1:1, intravenous ramosetron (0.3 mg) was initially administered at the end of skin closure in all patients. Thereafter, ramosetron (0.3 mg) and placebo were administered to the study and control groups, respectively, at 4 hours after the operation. The baseline and operative characteristics were similar between the groups. The incidence of PONV during the 24-hour period after operation which was assessed as the primary endpoint did not differ between the groups. No serious adverse events occurred in either group. A 2-dose administration of intravenous ramosetron may not be superior to a single-dose administration in preventing PONV in patients undergoing laparoscopic operation for benign gynecologic diseases.

  17. Anemia, intractable vomiting, chronic diarrhea, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic secretion: a diagnostic dilemma: Disseminated strongyloidosis in a patient with newly diagnosed HTLV infection-case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Hassan; Kamal, Muhammad Umar; Reddy, Pavithra; Bajantri, Bharat; Niazi, Masooma; Matela, Ajsza; Zeana, Cosmina; Ihimoyan, Ariyo; Dev, Anil; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2017-12-01

    Strongyloidiasis hyperinfection and disseminated disease have high mortality rates due to several complications and early detection of Strongyloides infection is therefore prudent. A 37-year-old male patient came with chronic diarrhea, intractable vomiting and was found to have hyponatremia, and anemia on the initial laboratory tests. Further work up revealed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic secretion to be the cause of the hyponatremia in addition to gastrointestinal loses. His hospital course was complicated by persistent hyponatremia and later development of partial small bowel obstruction. Considering his symptoms we had a suspicion of small bowel pathology for which he underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopywith biopsies that revealed strongyloidosis as the cause of his symptoms. He was also found to have human T-cell lymphotropic virus infection, likely contributing to the disseminated disease. He was started on ivermectin with complete resolution of symptoms and improvement of hyponatremia. It is very important to suspect Strongyloides infection in a patient presenting with syndrome ofinappropriate antidiuretic secretion as hyperinfection and disseminated disease can be life threatening without antihelmintic therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Phase II single-arm trial of palonosetron for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in malignant glioma patients receiving multidose irinotecan in combination with bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affronti ML

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mary Lou Affronti,1–3 Sarah Woodring,1,2 Katherine B Peters,1,4 James E Herndon II,5 Frances McSherry,5 Patrick N Healy,5 Annick Desjardins,1,4 James J Vredenburgh,6 Henry S Friedman1,2 1The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke, South Hospital, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Health System, 3Duke University School of Nursing, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Health System, Durham, NC, 6Saint Francis Cancer Center, Hartford, CT, USA Purpose: Given that the prognosis of recurrent malignant glioma (MG remains poor, improving quality of life (QoL through symptom management is important. Meta-analyses establishing antiemetic guidelines have demonstrated the superiority of palonosetron (PAL over older 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV prevention, but excluded patients with gliomas. Irinotecan plus bevacizumab is a treatment frequently used in MG, but is associated with low (55% CINV complete response (CR; no emesis or use of rescue antiemetic with commonly prescribed ondansetron. A single-arm Phase II trial was conducted in MG patients to determine the efficacy of intravenous PAL (0.25 mg and dexamethasone (DEX; 10 mg received in conjunction with biweekly irinotecan–bevacizumab treatment. The primary end point was the proportion of subjects achieving acute CINV CR (no emesis or antiemetic ≤24 hours postchemotherapy. Secondary end points included delayed CINV CR (days 2–5, overall CINV CR (days 1–5, and QoL, fatigue, and toxicity.Materials and methods: A two-stage design of 160 patients was planned to differentiate between CINV CR of 55% and 65% after each dose of PAL–DEX. Validated surveys assessed fatigue and QoL.Results: A total of 63 patients were enrolled, after which enrollment was terminated due to slow accrual; 52 patients were evaluable for the primary outcome

  19. Randomized phase III trial of APF530 versus palonosetron in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in a subset of patients with breast cancer receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy

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    Boccia, Ralph; O’Boyle, Erin; Cooper, William

    2016-01-01

    APF530 provides controlled, sustained-release granisetron for preventing acute (0–24 h) and delayed (24–120 h) chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). In a phase III trial, APF530 was noninferior to palonosetron in preventing acute CINV following single-dose moderately (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) and delayed CINV in MEC (MEC and HEC defined by Hesketh criteria). This exploratory subanalysis was conducted in the breast cancer subpopulation. Patients were randomized to subcutaneous APF530 250 or 500 mg (granisetron 5 or 10 mg) or intravenous palonosetron 0.25 mg during cycle 1. Palonosetron patients were randomized to APF530 for cycles 2 to 4. The primary efficacy end point was complete response (CR, no emesis or rescue medication) in cycle 1. Among breast cancer patients (n = 423 MEC, n = 185 HEC), > 70 % received anthracycline-containing regimens in each emetogenicity subgroup. There were no significant between-group differences in CRs in cycle 1 for acute (APF530 250 mg: MEC 71 %, HEC 77 %; 500 mg: MEC 73 %, HEC 73 %; palonosetron: MEC 68 %, HEC 66 %) and delayed (APF530 250 mg: MEC 46 %, HEC 58 %; 500 mg: MEC 48 %, HEC 63 %; palonosetron: MEC 52 %, HEC 52 %) CINV. There were no significant differences in within-cycle CRs between APF530 doses for acute and delayed CINV in MEC or HEC in cycles 2 to 4; CRs trended higher in later cycles, with no notable differences in adverse events between breast cancer and overall populations. APF530 effectively prevented acute and delayed CINV over 4 chemotherapy cycles in breast cancer patients receiving MEC or HEC. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00343460 (June 22, 2006)

  20. Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: cyclic vomiting syndrome

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    ... the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... in mtDNA . Because egg cells, but not sperm cells, contribute ... resulting from mtDNA mutations from their mother. These disorders can appear in every generation of ...

  2. Fatal encephalopathy complicating persistent vomiting in pregnancy ...

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    ~12 weeks' gestational age with no gross abnormalities and a normal ... School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, .... will mean obtaining advice from a specialist and timely referral;.

  3. Aprepitant, granisetron, and dexamethasone for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after high-dose melphalan in autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Neben, Kai; Freiberger, Anja; Hüsing, Johannes; Gronkowski, Martina; Thalheimer, Markus; Pelzl, Le Hang; Mikus, Gerd; Burhenne, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2014-10-20

    The optimal regimen to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) is unclear. To evaluate the effect of aprepitant in addition to a standard regimen, we conducted this randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial. Patients with multiple myeloma were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to receive either aprepitant (125 mg orally on day 1 and 80 mg orally on days 2 to 4), granisetron (2 mg orally on days 1 to 4), and dexamethasone (4 mg orally on day 1 and 2 mg orally on days 2 to 3) or matching placebo, granisetron (2 mg orally on days 1 to 4), and dexamethasone (8 mg orally on day 1 and 4 mg orally on days 2 to 3). Melphalan 100 mg/m(2) was administered intravenously on days 1 to 2. ASCT was performed on day 4. The primary end point (complete response) was defined as no emesis and no rescue therapy within 120 hours of melphalan administration. Quality of life was assessed by modified Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire on days -1 and 6. Overall, 362 patients were available for the efficacy analysis (181 in each treatment arm). Significantly more patients receiving aprepitant reached the primary end point (58% v 41%; odds ratio [OR], 1.92; 95% CI, 1.23 to 3.00; P = .0042). Absence of major nausea (94% v 88%; OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 5.15; P = .026) and emesis (78% v 65%; OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.25 to 3.18; P = .0036) within 120 hours was increased by aprepitant. Mean total FLIE score (± standard deviation) was 114 ± 18 for aprepitant and 106 ± 26 for placebo (P < .001). The addition of aprepitant resulted in significantly less CINV and had a positive effect on quality of life. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. Transdermal granisetron versus palonosetron for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: a multicenter, randomized, open-label, cross-over, active-controlled, and phase IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young Mi; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Yang Soo; Oh, Sung Yong; Koh, Su Jin; Baek, Jin Ho; Lee, Won Sik; Joo, Young Don; Lee, Hyun Gi; Yun, Eun Young; Chung, Joo Seop

    2016-02-01

    Palonosetron is the second-generation 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3RA) that has shown better efficacy than the first-generation 5-HT3RA for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). Granisetron transdermal delivery system (GTDS), a novel transdermal formulation, was developed to deliver granisetron continuously over 7 days. This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of the GTDS to palonosetron for the control of CINV following MEC. A total of 196 patients were randomized to GP or PG group. In this multicenter, randomized, open-label, cross-over, active-controlled, Phase IV study, GP group was assigned to receive transdermal granisetron (one GTDS patch, 7 days) in the first chemotherapy cycle, palonosetron (iv 0.25 mg/day, 1 days) in the second chemotherapy cycle before receiving MEC, and PG group was assigned to receive palonosetron in the first cycle and GTDS in the second cycle. Primary endpoint was the percentage of chemotherapy cycles achieving complete response (CR; defined as no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) during the acute phase (0-24 h in post-chemotherapy; non-inferiority comparison with palonosetron). Total 333 cycles (165 in GTDS and 168 in palonosetron) were included in the per protocol analysis. The GTDS cycles showed non-inferiority to palonosetron cycles during the acute phase: CR was achieved by 124 (75.2 %) patients in the GTDS cycles and 134 (79.8 %) patients in the palonosetron cycles (treatment difference, -4.6 %; 95 % confidence interval, -13.6-4.4). There was no significant difference in CR rate during acute phase after the end of the first and second chemotherapy cycle between GP and PG group (p = 0.405, p = 0.074). Patients' satisfaction, assessed using Functional Living Index-Emesis (FLI-E), GTDS cycle were higher than those of palonosetron cycle in GP group (FLI-E score; median 1549.5 in GTDS cycle, median 1670

  5. Single-dose palonosetron for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy containing steroids: results of a phase II study from the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio dei Linfomi (GISL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Nicola; Montanini, Antonella; Mannina, Donato; Dondi, Alessandra; Muci, Stefania; Mancuso, Salvatrice; De Paolis, M Rosaria; Plati, Caterina; Stelitano, Caterina; Patti, Catia; Olivieri, Attilio; Liardo, Eliana; Buda, Gabriele; Cantaffa, Renato; Federico, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    The control of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy is paramount for overall treatment success in cancer patients. Antiemetic therapy during chemotherapy in lymphoma patients generally consists of anti-serotoninergic drugs and dexamethasone. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of palonosetron, a second-generation serotonin type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist, in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) containing steroids. Patients received a single intravenous bolus of palonosetron (0.25 mg) before administration of chemotherapy. Complete response (CR) defined as no vomiting and no rescue therapy during overall phase (0-120 h) was the primary endpoint. Complete control (CC) defined as CR and only mild nausea was a secondary endpoint. Eighty-six evaluable patients entered in the study. A CR was observed in 74 patients (86.0%) during the overall phase; the CR during the acute (0-24 h) and delayed (24-120 h) phases was 90.7% and 88.4%, respectively. CC was 89.5% during the acute and 84.9% during the delayed phase; the overall CC was 82.6%. This was the first trial, which demonstrated the efficacy of a single dose of palonosetron in control CINV in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving MEC regimen containing steroids.

  6. Uso da mirtazapina no tratamento da náusea e vômito refratários a terapia habitual após derivação gástrica em Y de Roux Intractable nausea and vomiting following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass controlled with mirtazapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A cirurgia bariátrica é procedimento com significativa morbidade. A náusea a vômito geralmente ocorrem devido à presença de complicações mecânicas como as estenoses das anastomoses. Alguns casos apresentam sintomas importantes na ausência dessas complicações. OBJETIVO: Relato do uso da mirtazapina no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica em um paciente com náuseas de vômitos refratários ao tratamento clínico habitual, na ausência de complicações mecânicas. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente portador de obesidade mórbida foi submetido à derivação gástrica em Y de Roux laparoscópica. Evoluiu com náusea persistente associada a episódios de vômitos refratários a ondansetron, metoclopramida e bromoprida. Não foram identificadas causas mecânicas para o quadro. Foi iniciado mirtazapina (Remeron® via oral na dose de 30mg por dia durante 60 dias. Após dois dias do início da medicação foi observado melhora total do quadro. A mirtazapina é um antidepressivo que apresenta efeito antiemético através do bloqueio de receptores para a serotonina (5-HT3 no centro do vômito no tronco cerebral. CONCLUSÃO: A mirtazapina pode ser útil nos casos de náusea e vômito refratários à terapia antiemética habitual no pós-operatório de derivação gástrica em Y de Roux, quando causas mecânicas são excluídas.BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is related to significant morbidity. Mechanical complications such as stricture of the anastomotic sites are the most common causes of persistent nausea and vomiting. Some patients present such symptoms in the absence of these complications. AIM: To report the use of mirtazapine in a patient submitted to bariatric surgery, presenting persistent nausea and vomiting in the absence of mechanical complications, and unresponsive to conventional antiemetic drugs. CASE REPORT: A morbidly obese patient submitted to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass presented persistent nausea and vomiting

  7. APF530 versus ondansetron, each in a guideline-recommended three-drug regimen, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting due to anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide–based highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens: a post hoc subgroup analysis of the Phase III randomized MAGIC trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnadig ID

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ian D Schnadig1, Richy Agajanian2, Christopher Dakhil3, Nashat Gabrail4, Jeffrey Vacirca5, Charles Taylor6, Sharon Wilks7, Eduardo Braun8, Michael C Mosier9, Robert B Geller10, Lee Schwartzberg11, Nicholas Vogelzang12 1Compass Oncology, US Oncology Research, Tualatin, OR, 2The Oncology Institute of Hope and Innovation, Whittier, CA, 3Cancer Center of Kansas, Wichita, KS, 4Gabrail Cancer Center, Canton, OH, 5North Shore Hematology Oncology, East Setauket, NY, 6Tulsa Cancer Institute, Tulsa, OK, 7Cancer Care Centers of South Texas, San Antonio, TX, 8Michiana Hematology Oncology, Westville, IN, 9Biostatistics, EMB Statistical Solutions, LLC, Overland Park, KS, 10Medical Affairs, Heron Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA, 11West Cancer Center, Germantown, TN, 12Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA Background: APF530, a novel extended-release granisetron injection, was superior to ondansetron in a guideline-recommended three-drug regimen in preventing delayed-phase chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV among patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC in the double-blind Phase III Modified Absorption of Granisetron In the prevention of CINV (MAGIC trial.Patients and methods: This MAGIC post hoc analysis evaluated CINV prevention efficacy and safety of APF530 versus ondansetron, each with fosaprepitant and dexamethasone, in patient subgroup receiving an anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide (AC regimen. Patients were randomized 1:1 to APF530 500 mg subcutaneously (granisetron 10 mg or ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg intravenously (IV (≤16 mg; stratification was by planned cisplatin ≥50 mg/m2 (yes/no. Patients were to receive fosaprepitant 150 mg IV and dexamethasone 12 mg IV on day 1, then dexamethasone 8 mg orally once daily on day 2 and twice daily on days 3 and 4. Patients were mostly younger females (APF530 arm, mean age 54.1 years, female, 99.3%; ondansetron arm, 53.8 years, female 98.3%. The primary

  8. Comparison of an extended-release formulation of granisetron (APF530) versus palonosetron for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, noninferiority phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, Harry; Cooper, William; O'Boyle, Erin; Gabrail, Nashat; Boccia, Ralph; Gralla, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    Subcutaneous APF530 provides controlled sustained release of granisetron to prevent acute (0-24 h) and delayed (24-120 h) chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This randomized, double-blind phase 3 trial compared APF530 and palonosetron in preventing acute and delayed CINV after moderately (MEC) or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Patients receiving single-day MEC or HEC received single-dose APF530 250 or 500 mg subcutaneously (SC) (granisetron 5 or 10 mg) or intravenous palonosetron 0.25 mg. Primary objectives were to establish APF530 noninferiority to palonosetron for preventing acute CINV following MEC or HEC and delayed CINV following MEC and to determine APF530 superiority to palonosetron for preventing delayed CINV following HEC. The primary efficacy end point was complete response (CR [using CI difference for APF530-palonosetron]). A lower confidence bound greater than -15 % indicated noninferiority. In the modified intent-to-treat population (MEC = 634; HEC = 707), both APF530 doses were noninferior to palonosetron in preventing acute CINV after MEC (CRs 74.8 % [-9.8, 9.3] and 76.9 % [-7.5, 11.4], respectively, vs. 75.0 % palonosetron) and after HEC (CRs 77.7 % [-11.5, 5.5] and 81.3 % [-7.7, 8.7], respectively, vs. 80.7 % palonosetron). APF530 500 mg was noninferior to palonosetron in preventing delayed CINV after MEC (CR 58.5 % [-9.5, 12.1] vs. 57.2 % palonosetron) but not superior in preventing delayed CINV after HEC. Adverse events were generally mild and unrelated to treatment, the most common (excluding injection-site reactions) being constipation. A single subcutaneous APF530 injection offers a convenient alternative to palonosetron for preventing acute and delayed CINV after MEC or HEC.

  9. Efficacy of triplet regimen antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and an efficacy comparison of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron for CINV in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to evaluate combination antiemetic therapy consisting of 5-HT 3 receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs), and dexamethasone for multiple high emetogenic risk (HER) anticancer agents in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. A single randomization method was used to assign eligible patients to the palonosetron or granisetron arm. Patients in the palonosetron arm received a palonosetron regimen during the first and third chemotherapy courses and a granisetron regimen during the second and fourth courses. All patients received NK-1RA and dexamethasone. Patients receiving the palonosetron regimen were administered 0.75 mg palonosetron on day 1, and patients receiving the granisetron regimen were administered 3 mg granisetron twice daily on days 1 through 5. All 24 patients in this study received at least 4 chemotherapy courses. A total of 96 courses of antiemetic therapy were evaluated. Overall, the complete response CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) was 34%, while the total control rate (a CR plus no nausea) was 7%. No significant differences were observed between single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron. Antiemetic therapy with a 3-drug combination was not sufficient to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during chemotherapy with multiple HER agents for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. This study also demonstrated that consecutive-day granisetron was not inferior to single-shot palonosetron for treating CINV

  10. Efficacy of triplet regimen antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and an efficacy comparison of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron for CINV in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    The first aim of this study was to evaluate combination antiemetic therapy consisting of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs), and dexamethasone for multiple high emetogenic risk (HER) anticancer agents in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. A single randomization method was used to assign eligible patients to the palonosetron or granisetron arm. Patients in the palonosetron arm received a palonosetron regimen during the first and third chemotherapy courses and a granisetron regimen during the second and fourth courses. All patients received NK-1RA and dexamethasone. Patients receiving the palonosetron regimen were administered 0.75 mg palonosetron on day 1, and patients receiving the granisetron regimen were administered 3 mg granisetron twice daily on days 1 through 5. All 24 patients in this study received at least 4 chemotherapy courses. A total of 96 courses of antiemetic therapy were evaluated. Overall, the complete response CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) was 34%, while the total control rate (a CR plus no nausea) was 7%. No significant differences were observed between single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron. Antiemetic therapy with a 3-drug combination was not sufficient to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during chemotherapy with multiple HER agents for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. This study also demonstrated that consecutive-day granisetron was not inferior to single-shot palonosetron for treating CINV. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Assessment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy on antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    place of residence, race/ethnicity, cultural, social, and educational status of ... Research and Publication Committee, University of. Addis Ababa ..... Determinants of Health; (Unpublished doctoral thesis), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,.

  12. Drinks to Prevent Dehydration in a Vomiting Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  13. Ginger effects on control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Meisam Ebrahimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN in the anticipatory and acute phase is the most common side effect in cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ginger capsules on the alleviation of this problem. Methods : This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 80 women with breast cancer between August till December 2009 in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. These patients underwent one-day chemotherapy regime and suffering from chemotherapy-induced nausea. After obtaining written consent, samples were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Two groups were matched based on the age and emetic effects of chemotherapy drugs used. The intervention group received ginger capsules (250 mg, orally four times a day (1 gr/d and the same samples from the placebo group received starch capsules (250 mg, orally for three days before to three days after chemotherapy. To measure the effect of capsules a three-part questionnaire was used, so the samples filled every night out these tools. After collecting the information, the gathered data were analyzed by statistical tests like Fisher’s exact, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square using version 8 of STATA software. Results : The mean ± SD of age in the intervention and placebo groups were 41.8 ± 8.4 and 45.1 ± 10 years, respectively. Results indicated that the severity and number of nausea in the anticipatory phase were significantly lower in the ginger group compared with placebo group (P=0.0008, P=0.0007, respectively. Also, the intensity (P=0.0001 and number (P=0.0001 of nausea in the acute phase were significantly lower in the ginger group. On the other hand, taking ginger capsules compared with placebo did not result in any major complications. Conclusion: Consuming ginger root powder capsules (1 gr/d from three days before chemotherapy till three days after it in combination with the standard anti-emetic regimen can help to reduce the anticipatory and acute nausea.

  14. Rectal hydrocortisone during vomiting in children with adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chróinín, M; Fallon, M; Kenny, D; Moriarty, S; Hoey, H; Costigan, C

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate rectal hydrocortisone as an emergency glucocorticoid replacement therapy in adrenal insufficient children. A parental questionnaire evaluated preferred treatment, problems or benefits of i.m. and rectal hydrocortisone, frequency and indications for administration and who administered treatment. Admissions of children with adrenal insufficiency were monitored. There were 39/52 families who responded to the questionnaire. 93% (26/28) preferred rectal hydrocortisone. Parents or children who previously received emergency treatment from a doctor now self-administered rectal hydrocortisone. The cost of suppositories and i.m. hydrocortisone is similar; however, storage of suppositories was inconvenient. One girl presented with pneumonia and collapse despite rectal hydrocortisone and a hydrocortisone level at admission of >2000 nmol/l with normal electrolytes. Rectal hydrocortisone is an acceptable and safe emergency therapy. We still advise i.m. hydrocortisone if rectal administration is not possible or with suppository extrusion.

  15. Antiemetic Medicines: OTC Relief for Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  16. Incidence of intraoperative nausea and vomiting during spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pre-eclampsia or other causes of severe hypertension, and the use of ergometrine. ... blood pressure (SBP) was measured twice with the patient in the left lateral position, ... Ephedrine was also administered if there was a poor response to.

  17. A rare cause of coffee-ground vomiting: Retrograde jejunogastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde jejunogastric intussusception is a well-recognised, rare, but potentially fatal long-term complication of gastrojejunostomy or Billroth II reconstruction. Only about 200 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Diagnosis of this condition is difficult in most cases. To avoid mortality, earlydiagnosis and prompt ...

  18. Oxigênio suplementar e incidência de náuseas e vômitos perioperatórios no parto cesariano sob anestesia subaracnoidea Oxígeno suplementario e incidencia de náuseas y vómitos perioperatorios en el parto cesariano bajo anestesia subaracnoidea Supplemental oxygen and the incidence of perioperative nausea and vomiting in cesarean sections under subarachnoid block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Salomão Turazzi Pécora

    2009-10-01

    la incidencia de náuseas y vómitos perioperatorios. MÉTODO: Después de la inducción de anestesia subaracnoidea estandarizada, noventa y cuatro parturientas sometidas al parto en quirófano, se distribuyeron de forma aleatoria para recibir, a través de catéter nasal tipo gafas, 4 L.min-1 de oxígeno (Grupo O, o aire comprimido (Grupo S, hasta el final del procedimiento. Se les preguntó sobre el aparecimiento de náuseas y vómitos durante la operación y en las primeras 6 y 24 horas del posparto. RESULTADOS: Los dos grupos fueron comparables en cuanto a las variables demográficas, perioperatorias y en cuanto a los datos del recién nacido. En el Grupo O, la incidencia de náuseas durante la operación en las primeras 6 horas del postoperatorio y entre las 6 y 24 horas del postoperatorio, fue de un 35%, 20% y 13%, respectivamente, mientras que en el Grupo S, fue de un 35%, 30% y 19%, respectivamente. La incidencia de vómitos en el Grupo O fue de un 9%, 11% y 6% en los períodos correspondientes, y en el Grupo S, 21%, 7% y 7%, respectivamente. Esas diferencias no fueron significativas. CONCLUSIONES: En la población estudiada, la oxigenoterapia suplementaria desde la inducción de la anestesia hasta el término de la operación, no redujo la incidencia de náuseas o vómitos intraoperatorios y postoperatorios en mujeres sometidas al parto por cesárea bajo anestesia subaracnoidea.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Supplemental oxygen can reduce the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients under general anesthesia. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of supplemental oxygen to reduce the incidence of perioperative nausea and vomiting in elective cesareans under subarachnoid block. METHODS: After induction of standardized subarachnoid block, 94 parturients undergoing surgical delivery were randomly divided to receive 4 L.min-1 of oxygen (Group O or medical air (Group S under nasal cannula throughout the procedure. Patients

  19. Preliminary antigenic characterisation of an adult worm vomit preparation of Fasciola hepatica by infected human sera Caracterização antigênica preliminar de preparação de vômito de verme adulto de Fasciola hepatica por soros humanos infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra De Almeida

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is an emerging/re-emerging vector-borne disease with the widest known distribution. Approximately 17 million people are infected around the world, being the Andean region the most affected area. There is an important necessity to develop sensitive and specific diagnostic tools to treat patients early and to avoid complications. In this paper we evaluated the immune response of infected humans against two antigenic preparations: the total soluble extract (FhTSE and the adult worm vomit (FhAWV in order to identify antigenic fractions specific for Fasciola hepatica. Both preparations were processed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot with human sera with fascioliasis (F, other parasitosis and healthy individuals. In the immunoblot of FhTSE, sera F recognised 16 bands with MW between eight and 110 kDa, from which those of 8, 9, 10, 38, 45 and 57 kDa were specific. In the preparation FhAWV, sera F recognised nine bands with MW from eight to 85 kDa, from which those of 8, 12, 15 and 24 kDa were specific. Some bands of cross-reaction were evident with sera from patients with other parasitoses, more frequent with the FhTSE. Bands within the MW mentioned, particularly that of eight kDa, have been shown to be specific by others, and deserve additional characterisation for their potential use in immunodiagnosis.Fasciolíase é uma doença emergente/re-emergente transmitida por vetores com a distribuição sabidamente mais ampla. Existem aproximadamente 17 milhões de pessoas infectadas em todo mundo, sendo a região andina a área mais afetada. Há uma necessidade importante para desenvolver ferramentas diagnósticas sensíveis e específicas para tratar cedo os pacientes e para evitar complicações. Neste trabalho avaliamos a resposta imune de seres humanos infectados comparando a duas preparações antigênicas: o extrato solúvel total (FhTSE e o vômito (FhAWV do verme adulto a fim de identificar as frações antigênicas específicas para

  20. Náuseas e vômitos no pós-operatório: uma revisão do "pequeno-grande" problema Náuseas y vómitos en el posoperatorio: una revisión del "pequeño-grande" problema Postoperative nausea and vomiting: a review of the "minor-major" problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Lages

    2005-10-01

    ños, éstos aún ocurren frecuentemente en grupos de riesgo elevado. La estrategia actual para la prevención y manoseo de NVPO permanece por establecer y las líneas de orientación de Gan deberán ser adaptadas a cada población de pacientes y a la institución hospitalaria.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Notwithstanding continuous investigations and the development of new drugs and techniques, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV are frequent and may contribute to the development of complications, thus increasing hospital and human costs. This article aimed at reviewing physiological mechanisms, risk factors and therapeutic approaches available to manage PONV. CONTENTS: Several strategies to manage PONV are suggested in this article, but stress is given to guidelines published by Gan in 2003. They are the most recent contribution for risk stratification, prevention and treatment of PONV patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although the management of PONV has improved in recent years, it is still common among high-risk patients. Current strategy to prevent and treat PONV is not yet established and Gan guidelines should be adapted to each population and institution.

  1. Estudo comparativo de antieméticos e suas associações, na prevenção de náuseas e vômitos pós-operatórios, em pacientes submetidas a procedimentos cirúrgicos ginecológicos Estudio comparativo de antieméticos y sus asociaciones, en la prevención de náusea y vómito postoperatorios, en pacientes sometidas a procedimientos quirúrgicos ginecológicos Comparative study of anti-emetics and their association, in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynecologic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Brandão Schnaider

    2008-12-01

    . MÉTODO: Setenta pacientes, ASA I y II, fueron sometidas a procedimientos quirúrgicos ginecológicos, bajo bloqueo epidural asociado a la anestesia general. En el Grupo Metoclopramida (GM, se administró 20 mg; en el Grupo Dexametasona (GDe, se inyectó 8 mg; en el Grupo Droperidol (GDr se administró 1,25 mg; en el Grupo Ondansetron (GO se inyectó 8mg; en el Grupo Dexametasona-Ondansetron (GDeO se administró respectivamente 8 mg y 4mg; en el Grupo Droperidol-Ondansetron (GDrO se inyectó 1,25 mg y 4 mg; en el Grupo Dexametasona-Droperidol-Ondansetron (GDeDrO se administró 8mg, 0,625 mg y 4mg. La presencia de náuseas y vómitos fue observada en los momentos de 6, 12, 24 y 36 horas después del término de la operación. RESULTADOS: La incidencia total de episodios de náuseas fue de 4 en el GDeDrO, 6 en el GO, 6 en el GDrO, 11 en el GDe, 11 en el GDeO, 18 en el GM y 22 en el GDr. Al aplicar el test del Chi-cuadrado o el test de Fisher, se comprobó la diferencia estadística significativa entre el GDr y los grupos GDe, GDO, GDrO, GDeO, GDeDrO; entre el GM y los grupos GO, GDrO y GDeDrO; entre el GDeO y el grupo GDeDrO. La incidencia total de episodios de vómitos fue de 3 en el GO, 3 en el GDeDrO, 6 en el GDrO, 7 en el GDe, 7 en el GDeO, 10 en el GDr y 13 en el G. Se comprobó así mismo, la diferencia estadística significativa entre el GDr y los grupos GO y GDeDrO; entre el GM y los grupos GO y GDeDrO. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación dexametasona-droperidol-ondansetron y el ondansetron fueron más eficaces en la profilaxis de náuseas y vómitos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting has been the subject of several studies. The objective of the present study was to compare anti-emetics, and their association, in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: Seventy patients, ASA I and II, underwent epidural block associated with general anesthesia for gynecologic surgeries. Patients in the Metochlopramide Group

  2. A case of nausea and vomiting: clinical case | Wright | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Gastroenterology Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Case Report-The 46 year old man with a 5 month history of vomiting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    generalized motility disorders such as intestinal myopathies and neuropathies. ... numbers of inhibitory neurons that are important for motor coordination ... Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis.

  4. Consensus recommendations for the prevention of vomiting and nausea following high-emetic-risk chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kris, Mark G; Tonato, Maurizio; Bria, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    selective 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists. We conclude that, for each of these five drugs, there is a plateau in therapeutic efficacy above which further dose escalation does not improve outcome. In trials designed to prove the equivalence of palonosetron to ondansetron and granisetron, palonosetron proved...

  5. Electrocardiographic Changes After Granisetron Administration for Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alidoosti Asadolah

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patient receive various cytotoxic drugs in association with antiemetic drugs such as 5HT3 receptor antagonists as their chemotherapy regimen. 5HT3 receptor antagonists have been reported to produce changes in ECG parameter. There are only a few studies about cardiovascular events of these drugs in patient receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapies. The subject of this study is to evaluate ECG changes after administration of chemotherapeutic agents and granisetron (the most commonly used 5HT3 antagonist in Iran in adults with cancer. For this clinical trial study, all cancer patients referred to department of radiation oncology of Imam Hossein Hospital since August 2005 to March 2006 were evaluated if they had inclusion criteria. Granisetron (3 mg was infused intravenously over 30 seconds just a few minutes before chemotherapeutic agent administration. The 12-lead ECG recording was obtained before and 90 minutes after infusion of granisetron. One cardiologist determined PR, QRS, QTc intervals and heart rate of all ECGs. During the study period 54 patients fulfilled our criteria. With paired t-test, the PR and QTc intervals, but not QRS interval showed statistically significant prolongation after drug infusion (P < 0.0001, and heart rate showed statistically significant decrease (P < 0.0001. The ECG findings of chemotherapeutic agents and granisetron administration were prolongation of PR and QTc intervals and decrease of heart rate (P < 0.0001. Although these changes did not cause clinical signs, with keeping in mind that there may be possible drug-drug interactions and preexisting cardiac comorbidities in cancer patient, it seems reasonable and necessary to consider physical condition specifically cardiac condition and drug usage of each patient, while designing chemotherapy regimen and supportive drugs.

  6. Vomiting, abdominal distention and early feeding of banana (Musa paradisiaca) in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M; Wahab, A Samik; Soeparto, Pitono

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to assess the relationship between banana given as early solid food with the symptoms of intestinal obstruction (SIO) among neonates, in a rural community in West Lombok District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Mothers having newborn infants were interviewed and 3,420 neonates were followed for 28 days. Compared with infants who were not given solid food, the relative risk (RR) for infants given food other than banana as early solid food was 1.87, 95% CI 0.48-8.24, p=0.4, while for infants given banana only as early solid food the RR was 9.15, 95% CI 1.96-42.58, p 0.0005. After adjustment for birthweight, colostrum, and breastfeeding, the odds ratio for infants given banana and the appearance of SIO was 2.99, 95% CI 2.65-5.14; p=0.0012. These data indicate that banana given as early solid food is an important risk factor for the appearance of SIO in neonates.

  7. Are cannabinoids effective for the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaignacia Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN El tratamiento de las náuseas y vómitos inducidos por quimioterapia podría mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes oncológicos; para lograrlo se ha propuesto la adición de cannabinoides a los esquemas de antieméticos habituales. MÉTODOS Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES Identificamos 16 revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 61 estudios primarios, de los cuales cuatro son ensayos aleatorizados que responden a la pregunta de interés. Concluimos que no hay claridad respecto a si los cannabinoides otorgan un beneficio al añadirlos a esquemas antieméticos habituales para el control de náuseas y vómitos inducidos por quimioterapia, porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja. Probablemente aumentan los efectos adversos de manera sustantiva.

  8. Development of an animal model for heavy ion radiation-induced nausea and vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamatodani, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kouichi; Nohara, Kyoko

    2003-01-01

    Emesis is one of the most characteristic side effects of radiation therapy. Clinical and pharmacological findings indicate that the peripheral serotonergic pathway is predominantly involved in the development of radiation-induced emesis, but the precise etiology is still unknown. We previously demonstrated that the activation of the histaminergic neuron system in the brain is essential for the development of motion-induced emesis (motion sickness). In this study, we studied the effects of heavy-ion irradiation on the hypothalamic histamine release measured in vivo with a microdialysis method in mice. Total body irradiation at dose of 8 Gy (carbon ion: 290 MeV/u, 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP)) did not cause any significant changes in the histamine release in mice. These findings indicate that the central histaminergic activation is not involved in the development of radiation-induced emesis in mice. (author)

  9. Randomized clinical trial of preoperative dexamethasone on postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, J.; Kirkegaard, A.; Vilandt, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the effects of preoperative dexamethasone in acute surgical patients. This study examined the effects of 8 mg dexamethasone administered intravenously 30 min before surgery for suspected acute appendicitis. Methods: A multicentre, parallel-group, double......-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted at two university hospitals in Denmark. Adults undergoing laparoscopic surgery for suspected appendicitis were eligible for inclusion. Participants, healthcare staff and investigators were blinded until all data analysis had been done. The primary outcome...

  10. Eficácia do propofol e da associação de propofol e dexametasona no controle de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório de laparoscopia ginecológica Eficacia del propofol y de la asociación de propofol y dexametasona en el control de náusea y vómito en el pós-operatorio de laparoscopia ginecológica Efficacy of propofol and propofol plus dexamethasone in controlling postoperative nausea and vomiting of gynecologic laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Marisa Ganem

    2002-07-01

    ós-operatorio. Este estudio tuvo por finalidad comparar la eficacia del propofol aisladamente o en asociación con la dexametasona en la prevención de náusea y vómito en pacientes sometidas a laparoscopia ginecológica. MÉTODO: Participaron del estudio 40 pacientes, estado físico ASA I y II, con edades entre 18 y 46 años, sin quejas gástricas previas, sometidas a laparoscopia para diagnóstico o cirugía. Las pacientes fueron divididas en 2 grupos: el grupo 1 recibió (solución fisiológica 2 ml y el grupo 2 dexametasona (8 mg, por vía venosa antes de la inducción de la anestesia. Todas las pacientes recibieron midazolam (7,5 mg por vía oral como medicación pré-anestésica, sufentanil (0,5 µg.kg-1, propofol en infusión continua para inducción y manutención de la anestesia (BIS - 60 y N2O/O2 en fracción inspirada de O2 a 40% y atracúrio (0,5 mg.kg-1 como bloqueador neuromuscular. La analgesia pós-operatoria fue realizada con cetoprofeno (100 mg y buscopan compuesto ®. Las pacientes fueron evaluadas en la sala de recuperación pós-anestésica (SRPA y en la enfermaría 1 h, 2 h 3 h y 12 h después del alta de la SRPA. RESULTADOS: Ambos grupos fueron idénticos cuanto a los datos antropométricos y a la duración de la cirugía y de la anestesia. En el grupo 1 (n=20 una paciente presentó náusea en la SRPA y en la enfermaría y tres pacientes vomitaron en la enfermaría. En el grupo 2 (n=20 ninguna paciente presentó náusea o vómito durante el período de observación clínica, resultados estadísticamente no significativos. CONCLUSIONES: El propofol aisladamente o asociado a la dexametasona fue eficaz en la prevención de náusea y vómito en el pós-operatorio de pacientes sometidas a laparoscopia ginecológica.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gynecological laparoscopy is a procedure associated to a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV. This study aimed at comparing the efficacy of propofol or propofol plus dexamethasone in preventing PONV in

  11. Use of granisetron transdermal system in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Tuca, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Albert TucaPalliative Care Hospital Team, Palliative Care Department, Institut Català d’Oncologia, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Until now only intravenous and oral formulations of 5HT3 receptor antagonists have been available. Recently a new formulation of a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, transdermal granisetron, has been developed, and approved by the FDA. Three phase I studies to evaluate its pharmacokinetic profile have shown that granisetr...

  12. 2016 updated MASCC/ESMO consensus recommendations : Prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupuis, L. Lee; Sung, Lillian; Molassiotis, Alexander; Orsey, Andrea D.; Tissing, Wim; van de Wetering, Marianne

    To update the 2009 recommendations for the prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced emesis in children. We updated the original systematic literature search. Randomized studies were included in the evidence to support this guideline if they were primary studies fully published in full text in

  13. Impact of chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting on patients' functional status and on costs: survey of five Canadian centres.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, B J; Rusthoven, J; Rocchi, A; Latreille, J; Fine, S; Vandenberg, T; Laberge, F

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis on patients' functional status and on costs to the health care system, the patients and society before antagonists to the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptor subtype 5-HT3 became available. DESIGN: A 5-day prospective survey between February and May 1991 of patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. Data were obtained from questionnaires completed by nurses and patients. SETTING: Five Canadian cancer treatmen...

  14. [Comparative study on the tolerance and efficacy of high doses of metoclopramide and clebopride in vomiting induced by cisplatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M; Díaz-Rubio, E

    1989-06-10

    Forty-one patients treated with cisplatin (100-120 mg/m2), alone or associated with vindesine (3 mg/m2), were included in a randomized crossover pilot study which compared 3 different doses of intravenous clebopride with intravenous metoclopramide. The patients were randomly assigned to receive clebopride in the first chemotherapy course in one of the three dose levels used (0.5 mg/kg, 21 patients; 0.75 mg/kg, 11 patients; 1 mg/kg, 10 patients) or metoclopramide (10 mg/kg). In the second course of the same chemotherapy the patients received the alternative antiemetic, and thus each patient was his own control. The total dose of both antiemetic drugs was infused in 5 intravenous fractions given every 2 hours. The antiemetic activity of clebopride was moderately lower to that of metoclopramide with the first two tested doses (overall doses of 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg) and similar with the last dose (1 mg/kg). Clebopride was reasonably well tolerated at the used dosages, inducing sedation in 20% of cases (versus 24% with metoclopramide) and diarrhea in 37% (versus 20% with metoclopramide). Extrapyramidal reactions developed in 17% of the courses which included metoclopramide and in none including clebopride. This difference was statistically significant.

  15. Chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and fatigue - the role of individual differences related to sensory perception and autonomic reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Paulsen, Kim; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of antiemetics, postchemotherapy side effects continue to be common and may affect compliance to cancer treatment. Among the known factors associated with increased symptom severity are: younger age, treatment toxicity, expected severity, and distress, but little is still kno...

  16. Appropriateness of Taped versus Live Relaxation in the Systematic Desensitization of Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Gary R.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated whether the relaxation part of systematic desensitization could be learned by cancer patients from a prerecorded audiotape. Results showed four of five patients assigned to a taped-relaxation group experienced nausea while listening to the audiotape, whereas none of five patients taught muscle relaxation in person reported nausea. (BH)

  17. Palonosetron versus granisetron in combination with aprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with gynecologic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Satoe; Terai, Yoshito; Tsunetoh, Satoshi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Masanori; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2015-10-01

    There is no research regarding the appropriate antiemetic agents for female patients, especially those receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC). We evaluated the antiemetic efficacy of a combination of 5-HT₃ receptor with/without aprepitant in patients with gynecological cancer treated with the TC (paclitaxel and carboplatin) regimen of MEC. We enrolled 38 patients diagnosed with gynecologic cancer and scheduled to receive the TC regimen. The patients were randomly assigned to receive a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist, either palonosetron in the first cycle followed by granisetron in the second cycle or vice versa. In the third cycle, all patients received a combination of the 5-HT₃ receptor and dexamethasone with/without aprepitant. When three drugs were administered, palonosetron consistently produced an equivalent complete response (CR) rate to granisetron in the acute phase (89.5% vs. 86.8%, p=0.87) and delayed phase (60.5% vs. 65.8%, p=0.79). With regard to the change in dietary intake, palonosetron exhibited similar efficacy to granisetron in the acute phase (92.1% vs. 89.4%, p=0.19) and delayed phase (65.7% vs. 68.4%, p=0.14). However, in the delayed phase, the addition of aprepitant therapy with a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist and dexamethasone produced a higher CR rate than a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist with dexamethasone (93.3% vs. 47.8%, p<0.001) and allowed the patients to maintain a higher level of dietary intake (93.3% vs. 56.5%, p<0.001). The addition of aprepitant therapy was more effective than the control therapy of a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone in gynecological cancer patients treated with the TC regimen.

  18. Recurrent vomiting and ethylmalonic aciduria associated with rare mutations in the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidel, J.; Streck, S.; Bellstedt, K.

    2003-01-01

    blood spots. Neither of the frequent SCAD gene variants 625G>A and 511C>T was present, but direct sequencing of the promoter and coding regions of the SCAD gene revealed that the patient had mutations on both alleles: 417G>C (Trpl15Cys) and 1095G>T (Gln341His). Neither mutation has been described before...

  19. Single-dose fosaprepitant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting associated with cisplatin therapy: randomized, double-blind study protocol--EASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunberg, Steven; Chua, Daniel; Maru, Anish

    2011-01-01

    multiple-day NK1RA administration. Preliminary data suggested that single-dose aprepitant before chemotherapy could provide CINV protection throughout the overall risk phase (OP; 0 to 120 hours). This study compared a 3-day oral aprepitant schedule to a regimen containing a single dose of the intravenous...

  20. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the rectum Black, tarry stool or diarrhea Black/brown blood in vomit (looks like coffee grounds) Vomiting ... your doc tor. Black, tarry stool or diarrhea; black/brown blood in vomit; or >1 Tablespoon bright red ...