WorldWideScience

Sample records for volvox carteri bloated

  1. The mitochondrial and plastid genomes of Volvox carteri: bloated molecules rich in repetitive DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Robert W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The magnitude of noncoding DNA in organelle genomes can vary significantly; it is argued that much of this variation is attributable to the dissemination of selfish DNA. The results of a previous study indicate that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of the green alga Volvox carteri abounds with palindromic repeats, which appear to be selfish elements. We became interested in the evolution and distribution of these repeats when, during a cursory exploration of the V. carteri nuclear DNA (nucDNA and plastid DNA (ptDNA sequences, we found palindromic repeats with similar structural features to those of the mtDNA. Upon this discovery, we decided to investigate the diversity and evolutionary implications of these palindromic elements by sequencing and characterizing large portions of mtDNA and ptDNA and then comparing these data to the V. carteri draft nuclear genome sequence. Results We sequenced 30 and 420 kilobases (kb of the mitochondrial and plastid genomes of V. carteri, respectively – resulting in partial assemblies of these genomes. The mitochondrial genome is the most bloated green-algal mtDNA observed to date: ~61% of the sequence is noncoding, most of which is comprised of short palindromic repeats spread throughout the intergenic and intronic regions. The plastid genome is the largest (>420 kb and most expanded (>80% noncoding ptDNA sequence yet discovered, with a myriad of palindromic repeats in the noncoding regions, which have a similar size and secondary structure to those of the mtDNA. We found that 15 kb (~0.01% of the nuclear genome are homologous to the palindromic elements of the mtDNA, and 50 kb (~0.05% are homologous to those of the ptDNA. Conclusion Selfish elements in the form of short palindromic repeats have propagated in the V. carteri mtDNA and ptDNA, resulting in the distension of these genomes. Copies of these same repeats are also found in a small fraction of the nucDNA, but appear to be inert in this

  2. Two different rickettsial bacteria invading Volvox carteri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Kawafune

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae are principally associated with arthropods. Recently, endosymbionts of the Rickettsiaceae have been found in non-phagotrophic cells of the volvocalean green algae Carteria cerasiformis, Pleodorina japonica, and Volvox carteri. Such endosymbionts were present in only C. cerasiformis strain NIES-425 and V. carteri strain UTEX 2180, of various strains of Carteria and V. carteri examined, suggesting that rickettsial endosymbionts may have been transmitted to only a few algal strains very recently. However, in preliminary work, we detected a sequence similar to that of a rickettsial gene in the nuclear genome of V. carteri strain EVE.Here we explored the origin of the rickettsial gene-like sequences in the endosymbiont-lacking V. carteri strain EVE, by performing comparative analyses on 13 strains of V. carteri. By reference to our ongoing genomic sequence of rickettsial endosymbionts in C. cerasiformis strain NIES-425 cells, we confirmed that an approximately 9-kbp DNA sequence encompassing a region similar to that of four rickettsial genes was present in the nuclear genome of V. carteri strain EVE. Phylogenetic analyses, and comparisons of the synteny of rickettsial gene-like sequences from various strains of V. carteri, indicated that the rickettsial gene-like sequences in the nuclear genome of V. carteri strain EVE were closely related to rickettsial gene sequences of P. japonica, rather than those of V. carteri strain UTEX 2180.At least two different rickettsial organisms may have invaded the V. carteri lineage, one of which may be the direct ancestor of the endosymbiont of V. carteri strain UTEX 2180, whereas the other may be closely related to the endosymbiont of P. japonica. Endosymbiotic gene transfer from the latter rickettsial organism may have occurred in an ancestor of V. carteri. Thus, the rickettsiae may be widely associated with V. carteri, and likely have often been lost during host evolution.

  3. Genomic analysis of organismal complexity in the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochnik, Simon E.; Umen, James; Nedelcu, Aurora; Hallmann, Armin; Miller, Stephen M.; Nishii, Ichiro; Ferris, Patrick; Kuo, Alan; Mitros, Therese; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Hellsten, Uffe; Chapman, Jarrod; Simakov, Oleg; Rensing, Stefan A.; Terry, Astrid; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Jurka, Jerzy; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Schmitt, Rudiger; Kirk, David; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of the Volvox carteri genome reveals that this green alga's increased organismal complexity and multicellularity are associated with modifications in protein families shared with its unicellular ancestor, and not with large-scale innovations in protein coding capacity. The multicellular green alga Volvox carteri and its morphologically diverse close relatives (the volvocine algae) are uniquely suited for investigating the evolution of multicellularity and development. We sequenced the 138 Mb genome of V. carteri and compared its {approx}14,500 predicted proteins to those of its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Despite fundamental differences in organismal complexity and life history, the two species have similar protein-coding potentials, and few species-specific protein-coding gene predictions. Interestingly, volvocine algal-specific proteins are enriched in Volvox, including those associated with an expanded and highly compartmentalized extracellular matrix. Our analysis shows that increases in organismal complexity can be associated with modifications of lineage-specific proteins rather than large-scale invention of protein-coding capacity.

  4. Characterization of a heat-shock-inducible hsp70 gene of the green alga Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Hallmann, Armin; Edwards, Lisseth; Miller, Stephen M

    2006-04-12

    The green alga Volvox carteri possesses several thousand cells, but just two cell types: large reproductive cells called gonidia, and small, biflagellate somatic cells. Gonidia are derived from large precursor cells that are created during embryogenesis by asymmetric cell divisions. The J domain protein GlsA (Gonidialess A) is required for these asymmetric divisions and is believed to function with an Hsp70 partner. As a first step toward identifying this partner, we cloned and characterized V. carteri hsp70A, which is orthologous to HSP70A of the related alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Like HSP70A, V. carteri hsp70A contains multiple heat shock elements (HSEs) and is highly inducible by heat shock. Consistent with these properties, Volvox transformants that harbor a glsA antisense transgene that is driven by an hsp70A promoter fragment express Gls phenotypes that are temperature-dependent. hsp70A appears to be the only gene in the genome that encodes a cytoplasmic Hsp70, so we conclude that Hsp70A is clearly the best candidate to be the chaperone that participates with GlsA in asymmetric cell division.

  5. Development-dependent modification of the extracellular matrix by a sulphated glycoprotein in Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, S; Thym, D; Sumper, M

    1984-04-01

    We report the chemical characterization of the highly sulphated glycoprotein SSG 185 from Volvox carteri. SSG 185 is a hydroxyproline-containing, extracellular glycoprotein. The sulphate residues are clustered within the parent saccharide structure of SSG 185, since on mercaptolysis all the sulphate residues are recovered in a small saccharide fragment containing mannose, arabinose and sulphate (in a molar ratio of 112). SSG 185 is a short-lived molecule, serving as a precursor for a high mol. wt. component of the extracellular matrix. Synthesis of SSG 185 is developmentally controlled. Different SSG 185 variants, with unknown modifications in the sulphated saccharide fragment, are synthesized at different developmental stages or under the influence of the sexual inducer. These modifications remain conserved in the aggregated state of SSG 185, indicating the development-dependent modification of the extracellular matrix.

  6. Functional analysis of the Volvox carteri asymmetric division protein GlsA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Valeria; Miller, Stephen M

    2009-10-01

    The Zuotin-family J protein chaperone GlsA is essential for the asymmetric divisions that establish germ and somatic cell initials during embryogenesis in the green alga Volvox carteri, but it is not known on what cellular process GlsA acts to carry out this function. Most GlsA protein is nuclear, and GlsA possesses two SANT domains, suggesting that GlsA may function as a transcriptional regulator. On the other hand, close homologs from yeast and mice are ribosome-associated factors that regulate translation fidelity, implying GlsA might also regulate translation. Here we set out to gain additional evidence regarding the function of GlsA, specifically with respect to its possible involvement in transcription and translation. We found that like zuotin mutants, glsA mutants are ultrasensitive to both cold and to the ribosome-binding aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin, so some fraction of GlsA is likely to be ribosome associated. We also found that GlsA co-immunoprecipitates with histones and that this interaction is dependent on the presence of intact SANT domains. Through rescue experiments using transgenes that encode GlsA variants, we determined that the growth and asymmetric division defects of the glsA mutant are separable-a GlsA variant that rescued the growth defects did not completely rescue the asymmetric division phenotype. Considered in total, our results suggest that GlsA acts both at the level of translation and transcription, but the function that is essential for tolerance to paromomycin and cold is not sufficient for asymmetric cell division.

  7. The role of GlsA in the evolution of asymmetric cell division in the green alga Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Fowler, Rachel; Tam, Lai-wa; Edwards, Lisseth; Miller, Stephen M

    2003-07-01

    Volvox carteri, a green alga in the order Volvocales, contains two completely differentiated cell types, small motile somatic cells and large reproductive cells called gonidia, that are set apart from each other during embryogenesis by a series of visibly asymmetric cell divisions. Mutational analysis has revealed a class of genes (gonidialess, gls) that are required specifically for asymmetric divisions in V. carteri, but that are dispensable for symmetric divisions. Previously we cloned one of these genes, glsA, and showed that it encodes a chaperone-like protein (GlsA) that has close orthologs in a diverse set of eukaryotes, ranging from fungi to vertebrates and higher plants. In the present study we set out to explore the role of glsA in the evolution of asymmetric division in the volvocine algae by cloning and characterizing a glsA ortholog from one of the simplest members of the group, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which does not undergo asymmetric divisions. This ortholog (which we have named gar1, for glsA related) is predicted to encode a protein that is 70% identical to GlsA overall, and that is most closely related to GlsA in the same domains that are most highly conserved between GlsA and its other known orthologs. We report that a gar1 transgene fully complements the glsA mutation in V. carteri, a result that suggests that asymmetric division probably arose through the modification of a gene whose product interacts with GlsA, but not through a modification of glsA itself.

  8. Chitin oligosaccharide binding to the lysin motif of a novel type of chitinase from the multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoku, Yoshihito; Fukamizo, Tamo; Numata, Tomoyuki; Ohnuma, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    The chitinase-mediated defense system in higher plants has been intensively studied from physiological and structural viewpoints. However, the defense system in the most primitive plant species, such as green algae, has not yet been elucidated in details. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of a family CBM-50 LysM module attached to the N-terminus of chitinase from Volvox carteri, and successfully analyzed its chitin-binding ability by NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. Trp96 of the LysM module appeared to make a CH-π stacking interaction with the reducing end sugar residue of the ligand. We believe the data included in this manuscript provide novel insights into the molecular basis of chitinase-mediated defense system in green algae. A chitinase from the multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri, contains two N-terminal lysin motifs (VcLysM1 and VcLysM2), that belong to the CBM-50 family, in addition to a catalytic domain. We produced a recombinant protein of VcLysM2 in order to examine its structure and function. The X-ray crystal structure of VcLysM2 was successfully solved at a resolution of 1.2 Å, and revealed that the protein adopts the βααβ fold typical of members belonging to the CBM-50 family. NMR spectra of 13C- and 15N-labeled proteins were analyzed in order to completely assign the main chain resonances of the 1H,15N-HSQC spectrum in a sequential manner. NMR-based titration experiments of chitin oligosaccharides, (GlcNAc)n (n = 3-6), revealed the ligand-binding site of VcLysM2, in which the Trp96 side chain appeared to interact with the terminal GlcNAc residue of the ligand. We then mutated Trp96 to alanine (VcLysM2-W96A), and the mutant protein was characterized. Based on isothermal titration calorimetry, the affinity of (GlcNAc)6 toward VcLysM2 (-6.9 kcal/mol) was found to be markedly higher than that of (GlcNAc)3 (-4.1 kcal/mol), whereas the difference in affinities between (GlcNAc)6 and (GlcNAc)3 in VcLysM2

  9. Cell-Type Transcriptomes of the Multicellular Green Alga Volvox carteri Yield Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Germ and Somatic Differentiation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Gavriel Y; Umen, James G

    2017-12-05

    Germ-soma differentiation is a hallmark of complex multicellular organisms, yet its origins are not well understood. Volvox carteri is a simple multicellular green alga that has recently evolved a simple germ-soma dichotomy with only two cell types: large germ cells called gonidia and small terminally differentiated somatic cells. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of the gonidial and somatic transcriptomes of Volvox to uncover fundamental differences between the molecular and metabolic programming of these cell types. We found extensive transcriptome differentiation between cell types, with somatic cells expressing a more specialized program overrepresented in younger, lineage-specific genes and gonidial cells expressing a more generalist program overrepresented in more ancient genes that shared striking overlap with stem-cell-specific genes from animals and land plants. Directed analyses of metabolic pathways revealed a strong dichotomy between cell types with gonidial cells expressing growth-related genes and somatic cells expressing an altruistic metabolic program geared towards the assembly of flagella, which support organismal motility, and the conversion of storage carbon to sugars, which act as donors of extracellular matrix glycoproteins whose secretion enables massive organismal expansion. Volvox orthologs of Chlamydomonas diurnally controlled genes were analyzed for cell-type distribution and found to be strongly partitioned, with expression of dark-phase genes overrepresented in somatic cells and light-phase genes overrepresented in gonidial cells, a result that is consistent with cell type programs in Volvox arising by cooption of temporal regulons in a unicellular ancestor. Together our findings reveal fundamental molecular, metabolic, and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie the origins of germ-soma differentiation in Volvox and provide a template for understanding the acquisition of germ-soma differentiation in other multicellular

  10. Evolution of an Expanded Sex Determining Locus in Volvox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Patrick; Olson, Bradley J.S.C.; De Hoff, Peter L.; Douglass, Stephen; Diaz-Cano, David Casero; Prochnik, Simon; Geng, Sa; Rai, Rhitu; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Nishii, Ichiro; Hamaji, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Pellegrini, Matteo; Umen, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Although dimorphic sexes have evolved repeatedly in multicellular eukaryotes, their origins are unknown. The mating locus (MT) of the sexually dimorphic multicellular green alga, Volvox carteri, specifies the production of eggs and sperm and has undergone a remarkable expansion and divergence relative to MT from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a closely related unicellular species that has equal-sized gametes. Transcriptome analysis revealed a rewired gametic expression program for Volvox MT genes relative to Chlamydomonas, and identified multiple gender-specific and sex-regulated transcripts. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor homolog MAT3 is a Volvox MT gene that displays sexually regulated alternative splicing and evidence of gender-specific selection, both indicative of cooption into the sexual cycle. Thus, sex-determining loci impact the evolution of both sex-related and non-sex-related genes. PMID:20395508

  11. Delineating a New Heterothallic Species of Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae Using New Strains of "Volvox africanus".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available The volvocine algae represent an excellent model lineage in which to study evolution of female and male genders based on comparative analyses of related species. Among these species, Volvox carteri has been extensively studied as a model of an oogamous and complex organism. However, it may have unique derived features that are not present in other species of Volvox. Therefore, information regarding the characteristics of sexual reproduction of other species of Volvox is also important. In 1971, Starr studied four types of sexuality in several global strains identified as Volvox africanus; however, further taxonomic studies of these strains have been lacking, and strains of three of the four sexual types are not available. Here, we studied the morphology, sexual reproduction, and taxonomy of two V. africanus-like species isolated recently from Lake Biwa, Japan. These two species were very similar to two sexual types described by Starr in 1971: one producing dioecious sexual spheroids in heterothallic strains and the other forming both male spheroids and monoecious spheroids in a single strain. The former species produced zygotes with a reticulate cell wall, whereas a smooth zygote wall was observed in the latter species as in V. africanus previously reported from various localities around the world. Our multigene phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these are sister species to each other. However, the presence of a compensatory base change in the most conserved region of the secondary structure of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer-2, hybrid inviability demonstrated by intercrossing experiments, and morphological differences in the density of abutment between the gelatinous material of adjacent cells (individual sheaths in the spheroid supported the recognition of the two species, V. africanus having a smooth zygote wall and V. reticuliferus Nozaki sp. nov. having a reticulate zygote wall.

  12. A NEW SPECIES OF VOLVOX SECT. MERRILLOSPHAERA (VOLVOCACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE) FROM TEXAS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Coleman, Annette W

    2011-06-01

    Smith (1944) divided the familiar genus Volvox L. into four sections, placing seven species that lacked cytoplasmic bridges between adult cells in the section Merrillosphaera. Herein, we describe a new member of the section Merrillosphaera originating from Texas (USA): Volvox ovalis Pocock ex Nozaki et A. W. Coleman sp. nov. Asexual spheroids of V. ovalis are ovoid or elliptical, with a monolayer of 1,000-2,000 somatic cells that are not linked by cytoplasmic bridges, an expanded anterior region, and 8-12 gonidia in the posterior region. Visibly asymmetric cleavage divisions do not occur in V. ovalis embryos as they do Volvox carteri F. Stein, Volvox obversus (W. Shaw) Printz, and Volvox africanus G. S. West, so the gonidia of the next generation are not yet recognizable in V. ovalis embryos prior to inversion. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the five chloroplast genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA indicated that V. ovalis is closely related to Volvox spermatosphaera Powers (Powers 1908, as "spermatosphara") and/or Volvox tertius Art. Mey.; however, V. ovalis can be distinguished from V. spermatosphaera by its larger gonidia, and from V. tertius by visible differences in gonidial chloroplast morphology. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  13. The genetic program for germ-soma differentiation in Volvox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, D L

    1997-01-01

    Volvox carteri possesses only two cell types: mortal somatic cells and potentially immortal asexual reproductive cells called gonidia. Mutational analysis indicates that three categories of genes play central roles in programming this germ-soma division of labor: First the gls genes function during embryogenesis to cause asymmetric divisions that produce large and small cells. Then the lag genes act in the large cells (gonidial initials) to repress functions required for somatic development while the regA locus acts in the small cells (somatic initials) to repress functions required for reproductive development. Transposon tagging and DNA transformation have recently been used to recover and characterize the glsA and regA genes, and the sequences of these genes lead to testable hypotheses about how they play their roles in germ-soma differentiation.

  14. Germ-soma differentiation in volvox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, D L

    2001-10-15

    Volvox carteri is a spherical green alga with a predominantly asexual mode of reproduction and a complete germ-soma division of labor. Its somatic cells are specialized for motility, incapable of dividing, and programmed to die when only a few days old, whereas its gonidia (asexual reproductive cells) are nonmotile, specialized for growth and reproduction, and potentially immortal. When a gonidium is less than 2 days old it divides to produce a juvenile spheroid containing all of the somatic cells and gonidia that will be present in an adult of the next generation. The first visible step in germ-soma differentiation is a set of asymmetric cleavage divisions in the embryo that set apart small somatic initials from their large gonidial-initial sister cells. Three types of genes have been found to play key roles in germ-soma specification. First a set of gls genes act in the embryos to shift cell-division planes, resulting in the asymmetric divisions that set apart the large-small sister-cell pairs. Then a set of lag genes act in the large cells to prevent somatic differentiation, while the regA gene acts in the small cells to prevent reproductive development. An inducible transposon was used to tag and recover some of these and other developmentally important genes. The glsA gene encodes a chaperone-like protein that, like another chaperone that is one of its putative binding partners, is associated with the cell division apparatus, although how this leads to asymmetric division remains to be elucidated. The regA gene encodes a somatic-cell-specific nuclear protein that appears to function by repressing genes required for chloroplast biogenesis, thereby preventing somatic cells from growing enough to reproduce. Somatic-cell-specific expression of regA is controlled by three intronic enhancers. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Functional Abdominal Bloating with Distention

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Stephen Norman

    2012-01-01

    Ten to 25% of healthy persons experience bloating. It is particularly common in persons with the irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. While the cause of bloating remains unknown old explanations such as a excessive intestinal gas, exaggerated lumbar lordosis and psychiatric problems have been disproved. New suggestions include recent weight gain, weak or inappropriately relaxed abdominal muscles, an inappropriately contracted diaphragm and retained fluid in loops of distal small bowel. ...

  16. Dancing Volvox: Hydrodynamic Bound States of Swimming Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Knut; Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Tuval, Idan; Ishikawa, Takuji; Pedley, Timothy J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-01-01

    The spherical alga Volvox swims by means of flagella on thousands of surface somatic cells. This geometry and its large size make it a model organism for studying the fluid dynamics of multicellularity. Remarkably, when two nearby Volvox colonies swim close to a solid surface, they attract one another and can form stable bound states in which they “waltz” or “minuet” around each other. A surface-mediated hydrodynamic attraction combined with lubrication forces between spinning, bottom-heavy Volvox explains the formation, stability, and dynamics of the bound states. These phenomena are suggested to underlie observed clustering of Volvox at surfaces. PMID:19518757

  17. Hsp70A and GlsA interact as partner chaperones to regulate asymmetric division in Volvox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qian; Pappas, Valeria; Hallmann, Armin; Miller, Stephen M

    2005-10-15

    GlsA, a J-protein chaperone, is required for the asymmetric divisions that set aside germ and somatic cell precursors during embryogenesis in Volvox carteri, and previous evidence indicated that this function requires an intact Hsp70-binding site. To determine if Hsp70A, the only known cytoplasmic Hsp70 in V. carteri, is the chaperone partner of GlsA, we investigated the localization of the two proteins during critical stages of embryogenesis and tested their capacity to interact. We found that a substantial fraction of Hsp70A co-localizes with GlsA, both in interphase and mitotic blastomeres. In addition, Hsp70A coimmunoprecipitated with GlsA, and co-expression of GlsA and Hsp70A variants partially rescued the Gls phenotype of a glsA mutant, whereas neither variant by itself rescued the mutant phenotype. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that GlsA is about equally abundant in all blastomeres at all cleavage stages examined but that Hsp70A is more abundant in anterior (asymmetrically dividing) blastomeres than in posterior (symmetrically dividing) blastomeres during the period of asymmetric division. We conclude that Hsp70A and GlsA function as chaperone partners that regulate asymmetric division and that the relative abundance of Hsp70A in asymmetrically dividing embryos may determine which blastomeres divide asymmetrically and which do not.

  18. Plant genome size variation: bloating and purging DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael, Todd P

    2014-01-01

    Plant genome size variation is a dynamic process of bloating and purging DNA. While it was thought plants were on a path to obesity through continual DNA bloating, recent research supports that most plants activity purge DNA...

  19. Controlled enlargement of the glycoprotein vesicle surrounding a volvox embryo requires the InvB nucleotide-sugar transporter and is required for normal morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Noriko; Nishii, Ichiro

    2009-04-01

    Here, we report our analysis of a mutant of Volvox carteri, InvB, whose embryos fail to execute inversion, the process in which each Volvox embryo normally turns itself inside-out at the end of embryogenesis, thereby achieving the adult configuration. The invB gene encodes a nucleotide-sugar transporter that exhibits GDP-mannose transport activity when expressed in yeast. In wild-type embryos, the invB transcript is maximally abundant before and during inversion. A mannoside probe (fluorescent concanavalin A) stains the glycoprotein-rich gonidial vesicle (GV) surrounding wild-type embryos much more strongly than it stains the GV surrounding InvB embryos. Direct measurements revealed that throughout embryogenesis the GV surrounding a wild-type embryo increases in size much more than the GV surrounding an InvB embryo does, and the fully cleaved InvB embryo is much more tightly packed within its GV than a wild-type embryo is. To test the hypothesis that the restraint imposed by a smaller than normal GV directly causes the inversion defect in the mutant, we released InvB embryos from their GVs microsurgically. The resulting embryos inverted normally, demonstrating that controlled enlargement of the GV, by a process in which requires the InvB nucleotide-sugar transporter, is essential to provide the embryo sufficient space to complete inversion.

  20. DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW MONOECIOUS SPECIES OF VOLVOX SECT. VOLVOX (VOLVOCACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE), BASED ON COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF CULTURED MATERIAL(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Nanako; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Nakada, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Species of Volvox sect. Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae) are unique because they have thick cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells and spiny-walled zygotes. This section is taxonomically important because the genus Volvox is polyphyletic. However, taxonomic studies of species in Volvox sect. Volvox have not been carried out on cultured material. Here, we performed a taxonomic study of monoecious species of Volvox sect. Volvox based on the comparative morphology and molecular phylogeny of chloroplast genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA using various strains originating from Japan and two preserved strains from the USA. The strains were clearly divided into four species, V. globator L., V. barberi W. Shaw, V. kirkiorum sp. nov., and V. ferrisii sp. nov., on the basis of differences in numbers of zygotes (eggs) in the sexual spheroids, form of zygote wall, and somatic cell shape. Sequences for ITS of nuclear rDNA resolved that the two new species have phylogenetic positions separated from V. globator, V. barberi, V. capensis F. Rich et Pocock, and V. rousseletii G. S. West UTEX 1862 within Volvox sect. Volvox. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  1. [A noneuclidean Volvox, or why it is better not to teach Volvox in the course on zoology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenkov, N A

    2006-01-01

    Empty "spheroid" of Volvox is compared with biomorph "thread", "disk" and solid "sphere" using such characteristics as topological dimensionality, average distance between cells, mutual remoteness of inner and surface cells, contiguity of cells. It is usually supposed that these parameters are significant for physiological gradients that determine cell specialization. One-dimensional "thread" has the longest physiological communications between cells and the average degree of contiguity about 2 (each cell contacts two neighbors). Biological morph "disk" has a degree about 6, two-side frontal physiological gradient inside the cell, and less expressed inter-cell gradient. Biomorph designated as 3-dimensional solid "sphere" has a degree of contiguity about 12-24, strong radial inter-cell gradient (non-equal conditions for surface and inner layers) and short distances between cells. These parameters favor cell specialization and their integration in multicellular organism. The "sphere" corresponds to hypothetical ancestor of Metazoa - "Metschnikoff's Phagocytella", while the "disk" - to "Placula of Bütschli". Biomorph "spheroid" of Volvox has a degree of contiguity about 6 and continuous tangential inter-cell gradient on noneuclidean surface. Radial gradient is absent here. Due to noneuclidean nature of "spheroid" the distances between cells are longer here than in case of "disc" and "sphere". All cells are under the same conditions for specialization and multiple primary integration. The secondary integration in higher Volvocales (differentiation in somatic and generative hemispheres) was probably caused by directed movement of the whole colony. Specialization of cells in lower invertebrates develops in a way which is characteristic for biomorph "sphere" on the basis of 3-dimensionality. The differentiation of animal and vegetal poles is connected with gastrulation (but not with directed movement as in case of Volvox). Gastrulation through invagination does not

  2. Plant genome size variation: bloating and purging DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Todd P

    2014-07-01

    Plant genome size variation is a dynamic process of bloating and purging DNA. While it was thought plants were on a path to obesity through continual DNA bloating, recent research supports that most plants activity purge DNA. Plant genome size research has greatly benefited from the cataloguing of genome size estimates at the Kew Plant DNA C-values Database, and the recent availability of over 50 fully sequenced and published plant genomes. The emerging trend is that plant genomes bloat due to the copy-and-paste proliferation of a few long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTRs) and aggressively purge these proliferating LTRs through several mechanisms including illegitimate and incomplete recombination, and double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining. However, ultra-small genomes such as Utricularia gibba (Bladderwort), which is 82 megabases (Mb), purge excess DNA through genome fractionation and neofunctionalization during multiple rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD). In contrast, the largest published genome, Picea abies (Norway Spruce) at 19 800 Mb, has no detectable WGD but has bloated with diverse and diverged LTRs that either have evaded purging mechanisms or these purging mechanism are absent in gymnosperms. Finally, advances in DNA methylation studies suggest that smaller genomes have a more aggressive epigenomic surveillance system to purge young LTR retrotransposons, which is less active or missing in larger genomes like the bloated gymnosperms. While genome size may not reflect genome complexity, evidence is mounting that genome size may reflect evolutionary status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. There is more than one way to turn a spherical cellular monolayer inside out: type B embryo inversion in Volvox globator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, Stephanie; Hallmann, Armin

    2011-12-29

    Epithelial folding is a common morphogenetic process during the development of multicellular organisms. In metazoans, the biological and biomechanical processes that underlie such three-dimensional (3D) developmental events are usually complex and difficult to investigate. Spheroidal green algae of the genus Volvox are uniquely suited as model systems for studying the basic principles of epithelial folding. Volvox embryos begin life inside out and then must turn their spherical cell monolayer outside in to achieve their adult configuration; this process is called 'inversion.' There are two fundamentally different sequences of inversion processes in Volvocaceae: type A and type B. Type A inversion is well studied, but not much is known about type B inversion. How does the embryo of a typical type B inverter, V. globator, turn itself inside out? In this study, we investigated the type B inversion of V. globator embryos and focused on the major movement patterns of the cellular monolayer, cell shape changes and changes in the localization of cytoplasmic bridges (CBs) connecting the cells. Isolated intact, sectioned and fragmented embryos were analyzed throughout the inversion process using light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. We generated 3D models of the identified cell shapes, including the localizations of CBs. We show how concerted cell-shape changes and concerted changes in the position of cells relative to the CB system cause cell layer movements and turn the spherical cell monolayer inside out. The type B inversion of V. globator is compared to the type A inversion in V. carteri. Concerted, spatially and temporally coordinated changes in cellular shapes in conjunction with concerted migration of cells relative to the CB system are the causes of type B inversion in V. globator. Despite significant similarities between type A and type B inverters, differences exist in

  4. There is more than one way to turn a spherical cellular monolayer inside out: type B embryo inversion in Volvox globator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höhn Stephanie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial folding is a common morphogenetic process during the development of multicellular organisms. In metazoans, the biological and biomechanical processes that underlie such three-dimensional (3D developmental events are usually complex and difficult to investigate. Spheroidal green algae of the genus Volvox are uniquely suited as model systems for studying the basic principles of epithelial folding. Volvox embryos begin life inside out and then must turn their spherical cell monolayer outside in to achieve their adult configuration; this process is called 'inversion.' There are two fundamentally different sequences of inversion processes in Volvocaceae: type A and type B. Type A inversion is well studied, but not much is known about type B inversion. How does the embryo of a typical type B inverter, V. globator, turn itself inside out? Results In this study, we investigated the type B inversion of V. globator embryos and focused on the major movement patterns of the cellular monolayer, cell shape changes and changes in the localization of cytoplasmic bridges (CBs connecting the cells. Isolated intact, sectioned and fragmented embryos were analyzed throughout the inversion process using light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. We generated 3D models of the identified cell shapes, including the localizations of CBs. We show how concerted cell-shape changes and concerted changes in the position of cells relative to the CB system cause cell layer movements and turn the spherical cell monolayer inside out. The type B inversion of V. globator is compared to the type A inversion in V. carteri. Conclusions Concerted, spatially and temporally coordinated changes in cellular shapes in conjunction with concerted migration of cells relative to the CB system are the causes of type B inversion in V. globator. Despite significant similarities

  5. Structure-function analysis of small G proteins from Volvox and Chlamydomonas by complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPT/SEC mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, S; Steigerwald, R; Bernklau, C; Dietmaier, W; Schmitt, R

    1995-05-10

    cDNAs representing nine small G protein genes encoding Ypt proteins from the green algae Volvox carteri (YptV) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (YptC) were tested for their ability to complement mutations in the YPT1, SEC4, and YPT7 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains defective in different steps of intracellular vesicle transport. None of the heterologously expressed algal genes was able to complement mutations in SEC4 or YPT7, but three of them, yptV1, yptC1, and yptV2, restored a YPT1 null mutation. On the amino acid sequence level, and particularly with respect to known small G protein specificity domains, YptV1p and YptC1p are the closest algal analogs of yeast Ypt1p, with 70% overall identity and identical effector regions, but YptV2p is only 55% identical to Ypt1p, and its effector domain resembles that of Sec4p. To define more precisely the regions that supply Ypt1p function, six chimeras were constructed by reciprocal exchange of 68/72-, 122/123-, and 162/163-amino acid segments of the C-terminal regions between YptV1p (complementing) and YptV3p (non-complementing). Segments containing 68 amino acids of the hypervariable C-terminal, and 41 residues of the N-terminal region including the effector region, of YptV1p could be replaced by the corresponding parts of YptV3p without loss of function in yeast, but exchanges within the central core destroyed the ability to rescue the YPT1 mutation. Sequence analysis of ypt1-complementing and -noncomplementing Ypt types suggests that surface loop3 represents a novel specificity domain of small G proteins.

  6. Bloat free genetic programming: application to human oral bioavailability prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara; Vanneschi, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Being able to predict the human oral bioavailability for a potential new drug is extremely important for the drug discovery process. This problem has been addressed by several prediction tools, with Genetic Programming providing some of the best results ever achieved. In this paper we use the newest developments of Genetic Programming, in particular the latest bloat control method, Operator Equalisation, to find out how much improvement we can achieve on this problem. We show examples of some actual solutions and discuss their quality, comparing them with previously published results. We identify some unexpected behaviours related to overfitting, and discuss the way for further improving the practical usage of the Genetic Programming approach.

  7. Muusikamaailm : Uus hooaeg ooperiteatrites, kontserdimajades. Elliott Carteri esikooper. Birgit Cullberg surnud / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Uue hooaja kavadest Los Angeles Operas, Kölni Opernhausis, New York City Operas, Inglise Rahvusooperis, San Francisco Operas; Detroidi Sümfooniaorkestri, Turu ja Helsingi Linnaorkestri ja San Francisco Symhony Orchestra hooaja avakontserditest. E.Carteri esikooperi "What Next" maailmaesiettekandest Berliini Riigiooperis. B.Cullbergi tegevusest

  8. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of marine sponge Stylissa carteri associated bacteria against Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Jacob Inbaneson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the possible antiplasmodial drugs from bacteria associated with marine sponge Stylissa carteri (S. carteri. Methods: The S. carteri samples were collected from Thondi coast and subjected for enumeration and isolation of associated bacteria. Filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 毺 g/mL from isolated bacterial isolates were screened for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and potential extracts were also screened for biochemical constituents. Results: Twelve samples of S. carteri were collected and subjected for enumeration and isolation of associated bacteria. The count of bacterial isolates were maximum in November 2007 (34暳 104 CFU/g and the average count was maximum during the monsoon season (203暳 103 CFU/g. Thirty two morphologically different bacterial isolates were isolated from S. carteri and the ethyl acetate bacterial extracts were screened for antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The antiplasmodial activity of a isolate THB17 (IC 50 20.56 毺 g/ mL extract is highly comparable with the positive control chloroquine (IC50 19.59 毺 g/mL and 13 bacterial extracts which showed IC 50 value of more than 100 毺 g/mL. Statistical analysis reveals that, significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity (P<0.05 was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes showed no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethyl acetate extract of bacterial isolates after 48 h of incubation. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of reducing sugars and alkaloids in the ethyl acetate extracts of bacterial isolates. Conclusions: The ethyl acetate extract of THB17 possesses lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.

  9. Protein (Viridiplantae): 302832930 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 632 3068:3632 hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_103655 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MSSVDRVAYMDNIRSSQIAEQINRE...KDIQRKYFQEQEAAGRIVPKPPSPAPERKSILETVGVPEHVKTIKQDPEQALSLSISKHTWKANPGYLVRDGPSMASVMKKDYVWDEEEIQLMKEQGLLDKKYNRRRDEFVDYSEASARMIHLKKGAAPAK ...

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 302830920 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 058 3068:3058 hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_87241 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MPNPLAEMELLGFWGLKLVATVTDCHMSDSGRVMTAFVFKVVSYRNEAAST...LAEMELLGFWGLKLVATVTDCHMSDSGRVMTAFVFKVVSYRNEAASTMLTPEPLPESLEYLQAQVERALDERRELERVMWA...AREGRGGPSMLSCKQLETIELSTMGEAAELEVKRALEAITVVQYSMPNPLAEMELLGFWGLKLVATVTDCHMSDSGRVMTAFVFKVVSYRNEAASTMLTPEPLPESLEYLQAQVERALDERRELERVMWAAREGRGGPSMLSCKQLETIELSTMGEAAELEVKRALEEMFH ...

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 302830894 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3050 3068:3050 hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_87198 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MVAAMAAVTVGEMAAVMVGAMVAAMAAVMAAAMAAVMAAVMAAV...MVAVMVAVKAAVMVAGMAAVKAAVMAAVGVEMAAVMVAAMVAAMVAVMVAVMAAVMVGAMVAVKAAVMVAGMAAVKAAVMAAVGVEMAAVMVAAMVAAMVAVMVAVKAAGMVGAMVAVKAAVMVAGDGGGRIPLQATH ...

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 302841043 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5602 3068:5602 hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_92587 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MAADLTAAGFLAVAAEVTAAGVLSAAAVVAAAVVTAVAAVVAAAAAV...ATAAAAVVTAVAAPVATAAAAVVTAVAAAVAVVTVAGFLAMAAEVTAAGVLAVVTAVASVAPAAGFLAAAAVVTAAMPAAAAAAVVAVAGFSAVAADVTAVGCLAAAAV...VAAAGYLAVEAWAPEAGRLVMELGVTAAGCLAAAVVVAAAGFFAAAAVVTAALPAILQE ...

  13. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-1762 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n-dz1 protein [Volvox carteri f. nagariensis] 1e-138 85% MYKAILHSSRCSLRTLTSTAVPHLPSPVSTEPPPPPPLPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPQPPPTPPPPPPPP...QPPPPPPPPPPPPPSPPPTPSPPPPSPPTPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPTPPPPPPPPPTPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPQPPPTPPPPPSPPPPPPPPPPPPPP...PPPPTPPPTPPPPPPPPTPPLPPPPPLQPPPTPPPPPPPPSPPPPPPPPPPPQAAPMSWLS ...

  14. Linaclotide in Chronic Idiopathic Constipation Patients with Moderate to Severe Abdominal Bloating: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Lacy

    Full Text Available Abdominal bloating is a common and bothersome symptom of chronic idiopathic constipation. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation and concomitant moderate-to-severe abdominal bloating.This Phase 3b, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial randomized patients to oral linaclotide (145 or 290 μg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Eligible patients met Rome II criteria for chronic constipation upon entry with an average abdominal bloating score ≥5 (self-assessment: 0 10-point numerical rating scale during the 14-day baseline period. Patients reported abdominal symptoms (including bloating and bowel symptoms daily; adverse events were monitored. The primary responder endpoint required patients to have ≥3 complete spontaneous bowel movements/week with an increase of ≥1 from baseline, for ≥9 of 12 weeks. The primary endpoint compared linaclotide 145 μg vs. placebo.The intent-to-treat population included 483 patients (mean age=47.3 years, female=91.5%, white=67.7%. The primary endpoint was met by 15.7% of linaclotide 145 μg patients vs. 7.6% of placebo patients (P<0.05. Both linaclotide doses significantly improved abdominal bloating vs. placebo (P<0.05 for all secondary endpoints, controlling for multiplicity. Approximately one-third of linaclotide patients (each group had ≥50% mean decrease from baseline in abdominal bloating vs. 18% of placebo patients (P<0.01. Diarrhea was reported in 6% and 17% of linaclotide 145 and 290 μg patients, respectively, and 2% of placebo patients. AEs resulted in premature discontinuation of 5% and 9% of linaclotide 145 μg and 290 μg patients, respectively, and 6% of placebo patients.Once-daily linaclotide (145 and 290 μg significantly improved bowel and abdominal symptoms in chronic idiopathic constipation patients with moderate-to-severe baseline abdominal bloating; in particular

  15. Restriction of FODMAP in the management of bloating in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wei Mon

    2016-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel disorder. Up to 96% of IBS patients experience bloating, resulting in poor response to conventional therapies and high consultation rates. Many IBS patients report that food triggers symptoms, particularly diets with poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates, and restrict intake of certain foods to control their symptoms. IBS patients are especially susceptible to an attack due to visceral hypersensitivity. An emerging therapeutic strategy excludes fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) from the diet. There is evidence supporting the efficacy of a low FODMAP diet in improving symptoms of bloating in IBS patients. Individualised, structured dietary guidance may benefit those with persistent troublesome symptoms despite traditional therapies. In view of the multifactorial aetiology of the condition, it is probably best to use a multipronged approach, involving combination therapies, to address bloating in IBS patients. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  16. Probiotics for the treatment of systemic sclerosis-associated gastrointestinal bloating/ distention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frech, Tracy M; Khanna, Dinesh; Maranian, Paul; Frech, Edward J; Sawitzke, Allen D; Murtaugh, Maureen A

    2011-01-01

    Treatment for gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is challenging as no immunosuppressive or anti-fibrotic therapy is available with clearly proven efficacy. Probiotics are viable, non-pathogenic microorganisms that are hypothesized to improve the composition of the intestinal microbiota from a potentially harmful composition to a composition that is beneficial to the host. Our hypothesis is that GIT symptoms in SSc patients with moderate bloating would improve with probiotic implementation. Ten patients with a moderate-to-severe distention/bloating score (1.25-3.00) on the University of California Los Angeles Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium Gastrointestinal Tract 2.0 (UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0), but otherwise stable organ disease not requiring any medication adjustment were recruited from the University of Utah Scleroderma Center. We compared the GIT 2.0 scores at baseline and after 2 months of use of Align (bifidobacterium infantis; 109 CFU per capsule) or Culturelle (lactobacillus GG; 109 CFU per capsule) using paired t-test and calculated effect size (ES). Significant improvement in total GIT 2.0 score (ES = 0.82), reflux (ES = 0.33), bloating/distention (ES = 1.76), and emotional scales (ES = 0.18) were reported after two months of daily probiotic use. This pilot study suggests probiotics significantly improve the reflux, distention/ bloating, and total GIT scales in SSc patients. As hypothesized, the largest effect was seen in distention/bloating scale. Probiotics may be useful for treatment of SSc-associated distention/ bloating.

  17. Molecular characterization of the intestinal microbiota in patients with and without abdominal bloating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Benson, Andrew K; Carroll, Ian M; Kim, Jaehyoung; Legge, Ryan M; Ringel, Yehuda

    2016-03-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated differences in the intestinal microbiota between patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls (HC), suggesting a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Alterations in the microbiota have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal bloating, a commonly reported symptom in IBS. We investigated the relationship between the intestinal microbiota, abdominal bloating, and altered bowel patterns in a cohort of patients with IBS and HC. The 16S rRNA gene from fresh fecal samples was amplified and pyrosequenced by using Roche-454 Titanium chemistry. A Core Measurable Microbiome (CMM) was generated for Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) detected in >75% of all samples and compositional features of CMM were compared between groups by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). IBS differentiated from HC by LDA using continuous variation in the species/OTUs or the CMM genera. When subcategorized based on bloating symptoms and bowel characteristics, the same subjects were also well differentiated from one another and from HC. ANOVA analysis showed quantitative species/OTU differences between the subgroups including IBS with and without bloating, and subtypes based on bowel characteristics. The clear LDA differentiation and the significant microbial taxa differences between the groups imply a significant association of the microbiota with bloating symptoms and bowel characteristics in IBS. These changes in the microbiota may serve as a biomarker for IBS and its clinical subtypes and suggest a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of the main symptoms of the disorder. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Effects of iron dextran injections on the incidence of abomasal bloat, clinical pathology and growth rates in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatn, S; Torsteinbø, W O

    2000-04-15

    A preliminary study revealed significantly lower serum iron concentrations in lambs that developed abomasal bloat about one week later, than in lambs that did not develop bloat. In a subsequent trial, with 754 naturally reared twin lambs from five flocks, iron dextran injections were found to have a preventive effect on the development of abomasal bloat. Clinical signs of abomasal bloat were observed in the placebo-treated lamb of 16 couples and in the iron-treated lamb of six couples (Piron-treated group had significantly (Piron saturation in the placebo group 14 days after treatment but not in the iron-treated lambs. In one of the flocks, there was a decrease in the cumulative incidence of abomasal bloat from 37 per cent to 3 per cent during the period of four years after measures such as later lambing, earlier turnout and iron injections were introduced.

  19. miRNA Repertoires of Demosponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jin Liew

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that are involved in many biological process in eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in modulating genetic expression of their targets, which makes them integral components of transcriptional regulatory networks. As sponges (phylum Porifera are commonly considered the most basal metazoan, the in-depth capture of miRNAs from these organisms provides additional clues to the evolution of miRNA families in metazoans. Here, we identified the core proteins involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs, and obtained evidence for bona fide miRNA sequences for two marine sponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria (11 and 19 respectively. Our analysis identified several miRNAs that are conserved amongst demosponges, and revealed that all of the novel miRNAs identified in these two species are specific to the class Demospongiae.

  20. miRNA Repertoires of Demosponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2016-02-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that are involved in many biological process in eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in modulating genetic expression of their targets, which makes them integral components of transcriptional regulatory networks. As sponges (phylum Porifera) are commonly considered the most basal metazoan, the in-depth capture of miRNAs from these organisms provides additional clues to the evolution of miRNA families in metazoans. Here, we identified the core proteins involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs, and obtained evidence for bona fide miRNA sequences for two marine sponges Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria (11 and 19 respectively). Our analysis identified several miRNAs that are conserved amongst demosponges, and revealed that all of the novel miRNAs identified in these two species are specific to the class Demospongiae.

  1. Cardioprotective and antioxidant effects of oleogum resin "Olibanum" from Bos Boswellia carteri Birdw. (Bursearceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Ahmed A; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2014-05-01

    One of the leading causes of death worldwide is cardiovascular disease, hence searching for a cure is an important endeavor. The totally safe, edible, and inexpensive Boswellia plant exudate, known as olibanum or frankincense, is considered to possess diverse medicinal values in traditional medicine and from recent biological studies. Investigating the cardioprotective and antioxidant activities of olibanum from a Boswellia species, family Bursearaceae, namely Boswellia carteri Birdw. was the aim of this study. Cardioprotective activity was evaluated using a model of myocardial infarction induced by isoprenaline (ISO), while antioxidant activity was tested adopting nitric oxide scavenging (NOS) and azino-bis-3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assays. The results revealed a mild cardioprotective effect and weak antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alkaloids from the Sponge Stylissa carteri Present Prospective Scaffolds for the Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrie O’Rourke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Stylissa carteri is known to produce a number of secondary metabolites displaying anti-fouling, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. However, the anti-viral potential of metabolites produced by S. carteri has not been extensively explored. In this study, an S. carteri extract was HPLC fractionated and a cell based assay was used to evaluate the effects of HPLC fractions on parameters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1 infection and cell viability. Candidate HIV-1 inhibitory fractions were then analyzed for the presence of potential HIV-1 inhibitory compounds by mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of three previously characterized compounds, i.e., debromohymenialdisine (DBH, hymenialdisine (HD, and oroidin. Commercially available purified versions of these molecules were re-tested to assess their antiviral potential in greater detail. Specifically, DBH and HD exhibit a 30%–40% inhibition of HIV-1 at 3.1 μM and 13 μM, respectively; however, both exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, oroidin displayed a 50% inhibition of viral replication at 50 μM with no associated toxicity. Additional experimentation using a biochemical assay revealed that oroidin inhibited the activity of the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase up to 90% at 25 μM. Taken together, the chemical search space was narrowed and previously isolated compounds with an unexplored anti-viral potential were found. Our results support exploration of marine natural products for anti-viral drug discovery.

  3. Alkaloids from the Sponge Stylissa carteri Present Prospective Scaffolds for the Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1)

    KAUST Repository

    O’Rourke, Aubrie

    2016-02-04

    The sponge Stylissa carteri is known to produce a number of secondary metabolites displaying anti-fouling, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. However, the anti-viral potential of metabolites produced by S. carteri has not been extensively explored. In this study, an S. carteri extract was HPLC fractionated and a cell based assay was used to evaluate the effects of HPLC fractions on parameters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection and cell viability. Candidate HIV-1 inhibitory fractions were then analyzed for the presence of potential HIV-1 inhibitory compounds by mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of three previously characterized compounds, i.e., debromohymenialdisine (DBH), hymenialdisine (HD), and oroidin. Commercially available purified versions of these molecules were re-tested to assess their antiviral potential in greater detail. Specifically, DBH and HD exhibit a 30%–40% inhibition of HIV-1 at 3.1 μM and 13 μM, respectively; however, both exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, oroidin displayed a 50% inhibition of viral replication at 50 μM with no associated toxicity. Additional experimentation using a biochemical assay revealed that oroidin inhibited the activity of the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase up to 90% at 25 μM. Taken together, the chemical search space was narrowed and previously isolated compounds with an unexplored anti-viral potential were found. Our results support exploration of marine natural products for anti-viral drug discovery.

  4. Novel polymorphic microsatellite markers developed for a common reef sponge, Stylissa carteri

    KAUST Repository

    Giles, E.C.

    2013-04-04

    Despite the ubiquitous role sponges play in reef ecosystem dynamics, little is known about population-level connectivity in these organisms. The general field of population genetics in sponges remains in its infancy. To date, microsatellite markers have only been developed for few sponge species and no sponge population genetics studies using microsatellites have been conducted in the Red Sea. Here, with the use of next-generation sequencing, we characterize 12 novel polymorphic loci for the common reef sponge, Stylissa carteri. The number of alleles per loci ranged between three and eight. Observed heterozygosity frequencies (Ho) ranged from 0.125 to 0.870, whereas expected (He) heterozygosity frequencies ranged from 0.119 to 0.812. Only one locus showed consistent deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in both populations and two loci consistently showed the possible presence of null alleles. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected for any pairs of loci. These microsatellites will be of use for numerous ecological studies focused on this common and abundant sponge. 2013 The Author(s).

  5. Protein (Viridiplantae): 706399 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3065:1772 ... 3066:1772 ... 3067:1772 ... 3068:1772 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_35441, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis PHTRGP...HTRGPHTRGPHTRGPHTRGPHTRGPHTRGAHTRGPHTRGAHTRGPHTRGPHTRGPHTRGPHTRGPHTRGPH

  6. Protein (Viridiplantae): 302855917 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7:8473 3068:8473 hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_36132, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis GGCITRGDAAAAVA...AFGGTRMTSGKEVTRRDASSAGGCITRGDAAAAVAAFGGTRMTSGKEVTRRDDSSAGGCITRGDAAAAVAAFGGTRMTSGKEVTRRDDSSAGGCITRGDAAAVVAAFG...GTRMTSGKKVTRRDDSSAGGCITRGDAAAAVAAFGGTRMTSGKEVTRRDASSAGSCITRGDAAAAVAAFGGTRMTSGKEVTRRDASSAGGCITRGDAAAAVAAFGGTRMTSGKEVTRREDDSSAGGCITRGDAAAVVASFCGTRMTSGKEVT ...

  7. Protein (Viridiplantae): 302841988 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5795 3068:5795 hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_93289 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MSAIWDLFRHPDSTAAAVHVRARRT...IAGDKTGEEAIPQLRRESKALSAAWNLFRHPDSTAAAVHVRARRTIAGDKTGEEAIPQLRRESKALSAAWNLFGHPDSTAAAVHVRARRTIAGDKMGEEAIPQLRRESKALSAAWNLFGHPDSTAAAV...HVRARRTIAGDKMGEEAIPQLRRESKALSAAWNLFGHPDSTAAAVHVRARRTIAGDKMGEE...AIPQLRRESKALSAAWDLFGHPDSTAAAVHVRARRTIAGDKMGEEAIPQLRRESKALSAAWDLFGHPDSTAAAVHVRARRTIAGDKMGEEAIPQLRRESKALSAAWDLFGHPDSTAAAV...HVRVRRTIAGDKMGEEAIPQLRRESKALSAAWDLFGHPDSTAAAVHVRVRRTIAGDKMGEEAIPQLRRESKALSAAWDLFGHPDSTAAAVHVRVRRT

  8. Protein (Viridiplantae): 372474 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:1948 ... 3066:1948 ... 3067:1948 ... 3068:1948 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_69059, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis VQDEDDDFCPTCLEVYTPDNPKIFTECGHHFHMPCIYAWFERKTTCPMCESPMQAPGM

  9. Protein (Viridiplantae): 699540 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3065:32 ... 3066:32 ... 3067:32 ... 3068:32 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_39076, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis LGNLGAWEPGSLGTWGPGSLGAWEPGCLGAWEPGDLEAWEPGGLGAWEPGGLGAWELGSL

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 699541 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3065:32 ... 3066:32 ... 3067:32 ... 3068:32 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_70412, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis LGSLGAWEPGGLGAWGPGSLGAWEPGSLGAWEPGGLGAWEPGSLGAWGPGSLGAWEPGGL

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 699543 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3065:32 ... 3066:32 ... 3067:32 ... 3068:32 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_58352, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis LGSLGAWEP...GSLAAWGPGSLGAWEPGGLGAWGPGSLGAWEPGSLGAWGPGGLGTWEPGGLGAWEPGSLGAWGPGGLGAGGLGAWGPRGLGVTQP

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 302844883 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6429 3068:6429 hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_64300, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis LHRHCSRLVHSRRHPILRRPALHRHCSR...LAHSRHHPILRHPALHRHCSRLVHSRHHPILRHPALHRHCSRLVHSRHHPILRRPALHRHCSRLVHSRHHPILRRPALHRHCSRLAHSRHHPILRRPALHRHCSR...LVHSRHHPILRHPALHRHCSRLVHSRHHPILRHPALHRHCSRLVHSRHHPILRRPALHRHCSRLVHSRHHPILRHPALHRHCSRLVHSRHHPILRRPALHRHCSRLAHSRHHPILRHPALRRHCSRLAHSRHHPILRRPALHRH ...

  13. Protein (Viridiplantae): 51077 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:12 ... 3066:12 ... 3067:12 ... 3068:12 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_66770, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis TSRTSHTSRTSPA...SQTSPASRTSPASWTSPASQTSPASRTSPASWTSPASWTSPASPTSPAPRTSPTSPTSPAARTSPASRMSPASRTSPASRTSPASRKSSASRTSPTSLTSPAPRTSPASRTSPAPRTSPASRTSPASRTSPAP

  14. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108132 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5:490 ... 3066:490 ... 3067:490 ... 3068:490 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_70854 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MLA...DRICLQIAYGICLQIAYACRSHSGICLQIAYGICLQMTYGICLQMTYACRSHMAYACRSHMAYACRSHMAYACRSHMAYACRSHMAYACRSHMLADHICLQIAYACRSHMAYACRSHMLA...DRIIAYACRSQMLAFGRCLHLAYACRSHMAYACRSHMSYACRSHMSYACRSHMSYACRSHMSYACRSHMAYACRSHMAYACRSHMAYACRSHMLADHICLQIAYACRSHMLADRIWHMLADRICLQIA

  15. Protein (Viridiplantae): 941542 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 3065:5138 ... 3066:5138 ... 3067:5138 ... 3068:5138 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_35423, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis SPL...ASSVALTVSRTMWGGGGGGRPLHAAPSCSPFMQPLHAAPSRPLHAAPSRPLHAAPSCSTFMQPLHAAPSCSTFMQPLHAAPSCSPFMQPLHAAPSCSPFTAPSCSPFTAPSCSPFMQ

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 688222 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:6922 ... 3066:6922 ... 3067:6922 ... 3068:6922 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_47320, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis VPL...YSERVPLYSERVLLYSERVPLYSERVPLYSERRVPLYSERVPLYSERVPLYSERVPLKSPSCHVPLYLGAVRLYSERVPLYSERVPLYSERVPLYSERVPLNSERVPLYSERVPFKSSSCH

  17. Protein (Viridiplantae): 674774 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:235 ... 3066:235 ... 3067:235 ... 3068:235 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_65149, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis DPPSDWEADPPS...DWEADPPTIGRLIPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWKADPPSDWEGDPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPP

  18. Protein (Viridiplantae): 779632 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:1289 ... 3066:1289 ... 3067:1289 ... 3068:1289 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_95759 Volvox carteri f. nagari...ensis MRHGEDTSRHRGNEQKAPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPFLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPFLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSLPPSPPPSLPPSLPACP

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 188576 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:1947 ... 3066:1947 ... 3067:1947 ... 3068:1947 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_62572, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis PPS...SVTHTRIPPSSVTHTRIPPSSGTHTRIPPSSGTHTRIPPSSGTHTRIPPSSGTHSRIPPSSGTHSRIPPPSGTHTRIPPPSGTHTRIPPSSVTHTRIPPSSGTHTRIPPS...SGTHTRIPPSSGTHTRIPPSSGTHTRIPPSSGTHTRIPPSSGTHTRIPPSSGTHTRIPPLGRLLLTAAKQHT

  20. Protein (Viridiplantae): 674776 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:235 ... 3066:235 ... 3067:235 ... 3068:235 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_56839, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis DPPSDWEADPPS...DWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWGADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWKADLPSDWKADPPSD

  1. Protein (Viridiplantae): 674772 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:235 ... 3066:235 ... 3067:235 ... 3068:235 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_37300, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis DPPSDWEADPPS...VWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWGANPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPPSDWEADPP

  2. Protein (Viridiplantae): 674773 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:235 ... 3066:235 ... 3067:235 ... 3068:235 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_37371, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis PSELEADPPS...EWEADPPSELEADPPSELEADPPSELGADPPSELEADPPSELEADPPSELEADPPSELEADPPSGLEADPPSELEADPPSELEADPPSESEADPP

  3. Protein (Viridiplantae): 188572 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:1945 ... 3066:1945 ... 3067:1945 ... 3068:1945 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_100778 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MEAREMEAREMEARE...MEAREMEAREMEAREREAREMEAREREAREMEAREMEAREMEAREMEAREMEAREMEAREMEAREREVREREAREMEAREMEAKEMEAREMEARERECPCDRRLYSYFGQCSGPPKTCSVPR

  4. Protein (Viridiplantae): 780126 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sis MADTSTAPNQGQSQESEDKKPREYTYAKKKYSIQAYYEKLQEVKRRNCADWWKFFLVLLLENEVRNECTLCGKTFSATNPSSVAPQHMRDHASKPPLPAAGDSSCSVGIGSSLCLLNLASMGS ...3065:449 ... 3066:449 ... 3067:449 ... 3068:449 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_87870 Volvox carteri f. nagarien

  5. Protein (Viridiplantae): 780046 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:3008 ... 3066:3008 ... 3067:3008 ... 3068:3008 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_37846, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis VIYIPL...DHIPLGNIPLDYIPLGYIPLDYIPLGYIPLDYVPLDYIPLDYIPLDYTPLDYIPLD

  6. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108104 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_71475 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MRSA...GICHMLAYAICKHMPYAICKHMPLCDLQAYAIMRSSSICHYAICKHMQSASICHMFAYAICKHMPYAICKHMPCAICKHMPYAICGHMRSASICHMLAYAI...CKHMPYAICKHMPLTICKHMPLCDQQAYAICKHMPYVCICDLQAYAIMRSAGICDLQAYAIMLSAGICDLQAYVICLHMRSASICHMRSASICH

  7. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108090 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_62437, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MRSA...SICHIRCASICELQAYAICKHVRSASICDRQAYAICKHMPDTICKHMPHSMCKHMRSASICQIRPASICHIRCASICDLQAYATCKHMRAAS...ICDRQAYAICKHMPDAICKHMPHSMCKHMRSASICQMRSASICHIRCASICDLQAYARCDLQAYAICKHMRSASICQIRCASICDL

  8. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108094 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_71484 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MRSA...SICDLQAYDKCDLQAYAICKNMPYAICKHMPYAICKHMPYAICKHMHLQAYAVCKHMPYAICKHMPYAICKHMPYAICKHMPYAICKDYNLQAYAICKHMRSA...SICDLQAYAICDLQAYAICDLQAYAICDLQAYAICDLQAYAICDLQAHAICKHMPYAICKHMRSASICHMRSASICSLQAYAVCKHMQSVSICSLQTYAVCKHSNMQAYAVCKHVQSASICSLHAYAICKHMQSASICHM

  9. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108089 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_70544 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MRSA...SICHYTICKHMPYAICKHMRSASICHYAICKHMPYAICKHIPYAICEHMPYATCKHMRSASICDLQAYAICKHMRSHMPYAICKHMRSASICHYAICKHMPYAICKHIPYAICEHMPYATCKHMRS...ASICDLQAYAICKHIRSASICDLQAYAICKHMPSVICKHMRSASICDLQAYAICDLQACAICKHMRSTSICHYAICKHMPSCHLQAYAIMRSASISHYAICKHMPSCDLQAYAIMRSASICHYAICKHMPL

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108099 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_70990, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MRSA...SICDLQAYAICKHLGCASICDAQAYAIWKHMRSASICDLQVYALCKHIGCASVCDLQAYAIICDLQAYAICKHMRCASICALQAYAICKHMRYYMRSA...SICDLQAYATCKHMPYAICKHMPYAICKHMPYAICKHMPYAICKHMRSASICHMRSASICDLQAYAICDLQAYAMLCLLCLL

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108116 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_48545, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis LQAYAICKHMRSA...SVCALQAYGMCKRMRSASICDVQAYALCKHMRSASICDLQAYAICNQMRSASIL

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108101 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_81968 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MRSA...RICDLQAYAICDLQAYAKCKHLPNASICDLQAYAICKHMRSASICDLQAYAICKHMRYAICKHMHYAHMRSASICHLQAYAICDLQAYAICDLQAYAICELQAYAICAIYAICKHMRSA...SICNMQVYAICKHMRSASRCTYAICDLQAYAICKHMRSASICDLQAYAICKHMCCILLNHNWMVASEDTDLEEFHPLK

  13. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108115 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_48554, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis VQAYAICKHMRSA...SVCALQAYGMCKRMQSASICDVQAYALCKHMRSASICDLQAYAICNQMRSASIL

  14. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108084 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_70645, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MRSA...SICHIRCASICDLQAYATSDVQAYAICKHMPDAICKHMPHSMCKHMRSASICDLQAYAICKHMRSASICDLQAYAICKHLPDTICKHMPHSMCKHMRSA...SICDLQAYAICKHMPSASICQMRSASICHIRCASICDLQAYARCDLQAYATFDVQTYAICKHLRSASICDLQAYAICKHMPHSMCKH

  15. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108097 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_70912 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MRSA...SICDLQAYVICKHIPYAICKHTPYAICKHMPYAICKHIPLCDLQAYAIMRSASICNYAIGKHMPLCDLQAYAICDLQAYTICDLQAYAICDLQAYAICKHMRSA...SICDLQAYMICKHIICDLQAYAICKHMRSASICDLQAYAICDLQAYAICKHMPYAICKHMPYAICKHMRSASICNLQAYAICDLQAYVICKHT

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 878451 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3065:2400 ... 3066:2400 ... 3067:2400 ... 3068:2400 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_39829, partial Volvox carte...ri f. nagariensis KKGHQRSPKVTKGHQRSPKVTKGHQRSPKVTKGHQRSPKVTKGHQRSPKVTKGHQRSPKVTKGHQRSPKVTKGHQRSPKVTKGHQRSPK

  17. Comparative review of foam formation in biogas plants and ruminant bloat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Mueller, Roland Arno [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Environmental and Biotechnology Centre; Neuhaus, Juergen [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Bacteriology and Mycology

    2012-12-15

    This review gives an overview of the current knowledge concerning the problem of foam formation in the process of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants that utilize renewable resources or biogenic waste material for biogas production. Process upsets in biogas production induced by foam formation can have a negative impact on the efficiency of biogas plants. The foam can block gas pipes and cause severe damage to the bioreactor equipment, ranging from a failure of the feeders to a damage of the roof of the biogas plant. The most common foam removal methods - stirring in the foam, adding anti-foaming agents, diminishing substrate feeding, and altering the biogas reactor management - are not always successful. However, the reasons for the excessive foam formation during the biogas production process have not yet been elucidated in detail. In contrast, foam building in the rumen of ruminants as a cause for bloat has been studied thoroughly. In general, the interaction between proteins, polysaccharides (mucilage), and small plant particles is assumed to be the crucial factor. As the fermentation process in the rumen has many similarities with the biogas production process, the current research results on bloat in ruminants are summarized and compared with the process of foaming in biogas plants. (orig.)

  18. Exploring seascape genetics and kinship in the reef sponge Stylissa carteri in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Giles, Emily C.

    2015-06-01

    A main goal of population geneticists is to study patterns of gene flow to gain a better understanding of the population structure in a given organism. To date most efforts have been focused on studying gene flow at either broad scales to identify barriers to gene flow and isolation by distance or at fine spatial scales in order to gain inferences regarding reproduction and local dispersal. Few studies have measured connectivity at multiple spatial scales and have utilized novel tools to test the influence of both environment and geography on shaping gene flow in an organism. Here a seascape genetics approach was used to gain insight regarding geographic and ecological barriers to gene flow of a common reef sponge, Stylissa carteri in the Red Sea. Furthermore, a small-scale (<1 km) analysis was also conducted to infer reproductive potential in this organism. At the broad scale, we found that sponge connectivity is not structured by geography alone, but rather, genetic isolation in the southern Red Sea correlates strongly with environmental heterogeneity. At the scale of a 50-m transect, spatial autocorrelation analyses and estimates of full-siblings revealed that there is no deviation from random mating. However, at slightly larger scales (100–200 m) encompassing multiple transects at a given site, a greater proportion of full-siblings was found within sites versus among sites in a given location suggesting that mating and/or dispersal are constrained to some extent at this spatial scale. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting that environmental and ecological variables play a major role in the genetic structure of marine invertebrate populations.

  19. Calcium isotope fractionation in coccoliths of cultured Calcidiscus leptoporus, Helicosphaera carteri, Syracosphaera pulchra and Umbilicosphaera foliosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussone, Nikolaus; Langer, Gerald; Geisen, Markus; Steel, Blair A.; Riebesell, Ulf

    2007-08-01

    Four species of marine calcifying algae, the coccolithophores Calcidiscus leptoporus, Helicosphaera carteri, Syracosphaera pulchra and Umbilicosphaera foliosa were grown in laboratory cultures under temperatures varying between 14 and 23 °C, and one species, C. leptoporus, under varying [CO 32-], ranging from 105 to 219 μmol/kg. Calcium isotope compositions of the coccoliths resemble in both absolute fractionation and temperature sensitivity previous calibrations of marine calcifying species e.g. Emiliania huxleyi (coccolithophores) and Orbulina universa (planktonic foraminifera) as well as inorganically precipitated CaCO 3, but also reveal small species specific differences. In contrast to inorganically precipitated calcite, but similar to E. huxleyi and O. universa, the carbonate ion concentration of the medium has no statistically significant influence on the Ca isotope fractionation of C. leptoporus coccoliths; however, combined data of E. huxleyi and C. leptoporus indicate that the observed trends might be related to changes of the calcite saturation state of the medium. Since coccoliths constitute a significant portion of the global oceanic CaCO 3 export production, the Ca isotope fractionation in these biogenic structures is important for defining the isotopic composition of the Ca sink of the ocean, one of the key parameters for modelling changes to the marine Ca budget over time. For the present ocean our results are in general agreement with the previously postulated and applied mean value of the oceanic Ca sink (Δ sed) of about - 1.3‰, but the observed inter- and intra-species differences point to possible changes in Δ sed through earth history, due to changing physico-chemical conditions of the ocean and shifts in floral and faunal assemblages.

  20. Belching, bloating, and flatulence. How to help patients who have troublesome abdominal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S S

    1997-04-01

    Gaseous belching, bloating, and flatulence are common complaints. These symptoms may herald the onset of important and treatable gastrointestinal diseases or may represent functional bowel disorders. The clinical challenge is to identify a cause so as to exclude serious gastrointestinal diseases and provide symptomatic relief. Detailed history taking and examination provide the basis for appropriate testing that may provide vital clues. Among otherwise healthy patients, intolerance to lactose or other food items is a common source of symptoms. This cause can be evaluated noninvasively using the breath hydrogen test. A clear understanding of the underlying pathophysiology paves the way for a rational approach to treatment, such as withdrawal of an offending food item, enzyme supplementation, simple reassurance, or psychotherapy.

  1. The Influence of Sulfur on Dephosphorization Kinetics Between Bloated Metal Droplets and Slag Containing FeO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kezhuan; Dogan, Neslihan; Coley, Kenneth S.

    2017-10-01

    The bloating behavior of metal droplets and the dephosphorization behavior of bloated droplets at 1853 K (1580 °C) were investigated using X-ray fluoroscopy coupled with constant volume pressure change measurements and chemical analysis of quenched samples. The effect of sulfur content on dephosphorization kinetics was studied during the decarburization period. The slag foamed during the reaction forming a foamy layer over a dense layer. After a short incubation period, the droplets became bloated due to internal decarburization. The bloated droplets floated from the dense slag into the foamy slag. The behavioral changes are directly related to the effect of sulfur on the incubation time for swelling. The dephosphorization reaction was very fast; droplets with low sulfur contents experienced phosphorus reversion shortly after entering the foamy slag, while those with higher sulfur content took a longer time to swell and went through reversion before they entered the foam. The dephosphorization rate and maximum phosphorus partition were higher at lower CO evolution rates because the dynamic interfacial oxygen potential increased with the decreasing oxygen consumption rate. The rate controlling step for dephosphorization was initially a combination of mass transport in both the metal and the slag. As the iron oxide in the slag was depleted, the rate control shifted to mass transport in slag.

  2. Effects of baseline abdominal pain and bloating on response to lubiprostone in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L; Chey, W D; Drossman, D; Losch-Beridon, T; Wang, M; Lichtlen, P; Mareya, S

    2016-11-01

    Lubiprostone (8 μg b.d.) received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 2008 for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) in women aged ≥18 years. In 2012, the FDA issued new guidance for IBS-C clinical trials, recommending a composite endpoint incorporating both abdominal pain and stool frequency. In a post hoc analysis, similar criteria were applied to data from two pivotal, phase 3, double-blind, randomised trials of lubiprostone in patients with IBS-C. Included patients had a baseline spontaneous bowel movement (SBM) frequency Lubiprostone effects on abdominal pain alone were also evaluated, as were bloating alone and in a composite endpoint with stool frequency. In pooled data, 325 patients received lubiprostone and 180 received placebo. Rates of response were higher with lubiprostone vs. placebo for the composite endpoint of improved pain and stool frequency (26.3% vs. 15.3%, respectively; P = 0.008) and the composite endpoint of improved bloating and stool frequency (23.8% vs. 12.6%, respectively; P = 0.012). Response rates were also higher with lubiprostone vs. placebo for abdominal pain alone (P = 0.005) and bloating alone (P = 0.012). Lubiprostone was significantly more effective than placebo in improving abdominal pain or bloating, and also in composite endpoints that included stool frequency. © 2016 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Age and growth in the Australian freshwater mussel, Westralunio carteri , with an evaluation of the fluorochrome calcein for validating the assumption of annulus formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael W. Klunzinger; Stephen J. Beatty; David L. Morgan; Alan J. Lymbery; Wendell R. Haag

    2014-01-01

    Growth and longevity of freshwater mussels (Unionida) are important for defining life-history strategies and assessing vulnerability to human impacts. We used mark–recapture and analysis of shell rings to investigate age and growth of the hyriid, Westralunio carteri, at 5 sites in southwestern Australia. We tested the utility of the in situ marker...

  4. glsA, a Volvox gene required for asymmetric division and germ cell specification, encodes a chaperone-like protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S M; Kirk, D L

    1999-02-01

    The gls genes of Volvox are required for the asymmetric divisions that set apart cells of the germ and somatic lineages during embryogenesis. Here we used transposon tagging to clone glsA, and then showed that it is expressed maximally in asymmetrically dividing embryos, and that it encodes a 748-amino acid protein with two potential protein-binding domains. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, the J domain (by which Hsp40-class chaperones bind to and activate specific Hsp70 partners) abolishes the capacity of glsA to rescue mutants. Based on this and other considerations, including the fact that the GlsA protein is associated with the mitotic spindle, we discuss how it might function, in conjunction with an Hsp70-type partner, to shift the division plane in asymmetrically dividing cells.

  5. Proteoglycans from Boswellia serrata Roxb. and B. carteri Birdw. and identification of a proteolytic plant basic secretory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Andreas; König, Simone; Lechtenberg, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    groups: (i) Hyp-/Ser-rich extensins with O-glycosidic attached arabinan side chains; (ii) Modified extensins, with arabinogalactosylated side chains containing GlA and 4-O-Me-GlcA; (iii) Glycoproteins with N-glycosidic side chains containing higher amounts of Fuc, Man and GluNH(2,) featuring a 200 k......Water-soluble high molecular weight compounds were isolated in yields of 21-22% from the oleogum of Boswellia serrata and B. carteri. Using anion exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, different proteoglycans were purified and characterized, leading to four principally different......D metalloproteinase that has been de novo sequenced and is described for the first time; (iv) Type II arabinogalactans-proteins. Significant differences between the gums from the two species were observed in the protein content (6% vs 22%), offering the possibility of a quick differentiation of gums from both species...

  6. Self-pathology, the five-factor model, and bloated specific factors: A cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Joshua R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2016-04-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) is widely regarded as a useful model for the structure of both normal and maladaptive personality traits. However, recent factor analytic studies have suggested that deficits in the sense of self fall outside the FFM. The current study replicates and extends these findings, illustrating that factors can be situated outside a higher-order domain by including a relatively large number of closely related scales, forming what is known as a bloated specific factor. A total of 1,553 participants (M age = 37.8 years, SD = 13.1) were recruited across 3 studies. One measure of self-pathology (including 15 scales) and 2 measures of the FFM were administered, along with 17 measures of anxiousness and 12 measures of social withdrawal/sociability. Across 2 independent samples and 2 different measures of the FFM, deficits in the sense of self separated from neuroticism when all 15 scales of self-pathology were included. However, self-pathology loaded with FFM neuroticism when only a subset of the self-pathology scales was included. This finding was replicated with measures of social withdrawal/sociability, although only partially replicated with measures of anxiousness. Implications of these findings for past and future factor analytic studies of the structure of psychopathology are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Effect Of Probiotic Supplement To Reduce Abdominal Bloating In Stroke Patients Admitted To The ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jahangiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bloating, is a common complication in patients with stroke; that increased intracranial pressure due to cerebral hypoxia in these patients. Most drugs have adverse effects  to relieve flatulence.So this study aimed to investigate the effect of synbiotic supplement on stroke patients; was performed. Methods: The study, on 65 stroke patients; was done. They were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 32 and intervention  (n = 33 and the size of their abdominal circumference were measured before the study. The intervention group, in addition to routine treatment, for a week, every 12 hours, recived fermented prbiotic supplement Zhari Takhmir and the control group was given only a laxative( MOM = 15cc prescribed by a doctor. In the end, abdominal circumference in all patients were evaluated again. Data using analysis of covariance model, were analyzed . Results: After a week, abdominal circumference measurements in two groups showed that; in the intervention group on average waist size of 6.1 inches had reduced compared to baseline( p=0.028. But the changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: The study showed that a probiotic supplementation reduces abdominal circumference and  distention in patients with stroke; Therefore, probiotics can be used as a non-drug therapy in the treatment of these patients.

  8. Phagocytic efficiency and cytotoxic responses of Indian freshwater sponge (Eunapius carteri) cells isolated by density gradient centrifugation and flow cytometry: a morphofunctional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-02-01

    The freshwater sponge Eunapius carteri (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillidae), a resident of Indian freshwater ecosystems, has pharmaceutical and ecological potential, but there is inadequate information on its cellular spectrum and cell-mediated immune responses. Microscopical analysis revealed the existence of eight distinct cellular variants, i.e. blast-like cells, choanocytes, small amoebocytes, granular cells, pinacocytes, large amoebocytes, archaeocytes and sclerocytes. The cells were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and flow cytometry and used for a morphofunctional analysis. We investigated the phagocytic efficiency of E. carteri cells under the challenge of yeast particles in vitro and spectrophotometrically quantified the generation of cytotoxic molecules (superoxide anions and nitric oxide) in different isolated cellular fractions. The two cell separating technologies did not yield any significant differences in the major findings on morphology, phagocytic response and generation of superoxide anions and nitric oxide. Archaeocytes, granular cells and large amoebocytes were identified as chief phagocytes with a high phagocytic potential as recorded by light microscopy. Archaeocytes were the principal generators of superoxide anions, whereas nitric oxide was recorded in the fractions rich in archaeocytes and large amoebocytes. The present investigation thus provides useful information regarding cellular variation, cytotoxic status and innate phagocytic response of the cells of E. carteri, a common but less studied sponge of India. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The genus Clathria from the Gulf of Mexico and Mexican Caribbean, with redescription and resurrection of Clathria carteri (Poecilosclerida: Microcionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Patricia

    2014-04-16

    The present study deals with the morphologic variability of eight Clathria species from the southern Gulf of Mexico and Mexican Caribbean. Clathria (Clathria) foliacea, C. (C.) carteri, C. (Microciona) calla, C. (M.) echinata, C. (M.) spinosa, C. (Thalysias.) venosa, and C. (T.) virgultosa were collected by scuba diving and dredging from the southern Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz, Campeche Bank, Yucatan) to the Caribbean coast (Quintana Roo) from shoreline to 120 m depth. The population of Clathria seems to be neither abundant nor diverse in the studied area. However, the seven species considered here are presumed to have a slight morphologic variability, and the interspecific relationships had not been fully resolved. The present study focuses on their differentiation through comparison of external morphology, skeletal architecture, spiculation and measurements of characters as well as scanning electronic microscopy.    Comparisons were made among intra- and interspecific material and with the available type material. In particular, C. carteri Topsent (1889), previously synonymized with C. foliacea, is resurrected by establishing a neotype from material from the type locality, Campeche Bank; this has not been studied since its original description and is here redescribed for the first time. Another neotype is assigned for C. foliacea from Campeche also, since the original material is no longer available, and this species is redescribed also. Significant differences in spiculation between C. foliacea and C. carteri were found by one-way ANOVA. Although C. (T.) venosa resembles C. (T.) raraechelae in spiculation, these two species differ in measurements and skeletal organization. C. (T.) virgultosa is typified by a peculiar acanthostyle that is markedly spined on distal parts of the shaft, and by two types of tiny microscleres. This study has extended the known geographic distribution of each of these Clathria spp. within the lower Gulf of Mexico.

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 668301 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3065:2755 ... 3066:2755 ... 3067:2755 ... 3068:2755 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_32173, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis TQRAMP...AMTQRAKPAMTQRAMPAMTQRAKPAMTLRAMPAMTLRAMLEMTQRAKPAMTQRAKPAMTQRAKPAMTQRAKPAMTLRAMPAMTQRAKPAMTQRAMP...AMTQRAKPAMTQRAKPAMTQRAMPAMTQRAKPAMTQRAMPAMTLRAMPAMTQRAKPAMTQRAMPAMTQRAKPAMTQRAMPAMTQRAMP...AMTQRAMPAMTLRAMPAMTQRAMPAMTLRAMPAMTQRAKPVMTLRAMPAMTQRAKPAMTQRAMPAMTLRAMPAMTQRAKPAMTQRAMPAMTQRAMPAMTQ

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 798474 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 3065:3176 ... 3066:3176 ... 3067:3176 ... 3068:3176 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_56561, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis HCG...RRGFGYHCGRRGFGYHCLSGRRRLGYHCGRRGFGYHCGRRGFGYHCLSGRRRLGYHCGRRGFGYHCGRRGFGYHCLSGHRRLGYHWLSGRRGFGYHCG...RRGFGYHCLSGRRRLGYHCGRRGFGYHCGRRRLGYHCGRRRLGYHCGRRGFGYHCGRRGFGYHCGRRGFGYHCLSGRRRLGYHWLSGRRRLGYHWLSG

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 329297 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 57 3065:8579 ... 3066:8579 ... 3067:8579 ... 3068:8579 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_39527, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis PL...GTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPL...GTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNPLGTLWEPFGNP

  13. Protein (Viridiplantae): 676111 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3065:838 ... 3066:838 ... 3067:838 ... 3068:838 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_101296 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MNGPL...SYGLQDVCDVSSNLRMMEPYGNTYGSTYGIDLASMMGGPSDPLLSISGLTLLTPSPYSAPLPATAAASVVGGCIPEPVLAAGSISSAAAGAAAVAAAAGDEEVQLPL...PQPSNVVAEAIGAYFEPLLSTPQAPLPPLPSLPQEPLMDWQQAEQPPPPPQQQQQTDQQQTDQQQHAEEHTQ...AAGELLQGAGVAGRQAAEQVLEWQLADAVLQRQDQPLTLHVPPSPPAPLPLPHTHHHQQHNGQQHKQQQLELQQPSEQTEEALKPPPPPSSLPPVPPQELFSSSSSSNSYF

  14. Protein (Viridiplantae): 789659 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3065:6543 ... 3066:6543 ... 3067:6543 ... 3068:6543 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_121272, partial Volvox cart...eri f. nagariensis MSQEPLGPDHPSSPSPPSLPRRSPDPVQSPQPKPSPKMAPSSPLKTPPTPLLPKLPPPKTPSPKPPSPRPLKMPPLARSPPKSPASRSPPKPPLARPPPKPSVPGLPL...RAPPPRLSPRPPPVPKPPSPRLSPRPPPLPKPQPPPRSPAPRPNTRPPPPVKPPPRRPPPPA...RPPPQRPSPHPPKPPPPHPTLEPAVMPVPLRMPVYEPSNRTYLKAGSIGALTVMPLQSALSRVFVRMLCPVRKYAAVLRVGNPVDLSTWKLQCANVSLAPRTRHLLIE...RPDDGCGAAAGPSVARLSIQHLFSWRAYNLTIPVGYVSALSLLITAALGAVFLMWIVERAKKCLDFASTCFMFHFFFCWHYEGFPARFEWWLVNGLGLIIMSLLGEWLCLRREMQEIPLNTLRGRGANGGAAAASGSGGAGTSVPGGVVGGTSSAVQMAGSTLSSKSAFKPQVGQQALVS

  15. Protein (Viridiplantae): 851118 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:123 ... 3066:123 ... 3067:123 ... 3068:123 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_105637 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MQPYPLPPPL...QMQPYQTPPPQQNMQPYQTPYAGSLPHPPPIPPHPPMQSPQLQQAQQQQQQQQFIPHPSQLVPRLPYQPPLHQPQHHQHPAQYQYHRQLMQHHNHQLQQNPQDLASNLATGRDGTPL...ALAALPPRPPPPPPPPGLLAAGPGAAAAAAAAVAGPGGSSYPLAPSCCPLSPPRNPLS...PPVALVEMEDKDGIRLLESGNGASPPPPLPPPPTGHWDFAANGGGHDGGDEGSRTQLPPSPPPMRLRSPLRVAYEELCVADPLLRARLLGDLAVRWLEKNAWRSPLEA...LLGRGVRQRSMDRIGPFECLDEQQQGLAAHLLGQPPPPPLPAPNQSIQALTTPSLQPPPAPPPALAQQHQELPPPPPPLPPPSPRPSSLPAPPSPPPMPLTASPTPSLAASPLPPVAVRPSPGAGPAADPL

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 267823 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5:1825 ... 3066:1825 ... 3067:1825 ... 3068:1825 ... heme peroxidase-related protein Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MPSSWPL...PGGDVEPEADNAPAEVAQEAARAAPEPVVPPLVPVVPEVSKDRVPLYPAELAAAAAPARVCVTGATGYVAGPIVARLLAAGHTVHATCRDPSASEALSALRA...LPGADQRLRLFRGDLLTPGSFDEAVEGCDYVIHTASPFTLLVNRRRAVEQLVEPAVRGVENVIAAVNKTKSVRRVVMTSSIVATYSRATDHGGPDRPL...DENCWNTTASPTFLPYSYSKTQAERRAWELCEKQNRWTLVVINPGLVLGPPLGANCRASESVALLRRICAGLMYPAVPNVGIAYVDIRDVA...AAHSVAMTAPEASGRYLVVAGGVRMRGLTQIMEQLYPGGRVRTAFLAAPRWIAVRLAPLLGIGSDFVEASWGPPPRFSTVKAAEQLGLKSWVPLEASLYDMVEDLAAKRLVRHPLVSFPSEWSRRRRRQKLRRWLLCAAAVAVPLAVAVVLLVWMLHGRRRGAEGQRGLR

  17. Protein (Viridiplantae): 169537 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 65:2332 ... 3066:2332 ... 3067:2332 ... 3068:2332 ... acetylglucosaminyltransferase, partial Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MASPRLPL...LLSLLLISPSWRPVAWLLRSTSLLPSELPSGSFASSISTGSSISRGARTTSVGLHLASATPRTYRIEHPAMRGWEEPSLPSWDDVIKGEKRKVVCVSGVPPL...ARGEWCKEYYNQGPIPWRPPPRGDKDCPATKYGACNGVGSCQYDLGVCLCPAGWKGPDCGLRDPRPCTHRYRQQPLDGNNTTPISHSGPDGRDLNWLEEGWTASRCAG...YCDEDLAMCYCPPGTKYGRTLAPPDAPPGTPPLQAGRPMGDSCKPGRDPATGKRLDWGRLEPDDLFGPDGWCNSENPRTHWLTHPHGGLPVCHPLVYHPLVYHPLVYHPLVYHPLVYHPLVYHPL...VYHTTHLSVCTPLTGGPRLVVRPCGCLLDGSQGHFCDTPTEAFCFNQCSGHGECKLGFCKCHEG

  18. Protein (Viridiplantae): 699572 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3065:2460 ... 3066:2460 ... 3067:2460 ... 3068:2460 ... 3'5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase Volvox carteri f. n...agariensis MTGSLTATAVQLLPLLPPRPLLEAVERLLCRCDSWQFDTLGLQEISGGHALSALGFFLMQREGLVERFRMEPLRLARLLRTLESGYPASNPYHNSAH...AADVLHTLHVLLHGAQLTEHYLDKLGLMAAYFAAIVHDYGHPGLTNDFLVATSHPLALRYNDRSPLESHHAAAAFTLLADR...PDLDVTTGLSAAERAAFRKQARGGQGPLLLGALRVVELVLATDMKQHFAILNQFNTGPSGGMVEVVAPVPLNEGERLLTLQVMLKASDIGHLGASLDRHKRWLTGLEEEFFRQGDQERQRGLPVSPL...FDRAKQGVSKSQVGFYDFVALPLVRAVAEAFPGALPLLRCFSENYKYWKKAEAAAAAAGGPGAAGGPAAASMAGTATTDTPPPPPPPSPPPPPPPPQQ

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 108083 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 065:326 ... 3066:326 ... 3067:326 ... 3068:326 ... hypothetical protein VOLCADRAFT_71629 Volvox carteri f. nagariensis MRSA...SVCDLQAYAICKHMPDAICKHMPHSMCKHMRSASICDLQAYAICKHMRSASICDLQAYAICKHMPDAICKHMPHPMCKHMRSASICQMRSASICHIRCASI...CDLQAYATSDVQAYAICKHMPDAICKHMPHSMCKHMRSASICDLQAYAICKHMRSASICDLQAYAICKHLPDTICKHMPHSMCKHMRSA...SICDLQAYAICKHMPSASICQMRSASICHIRCASICDLQAYARCDLQAYATFDVQTYAICKHLRSASICDLQAYAICKHMPHSMCKHMRYASLCDLQAYAICKQMQSSVTLQ

  20. Probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 versus placebo for the symptoms of bloating in patients with functional bowel disorders: a double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; Palsson, Olafur S; Maier, Danielle; Carroll, Ian; Galanko, Joseph A; Leyer, Gregory; Ringel, Yehuda

    2011-07-01

    Recent data suggest a role for the intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of functional bowel disorders (FBDs). Probiotic studies in FBDs generated inconsistent results suggesting a strain-specific and product-specific effect. To investigate the clinical efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (L-NCFM) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 (B-LBi07) in nonconstipation FBDs. A double-blind, placebo-control clinical trial of the probiotic bacterias L-NCFM and B-LBi07 twice a day (2×10(11) CFU/d) versus placebo over 8 weeks. Primary endpoints were global relief of gastrointestinal symptoms and satisfaction with treatment. Secondary endpoints were change in symptoms severity, well-being, and quality of life. Microbiological effect was assessed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction on fecal samples. Sixty patients (probiotic, n=31; placebo, n=29), 72% females, 84% whites, mean age 37 years. Abdominal bloating improved in the probiotics compared with the placebo group at 4 weeks (4.10 vs 6.17, P=0.009; change in bloating severity P=0.02) and 8 weeks (4.26 vs 5.84, P=0.06; change in bloating severity Pbacteria in the pathophysiology of FBD and the role for probiotic bacteria in the management of these disorders.

  1. Belching, Bloating and Flatulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Education & Resource Center GI Health and Disease Recursos en Español What is a Gastroenterologist Video and ... Education & Resource Center Home GI Health and Disease Recursos en Español What is a Gastroenterologist? Podcasts and ...

  2. A note on the flora and fauna in the rumen of steers fed a feedlot bloat-provoking ration and the effect of penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRYANT, M P; ROBINSON, I M; LINDAHL, I L

    1961-11-01

    A study was made of the predominant culturable bacteria and ciliate protozoa present in the rumen of two steers that were regularly bloating on a pelleted ratio containing 22% alfalfa meal, 16% soybean oil meal, 61% barley, and 1% common salt. The ruminal microorganisms in the two animals differed as indicated by a high total culture count of bacteria, an almost complete absence of ciliate protozoa, a low pH, and a difference in the proportions of presumptively identified predominant bacterial groups in one animal (steer 26) as compared with the other (steer 32). The first exposure of the animals to procaine penicillin (75 or 150 mg per day on 2 successive days) resulted in an abnormal ruminal flora 31 hr after the first treatment as indicated by drastic drops in total and cellulolytic bacterial counts and a change in the proportions of predominant bacterial groups. The animals refused feed for 32 to 48 hr after the first treatment. After feed consumption resumed, further treatment with 75 mg penicillin on 4 successive days did not appear to greatly alter the flora and did not result in feed refusal in animal 32. In animal 26, amounts of penicillin progressing from 50 to 200 mg per day did not result in feed refusals and observations on rumen ingesta samples during this period indicated a decrease in total bacterial count, a great increase in numbers of ciliate protozoa, a higher pH, and a change in the proportions of predominant bacterial groups so that the ruminal picture was much more similar to that of animal 32 than to its own during the pre-penicillin period. Bloat was not relieved except during the period of feed refusal. The results indicate that the ruminal flora rapidly adapts to penicillin and that bloat of the feedlot type can occur in animals with widely differing numbers and kinds of bacteria and protozoa. Feedlot bloat does not appear to be correlated with the occurrence or numbers of any of the individual predominant groups of bacteria cultured.

  3. NetCDF4/HDF5 and Linked Data in the Real World - Enriching Geoscientific Metadata without Bloat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alex; Car, Nicholas; Druken, Kelsey; Poudjom-Djomani, Yvette; Butcher, Stirling; Evans, Ben; Wyborn, Lesley

    2017-04-01

    NetCDF4 has become the dominant generic format for many forms of geoscientific data, leveraging (and constraining) the versatile HDF5 container format, while providing metadata conventions for interoperability. However, the encapsulation of detailed metadata within each file can lead to metadata "bloat", and difficulty in maintaining consistency where metadata is replicated to multiple locations. Complex conceptual relationships are also difficult to represent in simple key-value netCDF metadata. Linked Data provides a practical mechanism to address these issues by associating the netCDF files and their internal variables with complex metadata stored in Semantic Web vocabularies and ontologies, while complying with and complementing existing metadata conventions. One of the stated objectives of the netCDF4/HDF5 formats is that they should be self-describing: containing metadata sufficient for cataloguing and using the data. However, this objective can be regarded as only partially-met where details of conventions and definitions are maintained externally to the data files. For example, one of the most widely used netCDF community standards, the Climate and Forecasting (CF) Metadata Convention, maintains standard vocabularies for a broad range of disciplines across the geosciences, but this metadata is currently neither readily discoverable nor machine-readable. We have previously implemented useful Linked Data and netCDF tooling (ncskos) that associates netCDF files, and individual variables within those files, with concepts in vocabularies formulated using the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) ontology. NetCDF files contain Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) links to terms represented as SKOS Concepts, rather than plain-text representations of those terms, so we can use simple, standardised web queries to collect and use rich metadata for the terms from any Linked Data-presented SKOS vocabulary. Geoscience Australia (GA) manages a large volume of diverse

  4. How 5000 independent rowers coordinate their strokes in order to row into the sunlight: Phototaxis in the multicellular green alga Volvox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsunaga Shigeru

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of multicellular motile organisms from unicellular ancestors required the utilization of previously evolved tactic behavior in a multicellular context. Volvocine green algae are uniquely suited for studying tactic responses during the transition to multicellularity because they range in complexity from unicellular to multicellular genera. Phototactic responses are essential for these flagellates because they need to orientate themselves to receive sufficient light for photosynthesis, but how does a multicellular organism accomplish phototaxis without any known direct communication among cells? Several aspects of the photoresponse have previously been analyzed in volvocine algae, particularly in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas. Results In this study, the phototactic behavior in the spheroidal, multicellular volvocine green alga Volvox rousseletii (Volvocales, Chlorophyta was analyzed. In response to light stimuli, not only did the flagella waveform and beat frequency change, but the effective stroke was reversed. Moreover, there was a photoresponse gradient from the anterior to the posterior pole of the spheroid, and only cells of the anterior hemisphere showed an effective response. The latter caused a reverse of the fluid flow that was confined to the anterior hemisphere. The responsiveness to light is consistent with an anterior-to-posterior size gradient of eyespots. At the posterior pole, the eyespots are tiny or absent, making the corresponding cells appear to be blind. Pulsed light stimulation of an immobilized spheroid was used to simulate the light fluctuation experienced by a rotating spheroid during phototaxis. The results demonstrated that in free-swimming spheroids, only those cells of the anterior hemisphere that face toward the light source reverse the beating direction in the presence of illumination; this behavior results in phototactic turning. Moreover, positive phototaxis is facilitated by

  5. Moramonas marocensis gen. nov., sp. nov.: a jakobid flagellate isolated from desert soil with a bacteria-like, but bloated mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassert, Jürgen F H; Tikhonenkov, Denis V; Pombert, Jean-François; Kolisko, Martin; Tai, Vera; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Keeling, Patrick J

    2016-02-01

    A new jakobid genus has been isolated from Moroccan desert soil. The cyst-forming protist Moramonas marocensis gen. nov., sp. nov. has two anteriorly inserted flagella of which one points to the posterior cell pole accompanying the ventral feeding groove and is equipped with a dorsal vane-a feature typical for the Jakobida. It further shows a flagellar root system consisting of singlet microtubular root, left root (R1), right root (R2) and typical fibres associated with R1 and R2. The affiliation of M. marocensis to the Jakobida was confirmed by molecular phylogenetic analyses of the SSU rRNA gene, five nuclear genes and 66 mitochondrial protein-coding genes. The mitochondrial genome has the high number of genes typical for jakobids, and bacterial features, such as the four-subunit RNA polymerase and Shine-Dalgarno sequences upstream of the coding regions of several genes. The M. marocensis mitochondrial genome encodes a similar number of genes as other jakobids, but is unique in its very large genome size (greater than 264 kbp), which is three to four times higher than that of any other jakobid species investigated yet. This increase seems to be due to a massive expansion in non-coding DNA, creating a bloated genome like those of plant mitochondria. © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study to Evaluate the Benefit of the Probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in Non-Patients With Symptoms of Abdominal Discomfort and Bloating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel-Kulka, Tamar; McRorie, Johnson; Ringel, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 is a probiotic that is used often in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Non-patients with bowel symptoms may differ from patients with IBS in the impact of their bowel symptoms on illness severity, healthcare and treatment seeking behavior. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of B. infantis 35624 (10(9) c.f.u. per day) for the relief of abdominal discomfort and bloating in a non-patient population. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study with a 2-week placebo run-in phase followed by a 4-week intervention phase was conducted at ten clinical centers (USA). Subjects were recruited from the general population by advertisement. The study randomized 302 subjects who experienced abdominal discomfort and bloating ≥2-times per week for at least three months but have not seen a physician or received prescribed medication for their symptoms in the past 12 months. Subjects were assessed for pre- to post-intervention changes in symptom severity (on a 6-point Likert scale; 0=none, 5=very severe) and frequency (symptoms-free days). A total of 275 subjects (mean age 42 years, 79% female, 74% Caucasian) provided evaluable data. Overall mean severity scores at baseline were 2.4 for abdominal discomfort and 2.5 for bloating with no significant differences between the placebo and probiotic groups. Both groups showed significant (P0.3). The frequency of abdominal bloating-free days was greater in the B. infantis 35624 group compared to the placebo group (Pimpact of functional bowel symptoms in the non-patient population.

  7. Lotus tenuis x L. corniculatus interspecific hybridization as a means to breed bloat-safe pastures and gain insight into the genetic control of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaray, Francisco J; Passeri, Valentina; Babuin, Florencia M; Marco, Francisco; Carrasco, Pedro; Damiani, Francesco; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Paolocci, Francesco; Ruiz, Oscar A

    2014-02-03

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that strongly affect plant quality traits. The concentration and the structure of these metabolites influence the palatability and nutritional value of forage legumes. Hence, modulating PAs in the leaves of forage legumes is of paramount relevance for forage breeders worldwide. The lack of genetic variation in the leaf PA trait within the most important forage species and the difficulties in engineering this pathway via the ectopic expression of regulatory genes, prompted us to pursue alternative strategies to enhance this trait in forage legumes of agronomic interest. The Lotus genus includes forage species which accumulate PAs in edible organs and can thus be used as potential donor parents in breeding programs. We recovered a wild, diploid and PA-rich population of L. corniculatus and crossed with L. tenuis. The former grows in an alkaline-salty area in Spain while the latter is a diploid species, grown extensively in South American pastures, which does not accumulate PAs in the herbage. The resulting interspecific hybrids displayed several traits of outstanding agronomic relevance such as rhizome production, PA levels in edible tissues sufficient to prevent ruminal bloating (around 5 mg of PAs/g DW), biomass production similar to the cultivated parent and potential for adaptability to marginal lands. We show that PA levels correlate with expression levels of the R2R3MYB transcription factor TT2 and, in turn, with those of the key structural genes of the epicatechin and catechin biosynthetic pathways leading to PA biosynthesis. The L. tenuis x L. corniculatus hybrids, reported herein, represent the first example of the introgression of the PA trait in forage legumes to levels known to provide nutritional and health benefits to ruminants. Apart from PAs, the hybrids have additional traits which may prove useful to breed forage legumes with increased persistence and adaptability to marginal conditions. Finally, our

  8. Timpanismo espumoso em bovinos leiteiros em pastagens de Trifolium spp. (Leg.Caesalpinoideae Leguminous bloat in dairy cattle on Trifolium spp. pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gustavo Cabrera Dalto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O pastejo de plantas leguminosas que provocam fermentação excessiva pode causar surtos de timpanismo e mortes em ruminantes. Em uma propriedade no município de São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, oito bovinos de um total de 66 morreram subitamente, ao haverem sido transferidos de um potreiro de campo nativo, para outro cuja pastagem era composta por Trifolium repens e Trifolium pratense. Os animais foram encontrados mortos no amanhecer do dia seguinte à transferência, não foram observados sinais clínicos prévios. Os principais achados macroscópicos incluíram aumento de volume abdominal, protrusão de vagina e língua, distensão ruminal, fígado de coloração pálida e aumento do baço. Na histologia, havia congestão e edema pulmonares e hiperplasia linfóide difusa e acentuada no baço. A evidência de ingestão das leguminosas associada aos achados patológicos e à ausência de microrganismos no exame bacteriológico confirmaram o diagnóstico de timpanismo.Leguminous bloat may occur in cattle which graze pastures consisting of lush forages. In a dairy farm located on the municipality of São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, eight out of 66 cows died suddenly after being transferred to a paddock whose pastures were composed of Trifolium repens and Trifolium pratense. Animals were found dead in the morning of the next day after being transferred; no clinical signs were noticed. Main gross findings included enhanced abdominal volume, protrusion and congestion of the tongue and vagina, ruminal distension, pale liver, and enhanced spleen. Histologically, there were lung congestion and edema, and splenic lymphoid hyperplasia. The evidence of leguminous forages consumption associated with the pathological findings and the absence of growth on bacteriology confirmed the diagnosis.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16417-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 ( GO100113 ) CAFZ3081.fwd CAFZ Alvinella pompejana Incyte regu... 32 0.002 4 ( EJ531248 ) 1092955229261 Gl...v CBHA Volvox carteri f. nagariensis i... 40 1.0 2 ( GO099250 ) CAFZ2586.fwd CAFZ Alvinella pompejana Incyte...riensis ... 40 1.1 2 ( GO171837 ) CAGA4443.rev CAGA Alvinella pompejana Normalized ... 32 1.1 3 ( GO096590 )... CAFZ10096.rev CAFZ Alvinella pompejana Incyte reg... 32 1.1 3 ( FK743489 ) av020...agariensis ... 40 1.1 2 ( GO096539 ) CAFZ10071.rev CAFZ Alvinella pompejana Incyte reg... 32 1.1 3 ( FD80345

  10. Sequence of the Gonium pectorale Mating Locus Reveals a Complex and Dynamic History of Changes in Volvocine Algal Mating Haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hamaji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex-determining regions (SDRs or mating-type (MT loci in two sequenced volvocine algal species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, exhibit major differences in size, structure, gene content, and gametolog differentiation. Understanding the origin of these differences requires investigation of MT loci from related species. Here, we determined the sequences of the minus and plus MT haplotypes of the isogamous 16-celled volvocine alga, Gonium pectorale, which is more closely related to the multicellular V. carteri than to C. reinhardtii. Compared to C. reinhardtii MT, G. pectorale MT is moderately larger in size, and has a less complex structure, with only two major syntenic blocs of collinear gametologs. However, the gametolog content of G. pectorale MT has more overlap with that of V. carteri MT than with C. reinhardtii MT, while the allelic divergence between gametologs in G. pectorale is even lower than that in C. reinhardtii. Three key sex-related genes are conserved in G. pectorale MT: GpMID and GpMTD1 in MT–, and GpFUS1 in MT+. GpFUS1 protein exhibited specific localization at the plus-gametic mating structure, indicating a conserved function in fertilization. Our results suggest that the G. pectorale–V. carteri common ancestral MT experienced at least one major reformation after the split from C. reinhardtii, and that the V. carteri ancestral MT underwent a subsequent expansion and loss of recombination after the divergence from G. pectorale. These data begin to polarize important changes that occurred in volvocine MT loci, and highlight the potential for discontinuous and dynamic evolution in SDRs.

  11. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Richard A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been important both socially and economically as an ingredient in incense and perfumes for thousands of years. Frankincense oil is prepared from aromatic hardened gum resins obtained by tapping Boswellia trees. One of the main components of frankincense oil is boswellic acid, a component known to have anti-neoplastic properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate frankincense oil for its anti-tumor activity and signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells. Methods Frankincense oil-induced cell viability was investigated in human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal bladder urothelial UROtsa cells. Temporal regulation of frankincense oil-activated gene expression in bladder cancer cells was identified by microarray and bioinformatics analysis. Results Within a range of concentration, frankincense oil suppressed cell viability in bladder transitional carcinoma J82 cells but not in UROtsa cells. Comprehensive gene expression analysis confirmed that frankincense oil activates genes that are responsible for cell cycle arrest, cell growth suppression, and apoptosis in J82 cells. However, frankincense oil-induced cell death in J82 cells did not result in DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis. Conclusion Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis proposed multiple pathways that can be activated by frankincense oil to induce bladder cancer cell death. Frankincense oil might represent an alternative intravesical agent for bladder cancer treatment.

  12. Revealing microbial functional activities in the Red Sea sponge S tylissa carteri by metatranscriptomics

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas

    2014-07-09

    The persistence of coral reef ecosystems relies on the symbiotic relationship between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Genetic evidence indicates that these symbionts are biologically diverse and exhibit discrete patterns of environmental and host distribution. This makes the assessment of Symbiodinium diversity critical to understanding the symbiosis ecology of corals. Here, we applied pyrosequencing to the elucidation of Symbiodinium diversity via analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region, a multicopy genetic marker commonly used to analyse Symbiodinium diversity. Replicated data generated from isoclonal Symbiodinium cultures showed that all genomes contained numerous, yet mostly rare, ITS2 sequence variants. Pyrosequencing data were consistent with more traditional denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches to the screening of ITS2 PCR amplifications, where the most common sequences appeared as the most intense bands. Further, we developed an operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based pipeline for Symbiodinium ITS2 diversity typing to provisionally resolve ecologically discrete entities from intragenomic variation. A genetic distance cut-off of 0.03 collapsed intragenomic ITS2 variants of isoclonal cultures into single OTUs. When applied to the analysis of field-collected coral samples, our analyses confirm that much of the commonly observed Symbiodinium ITS2 diversity can be attributed to intragenomic variation. We conclude that by analysing Symbiodinium populations in an OTU-based framework, we can improve objectivity, comparability and simplicity when assessing ITS2 diversity in field-based studies.

  13. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mark Barton; Yang, Qing; Osban, Jeanette; Azzarello, Joseph T; Saban, Marcia R; Saban, Ricardo; Ashley, Richard A; Welter, Jan C; Fung, Kar-Ming; Lin, Hsueh-Kung

    2009-03-18

    Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been important both socially and economically as an ingredient in incense and perfumes for thousands of years. Frankincense oil is prepared from aromatic hardened gum resins obtained by tapping Boswellia trees. One of the main components of frankincense oil is boswellic acid, a component known to have anti-neoplastic properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate frankincense oil for its anti-tumor activity and signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells. Frankincense oil-induced cell viability was investigated in human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal bladder urothelial UROtsa cells. Temporal regulation of frankincense oil-activated gene expression in bladder cancer cells was identified by microarray and bioinformatics analysis. Within a range of concentration, frankincense oil suppressed cell viability in bladder transitional carcinoma J82 cells but not in UROtsa cells. Comprehensive gene expression analysis confirmed that frankincense oil activates genes that are responsible for cell cycle arrest, cell growth suppression, and apoptosis in J82 cells. However, frankincense oil-induced cell death in J82 cells did not result in DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis. Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis proposed multiple pathways that can be activated by frankincense oil to induce bladder cancer cell death. Frankincense oil might represent an alternative intravesical agent for bladder cancer treatment.

  14. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Mark Barton; Yang, Qing; Osban, Jeanette; Azzarello, Joseph T; Saban, Marcia R; Saban, Ricardo; Ashley, Richard A; Welter, Jan C; Fung, Kar-Ming; Lin, Hsueh-Kung

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been important both socially and economically as an ingredient in incense and perfumes for thousands of years. Frankincense oil is prepared from aromatic hardened gum resins obtained by tapping Boswellia trees. One of the main components of frankincense oil is boswellic acid, a component known to have anti-neoplastic properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate frankincense oil for its anti-tum...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16416-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 0.15 3 ( AL929085 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone CH211-11G18 in ... 50 0.45 1 ( GO099250 ) CAFZ2586.fwd CAFZ Alvinella pompe...jana Incyte regu... 32 0.81 3 ( GO171837 ) CAGA4443.rev CAGA Alvinella pompe...jana Normalized ... 32 0.82 3 ( GO096590 ) CAFZ10096.rev CAFZ Alvinella pompejana Incyte r...Z10071.rev CAFZ Alvinella pompejana Incyte reg... 32 0.86 3 ( FD857221 ) CBHA6814.fwd CBHA Volvox carteri f....GO096431 ) CAFZ10015.rev CAFZ Alvinella pompejana Incyte reg... 32 0.91 3 ( FD903507 ) CBOX12074.rev CBOX Vo

  16. Nucleotide diversity of the colorless green alga Polytomella parva (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta): high for the mitochondrial telomeres, surprisingly low everywhere else.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Roy; Lee, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Silent-site nucleotide diversity data (π(silent)) can provide insights into the forces driving genome evolution. Here we present π(silent) statistics for the mitochondrial and nuclear DNAs of Polytomella parva, a nonphotosynthetic green alga with a highly reduced, linear fragmented mitochondrial genome. We show that this species harbors very little genetic diversity, with the exception of the mitochondrial telomeres, which have an excess of polymorphic sites. These data are compared with previously published π(silent) values from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of the model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, which are close relatives of P. parva, and are used to understand the modes and tempos of genome evolution within green algae. © 2011 The Author(s). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  17. The simplest integrated multicellular organism unveiled.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Arakaki

    Full Text Available Volvocine green algae represent the "evolutionary time machine" model lineage for studying multicellularity, because they encompass the whole range of evolutionary transition of multicellularity from unicellular Chlamydomonas to >500-celled Volvox. Multicellular volvocalean species including Gonium pectorale and Volvox carteri generally have several common morphological features to survive as integrated multicellular organisms such as "rotational asymmetry of cells" so that the cells become components of the individual and "cytoplasmic bridges between protoplasts in developing embryos" to maintain the species-specific form of the multicellular individual before secretion of new extracellular matrix (ECM. However, these morphological features have not been studied in the four-celled colonial volvocine species Tetrabaena socialis that is positioned in the most basal lineage within the colonial or multicellular volvocine greens. Here we established synchronous cultures of T. socialis and carried out immunofluorescence microscopic and ultrastructural observations to elucidate these two morphological attributes. Based on immunofluorescence microscopy, four cells of the mature T. socialis colony were identical in morphology but had rotational asymmetry in arrangement of microtubular rootlets and separation of basal bodies like G. pectorale and V. carteri. Ultrastructural observations clearly confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic bridges between protoplasts in developing embryos of T. socialis even after the formation of new flagella in each daughter protoplast within the parental ECM. Therefore, these two morphological attributes might have evolved in the common four-celled ancestor of the colonial volvocine algae and contributed to the further increase in cell number and complexity of the multicellular individuals of this model lineage. T. socialis is one of the simplest integrated multicellular organisms in which four identical cells constitute the

  18. The simplest integrated multicellular organism unveiled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Yoko; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Hamamura, Yuki; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Noga, Akira; Hirono, Masafumi; Olson, Bradley J S C; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Volvocine green algae represent the "evolutionary time machine" model lineage for studying multicellularity, because they encompass the whole range of evolutionary transition of multicellularity from unicellular Chlamydomonas to >500-celled Volvox. Multicellular volvocalean species including Gonium pectorale and Volvox carteri generally have several common morphological features to survive as integrated multicellular organisms such as "rotational asymmetry of cells" so that the cells become components of the individual and "cytoplasmic bridges between protoplasts in developing embryos" to maintain the species-specific form of the multicellular individual before secretion of new extracellular matrix (ECM). However, these morphological features have not been studied in the four-celled colonial volvocine species Tetrabaena socialis that is positioned in the most basal lineage within the colonial or multicellular volvocine greens. Here we established synchronous cultures of T. socialis and carried out immunofluorescence microscopic and ultrastructural observations to elucidate these two morphological attributes. Based on immunofluorescence microscopy, four cells of the mature T. socialis colony were identical in morphology but had rotational asymmetry in arrangement of microtubular rootlets and separation of basal bodies like G. pectorale and V. carteri. Ultrastructural observations clearly confirmed the presence of cytoplasmic bridges between protoplasts in developing embryos of T. socialis even after the formation of new flagella in each daughter protoplast within the parental ECM. Therefore, these two morphological attributes might have evolved in the common four-celled ancestor of the colonial volvocine algae and contributed to the further increase in cell number and complexity of the multicellular individuals of this model lineage. T. socialis is one of the simplest integrated multicellular organisms in which four identical cells constitute the individual.

  19. How bloated is the Dutch housing market? : a summary of my inaugural lecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Is the Dutch housing market overvalued and, if so, to what degree? Are the home prices too steep in comparison to other economic data, such as interest rates and income? Can we expect a bubble to burst, causing a collapse of the market similar to what has happened in the United States of America?

  20. Genetic basis for soma is present in undifferentiated volvocine green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochau-Wright, Z I; Hanschen, E R; Ferris, P J; Hamaji, T; Nozaki, H; Olson, B J S C; Michod, R E

    2017-06-01

    Somatic cellular differentiation plays a critical role in the transition from unicellular to multicellular life, but the evolution of its genetic basis remains poorly understood. By definition, somatic cells do not reproduce to pass on genes and so constitute an extreme form of altruistic behaviour. The volvocine green algae provide an excellent model system to study the evolution of multicellularity and somatic differentiation. In Volvox carteri, somatic cell differentiation is controlled by the regA gene, which is part of a tandem duplication of genes known as the reg cluster. Although previous work found the reg cluster in divergent Volvox species, its origin and distribution in the broader group of volvocine algae has not been known. Here, we show that the reg cluster is present in many species without somatic cells and determine that the genetic basis for soma arose before the phenotype at the origin of the family Volvocaceae approximately 200 million years ago. We hypothesize that the ancestral function was involved in regulating reproduction in response to stress and that this function was later co-opted to produce soma. Determining that the reg cluster was co-opted to control somatic cell development provides insight into how cellular differentiation, and with it greater levels of complexity and individuality, evolves. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Evolution of the B3 DNA binding superfamily: new insights into REM family gene diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisson A C Romanel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The B3 DNA binding domain includes five families: auxin response factor (ARF, abscisic acid-insensitive3 (ABI3, high level expression of sugar inducible (HSI, related to ABI3/VP1 (RAV and reproductive meristem (REM. The release of the complete genomes of the angiosperm eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa, the monocot Orysa sativa, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens,the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri and the red algae Cyanidioschyzon melorae provided an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of this superfamily. METHODOLOGY: In order to better understand the origin and the diversification of B3 domains in plants, we combined comparative phylogenetic analysis with exon/intron structure and duplication events. In addition, we investigated the conservation and divergence of the B3 domain during the origin and evolution of each family. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that showed that the B3 containing genes have undergone extensive duplication events, and that the REM family B3 domain has a highly diverged DNA binding. Our results also indicate that the founding member of the B3 gene family is likely to be similar to the ABI3/HSI genes found in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Among the B3 families, ABI3, HSI, RAV and ARF are most structurally conserved, whereas the REM family has experienced a rapid divergence. These results are discussed in light of their functional and evolutionary roles in plant development.

  2. Effects of Daikenchuto on Abdominal Bloating Accompanied by Chronic Constipation: A Prospective, Single-Center Randomized Open Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Yuki

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: DKT treatment improved quality of life for patients with chronic constipation regardless of the presence of SIBO and showed no effects on small intestine bacteria. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry identifier: UMIN000008070.

  3. Alternative evolution of a spheroidal colony in volvocine algae: developmental analysis of embryogenesis in Astrephomene (Volvocales, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shota; Arakaki, Yoko; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Noga, Akira; Hirono, Masafumi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2016-11-09

    Volvocine algae, which range from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to the multicellular Volvox with a germ-soma division of labor, are a model for the evolution of multicellularity. Within this group, the spheroidal colony might have evolved in two independent lineages: Volvocaceae and the goniacean Astrephomene. Astrephomene produces spheroidal colonies with posterior somatic cells. The feature that distinguishes Astrephomene from the volvocacean algae is lack of inversion during embryogenesis; the volvocacean embryo undergoes inversion after successive divisions to orient flagella toward the outside. The mechanisms of inversion at the molecular and cellular levels in volvocacean algae have been assessed in detail, particularly in Volvox carteri. However, embryogenesis in Astrephomene has not been subjected to such investigations. This study relied on light microscopy time-lapse imaging using an actively growing culture of a newly established strain to conduct a developmental analysis of Astrephomene as well as to perform a comparison with the similar spheroidal volvocacean Eudorina. During the successive divisions involved in Astrephomene embryogenesis, gradual rotation of daughter protoplasts resulted in movement of their apical portions toward the embryonic posterior, forming a convex-to-spheroidal cell sheet with the apical ends of protoplasts on the outside. Differentiation of the posterior somatic cells from the embryo periphery was traced based on cell lineages during embryogenesis. In contrast, in Eudorina, the rotation of daughter protoplasts did not occur during successive cell divisions; however, inversion occurred after such divisions, and a spheroidal embryo was formed. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of basal bodies and nuclei verified this difference between Astrephomene and Eudorina in the movement of embryonic protoplasts. These results suggest different tactics for spheroidal colony formation between the two lineages: rotation of daughter

  4. Stable nuclear transformation of Eudorina elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerche Kai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental step in evolution was the transition from unicellular to differentiated, multicellular organisms. Volvocine algae have been used for several decades as a model lineage to investigate the evolutionary aspects of multicellularity and cellular differentiation. There are two well-studied volvocine species, a unicellular alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and a multicellular alga with differentiated cell types (Volvox carteri. Species with intermediate characteristics also exist, which blur the boundaries between unicellularity and differentiated multicellularity. These species include the globular alga Eudorina elegans, which is composed of 16–32 cells. However, detailed molecular analyses of E. elegans require genetic manipulation. Unfortunately, genetic engineering has not yet been established for Eudorina, and only limited DNA and/or protein sequence information is available. Results Here, we describe the stable nuclear transformation of E. elegans by particle bombardment using both a chimeric selectable marker and reporter genes from different heterologous sources. Transgenic algae resistant to paromomycin were achieved using the aminoglycoside 3′-phosphotransferase VIII (aphVIII gene of Streptomyces rimosus, an actinobacterium, under the control of an artificial promoter consisting of two V. carteri promoters in tandem. Transformants exhibited an increase in resistance to paromomycin by up to 333-fold. Co-transformation with non-selectable plasmids was achieved with a rate of 50 - 100%. The luciferase (gluc gene from the marine copepod Gaussia princeps, which previously was engineered to match the codon usage of C. reinhardtii, was used as a reporter gene. The expression of gluc was mediated by promoters from C. reinhardtii and V. carteri. Heterologous heat shock promoters induced an increase in luciferase activity (up to 600-fold at elevated temperatures. Long-term stability and both constitutive and

  5. An update on carotenoid biosynthesis in algae: phylogenetic evidence for the existence of two classes of phytoene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duc; Haven, James; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Polle, Juergen E W

    2009-02-01

    Carotenoids play crucial roles in structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of bacteria, algae, and higher plants. The entry-step reaction to carotenoid biosynthesis is catalyzed by the phytoene synthase (PSY), which is structurally and functionally related in all organisms. A comparative genomic analysis regarding the PSY revealed that the green algae Ostreococcus and Micromonas possess two orthologous copies of the PSY genes, indicating an ancient gene duplication event that produced two classes of PSY in algae. However, some other green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris, and Volvox carteri), red algae (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), diatoms (Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum), and higher plants retained only one class of the PSY gene whereas the other gene copy was lost in these species. Further, similar to the situation in higher plants recent gene duplications of PSY have occurred for example in the green alga Dunaliella salina/bardawil. As members of the PSY gene families in some higher plants are differentially regulated during development or stress, the discovery of two classes of PSY gene families in some algae suggests that carotenoid biosynthesis in these algae is differentially regulated in response to development and environmental stress as well.

  6. Identification of a gene encoding the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins of photosystem I in green alga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue; Qiao, Dairong; Huang, Min; Yi, Xiuli; Bai, Linhan; Xu, Hui; Wei, Liang; Zeng, Jing; Cao, Yi

    2008-04-01

    There are four LhcII genes of Dunaliella salina have been submitted to the database of GenBank. However, little is known about Lhca genes of this green alga, although this knowledge might be available to study the composition and phylogenesis of Lhc gene family. Recently, one Lhca gene was been cloned from the green alga D. salina by PCR amplification using degenerate primers. This cDNA, designated as DsLhca1, contains an open reading frame encoded a protein of 222 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 27.8 kDa. DsLhca1 is predicted to contain three transmembrane domains and a N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide (cTP) with length of 33 amino acids. The genomic sequence of DsLhca1 is composed of five introns. The deduced polypeptide sequence of this gene showed a lower degree of identity (less than 30%) with LHCII proteins from D. salina. But its homology to Lhca proteins of other algae (Volvox carteri Lhca_AF110786) was higher with pairwise identities of up to 67.1%. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DsLhcal protein cannot be assigned to any types of Lhca proteins in higher plants or in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  7. Sexual reproduction and sex determination in green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    The sexual reproductive processes of some representative freshwater green algae are reviewed. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular volvocine alga having two mating types: mating type plus (mt+) and mating type minus (mt-), which are controlled by a single, complex mating-type locus. Sexual adhesion between the gametes is mediated by sex-specific agglutinin molecules on their flagellar membranes. Cell fusion is initiated by an adhesive interaction between the mt+ and mt- mating structures, followed by localized membrane fusion. The loci of sex-limited genes and the conformation of sex-determining regions have been rearranged during the evolution of volvocine algae; however, the essential function of the sex-determining genes of the isogamous unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is conserved in the multicellular oogamous Volvox carteri. The sexual reproduction of the unicellular charophycean alga, Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex, is also focused on here. The sexual reproductive processes of heterothallic strains are controlled by two multifunctional sex pheromones, PR-IP and PR-IP Inducer, which independently promote multiple steps in conjugation at the appropriate times through different induction mechanisms. The molecules involved in sexual reproduction and sex determination have also been characterized.

  8. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzold, Julia; Conradt, Barbara

    2008-04-08

    Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  9. Control of apoptosis by asymmetric cell division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hatzold

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cell division and apoptosis (programmed cell death are two fundamental processes that are important for the development and function of multicellular organisms. We have found that the processes of asymmetric cell division and apoptosis can be functionally linked. Specifically, we show that asymmetric cell division in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a pathway involving three genes, dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail, that directly control the enzymatic machinery responsible for apoptosis. Interestingly, the MIDA1-like protein GlsA of the alga Volvox carteri, as well as the Snail-related proteins Snail, Escargot, and Worniu of Drosophila melanogaster, have previously been implicated in asymmetric cell division. Therefore, C. elegans dnj-11 MIDA1, ces-2 HLF, and ces-1 Snail may be components of a pathway involved in asymmetric cell division that is conserved throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose that this pathway directly controls the apoptotic fate in C. elegans, and possibly other animals as well.

  10. Multicellularity and the Functional Interdependence of Motility and Molecular Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, C.; Ganguly, S.; Kessler, J. O.; Michod, R.; Goldstein, R. E.

    2006-03-01

    Benefits, costs and requirements accompany the transition from motile totipotent unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms having cells specialized into reproductive (germ) and vegetative (sterile soma) functions such as motility. In flagellated colonial organisms such as the volvocalean green algae, organized beating by the somatic cells' flagella yields propulsion important in phototaxis and chemotaxis. It has not been generally appreciated that for the larger colonies, flagellar stirring of boundary layers and remote transport are fundamental for maintaining a sufficient rate of metabolite turnover, one not attainable by diffusive transport alone. We describe experiments that quantify the role of advective dynamics in enhancing productivity in germ-soma differentiated colonies. First, experiments with suspended deflagellated colonies of Volvox carteri show that forced advection improves productivity. Second, Particle Imaging Velocimetry of fluid motion around colonies reveals flow fields with very large characteristic velocities U extending to length scales comparable to the colony radius R. For a typical metabolite diffusion constant D, the Peclet number Pe=2UR/D 1, indicative of the dominance of advection over diffusion, with striking augmentation at the cell division stage.

  11. Correction to: Dephosphorization Kinetics between Bloated Metal Droplets and Slag Containing FeO: The Influence of CO Bubbles on the Mass Transfer of Phosphorus in the Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Kezhuan; Dogan, Neslihan; Coley, Kenneth S.

    2017-10-01

    An error occurred in the Table VI of this paper. The values used in this paper for diffusivity of phosphorus in the metal phase were incorrectly entered in Table VI. The values should be as listed in the following table.

  12. Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II: Phylogenetic evidence of a non-endosymbiotic gene transfer event early in plant evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tartar Aurélien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamine synthetase (GS is essential for ammonium assimilation and the biosynthesis of glutamine. The three GS gene families (GSI, GSII, and GSIII are represented in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we examined the evolutionary relationship of GSII from eubacterial and eukaryotic lineages and present robust phylogenetic evidence that GSII was transferred from γ-Proteobacteria (Eubacteria to the Chloroplastida. Results GSII sequences were isolated from four species of green algae (Trebouxiophyceae, and additional green algal (Chlorophyceae and Prasinophytae and streptophyte (Charales, Desmidiales, Bryophyta, Marchantiophyta, Lycopodiophyta and Tracheophyta sequences were obtained from public databases. In Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses, eubacterial (GSIIB and eukaryotic (GSIIE GSII sequences formed distinct clades. Both GSIIB and GSIIE were found in chlorophytes and early-diverging streptophytes. The GSIIB enzymes from these groups formed a well-supported sister clade with the γ-Proteobacteria, providing evidence that GSIIB in the Chloroplastida arose by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Bayesian relaxed molecular clock analyses suggest that GSIIB and GSIIE coexisted for an extended period of time but it is unclear whether the proposed HGT happened prior to or after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages (the Archaeplastida. However, GSIIB genes have not been identified in glaucophytes or red algae, favoring the hypothesis that GSIIB was gained after the divergence of the primary endosymbiotic lineages. Duplicate copies of the GSIIB gene were present in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, and Physcomitrella patens. Both GSIIB proteins in C. reinhardtii and V. carteri f. nagariensis had N-terminal transit sequences, indicating they are targeted to the chloroplast or mitochondrion. In contrast, GSIIB proteins of P. patens lacked transit sequences, suggesting

  13. Ühendriikide endise presidendi juudikriitika vihastab ameeriklasi / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    USA endise presidendi Jimmy Carteri raamatus "Palestiina: rahu, mitte apartheid" kirjutab autor Lähis-Ida rahosobitamisest ja peab rahukõneluste takerdumises süüdlaseks Iisraeli. Lisa: Katke Jimmy Carteri raamatust; Arvustus

  14. miRA: adaptable novel miRNA identification in plants using small RNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Maurits; Huttner, Michael; Dueck, Anne; Meister, Gunter; Engelmann, Julia C

    2015-11-05

    therefore constitutes an ideal model organism. Furthermore we identify novel miRNAs in the Chlamydomonas-related organism Volvox carteri. We propose miRA, a new plant miRNA identification tool that is well adapted to complex precursor populations. miRA is particularly suited for organisms with no existing miRNA annotation, or without a known related organism with well characterized miRNAs. Moreover, miRA has proven its ability to identify species-specific miRNAs. miRA is flexible in its parameter settings, and produces user-friendly output files in various formats (pdf, csv, genome-browser-suitable annotation files, etc.). It is freely available at https://github.com/mhuttner/miRA.

  15. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David R.; Lee, Robert W.; Cushman, John C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Tran, Duc; Polle, Juergen E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Background: Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results: The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions: These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  16. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Roy; Lee, Robert W; Cushman, John C; Magnuson, Jon K; Tran, Duc; Polle, Jürgen E W

    2010-05-07

    Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of beta-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with approximately 60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA) sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: approximately 1.5 and approximately 0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the development of a viable

  17. RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis with Bag2D software identifies key pathways enhancing lipid yield in a high lipid-producing mutant of the non-model green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lina; Tan, Tin Wee; Ng, Yi-Kai; Ban, Kenneth Hon Kim; Shen, Hui; Lin, Huixin; Lee, Yuan Kun

    2015-01-01

    For many years, increasing demands for fossil fuels have met with limited supply. As a potential substitute and renewable source of biofuel feedstock, microalgae have received significant attention. However, few of the current algal species produce high lipid yields to be commercially viable. To discover more high yielding strains, next-generation sequencing technology is used to elucidate lipid synthetic pathways and energy metabolism involved in lipid yield. When subjected to manipulation by genetic and metabolic engineering, enhancement of such pathways may further enhance lipid yield. In this study, transcriptome profiling of a random insertional mutant with enhanced lipid production generated from a non-model marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta is presented. D9 mutant has a lipid yield that is 2- to 4-fold higher than that of wild type. Using novel Bag2D-workflow scripts developed and reported here, the non-redundant transcripts from de novo assembly were annotated based on the best hits in five model microalgae, namely Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C-169, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Volvox carteri, Chlorella variabilis NC64A and a high plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. The assembled contigs (~181 Mb) includes 481,381 contigs, covering 10,185 genes. Pathway analysis showed that a pathway from inositol phosphate metabolism to fatty acid biosynthesis is the most significantly correlated with higher lipid yield in this mutant. Herein, we described a pipeline to analyze RNA-Seq data without pre-existing transcriptomic information. The draft transcriptome of D. tertiolecta was constructed and annotated, which offered useful information for characterizing high lipid-producing mutants. D. tertiolecta mutant was generated with an enhanced photosynthetic efficiency and lipid production. RNA-Seq data of the mutant and wild type were compared, providing biological insights into the expression patterns of contigs associated with energy

  18. The Dunaliella salina organelle genomes: large sequences, inflated with intronic and intergenic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Duc

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dunaliella salina Teodoresco, a unicellular, halophilic green alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae, is among the most industrially important microalgae. This is because D. salina can produce massive amounts of β-carotene, which can be collected for commercial purposes, and because of its potential as a feedstock for biofuels production. Although the biochemistry and physiology of D. salina have been studied in great detail, virtually nothing is known about the genomes it carries, especially those within its mitochondrion and plastid. This study presents the complete mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences of D. salina and compares them with those of the model green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri. Results The D. salina organelle genomes are large, circular-mapping molecules with ~60% noncoding DNA, placing them among the most inflated organelle DNAs sampled from the Chlorophyta. In fact, the D. salina plastid genome, at 269 kb, is the largest complete plastid DNA (ptDNA sequence currently deposited in GenBank, and both the mitochondrial and plastid genomes have unprecedentedly high intron densities for organelle DNA: ~1.5 and ~0.4 introns per gene, respectively. Moreover, what appear to be the relics of genes, introns, and intronic open reading frames are found scattered throughout the intergenic ptDNA regions -- a trait without parallel in other characterized organelle genomes and one that gives insight into the mechanisms and modes of expansion of the D. salina ptDNA. Conclusions These findings confirm the notion that chlamydomonadalean algae have some of the most extreme organelle genomes of all eukaryotes. They also suggest that the events giving rise to the expanded ptDNA architecture of D. salina and other Chlamydomonadales may have occurred early in the evolution of this lineage. Although interesting from a genome evolution standpoint, the D. salina organelle DNA sequences will aid in the

  19. Kolonizatsija Palestinõ prepjatstvujet miru / Jimmy Carter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Carter, Jimmy

    2006-01-01

    Iisraeli poliitika vastuolulisus, Palestiina koloniseerimine takistab rahulepingu sõlmimist, olenemata sellest, kes Palestiina riiki parajasti juhib. USA ekspresident Jimmy Carteri hinnang protsessidele regioonis

  20. Microbial community structure of two freshwater sponges using Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed high microbial diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaikwad, Swapnil; Shouche, Yogesh S; Gade, Wasudev N

    2016-01-01

    .... To increase our understanding of the microbial community structure of freshwater sponges, microbiota of two fresh water sponges namely, Eunapius carteri and Corvospongilla lapidosa is explored...

  1. The comparison of treatments with and without azithromycin in irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea-predominant in gastrointestinal Clinic of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Yazdani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study, azithromycin significantly relieved most symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating, and gas. Overall symptom and overall bloating were relieved significantly in more patients in the intervention group in all weeks.

  2. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Diarrhea Nausea and IBS Bloating in IBS Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Gynecological Aspects of Irritable ... with Diarrhea Nausea and IBS Bloating in IBS Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Gynecological Aspects of Irritable ...

  3. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS with Diarrhea Nausea and IBS Bloating in IBS Sleep and Irritable ... IBS with Constipation Constipated Diarrhea IBS with Diarrhea Nausea and IBS Bloating in IBS Sleep and Irritable ...

  4. 78 FR 61293 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Brickellia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ..., clayey loam, and organic debris found in solution holes, depressions, and crevices on the limestone... Population Genetics of L. c. var. carteri in the proposed listing rule published elsewhere in today's Federal...

  5. Muusikamaailm : Aasta valitud Opernweltis. John Adamsi uus jõuluoratoorium. Händeli "Alceste" Londonis. Elliott Carter 92 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Ajakiri Opernwelt valis aasta parima laulja, lavastaja ja etenduse. J. Adamsi "Jõuluoratooriumi" esiettekandest 15. dets. Pariisis. Händeli oratooriumi "Alceste" lavastusest Londoni Kuninglikus Ooperis. E. Carteri viimastest teostest

  6. Muusikamaailm : Elliott Carter ikka veel loomishoos. Maris Jansons lahkub Oslost. Aaron Copland ئ 100. Menukas "Fidelio" Helsingis / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    E. Carteri uudisteoste esiettekannetest. M. Jansons lahkus Oslo Filharmoonia Orkestri peadirigendi kohalt. A. Coplandi 100. sünniaastapäeva tähistamisest Ameerikas ja Euroopas. Beethoveni ooperi "Fidelio" lavastusest Soome Rahvusooperis

  7. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Shift in aggregation, ROS generation, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activities in the cells of an Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-09-01

    Washing soda, chemically identified as anhydrous sodium carbonate, is a popular cleaning agent among the rural and urban populations of India which often contaminates the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of sponge Eunapius carteri. Present investigation deals with estimation of cellular aggregation, generation of ROS and activities of antioxidant enzymes, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Prolonged treatment of washing soda inhibited the degree of cellular aggregation. Experimental exposure of 8 and 16mg/l of sodium carbonate for 48h elevated the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the agranulocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, whereas, treatment of 192h inhibited the ROS generation in three cellular morphotypes. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded to be inhibited under prolonged exposure of washing soda. Washing soda mediated inhibition of ROS generation and depletion in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were indicative to an undesirable shift in cytotoxic status and antioxidative defense in E. carteri. Inhibition in the activity of lysozyme under the treatment of sodium carbonate was suggestive to a severe impairment of the innate immunological efficiency of E. carteri distributed in the washing soda contaminated habitat. Washing soda mediated inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase indicated its neurotoxicity in E. carteri. Washing soda, a reported environmental contaminant, affected adversely the immunophysiological status of E. carteri with reference to cellular aggregation, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Specificity and transcriptional activity of microbiota associated with low and high microbial abundance sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas

    2013-08-20

    Marine sponges are generally classified as high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) species. Here, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the diversity, specificity and transcriptional activity of microbes associated with an LMA sponge (Stylissa carteri), an HMA sponge (Xestospongia testudinaria) and sea water collected from the central Saudi Arabia coast of the Red Sea. Altogether, 887 068 denoised sequences were obtained, of which 806 661 sequences remained after quality control. This resulted in 1477 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were assigned to 27 microbial phyla. The microbial composition of S. carteri was more similar to that of sea water than to that of X. testudinaria, which is consistent with the observation that the sequence data set of S. carteri contained many more possibly sea water sequences (~24%) than the X. testudinaria data set (~6%). The most abundant OTUs were shared between all three sources (S. carteri, X. testudinaria, sea water), while rare OTUs were unique to any given source. Despite this high degree of overlap, each sponge species contained its own specific microbiota. The X. testudinaria-specific bacterial taxa were similar to those already described for this species. A set of S. carteri-specific bacterial taxa related to Proteobacteria and Nitrospira was identified, which are likely permanently associated with S. carteri. The transcriptional activity of sponge-associated microorganisms correlated well with their abundance. Quantitative PCR revealed the presence of Poribacteria, representing typical sponge symbionts, in both sponge species and in sea water; however, low transcriptional activity in sea water suggested that Poribacteria are not active outside the host context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hologenome analysis of two marine sponges with different microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Tae Woo

    2016-02-29

    Background Sponges (Porifera) harbor distinct microbial consortia within their mesohyl interior. We herein analysed the hologenomes of Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria, which notably differ in their microbiome content. Results Our analysis revealed that S. carteri has an expanded repertoire of immunological domains, specifically Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich (SRCR)-like domains, compared to X. testudinaria. On the microbial side, metatranscriptome analyses revealed an overrepresentation of potential symbiosis-related domains in X. testudinaria. Conclusions Our findings provide genomic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying host-symbiont coevolution and may serve as a roadmap for future hologenome analyses.

  11. Supplementary Material for: Hologenome analysis of two marine sponges with different microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Tae Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Sponges (Porifera) harbor distinct microbial consortia within their mesohyl interior. We herein analysed the hologenomes of Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria, which notably differ in their microbiome content. Results Our analysis revealed that S. carteri has an expanded repertoire of immunological domains, specifically Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich (SRCR)-like domains, compared to X. testudinaria. On the microbial side, metatranscriptome analyses revealed an overrepresentation of potential symbiosis-related domains in X. testudinaria. Conclusions Our findings provide genomic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying host-symbiont coevolution and may serve as a roadmap for future hologenome analyses.

  12. Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of Solanum incanum L in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was taken weekly for haematological and biochemical analysis. Clinical signs started on day two with bloat. All sheep groups showed bloat and coughing. Signs of cerebellar hyperplasia were manifested in 25%, 75% and 25% of sheep in groups 2, 3, and 4 respectively, manifested by staggering gait, lateral recumbency, ...

  13. Symptoms of Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the following: • Recurring abdominal bloating and pain • Chronic diarrhea/constipation • Vomiting • Liver and biliary tract disorders (“Transaminitis”, ... celiac disease, including growth problems (failure to thrive, chronic diarrhea/constipation, recurring abdominal bloating and pain, fatigue and ...

  14. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    opportunity (and the funds) to spend a sabbatical year in. Switzerland with Walter Gehring, to begin studying fruit fly germ-cell biology. Just as we were about to start writing those proposals, however, Richard Starr visited our department to talk about an organism we had last heard of in high school biology class: Volvox.

  15. Trachyhystrichosphaera: An age-marker acanthomorph from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... large-sized sphaeromorphs;complex acanthomorphs,cyanobacterial community;especially a very small-sized but exceptionally well preserved Obruchevella ,a form resembling Volvox colonies; cf.vase-shaped microfossils and morphologies,possibly inclining towards fungal affinity,or lichen- like symbiotic associations of ...

  16. Parametric Architectural Design with Point-clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwierzycki, Mateusz; Evers, Henrik Leander; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the efforts and benefits of the implementation of point clouds into architectural design processes and tools. Based on a study on the principal work processes of designers with point clouds the prototypical plugin/library - Volvox - was developed for the parametric modelling...

  17. Kuidas Helena Bonham Carter ahviks muutus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Taas on ekraanile jõudnud "Ahvide planeet" ("Planet of the Apes") : režissöör Tim Burton : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001. Kuidas tehti näitlejatele ahvide grimmi. Lähemalt Helena Bonham Carteri grimmist

  18. Marion Island and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    yellow-nosed albatross Thalassarche carteri breed at. Marion Island. Of the remaining species, the lesser or black-faced sheathbill Chionis minor breeds at both islands, but is not strictly a seabird. It is one of two sheathbills that to- gether constitute the family Chionidae. Sheathbills for- age within seabird, especially penguin, ...

  19. Brzezinski : USA otsib ajendit sõjaks Iraaniga kas või provotseerides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    President Jimmy Carteri aegne riikliku julgeolekunõukogu juht Zbigniew Brzezinski on seisukohal, et sõda Iraagis on ajalooline, strateegiline ja moraalne õnnetus. Ta esitas ka mõeldava stsenaarium, kuidas võidakse jõuda sõjani Iraaniga

  20. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) VIII. Section Paraphoma: Taxa with setose pycnidia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruyter, de J.; Boerema, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper eleven species of Phoma with obvious setose pycnidia, grouped in the section Paraphoma, are documented and described. Most of these species were formerly classified in Pyrenochaeta. The following new taxa have been proposed: Phoma briardii nom. nov., Phoma carteri nom. nov., Phoma

  1. Clinical response in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome treated with a low diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pérez y López

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: In this first study on a Mexican population with IBS, there was significant improvement of the main symptoms, including pain, bloating, and flatulence after treatment with a low FODMAP diet.

  2. Bugs on the brain; brain in the gut--seeking explanations for common gastrointestinal symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2013-03-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion (or dyspepsia), bloating, distension, constipation, abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea are extremely common worldwide. For some, such symptoms can prove to be chronic and disabling.

  3. Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause constipation. Symptoms include hard stools, stomach cramps, bloating, and nausea. Causes also include pain medicine, diet changes, dehydration, and being less active. Prevention and treatment of constipation is explained.

  4. What is the Best Way to Treat Diarrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your baby seems bloated or gassy after drinking cow's milk or formula, call your pediatrician to discuss ... mouth, weight loss, extreme thirst, listlessness, and sunken eyes. Keep your pediatrician informed if there is any ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rare cases, the large intestine, causing cramps, bloating, loss of appetite, vomiting, and sometimes fever. A sharp ... like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation ...

  6. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Diarrhea Nausea and IBS Bloating in IBS Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome ... doctor about it. He or she can help you monitor quality, effectiveness, possible interactions with other medicines you may ...

  7. C. difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. The most effective treatment, however, is fecal microbiota transplant, also known as stool transplant. In studies, ... Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity Digestive Health Topics Abdominal Pain Syndrome Belching, Bloating, ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cramps, bloating, loss of appetite, vomiting, and sometimes fever. A sharp object that pierces the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: ...

  9. Guidelines for the Prevention of Infection After Combat-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    damage, severe crushing, adequate bone coverage B Periosteal damage and bone exposure with severe contamination and bone comminution, flap needed C...Arterial injury requiring repair * Based on data from civilian trauma. Tibial fractures have up to 2 times higher risk of infection than other injury...medical planners. J R Army Med Corps. 2006;152:202–211. 12. Johnson EN, Burns TC, Hayda RA, et al. Infectious complications of open type III tibial

  10. Britid võitlevad ELile väejuhatuse loomise ideega / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Nn Weimari kolmikusse kuuluvad Saksamaa, Prantsusmaa ja Poola tahavad rajada ELile oma sõjalise väejuhatuse, kuid Suurbritannia leiab, et see dubleeriks NATO struktuure ning eraldaks ELi ja NATO planeerimise üksteisest püsivalt. Suurbritannia suursaadiku Eestis Peter Carteri ja kaitseminister Mart Laari arvamusi. Poola eurosaadik räägib oma raportist "Finantskriisi mõju ELi liikmesriikide kaitsesektorile"

  11. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) VIII. Section Paraphoma: Taxa with setose pycnidia

    OpenAIRE

    Gruyter, de, J.; Boerema, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper eleven species of Phoma with obvious setose pycnidia, grouped in the section Paraphoma, are documented and described. Most of these species were formerly classified in Pyrenochaeta. The following new taxa have been proposed: Phoma briardii nom. nov., Phoma carteri nom. nov., Phoma glycinicola nom. nov., Phoma indica (T.S. Viswan.) comb, nov., Phoma setariae (H.C. Greene) comb. nov. and Phoma leveillei var. microspora var. nov. Indices on host/substratum-fungus and fungus-host re...

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of temperature and pH of water in an Indian freshwater sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Bhunia, Anindya Sundar; Bhunia, Niladri Sekhar; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-07-01

    Eunapius carteri, a freshwater sponge of India, inhabits the ponds and lakes and experiences variations of temperature and pH of water throughout the year. Sponges bear evolutionary and ecological importance with limited information on their immunological attribute and adaptational resilience in a changing environment. This paper reports temperature and pH specific responses of immune related parameters in sponge maintained in the experimental conditions of laboratory. Innate immunological parameters like phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase activity were estimated in E. carteri at different environmentally realistic water temperatures (10, 20, 30 and 40°C) and pH (6.4, 7.4 and 8.4). Phagocytosis and cytotoxicity are established as important immune parameters of invertebrates. Calalase, an antioxidant enzyme and phosphatases are involved in pathogen destruction and are considered as components of innate immunity. Activities of catalase, acid and alkaline phosphatases were estimated in E. carteri at different thermal regimes and pH. Modulation of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses and the activities of catalase and phosphatases at different water temperatures and pH indicated temperature and pH specific immunological status of E. carteri. Present investigation deals with the effects of selected hydrological parameters on the fundamental immune related parameters in sponge indicating its adaptational plasticity. Immunological resilience of this species in the face of variation of water temperature and pH is thought to be a special adaptive feature of sponge, a reported "living fossil". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. FRANKINCENSE: A POTENTIAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENT: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Hassan Bhat1 , Mushtaq Ahmed Parray* 2 , Ghulam Mohammad Jan3

    2016-01-01

    Boswellia in the family Burseraceae, particularly Boswellia sacra (syn: B. carteri, B. thurifera, B. bhaw-dajiana), B. frereana and B. serrata (Indian frankincense.). Frankincense resin is edible and is used in traditional medicines in Africa and Asia for digestion and healthy skin. For internal consumption, it is recommended that frankincense be translucent, with no black or brown impurities. Exposure to 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA), a lead boswellic acid in the novel solubilized frankince...

  14. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodiversity of Macrofauna Associated with Sponges across Ecological Gradients in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kandler, Nora

    2015-12-01

    Between 33 and 91 percent of marine species are currently undescribed, with the majority occurring in tropical and offshore environments. Sponges act as important microhabitats and promote biodiversity by harboring a wide variety of macrofauna and microbiota, but little is known about the relationships between the sponges and their symbionts. This study uses DNA barcoding to examine the macrofaunal communities associated with sponges of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea, a drastically understudied ecosystem with high biodiversity and endemism. In total, 185 epifaunal and infaunal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were distinguished from the 1399 successfully-sequenced macrofauna individuals from 129 sponges representing seven sponge species, one of which (Stylissa carteri) was intensively studied. A significant difference was found in the macrofaunal community composition of Stylissa carteri along a cross-shelf gradient using relative OTU abundance (Bray-Curtis diversity index). The abundance of S. carteri also follows a cross-shelf gradient, increasing with proximity to shore. The difference in macrofaunal communities of several species of sponges at one location was found to be significant as well, using OTU presence (binary Jaccard diversity index). Four of the seven sponge species collected were dominated by a single annelid OTU, each unique to one sponge species. A fifth was dominated by four arthropod OTUs, all species-specific as well. Region-based diversity differences may be attributed to environmental factors such as reef morphology, water flow, and sedimentation, whereas species-based differences may be caused by sponge morphology, microbial abundances, and chemical defenses. As climate change and ocean acidification continue to modify coral reef ecosystems, understanding the ecology of sponges and their role as microhabitats may become more important. This thesis also includes a supplemental document in the form of a spreadsheet showing the number of

  16. A report of hailstorm damage to two species of freshwater sponge (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida: Spongillidae populations of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumalya Mukherjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Selected freshwater bodies in Jagaddal of North 24 Parganas in West Bengal, India are inhabited by two species of sponge, Eunapius carteri (Bowerbank, 1863 and Spongilla alba (Carter, 1849 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillidae. Most of these wetlands are perennial ponds without a history of aquaculture and toxin contamination. On 22 March 2014, the entire area of Jagaddal experienced an unprecedented hailstorm associated with a sharp decline of environmental temperature from 35 0C to 21 0C within 10–15 minutes. The hailstorm associated with torrential rain lasted for about 30 minutes. The natural habitat of the sponge was visited after six hours of the hailstorm in open day light conditions. During the field investigation, we recorded large-scale damage to the populations of E. carteri and S. alba. Macroscopic observation revealed that the fragmentation of body masses were also associated with cellular disintegration of the external surface. Sponge cells were experimentally dissociated from the sponge fragments and subjected to dye exclusion assay. A vital dye (trypan blue exclusion assay of sponge fragments confirmed a high degree of mortality of the cells of E. carteri and S. alba. Hailstorm associated with the decline of environmental temperature down to 21 0C resulted in the mass destruction of these two species of sponges in their natural habitat. Any unprecedented and acute change in the climatic and hydrological parameter may lead to physiological adversity in the freshwater sponge. Subsequently, recovery from cold shock and mechanical stresses was overcome and a regeneration of sponge specimens was recorded within a period of around six months from the date of the hailstorm. 

  17. A note on five freshwater sponges (Porifera: Spongillina: Spongillidae from Pune, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Jakhalekar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the presence of five freshwater sponges in ephemeral and permanent fresh water bodies in and around Pune, Maharashtra, India. Field observations, descriptive notes, habitus photographs and SEM photographs of body spicules, gemmule spicules and gemmules of five species are provided. Eunapius carteri (Bowerbank, 1863, Radiospongilla cerebellata (Bowerbank, 1863 and Corvospongilla lapidosa (Annandale, 1908 are commonly occurring species, whereas Ephydatia meyeni (Carter, 1849 and Dosilia plumosa (Carter, 1849 are rarely found. This report fills a longstanding gap in observations of freshwater sponges near Pune, and it is heartening to note that species reported earlier are still found in these environs.

  18. Alkaloids from sponge, scaffolds for the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2016-05-06

    Anti-viral compounds with low cytotoxicity are identified from screening of products found in Red Sea sponges, including the sponge Stylissa carteri. The identified compounds can be brominated pyrrole-2- aminoimidazole alkaloids and derivatives thereof. Specific examples of identified compounds include oroidin, hymenialdisine, and debromohymenialdisine, as well as derivatives thereof. The compounds also can be useful scaffolds or pharmacores for further chemical modification and derivatization. Selected compounds, particularly oroidin, show selective anti-viral HIV-1 activity coupled with reduced cytotoxicity. The compounds can function as HIV reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, and molecular modeling can be used to confirm inhibition.

  19. Kahn jõudis Eestisse tagasi, Komendant mitte veel / Toivo Tammik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammik, Toivo

    2006-01-01

    Louis Kahni päevad Kuressaares 6. ja 7. X. Arhitekti tütar Alexandra Tyng kinkis Kuressaare linnale Louis Kahni portree. Philadelphia ülikooli arhiivide juhataja William Whitaker ja Ingrid Mald-Villandi korraldasid L. Kahni tööde näituse, kujundas Peeter Laurits. Kuressaare Linnateatris näidati 6. X arhitekti poja Nathaniel Kahni filmi "My architect", 7. X toimus konverents. Robert McCarteri, Anne Tyngi, Vilen Künnapu ja Thomas Leslie (L. Kahni ja August Komendandi suhted) ettekannetest

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with a change in bowel habit, or with features of disordered defecation. Patients and doctors in primary care generally agree on IBS symptomatology and consider pain and bloating as its

  1. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N. T.; Desrues, O.; Alferink, S. J. J.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M. W. A.; Hendriks, W. H.; Pellikaan, W. F.

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy cow

  2. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N.T.; Desrues, O.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Zandstra, T.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy

  3. Natural glyphosate tolerance in sainfoin (onybrychis viciifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainfoin (Onybrychis viciifolia Scop.), a non-bloating forage legume, is purported to have tolerance to glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine]. The effect on biomass yield (BMY) and survival of eight rates of glyphosate on seedlings and mature plants were determined. Treatment rates were 0.0, 0....

  4. Diversity of condensed tannin structures affects rumen in vitro methane production in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Hayot Carbonero, C.; Stringano, E.; Sales, L.F.; Smith, L.M.J.; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Sainfoin is a non-bloating temperate forage legume with a moderate-to-high condensed tannin (CT) content. This study investigated whether the diversity of sainfoin accessions in terms of CT structures and contents could be related to rumen in vitro gas and methane (CH4) production and fermentation

  5. 21 CFR 524.920 - Fenthion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... formulation for the control of grubs and lice in beef and nonlactating cattle. (ii) It is used at the rate of... after heel-fly activity ceases. Host-parasite reactions such as bloat, salivation, staggering and... concentration is available in 2 volumes which are contained in single-dose applicators. (2) Sponsor. See No...

  6. High forage quality helps maintain resilience to gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condensed tannins (CT) in browse and forage plants can have positive or negative effects on livestock health and performance, depending on the type and concentration of CT present in the diet. Historically, bloating in ruminants was reduced or eliminated when grazing legumes that contained CT. Con...

  7. Gastric pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes, viral illness or drugs. Nausea, bloating and fullness. Oesophageal spasm. Substernal chest pain, with or without dysphagia for liquids and solids. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. • Heartburn. • Occasional reflux of acid or the stomach contents into the mouth. • Symptoms occasionally triggered by lying down.

  8. Fibre intake and faeces quality in leaf-eating primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Joeke

    2006-01-01

    A high incidence of gastrointestinal disorders as diarrhea, phytobezoars, bloated conditions and weight loss have been observed in captive langurs. This thesis focuses on the effect of the food intake in captive langurs in relation to the quality of faeces and its implications for langurs kept in

  9. Fiber Supplements: Are They Safe to Take Every Day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intake. Fiber supplements can cause abdominal bloating and gas, at least initially. So if you have intestinal problems, talk to your doctor before adding a fiber supplement to your diet. It's also a good idea to ask your doctor or pharmacist whether fiber ...

  10. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leave food in the stomach, making you feel full, bloated, crampy, and sick. Everyone is different, so get to know what works best for you. You may want to experiment with meal timing and how much to eat on practice days so that you're better prepared for game ...

  11. Dysphagia after Nissen fundoplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breumelhof, R.; Fellinger, H. W.; Vlasblom, V.; Jansen, A.; Smout, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    Nissen fundoplication is a commonly used antireflux operation. After this operation symptoms such as dysphagia, inability to belch and vomit, and gas bloating are frequently reported in the literature. In 32 patients who underwent Nissen fundoplication 3.5-18 years ago, postprocedure dysphagia was

  12. The practical significance of lactose maldigestion in institutionalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intolerance. .Institutional routines of child feeding in hospitals, school hostels and children's homes often include a fairly large intake of milk. In children with lactose maldigestion; this could potentially lead to bloating and jeopardise the nutritional state through its osmotic effect of increased intestinal motility and decreased ...

  13. İç Hastalıkları Pratiğinde Çölyak Hastalığı: Olgu Sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Pinar; TEMEL, Tuncer; PASAOGLU, Ozgul

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: Introduction: Celiac Disease is a chronic gluten-sensitive enteropathy. Celiac disease in patient with abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating, diarrhea, such as gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as anemia, osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyrodism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, epilepsy, stomatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, resistant transaminase levels, infertility extraintestinal symptoms and signs can be seen. Case Report: He were report two cases, 49 and 50 years old woma...

  14. What Is Celiac Disease? How Do I Live with It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaska, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Celiac disease, also known as celiac sprue, is a hereditary, autoimmune disease that causes a sensitivity to gluten, which is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. The key symptoms of celiac disease are diarrhea, constipation, gas, bloating, backaches, stomachaches, nausea, anemia, fatigue, osteoporosis, stunted growth in children, and weight…

  15. Medications (for IBS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause Gas and Bloating Dietary Fiber 12 Week Elimination ... Diet Pitfalls (and What You Can Do to Avoid Them) Complimentary or Alternative Treatments Selecting a CAM ...

  16. Endometriotic stricture of the sigmoid colon presenting with intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-01

    Feb 1, 2014 ... other GIT pathology, since there are no pathognomic symptoms of the disease. Patients may sometimes be asymptomatic, but the majority present with nausea, constipation, diarrhoea, bloating, tenesmus, painful defaecation, lower abdominal or pelvic pain, bowel perforation or rectal bleeding.

  17. 78 FR 47154 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ...,'' affecting the digestive tract (e.g., abdominal bloating; cramping and pain; chronic diarrhea; vomiting...: Celiac disease is a hereditary, chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine triggered by the...-sensitive enteropathy) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine in genetically susceptible...

  18. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  19. Laparoscopic Thal versus laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common condition in pediatric age group. Many surgeons believe that complete fundoplication provides better reflux control, yet it results in more dysphagia and gas-bloat symptoms. On the other hand, a partial wrap is reported to have fewer adverse effects but a higher ...

  20. Why Does College Cost So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Robert B.; Feldman, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Much of what is written about colleges and universities ties rapidly rising tuition to dysfunctional behavior in the academy. Common targets of dysfunction include prestige games among universities, gold plated amenities, and bloated administration. This book offers a different view. To explain rising college cost, the authors place the higher…

  1. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome among psychiatric patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal illness characterized by abdominal pain, bloating and bowel disturbance, which may either be constipation or diarrhea with no detectable organic pathologic process. About 70-90% of patients with IBS have psychiatric comorbidity, such as depression, ...

  2. Malignt peritonealt mesoteliom er en sjælden sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anja; Pedersen, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is characterized by diffuse symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, weight loss, anorexia, fever, diarrhoea, vomiting and ascites. The findings by radiographic imaging are unspecific and the diagnosis is therefore often first achieved by biopsy from the affected...

  3. Effect of titania on fired characteristics of triaxial porcelain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    clay, quartz and feldspar. The composed bodies were heated at five different temperatures in the range 1200–. 1400°C and their fired properties as well as phases evolved were studied. The results revealed that beyond. 1300°C, formation of more liquid phases caused bloating in samples which led to generation of pores.

  4. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation parameters with in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adem Kamalak

    problems such as reduced feed intake, laminitis, bloat, acidosis, ruminitis and liver abscesses (Ørskov, 1986;. Givens et al., 1993). .... Standard errors of means were calculated from the residual mean square in the analysis of variance. Results ..... The performance of calves given concentrate diets treated with formaldehyde ...

  5. FATORES DE RISCO RELACIONADOS À OCORRÊNCIA DO TIMPANISMO ESPUMOSO EM BOVINOS CRIADOS NA REGIÃO DO AGRESTE MERIDIONAL DO ESTADO DE PERNAMBUCO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lopes de Mendonça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of analyzing the effects of risk factors such as feed, raising system, season, lactation period, gender and animal age on the occurrence of foamy bloat in bovines, a retrospective study was carried out on 60 clinical cases of the illness in bovines treated at the Bovine Clinic of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Garanhuns Campus (Brazil, between January 1989 to December 2007. Epidemiologically, data on risk factors obtained from medical charts were related to the occurrence of foamy bloat. Among the 60 animals affected, 54 (90% received diets with a high content of concentrates; palm was one of the ingredients in the diet of 41 animals. The raising system was semi-intensive to intensive for 48 (80% animals. The majority of animals affected were females (57/60, 44 (84.08% of which were in the lactation phase. A greater occurrence of cases of foamy bloat (62% was recorded in summer. The ruminal fluid in these animals had a pH value that oscillated between 7 and 8, was of a foamy consistency and had a negative effect on the microbiota. The interrelation of risk factors such as diet rich in concentrate, intensive to semi-intensive production system, summer (dry season, the first and second lactation period, associated to the interaction of factors inherent to the individual animal and ruminal microbiota are important to the etiopathology of foamy bloat in the southern-central semi-arid region of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  6. Related party transactions and firms financial performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated related party transactions and firm's financial performance using Secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock Exchange. We tried to determine whether RPT is used by firms to manipulate and bloat Return on Asset, Return on Equity and Earnings per share of manufacturing firms. RPT was subjected ...

  7. Autonomic breathing abnormalities in Rett syndrome: caregiver perspectives in an international database study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Jessica; Downs, Jenny; Wong, Kingsley; Heyworth, Jane; Epstein, Amy; Leonard, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in the MECP2 gene. Irregular breathing patterns and abdominal bloating are prominent but poorly understood features. Our aims were to characterize the abnormal breathing patterns and abdominal bloating, investigate the distribution of these by age and mutation type and examine their impact and management from a caregiver perspective. We invited previously recruited families from the International Rett Syndrome Study to complete a web-based questionnaire concerning their family member with Rett syndrome aged between 2 and 57 years. We used logistic regression to investigate presence, frequency and impact of breath-holding, hyperventilation, or abdominal bloating by age group and mutation type. Age of onset for both breathing abnormalities was investigated using time-to-onset analysis, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the failure function for the study sample. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the management of irregular breathing. Questionnaires were returned by 413/482 (85.7%) families. Breath-holding was reported for 68.8%, hyperventilation for 46.4% and abdominal bloating for 42.4%. Hyperventilation was more prevalent and frequent in those younger than 7 years of age and abdominal bloating in those aged over 20 years. Onset of breathing irregularities usually occurred during early childhood. Caregivers perceived that daily life was considerably impacted for almost half (44.1%) of those with abdominal bloating and in just over than a third of those with breath-holding (35.8%) or hyperventilation (35.1%). Although perceived impact was broadly comparable between age and mutation groups for breath-holding, hyperventilation and abdominal bloating, girls and women with a p.Arg294* mutation were considered to be more affected by all three conditions. Only 31 individuals had received medically prescribed treatments including 12 different medications, added

  8. Perubahan Populasi Protozoa dan Alga Dominan pada Air Genangan Tanah Padi Sawah yang Diberi Bokashi Berkelanjutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainin Niswati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa and alga play important roles in biogeochemical nutrient cycles in freshwater environment, especially in the paddy fields. The changes from the conventional technologies to organic technologies will change the communities structures of organisms lived in the paddy fields environment. The fields experiment was conducted to study the population dynamic of protozoa and algae dominant inhabited in the floodwater of the paddy fields subjected by continues ‘bokashi’ application. The results showed that protozoa and algae inhabited in the paddy fields in present study were dominated by Euglena, Pleodorina, Volvox, and Diatom. The continued application of bokashi for 4 years significantly increased the total population of protozoa and algae, however, the significantly effect was obtained in the population of Volvox only. The population of protozoa and algae were affected by the time of flooding of paddy fields where it increases exponentially at the 20 and 30 days after flooding and stable after that, ecxept for Euglena where it increases sligthly by flooding time.

  9. A rare Uroglena bloom in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William R.; Hufhines, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A combination of factors triggered a Uroglena volvox bloom and taste and odor event in Beaver Lake, a water-supply reservoir in northwest Arkansas, in late April 2015. Factors contributing to the bloom included increased rainfall and runoff containing increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, followed by a stable pool, low nutrient concentrations, and an expansion of lake surface area and littoral zone. This was the first time U. volvox was identified in Beaver Lake and the first time it was recognized as a source of taste and odor. Routine water quality samples happened to be collected by the US Geological Survey and the Beaver Water District throughout the reservoir during the bloom—. Higher than normal rainfall in March 2015 increased the pool elevation in Beaver Lake by 2.3 m (by early April), increased the surface area by 10%, and increased the littoral zone by 1214 ha; these conditions persisted for 38 days, resulting from flood water being retained behind the dam. Monitoring programs that cover a wide range of reservoir features, including dissolved organic carbon, zooplankton, and phytoplankton, are valuable in explaining unusual events such as this Uroglena bloom.

  10. Communities of parasite metazoans in Piaractus brachypomus (Pisces, Serrasalmidae in the lower Amazon River (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Sidney Brito Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea; Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda; Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea; and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea. The dominant species was S. spectatus followed by monogenoidean species, and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites, except for D. oxycephala and Contracaecum sp., which presented random dispersion. Positive correlation among the abundance of the three monogenoideans species were found, thus indicating that there was no competition between the species of these parasites on the gills of hosts. The abundances of some parasite species showed positive correlations with the size of the hosts, but the condition factor of the fish was not affected by the parasitism levels. It showed that this host had a metazoan community characterized by high species richness of metazoans, low evenness and high diversity of parasites, with prevalence of endoparasites, including larval stages. This was the first record of C. marginatum, A. carteri, Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. for P. brachypomus.

  11. Microbial community structure of two freshwater sponges using Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed high microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Swapnil; Shouche, Yogesh S; Gade, Wasudev N

    2016-12-01

    Sponges are primitive metazoans that are known to harbour diverse and abundant microbes. All over the world attempts are being made to exploit these microbes for their biotechnological potential to produce, bioactive compounds and antimicrobial peptides. However, the majority of the studies are focussed on the marine sponges and studies on the freshwater sponges have been neglected so far. To increase our understanding of the microbial community structure of freshwater sponges, microbiota of two fresh water sponges namely, Eunapius carteri and Corvospongilla lapidosa is explored for the first time using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology. Overall the microbial composition of these sponges comprises of 14 phyla and on an average, more than 2900 OTUs were obtained from C. lapidosa while E. carteri showed 980 OTUs which is higher than OTUs obtained in the marine sponges. Thus, our study showed that, fresh water sponges also posses highly diverse microbial community than previously thought and it is distinct from the marine sponge microbiota. The present study also revealed that microbial community structure of both the sponges is significantly different from each other and their respective water samples. In the present study, we have detected many bacterial lineages belonging to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, etc. that are known to produce compounds of biotechnological importance. Overall, this study gives insight into the microbial composition of the freshwater sponges which is highly diverse and needs to be studied further to exploit their biotechnological capabilities.

  12. Connectivity in a Red Sea Sponge across an Environmental Gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Giles, Emily C.

    2014-08-01

    While geographic distance is a variable often used to explain population genetic differentiation, dynamic processes leading to stochastic population structure are more likely driving factors. The following thesis presents the population structure of a common reef sponge, Stylissa carteri, and yields hypotheses on the influence of environmental heterogeneity as a predictor of the observed population structure. This project represents the largest population genetics study thus conducted in the Red Sea and also includes the first population genetics data gathered for sites off the coast of Sudan and Soccotra. The study herein presented includes both a large scale (36 reef sites covering over 1000km of coastline) and small-scale (16 transects of 50m each) analysis of gene flow in a benthic dwelling organism. The variable effect of geography and environmental conditions on S. carteri population structure is assessed using a seascape genetics approach. Environmental factors from a nine-year dataset accessed from the NASA Giovanni website including chlorophyll a, sea surface temperature, dissolved and particulate organic matter for both the annual and winter temporal scale were considered.

  13. The coccolithophore summer-autumn assemblage in the upwelling waters of Portugal: Patterns of mesoscale distribution (1985-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, M. T.; Silva, A.; Palma, S.; Vilarinho, M. G.

    2010-04-01

    A study of the mesoscale distribution of phytoplankton communities observed along the Portuguese upwelling coast in 1985-1986 made it possible to identify an assemblage composed by the coccolithophores Helicosphaera carteri, Syracosphaera pulchra and Coronosphaera mediterranea. The assemblage was consistently present in the coast in the following years (1991, 1992, 1994, 2003 and 2005) and from 1992 onwards, Rhabdosphaera clavigera was recognised as being part of it, although in low concentrations During late summer, this group of species showed higher affinities with upwelling waters of subtropical origin (ENACWst) on the SW coast. At the end of the upwelling season, in autumn, the assemblage was advected to the NW shelf due to the intensification of the poleward surface circulation or meridional seasonal changes of environmental conditions. The species maximum abundances were not coincident in space: H. carteri developed at the central part of the western coast while blooms of S. pulchra and C. mediterranea generally occurred further south, such as at the upwelling centre of cape S. Vicente. Syracosphaera pulchra blooms were characterised by lower concentrations of C. mediterranea and vice-versa. The above patterns were recurrent along the years but the relative abundance of each species appeared related to the interannual variability of physical conditions as the upwelling.

  14. Laparoscopic modified Thal fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux in a patient with severe scoliosis and sliding esophageal hiatal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatekawa, Yukihiro; Kanehiro, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2006-10-01

    A 14-year-old girl with severe scoliosis and sliding esophageal hiatal hernia underwent laparoscopic fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux. Of various fundoplication procedures, anterior partial fundoplication (Thal fundoplication) was performed because it is effective, with less postoperative gas bloat syndrome. Laparoscopic fundoplication in severely scoliotic children could allow improved operative visibility and easier access to the hiatus in comparison with the open approach. In our "modified anterior partial fundoplication," the sutures between the crura and the esophagus and the sutures on the left of esophageal wall with the fundus of the stomach could be exactly performed by laparoscopic surgical technique. The wrapping of the esophagus in fundoplication was done over the ventral 180 degrees to 270 degrees. Six months postoperatively, the patient did not develop gas bloat syndrome, distal esophageal obstruction from fundoplication, and delayed gastric emptying. Modified anterior partial fundoplication achieves effective control of reflux symptoms.

  15. The Arab Spring: Causes, Consequences, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-18

    bloated industries to produce a leaner, more competitive economy — but one with low wages and scant social benefits‖.9 In August 2010, notwithstanding...local press and easily within budget capacity, were downplayed as ―an aspirin to ease medium-term pain, not a solution for the long-term housing...China and India a Stake in Libyan Oil Industry ‖ The National, March 15, 2011, http://www.thenational.ae/business/energy/qaddafi- offers-russia

  16. Chronic urticaria: A cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Haussmann, Jessica; Sekar, Arni

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease, or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an immune-mediated disease of the small bowel that results in malabsorption. It classically presents with gastrointestinal symptoms including chronic diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal bloating and anorexia. It is becoming more frequently identified in asymptomatic patients with a diagnosis of deficiencies related to malabsorption of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. It is increasingly identified as a cause for early or refractory o...

  17. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Case-Based Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen H. Reynolds

    2015-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition of increased microbial load in the small intestine. The microbes feed on dietary carbohydrates and starches via fermentation, leading to gas production, inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestine. Clinical presentation is varied, including abdominal pain, bloating, malabsorption and systemic symptoms. SIBO is associated with many challenging and chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and chronic pa...

  18. Two Cases of Intraluminal "Windsock" Diverticula Resulting in Partial Duodenal Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Vikram; Provost, Justin; Bakr, Maged; Bach, Christopher; Merchant, Prakriti; Brown, Christopher; Gruss, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    An intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is a rare congenital anomaly that is the result of incomplete recanalization of the embryologic foregut leaving a fenestrated membrane within the lumen of the duodenum. Years of peristalsis acting on the membrane result in the formation of a diverticulum. Most patients are asymptomatic, while some may have abdominal pain, bloating, or fullness. Rare complications include gastrointestinal bleeding, obstruction, pancreatitis, and cholangitis. We present 2 cases with endoscopic findings consistent with partially obstructing symptomatic IDD.

  19. Low-FODMAP Diet Improves Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Emma; Del Negro, Valerio; Angeletti, Paolo Matteo; Latella, Giovanni

    2017-08-26

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 7-15% of the general population. A recently devised dietary approach consists of restricting foods with highly fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs), which can trigger and/or exacerbate IBS symptoms. The aim of this study is to use meta-analysis to provide an update on the randomised control trials (RCTs) and cohort studies, and examine them separately in relation to diet type. Papers were selected using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flowchart. Cohen's d and odds ratios were used as a measure of effect size for RCTs. A random effects model was used to account for different sources of variation among studies. Heterogeneity was assessed using Q statistics, I², Tau, and Tau². Publication bias was analysed and represented by a funnel plot, and funnel plot symmetry was assessed with Egger's test. The results showed that in the RCTs, the patients receiving a low-FODMAP diet experienced a statistically significant pain and bloating reduction compared with those receiving a traditional diet; as regards to stool consistency, there was no significant difference between treatments. A significant reduction in abdominal pain and bloating were described by patients receiving a low-FODMAP diet compared with those receiving a high-FODMAP diet. In cohort studies, pain and bloating were significantly reduced after treatment compared with the baseline diet. We conclude that there is evidence that a low-FODMAP diet could have a favourable impact on IBS symptoms, especially abdominal pain and bloating. However, it remains to be demonstrated whether a low-FODMAP diet is superior to conventional IBS diets, especially in the long term.

  20. Severe idiopathic hypocalcemia in a juvenile western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Stones, Greeley; Jalil, Tania

    2012-03-01

    A 6-mo-old, male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was evaluated because of tetany of both hands. The gorilla had alternating periods of constipation, diarrhea, and bloating since birth. A diagnosis of idiopathic hypocalcemia was based on severe hypocalcemia, a normal vitamin D level, response to oral calcium and vitamin D therapy, and eventual resolution. Idiopathic hypocalcemia, an uncommon disease in neonatal humans, should be considered in young gorillas with persistent gastrointestinal problems or acute tetany.

  1. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don; Nord, Brian

    2014-01-01

    As is true of a far more famous story, it all began a long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away. It even involved a binary star system. A small star, called a white dwarf, had become a burned out husk of its former self and it turned to gorging on hydrogen and helium from its bloated red giant neighbor. The transferred gas reignited the fires of…

  2. New and emerging therapies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: an update for gastroenterologists

    OpenAIRE

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder with gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain, straining, urgency, incomplete evacuation, nausea, and bloating) that occur alongside bowel function alterations (i.e. constipation, diarrhea, or both). Patients with irritable bowel syndrome may also experience comorbid anxiety and depression. Irritable bowel syndrome is common, with a prevalence estimated between 3% and 28%, affecting patient health and quality of life. Patients with...

  3. Lactobacillus paracasei F19 versus placebo for the prevention of proton pump inhibitor-induced bowel symptoms: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Sgamato, Costantino; Coccoli, Pietro; Campo, Salvatore Maria Antonio; Nazionale, Immacolata; Larussa, Tiziana; Luzza, Francesco; Chiodini, Paolo; Nardone, Gerardo

    2015-04-01

    Proton pump inhibitors may foster intestinal dysbiosis and related bowel symptoms. To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei F19 on bowel symptom onset in patients on long-term proton pump inhibitors. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients with typical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms receiving pantoprazole 40 mg/d for six months were randomly assigned to receive: (A) Lactobacillus paracasei F19 bid for three days/week for six months; (B) placebo bid for three days/week for six months; (C) Lactobacillus paracasei F19 bid for three days/week for three months and placebo bid for three days/week for the following three months; (D) placebo bid for three days/week for three months and Lactobacillus paracasei F19 bid for three days/week for the following three months. Bloating, flatulence, abdominal pain and bowel habit were assessed monthly. 100/312 patients were enrolled. In the parallel groups, the treatment-by-time interaction affected bloating (p = 0.015), while Lactobacillus paracasei F19 treatment alone affected flatulence (p = 0.011). Moreover, the treatment-by-time interaction significantly affected the mean score of bloating (p = 0.01) and flatulence (p Lactobacillus paracasei F19 supplementation prevents bowel symptom onset in patients on long-term proton pump inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Robin C.

    2003-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely common cause of consultation, and at present is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and a few simple exclusion tests. Exclusion diets can be successful, but many patients have already attempted and failed such treatments before consulting. Anxiety and somatization may be an important driver of consultation. Patients' concerns should be understood and addressed. Those with prominent psychiatric disease may benefit from psychotherapy. Hypnotherapy benefits symptoms in those without psychologic disturbance, but its availability is limited. Antidepressants are effective in improving both mood and IBS symptoms globally, and the evidence is particularly good for tricyclic antidepressants. Although antispasmodics are currently the most commonly prescribed drugs, most responses (75%) are due to the placebo effect and not specific to the drug. Bulk laxatives such as ispaghula can increase stool frequency and help pain, but bloating may be aggravated. Loperamide is effective treatment for urgency and loose stools, but less effective for bloating and pain. 5-HT(3) antagonists such as alosetron improve urgency, stool consistency, and pain in diarrhea-predominant-IBS. The 5-HT(4) agonist tegaserod shows modest benefit in constipation-predominant IBS, improving stool frequency, consistency, and bloating as well as global improvement. There are many new drugs, such as cholecystokinin, neurokinin, and corticotropin receptor antagonists, in development.

  5. Influence of Rectal Decompression on Abdominal Symptoms and Anorectal Physiology following Colonoscopy in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsun Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postcolonoscopy abdominal discomfort and bloating are common. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether rectal decompression improved distension-induced abdominal symptoms and influenced anorectal physiology. Methods. In 15 healthy subjects, rectal distension was achieved by direct air inflation into the rectum by colonoscopy. Placement of rectal and sham tube was then performed in each subject on a separate occasion. The anorectal parameters and distension-induced abdominal symptoms were recorded. Results. Anorectal parameters were similar between placements of rectal tube and sham tube except for greater rectal compliance with rectal tube than with sham tube (P<0.05. Abdominal pain and bloating were significantly reduced by rectal tube and sham tube at 1 minute (both P<0.05 and 3 minutes (both P<0.05. After placement of rectal tube, abdominal pain at 3 minutes correlated positively with first sensation (r=0.53, P=0.04, and bloating at 3 minutes also correlated positively with urge sensation (r=0.55, P=0.03. Conclusions. Rectal decompression with either rectal or sham tube improved distension-induced abdominal symptoms. Our study indicates that the mechanisms that improved abdominal symptoms by rectal decompression might be mediated by a central pathway instead of a peripheral mechanism.

  6. Development of porous ceramsite from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Wu, Jian-Zhi; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has become a serious problem in China due to the rapid increase of Chinese construction industry in recent years. In the present study, typical C&D waste was employed for ceramsite fabrication so as to find a new way for its effective recycling. A novel process was developed for manufacturing high-quality porous ceramsite according to the special chemical composition and properties of C&D waste. Most importantly, a unique bloating agent was developed for the porous structure formation since it was difficult to obtain a suitable porous structure using traditional bloating agents. The effects of processing parameters such as sintering temperature, heating rate and soaking time were investigated, and the bloating mechanism for ceramsite was discussed. The C&D waste ceramsite (CDWC), with high-intensity, low density and homogeneous mechanical properties, was much more suitable for application in the construction field. This study provides a practical process for efficient recycling of the rapidly increasing quantities of C&D waste.

  7. The impact of laxative use upon symptoms in patients with proven slow transit constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinning Phil G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation severity is often defined by symptoms including feelings of complete evacuation, straining, stool frequency and consistency. These descriptors are mostly obtained in the absence of laxative use. For many constipated patients laxative usage is ubiquitous and long standing. Our aim was to determine the impact of laxative use upon the stereotypic constipation descriptors. Methods Patients with confirmed slow transit constipation completed 3-week stool diaries, detailing stool frequency and form, straining, laxative use and pain and bloating scores. Each diary day was classified as being under laxative affect (laxative affected days or not (laxative unaffected days. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the affects of laxatives on constipation symptoms. Results Ninety four patients with scintigraphically confirmed slow transit constipation were enrolled in the study. These patients reported a stool frequency of 5.6 ± 4.3 bowel motions/week, only 21 patients reported P P Conclusions The reporting of frequent and loose stools with abdominal pain and/or bloating is common in patients with slow transit constipation. While laxative use is a significant contributor to altering stool frequency and form, laxatives have no apparent affect on pain or bloating or upon a patients feeling of complete evacuation. These factors need to be taken into account when using constipation symptoms to define this population.

  8. Identification of higher plant GlsA, a putative morphogenesis factor of gametic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-06-27

    GlsA has been identified in an asexual-reproductive-cell (gonidia)-deficient mutant of Volvox as a chaperone-like protein essential for gonidia production. In this study, we isolated an angiosperm glsA (LlglsA) gene expressed during Lilium longiflorum pollen development. Immunoblot analyses showed that the strong LlGlsA expression occurred in the generative cell and its pattern during pollen development corresponded to that of alpha-tubulin. Morphological analyses succeeded in visualizing the dispersion of the strong LlGlsA signal in developing generative cells. In addition, multiple-immunofluorescence staining of LlGlsA and alpha-tubulin revealed that some of the dot-like LlGlsA signals were co-localized with microtubule filaments. From those results, we suggest that angiosperm GlsA functions as a chaperone modifying various structures during male gametic cell formation.

  9. Evaluating symptom outcomes in gastroparesis clinical trials: validity and responsiveness of the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, D A; Camilleri, M; Kuo, B; Szarka, L A; McCormack, J; Parkman, H P

    2012-05-01

    Patient-reported symptom scales are needed to evaluate treatments for gastroparesis. The Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD) was developed to assess daily symptoms of gastroparesis. This study evaluated the validity and responsiveness of the GCSI-DD in patients with gastroparesis. Symptomatic patients were started with a new treatment for gastroparesis. Patients completed the GCSI-DD each evening during a baseline week and for 8 weeks of treatment. Responders were defined based on patient and clinician global rating of change. Minimal important differences (MID) were estimated based on baseline to 4 week changes in symptoms scores for small improvements. Of 69 patients participating, 46 had idiopathic, 19 diabetic, and four postfundoplication gastroparesis. Excellent test-retest reliability was seen for GCSI-DD scores, and there were significant correlations between GCSI-DD scores and clinician ratings of symptom severity. Responders to treatment reported improvements in nausea [effect size (ES) = 0.42, P < 0.001], postprandial fullness, ES = 0.83, P < 0.001), bloating (ES = 0.34, P < 0.001), early satiety (ES = 0.53, P < 0.001), but lower responses for upper abdominal pain (ES = 0.29), and vomiting (ES = 0.22; P = 0.119). MIDs were 0.55 for nausea, 0.97 for excessive fullness, 0.63 for bloating, 0.77 for postprandial fullness, and 0.30 for abdominal pain. A composite score of four symptoms (Composite-1; nausea, bloating, excessive fullness, postprandial fullness) had ES of 0.61 and MID of 0.73. Composite-2 score (nausea, early satiety, bloating, abdominal pain) had a lower ES of 0.47. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, postprandial fullness, and bloating were responsive to treatment for gastroparesis. A composite of these symptoms also demonstrates validity and responsiveness to treatment for gastroparesis, and may represent an acceptable endpoint for evaluating the effectiveness of medical treatments in clinical trials for gastroparesis.

  10. Analysis of frankincense from various Boswellia species with inhibitory activity on human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry after automated on-line extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andreas; Unger, Matthias

    2006-04-21

    In our search for herbal remedies with inhibitory activity on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, we identified extracts of the gum-resin of Boswellia carteri, Boswellia frereana, Boswellia sacra and Boswellia serrata as equally potent, non-selective inhibitors of the major drug metabolising CYP enzymes 1A2/2C8/2C9/2C19/2D6 and 3A4. LC/LC/ESI-MS fingerprint analyses of the boswellic acids 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, alpha-boswellic acid, beta-boswellic acid and their 3-O-acylated derivatives were used for the authentication of the commercially obtained frankincense samples. Although the boswellic acids could be identified as moderate to potent inhibitors of the applied CYP enzymes, they are not the major CYP inhibitory principle of frankincense.

  11. A randomised clinical trial (RCT) of a symbiotic mixture in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): effects on symptoms, colonic transit and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Carmelina; Tremolaterra, Fabrizio; Pascariello, Annalisa; Ciacci, Carolina; Iovino, Paola

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to test in a double-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled study the effects of a commercially available multi-strain symbiotic mixture on symptoms, colonic transit and quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients who meet Rome III criteria. There is only one other double-blinded RCT on a single-strain symbiotic mixture in IBS. This is a double-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled study of a symbiotic mixture (Probinul, 5 g bid) over 4 weeks after 2 weeks of run-in. The primary endpoints were global satisfactory relief of abdominal flatulence and bloating. Responders were patients who reported at least 50 % of the weeks of treatment with global satisfactory relief. The secondary endpoints were change in abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency by a 100-mm visual analog scale, stool frequency and bowel functions on validated adjectival scales (Bristol Scale and sense of incomplete evacuation). Pre- and post-treatment colonic transit time (Metcalf) and quality of life (SF-36) were assessed. Sixty-four IBS patients (symbiotic n = 32, 64 % females, mean age 38.7 ± 12.6 years) were studied. This symbiotic mixture reduced flatulence over a 4-week period of treatment (repeated-measures analysis of covariance, p symbiotic group. This symbiotic mixture has shown a beneficial effect in decreasing the severity of flatulence in IBS patients, a lack of adverse events and a good side-effect profile; however, it failed to achieve an improvement in global satisfactory relief of abdominal flatulence and bloating. Further studies are warranted.

  12. RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL: SOLUBLE/INSOLUBLE FIBER OR PSYLLIUM FOR CHRONIC CONSTIPATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Askin; Rao, Satish; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Adame, Enrique Coss; Valestin, Jessica; O’Banion, Meagan

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Fiber supplements are useful, but whether a plum-derived mixed fiber that contains both soluble and insoluble fiber improves constipation is unknown. Aim We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of mixed fiber versus psyllium in a randomized double blind controlled trial. Methods Constipated patients (Rome III) received mixed fiber or psyllium, 5g bid, for 4 weeks. Daily symptoms and stool habit were assessed using stool diary. Subjects with ≥1 complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM)/week above baseline for ≥ 2/4 weeks were considered responders. Secondary outcome measures included stool consistency, bowel satisfaction, straining, gas, bloating, taste, dissolvability and Quality of Life (QOL). Results 72 subjects (MF=40; psyllium=32) were enrolled and 2 from psyllium group withdrew. The mean CSBM/week increased with both mixed fiber (ppsyllium (p=0.0002) without group difference. There were 30 (75%) responders with mixed fiber and 24 (75%) with psyllium (p=0.9). Stool consistency increased (p=0.04), straining (p=0.006), and bloating scores decreased (p=0.02) without group differences. Significantly more patients reported improvement in flatulence (53% vs. 25%, p=0.01) and felt that mixed fiber dissolved better (p=0.02) compared to psyllium. QOL improved (p=0.0125) with both treatments without group differences. Conclusions Mixed fiber and psyllium were equally efficacious in improving constipation and QOL. Mixed fiber was more effective in relieving flatulence, bloating and dissolved better. Mixed fiber is effective and well tolerated. Clinical Trial No: NCT01288508 PMID:27125883

  13. Randomised clinical trial: mixed soluble/insoluble fibre vs. psyllium for chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, A; Rao, S S C; Thiruvaiyaru, D; Lee, Y Y; Coss Adame, E; Valestin, J; O'Banion, M

    2016-07-01

    Fibre supplements are useful, but whether a plum-derived mixed fibre that contains both soluble and insoluble fibre improves constipation is unknown. To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of mixed soluble/insoluble fibre vs. psyllium in a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Constipated patients (Rome III) received mixed fibre or psyllium, 5 g b.d., for 4 weeks. Daily symptoms and stool habit were assessed using stool diary. Subjects with ≥1 complete spontaneous bowel movement/week above baseline for ≥2/4 weeks were considered responders. Secondary outcome measures included stool consistency, bowel satisfaction, straining, gas, bloating, taste, dissolvability and quality of life (QoL). Seventy-two subjects (mixed fibre = 40; psyllium = 32) were enrolled and two from psyllium group withdrew. The mean complete spontaneous bowel movement/week increased with both mixed fibre (P psyllium (P = 0.0002) without group difference. There were 30 (75%) responders with mixed fibre and 24 (75%) with psyllium (P = 0.9). Stool consistency increased (P = 0.04), straining (P = 0.006) and bloating scores decreased (P = 0.02) without group differences. Significantly more patients reported improvement in flatulence (53% vs. 25%, P = 0.01) and felt that mixed fibre dissolved better (P = 0.02) compared to psyllium. QoL improved (P = 0.0125) with both treatments without group differences. Mixed fibre and psyllium were equally efficacious in improving constipation and QoL. Mixed fibre was more effective in relieving flatulence, bloating and dissolved better. Mixed fibre is effective and well tolerated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Depression and Somatization Are Associated With Increased Postprandial Symptoms in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Törnblom, Hans; Störsrud, Stine; Tack, Jan; Simrén, Magnus

    2016-04-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have increased postprandial symptom responses and more psychosocial morbidities than healthy individuals. However, the relationship between psychosocial status and postprandial symptom responses in patients with IBS is unclear. We investigated this relationship in a prospective study of patients with IBS. A total of 193 IBS patients, diagnosed according to Rome II (n = 126) or Rome III (n = 67) criteria, consumed a standard breakfast (540 kcal: 36% fat, 15% proteins, 49% carbohydrates, and 8.9 g fiber). They completed visual analogue scales assessing the severity of 5 gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, gas, and fullness) before breakfast and every 30 minutes, up to 240 minutes after eating. All patients completed validated self-report questionnaires for their current levels of anxiety and depression; patients diagnosed based on Rome II criteria also completed a somatization questionnaire. The relationship between these variables and the course of gastrointestinal symptom scores over time was analyzed using linear mixed models, controlling for comorbid functional dyspepsia. We observed a main effect of anxiety levels on fullness and bloating (P Somatization levels had a main effect on all 5 symptoms (P somatization-by-time interaction effects for bloating (P = .005), and nausea (P = .02), and a nonsignificant trend was found for pain (P = .054), reflecting a steeper early postprandial increase in symptoms among subjects with higher levels of somatization. Based on a prospective study of patients with IBS, psychosocial morbidities are associated with increased levels of gastrointestinal symptoms in general. Depression and somatization levels are associated specifically with increased postprandial symptoms. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lubiprostone Is Effective in the Treatment of Chronic Idiopathic Constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Fu, Tao; Tong, Wei-Dong; Liu, Bao-Hua; Li, Chun-Xue; Gao, Yu; Wu, Jin-Song; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Zhang, An-Ping

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). We performed a literature search of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases (from January 1, 2005, through January 31, 2015). Relevant studies meeting the inclusion criteria were manually searched by 2 independent reviewers. Efficacy outcomes evaluated at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of intervention were weekly frequency of spontaneous bowel movements, severity of constipation, consistency of stools, degree of abdominal pain/discomfort, degree of straining, and abdominal bloating. Of 246 studies identified, data from 9 trials comprising 1468 patients (63.6%) in the lubiprostone group and 841 (36.4%) in the placebo group were analyzed. We found that lubiprostone treatment significantly improved the severity of constipation, stool consistency, abdominal pain, degree of straining, and abdominal bloating at 1 week (P≤.03) and 1 month (P≤.004), except for abdominal pain at 1 month, which was similar to that when treated with placebo (P=.21). At 3 months, except for abdominal bloating (P=.03), there was no difference between lubiprostone and placebo groups in all other outcomes (P≥.05). Adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were common (incidence rate, 2.4%-75%); however, the incidence of serious adverse effects was low (lubiprostone treatment. Lubiprostone is a safe and efficacious drug for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, with limited adverse effects in 3 months of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nomogram for predicting oral feeding intolerance in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Melody G; Asrani, Varsha M; Pendharkar, Sayali A; Goodger, Rachel L; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-04-01

    Oral feeding intolerance (OFI) is a common complication of acute pancreatitis that leads to prolonged hospitalization, increased use of hospital resources, and impaired quality of life. However, there are no clinically useful predictors of OFI. The aims of this study were to determine whether gastrointestinal dysmotility is associated with the development of OFI, and whether the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) can be used as a predictive tool in a clinical setting. This was a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome was the development of OFI. Daily GCSI total score and subscores (nausea/vomiting, early satiety, and bloating) were recorded. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for age, etiology of pancreatitis, severity, diabetes status, and time from symptom onset to hospital admission. The study included 217 consecutive adult patients with acute pancreatitis. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between OFI occurrence and the total GCSI score on day 2 of hospital admission (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.00), the highest total GCSI score (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.03-1.86), the day 2 nausea/vomiting subscore (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.04-1.89), the day 2 bloating subscore (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.54), and the highest bloating subscore (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.63). Gastrointestinal dysmotility is associated with the development of OFI and the GCSI has potential as a clinically useful predictive tool in the setting of acute pancreatitis. The developed nomogram holds promise but needs to be validated externally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [The diet low in fermentable carbohydrates short chain and polyols improves symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamán, José Wálter; Felip, Ana; Guedea, Elena; Jansana, Marta; Videla, Sebastián; Saperas, Esteban

    2015-03-01

    Successful treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often remains elusive. Recent studies in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand have suggested the efficacy of a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the management of these patients. The aims of this study were to determine whether a diet low in FODMAPs improves symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) in Spain and to analyze the predictors of a good response. A prospective study was carried out in consecutive patients with FGID type IBS and functioanl abdominal bloating. At inclusion all patients underwent an assessment through a baseline demographic questionnaire of symptoms of anxiety and depression and quality of life. A hydrogen breath test with lactose and fructose was performed and a low FODMAPs diet was indicated for 2 months by expert dietitians. These tests were taken as a reference. A positive response was defined as an improvement of at least 5 points out of a possible 10 in the symptom questionnaire. We included 30 patients (24 women, 39 [12] years). The response to the low FODMAPs diet was positive in controlling overall symptoms and specific symptoms such as functioanl abdominal bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea and fatigue in more than 70% of patients (P.05). Adherence to the diet was good in 87% of patients and was a predictor of positive response in the univariate analysis. A diet low in FODMAPs is associated with symptom improvement in patients with IBS and functioanl abdominal bloating. Adherence to the diet was a determining factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. The evaluation of otilonium bromide treatment in asian patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Chen, Tseng-Shing; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2011-10-01

    Antispasmodics including otilonium bromide (OB) are recommended to treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, reports about OB experience in Asia is sparse. The purpose of present study was to provide the efficacy of OB in treating Asian IBS patients. Overall, 117 IBS patients meeting Rome II criteria were enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, active-controlled and single center trial. Randomized participants received either OB 40 mg or mebeverine 100 mg 3 doses daily. The primary endpoints were to evaluate the net changes of abdominal pain/discomfort frequency score (APDFS) and safety profile, while the secondary endpoints were to assess the changes in abdominal pain/discomfort intensity, flatulence, abdominal bloating, satisfied stool frequency etc. Finally, 49 OB and 52 mebeverine subjects were eligible for efficacy analysis. Compared to baselines in per protocol populations, the reduced APDFSs in OB and mebeverine were 0.55 ± 1.20 (P = 0.011) and 0.37 ± 1.11 (P = 0.042), respectively, to show similarly reduced scores. The most reported side effects included dry mouth, nausea and dizziness. Besides, the improved APDFSs at 4th week visit, final alleviations in abdominal pain intensity, flatulence, abdominal bloating and satisfied stool frequency with global assessments filled by both patients and investigators were significantly achieved by both treatments, and OB was not inferior to mebeverine in treating these parameters. In Orientals, OB is as effective as mebeverine for alleviating IBS symptoms in terms of abdominal pain, flatulence, abdominal bloating etc. However, obvious side effects are also observed. A large-scaled trial and post-marketing surveillance are recommended to confirm its efficacy and safety.

  19. Effects of dietary education, followed by a tailored fructose-restricted diet in adults with fructose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Krawczyk, Marcin; Lembo, Antony; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Lammert, Frank; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-07-01

    Fructose is absorbed by GLUT transporters in the small intestine. If this process is inadequate, abdominal symptoms because of fructose intolerance may arise. The effect of a tailored fructose-restricted diet on gastrointestinal complaints was assessed in patients with fructose intolerance. Following an abnormal fructose breath test (50 g), 107 patients (64 also with lactose intolerance) entered three study periods: weeks 0-32 (free diet), weeks 32-36 (progressive increasing amount of fructose up to quantity inducing symptoms, 'trigger dose'), and weeks 36-48 (tailored fructose-restricted diet according to the 'trigger dose'). A subgroup of 15 patients underwent additional fructose breath tests (35, 25 g) to compare three different doses. At baseline, the most frequent symptoms were bloating and abdominal pain, and were more severe with combined fructose and lactose intolerance. During the free diet, patients reported eliminating (48%) or reducing (52%) fructose-containing foods, with a significant improvement in symptoms (abdominal pain from 79.7 ± 1.3 to 19.3 ± 1.8 mm; bloating from 83.1 ± 1.3 to 19.4 ± 1.8 mm; number of evacuations/day from 3.9 ± 0.16 to 1.1 ± 0.04; Bristol score from 5.1 ± 0.14 to 3.8 ± 0.1, P fructose-restricted diet, the consistent improvement in symptoms persisted and was similar to the improvement on free diet (abdominal pain 23.6 ± 1.9 mm; bloating 19.4 ± 1.8 mm; number of evacuations/day 1.7 ± 0.07; Bristol score 3.5 ± 0.06, Pfructose was observed on symptoms during the fructose breath test. In our setting, individuals with fructose intolerance show an inappropriate dietary self-management. By contrast, a tailored fructose-restricted diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms without senseless food deprivation.

  20. Garcinia buchananii bark extract is an effective anti-diarrheal remedy for lactose-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Paul A; Brierley, Stuart M; Pasilis, Sofie P; Balemba, Onesmo B

    2012-07-13

    The extract from the stem bark of Garcinia buchananii trees is used as an anti-diarrhea remedy in sub-Saharan Africa. We tested the hypothesis that G. buchananii bark extract and its anti-motility fractions are effective treatments against lactose-induced diarrhea. A high-lactose (35%) diet was used to induce diarrhea in Wistar rats, which were then treated with either G. buchananii bark extract (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 g bark powder), and its anti-motility fractions isolated using preparative thin layer chromatography; termed PTLC1 (15 mg) and PTLC5 (3.8 mg) or loperamide (8.4 mg). Drug preparations were dissolved in 1L except PTCL1 and PTLC5 that were dissolved in 100mL tap water. Numerous parameters were measured in each condition including consistency, fluid and mucus content of feces, body weight, water and food consumption, urine production and bloating. Diarrheic rats produced watery or loose, mucuoid, sticky, feces. Fluids constituted 86% of stool mass compared with only 42% for control rats fed standard chow. Compared with controls, diarrheic rats produced more urine, lost weight and had bloated ceca and colons. All doses of the extract, its anti-motility fractions and loperamide individually stopped diarrhea within 6-24 h of administration, whilst significantly reducing mucus and fecal fluid content, urine production and intestinal bloating. Rats treated with 0.1g extract, PTLC1 and PTLC5 gained weight, whilst PTLC5 also increased water intake. Garcinia buchananii extract and its anti-motility fractions are effective remedies against lactose-induced diarrhea. The extract contains compounds that reverse weight loss, promote food and water intake, supporting the notion that characterization of the compounds could lead to new therapies against diarrheal diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Primary Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma of the Uterus Manifesting as a Leiomyoma: A Unique Presentation with Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Dewar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of uterine corpus in a 70-years old woman who presented with symptoms of increased urinary frequency and sense of bloating. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI findings were suggestive of a degenerating intramural fibroid. Histological examination of tissue samples obtained during hysteroscopy showed diffuse infiltration of fibrous stroma by atypical enlarged mononuclear cells. Immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Further imaging studies showed no evidence of lymphoma outside the uterus. To our knowledge,this represents the first welldocumented case of primary uterine lymphoma presenting as a leiomyoma on imaging studies.

  2. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivekar S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.

  3. Clinical response in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome treated with a low diet low in fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez y López, N; Torres-López, E; Zamarripa-Dorsey, F

    2015-01-01

    The low FODMAP diet eliminates carbohydrates and fermentable alcohols because they are not absorbed by the intestine, but are fermented by the microbiota, causing bloating and flatulence. To evaluate the clinical response to the low FODMAP diet in patients with the different clinical subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients attended to at the Gastroenterology Department in 2014 that were diagnosed with IBS based on the Rome III criteria were included in the study. They were managed with a low FODMAP diet for 21 days and their response to the symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and stool form pre and post-diet were evaluated through the visual analogue scale, Bristol scale, and patient overall satisfaction. The results were analyzed by means, 95% CI, and the Student's t test. Of the 31 patients included in the study, 87% were women and the mean age was 46.48 years. Distribution was: IBS-C 64.5%, IBS-D 22.6%, and IBS-M 12.9%. The score for pain was 6.0 (95% CI 5.04-6.96) and the post-diet score was 2.77 (95% CI 1.60-3.95) (P<.001). The score for bloating was 7.10 (95% CI 6.13-8.06) and the post-diet score was 4.19 (95% CI 2.95-5.44) (P<.001). The score for flatulence was 5.94 (95% CI 4.79-7.08) and the post-diet score was 3.06 (IC95% 1.99-4.14) (P<.001). The pre-diet Bristol Scale result was 3.68 (95% CI 3.14-4.22) and the post-diet result was 4.10 (95% CI 3.66-4.54) (P=.1). The satisfaction percentage was 70.9%. In this first study on a Mexican population with IBS, there was significant improvement of the main symptoms, including pain, bloating, and flatulence after treatment with a low FODMAP diet. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Overlap between irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia including subtype analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2017-09-01

    Coexistent gastrointestinal symptom profiles and prevalence or associated factors for the overlap between each functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) group remain unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinicodemographic features of FD, IBS, and IBS-FD overlap and assess the risk factors thereof, including subtype and genetic polymorphisms for IBS-FD. Consecutive patients were enrolled from the outpatient Gastroenterology clinics of Bundang Seoul National University Hospitals in Korea. All gastrointestinal symptoms occurring at least once per week in the previous 3 months were recorded. Diagnostic criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders were based on the Rome III criteria. Risk factors including genetic polymorphisms of 5-HTTLPR and ADRA2A 1291 G alleles and CCK-1R intron 779T>C were assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 632 subjects (278 control subjects, 308 FD, 156 IBS, and 110 who met the criteria for both FD and IBS) were included in this study. Patients with IBS-FD overlap had more severe symptoms (such as bloating, nausea, vomiting, hard or lumpy stools, defecation straining, and a feeling of incomplete bowel movement) and higher depression scores compared with non-overlap patients. Single/divorced or widowed marital status, nausea, bloating, and a feeling of incomplete emptying after bowel movements were independent risk factors for IBS-FD overlap among IBS patients. In contrast, young age, depression, bloating, and postprandial distress syndrome were positively associated with IBS-FD overlap among FD patients. 5-HTTLPR L/L was a risk factor for the co-occurrence of IBS-C among FD patients (OR: 12.47; 95% CI: 2.00-77.75; P = 0.007). Bloating was a risk factor for IBS-FD overlap. Patients with postprandial distress syndrome have a higher risk of coexisting IBS, particularly constipation-dominant IBS. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and

  5. A Simple Ripple Filter for FLUKA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Herrmann, Rochus

    ). The ripple filter at GSI and HIT consists of several wedge like structures, which widens the Bragg-peak up to e.g. 3 mm. For Monte Carlo simulations of C-12 therapy, the exact setup, including the ripple filter needs to be simulated. In the Monte Carlo particle transport program FLUKA, the ripple filter can...... be realized in several ways. The most simplistic version is to apply the ripples as simple triangles. More elaborate version would account for the exact structure, but the drawback is that this will bloat the FLUKA input file with vast amounts of bodys which needs to be included in the geometrical setup...

  6. EFSA NDA Panel ( EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno ® GOS and reducing gastro - intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort. The food constituent, Bimuno® GOS, a mixture of β-galacto-oligosaccharides, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant...... is “reduce bloating, flatulence and abdominal pain. These effects can be described collectively as abdominal discomfort” and the target population proposed by the applicant is the general adult population. Reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort is a beneficial physiological effect. A health claim on Bimuno...

  7. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  9. Creating Flash advertising from concept to tracking-microsites, video ads and more

    CERN Document Server

    Fincanon, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Create awe-inspiring, mind-blowing Flash ads and microsites that engage consumers and demonstrate their worth to clients. The Hands-On Guide to Creating Flash Advertising delivers the nuts and bolts of the development process from initial design conception to ad completion. You'll learn the best practices for:* Mastering the myriad of ad specs, deadlines, quality and version control issues* Creating ads that balance campaign goals with design constraints* Preparing and building ads with team and QC standards* Using forms and data in ads without file bloat* File optimization techniques for swf

  10. Repair of paraesophageal hiatal hernias – Is a fundoplication needed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Achtstätter, Verena; Diener, Markus K.

    2015-01-01

    -F patients postoperative esophagitis was present (p = 0.026). Values of dysphagia (2.1 ± 1.6 vs. 1.9 ± 1.4; p = 0.737), gas bloating (2.6 ± 1.4 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4; p = 0.782) and quality of life (116.0 ± 16.2 vs. 115.9 ± 15.8; p = 0.992) were similar. Relevant postoperative complications occurred in 4 (10...

  11. Idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying presenting in adults with post-prandial diarrhea and reactive hypoglycemia: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We have previously reported the association of gastrointestinal and hypoglycemic symptoms, with idiopathic accelerated gastric emptying. We now report the first series of six similar cases. Case presentations Patient 1: A 24-year-old Caucasian man presented to our facility with a six-month history of post-prandial nausea, flatulence, bloating, abdominal discomfort and associated diarrhea. He had associated episodes of fatigue, sweating, anxiety, confusion and craving for sweet foods. Patient 2: A 52-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 15-year history of post-prandial bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhea, often associated with nausea, severe sweating, and fatigue. Patient 3: An 18-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a nine-year history of post-prandial diarrhea, abdominal bloating and pain. There was associated nausea, tremor, lethargy, and craving for sweet foods. Patient 4: A 77-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a four-month history of epigastric distension, pain after eating and a change in bowel habit. She experienced intermittent severe diarrhea and marked fatigue, nausea and sweating. Patient 5: A 23-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a two-year history of early satiety, and diarrhea after eating. She also complained of feeling faint and weak between meals, when she became cold and clammy, and on several occasions lost consciousness during these episodes. Patient 6: A 64-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our facility with a 10-year history of nausea, early satiety and profound bloating followed by diarrhea. All symptoms predominantly occurred in the first three hours after eating, when she felt faint, lethargic, and had a craving for sweet foods. In all cases, symptoms were alleviated or resolved by taking sweet food or drink and response to treatment was 90% or greater in all cases. Conclusions This series extends our description

  12. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuko Furuya

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in m...

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadime Eroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis pathogenicity and classification was newly illuminated with molecular genetic studies and recently the parasite was found in the focus of many researchers. Several molecular methods such as; polymerase chain reaction (PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analyses can be used in genotyping of Blastocystis. Blastocystis parasites may cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, irritability, anorexia, cramps, vomiting, dehydration, insomnia, nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue symptoms and also could be asymptomatic cases. In this review, it was aimed to summarize the associations between Blastocystis subtypes and pathogenicity.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy BE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brian E Lacy Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. Keywords: abdominal pain, antibiotic, bloating, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome

  15. Asymmetric somatic hybrid plants between Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa, lucerne) and Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y G; Tanner, G J; Delves, A C; Larkin, P J

    1993-12-01

    This paper reports on the production of intergeneric somatic hybrid plants between two sexually incompatible legume species. Medicago sativa (alfalfa, lucerne) leaf protoplasts were inactivated by lethal doses of iodoacetamide. Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) suspension-cell protoplasts were gamma-irradiated at lethal doses. Following electrofusion under optimized conditions about 50,000 viable heterokaryons were produced in each test. The fusion products were cultured with the help of alfalfa nurse protoplasts. Functional complementation permitted only the heterokaryons to survive. A total of 706 putative heterokaryon-derived plantlets were regenerated and 570 survived transplantation to soil. Experimentation was aimed at the introduction of proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) from sainfoin, a bloat-safe plant, to alfalfa, a bloat-causing forage crop; however, no tannin-positive regenerant plants were detected. Most regenerant plants have shown morphological differences from the fusion parents, although, as expected, all resembled the "recipient" parent, alfalfa. Southern analysis using an improved total-genomic probing technique has shown low levels of sainfoin-specific DNA in 43 out of 158 tested regenerants. Cytogenetic analysis of these asymmetric hybrids has confirmed the existence of euploid (2n=32; 17%) as well as aneuploid (2n=30, 33-78; 83%) plants. Pollen germination tests have indicated that the majority of the hybrids were fertile, while 35% had either reduced fertility or were completely sterile.

  16. No significant association between halitosis and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Adnan; Köklü, Seyfettin; Yüksel, Ilhami; Başar, Omer; Akbal, Erdem; Cimbek, Ahmet

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have focused on the relationship between halitosis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and Helicobacter pylori. In this study we aimed to investigate the interaction between halitosis and upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings. Patients who previously had dyspepsia and had undergone endoscopic examination were included in the study. Symptoms of dyspepsia were investigated by means of a questionnaire that investigated halitosis. Patients who suffered from objective halitosis (confirmed by questions both to the patient and their relatives) were further investigated. Patients with known local or systemic causes of halitosis or structural disorders at endoscopy were excluded. The study included 358 patients (121 men and 237 women) with dyspeptic symptoms. The patients with and without halitosis had mean ages of (39.4 ± 13.5) and (43.1 ± 14.9) years, respectively. Patients without halitosis were significantly older than those in the halitosis group (P halitosis group had significantly higher frequencies of regurgitation, bloating and nausea (P halitosis. Endoscopic findings, including esophagitis, open cardia, hiatal hernia, gastritis and duodenitis, were comparable in the two groups. The frequency of halitosis was high in patients with dyspepsia who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Halitosis had a close relationship with several upper gastrointestinal symptoms, including regurgitation, nausea and bloating. There was no significant association between upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and halitosis.

  17. Symptoms of Functional Intestinal Disorders Are Common in Patients with Celiac Disease Following Transition to a Gluten-Free Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Jocelyn A; Graff, Lesley A; Rigaux, Lisa; Bernstein, Charles N; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciarán P; Walker, John R; Duerksen, Donald R

    2017-09-01

    Celiac disease and functional intestinal disorders may overlap, yet the natural history of functional symptoms in patients with celiac disease is unknown. To investigate the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia (FD), and functional bloating (FB) symptoms among patients with celiac disease at diagnosis and during the first year of a gluten-free diet. Adults with a new diagnosis of celiac disease were surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 1 year using standardized measures for intestinal symptoms [Rome III diagnostic questionnaire and celiac symptom index (CSI)] and gluten-free diet adherence [gluten-free eating assessment tool (GF-EAT) and celiac diet adherence test]. At diagnosis, two-thirds fulfilled Rome III diagnostic questionnaire symptom criteria for IBS (52%), functional dyspepsia (27%), and/or functional bloating (9%). One year post-diagnosis, there was high adherence to a gluten-free diet as 93% reported gluten exposure less than once per month on the GF-EAT and only 8% had ongoing celiac disease symptoms (CSI score >45). The rates of those meeting IBS (22%) and functional dyspepsia (8%) symptom criteria both decreased significantly on a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of functional symptoms (any of IBS, FD or FB) at 1 year was 47%. Long-term follow-up of patients with celiac disease is necessary because many patients with celiac disease who are adherent to a gluten-free diet have persistent gastrointestinal symptoms.

  18. [The role of orlistat in the treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragh, György; Bajnok, László

    2005-03-13

    The overweight and obesity represent severe problems for the health management system of developed countries. In the evolution of obesity, beside genetic background, the environmental factors also play important roles. In the daily routine, the majority of obese patients need drug treatment, over the diet and physical activity. Among the available medicines the inhibitors of monoamine re-uptake causes dry mouth, tachycardia, sleeplessness and elevated blood pressure, therefore, due to the frequently associated obesity and hypertension many physicians avoid using these compounds. The orlistat as a selective inhibitor of pancreatic and enteral lipase enzymes impedes the absorption of the highest calorie containing nutrients, the fats exerting beneficial effects in the treatment of obesity. The abdominal bloating and diarrhea as side effects of the drug may act as an advantage in many cases, since these happen especially in those cases when the patient neglects the previously suggested low fat diet and therefore the drug induced diarrhea and bloating may mean a feed-back for the patient in respect of the proper diet. Recent studies show many beneficial biochemical changes in obesity related pathological metabolic processes during the administration of orlistat. The authors, in their present work review in short the role of orlistat in the treatment of slimming cure.

  19. Enteral ecoimmunonutrition reduced enteral permeability and serum ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Di; Shao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzed how enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension (TPF), can impact on the enteral permeability and serum Ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection. Among 190 severe cerebral stroke patients with tolerance to TPF, they were randomized into control and treatment groups after antibiotics treatment due to lung infections. There were 92 patients in the control group and 98 patients in treatment group. The control group was treated with TPF and the treatment group was treated with enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension. All patients received continuous treatments through nasoenteral or nasogastric tubes. 7, 14, and 21 days after the treatments, the enteral tolerance to nutrition was observed in both groups. The tests included abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio. Serum Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA. The incidence of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea was lower in the treatment group and enteral tolerance to nutrition was also superior to the control group. No difference in serum Ghrelin level was observed between the control and treatment groups with enteral intolerance to nutrition. However, in patients with enteral tolerance to nutrition, the treatment group showed lower enteral nutrition and lower enteral permeability compared to the control group. In severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection, enteral ecoimmunonutrition after antibiotics treatment improved enteral tolerance to nutrition and reduced enteral permeability; meanwhile, it lowered the serum Ghrelin activity, which implied the high serum Ghrelin reduces enteral permeability.

  20. The association between adult-type hypolactasia and symptoms of functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Castagna Wortmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional dyspepsia and lactose intolerance (adult-type hypolactasia, ATH are common conditions that may coexist or even be confounded. Their clinical presentation can be similar, however, lactose intolerance does not form part of the diagnostic investigation of functional dyspepsia. Studies on the association between functional dyspepsia and ATH are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate whether ATH is associated with symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Patients fulfilling the Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia underwent genetic testing for ATH. Dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated and scored according to a validated questionnaire. The diagnostic criteria for ATH was a CC genotype for the -13910C/T polymorphism, located upstream of the lactase gene. The mean scores for dyspeptic symptoms were compared between patients with ATH and those with lactase persistence. A total of 197 functional dyspeptic patients were included in the study. Mean age was 47.7 years and 82.7% patients were women. Eighty-eight patients (44.7% had a diagnosis of ATH. Abdominal bloating scores were higher in ATH patients compared to the lactase persistent patients (P=0.014. The remaining dyspeptic symptom scores were not significantly different between the two groups. The study results demonstrate an association between ATH and bloating in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  1. Efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in patients with chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barish, Charles F; Drossman, Douglas; Johanson, John F; Ueno, Ryuji

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of lubiprostone in adults with chronic constipation. This multicenter, parallel-group trial enrolled 237 patients with chronic constipation and randomized them to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment with oral lubiprostone 24 mcg or placebo twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was the number of spontaneous bowel movements (SBMs) after 1 week of treatment. Secondary evaluations included SBMs at weeks 2, 3, and 4; percentage of patients with a SBM within 24 h of first study dose; stool consistency; degree of straining; constipation severity; abdominal bloating and discomfort; global treatment effectiveness; and safety assessments. Lubiprostone-treated patients experienced greater mean numbers of SBMs at week 1 compared with placebo (5.89 versus 3.99, P = 0.0001), with significantly greater percentages having SBMs within 24 h of the first dose (61.3% versus 31.4%, P or =4 SBM per week) were significantly greater among lubiprostone-treated patients compared with placebo (P Lubiprostone-treated patients reported significant improvements in stool consistency, straining, and constipation severity at all weeks, and in abdominal bloating at week 1. Patient assessments of treatment effectiveness were significantly greater with lubiprostone compared with placebo at all weeks (P lubiprostone produced a bowel movement in the majority of individuals within 24 h of initial dosing, with sustained improvement in frequency as well as other constipation symptoms over 4 weeks of treatment.

  2. Triple sugar screen breath hydrogen test for sugar intolerance in children with functional abdominal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Ubhrani, Dolly

    2010-09-01

    Sugar intolerance and functional gastrointestinal disorders are both common in school age children. Both may present with similar complaints such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloating. Lactose, fructose and sucrose hydrogen breath tests are widely used to detect sugar malabsorption. To determine the proportion of children with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) that have sugar intolerance as determined by using a breath hydrogen test. We prospectively enrolled subjects with chronic abdominal pain, bloating and/or chronic diarrhea. All subjects underwent triple sugar screen hydrogen breath test (TSST) using the combined sugar solution. Breath hydrogen concentration ≥ 20 ppm above baseline was interpreted a positive test for sugar malabsorption. A positive hydrogen breath test consistent with sugar malabsorption was found in 5 out of 31 (16%) subjects. Three of these subjects were confirmed to have lactose malabsorption based on small bowel lactase enzyme analysis or subsequent lactose hydrogen breath test. One subject with positive TSST was diagnosed with fructose malabsorption based on dietary history; he improved on a limited fructose diet, and one was diagnosed to have gastric Crohn's disease. Approximately one in six children with symptoms of FGID had sugar intolerance as determined by the TSST.

  3. Epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome in Asia: something old, something new, something borrowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwee, Kok-Ann; Lu, Ching-Liang; Ghoshal, Uday Chand

    2009-10-01

    In this review we have unearthed epidemiological data that; support the 'old' concept of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) as a disorder of civilization, build a 'new' symptom profile of IBS for Asia, and persuade us against the use of 'borrowed' Western diagnostic criteria and illness models by Asian societies. In the 1960s, IBS was described as a disorder of civilization. Early studies from Asia suggested a prevalence of IBS below 5%. Recent studies from Asia suggest a trend for the more affluent city states like Singapore and Tokyo, to have higher prevalence of 8.6% and 9.8%, respectively, while India had the lowest prevalence of 4.2%. Furthermore, there was a trend among the better educated and more affluent strata of society in several urban Chinese populations for a higher prevalence of IBS, as well as a trend for a higher consultation rate. Across Chinese and Indian predominant populations, a majority of patients with IBS criteria report upper abdominal symptoms such as epigastric pain relieved by defecation, bloating and dyspepsia. Bloating and incomplete evacuation appear to be more important determinants of consultation behavior, than psychological factors. The failure of the Rome criteria to recognize the relationship to meals, may have led to a substantial misclassification of IBS as dyspepsia. The relevance of the Western model of psychological disturbance as a determinant of consultation behavior is questionable because of the accessibility and acceptability of medical consultation for gastrointestinal complaints in many Asian communities.

  4. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-23

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  5. Effects of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on Helicobacter pylori-Associated Dyspepsia: A Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Atsushi; Yanagi, Hidetaka; Ozawa, Hideki; Uemura, Naomi; Nakajima, Shigemi; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Takashi; Ohtsu, Toshihiro; Koga, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Some Lactobacillus spp. suppress Helicobacter pylori in the stomach and have potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal conditions. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus strains on functional dyspepsia associated with H. pylori infection were examined. Volunteers were screened using the (13)C-urea breath test (UBT) and H. pylori stool test, and 131 participants who met the selection criteria (mean age: 48.9 years) were randomly given L. gasseri OLL2716-containing yogurt or placebo yogurt once daily for 12 weeks. Gastrointestinal symptoms (epigastric pain, bloating, postprandial fullness, nausea, and heartburn) and the levels of serum pepsinogen (PG), (13)C-UBT, and H. pylori stool antigen were assessed. No significant differences were observed between the groups in UBT results, H. pylori stool antigens, or the serum PGI/II ratio. In the L. gasseri group, postprandial fullness was significantly lower at the end of the trial compared to the initial level (p 10 for bloating compared to the placebo group (p gasseri OLL2716-containing yogurt may effectively suppress dyspeptic symptoms in H. pylori-infected patients. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Network Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN000016746).

  6. Effects of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on Helicobacter pylori-Associated Dyspepsia: A Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Lactobacillus spp. suppress Helicobacter pylori in the stomach and have potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of gastrointestinal conditions. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus strains on functional dyspepsia associated with H. pylori infection were examined. Volunteers were screened using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT and H. pylori stool test, and 131 participants who met the selection criteria (mean age: 48.9 years were randomly given L. gasseri OLL2716-containing yogurt or placebo yogurt once daily for 12 weeks. Gastrointestinal symptoms (epigastric pain, bloating, postprandial fullness, nausea, and heartburn and the levels of serum pepsinogen (PG, 13C-UBT, and H. pylori stool antigen were assessed. No significant differences were observed between the groups in UBT results, H. pylori stool antigens, or the serum PGI/II ratio. In the L. gasseri group, postprandial fullness was significantly lower at the end of the trial compared to the initial level (p10 for bloating compared to the placebo group (p<0.05. Dietary supplementation with L. gasseri OLL2716-containing yogurt may effectively suppress dyspeptic symptoms in H. pylori-infected patients. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Network Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN000016746.

  7. Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardany Ramos-Pastrana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia. This is the first report studying insects associated to indoor body decay process of a white pig (Sus scrofa (Artiodactyla, Suidae in a controlled indoor environment in an urban area of Florencia city, Amazonia Piedmont, Colombia. For a period of 54 days, 9,220 individuals (immature and adults, distributed in 3 orders, 5 families, 10 genera, and 10 species were collected using entomological nets and tweezers. Five decaying stages are described (fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. During the fresh stage we recorded Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; during the bloating stage C. macellaria, C. albiceps, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819, Hemilucillia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758, O. aenescens, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp., Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 and Lasiphanes sp.; during the active decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, L. eximia, M. domestica, O. aenescens, Lepidodexia sp. D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp.; during the advanced decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, M. domestica, Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; and during the remains stage C. albiceps, D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp. The insects were sorted out in 3 ecological categories; necrophagous, predators and parasites and sarco-saprophagous. According to Chao and Jack estimators, total richness was observed on day 20, with 100% of the expected species.

  8. Valorisation of different types of boron-containing wastes for the production of lightweight aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavas, T. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey); Christogerou, A. [Laboratory of Materials and Metallurgy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Rio (Greece); Pontikes, Y. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001, Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Angelopoulos, G.N., E-mail: angel@chemeng.upatras.gr [Laboratory of Materials and Metallurgy, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 26500 Rio (Greece)

    2011-01-30

    Four boron-containing wastes (BW), named as Sieve (SBW), Dewatering (DBW), Thickener (TBW) and Mixture (MBW) waste, from Kirka Boron plant in west Turkey were investigated for the formation of artificial lightweight aggregates (LWA). The characterisation involved chemical, mineralogical and thermal analyses as well as testing of their bloating behaviour by means of heating microscopy. It was found that SBW and DBW present bloating behaviour whereas TBW and MBW do not. Following the above results two mixtures M1 and M2 were prepared with (in wt.%): 20 clay mixture, 40 SBW, 40 DBW and 20 clay mixture, 35 SBW, 35 DBW, 10 quartz sand, respectively. Two different firing modes were applied: (a) from room temperature till 760 deg. C and (b) abrupt heating at 760 deg. C. The obtained bulk density for M1 and M2 pellets is 1.2 g/cm{sup 3} and 0.9 g/cm{sup 3}, respectively. The analysis of microstructure with electron microscopy revealed a glassy phase matrix and an extended formation of both interconnected and isolated, closed pores. The results indicate that SBW and DBW boron-containing wastes combined with a clay mixture and quartz sand can be valorised for the manufacturing of lightweight aggregates.

  9. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems. PMID:27223279

  10. [Two cases of advanced gastric cancer with peritonitis carcinomatosa that showed disappearance of ascites and obtained a good quality of life by using DIF and paclitaxel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kenji; Tani, Souichiro; Shiogai, Youji; Kodama, Masashi; Mekata, Eiji; Tan, Tohru

    2012-04-01

    We report two cases of advanced gastric cancer. The first was a 77-year-old man who had experienced distal gastrectomy about 35 years ago. He complained of abdominal bloating, and a gastrointestinal scope showed that he had advanced gastric cancer. CT scan revealed massive ascites. Dissemination of the peritoneum was suspected, and chemotherapy using S-1 (80mg/m², biweekly)plus paclitaxel (50mg/m², on days 1 and 8) was selected, He had no major side effects and the ascites disappeared. He was able to receive 18 courses on an outpatient basis. The second case was a 79-year-old man who had total gastrectomy performed 1 year ago. Invasion to the diaphragm and lymph node metastasis were detected. We selected S-1 (80 mg/m²)as adjuvant chemotherapy but that caused severe fatigue. Eventually he refused the drug. Six month later, he had abdominal bloating and CT scan revealed that he had massive ascites. UFT-E (1. 5 g/body) was administered and paclitaxe (l 50 mg/m²) was added. The ascites disappeared and he has had a stable life. DIF (S-1, UFT) plus paclitaxel is considered to be a useful chemotherapy combination against advanced gastric cancer that has peritoneal dissemination or ascites, even for older patients.

  11. Cumin extract for symptom control in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agah, Shahram; Taleb, Amir Mehdi; Moeini, Reyhane; Gorji, Narjes; Nikbakht, Hajar

    2013-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common gastrointestinal disordersCharacterized by chronic abdominal pain, altered bowel habits or changesin stool consistency. Unfortunately, no specific treatments for relieving IBSsymptoms have been suggested yet. This pilot study was conducted to evaluatethe efficacy of the Cumin extract, a kind of herbal used in the treatment of gastrointestinaldisorders like bloating, and other symptoms of IBS. Fifty seven patients with IBS (according to the ROME II diagnostic criteria)with no nay other accompanying illness enrolled in study. Patients wereadvised to discontinue their other treatments during the study course, then 20drops per day of Cumin essential oil was administered for included patients.IBS-associated symptoms including abdominal pain, nausea, painful defection,presence of mucosa in stool, changes in stool consistency and defecationfrequency were evaluated using a questionnairebefore treatment, 2 and4 weeks after beginning treatment and 2 and 4 weeks after stopping treatment. Abdominal pain, bloating, incomplete defecation, fecal urgency and presenceof mucus discharge in stool were statistically significant decreased duringand after treatment with Cumin extract. Stool consistency and defecation frequencywere also both statistically significant improved in patients with constipationdominant pattern of IBS. Cumin extract can be effective in improving all IBS symptoms. Consideringits low cost and easy availability Cumin administration in patients with IBSmay have economic benefits.

  12. Comparison of patterns of decomposition in a hanging carcass and a carcass in contact with soil in a xerophytic habitat on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, O A; deCarvalho, L M; Goff, M L

    2000-11-01

    Decomposition studies were conducted to determine differences in rates and patterns of decomposition of carcasses hanging and exposed on the surface of the soil. These studies were conducted between 17 October and 17 December 1997 inside of Diamond Head Crater on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The animal model was the domestic pig. Sus scrofa. The rate of biomass removal from the hanging carcass was significantly slower than that observed for the control carcass during the bloat and decay stages of decomposition. Internal temperatures for the control carcass were elevated above the ambient air temperatures during the earlier stages of decomposition (bloated and decay), while those recorded for the hanging carcass approximated the ambient air temperatures. There was a greater diversity of arthropod species recorded and numbers of individuals observed were higher for the control carcass. A significant site of arthropod activity was observed on the surface of the soil immediately under the hanging carcass and this became the primary site of arthropod activity as decomposition progressed.

  13. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  14. Cell differentiation and germ-soma separation in Ediacaran animal embryo-like fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Xiao, Shuhai; Pang, Ke; Zhou, Chuanming; Yuan, Xunlai

    2014-12-11

    Phosphorites of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation (∼600 million years old) yield spheroidal microfossils with a palintomic cell cleavage pattern. These fossils have been variously interpreted as sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, unicellular protists, mesomycetozoean-like holozoans, green algae akin to Volvox, and blastula embryos of early metazoans or bilaterian animals. However, their complete life cycle is unknown and it is uncertain whether they had a cellularly differentiated ontogenetic stage, making it difficult to test their various phylogenetic interpretations. Here we describe new spheroidal fossils from black phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation that have been overlooked in previous studies. These fossils represent later developmental stages of previously published blastula-like fossils, and they show evidence for cell differentiation, germ-soma separation, and programmed cell death. Their complex multicellularity is inconsistent with a phylogenetic affinity with bacteria, unicellular protists, or mesomycetozoean-like holozoans. Available evidence also indicates that the Doushantuo fossils are unlikely crown-group animals or volvocine green algae. We conclude that an affinity with cellularly differentiated multicellular eukaryotes, including stem-group animals or algae, is likely but more data are needed to constrain further the exact phylogenetic affinity of the Doushantuo fossils.

  15. Monitoring Light-induced Structural Changes of Channelrhodopsin-2 by UV-visible and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Eglof; Stehfest, Katja; Berndt, Andre; Hegemann, Peter; Bartl, Franz J.

    2008-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a microbial type rhodopsin and a light-gated cation channel that controls phototaxis in Chlamydomonas. We expressed ChR2 in COS-cells, purified it, and subsequently investigated this unusual photoreceptor by flash photolysis and UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Several transient photoproducts of the wild type ChR2 were identified, and their kinetics and molecular properties were compared with those of the ChR2 mutant E90Q. Based on the spectroscopic data we developed a model of the photocycle comprising six distinguishable intermediates. This photocycle shows similarities to the photocycle of the ChR2-related Channelrhodopsin of Volvox but also displays significant differences. We show that molecular changes include retinal isomerization, changes in hydrogen bonding of carboxylic acids, and large alterations of the protein backbone structure. These alterations are stronger than those observed in the photocycle of other microbial rhodopsins like bacteriorhodopsin and are related to those occurring in animal rhodopsins. UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy revealed two late intermediates with different time constants of τ = 6 and 40 s that exist during the recovery of the dark state. The carboxylic side chain of Glu90 is involved in the slow transition. The molecular changes during the ChR2 photocycle are discussed with respect to other members of the rhodopsin family. PMID:18927082

  16. Studies on the phytoplankton populations and physico-chemical conditions of treated sewage discharged into Lake Manzala in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Naggar, M E; Shaaban-Dessouki, S A; Abdel-Hamid, M I; Aly, E M

    1998-04-01

    Over a full year, the phytoplankton populations and physico-chemical conditions of treated sewage discharged into Lake Manzala in Egypt were investigated. Sixty-seven species of algae were identified, 18 Cyanophyta (Cyanobacteria), 19 Chlorophyta, 21 Bacillariophyta, 6 Euglenophyta, 2 Cryptophyta and one species Pyrrhophyta. Nitzschia (6 spp.), Scenedesmus (6 spp.), Navicula (4 spp.), Oscillatoria (4 spp.) and Euglena (4 spp.) were the most common genera. A remarkable seasonal variation in species composition and standing crop of the phytoplankton populations was noted during the study. The total phytoplankton standing crop appeared to be mainly dependent on the growth of certain species viz., Oscillatoria chalybea, O. princepes, O. tenuis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena constricta (Cyanophyta), Nitzschia obtusa, Bacillaria paradoxa, Cocconeis placentula, Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyta), Pandorina morum, Volvox sp. (Chlorophyta) and Phacus curvicauda (Euglenophyta). The continuous presence of Anabaena constricta and Nitzschia palea was recorded in the treated sewage. The least represented algal divisions were Pyrrhophyta and Cryptophyta, both in terms of quality and quantity. The data indicate that the secondary effluents were unstable in their chemical features and grossly polluted. Therefore, the treatment systems must treat the discharged sewage to a tertiary level before discharging into Lake Manzala.

  17. Light-emitting channelrhodopsins for combined optogenetic and chemical-genetic control of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Ken; Birkner, Elisabeth; Augustine, George J; Hochgeschwender, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Manipulation of neuronal activity through genetically targeted actuator molecules is a powerful approach for studying information flow in the brain. In these approaches the genetically targeted component, a receptor or a channel, is activated either by a small molecule (chemical genetics) or by light from a physical source (optogenetics). We developed a hybrid technology that allows control of the same neurons by both optogenetic and chemical genetic means. The approach is based on engineered chimeric fusions of a light-generating protein (luciferase) to a light-activated ion channel (channelrhodopsin). Ionic currents then can be activated by bioluminescence upon activation of luciferase by its substrate, coelenterazine (CTZ), as well as by external light. In cell lines, expression of the fusion of Gaussia luciferase to Channelrhodopsin-2 yielded photocurrents in response to CTZ. Larger photocurrents were produced by fusing the luciferase to Volvox Channelrhodopsin-1. This version allowed chemical modulation of neuronal activity when expressed in cultured neurons: CTZ treatment shifted neuronal responses to injected currents and sensitized neurons to fire action potentials in response to subthreshold synaptic inputs. These luminescent channelrhodopsins--or luminopsins--preserve the advantages of light-activated ion channels, while extending their capabilities. Our proof-of-principle results suggest that this novel class of tools can be improved and extended in numerous ways.

  18. Light-emitting channelrhodopsins for combined optogenetic and chemical-genetic control of neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Berglund

    Full Text Available Manipulation of neuronal activity through genetically targeted actuator molecules is a powerful approach for studying information flow in the brain. In these approaches the genetically targeted component, a receptor or a channel, is activated either by a small molecule (chemical genetics or by light from a physical source (optogenetics. We developed a hybrid technology that allows control of the same neurons by both optogenetic and chemical genetic means. The approach is based on engineered chimeric fusions of a light-generating protein (luciferase to a light-activated ion channel (channelrhodopsin. Ionic currents then can be activated by bioluminescence upon activation of luciferase by its substrate, coelenterazine (CTZ, as well as by external light. In cell lines, expression of the fusion of Gaussia luciferase to Channelrhodopsin-2 yielded photocurrents in response to CTZ. Larger photocurrents were produced by fusing the luciferase to Volvox Channelrhodopsin-1. This version allowed chemical modulation of neuronal activity when expressed in cultured neurons: CTZ treatment shifted neuronal responses to injected currents and sensitized neurons to fire action potentials in response to subthreshold synaptic inputs. These luminescent channelrhodopsins--or luminopsins--preserve the advantages of light-activated ion channels, while extending their capabilities. Our proof-of-principle results suggest that this novel class of tools can be improved and extended in numerous ways.

  19. Multicellularity in green algae: Upsizing in a walled complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Domozych

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix, most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In ulvophytes, uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell-adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cell’s signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the extracellular matrix. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity.

  20. Comparative Life Tables of the Potato Tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella, on Leaves and Tubers of Different Potato Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, Ali; Esmaeili, Nader; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Rafiee-Dastjerdi, Hooshang

    2014-01-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in both fields and stores in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, the susceptibility of different potato cultivars to P. operculella was evaluated by measuring life table parameters. Tests were undertaken with leaves and tubers of 10 potato cultivars in the laboratory: Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox. All parameters showed significant differences among tested cultivars. The longest mean generation times were observed on Marfona and Satina cultivars in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The lowest reproductive rate was observed on leaves and tubers of Marfona cultivar. Correspondingly, the lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase and the lowest finite rate of increase were also obtained on Marfona cultivar in tests on potato leaves and tubers. The highest intrinsic rate of incrase values were observed on Arinda and Baneba in the tests on leaves and tubers, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase were significantly higher on potato leaves than on potato tubers. The lower performance of P. operculella on Marfona cultivar indicated that this cultivar is relatively less susceptible this pest and could be used in integrated pest management programs of P. operculella.

  1. Discovery of bacteria and algae coal balls and its geological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suixian, P.; Jun, Z.; Kaiming, W.

    1983-01-01

    Pyrite coal balls are found in No. 2 seam of Shanxi Formation and No. 8 seam of Taiyuan Formation in Xishan coalfield, Taiyuan. These coal balls contain bacteria, algae and plant fossils. The higher plant fossils are Pteridosperm, Lycopodiales, etc. Bacteria in coal balls are various spherical Fungus, Bacillus, Actinomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Hypha. And algae in the coal balls are Gloeotrichia, Gloeochloris, Codonosiga, Coocolithophorida, Planktoniella, Polysiphonia, Codium, Volvox, Chroococcus, Scinaia, Mallomonas, Melobesia, Chromulina, Nitzchia and Desmarella. They take various shape and have distinct structures. The occurrence of fresh water, brackish water and neritic genera and species of bacteria and algae indicates that there might have been certain intrusion of seawater during the coal-forming process. These bacteria and algae existed in the peat swamps in sessile, planktonic and benthonic forms. Discovery of bacteria and algae coal balls is of geological importance to research on bacteria and algae, coal-forming materials and environment in which coal was formed. 2 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Multicellularity in green algae: upsizing in a walled complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domozych, David S; Domozych, Catherine E

    2014-01-01

    Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous, and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In "ulvophytes," uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cell's signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the ECM. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity.

  3. Phytoplankton community and limnology of Chatla floodplain wetland of Barak valley, Assam, North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Laskar H.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton diversity was investigated over a period of two years (2006 to 2008 in Chatla floodplain wetland in Barak valley, Assam, North-East India. Site 1 and site 2 are two inlets and site 3 is a lentic system associated with vegetation cover of Calamus tenuis and Baringtonia acutangula. The floodplain has a unique hydrology because of the presence of different types of habitats (inlets, fisheries, beels and outlets which maintains a network among the floodplains, rivers and streams. Phytoplankton community composition, density and diversity were studied in relation to environmental variables. All the variables were estimated by following standard methods. Phytoplankton was collected by plankton net and quantitative estimation was made by using Sedgwick Rafter counting cell. Phytoplankton community comprised 53 taxa represented by Chlorophyceae (31, Cyanophyceae (11, Bacillariophyceae (7, Euglenophyceae (1 and Dinophyceae (3. Phytoplankton taxa was dominated by Volvox sp., Nostoc sp., Eunotia sp., Navicula sp., Euglena spp. and density was found highest in site 3 and lowest in site 1. Shannon diversity index (H′ for phytoplankton community varied between 2.4 to 2.65 indicating fairly high species diversity. The varying magnitude of correlationship among environmental variables and phytoplankton species density as shown by Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA indicated that some of the environmental variables (water temperature, transparency, rainfall, nitrate and ammonia are the driving factors for governing the phytoplankton species assemblages in Chatla floodplain wetland. Fluctuation of phytoplankton density and community composition in different habitats indicated various niche apportionment as well as anthropogenic influences.

  4. Eco-physiological adaptation shapes the response of calcifying algae to nutrient limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupraha, Luka; Gerecht, Andrea C.; Probert, Ian; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2015-11-01

    The steady increase in global ocean temperature will most likely lead to nutrient limitation in the photic zone. This will impact the physiology of marine algae, including the globally important calcifying coccolithophores. Understanding their adaptive patterns is essential for modelling carbon production in a low-nutrient ocean. We investigated the physiology of Helicosphaera carteri, a representative of the abundant but under-investigated flagellated functional group of coccolithophores. Two strains isolated from contrasting nutrient regimes (South Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea) were grown in phosphorus-replete and phosphorus-limited batch cultures. While growing exponentially in a phosphorus-replete medium, the Mediterranean strain exhibited on average 24% lower growth rate, 36% larger coccosphere volume and 21% lower particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) production than the Atlantic strain. Under phosphorus limitation, the same strain was capable of reaching a 2.6 times higher cell density than the Atlantic strain due to lower phosphorus requirements. These results suggest that local physiological adaptation can define the performance of this species under nutrient limitation.

  5. A Case of Metastatic Bladder Cancer in Both Lungs Treated with Korean Medicine Therapy Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This case report is aimed to investigate the effects of Korean medicine therapy (KMT including oral herbal medicine and herb nebulizer therapy in treating metastatic bladder cancer in the lungs. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer in both lungs in August 2013. He refused any chemotherapy and was admitted to our hospital in a much progressed state on January 11, 2014. Since then, he was treated with KMT until May 17, 2014. The main oral herbal medicines were Hyunamdan made of heat-processed ginseng, Hangamdan S made of Cordyceps militaris, Panax ginseng radix, Commiphora myrrha, calculus bovis, margarita, Boswellia carteri, Panax notoginseng radix and Cremastra appendiculata tuber, and nebulizer therapy with Soram nebulizer solution made of wild ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis distillate. Their effect was evaluated considering the change of the main symptoms and using serial chest X-ray. The size and number of multiple metastatic nodules in both lungs were markedly decreased and the symptoms had disappeared. These results suggest that KMT can be an effective method to treat metastatic bladder cancer in the lungs.

  6. A Wound Healing Formulation Based on Iranian Traditional Medicine and Its HPTLC Fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandideh, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Dehpour, Ahmadreza; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Herbal therapy was the common treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for wound healing. “Zemad” was the most ancient pharmaceutical dosage form used in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) for skin diseases. In the present research, formulation of a traditionally used Poly Herbal Paste (PHP) for wound healing was performed. Moreover, the fingerprint of the product was prepared by HPTLC method for identification and quality assessment of the formulation. 3.33 % of each plant materials containing Aloe vera, Boswellia carteri and Commiphora myrrha were used in a hydrophilic base. The physical stability and rheological behavior of the formulation was evaluated. Moreover, microbiological tests was performed. Methanol fraction of A. vera, C. myrrha and B. carterri were used as standard materials in HPTLC method. Stability and rheological behavior evaluations as well as microbiological tests showed that the prepared formulation was stable towards physical changes with no growth of pathogenic microorganisms and suitable for topical application. HPTLC fingerprinting of PHP confirmed the presence of compounds corresponding to the plants used in the formula. Regarding to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of the constituents of PHP, the product could be an appropriate candidate for wound healing with respect to its traditional use in ITM. In addition, HPTLC fingerprinting could be used as an applicable method for quality control assessment of the prepared formulation. PMID:28228812

  7. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-05-01

    Natural products offer many possibilities for the treatment of disease. More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is ocean, and recent exploration and access has allowed for new additions to this catalog of natural treasures. The Central Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well as in the academic screens of marine natural product libraries. Here a high-throughput pipeline was initiated by prefacing the antiviral screen with an Image-based High-Content Screening (HCS) technique in order to identify candidates with antiviral potential. Prospective candidates were tested in a biochemical or cell-based assay for the ability to inhibit the NS3 protease of the West Nile Virus (WNV NS protease) as well as replication and reverse transcription of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1). The analytical chemistry techniques of High-Performance Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) where used in order to identify the compounds responsible for the characteristic antiviral activity of the selected sponge fractions. We have identified a 3-alkyl pyridinium from Amphimedon chloros as the causative agent of the observed WNV NS3 protease inhibition in vitro. Additionally, we identified debromohymenialdisine, hymenialdisine, and oroidin from Stylissa carteri as prospective scaffolds capable of HIV-1 inhibition.

  8. Magistritööde kaitsmine : [Kaja Tiisel jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    3. veebr. '99 kaitses Kaja Tiisel TPÜ infoteaduste magistrikraadi kaitsmisnõukogus magistritööd "Tallinna Toomkooli raamatukogu arengulugu ning koostis"; 4. märtsil Uno Ilm TPÜ psühholoogia magistrikraadi kaitsmisnõukogus magistritööd "Süüdimõistetute kriminaalne subkultuur slängis ja tätoveeringutes"; 11. mail Katri Laurimaa TPÜ filoloogiateaduste magistrikraadi kaitsmisnõukogus magistritööd "Muinasjutu "Vahetatud naine" (AT 403B) eesti teisendid rahvusvahelises kontekstis" ja Julia Šamarina TPÜ filoloogiateaduste magistrikraadi kaitsmisnõukogus magistritööd "Sugupoolte küsimus Angela Carteri loomingus (Gender Issues in Angela Carters' Writing)"; 13. mail Tatjana Gramušnjak TPÜ matemaatika magistritööde kaitsmisnõukogus magistritööd "Positiivselt määratud ruutvormide C-tüüpide leidmise probleemidest"; 25. mail Ljudmila Dubjeva TPÜ infoteaduste osakonna magistrikraadi kaitsmisnõukogus magistritööd "Traditsiooniliste infosüsteemide kujunemine Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogus"; 26. mail Ülle Saarits TPÜ kasvatusteaduste ja pedagoogika magistrikraadi kaitsmisnõukogus magistritööd "Vanavanema roll linnaperekonnas : lapsevanema refleksioon" ja Enn Siim TPÜ kasvatusteaduste ja pedagoogika magistrikraadi kaitsmisnõukogus magistritööd "Isiksuse arengu põhimõte aktiivõppes (põhikooli algastmes)"

  9. Taxonomy of freshwater sponges of Maharashtra, India, with illustrated descriptions and notes on ecology and habitats (Porifera: Spongillida: Spongillidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhalekar, Shriraj S; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-10-10

    We present additional taxonomic descriptions, with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) illustrations, field observations documented by colour photographs, and notes on habitats and ecology of Corvospongilla ultima (Annandale), Eunapius crassissimus (Annandale), Stratospongilla bombayensis (Carter), S. gravelyi (Annandale) and S. indica (Annandale) from recent sponge collections made in western Maharashtra, India. Stratospongilla gravelyi is rediscovered after a century, and along with it, C. ultima and S. indica are illustrated with SEM images for the first time, unequivocally differentiating these two species. Additional taxonomic, ecological data and illustrations of Corvospongilla lapidosa (Annandale), Dosilia plumosa (Carter), Ephydatia meyeni (Carter), Eunapius carteri (Bowerbank) and Radiospongilla cerebellata (Bowerbank) are also provided to supplement the previously published SEM illustrations. All ten spongillid species treated here were originally described from India and three of them are known to be endemic to the Indian region. Present study is the first re-examination of these Indian spongillid species using SEM, providing greater resolution of their important taxonomic characters and careful documentation of their habitats.

  10. Scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding by Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobli, Masumeh; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Amin, Gholamreza; Haririan, Ismaeil; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the prevalent gynecological disorders that cause considerable morbidity and management of that plays an important role in protecting women's health. This review focuses on medicinal plants mentioned by Avicenna, a great Iranian philosopher and physician (A.D. 980-1037), in his book Canon for treatment of AUB. Medicinal plants mentioned in Canon for treatment of AUB were elicited and searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Data were collected for the years 1980-2014. The findings included 23 plants belonging to 18 families. Scientific findings have revealed that these plants control AUB through four mechanisms of action including inhibition of inflammatory process, inhibition of prostaglandins production, antiproliferative activity on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and estrogenic activity. All of the plants exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and/or in vivo. Cuscuta chinensis and Portulaca oleracea exhibited estrogenic activity. Boswellia carteri, Lens culinaris, Myrtus communis, Polygonum aviculare, Pistacia lentiscus, and Punica granatum have revealed inhibitory activity on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Some of the mentioned plants including: Ceratonia siliqua, Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscuta epithymum, Cydonia oblonga, Paeonia sp., Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Rumex acetosa and Onopordum acanthium have shown antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells. Investigation of traditional Iranian medicine literatures can lead to the identification of effective natural medicines for the management of AUB; however, conclusive confirmation of the efficacy and safety of these treatments needs more evaluations.

  11. Powder processing and mechanical properties of Silver0.86Lead19Antimony telluride20 (LAST) and Lead0.95Tin0.05Tellurium - Lead sulfide 8% (Lead telluride -Lead sulfide) thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jennifer Elisabeth

    temperature x-ray diffraction was 21.5 x 10-6 K -1. Bloating during post-densification annealing was measured indirectly using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and dilatometry and directly using scanning electron microscopy. Dry milled only PECS-processed PbTe-PbS specimens did not bloat during post-densification anneals up to 936 K. Hot pressed and PECS-processed specimens processed from wet milled and dry and wet milled powder bloated during densification anneals at temperatures over 603 K.

  12. Laparoscopic Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation vs Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication: A Matched-Pair Analysis of 100 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jessica L; Zehetner, Joerg; Wu, Phil; Shah, Shawn; Bildzukewicz, Nikolai; Lipham, John C

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) with the LINX device (Torax Medical) has been reported in several short-and long-term studies, rivaling historic results of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF), but with fewer side effects. However, there have been no studies comparing patients with similar disease to validate these results. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1-year outcomes of patients undergoing MSA and LNF from June 2010 to June 2013. Patients were matched using propensity scores incorporating multiple preoperative variables. Outcomes were measured by GERD Health Related Quality of Life scores, proton-pump inhibitor use, satisfaction, and complications. One hundred and seventy-nine patients met inclusion criteria, 62 MSA and 117 LNF. Propensity score matching identified 50 patients in both groups using the "best-fit" model with a caliper of 0.5 SD. At 1 year after surgery, both groups had similar GERD Health Related Quality of Life scores (4.2 MSA and 4.3 LNF; p = 0.897) and proton-pump inhibitor use (17% of MSA and 8.5% of LNF; p = 0.355). Although there was no difference in the number of patients reporting mild gas and bloating (27.6% MSA and 27.6% LNF; p = 1.000), there were no patients with severe gas and bloating in the MSA group compared with 10.6% in the LNF group (p = 0.022). More LNF patients were unable to belch (8.5% of MSA and 25.5% of LNF; p = 0.028) or vomit (4.3% of MSA and 21.3% of LNF; p = 0.004). The incidence of postoperative dysphagia was similar between the groups (46.8% MSA and 44.7% LNF; p = 0.766). Analogous GERD patients had similar control of reflux symptoms after both MSA and LNF. The inabilities to belch and vomit were significantly fewer with MSA, along with a significantly lower incidence of severe gas-bloat symptoms. These results support the use of MSA as first-line therapy in patients with mild to moderate GERD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  13. An assessment of the cultural capabilities of Trifolium repens L. (white clover) and Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin) mesophyll protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, P S; Lu, D Y; Cocking, E C; Davey, M R

    1983-10-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts isolated from white clover and sainfoin divided to form callus under similar cultural conditions. White clover protoplasts showed varietal differences in their plating efficiency. Sainfoin tissues regenerated readily by forming shoots, but induction of morphogenesis in white clover was only achieved after testing several media and culture sequences. Many of the white clover shoots were abnormal in being fused together to form green plate-like structures, but the latter still developed into plantlets while attached to the parent callus. The ability to isolate, culture, and regenerate mesophyll protoplasts of these two forage legumes is discussed in relation to future attempts to produce somatic hybrids between high tannin containing bloat-safe sainfoin and other major forage legumes such as alfalfa, white clover, and red clover.

  14. On the Performance of Different Genetic Programming Approaches for the SORTING Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus; Neumann, Frank; Urli, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    In genetic programming, the size of a solution is typically not specified in advance, and solutions of larger size may have a larger benefit. The flexibility often comes at the cost of the so-called bloat problem: individuals grow without providing additional benefit to the quality of solutions, and the additional elements can block the optimization process. Consequently, problems that are relatively easy to optimize cannot be handled by variable-length evolutionary algorithms. In this article, we analyze different single- and multiobjective algorithms on the sorting problem, a problem that typically lacks independent and additive fitness structures. We complement the theoretical results with comprehensive experiments to indicate the tightness of existing bounds, and to indicate bounds where theoretical results are missing.

  15. Antimesenteric jejunal diverticulosis after a remote history of necrotising enterocolitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosebel; Schneble, Erica; Mino, Jeffrey; Stallion, Anthony

    2013-04-22

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare, acquired pathology of the small bowel. While most patients are asymptomatic, the condition is difficult to diagnose. It may present with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, bloating and complications including malabsorption, diverticulitis, bleeding, intestinal obstruction or perforation. This is a case presentation of a 27-year-old woman with a history of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) requiring surgical resection as a premature newborn who presented with recurrent abdominal pain and was found to have several small bowel diverticula intraoperatively. She underwent resection with complete resolution of symptoms over a 2-year follow-up. This is the first case report to suggest that small bowel diverticular disease as a long-term complication of NEC may result in chronic morbidity in long-term survivors.

  16. Management of upper dyspepsia in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Hans Christian; Kier, Svend; Husum, Gitte

     Aim: To compare the effect of two strategies for management of dyspepsia. Evaluation based on GP's assessment after two weeks and patients assessment after three months.   Design: Prospective randomised controlled trial in general practice   Methods: 357 patients with dyspepsia where the general...... or discomfort centred in the upper abdomen with or without nausea, vomiting, heartburn, acid regurgitation, early satiety or bloating. Patients were initially treated according to one of two management strategies. The patient was the unit of randomisation. Strategy 1:   Proton pump inhibitor (40 mg omeprazol......) for two weeks. If symptoms were unchanged after to weeks => referral to endoscopy. Later recurrence of symptoms => endoscopy (> 45 year) or management strategy according to helicobacter pylori status and/or clinical reflux (

  17. Double-blind randomized trial of bismuth subsalicylate and clindamycin for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westblom, T U; Madan, E; Subik, M A; Duriex, D E; Midkiff, B R

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated clindamycin and bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Patients with culture or histology positive for H. pylori were randomized to receive two tablets of bismuth subsalicylate four times daily for 4 weeks or bismuth combined with 2 weeks of 300 mg clindamycin four times daily. Clinical symptoms were recorded before and after treatment by means of visual analog scales. Patients in both treatment arms showed improvement in clinical scores for abdominal pain, heartburn, and gas or bloating. Microbiologic cure was achieved in only 1 of 11 patients treated with bismuth alone and in none of 7 treated with bismuth/clindamycin. Successful eradication of H. pylori may require combination of multiple antibiotics, as recommended at the IXth World Congress of Gastroenterology, or pharmacokinetic modulators such as H2-blockers or omeprazole.

  18. Qualitative analysis of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine analogous formula cheng-Qi decoctions by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xuexun; Luo, Kedi; Xiao, Shun; Ai, Ni; Wang, Shufang; Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    Cheng-Qi decoctions (CQs), a group of analogous formulas, are well-known traditional Chinese preparations used as purgative remedies to treat 'internal heat'-induced symptoms, which manifest as a bloated and painful abdomen, hard stools, fever and other clinical observations. In this study, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and UPLC-TOF-MS were employed for separation and structural identification of constituents in CQs. As a result, a total of 90 compounds, including seven anthraquinones, 39 flavones, 21 glycosides, 11 stilbene glycosides, six organic acids, five coumarins and one lignans, were detected and tentatively identified in CQs extracts. The characterization results shed some light on the scientific foundation for clinical application of the CQ analogous formulas. Our results also indicate that the HPLC-MS method is useful for the systemic identification of major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine formulas. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Preparation of low water-sorption lightweight aggregates from harbor sediment added with waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chang-Yuan; Ko, Kuan-Wei; Wang, H Paul

    2011-01-01

    A harbor sediment is successfully recycled at 1150 °C as low water-absorption lightweight aggregate via addition of waste glass powder. Sodium content in the waste glass is responsible for the formation of low-viscosity viscous phases during firing process to encapsulate the gases generated for bloating pellet samples. Water sorption capacity of the lightweight products can be considerably reduced from 5.6% to 1.5% with the addition of waste glass powder. Low water-absorption property of lightweight products is beneficial for preparing lightweight concrete because the water required for curing the cement would not be seized by lightweight aggregate filler, thus preventing the failure of long-term concrete strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Progressive systemic sclerosis with intraoral manifestations: A case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rahul; Jyoti, Bhuvan; Bihari, Manorama; Pradhan, Shobhit

    2016-01-01

    The word scleroderma comes from two Greek words, "sclero" meaning hard and "derma" meaning skin. Scleroderma or progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), a rare condition, was first characterized as a single condition in 1752 by Curzio of Naples. It generally affects woman between 30 and 50 years of age and has a low prevalence. Scleroderma is a disease of the immune system, blood vessels, and connective tissue. Dermal manifestations include stiff, tight, and shiny skin usually of the hands and feet due to swelling and thickening of the connective tissue as they become fibrotic or scarred. Other symptoms include difficulty in swallowing, bloating, abdominal pain, tiredness, lack of energy, weight loss, aching muscles, joints, and bones. The vital organs that may get involved are lungs, heart, and kidneys. We present a case report of PSS in a 45-year-old female patient with characteristic systemic and oral manifestations.

  1. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Christensen, Elsebeth; Loud, Franck B.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Abdominal pain, bloating, and defecation disturbances are common complaints in gastrointestinal functional disorders. This study explores whether bowel symptoms are correlated to colon transit time (CTT), faecal loading (coprostasis), and colon length; and whether prokinetic...... intervention can reduce CTT, faecal retention, and symptoms. METHODS: This observational and interventional study includes 281 patients, and 44 asymptomatic controls. Evaluations included symptoms, physical signs, CTT, faecal loading, barium enema, endoscopy, sonography, anal manometry and biochemistry....... Interventions included a low-fat, high-fiber diet, cisapride or domperidone, and exercise for a mean of 21.6 months. RESULTS: The mean CTT was 40.71 h in patients vs 24.75 h in controls (p = 0.013). In patients, faecal loading was significantly greater than in controls (p

  2. Applying natural evolution for solving computational problems - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Darwin’s natural evolution theory has inspired computer scientists for solving computational problems. In a similar way to how humans and animals have evolved along millions of years, computational problems can be solved by evolving a population of solutions through generations until a good solution is found. In the first lecture, the fundaments of evolutionary computing (EC) will be described, covering the different phases that the evolutionary process implies. ECJ, a framework for researching in such field, will be also explained. In the second lecture, genetic programming (GP) will be covered. GP is a sub-field of EC where solutions are actual computational programs represented by trees. Bloat control and distributed evaluation will be introduced.

  3. Toxicity of Nerium oleander and Rhazya stricta in Najdi sheep: hematologic and clinicopathologic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, S E I; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Farhan, A H

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effects of oral administration of 0.25 g/kg Nerium oleander leaves, 0.25 g/kg Rhazya stricta leaves or their mixture at 0.25 g/kg N. oleander leaves plus 0.25 g/kg R. stricta leaves on Najdi sheep were investigated. Daily oral dosing of R. stricta leaves for 42 days was not fatal to sheep while single oral doses of either N. oleander leaves or the mixture with R. stricta leaves proved fatal to animals within 24 hours with dyspnea, grunting, salivation, grinding of the teeth, ruminal bloat, frequent urination, ataxia and recumbency prior to death. The main lesions were widespread congestion or hemorrhage, pulmonary cyanosis, emphysema, bronchotracheal froths, and hepatonephropathy. The clinical and pathological changes were correlated with alterations in serum LDH and AST activities and concentrations of cholesterol, bilirubin, urea, total protein, albumin, and globulin and hematological values.

  4. It is possible to classify non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients into endoscopically normal groups and minimal change groups by subjective symptoms and responsiveness to rabeprazole -- a report from a study with Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Motoyasu; Shirai, Naohito; Yamaguchi, Kanako; Hongo, Michio; Chiba, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2008-12-01

    The hypothesis that non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients comprise various subgroups is gaining popularity. This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of categorizing NERD patients according to symptom types and response to acid-suppressive drug rabeprazole (RPZ) 10 mg/day. NERD patients were classified as grade N (endoscopically normal), M (minimal change), or erosive GERD, and answered a 51-item, yes-or-no questionnaire pre and post-treatment. Compared to erosive GERD, clear differences existed in pretreatment prevalence of symptoms and responsiveness to RPZ in grades N and M; the results suggested stomachaches (especially at night) were significant symptoms in grade N and dysmotility-like symptoms like bloated stomach were significant in grade M while gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were significant in erosive GERD. Clinical significance of classifying NERD was indicated from different symptoms and responsiveness to PPI.

  5. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions. PMID:24357350

  6. Applying natural evolution for solving computational problems - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Darwin’s natural evolution theory has inspired computer scientists for solving computational problems. In a similar way to how humans and animals have evolved along millions of years, computational problems can be solved by evolving a population of solutions through generations until a good solution is found. In the first lecture, the fundaments of evolutionary computing (EC) will be described, covering the different phases that the evolutionary process implies. ECJ, a framework for researching in such field, will be also explained. In the second lecture, genetic programming (GP) will be covered. GP is a sub-field of EC where solutions are actual computational programs represented by trees. Bloat control and distributed evaluation will be introduced.

  7. Do plain plastic and copper bearing intrauterine contraceptive devices have a central mechanism of action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstuck, N D

    1987-06-01

    The notion that the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) has a central, as well as a local action, is examined. Although the IUCD undoubtedly has a local action, certain IUCD related side effects, e.g. galactorrhoea, bloating and premenstrual syndrome and inadequate luteal function can be explained if the IUCD has some central action. The powerful postcoital anti-fertility effect of both copper-bearing and plain plastic IUCDs probably also depends to some extent on a central action. The central action of the IUCD is probably due to initiation of reflex hypothalamic activity following intrauterine reflex stimulation. The hypothalamic response to IUCD insertion consists of release of beta-endorphin accompanied by raised levels of prolactin, vasopressin and oxytocin.

  8. Altered Brain Microstructure assessed by Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Wiuff Andersen, Lars; Brock, Christina

    2013-01-01

    anisotropy (FA) (i.e., organization of fibers) were assessed in the “sensory matrix” (cingulate cortex, insula, prefrontal and secondary sensory cortex, amygdala, and corona radiata) and in corpus callosum. RESULTS Patients had decreased FA values compared with control subjects in 1) all areas (P = 0.025); 2...... = 0.002) insula. No difference was found in corpus callosum (P > 0.05). The microstructural changes in some areas correlated with clinical parameters such as bloating (anterior insula), mental well-being (anterior insula, prefrontal cortex, and mid-cingulated and corona radiata), autonomic function...... based on electrocardiographic results (posterior insula and anterior cingulate), and presence of gastroparesis (anterior insula). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this explorative study indicate that microstructural changes of brain areas involved in visceral sensory processing are associated with autonomic...

  9. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  10. Neuroimmune Cross Talk in the Gut. Neuroendocrine and neuroimmune pathways contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dervla

    2016-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and disturbed bowel habit, symptoms that impact the quality of life of sufferers. The pathophysiological changes underlying this multifactorial condition are complex and include increased sensitivity to luminal and mucosal factors, resulting in altered colonic transit and visceral pain. Moreover, dysfunctional communication in the bidirectional signaling axis between the brain and the gut, which involves efferent and afferent branches of the peripheral nervous system, circulating endocrine hormones, and local paracrine and neurocrine factors, including immune and perhaps even microbial signaling molecules, has a role to play in this disorder. This minireview will examine recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of IBS and assess how cross talk between hormones, immune, and microbe-derived factors and their neuromodulatory effects on peripheral nerves may underlie IBS symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Inclusion of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage in dairy cow rations affects nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, energy balance, and methane emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyen, N.T.; Desrues, O; Alferink, S.J.J

    2016-01-01

    cow rations in northwestern Europe is still relatively unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sainfoin silage on nutrient digestibility, animal performance, energy and N utilization, and CH4 production. Six rumen-cannulated, lactating dairy cows with a metabolic body weight...... were greater for the SAIN than for the CON diet. Nitrogen retention as a percentage of N intake tended to be greater for the SAIN diet. These results suggest that inclusion of sainfoin silage in dairy cow rations reduces CH4 per kilogram of DM intake and nutrient digestibility. Moreover, sainfoin......Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) is a tanniniferous legume forage that has potential nutritional and health benefits preventing bloating, reducing nematode larval establishment, improving N utilization, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the use of sainfoin as a fodder crop in dairy...

  12. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of new gastro-intestinal prokinetic (ENGIP-II) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwaikar, Pradeep P; Kulkarni, Sujay S; Bargaje, Rahul S

    2005-12-01

    Non-ulcer dyspepsia is a common clinical disorder characterised by reduced gastric motility. Safety concerns have restricted use of currently available prokinetic drugs. Itopride is a new safer prokinetic drug with dopamine D2 antagonism and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory actions. The ENGIP-II study was conducted to investigate the efficacy, and safety of itopride in patients of non-ulcer dyspepsia. There were significant reductions in upper abdominal pain, heartburn frequency, gastro-oesophageal regurgitation, nausea, bloating, early satiety after meals at day 3 only; whereas significant improvements were noted in belching, anorexia at day 6 and in vomiting at day 9. Thus, ENGIP-II study shows that itopride was well tolerated patients and appears to be the drug of choice in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia.

  14. Itopride and pantoprazole outcomes in diabetic gastroparesis trial (IPOD trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Veena; Kulkarni, K P

    2008-12-01

    The most common cause of gastroparesis is diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to asses the combination of itopride and pantoprazole in the treatment of diabetic gastroparesis. The study was an open label, multicentre, conducted in 743 patients with diabetic gastroparesis for a period of 3 weeks. The efficacy parameters included nausea, vomiting, early satiety, bloating, postprandial fullness, epigastric pain and regurgitation. The patients were evaluated based on the frequency and severity of symptoms and compared with the baseline scores. There were significant improvement in severity as well as the frequency of all the symptom parameters of the disease (p<0.001). The physicians' evaluation to the therapy was rated either excellent or good.

  15. Could kinesiology taping help mitigate pain, breathlessness and abdominal-related symptoms in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Gourav; Rose, Alison; Briggs, Michelle; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-02-24

    We present the case of a woman who was an amateur athlete diagnosed with primary breast cancer, and 10 years later with terminal metastatic cancer. This case report was prepared posthumously in co-operation with her next of kin (husband). The patient first presented to a sports physiotherapist (AR) for her pain-management and to help maintain physical fitness so that she could continue with sports and an active lifestyle. The patient continued with physiotherapy for several months to enable her to be active. However, when her health deteriorated significantly due to advancing cancer, the treatment was modified and aimed at improving the patient's general well-being. The physiotherapist applied kinesiology tape over the patient's lower rib cage, diaphragm and abdomen in an attempt to manage pain, breathlessness and abdominal bloating. The patient reported alleviation of pain, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort and nausea, accompanied by improvements in eating, drinking, energy levels and physical function. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Giant hepatic hemangioma presenting as gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cemalettin; Akbulut, Sami; Kutluturk, Koray; Kahraman, Aysegul; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    Hemangioma, a most frequently encountered primary benign tumor of the liver, is generally determined incidentally during the course of radiologic tests for other reasons. Most lesions are less than 3 cm and a significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic, although the size and location of the lesion in some patients may be associated with the onset of symptoms. Pressure on the stomach and duodenum of giant hemagiomas developing in the left lobe of the liver, in particular, may result in the development of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and feeling bloated, which are characteristic of a gastric outlet obstruction. A 42-year-old man presented with findings of gastric outlet obstruction and weight loss as a result of a giant hepatic hemangioma.

  17. Current Views on the Clinical Relevance of Blastocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kevin S W; Mirza, Haris; Teo, Joshua D W; Wu, Binhui; Macary, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Blastocystis is an enteric protistan parasite of uncertain clinical relevance. Recent studies indicate that the parasite is a species complex and humans are potentially hosts to nine Blastocystis subtypes, most of which are zoonotic. Subtype 3 is the most common in prevalence studies, followed by subtype 1. Laboratory diagnosis is challenging; the currently recommended diagnostic approach is trichrome staining of direct smears coupled with stool culture. Polymerase chain reaction testing from stools or culture is useful for determining Blastocystis subtype information. The controversial pathogenesis of Blastocystis is attributed to subtype variations in virulence; although current studies seem to support this idea, evidence suggests other factors also contribute to the clinical outcome of the infection. Clinical signs and symptoms of blastocystosis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, and flatulence. Extraintestinal manifestations, predominantly cutaneous, also were reported. In vitro and animal studies shed new light on the pathobiology of Blastocystis.

  18. Cryptosporidium: a frequent finding in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, L; Pohjola, S; Jokipii, A M

    1983-08-13

    1422 faecal samples sent by general practitioners for routine parasitological examination were surveyed in 3 months. Of the 10.8% short-listed for special examination for cryptosporidium oocysts, 14 (9.1%) were positive. Charcot-Leyden crystals were not associated with cryptosporidiosis. All 14 patients had symptoms of gastrointestinal infection, which seemed to be related to a trip abroad. The incubation period varied between 4 and 12 days. Clinically cryptosporidiosis could not be distinguished from giardiasis, but its duration was shorter (median 10 days), strong abdominal pain and cramps were commoner, and bloating, anorexia, and weakness were less common. The disease can be diagnosed by identification of oocysts in faecal samples that have undergone formalin-ether concentration. There is no specific treatment for it, and recovery is spontaneous.

  19. The low FODMAP diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roest, R H; Dobbs, B R; Chapman, B A; Batman, B; O'Brien, L A; Leeper, J A; Hebblethwaite, C R; Gearry, R B

    2013-09-01

    Current treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is suboptimal. Fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) may trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS patients. Our aim was to determine whether a low FODMAP diet improves symptoms in IBS patients. Irritable bowel syndrome patients, who had performed hydrogen/methane breath testing for fructose and lactose malabsorption and had received dietary advice regarding the low FODMAP diet, were included. The effect of low FODMAP diet was prospectively evaluated using a symptom questionnaire. Furthermore, questions about adherence and satisfaction with symptom improvement, dietary advice and diet were assessed. Ninety patients with a mean follow up of 15.7 months were studied. Most symptoms including abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhoea significantly improved (p 0.27, p FODMAP diet shows efficacy for IBS patients. The current strategy of breath testing and dietary advice provides a good basis to understand and adhere to the diet. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The low FODMAP diet: fundamental therapy in the management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton-Jones, Carol

    2017-09-01

    The low FODMAP diet is now recognized as first-line therapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms including abdominal pain, gas, bloating, diarrhea and or constipation. This information must be disseminated for application to clinical practice. There are many people with IBS worldwide who can benefit from following the low FODMAP diet to alleviate or minimize symptoms. Clinical studies and trials demonstrating the positive outcomes of the low FODMAP diet have been based on diet education provided by dietitians. Understanding the types of carbohydrates that are high in FODMAPs and the associated symptoms, nutrition intervention can be targeted using the low FODMAP diet. The nutrition intervention is relatively in expensive, noninvasive and basically without side-effects if monitored by a dietitian and clinical team. Applying the low FODMAP diet in IBS can greatly improve health and quality of life outcomes by alleviating or significantly improves symptoms.

  1. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance. PMID:22778791

  2. Cecal Torsion in a Six Month Old Holstein-Friesian Steer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, S.; Townsend, H. G. G.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical examination of a six month old Holstein-Friesian steer with a history of bloat and anorexia revealed a distended viscus in the right flank. At surgery, the distended viscus was found to be the cecum which was about 1.37 m (4.5 feet) long and more than 30 cm (one foot) in diameter. A counter-clockwise torsion of about 360° (viewing from the right flank) involving the proximal portion of spiral colon was detected. A cecatomy was performed and a large quantity of rapeseed was removed. The torsion was reduced and the animal appeared to make an uneventful recovery but died suddenly six weeks later. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422161

  3. The impact of opioid analgesics on the gastrointestinal tract function and the current management possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) comprises gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, gastro-oesophageal reflux, delayed digestion, abdominal pain, bloating, hard stool and incomplete evacuation that significantly deteriorate patients' quality of life and compliance. Approximately one third of patients treated with opioids do not adhere to the opioid regimen or simply quit the treatment due to OIBD. Several strategies are undertaken to prevent or treat OIBD. Traditional oral laxatives are used but their effectiveness is limited and they display adverse effects. Other possibilities comprise opioid switch or changing the administration route. New therapies target opioid receptors in the gut that seem to be the main source of OIBD. One is a combination of an opioid and opioid antagonist (oxycodone/naloxone) in prolonged-release tablets, and another is a purely peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonist (methylnaltrexone) available in subcutaneous injections. The aim of this article is to review the pathomechanism and possible treatment strategies of OIBD.

  4. An open-label pilot study to assess the effectiveness of krill oil with added vitamins and phytonutrients in the relief of symptoms of PMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakeman MP

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael P Wakeman School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK Abstract: An open-label pilot study over 4 months to evaluate the effectiveness of a compound formulation of ingredients, which individually have been demonstrated to be implicated in the pathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome to ameliorate the most troublesome symptoms of the condition. The supplement provided thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin D, soy isoflavones, rosemary extract, and krill oil and was taken each day for the 3 months of the trial. Statistically significant effect was reported by the 29 women who completed the study in relief of anxiety, bloating, mood swings, breast tenderness, skin outbreaks, food cravings, fatigue, forgetfulness, insomnia, and headache after 3 months of treatment compared with baseline. This pilot study indicates the formulation to be effective, and a larger placebo-controlled trial is now planned. Keywords: thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin D, soy isoflavones, rosemary extract, premenstrual syndrome

  5. Probiotics supplementation for athletes - clinical and physiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; West, Nicholas P; Cox, Amanda J; Cripps, Allan W

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation has traditionally focused on gut health. However, in recent years, the clinical applications of probiotics have broadened to allergic, metabolic, inflammatory, gastrointestinal and respiratory conditions. Gastrointestinal health is important for regulating adaptation to exercise and physical activity. Symptoms such as nausea, bloating, cramping, pain, diarrhoea and bleeding occur in some athletes, particularly during prolonged exhaustive events. Several studies conducted since 2006 examining probiotic supplementation in athletes or highly active individuals indicate modest clinical benefits in terms of reduced frequency, severity and/or duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness. The likely mechanisms of action for probiotics include direct interaction with the gut microbiota, interaction with the mucosal immune system and immune signalling to a variety of organs and systems. Practical issues to consider include medical and dietary screening of athletes, sourcing of recommended probiotics and formulations, dose-response requirements for different probiotic strains, storage, handling and transport of supplements and timing of supplementation in relation to travel and competition.

  6. Gliadin allergy manifested with chronic urticaria, headache and amenorrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingomataj, Ervin Ç; Gjata, Enkelejda; Bakiri, Alketa; Xhixha, Fatmira; Hyso, Entela; Ibranji, Alkerta

    2011-01-01

    Gluten intolerance is an autoimmune enteropathy caused by heterogeneous mixture of wheat storage proteins. Malabsorption symptoms imply diarrhoea, abdominal pain/bloating and weight loss. This case describes a 22-year-old female subject, who had chronic headache, joint pain, urticaria and long period of amenorrhea. Skin prick tests revealed a sensitisation to α-gliadin, while neurological, gynaecological, endocrine and clinical-laboratory examinations did not justify the above-mentioned symptoms. Gluten-free diet resolved chronic symptoms and re-established the menstrual cycle, whereas a temporary gliadin daily diet re-exacerbated all clinical symptoms. Urticaria occurred 20 min and the chronic headache the next day after exposure to the gliadin-rich diet. In addition, the missing of the expected menstrual bleeding was observed. This case demonstrates that gliadin intake can induce malabsorption and ‘idiopathic’ neuronal or gynaecological symptoms. PMID:22669527

  7. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms -prevalence estimates in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V

    2015-01-01

    , and the median number of experienced symptoms was 2 (interquartile range 1-4). The most common symptoms were tiredness (53.0%) and abdominal bloating (36.7%), while postmenopausal bleeding (2.3%) and involuntary weight loss (2.8%) were least frequent. Most of the symptoms were more prevalent among younger women......OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Nationwide in Denmark. POPULATION: A random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years...... guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence estimates of self-reported experience of gynecological alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 26 466 women (54.5%) participated in the study. Some 80.3% had experienced at least one of the alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks...

  8. Could kinesiology taping help mitigate pain, breathlessness and abdominal-related symptoms in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Gourav; Rose, Alison; Briggs, Michelle; Johnson, Mark I

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a woman who was an amateur athlete diagnosed with primary breast cancer, and 10 years later with terminal metastatic cancer. This case report was prepared posthumously in co-operation with her next of kin (husband). The patient first presented to a sports physiotherapist (AR) for her pain-management and to help maintain physical fitness so that she could continue with sports and an active lifestyle. The patient continued with physiotherapy for several months to enable her to be active. However, when her health deteriorated significantly due to advancing cancer, the treatment was modified and aimed at improving the patient's general well-being. The physiotherapist applied kinesiology tape over the patient's lower rib cage, diaphragm and abdomen in an attempt to manage pain, breathlessness and abdominal bloating. The patient reported alleviation of pain, breathlessness, abdominal discomfort and nausea, accompanied by improvements in eating, drinking, energy levels and physical function. PMID:28237944

  9. An evolutionary model with Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Feverati, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The development of a large non-coding fraction in eukaryotic DNA and the phenomenon of the code-bloat in the field of evolutionary computations show a striking similarity. This seems to suggest that (in the presence of mechanisms of code growth) the evolution of a complex code can't be attained without maintaining a large inactive fraction. To test this hypothesis we performed computer simulations of an evolutionary toy model for Turing machines, studying the relations among fitness and coding/non-coding ratio while varying mutation and code growth rates. The results suggest that, in our model, having a large reservoir of non-coding states constitutes a great (long term) evolutionary advantage.

  10. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions.

  11. A checklist of Calliphoridae blowflies (Insecta, Diptera) associated with a pig carrion in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavati, Graziela M; de Assis Santana, Fernando H; Pujol-Luz, José R

    2010-11-01

    Although the Cerrado is the second major Brazilian biome, few studies have been undertaken about its entomofauna. Blowflies have an important role in forensic entomology, helping in the determination of postmortem intervals. The main goal of this exploratory study was to identify and to catalog the blowfly species associated with a pig carcass. The study was conducted in a pasture in Brasília, Distrito Federal. A pig (Sus scrofa) was killed with a .22 caliber shot in the frontal region of the head. Adult blowflies were surveyed daily from June 1 through 30, 2004. A total of 14,910 adult calliphorids were collected, representing eight species: Chrysomya albiceps, C. megacephala, Cochliomyia macellaria, Chloroprocta idioidea, Hemilucilia semidiaphana, H. segmentaria, Lucilia cuprina, and L. eximia. C. albiceps was the most frequent species, amounting to 94.76% of the catch. Five decomposition stages were observed, and for calliphorids, the most attractive stage was the bloated one.

  12. A preliminary study of insect fauna on pig carcasses located in sugarcane in winter in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, L; Gomes, G; Desuó, I C

    2009-06-01

    Minimum post-mortem intervals can be estimated based on analyses of the pattern of insect succession on a carcass. In order to successfully apply this approach, insect development rates must be considered with regard to local regional climatic conditions. This study is the first to analyse insect succession on carcasses decomposing in a sugarcane crop in Brazil. In all seasons, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) were frequent visitors during the fresh and bloated stages of decomposition, whereas Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Dermistdae), Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Oxelytrum sp. (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were characteristic at the most advanced decomposition stages. The fact that climatic variations influence the occurrence of insect species and vegetation in the tropics may help to solve crimes through sampling of the local insect fauna, as may the fact that only certain groups of insects occur in specific regions of large countries like Brazil.

  13. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kavuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha’s Adhi (originated from mind and Vyadhi (ailment/disease concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS.

  14. Nonmotor gastrointestinal disorders in older patients with Parkinson’s disease: is there hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Doina Georgescu,1 Oana Elena Ancusa,1 Liviu Andrei Georgescu,2 Ioana Ionita,3 Daniela Reisz4 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Urology, 3Department of Hematology, 4Department of Neurology, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania Abstract: Despite the fact that nonmotor symptoms (NMS like gastrointestinal (GI complaints are frequently reported in Parkinson’s disease (PD, no therapeutic guidelines are available. This study aimed to manage some lower GI-NMS in a group of patients with PD. A total of 40 patients (17 males, 23 females; mean age 76.05±2.09 years were randomly selected for this study. Patients were confirmed to have PD (modified Hoehn–Yars scale: 2.075±0.4 who had undergone levodopa or dopamine agonist treatment. In the non-motor symptoms questionnaire (NMS-Quest, regarding GI complaints, the following were recorded: abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation of mild-to-moderate severity. Laboratory studies, abdominal ultrasound, and upper and lower digestive endoscopies were performed to rule out organic issues. All patients increased their water intake to 2 L/d and alimentary fiber to 20–25 g/d. Twenty patients received trimebutine 200 mg three times daily half an hour before meals. The other 20 patients received probiotics (60 mg per-tablet of two lactic bacteria: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium infantis, 2×/d, 1 hour after meals for 3 months along with the reassessment of GI complaints. Our results demonstrated that there were significant statistical differences in all assessed symptoms in the first group: 1.55±0.51 vs 0.6±0.5 (P<0.0001 for abdominal pain; 1.6±0.5 vs 0.45±0.51 (P<0.0001 for bloating; and 1.5±0.51 vs 0.85±0.67 (P=0.0014 for constipation with incomplete defecation. The second group displayed statistical differences only for abdominal pain 1.45±0.51 vs 1.05±0.69 (P=0.00432 and bloating 1.4±0.5 vs 0.3±0.47 (P<0.0001. For constipation

  15. Correlation of bowel symptoms with colonic transit, length, and faecal load in functional faecal retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Christensen, Elsebeth; Loud, Franck B

    2009-01-01

    intervention can reduce CTT, faecal retention, and symptoms. METHODS: This observational and interventional study includes 281 patients, and 44 asymptomatic controls. Evaluations included symptoms, physical signs, CTT, faecal loading, barium enema, endoscopy, sonography, anal manometry and biochemistry....... Interventions included a low-fat, high-fiber diet, cisapride or domperidone, and exercise for a mean of 21.6 months. RESULTS: The mean CTT was 40.71 h in patients vs 24.75 h in controls (p = 0.013). In patients, faecal loading was significantly greater than in controls (p....030), and symptoms increased significantly with increase in the number of redundancies (pcontrols (p = 0.033). Factor analysis showed that bloating correlated significantly with abdominal...

  16. Laparoscopic Nissen Rossetti fundoplication in situs inversus totalis-A blessing in disguise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharatam, Kaundinya Kiran; Maran, Manuneethi; Siva Raja, P K

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and Nissen Rossetti fundoplication represent two different surgical approaches for treating hiatus hernia. We report a Laparoscopic Nissen Rossetti fundoplication (LNRF) for gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in a patient with situs inversus totalis (SIT). A 38-year-old man with SIT was diagnosed with sliding hiatus hernia. We performed Laparoscopic Nissen Rossetti procedure for this patient. The patient was discharged on first postoperative day after he tolerated oral liquids. SIT is a rare anomaly presenting in 1-2 per 10,000 individuals. As this rare anomaly (SIT) led preoperative anticipation of respiratory and blood loss complications the above procedure was chosen. Less operating time, less calculated blood loss and improvement of symptoms with no associated gas bloating syndrome was noted especially with SIT. We recommend relook into the Laparoscopic Nissen Rossetti fundoplication as an effective procedure in GERD especially with rare anomalies like SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated to Hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Seretis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is considered to be a physical disorder that mainly affects the bowel and is clinically characterized by lower abdominal pain or discomfort, diarrhea, constipation (or alternating diarrhea/constipation, gas, bloating, and nausea. According to recent studies, it appears that there is an association with increased prolactin levels in patients suffering from IBS. We report a rare case of regression of IBS symptoms (constipation type in a 16-year-old female adolescent after receiving cabergoline for treating hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary macroadenoma. Our hypothesis is that increased prolactin levels, for instance due to a pituitary adenoma, may suppress prolactin-releasing peptide release and lead to a reverse feedback interaction, consequently resulting in oversecretion of cholecystokinin, inducing the development of IBS.

  18. A preliminary study on the decomposition and dipteran associated with exposed carcasses in an oil palm plantation in Bandar Baharu, Kedah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Abu Hassan, A

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out in an oil palm plantation in Bandar Baharu, Kedah using monkey carcasses and focuses in documenting the decomposition and dipteran colonization sequences in 50 days. This is the first study of Diptera associated with the exploitation of carcasses conducted in the north of peninsular Malaysia during the dry and wet seasons thereat. During the process of decomposition in both seasons, five phases of decay were recognized namely fresh, bloated, active decay, advance decay and dry remain. In this decomposition study, biomass loss of carcass occurred rapidly during the fresh to active decay stage due to the colonization and feeding activity of the Diptera larvae. The duration of the fresh and bloated stages of decay were the same in wet and dry seasons but later stages of decay were markedly shorter during the wet season. Twenty one species of adult Diptera were identified colonizing carcasses in the study period. Among the flies from the family Calliphoridae, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius and Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin were recognized as the earliest arrivals on the first day of exposure. Adult Ch. nigripes was abundant for approximately two weeks after placement of the carcasses. By comparing the percentages of adults collected during the study period, the calliphorids abundance in percentages in wet season was 50.83%, but in dry season, the abundance was only about 35.2%. In contrast, the percentage of Sphaeroceridae in wet season was only 3.33%, but in the dry season, the abundance was 20.8%. Dipteran in family Phoridae, Piophilidae, Sepsidae, Drosophilidae and Dolichopodidae colonized the carcasses for a long period of time and were categorized as long term colonizers.

  19. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showing significantly lower forage digestibility. This possibility was studied using two wheat cultivars with contrasting sugar accumulation at low temperature. A series of experiments with contrasting temperatures were performed in controlled-temperature field enclosures (three experiments and growth chambers (two experiments. Plants were grown at either cool (8.1 °C–9.3 °C or warm (15.7 °C–16.5 °C conditions in field enclosures, and at either 5 °C or 25 °C in growth chambers. An additional treatment consisted of transferring plants from cool to warm conditions in the field enclosures and from 5 °C to 25 °C in the growth chambers. The plants in the field enclosure experiments were exposed to higher irradiances (i.e., 30%–100% than those in the growth chambers. Our results show that (i low temperatures led to an increased hemicellulose content, in parallel with sugar accumulation; (ii low temperatures produced negligible changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility while leading to a higher in vitro rumen gas production, especially in the higher sugar-accumulating cultivar; (iii transferring plants from cool to warm conditions led to a sharp decrease in in vitro rumen gas production in both cultivars; and (iv light intensity (in contrast to temperature appeared to have a lower impact on forage quality.

  20. A pilot study on the effect of a symbiotic mixture in irritable bowel syndrome: an open-label, partially controlled, 6-month extension of a previously published trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, C; Tremolaterra, F; Gallotta, S; Fortunato, A; Cappello, C; Ciacci, C; Iovino, P

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, the efficacy of probiotics has received considerable attention in the treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this regard, a symbiotic mixture (Probinul(®)) has shown beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to extend the previously published 4-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of this symbiotic mixture. This is an open-label prospective, partially controlled, 6-month extension period pilot study in which patients continued to receive the symbiotic mixture (Group 1) or were switched from placebo to symbiotic mixture (Group 2) using cyclic administration (last 2 weeks/month). The primary endpoints were the overall satisfactory relief of bloating and flatulence (assessed as proportions of responders). The secondary endpoints were evaluation of the symptom severity scores (bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency) and bowel function scores (frequency, consistency and incomplete evacuation). Twenty-six IBS patients completed the 6-month extension period (13 patients in Group 1 and 13 patients in Group 2). In the per-protocol analysis, the proportions of responders across time were not significantly different in the groups but in Group 2, there was an increased percentage of responders for flatulence (p = 0.07). In addition, the score of flatulence was reduced significantly during the 6-month treatment period in Group 2 (p symbiotic mixture was associated with persistence of relief from flatulence or new reduction in flatulence in the present 6-month long extension study. These results need to be more comprehensively assessed in large, long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled studies.

  1. Symptoms Associated with Dietary Fiber Supplementation over Time in Individuals with Fecal Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Donna Z.; Savik, Kay; Jung, Hans-Joachim G.; Whitebird, Robin; Lowry, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowledge about adverse symptoms over time from fiber supplementation is lacking. Purpose To compare the severity of adverse gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during supplementation with dietary fiber or placebo over time in adults with fecal incontinence. Secondary aims were to determine the relationship between symptom severity and emotional upset and their association with study attrition and reducing fiber dose. Methods Subjects (N=189, 77% female, 92% white, (age = 58 years, SD = 14) with fecal incontinence were randomly assigned to placebo or a supplement of 16g total dietary fiber/day from one of three sources: gum arabic, psyllium, or carboxymethylcellulose. They reported GI symptoms daily during baseline (14 days), incremental fiber dosing (6 days), and two segments of steady full fiber dose (32 days total). Results Severity of symptoms in all groups was minimal. Adjusting for study segment and day, a greater feeling of fullness in the psyllium group was the only symptom that differed from symptoms in the placebo group. Odds of having greater severity of flatus, belching, fullness, and bloating were 1.2–2.0 times greater in the steady dose segment compared to baseline. There was a positive association between symptom severity and emotional upset. Subjects with a greater feeling of fullness or bloating or higher scores for total symptom severity or emotional upset were more likely to withdraw from the study sooner or reduce fiber dose. Conclusions Persons with fecal incontinence experience a variety of GI symptoms over time. Symptom severity and emotional upset appear to influence fiber tolerance and study attrition. Supplements seemed well tolerated. PMID:21543963

  2. Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kok-Sun; Tan, Charmaine You Mei; Mohd Daud, Muhd Ashik; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2012-09-07

    To investigate the effect of reducing dietary fiber on patients with idiopathic constipation. Sixty-three cases of idiopathic constipation presenting between May 2008 and May 2010 were enrolled into the study after colonoscopy excluded an organic cause of the constipation. Patients with previous colon surgery or a medical cause of their constipation were excluded. All patients were given an explanation on the role of fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. They were then asked to go on a no fiber diet for 2 wk. Thereafter, they were asked to reduce the amount of dietary fiber intake to a level that they found acceptable. Dietary fiber intake, symptoms of constipation, difficulty in evacuation of stools, anal bleeding, abdominal bloating or abdominal pain were recorded at 1 and 6 mo. The median age of the patients (16 male, 47 female) was 47 years (range, 20-80 years). At 6 mo, 41 patients remained on a no fiber diet, 16 on a reduced fiber diet, and 6 resumed their high fiber diet for religious or personal reasons. Patients who stopped or reduced dietary fiber had significant improvement in their symptoms while those who continued on a high fiber diet had no change. Of those who stopped fiber completely, the bowel frequency increased from one motion in 3.75 d (± 1.59 d) to one motion in 1.0 d (± 0.0 d) (P fiber intake had increased bowel frequency from a mean of one motion per 4.19 d (± 2.09 d) to one motion per 1.9 d (± 1.21 d) on a reduced fiber diet (P fiber diet continued to have a mean of one motion per 6.83 d (± 1.03 d) before and after consultation. For no fiber, reduced fiber and high fiber groups, respectively, symptoms of bloating were present in 0%, 31.3% and 100% (P dietary fiber.

  3. Bio-susceptibility of materials and thermal insulation systems used for historical buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Ettenauer, Joerg; Pinar, Guadalupe

    2013-04-01

    In historical buildings of Northern countries high levels of energy are necessary to reach comfortable temperatures especially during the cold season. For this reason historical buildings are now also included in country specific regulations and ordinances to enhance the "energy - efficiency". Since an exterior insulation - as it is commonly used for modern architecture - is incompatible with monument protection, several indoor insulation systems based on historical and ecological materials, are on the market that should improve the thermic performance of a historical building. However, using organic materials as cellulose, loam, weed or wood, bears the risk of fungal growth and thus may lead to health problems in indoor environments. For this reason 5 different ecological indoor insulations systems were tested for their bio-susceptibility against various fungi both under natural conditions - after 2 years of installation in an historical building - and under laboratory conditions with high levels of relative humidity. Fungal growth was evaluated by classical isolation and cultivation as well as by molecular methods. The materials turned out to have a quite different susceptibility towards fungal contamination. Whereas insulations made of bloated Perlite (plaster and board) did not show any fungal growth after 2 years of exposition, the historical insulation made of loam and weed had high cell counts of various fungi. In laboratory experiments wooden softboard represented the best environment for fungal growth. As a result from this study, plaster and board made of bloated Perlite are presented as being the most appropriate materials for thermal insulation at least from the microbiological and hygienic point of view. For future investigations and for the monitoring of fungi in insulation and other building materials we suggest a molecular biology approach with a common protocol for quantitative DNA-extraction and amplification.

  4. [Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome (PMS) with lisuride maleate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, C; Aguilar-Guerrero, J A; García-Moreno, L

    1996-12-01

    The etiology of PMS has not yet been defined, although there are several theories among which it is reported that there is an increase in prolactine levels involved in it. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a dopamine receptor agonist (lisuride maleate), in the treatment of PMS. 35 patients between 19 and 35 years old were recruited in a prospective study design, with diagnosis of PMS and no other gynecological disorder ruled out clinical and ultrasonographic examination, women with no previous treatment and with no use of hormonal agents, these patients were treated for three months with lisuride maleate, 0.3 mg-day in a three dosage scheme per day, the following symptoms were evaluated: headaches, mastalgia, bloating, edema of lower extremities and myalgia in legs, as well as hormonal parameters before and after treatment with estrogens, progesterone, prolactine, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone, which were prescribed in the luteal phase (day 21). Results obtained were: reduction of all symptoms scores versus pretreatment: Headache from 85.7 to 20%, mastalgia from 91.4 to 25%, bloating from 74.2 to 40%, edema in lower extremities from 85.7 to 30%, myalgia in legs, from 61 to 34%. The hormonal profile only showed changes in FSH, since the basal pretreatment level was found in 18.6 and the post-treatment value was 13.86, progesterone from 2.7 to 4.6 and prolactine from 7.74 to 6.82. We conclude the lisuride maleate is a good option to the PMS treatment, since a significative reduction of symptoms are induced and it is well tolerated.

  5. Are oral protein supplements helpful in the management of malnutrition in dialysis patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T K Jeloka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized study was planned to compare the effects of whey and egg albumin protein supplements in dialysis patients. Fifty adult patients were randomized to receive either whey protein or egg albumin as per their deficit calculated from K/DOQI recommendations. Actual intake was calculated from three-day dietary diary. Assessment of nutritional status was done by serum albumin and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA. Repeat evaluation was done after 6 months. The mean initial intake of protein in whey and egg albumin group was 0.74 ± 0.3 vs. 0.69 ± 0.2 g/kg/day, ( P = 0.5 and calorie intake was 20 ± 5.6 vs. 20.5 ± 5.1 kcal/kg/day, ( P = 0.8, respectively. Out of 50 patients, two died within 2 months and were excluded from the study and 14 (28% dropped out within one month because of side effects. The most common side effect in drop-outs was nausea and vomiting (43%. Out of remaining 34 patients who completed the study, 80% could not consume >50% of the recommended supplement because of side effects. The protein and calorie intake remained similar at baseline and 6 months in both the groups. The main side effects in whey group were bloating and nausea with vomiting, and in egg protein group were nausea with vomiting, bloating and anorexia. Oral protein supplements were not tolerated in dialysis patients and side effects resulted in high degree of non-compliance.

  6. Emerging role of probiotics and antimicrobials in the management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Brooks D

    2014-07-01

    To review the potential role of probiotics and antimicrobials for management of functional bowel disorders (FBDs), with a focus on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Relevant adult data were identified via PubMed, with additional references obtained by reviewing bibliographies from selected articles. Probiotic treatment involves colonizing the intestines with beneficial microorganisms, whereas antimicrobial therapy involves modulation of the bacterial load and/or host response. A meta-analysis reported that all probiotic species evaluated improved flatulence compared with placebo; some, but not all, species improved abdominal pain and abdominal bloating/distension; and no species evaluated improved stool frequency or consistency, straining during stool evacuation, sense of incomplete evacuation, or fecal urgency. Two additional meta-analyses reported that probiotics significantly improved overall IBS symptoms. Individual studies have demonstrated potential benefits of probiotics for functional constipation symptoms. The nonsystemic antimicrobials neomycin and rifaximin have been evaluated in patients with IBS and other FBDs. Neomycin may improve global IBS symptoms and provide bowel normalization versus placebo, but the risk of ototoxicity and the development of clinically relevant bacterial resistance may limit its use for recurrent symptoms. In phase 3 randomized studies, rifaximin-treated patients were significantly more likely than placebo-treated patients to achieve adequate relief of global IBS symptoms and abdominal bloating. Although preliminary data suggest that development of clinically relevant bacterial resistance is unlikely with rifaximin, prospective data are needed, and a phase 3 study is ongoing. Limitations of evidence for probiotics include small populations analyzed and lack of clarity in optimal dosing regimen; antimicrobial evidence would benefit from better understanding of the effects of repeated treatment in patients with IBS. Probiotics and

  7. Efficacy of morning-only 4 liter sulfa free polyethylene glycol vs 2 liter polyethylene glycol with ascorbic acid for afternoon colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, John M; Perez, Alejandro; Hernandez, Marlow; Schneider, Alison; Castro, Fernando J

    2014-08-14

    To compare the bowel cleansing efficacy of same day ingestion of 4-L sulfa-free polyethylene glycol (4-L SF-PEG) vs 2-L polyethylene glycol solution with ascorbic acid (2-L PEG + Asc) in patients undergoing afternoon colonoscopy. 206 patients (mean age 56.7 years, 61% male) undergoing outpatient screening or surveillance colonoscopies were prospectively randomized to receive either 4-L SF-PEG (n = 104) or 2-L PEG + Asc solution (n = 102). Colonoscopies were performed by two blinded endoscopists. Bowel preparation was graded using the Ottawa scale. Each participant completed a satisfaction and side effect survey. There was no difference in patient demographics amongst groups. 4-L SF-PEG resulted in better Ottawa scores compared to 2-L PEG + Asc, 4.2 vs 4.9 (P = 0.0186); left colon: 1.33 vs 1.57 respectively (P = 0.0224), right colon: 1.38 vs 1.63 respectively (P = 0.0097). No difference in Ottawa scores was found for the mid colon or amount of fluid. Patient satisfaction was similar for both arms but those assigned to 4-L SF-PEG reported less bloating: 23.1% vs 11.5% (P = 0.0235). Overall polyp detection, adenomatous polyp and advanced adenoma detection rates were similar between the two groups. Morning only 4-L SF-PEG provided superior cleansing with less bloating as compared to 2-L PEG + Asc bowel preparation for afternoon colonoscopy. Thus, future studies evaluating efficacy of morning only preparation for afternoon colonoscopy should use 4-L SF-PEG as the standard comparator.

  8. Incidence and presentation of reported coeliac disease in Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan: the next 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Joanna J; Lee, Bee; Turner, Jeffrey K; Beale, Amanda; Jenkins, Huw R; Swift, Gillian L

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether there is a continued increase in the incidence of coeliac disease (CD) in the population of Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan between 1996 and 2005 compared with previous data for 1981-1995, and to describe the presenting features during this time. Retrospective case-finding study using pathology, dietetic and clinical records held in hospitals and general practice within Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan. All local consultants including those at private hospitals were contacted. Incidence rates were calculated using the Welsh Assembly Government's mid-year estimates. In total, 347 newly diagnosed cases of CD (42 children, 305 adults) were detected. Compared with previous published data, incidence rates in adults per 100 000 have increased from 3.08 at the end of 1995 to 11.13 in 2005. In children, the disease incidence has trebled to 6.89 per 100 000. There have been some changes in presenting symptoms, with a marked preponderance of abdominal pain and bloating in women (Pcoeliac serology testing from 1996 to 2005, associated with an increased absolute number of new cases. However, the proportion of new cases diagnosed compared with numbers of serological tests performed decreased from 5.8 to 1.1%. The incidence of CD in children and adults has markedly increased. One of the most striking features of our data in adult CD is the increasing frequency of abdominal pain and bloating in the female cohort. Incorporation of antibody testing into clinical guidelines is likely to result in a wider spectrum of individuals with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms being investigated and diagnosed with CD in the future.

  9. A pilot trial on subjects with lactose and/or oligosaccharides intolerance treated with a fixed mixture of pure and enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alexander Bertuccioli,2 Eleonora Marini,3 Leandro Ivaldi4 1Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Italian Association Fitness and Medicine, Fano, PU, Italy; 3Pharmextracta, Pontenure, Piacenza, Italy; 4Digestive Endoscopic Department, Ceva Hospital, Ceva, Cuneo, Italy Aim: Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of α- and ß-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc. This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated α- plus ß-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods. Methods: Sixteen subjects intolerant to lactose and/or complex carbohydrates were enrolled and evaluated in terms of gut symptoms with 1 uncontrolled diet, 2 diet devoid of offending foods, and 3 uncontrolled diet along with pure, enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase (DDM Galactosidase®. Results: Even with the uncontrolled diet, intolerant subjects treated with DDM Galactosidase® exhibited reduced gut symptoms (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation significantly better than the control treatment as well as having a diet devoid of offending foods. Conclusion: DDM Galactosidase® is a valid and safe optional treatment to counteract lactose and complex carbohydrate intolerance in subjects who prefer not to avoid, at least partially, offending foods. Keywords: lactase, lactose intolerance, complex carbohydrate intolerance

  10. Is it necessary to screen for celiac disease in adult idiopathic osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Aletaha, Najmeh; Khonche, Ahmad; Farahvash, Benyamin; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    the aim of this study was to investigate the necessity of screening for celiac disease in idiopathic osteoporotic patients. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are well-known and prevalent complications of celiac disease. However, the relative prevalence of celiac disease among osteoporotic populations is not known, and the benefit of screening for celiac disease among the osteoporotic population remains controversial. We evaluated a total of 560 individuals, 460 with osteoporosis and 100 healthy subjects, from the rheumatology clinic in Imam Khomeini and Shariati hospital by IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) for celiac disease. Then individuals with positive serologic test underwent upper GI Endoscopy & 2nd part duodenum biopsies. The clinical findings were evaluated in both groups and were compared with each other. Five (1.08%) of 460 patients with osteoporosis and 1 (1%) of 100 subjects without osteoporosis had celiac disease by positive serologic & pathology results. Three patients with positive serology & pathology results were female. All patients in osteoporotic group had at least one other symptom of celiac disease. Two of them had anemia and others had chronic abdominal pain, recurrent oral aphtous lesion & chronic bloating. In the present study, the prevalence of celiac disease in osteoporotic patients is not high enough to justify recommendation for serologic screening of celiac disease in all patients with idiopathic osteoporosis; but in osteoporotic patients with other celiac or gastrointestinal symptoms and signs, for example iron deficiency anemia, chronic dyspepsia and bloating, constipation or diarrhea and recurrent aphtous lesions, it is necessary to evaluate for celiac disease.

  11. Distress-Based Gastrointestinal Symptom Clusters and Impact on Symptom Interference and Quality of Life in Patients with a Hematologic Malignancy Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwin, Catherine H; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2017-04-01

    People with cancer can experience co-occurring related symptoms, labeled symptom clusters. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common side effects of chemotherapy, but little research has investigated GI symptom clusters. A further gap in symptom cluster research is the lack of studies reporting symptom clusters based on symptom distress ratings. To identify distress-based GI symptom clusters and to investigate their relationship to symptom interference with daily life and quality of life (QoL). About 105 adults with hematologic malignancy receiving chemotherapy. On Day 1 of a cycle of chemotherapy, participants completed a modified version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale assessing 30 clinically relevant symptoms, the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory Symptom Interference with Daily Life subscale, and the Fox Simple Quality of Life Scale. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify distress-based symptom clusters. Symptom clusters with ≥50% GI symptoms were labeled GI symptom clusters. Linear mixed modeling explored relationships between GI symptom clusters and symptom interference with daily life and QoL. Of the six distress-based symptom clusters found, the bloating cluster and appetite cluster were identified as GI symptom clusters. Both the bloating cluster and the appetite cluster were significantly related to symptom interference with daily life, but only the appetite cluster was significantly related to QoL. This research demonstrates the existence of distress-based GI symptom clusters and their relationship to symptom interference and QoL. Future work should explore predictors of distress-based symptom clusters and interventions to manage them. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association and symptom characteristics of irritable bowel syndrome among bronchial asthma patients in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panicker Radhakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Excess prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in asthma has been reported, suggesting a link between these two conditions. Aims: To investigate the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and asthma, and explore the symptoms of IBS among asthma patients in Kuwait. Settings and Design: Case control study. Methods: In a tertiary center, for allergy and asthma, 138 patients aged 20-65 years, with asthma, diagnosed clinically and by spirometry,were compared with 145 healthy, non-asthmatic controls matched for age, gender and nationality. Cases and controls completed a self-administered questionnaire of irritable bowel syndrome diagnosis (ROME II criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using SPSS software, and proportions were tested with Chi-square or Fisher′s test. Odds ratio (OR with 95% Confidence Interval (CI were calculated to identify the associated risk factors. The demographic variables were selected for logistic regression analysis. Results : A significantly large proportion (39.13% of asthmatics had IBS as compared to 7.93% controls (P < 0.001. A higher proportion of females with IBS were observed in cases and controls (74%, 61.54%. IBS was seen in 87% cases using inhalers, and in 13% with additional oral theophylline (P < 0.001. As many as 66.6% cases, had IBS with relatively short duration of asthma (1-5 years, P < 000. Predominant symptoms of IBS in asthmatics were abdominal discomfort or distension (64.8% vs. 11.5%, (P < 0.000, OR = 14.1; 95%CI: 3.748-53.209, bloated feeling of abdomen (74.1% vs. 34.62% (P < 0.001, OR = 5.38; 95%CI:1.96-14.84, increased frequency of stools (63%, P < 0.006. Conclusions: Irritable bowel syndrome in asthmatics was significantly high, more in the female asthmatics. Abdominal discomfort, persistent bloated feeling, increased frequency of passing stools were the most common IBS symptoms observed.

  13. Pain relief by applying transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) during unsedated colonoscopy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer-Cuenca, J J; Goicoechea, C; Girona-López, A; Andreu-Plaza, J L; Palao-Román, R; Martínez-Santa, G; Lisón, J F

    2011-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive alternative to traditional pain treatments. TENS has been studied in the past as a pain reduction modality in colonoscopy with limited success. Reviews and meta-analysis have shown that the inconclusive results of TENS may be due to the lack of randomized controlled trials and the difficulty in defining precise output parameters. The objective of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the pain-relieving effect of a new application of TENS in unsedated screening colonoscopy. Ninety patients undergoing unsedated screening colonoscopy were randomly allocated to one of three groups: a control group (n=30), a group to receive active TENS (n=30), or a group to receive placebo TENS (n=30). A visual analogue scale (VAS) and a five-point Likert scale were used to assess pain 5 min into the procedure and at the end of the procedure. The patient's bloating sensation during colonoscopy and the effect on the duration of the procedure were also evaluated. Throughout the procedure, the active TENS group experienced a VAS pain score reduction ≥50% compared to the placebo TENS group (PTENS group compared to the placebo TENS and control groups (P=0.009). No significant differences were found between the study groups as to the bloating sensation and the duration of the procedure. We conclude that TENS can be used as a pain relief therapy in unsedated screening colonoscopy. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Arthropod succession on exposed rabbit carrion in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, T I; eL-Kady, E M; Greenberg, B; el-Ghaffar, H A

    1996-07-01

    In 1988 and 1989, seasonal field studies on exposed rabbit carcasses were conducted in Alexandria, Egypt, to describe the decomposition process and arthropod succession patterns. Four decomposition stages were recognized: fresh, bloated, decay, and dry. Carcasses in summer and spring decayed at a much faster rate than those in fall and winter. The bloated stage in summer lasted longer than in spring because of the difference in breeding biology of the primary flies infesting carcasses in these seasons. Dipterous larvae of the family Calliphoridae, and to a lesser extent of the families Sarcophagidae and Muscidae, were responsible for the process of carrion degradation. Carrion-arthropod communities in cooler seasons were distinguished from those in warmer seasons by the presence of certain dipterous (muscids and fanniids) and coleopterous larvae, and by adults of small flies such as sphaerocerids and scatopsids. The presence of adult psychodids, sciarids, and phorids was unique to the winter carrion-arthropod community. Eleven species of carrion-breeding Diptera were found to coexist in the study site. The coexistence of the 2 calliphorids Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) in carrion in fall and spring is a new record for the Palaearctic Region. In spring, 3rd instars of C. albiceps were observed preying on the pupae of their own species. Although the carcasses were of equal size and simultaneously exposed, there was considerable variation in the rate of decay among fall carcasses only, which was attributed to unknown reasons at the beginning of the experiment and to heavy rains later on. This affected oviposition and the feeding period of maggots. Approximately 100 arthropod species were recovered on carcasses throughout the study. Diptera was the predominant group, whereas Coleoptera ranked 2nd. Carcasses in cooler seasons were richer in species than in warmer seasons.

  15. Gastric emptying effects of dietary fiber during 8 hours at two simulated cabin altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinninghofen, Heidemarie; Musial, Frauke; Kowalski, Axel; Enck, Paul

    2006-02-01

    In a questionnaire survey, long-distance flying staff of a charter airline reported significantly more dyspeptic symptoms than did short-haul crewmember and ground personnel (belching: 57% vs. 37%, bloating: 51% vs. 36%). To elucidate the reason for increased frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during long-distance flights, we investigated the effects of altitude and diet on gastric emptying, cardiovascular function, and bodily complaints. In a 2 x 2 repeated measurement design we simulated an 8-h flight in a hypobaric chamber in 16 healthy men subjected to 2 meal conditions (high fiber vs. low fiber) on separate days, and assigned to either a flight altitude of 2500 m (8200 ft) or 1000 m (3280 ft). The subjects were blinded toward altitude. Heart rate and gastrointestinal symptoms were taken every hour, and gastric emptying was assessed by 13C-octanoic acid breath-test. In a separate experiment, we examined the effect of the two test meals (2 g vs. 20 g of fiber) in 30 healthy men under conventional laboratory conditions and found no significant differences. At an altitude of 2500 m, heart rate was significantly increased independent of the dietary condition. Gastric emptying (T1/2) was significantly delayed at 2500 m (8200 ft) when a high-fiber meal was given (146.3 +/- 58.4 min low fiber vs. 193.9 +/- 54.3 min high fiber). The symptom score for gastric distension (mean: 1.33 +/- 0.3 vs. mean: 1.07 +/- 0.15) and bloating (mean: 1.82 +/- 0.47 vs. mean: 1.34 +/- 0.35) were also significantly increased at 2500 m for the high-fiber meal compared with the low-fiber meal. Flight altitude is a physiological load. In combination with a high-fiber diet, this induces significant delays in gastric emptying that may explain symptoms of cabin and cockpit crew and passengers on long-distance flights.

  16. Lactose intolerance in Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegar, Badriul; Widodo, Ariani

    2015-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance (LI)" is considered a common problem in Asians, and in many parts of the world. Its prevalence and age of manifestation varies between by Asian country, for possible genetic or cultural reasons. Studies in Indonesian children 3-15 years old (y) are available within the past two decades, using a pure lactose tolerance test. The prevalences of lactose malabsorption (LM) in pre-elementary (3-5 y), elementary (6-11 y), and junior high (12-14 y) school-children were 21.3%, 57.8%, and 73%, respectively. An increasing trend for LM prevalence was seen within the pre-elementary group, from 9.1% at 3 y to 28.6% at 5 y. The most frequent symptoms of LI in junior high school (JHS) group were abdominal pain (64.1%), abdominal distention (22.6%), nausea (15.1%), flatulence (5.7%), and diarrhea (1.9%), mostly within one hour of lactose ingestion. In children with regular and irregular milk drinking, LM occurred in 81.2% and 69.6%; LI was found in 56.2% and 52.1%, respectively. Most JHS children with dairy-associated recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) symptoms proved to be malabsorbers. Dairy products most related to RAP were milk and yogurt. LI was found in 81% of RAP children with abdominal pain most frequently, followed by nausea, bloating, diarrhea, borborygmi, and flatulence. Symp-tom onset occurred 30 minutes after lactose ingestion, especially nausea, bloating, and abdominal pain. In RAP children LI symptoms mostly found in breath hydrogen concentration>20 ppm. More LI symptoms were found in lactose malabsorbers, but symptoms were mild and generally disappeared in 7 hours, and in most by 15 hours.

  17. Importance of grass-legume choices on cattle grazing behavior, performance, and meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, B; Provenza, F D; Tansawat, R; Maughan, C; Martini, S; Ward, R; Clemensen, A; Song, X; Cornforth, D; Villalba, J J

    2014-05-01

    We determined if tall fescue in a mixture with either tannin-containing sainfoin or saponin-containing alfalfa affected cattle foraging behavior, performance, meat quality, and consumer acceptance of meat. Foraging behavior, BW, and pasture biomass before and after grazing were monitored when cattle strip-grazed 3 replications of 2 treatments from May through September 2010 (12 calves/replication) and from June through September 2012 (8 calves/replication). Animals were allowed a choice between tall fescue and sainfoin (SAN) or tall fescue and alfalfa (ALF) growing in strips (fescue, legume, and fescue-legume mixture). Incidence of use (scan samples) of legumes increased from the beginning to the end of the trials (P 0.05). No incidences of bloat were detected. When cattle (3 calves/treatment in 2010 and 8 calves/treatment in 2012) were slaughtered in September to assess meat quality and consumer acceptance, carcasses were lean (4% to 6% fat content of the longissimus muscle), but compared with ALF, SAN had higher marbling scores, quality grades (Select versus Standard), and back fat thicknesses (P Meat samples from SAN and ALF showed some differences in unsaturated fatty acid profiles and volatiles concentrations (P 0.05). Thus, cattle incorporated a lower-quality grass into their diets even when legumes were available ad libitum during most grazing trials. Choices between tall fescue and legumes differing in the type of secondary compound (tannins vs. saponins) and bloating potential influenced patterns of forage use by cattle and led to differences in meat quality.

  18. Are oral protein supplements helpful in the management of malnutrition in dialysis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeloka, T K; Dharmatti, G; Jamdade, T; Pandit, M

    2013-01-01

    A randomized study was planned to compare the effects of whey and egg albumin protein supplements in dialysis patients. Fifty adult patients were randomized to receive either whey protein or egg albumin as per their deficit calculated from K/DOQI recommendations. Actual intake was calculated from three-day dietary diary. Assessment of nutritional status was done by serum albumin and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). Repeat evaluation was done after 6 months. The mean initial intake of protein in whey and egg albumin group was 0.74 ± 0.3 vs. 0.69 ± 0.2 g/kg/day, (P = 0.5) and calorie intake was 20 ± 5.6 vs. 20.5 ± 5.1 kcal/kg/day, (P = 0.8), respectively. Out of 50 patients, two died within 2 months and were excluded from the study and 14 (28%) dropped out within one month because of side effects. The most common side effect in drop-outs was nausea and vomiting (43%). Out of remaining 34 patients who completed the study, 80% could not consume >50% of the recommended supplement because of side effects. The protein and calorie intake remained similar at baseline and 6 months in both the groups. The main side effects in whey group were bloating and nausea with vomiting, and in egg protein group were nausea with vomiting, bloating and anorexia. Oral protein supplements were not tolerated in dialysis patients and side effects resulted in high degree of non-compliance.

  19. Development of the Diary for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms to Assess Treatment Benefit in Clinical Trials: Foundational Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehnel, Sheri E; Ervin, Claire M; Carson, Robyn T; Rigoni, Gianna; Lackner, Jeffrey M; Coons, Stephen Joel

    2017-04-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits. Three subtypes are defined on the basis of stool patterns: diarrhea-predominant IBS, constipation-predominant IBS, and alternating or mixed IBS. To develop patient-reported outcome measures for qualification by the Food and Drug Administration to support product approvals and labeling in IBS; the article focuses on the qualitative research that provided the foundation for the new measures. Forty-nine concept elicitation and 42 cognitive debriefing interviews were conducted with subjects meeting Rome III criteria; additional criteria were imposed to yield a sample representative of the target patient population. Although incomplete bowel movements, abnormal stool frequency and consistency, and abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating were reported most frequently across concept elicitation interviews, the relative importance of specific symptoms varied by subtype. Among their five symptoms most important to treat, diarrhea-predominant and alternating or mixed IBS subjects frequently identified urgency, loose/watery stools, abdominal pain, and cramping, whereas constipation-predominant IBS subjects commonly included infrequent and incomplete bowel movements, bloating, and abdominal pain. The cognitive debriefing interviews facilitated refinement of each item set, supported minor modifications following translatability assessment, and suggested improvements to the electronic interface. Furthermore, subjects reported that every item was relevant and no concepts of importance were missing. Results support the content validity of the IBS patient-reported outcome measures. A pilot study was recently initiated to inform item reduction, develop scoring algorithms, and provide preliminary psychometric information. Comprehensive psychometric evaluation and responder definition development will follow. Copyright © 2017 International Society

  20. Postprandial symptoms in dysmotility-like functional dyspepsia are not related to disturbances of gastric myoelectrical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Oba-Kuniyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric dysrhythmias, such as tachy- or bradygastria, have been reported in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, but their role in symptom production is uncertain. It is also not known whether gastric dysrhythmias in these patients can be elicited by physiological gastric distension with a meal. We investigated the relationships between symptoms after ingestion of different volumes of water following a test meal and gastric dysrhythmias in FD patients. Fourteen patients with dysmotility-like FD and 13 healthy volunteers underwent paired electrogastrography (EGG studies. Fasted subjects ingested 150 ml of yoghurt with either 150 ml (low volume or 300 ml (high volume water in random order. Fasting and fed EGGs with monitoring of symptoms were performed in both studies. Ten FD patients (71.4% reported upper abdominal discomfort and bloating after the low volume meal, but only one (7.1% presented an abnormal EGG (dominant frequency in the 2-4-cpm range: 58%. Following the high volume meal, 7 patients (50% had symptoms, but none had EGG abnormalities. No significant differences were found between FD patients and controls for any of the EGG variables, in any test. In FD patients with postprandial symptoms, the percentage of the EGG dominant frequency in the normal range (median, 84.6%; range, 76.0-100.0% was similar (P > 0.20 to that in those without symptoms (88.5%; 75.0-100.0%. We conclude that disturbances of gastric myoelectrical activity are unlikely to play a role in the origin of postprandial upper abdominal discomfort and bloating in dysmotility-like FD.

  1. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  2. A comparative study of the decomposition of pig carcasses in a methyl methacrylate box and open air conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of the process of decomposition is essential in establishing the postmortem interval. However, despite the fact that insects are important players in body decomposition, their exact function within the decay process is still unclear. There is also limited knowledge as to how the decomposition process occurs in the absence of insects. In the present study, we compared the decomposition of a pig carcass in open air with that of one placed in a methyl methacrylate box to prevent insect contact. The pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box was in the fresh stage for 1 day, the bloated stage from 2 d to 11 d, and underwent deflated decay from 12 d. In contrast, the pig carcass in open air went through the fresh, bloated, active decay and post-decay stages; and 22.3 h (0.93 d), 62.47 h (2.60 d), 123.63 h (5.15 d) and 246.5 h (10.27 d) following the start of the experiment respectively, prior to entering the skeletonization stage. A large amount of soft tissue were remained on the pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box on 26 d, while only scattered bones remained on the pig carcass in open air. The results indicate that insects greatly accelerate the decomposition process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of plant sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke eReinders

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In angiosperms, sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs have important functions especially in vascular tissue. Here we explore the evolutionary origins of SUTs by analysis of angiosperm SUTs and homologous transporters in a vascular early land plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and a non-vascular plant, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, the charophyte algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus, several red algae and fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Plant SUTs cluster into three types by phylogenetic analysis. Previous studies using angiosperms had shown that Types I and II are localized to plasma membrane while type III SUTs are associated with vacuolar membrane. SUT homologs were not found in the chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus contains a SUT homolog (CaSUT1 and phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is basal to all other streptophyte SUTs analyzed. SUTs are present in both red algae and S. pombe but are less related to plant SUTs than CaSUT1. Both Selaginella and Physcomitrella encode type II and III SUTs suggesting that both plasma membrane and vacuolar sucrose transporter activities were present in early land plants. It is likely that SUT transporters are important for scavenging sucrose from the environment and intracellular compartments in charophyte and non-vascular plants. Type I SUTs were only found in eudicots and we conclude that they evolved from type III SUTs, possibly through loss of a vacuolar targeting sequence. Eudicots utilize type I SUTs for phloem (vascular tissue loading while monocots use type II SUTs for phloem loading. We show that HvSUT1 from barley, a type II SUT, reverted the growth defect of the Arabidopsis atsuc2 (type I mutant. This indicates that SUTs evolved similar (and interchangeable phloem loading transporter capabilities independently.

  4. Origin and diversification of land plant CC-type glutaredoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, M; Bhave, M; Zachgo, S

    2009-07-31

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are ubiquitous glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymes implicated in redox homeostasis, particularly oxidative stress response. Three major classes of GRX genes exist, the CPYC, CGFS classes are present in all pro- and eukaryote species, whereas the CC-type class GRXs are specific to land plants. In the basal land plant Physcomitrella patens, only two CC-type GRXs are present, compared with 21 in Arabidopsis. In contrast, sizes of the CPYC and CGFS classes remained rather similar throughout plant evolution, raising the interesting question as to when the CC-type GRXs first originated and how and why they expanded during land plant evolution. Recent evidence suggests that CC-type GRXs may have been recruited during evolution into diverse plant-specific functions of flower development (ROXY1, ROXY2) and pathogenesis response (ROXY19/GRX480). In the present study, GRX genes from the genomes of a range of green algae and evolutionarily diverse land plant species were identified; Ostreococcus, Micromonas, Volvox, Selaginella, Vitis, Sorghum, and Brachypodium. Previously identified sequences from Chlamydomonas, Physcomitrella, Oryza, Arabidopsis, and Populus were integrated to generate a more comprehensive understanding of the forces behind the evolution of various GRX classes. The analysis indicates that the CC-type GRXs probably arose by diversification from the CPYC class, at a time coinciding with colonization of land by plants. This strong differential expansion of the CC-type class occurred exclusively in the angiosperms, mainly through paleopolyploidy duplication events shortly after the monocot-eudicot split, and more recently through multiple tandem duplications that occurred independently in five investigated angiosperm lineages. The presented data suggest that following duplications, subfunctionalization, and subsequent neofunctionalization likely facilitated the sequestration of land plant-specific CC-type GRXs into novel functions

  5. Comparative life history and fecundity of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on leaves and tubers of different potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golizadeh, A; Esmaeili, N

    2012-10-01

    The potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a noxious pest of the potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) in both field and storage in tropical and subtropical regions. Survival, development and reproduction of the potato tuberworm was compared on leaves and tubers of 10 common cultivated potato cultivars including Agria, Agata, Almera, Arinda, Baneba, Fiana, Marfona, Ramus, Satina, and Volvox at 25 +/- 1 degree C, 65 +/- 5% RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the larval, pupal, and total developmental periods on the various potato cultivars. The total developmental periods varied from 26.6 (on Baneba) to 29.5 d (on Marfona),and ranged from 27.9 (on Marfona) to 30.5 d (on Agria) in the experiments on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. Immature survival rates were lowest on Agria (44.1%) and Marfona (40.6%) on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. The highest total fecundity was observed on Arinda (78.3 eggs) and Ramus (154.8 egg) on potato leaves and tubers, respectively. Significantly fewer eggs were laid on Marfona cultivar's leaves (44.6 eggs) and tubers (72.9 eggs) than any of the other tested potato cultivars. The female reproduction potential on potato leaves was significantly lower than on potato tubers. Cluster analysis of the biological parameters of P. operculella on different potato cultivars demonstrated that Marfona is partially resistant to potato tuberworm. The findings on the susceptibility or resistance of potato cultivars could be a fundamental component of integrated pest management programs for potato tuberworm.

  6. Tying Down Loose Ends in the Chlamydomonas Genome: Functional Significance of Abundant Upstream Open Reading Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick R. Cross

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chlamydomonas genome has been sequenced, assembled, and annotated to produce a rich resource for genetics and molecular biology in this well-studied model organism. The annotated genome is very rich in open reading frames upstream of the annotated coding sequence (‘uORFs’: almost three quarters of the assigned transcripts have at least one uORF, and frequently more than one. This is problematic with respect to the standard ‘scanning’ model for eukaryotic translation initiation. These uORFs can be grouped into three classes: class 1, initiating in-frame with the coding sequence (CDS (thus providing a potential in-frame N-terminal extension; class 2, initiating in the 5′ untranslated sequences (5UT and terminating out-of-frame in the CDS; and class 3, initiating and terminating within the 5UT. Multiple bioinformatics criteria (including analysis of Kozak consensus sequence agreement and BLASTP comparisons to the closely related Volvox genome, and statistical comparison to cds and to random sequence controls indicate that of ∼4000 class 1 uORFs, approximately half are likely in vivo translation initiation sites. The proposed resulting N-terminal extensions in many cases will sharply alter the predicted biochemical properties of the encoded proteins. These results suggest significant modifications in ∼2000 of the ∼20,000 transcript models with respect to translation initiation and encoded peptides. In contrast, class 2 uORFs may be subject to purifying selection, and the existent ones (surviving selection are likely inefficiently translated. Class 3 uORFs are found in more than half of transcripts, frequently multiple times per transcript; however, they are remarkably similar to random sequence expectations with respect to size, number, and composition, and therefore may in most cases be selectively neutral.

  7. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon

    2010-11-18

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Voigt

    Full Text Available Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae. According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in

  9. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Taissa; Kellner, Alexander Wilhelm Armin

    2013-01-01

    Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia): Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(?) microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, 'Ornithocheirus' capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(?) colorhinus comb. n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., 'Ornithocheirus' polyodon, 'Ornithocheirus' platystomus, 'Pterodactylus' daviesii, and 'Ornithocheirus' denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade, here named Anhangueria, which also

  10. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-03-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically

  11. Seasonality and variability of coccolithophore fluxes in response to diverse oceanographic regimes in the Bay of Bengal: sediment trap results. M.V.S. Gupthaa & b, Lina P. Mergulhaoa,*, Daniela Ungerc and V.S.N. Murtyd a National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India b 62, Sagar Society, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India c Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstrasse 6, D 28359 Bremen, Germany d National Institute of Oceanography, 176, Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam - 530 017, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medimi, M.

    2011-12-01

    A study on coccolithophores both in shallow and deep sediment trap samples, collected over a period of one year (January 1992 - December 1992) from three trap locations in the Bay of Bengal were used to understand their production and export processes in relation to diverse oceanographic regimes associated with reversing monsoons. A total of 25 species of coccolithophores were identified, which includes some of the important species, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Florisphaera profunda, Umbellosphaera irregularis, Emiliania huxleyi, Oolithotus antillarum, Umbellosphaera tenuis, Helicosphaera carteri and Calcidiscus leptoporus. The total coccolithophore fluxes increased from the northern to southern Bay of Bengal where G. oceanica, U. sibogae¬ and E. huxleyi were dominant species displaying seasonality with peak fluxes occurring during southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons reflecting their affinity for nutrient-rich waters brought in by river plumes, divergences and cyclonic eddies. U. irregularis, an indicator of oligotrophic/warm water, recorded peak abundance fluxes only during the spring intermonsoon period at all trap locations thus inferring its preference for oligotrophic conditions caused by increased Sea Surface Temperature (SST), stratification and lack of nutrient supply due to weak wind velocities. The deep dwelling species, F. profunda recorded high fluxes during the fall intermonsoon (October/November) in the northern and southern traps and during the spring intermonsoon. The peak fluxes during the spring intermonsoon (April/May) in the central and southern traps indicated the prevalence of a deep nutricline when oligotrophic conditions prevailed at the surface. Interestingly, dissolution was encountered throughout the year evidenced by the presence of corroded coccoliths.

  12. Molecular phylogenetic evaluation of classification and scenarios of character evolution in calcareous sponges (Porifera, Class Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Wülfing, Eilika; Wörheide, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sponges (Phylum Porifera, Class Calcarea) are known to be taxonomically difficult. Previous molecular studies have revealed many discrepancies between classically recognized taxa and the observed relationships at the order, family and genus levels; these inconsistencies question underlying hypotheses regarding the evolution of certain morphological characters. Therefore, we extended the available taxa and character set by sequencing the complete small subunit (SSU) rDNA and the almost complete large subunit (LSU) rDNA of additional key species and complemented this dataset by substantially increasing the length of available LSU sequences. Phylogenetic analyses provided new hypotheses about the relationships of Calcarea and about the evolution of certain morphological characters. We tested our phylogeny against competing phylogenetic hypotheses presented by previous classification systems. Our data reject the current order-level classification by again finding non-monophyletic Leucosolenida, Clathrinida and Murrayonida. In the subclass Calcinea, we recovered a clade that includes all species with a cortex, which is largely consistent with the previously proposed order Leucettida. Other orders that had been rejected in the current system were not found, but could not be rejected in our tests either. We found several additional families and genera polyphyletic: the families Leucascidae and Leucaltidae and the genus Leucetta in Calcinea, and in Calcaronea the family Amphoriscidae and the genus Ute. Our phylogeny also provided support for the vaguely suspected close relationship of several members of Grantiidae with giantortical diactines to members of Heteropiidae. Similarly, our analyses revealed several unexpected affinities, such as a sister group relationship between Leucettusa (Leucaltidae) and Leucettidae and between Leucascandra (Jenkinidae) and Sycon carteri (Sycettidae). According to our results, the taxonomy of Calcarea is in desperate need of a

  13. Physiology regulates the relationship between coccosphere geometry and growth phase in coccolithophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheward, Rosie M.; Poulton, Alex J.; Gibbs, Samantha J.; Daniels, Chris J.; Bown, Paul R.

    2017-03-01

    Coccolithophores are an abundant phytoplankton group that exhibit remarkable diversity in their biology, ecology and calcitic exoskeletons (coccospheres). Their extensive fossil record is a testament to their important biogeochemical role and is a valuable archive of biotic responses to environmental change stretching back over 200 million years. However, to realise the full potential of this archive for (palaeo-)biology and biogeochemistry requires an understanding of the physiological processes that underpin coccosphere architecture. Using culturing experiments on four modern coccolithophore species (Calcidiscus leptoporus, Calcidiscus quadriperforatus, Helicosphaera carteri and Coccolithus braarudii) from three long-lived families, we investigate how coccosphere architecture responds to shifts from exponential (rapid cell division) to stationary (slowed cell division) growth phases as cell physiology reacts to nutrient depletion. These experiments reveal statistical differences in coccosphere size and the number of coccoliths per cell between these two growth phases, specifically that cells in exponential-phase growth are typically smaller with fewer coccoliths, whereas cells experiencing growth-limiting nutrient depletion have larger coccosphere sizes and greater numbers of coccoliths per cell. Although the exact numbers are species-specific, these growth-phase shifts in coccosphere geometry demonstrate that the core physiological responses of cells to nutrient depletion result in increased coccosphere sizes and coccoliths per cell across four different coccolithophore families (Calcidiscaceae, Coccolithaceae, Isochrysidaceae and Helicosphaeraceae), a representative diversity of this phytoplankton group. Building on this, the direct comparison of coccosphere geometries in modern and fossil coccolithophores enables a proxy for growth phase to be developed that can be used to investigate growth responses to environmental change throughout their long evolutionary

  14. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A N; Kukuruzovic, R H; Catto-Smith, A G; Sawyer, S M

    2007-10-17

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder of unknown aetiology. Current pharmacological treatments have limited value. Hypnotherapy has been reported to have beneficial effects for IBS symptoms. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials and quasi-randomised clinical trials were identified through structured searches of MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1980 to March 2006), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2006), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1982 to March 2006), AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, 1985 to March 2006) and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials. Conference proceedings from Digestive Disease Week (1980 to 2005) were also searched. Eligible studies included all randomised and quasi-randomised clinical studies comparing hypnotherapy for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with no treatment or another therapeutic intervention. All studies were evaluated for eligibility for inclusion. Included studies were assessed for quality and data were extracted independently by four authors. The primary outcome measure of interest was the overall bowel symptom severity score which combines abdominal pain, diarrhoea or constipation and bloating. Secondary outcomes included abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation, bloating, quality of life, patient's overall assessment of well-being, psychological measures as per validated questionnaires, and adverse events. Four studies including a total of 147 patients met the inclusion criteria. Only one study compared hypnotherapy to an alternative therapy (psychotherapy and placebo pill), two studies compared hypnotherapy with waiting-list controls and the final study compared hypnotherapy to usual medical management. Data were not pooled for meta-analysis due to differences in outcome measures and study design. The therapeutic

  15. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winham Donna M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Methods Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17 in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29 for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI, and bean type. Results Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11% reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. Conclusions People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists

  16. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Hutchins, Andrea M

    2011-11-21

    Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17) in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29) for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and bean type. Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11%) reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists should address the potential for gastrointestinal discomfort when

  17. Epidemiologic and demographic survey of celiac disease in khuzestan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavinejad, Pezhman; Hajiani, Eskandar; Masjedizadeh, Rahim; Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Faramarzi, Mohammad; Sebghatollahi, Vahid; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Kadkhodae, Ahmad; Jasemi Zergani, Farzad; Asghari, Shahnaz; Farsi, Farnaz

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND Celiac disease presents with a wide spectrum of symptoms. This study clarifies different aspects of celiac disease along with the most common patterns of celiac presentation in Khuzestan Province, Iran. METHODS Patients' information was obtained by evaluation of their files from the archives of the Khuzestan Celiac Society and records at gastroenterologists' offices in this province. RESULTS Overall, there were 103 (40 males, 63 females) patients included in this study. Patients' mean ages were 33 ± 11 years (males) and 31.6 ± 11.7 years (females). In terms of geographic distribution, 54.1% resided in the center of the province followed by 26.5% who were residents of the northern area. The rate of employment among men was 70.6% whereas it was 8.3% for women. In terms of education, 21.9% of men and 33.3% of women had academic educations. The rate of matrimony was 80.6% (n=29) for men, 65.4% (n=38) for women and 3.4% (n=2) who were divorced. Mean height was 164 ± 14 cm in men and 157.5 ± 10 cm in women. Mean BMI at the time of presentation was 22.7 in men and 22.6 in women. The most common gastrointestinal (GI) complaints in male patients were diarrhea (35%), reflux (20%), bloating (17.5%), abdominal pain (15%), vomiting (15%) and constipation (7.5%). Female patients experienced diarrhea (49.2%), abdominal pain (31.7%), bloating (31.7%), vomiting (19%), constipation(9.5%) and reflux (7.9%). The most common concomitant non-GI disorders among male patients were anemia (17.1%), thyroid disease (14.3%), and weight loss (14.3%); women experienced anemia (33.9%), thyroid disease (12.5%), and weight loss (7.1%). Approximately half of the patients exhibited symptoms for more than five years prior to diagnosis and 90% were diagnosed by gastroenterologists. Of these, 43% had normal endoscopy results. The most common serologic markers were anti-TTG (69.9%), anti-EMA (27.7%). CONCLUSION Physicians, prior to attributing patients' symptoms to irritable bowel

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Low FODMAP Diet vs. Modified NICE Guidelines in US Adults with IBS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Shanti L; Chey, William D; Han-Markey, Theresa; Ball, Sarah; Jackson, Kenya

    2016-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the role of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We report results from the first randomized controlled trial of the low FODMAP diet in US adults with IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D). The objectives were to compare the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet vs. a diet based upon modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (mNICE) on overall and individual symptoms in IBS-D patients. This was a single-center, randomized-controlled trial of adult patients with IBS-D (Rome III) which compared 2 diet interventions. After a 2-week screening period, eligible patients were randomized to a low FODMAP or mNICE diet for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients reporting adequate relief of IBS-D symptoms ≥50% of intervention weeks 3-4. Secondary outcomes included a composite end point which required response in both abdominal pain (≥30% reduction in mean daily pain score compared with baseline) and stool consistency (decrease in mean daily Bristol Stool Form of ≥1 compared with baseline), abdominal pain and stool consistency responders, and other key individual IBS symptoms assessed using daily questionnaires. After screening, 92 subjects (65 women, median age 42.6 years) were randomized. Eighty-four patients completed the study (45 low FODMAP, 39 mNICE). Baseline demographics, symptom severity, and nutrient intake were similar between groups. Fifty-two percent of the low FODMAP vs. 41% of the mNICE group reported adequate relief of their IBS-D symptoms (P=0.31). Though there was no significant difference in the proportion of composite end point responders (P=0.13), the low FODMAP diet resulted in a higher proportion of abdominal pain responders compared with the mNICE group (51% vs. 23%, P=0.008). Compared with baseline scores, the low FODMAP diet led to greater reductions in average daily scores of abdominal pain, bloating

  19. Faecal retention: a common cause in functional bowel disorders, appendicitis and haemorrhoids--with medical and surgical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raahave, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    The present studies explored whether faecal retention in the colon is a causative factor in functional bowel disease, appendicitis, and haemorrhoids. Faecal retention was characterized by colon transit time (CTT) after radio-opaque marker ingestion and estimation of faecal loading on abdominal radiographs at 48 h and 96 h. Specific hypotheses were tested in patients (n = 251 plus 281) and in healthy random controls (n = 44). A questionnaire was completed for each patient, covering abdominal and anorectal symptoms and without a priori grouping. Patients with functional bowel disorders, predominantly women, had a significantly increased CTT and faecal load compared to controls. The CTT was significantly and positively correlated with segmental and total faecal loading. The faecal load was equal at 48 h and 96 h, mirroring the presence of permanent faecal reservoirs. In these first clinical studies to correlate bowel symptoms with CTT and colon faecal loading, abdominal bloating was significantly correlated with faecal loading in the right colon, total faecal load, and CTT. Abdominal pain was significantly and positively correlated to distal faecal loading and significantly associated with bloating. A new phenomenon with a high faecal load and a normal CTT was observed in a subset of patients (n = 90), proving faecal retention as hidden constipation. The CTT and faecal load were significantly higher in the right-side compared to the left and distal segments. Within the control group of healthy persons, the right-sided faecal load was significantly greater than the left and distal load. The CTT and faecal load significantly positively correlated with a palpable mass in the left iliac fossa and meteorism. Cluster analysis revealed that CTT and faecal load positively correlated with a symptom factor consisting of bloating, proctalgia and infrequent defecation of solid faeces. On the other hand, CTT and faecal load negatively correlated with a symptom factor comprising

  20. A Pilot Randomized Cross-Over Trial to Examine the Effect of Kiwifruit on Satiety and Measures of Gastric Comfort in Healthy Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wallace

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit anecdotally are associated with improved gastrointestinal comfort following the consumption of high protein meals, possibly because of the presence of a protease enzyme, actinidin. The study aimed to use SmartPill™ technology to investigate the acute effect of kiwifruit with actinidin (Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa ‘Hayward’ and kiwifruit without actinidin (A. chinensis var. chinensis ‘Hort16A’ on digestion of a large protein meal. Ten healthy male subjects were recruited. The participants attended the clinic three times, having fasted overnight. They consumed a test meal consisting of 400 g lean steak and two ‘Hort16A’ or two ‘Hayward kiwifruit’. Subjects completed visual analogue scales (VAS by rating feelings of hunger, satisfaction, fullness, and comfort and swallowed a SmartPill™ before completing further VAS scales. After 5 h, participants consumed an ad libitum lunch to assess satiety. SmartPill™ transponders were worn for five days. There were no significant differences in gastric emptying time, small bowel, or colonic transit time between the two kiwifruit arms of the study measured by SmartPill™. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in VAS satiety measures or energy consumption at the ad libitum meal. However, the measurement of overall gastric comfort tended to be lower, and bloating was significantly reduced following the consumption of the steak meal with ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit (p < 0.028. Conclusions: The SmartPill™ is marketed as a diagnostic tool for patients presenting with gastrointestinal disorders and is usually used with a standard ‘SmartBar’. This small pilot study suggests that it is less likely to measure gastric emptying effectively following a high protein meal, as it may be delayed because of the meal’s physical consistency. However, green kiwifruit, containing actinidin, may reduce bloating and other measures of gastric discomfort in healthy

  1. Patient-reported prevalence and symptomatic burden of uterine fibroids among women in the United States: findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuldeore MJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahesh J Fuldeore, Ahmed M Soliman Health Economics and Outcomes Research, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, US Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and the associated symptom burden in the US.Patients and methods: Responses of women aged 18–54 years, who completed an online survey, were analyzed. Data were weighted based on age, education, race, geographic region, income, and propensity score to derive national estimates of the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and associated symptom burden. Weighted means and percentages were reported. Prevalence across age and ethnic groups was examined. Symptom burden among women with and without uterine fibroids was compared using weighted logistic regressions.Results: Of 59,411 respondents who met study inclusion criteria, 7.7% reported receiving a diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Of these, 5,670 women (1,402 in the uterine fibroid group and 4,268 in the control group were excluded from analysis because they had a hysterectomy. Among the non-hysterectomized study participants, 3,031 self-reported a diagnosis of uterine fibroids (prevalence: 5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5%–6.1%; prevalence increased as women aged and was greatest in the 50–54 age group (11.4%; 95% CI: 10.4%–12.4%. In addition, prevalence was greater in black vs white women (9.8%; 95% CI: 8.7%–11.0% vs 5.4%; 95% CI: 5.1%–5.7%. A greater percentage of women with uterine fibroids (vs those without experienced severe heavy menstrual bleeding (16.7% vs 7.7%, severe constipation/bloating/diarrhea (7.7% vs 4.7%, severe passage of clots (6.7% vs 2.4%, severe spotting/bleeding between periods (1.7% vs 1.0%, and severe pelvic pressure (1.6% vs 0.6%. Among uterine fibroid patients with these typical uterine fibroid-related symptoms, 56.4%, 32.3%, 26.4%, 25.8%, and 20.4% reported heavy menstrual bleeding, passage of clots, spotting/bleeding between periods, constipation/bloating

  2. The use of probiotics in healthy volunteers with evacuation disorders and hard stools: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Piano, Mario; Carmagnola, Stefania; Anderloni, Andrea; Andorno, Silvano; Ballarè, Marco; Balzarini, Marco; Montino, Franco; Orsello, Marco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Sartori, Massimo; Tari, Roberto; Sforza, Filomena; Capurso, Lucio

    2010-09-01

    Evacuation disorders and hard stools are common in industrialized countries, affecting on average 12% to 17% of the adult healthy population at any age. Dietary supplementation with probiotic microorganisms may be useful in reducing the disorder. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 different probiotic blends, either mixed Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604) or Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis BS01 (LMG P-21384), in the management of evacuation disorders and intestinal discomfort. In a period of 5 years (2003 to 2008), the study involved 300 healthy volunteers (151 males and 149 females; age 24 to 71 y) with evacuation disorders and hard stools. In particular, subjects were divided into 3 groups: 80 subjects in the group A received placebo, 110 subjects in the group B received mixed L. plantarum LP01 and B. breve BR03 (2.5 x 10 colony-forming units/d of each strain), and 110 subjects in the group C received B. animalis subsp. lactis BS01 (5 x 10 colony-forming units/d) for 30 days. At the beginning of the observational study, the healthy status of volunteers was evaluated by a complete, laboratory and ultrasound study of the abdomen. The physical examination was repeated after 15 and 30 days. In particular, the main troubles typically associated with evacuation disorders and hard stools as well as abdominal bloating were considered as parameters of interest. Exclusion criteria were items of gastrointestinal diseases and antibiotics intake. Subjects treated with the mixed probiotic strains L. plantarum LP01 and B. breve BR03 or B. animalis subsp. lactis BS01 reported a significant improvement in the number of weekly bowel movements and in the main troubles associated with evacuations, particularly consistency of feces and ease of expulsion. Discomfort items such as abdominal bloating and anal itching, burning, or pain also registered a relevant

  3. [Using a multicomponent functional food in IBS patients with constipation a comparative controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, V I; Teplyuk, D A; Shakhovskaya, A K; Isakov, V A; Vorobyova, V M; Vorobyova, I S; Sarkisyan, V A; Kochetkova, A A; Mikheeva, G A; Yudina, A V

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with decrease in quality of life and a high social cost. Diet is one of several therapeutic options in IBS treatment; therefore the development and clinical evaluation of innovative functional food for IBS patients are actual. Instant drink containing 4 g inulin, 4 mg menthol and 2 mg of pyridoxine (in daily dose) has been evaluated. 49 patients 18-68 (41.5±16.5) years old fulfilling the Rome III criteria for IBS-C were randomly assigned into two groups: one received standard diet plus two drinks per day for 2 weeks and control group received standard diet. Response to therapy was recorded daily using Likert scale of abdominal pain, bloating and feeling of incomplete bowel emptying, frequency of bowel movement, Bristol stool scale, and quality of life was assessed by IBSQoL questionnaire before and after the treatment. The consumption of the drink with inulin and menthol contributed to a significant positive effect on the stool parameters (from 0.91±0.73 to 1.12±0.45 bowel movements per day in stool frequency, p=0.05, from 2.68±1.63 to 3.43±1.27 index Bristol scale, p=0.05), reduced the severity of abdominal pain (from 1.78±0.58 to 1.47?0.61 Likert scale points, p=0.05), bloating (from 2.22±0.83 to 1.53±0.71 points ofLikertscale,p= 0.01) and a sense of incomplete bowelemptying (from 2.22 ± 0.88 to 1.61± 0.81 points of Likert scale, p=0.001), as well as increased the quality of life (from 75.3± 12.0 to 83.3±6.7%, p=0.05), but a significant part of patients (10 of 25) complained the appearance of heartburn after the start of the treatment. In conclusion, the consumption of the functional drink containing inulin, menthol and pyridoxine is associated with improve in stool parameters, abdominal pain, Bristol scale index and increase in quality of life in patients with IBS-C, but produce noticeable heartburn. Changes in functional drink composition are needed to

  4. Nucleotide supplementation: a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of IntestAidIB in people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome [ISRCTN67764449

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attree EA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary nucleotide supplementation has been shown to have important effects on the growth and development of cells which have a rapid turnover such as those in the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract. Work with infants has shown that the incidence and duration of diarrhoea is lower when nucleotide supplementation is given, and animal work shows that villi height and crypt depth in the intestine is increased as a result of dietary nucleotides. Dietary nucleotides may be semi-essential under conditions of ill-health, poor diet or stress. Since people with Irritable Bowel Syndrome tend to fulfil these conditions, we tested the hypothesis that symptoms would be improved with dietary nucleotide supplementation. Methods Thirty-seven people with a diagnosis of Irritable Bowel gave daily symptom severity ratings for abdominal pain, diarrhoea, urgency to have a bowel movement, incomplete feeling of evacuation after a bowel movement, bloating, flatulence and constipation for 28 days (baseline. They were then assigned to either placebo (56 days followed by experimental (56 days or the reverse. There was a four week washout period before crossover. During the placebo and experimental conditions participants took one 500 mg capsule three times a day; in the experimental condition the capsule contained the nutroceutical substances. Symptom severity ratings and psychological measures (anxiety, depression, illness intrusiveness and general health were obtained and analysed by repeated measures ANOVAs. Results Symptom severity for all symptoms (except constipation were in the expected direction of baseline>placebo>experimental condition. Symptom improvement was in the range 4 – 6%. A feeling of incomplete evacuation and abdominal pain showed the most improvement. The differences between conditions for diarrhoea, bloating and flatulence were not significant at the p Conclusion Dietary nucleotide supplementation improves some of the

  5. Pre-Ediacaran to Ediacaran Radiation in the Vindhyan Supergroup, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P.

    2009-04-01

    The Vindhyan Supergroup is globally acknowledged amongst the best repositories of the Proterozoic life evidences. Fossils of the Vindhyan Supergroup exhibit extensive diversity and variable biologic affinities represented by: bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, acritarchs, metaphytes and metazoans (including members of the Ediacaran Fauna). The size of fossils ranges from less than a micron to almost a meter. As the Ediacaran fauna has already been recorded from the uppermost Vindhyans that is from the Bhander Group, strata lying beneath and above the Ediacaran fossil bearing horizons, exhibit presence of a vast range of fossils (both micro and mega fossils) inclining towards variable biologic affinities stated earlier. Besides identified fossils, a number of peculiar morphologies (due to deviation of morphologies from conventional structures), present in various stratigraphic horizons of the entire Vindhyan Supergroup, have also been observed. It is very difficult to identify and decide biologic affinities of these peculiar morphologies or bizarre fossil forms. In thin sections of Lower Vindhyan cherts (of Semri Group), microfossils resembling, a Volvox colony like structure and a vase- shaped body without an opening, Lichen- like or fungal forms in which a sac encompassing a coiled filament may possibly indicate a symbiotic relationship are unique. Megascopic branching and associated Grypania like structure is another form preserved as an impression on a micritic limestone slab. A very unusual and interesting fossil is a transparent disc of about one mm in diameter, composed of numerous chromosome-like structures or the appendages of an unidentified mesoscopic insect- like organism. In Upper Vindhyans, microscopic unidentified forms (in thin sections of chert) include acritarchs and acanthomorphs of variable morphologies and a dividing cell like structure interpreted as rhodophycean form or a cleaving embryo of an animal affinity. Among the carbonaceous

  6. Construction of a high density SNP linkage map of kelp (Saccharina japonica) by sequencing Taq I site associated DNA and mapping of a sex determining locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Linan; Tao, Ye; Guo, Li; Sun, Juan; Li, Xia; Zhao, Nan; Peng, Jie; Li, Xiaojie; Zeng, Liang; Chen, Jinsa; Yang, Guanpin

    2015-03-15

    Kelp (Saccharina japonica) has been intensively cultured in China for almost a century. Its genetic improvement is comparable with that of rice. However, the development of its molecular tools is extremely limited, thus its genes, genetics and genomics. Kelp performs an alternative life cycle during which sporophyte generation alternates with gametophyte generation. The gametophytes of kelp can be cloned and crossed. Due to these characteristics, kelp may serve as a reference for the biological and genetic studies of Volvox, mosses and ferns. We constructed a high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage map for kelp by restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. In total, 4,994 SNP-containing physical (tag-defined) RAD loci were mapped on 31 linkage groups. The map expanded a total genetic distance of 1,782.75 cM, covering 98.66% of the expected (1,806.94 cM). The length of RAD tags (85 bp) was extended to 400-500 bp with Miseq method, offering us an easiness of developing SNP chips and shifting SNP genotyping to a high throughput track. The number of linkage groups was in accordance with the documented with cytological methods. In addition, we identified a set of microsatellites (99 in total) from the extended RAD tags. A gametophyte sex determining locus was mapped on linkage group 2 in a window about 9.0 cM in width, which was 2.66 cM up to marker_40567 and 6.42 cM down to marker_23595. A high density SNP linkage map was constructed for kelp, an intensively cultured brown alga in China. The RAD tags were also extended so that a SNP chip could be developed. In addition, a set of microsatellites were identified among mapped loci, and a gametophyte sex determining locus was mapped. This map will facilitate the genetic studies of kelp including for example the evaluation of germplasm and the decipherment of the genetic bases of economic traits.

  7. Evolution of rbcL group IA introns and intron open reading frames within the colonial Volvocales (Chlorophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Takahara, Manabu; Nakazawa, Atsushi; Kita, Yoko; Yamada, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Kawano, Shigeyuki; Kato, Masahiro

    2002-06-01

    Mobile group I introns sometimes contain an open reading frame (ORF) possibly encoding a site-specific DNA endonuclease. However, previous phylogenetic studies have not clearly deduced the evolutionary roles of the group I intron ORFs. In this paper, we examined the phylogeny of group IA2 introns inserted in the position identical to that of the chloroplast-encoded rbcL coding region (rbcL-462 introns) and their ORFs from 13 strains of five genera (Volvox, Pleodorina, Volvulina, Astrephomene, and Gonium) of the colonial Volvocales (Chlorophyceae) and a related unicellular green alga, Vitreochlamys. The rbcL-462 introns contained an intact or degenerate ORF of various sizes except for the Gonium multicoccum rbcL-462 intron. Partial amino acid sequences of some rbcL-462 intron ORFs exhibited possible homology to the endo/excinuclease amino acid terminal domain. The distribution of the rbcL-462 introns is sporadic in the phylogenetic trees of the colonial Volvocales based on the five chloroplast exon sequences (6021 bp). Phylogenetic analyses of the conserved intron sequences resolved that the G. multicoccum rbcL-462 intron had a phylogenetic position separate from those of other colonial volvocalean rbcL-462 introns, indicating the recent horizontal transmission of the intron in the G. multicoccum lineage. However, the combined data set from conserved intron sequences and ORFs from most of the rbcL-462 introns resolved robust phylogenetic relationships of the introns that were consistent with those of the host organisms. Therefore, most of the extant rbcL-462 introns may have been vertically inherited from the common ancestor of their host organisms, whereas such introns may have been lost in other lineages during evolution of the colonial Volvocales. In addition, apparently higher synonymous substitutions than nonsynonymous substitutions in the rbcL-462 intron ORFs indicated that the ORFs might evolve under functional constraint, which could result in homing of the

  8. Seasonal variations in phytoplankton diversity in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta in Ghana during the pre- and post-impoundment periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Haruna Alhassan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton constitutes the primary producers of aquatic ecosystems and represents the food chain base that supports the commercial fisheries of most water bodies. Nowadays, there is lack of information on phytoplankton assemblages of most reservoirs in Africa. To contribute with this knowledge, this study was carried out to determine the density and diversity of seasonal variations of phytoplankton species in the Bui dam area of the Black Volta, during the pre- (2011 and post-impoundment (2012 periods. For this, a three-level stratified random sampling approach was adopted for 22 months. Phytoplankton samples were obtained by towing a 0.5m diameter phytoplankton net (35μm mesh size and 0.25m² mouth surface area from a non-motorized canoe through a distance of about 100m against the current from downstream to upstream of the river. In 2011, 35 species of phytoplankton belonging to four classes, Bacillariophyceae (7.6%, Chlorophyceae (43%, Cyanophyceae (48.6% and Euglenophyceae (0.8% were identified. In the 2012 sampling, 18 species belonging to three classes, Bacillariophyceae (2.2%, Chlorophyceae (26.1% and Cyanophyceae (71.7% were observed. A total of 17 species of phytoplankton, including Gyrosigma sp., Surirella sp., Carteria sp., Chlosterium sp., Chlorogonium sp., Coelastrum sp., Cosmarium sp., Volvox sp., Chroococcus sp., Coelosphaerium sp., Rivularia sp. and Spirulina sp., were absent during the late post-impoundment period. Mean monthly total phytoplankton abundance decreased from June (7 384 cells/m³ to August (106cells/m³ in 2011. In 2012 however, mean total phytoplankton decreased from February (1 237cells/m³ to August (4cells/m³. The results also showed that variations occurred between seasons among some phytoplankton groups. The dry and pre-wet seasons had significantly (p<0.05 higher mean phytoplankton abundance than the wet season during the 22 months of sampling period. The biotic indices of Shannon-Wiener (H¹ were

  9. Nuclear DNA content estimates in green algal lineages: chlorophyta and streptophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapraun, Donald F

    2007-04-01

    Consensus higher-level molecular phylogenies present a compelling case that an ancient divergence separates eukaryotic green algae into two major monophyletic lineages, Chlorophyta and Streptophyta, and a residuum of green algae, which have been referred to prasinophytes or micromonadophytes. Nuclear DNA content estimates have been published for less than 1% of the described green algal members of Chlorophyta, which includes multicellular green marine algae and freshwater flagellates (e.g. Chlamydomonas and Volvox). The present investigation summarizes the state of our knowledge and adds substantially to our database of C-values, especially for the streptophyte charophycean lineage which is the sister group of the land plants. A recent list of 2C nuclear DNA contents for isolates and species of green algae is expanded by 72 to 157. The DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and red blood cell (chicken erythrocytes) standard were used to estimate 2C values with static microspectrophotometry. In Chlorophyta, including Chlorophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Ulvophyceae, 2C DNA estimates range from 0.01 to 5.8 pg. Nuclear DNA content variation trends are noted and discussed for specific problematic taxon pairs, including Ulotrichales-Ulvales, and Cladophorales-Siphonocladales. For Streptophyta, 2C nuclear DNA contents range from 0.2 to 6.4 pg, excluding the highly polyploid Charales and Desmidiales, which have genome sizes of up to 14.8 and 46.8 pg, respectively. Nuclear DNA content data for Streptophyta superimposed on a contemporary molecular phylogeny indicate that early diverging lineages, including some members of Chlorokybales, Coleochaetales and Klebsormidiales, have genomes as small as 0.1-0.5 pg. It is proposed that the streptophyte ancestral nuclear genome common to both the charophyte and the embryophyte lineages can be characterized as 1C = 0.2 pg and 1n = 6. These data will help pre-screen candidate species for the on

  10. The effects of diet- and diet plus exercise-induced weight loss on basal metabolic rate and acylated ghrelin in grade 1 obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes AL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available André L Lopes,1 Ana Paula T Fayh,2,3 Luisa G de Souza Campos,4 Bruno C Teixeira,1 Randhall B Kreismann Carteri,1 Jerri L Ribeiro,4 Rogério Friedman,2 Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira1 1Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Endocrine Unit, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Health Sciences College of Trairi, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Santa Cruz, RN, Brazil; 4Centro Universitário Metodista – IPA, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Diet and exercise are often prescribed as primary intervention regarding obesity-related disorders. Additionally, recent studies have shown beneficial effects of weight loss through diet and exercise in ghrelin concentrations in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 5% weight loss on lipid profile, resting metabolic rate (RMR, and acylated ghrelin (AG using two different methods of intervention (diet or diet plus exercise. Materials and methods: Eighteen subjects (twelve women and six men aged 20–40 years with a body mass index of 30–34.9 kg/m2 (grade 1 obesity were randomized into two intervention groups: diet (n=9 or diet plus exercise (n=9. Both groups underwent treatment until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, RMR and AG were analyzed. Results: Both groups showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage and fat mass. The diet-plus-exercise group showed a decrease in AG (pre: 54.4±25.3 pg/mL and post: 33.2±19.1 pg/mL and an increase in RMR (pre: 1,363±379 kcal/day, post: 1,633±223 kcal/day. Conclusion: These data suggest that diet plus exercise induced weight loss and had beneficial effects on AG concentration and RMR, essential factors to ensure the benefits of a weight-loss program. Keywords: exercise therapy, diet, energy regulation, obesity

  11. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Taissa; Kellner, Alexander Wilhelm Armin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia): Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(?) microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, ‘Ornithocheirus’ capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(?) colorhinus comb. n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., ‘Ornithocheirus’ polyodon, ‘Ornithocheirus’ platystomus, ‘Pterodactylus’ daviesii, and ‘Ornithocheirus’ denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade, here

  12. Foraging Behavior and Energetics of Albatrosses in Contrasting Breeding Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Antolos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize fitness by optimizing energy acquisition through the selection of favorable foraging habitats, but trade-offs exist between time spent in preferred feeding habitats, energetic costs of travel, and reproductive constraints. For pelagic seabirds, geographic distribution of suitable breeding islands can restrict access to marine prey resources and influence foraging strategies. Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis and black-footed albatrosses (P. nigripes breeding in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, and Indian yellow-nosed albatrosses (Thalassarche carteri breeding in the Southern Indian Ocean, utilize productive subtropical-subpolar transition zones during their breeding and non-breeding periods, but this marine feature is at a comparatively greater distance for Hawaiian albatrosses during the breeding period due to location of nesting islands. We investigated the foraging behavior and energetics of these three species to evaluate how proximity to preferred marine habitats has influenced their overall foraging strategies. During incubation, all three species traveled to subtropical-subpolar transition zones, however, Hawaiian albatrosses ranged farther to reach this habitat. All species reduced time at sea during brooding, and Hawaiian albatrosses reduced their foraging ranges to distances similar to yellow-nosed albatrosses. As a consequence, Hawaiian albatrosses foraged in the warm, oligotrophic environment of the subtropical gyre during brooding while yellow-nosed albatrosses continued to forage in a subtropical-subpolar transition zone. Landing rates, an indicator of foraging effort, did not differ between reproductive stages and were highly variable within and among species. Hawaiian albatrosses generally spent more time in flight compared to yellow-nosed albatrosses, a strategy that may relate to searching for dispersed and unpredictable prey. Mean absolute field-metabolic rate (FMR was greatest for black-footed albatrosses

  13. Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria from the Cretaceous of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taissa Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia: Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(? microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, ‘Ornithocheirus’ capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(? sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(? colorhinus comb.n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., ‘Ornithocheirus’ polyodon, ‘Ornithocheirus’ platystomus, ‘Pterodactylus’ daviesii, and ‘Ornithocheirus’ denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade

  14. Using extant patterns of dental variation to identify species in the primate fossil record: a case study of middle Eocene Omomys from the Bridger Basin, southwestern Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P

    2008-04-01

    Patterns of extant primate dental variation provide important data for interpreting taxonomic boundaries in fossil forms. Here I use dental data from several well-known living primates (as well as data from selected Eocene forms) to evaluate dental variation in Middle Eocene Omomys, the first North American fossil primate identified by paleontologists. Measurements were collected from a sample of 148 omomyid dental specimens recovered from Bridger B localities in the Bridger Basin, Wyoming. Most of these specimens have not previously been described. Nonmetric traits were also scored for this sample. Lower molar coefficients of variation range from 4.01 for M2 length (n = 80) to 6.73 for M3 talonid width (n = 57). All of the nonmetric traits scored exhibit less than 100% presence in the overall sample, including traits previously described as representative of Omomys (e.g., P4 metaconids present in 91%, n = 55; M2 pericones present in 80%, n = 15). Dental traits also vary in a set of spatially restricted localities from the same fossil horizon and in a separate, single fossil locality (DMNH 868, P4 metaconids present in 67%, n = 6). An increasing frequency in several premolar traits across time in these more restricted samples suggests an anagenetic change in Bridger B Omomys. However, this degree of morphological variability is consistent with that seen in extant primate species from single locations. Metric variation in this sample is comparable to that seen in other Eocene primates, such as new data presented here for the omomyid Arapahovius gazini from the Washakie Basin, southern Wyoming. Omomys metric variation is also comparable to that found in several samples of well-known extant primates from single localities (e.g., ring-tailed lemurs and gray-brown mouse lemurs). These metric data also correspond to the patterns of variability described in previously published studies of Omomyscarteri. In sum, a single species interpretation (O. carteri) for this new

  15. Coccolithophores in the upwelling waters of Portugal: Four years of weekly distribution in Lisbon bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A.; Palma, S.; Moita, M. T.

    2008-10-01

    Gephyrocapsa species can be used as proxies of surface productivity waters during spring and summer while Coccolithus pelagicus indicates the presence of upwelling fronts. Calcidiscus leptoporus is a tracer of the convergence of subtropical oceanic waters onto the shelf, during winter while Coronosphaera mediterranea, Syracosphaera pulchra, Helicosphaera carteri and Rhabdosphaera clavigera revealed the presence of those waters during the short period that characterized the transition from upwelling to downwelling seasons.

  16. Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) as a tool to study the (paleo)ecology of coccolithophores from coastal-neritic settings off central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Cachão, Mário; Pawlowsky-Glahn, Vera; Oliveira, Anabela; Rodrigues, Aurora

    2015-04-01

    Whereas using the species percentages is the standard analytical procedure used to infer species ecological preferences, independently of taphonomical effects, the closure problem associated with closed number systems and subsequent inconsistency of determining percentages may lead to spurious correlations, biased statistical analysis and misleading interpretations. To avoid these problems, we applied Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) to investigate the (paleo)ecological preferences and spatial distribution of coccolith assemblages preserved in seafloor sediments, using as a case-study the central Portuguese submarine canyons and adjacent shelf-slope areas. Results from using the isometric log-ratio (ilr) approach from CoDA are compared with results from using classical analytical methods, and further discussed. While providing scale invariance and subcompositional coherence, CoDA is revealed to be a consistent statistical tool to infer the (paleo)ecological preferences of coccolithophores, corroborating earlier work based on from percentage determinations. Results of this study clearly confirmed the coastal-neritic distribution of coccoliths from Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Helicosphaera carteri and Coronosphaera mediterranea, whereas coccoliths from Calcidiscus leptoporus, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Umbellosphaera irregularis and Rhabdosphaera spp. more typically occur offshore. Differences between canyons and adjacent shelf and slope areas were also confirmed, namely the (a) greater importance of the coastal-neritic assemblage possibly resulting from local and persistent nutrient pumping in these areas, and (b) stronger mixing of coccoliths from coastal and oceanic species in upper canyon reaches, resulting from the focused coastward advection of more oceanic water masses along their axes. Unlike the results from both ilr-coordinates and the percentage approaches, both coccolith concentrations and fluxes showed that spatial trends in which the species ecological inter

  17. Small intestine bacterial overgrowth and irritable bowel syndrome-related symptoms: Experience with Rifaximin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Sergio; Cottone, Claudia; Doveri, Tiziana; Almasio, Piero Luigi; Craxi, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in our geographical area (Western Sicily, Italy) by means of an observational study, and to gather information on the use of locally active, non-absorbable antibiotics for treatment of SIBO. METHODS: Our survey included 115 patients fulfilling the Rome II criteria for diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); a total of 97 patients accepted to perform a breath test with lactulose (BTLact), and those who had a positive test, received Rifaximin (Normix®, Alfa Wassermann) 1200 mg/d for 7 d; 3 wk after the end of treatment, the BTLact was repeated. RESULTS: Based on the BTLact results, SIBO was present in about 56% of IBS patients, and it was responsible for some IBS-related symptoms, such as abdominal bloating and discomfort, and diarrhoea. 1-wk treatment with Rifaximin turned the BTLact to negative in about 50% of patients and significantly reduced the symptoms, especially in those patients with an alternated constipation/diarrhoea-variant IBS. CONCLUSION: SIBO should be always suspected in patients with IBS, and a differential diagnosis is done by means of a “breath test”. Rifaximin may represent a valid approach to the treatment of SIBO. PMID:19496193

  18. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Case-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen H. Reynolds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is a condition of increased microbial load in the small intestine. The microbes feed on dietary carbohydrates and starches via fermentation, leading to gas production, inflammation and damage to the lining of the small intestine. Clinical presentation is varied, including abdominal pain, bloating, malabsorption and systemic symptoms. SIBO is associated with many challenging and chronic conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and chronic pain syndromes, and has been shown to be a causative factor in two out of three cases of irritable bowel syndrome. Symptoms improve with antimicrobial treatment, but recurrence is common. Many providers may not be aware of SIBO. This narrative review highlights a clinical case and the most recent literature regarding SIBO, including history, clinical presentation, prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, treatment and prevention. Integrative medicine approaches, including diet, supplements and manual therapies, are also reviewed. SIBO can be a challenging condition and requires an integrative, patient-centered approach. Further studies are needed to guide clinicians in the workup and treatment of SIBO.

  19. Probiotic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enck, P.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of functional bowel disorders of irritable bowel-type (IBS in children remains a difficult task because of a lack of drugs with low adverse event profile. We here report the results of a treatment study in 203 children (66 boys and 137 girls age 4 to 18 years (mean: 10.5±4.5 years with typical IBS symptoms with abdominal pain and either predominant diarrhea (n=50, constipation (n=56, alternating stool frequency (n=28 or unspecific pain (n=69. The average duration of symptoms prior to therapy was 175 days. Most (95% patients up to age 11 were treated with a daily dose of 10 drops of Symbioflor 2 (SF2 (SymbioPharm, Herborn (cells and autolysate of 1.5–4.5x107 CFU of bacteria of Escherichia coli type, in the elder children 77% received this dosage, while the remaining received a higher dose up to 30 drops/day. Treatment lasted 43 days on average. Results: All patients tolerated the treatment well and without adverse events. The key IBS symptoms (abdominal pain, stool frequency as well as the other symptoms (bloating, mucous and blood in stool, need for straining at stools, urge to defecate improved significantly during treatment. Global assessment of therapy by parents and doctors was altogether positive. In summary these data confirm efficacy and tolerability of this probiotic compound in children and adolescents and supplement published data of probiotic IBS therapy in adults.

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome: new insights into symptom mechanisms and advances in treatment [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Spiller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the most common conditions leading to gastroenterological referral, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is poorly understood. However, recent years have seen major advances. These include new understanding of the role of both inflammation and altered microbiota as well as the impact of dietary intolerances as illuminated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which has thrown new light on IBS. This article will review new data on how excessive bile acid secretion mediates diarrhea and evidence from post infectious IBS which has shown how gut inflammation can alter gut microbiota and function. Studies of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD have also shown that even when inflammation is in remission, the altered enteric nerves and abnormal microbiota can generate IBS-like symptoms. The efficacy of the low FODMAP diet as a treatment for bloating, flatulence, and abdominal discomfort has been demonstrated by randomized controlled trials. MRI studies, which can quantify intestinal volumes, have provided new insights into how FODMAPs cause symptoms. This article will focus on these areas together with recent trials of new agents, which this author believes will alter clinical practice within the foreseeable future.

  1. Comparative Study of Dipteran Species Diversity and Their Succession on Rabbit Carrion in Two Different Mangrove Areas of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahizatul Afzan Azmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on dipteran utility in assisting investigation of unattended deaths was carried out in mangrove areas of Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, and Masai, Johor, in Peninsular Malaysia by using rabbit carrions as the model. The aim of this study was to determine the dipteran species diversity and their succession over the decomposition period of the rabbit carrions. A total of 229 individuals belonging to 11 species from six families of Diptera were successfully identified from both study sites in October and December 2007. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies, and Hydrotaea sp. were found to be the most abundant species recorded in this study. More species were collected from Masai with 10 species compared to Kuala Terengganu with nine species. Ecological indices (Shannon Wiener Index, Margalef Index, and Evenness Index showed that Masai scored higher diversity, richness, and evenness values than Kuala Terengganu. However, Mann-Whitney U test did not show significant difference among the individuals represented at each study site (P>0.05. Calliphoridae predominated in the carrion during the fresh, bloat, and active decay stages of decomposition. Dipteran development was documented to be meteorologically dependent whereby; low temperature and high rainfall inhibit their colonization. Data collected in this study can hopefully serve as the basis for future estimates of the postmortem interval (PMI particularly in mangrove area of tropical regions.

  2. The Effectiveness of Cognitive – Behavioral Stress Management on Symptoms of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kamkar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: IBS is a gastrointestinal disease with chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the absence of any detectable organic cause. This study was done to assess the effectiveness of cognitive - behavioral stress management courses on the symptoms of the disease in patients referring to Yasouj gastrointestinal diseases clinic. Methods: A controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted on 42 patients with irritable bowel syndrome referring to Yasouj gastrointestinal diseases clinic in 2010. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (21 patients and control (n=21 groups. After performing a pre-test, using frequency and intensity of intestinal symptoms, the required data were gathered using BSS-FS, quality of life in irritable bowel patients (IBS-QOL-34 and Beck Depression and Anxiety Questionnaires. Conventional treatment along with cognitive-behavioral stress management was conducted within 8 weeks in the intervention group. The control group received only routine treatment regimes. After two months, a post- test was taken with the same measures. Covariance analysis and dependent t-test was conducted to analyze the data. Results: cognitive-behavioral stress management significantly reduced IBS symptoms in patients in the intervention group (p=0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of drug therapy along with psychological interventions can reduce severity and frequency of symptoms in IBD patients and effectively helps them to improve their quality of life. :

  3. The mind-body connection in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomised controlled trial of hypnotherapy as a treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Moore, Julie S; Talley, Nicholas J; Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotherapy has been reported as being beneficial in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients with IBS treated 'holistically' by hypnosis (i.e. by combined psychological and physiological symptom imagery) would have greater improvement in their IBS symptoms than patients treated by hypnosis using standard 'gut-directed' hypnotherapy, and both would be superior to simple relaxation therapy. Patients (n = 51) with Rome II criteria were randomised to 'individualised' (holistic) hypnotherapy, standard 'gut-directed' hypnotherapy or relaxation therapy for a period of 11 weeks with two follow-up assessments at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the completion of the trial. The primary outcome was bowel symptom severity scale (BSSS). All the participants in this study improved their IBS symptoms (pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea) and physical functioning at the end of the treatment from baseline, but this was not significantly different across the treatment arms. Neither 'individualised' nor 'gut-directed' hypnotherapy is superior to relaxation therapy in IBS.

  4. The mind–body connection in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomised controlled trial of hypnotherapy as a treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Nicholas J; Jones, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypnotherapy has been reported as being beneficial in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients with IBS treated ‘holistically’ by hypnosis (i.e. by combined psychological and physiological symptom imagery) would have greater improvement in their IBS symptoms than patients treated by hypnosis using standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy, and both would be superior to simple relaxation therapy. Methods: Patients (n = 51) with Rome II criteria were randomised to ‘individualised’ (holistic) hypnotherapy, standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy or relaxation therapy for a period of 11 weeks with two follow-up assessments at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the completion of the trial. The primary outcome was bowel symptom severity scale (BSSS). Results: All the participants in this study improved their IBS symptoms (pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea) and physical functioning at the end of the treatment from baseline, but this was not significantly different across the treatment arms. Conclusion: Neither ‘individualised’ nor ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy is superior to relaxation therapy in IBS. PMID:28070348

  5. The mind–body connection in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomised controlled trial of hypnotherapy as a treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie S Phillips-Moore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypnotherapy has been reported as being beneficial in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients with IBS treated ‘holistically’ by hypnosis (i.e. by combined psychological and physiological symptom imagery would have greater improvement in their IBS symptoms than patients treated by hypnosis using standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy, and both would be superior to simple relaxation therapy. Methods: Patients ( n  = 51 with Rome II criteria were randomised to ‘individualised’ (holistic hypnotherapy, standard ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy or relaxation therapy for a period of 11 weeks with two follow-up assessments at 2 weeks and at 3 months after the completion of the trial. The primary outcome was bowel symptom severity scale (BSSS. Results: All the participants in this study improved their IBS symptoms (pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhoea and physical functioning at the end of the treatment from baseline, but this was not significantly different across the treatment arms. Conclusion: Neither ‘individualised’ nor ‘gut-directed’ hypnotherapy is superior to relaxation therapy in IBS.

  6. Guidelines on the irritable bowel syndrome: mechanisms and practical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, R; Aziz, Q; Creed, F; Emmanuel, A; Houghton, L; Hungin, P; Jones, R; Kumar, D; Rubin, G; Trudgill, N; Whorwell, P

    2007-12-01

    IBS affects 5-11% of the population of most countries. Prevalence peaks in the third and fourth decades, with a female predominance. To provide a guide for the assessment and management of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Members of the Clinical Services Committee of The British Society of Gastroenterology were allocated particular areas to produce review documents. Literature searching included systematic searches using electronic databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases and extensive personal reference databases. Patients can usefully be classified by predominant bowel habit. Few investigations are needed except when diarrhoea is a prominent feature. Alarm features may warrant further investigation. Adverse psychological features and somatisation are often present. Ascertaining the patients' concerns and explaining symptoms in simple terms improves outcome. IBS is a heterogeneous condition with a range of treatments, each of which benefits a small proportion of patients. Treatment of associated anxiety and depression often improves bowel and other symptoms. Randomised placebo controlled trials show benefit as follows: cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy improve coping; hypnotherapy benefits global symptoms in otherwise refractory patients; antispasmodics and tricyclic antidepressants improve pain; ispaghula improves pain and bowel habit; 5-HT(3) antagonists improve global symptoms, diarrhoea, and pain but may rarely cause unexplained colitis; 5-HT(4) agonists improve global symptoms, constipation, and bloating; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve global symptoms. Better ways of identifying which patients will respond to specific treatments are urgently needed.

  7. Insects on pig carcasses as a model for predictor of death interval in forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Wangko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forensic entomology has not been acknowledged in Indonesia so far. Indonesian carrion insects are very rarely reported. The aim of this study was to obtain the types of insects on pig carcasses that could be used for the estimation of post-mortem interval.Methods: Four domestic pigs sacrificed with different methods were used as a model. The carcasses were observed twice daily (around 9 a.m and 4 p.m during 15 days to assess the stages of decomposition and to collect insects, both in mature and immature stages. The immature insects were reared and the mature insects were indentified in the Laboratory of Pests and Plant Diseases, University of Sam Ratulangi, Manado. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were identified both morphologically and with deoxyribose-nucleic acid (DNA techniques.Results: Five stages of decomposition (fresh, bloated, active decay, post-decay, and skeletonization were observed. A total of 11 Diptera and 8 Coleoptera species were found during a 15-days succession study. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens colonized in all carcasses.Conclusion: Insects found on four different pig carcasses consisted mainly of widespread Diptera and Coleoptera. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens seemed to be primary candidates for the estimation of the post-mortem interval.

  8. Stimulatory Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Phytochemical Properties, Mitotic Behaviour, and Nutritional Composition of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mohajer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. Syn. Onobrychis sativa L. is a bloat-safe forage crop with high levels of tannins, which is renowned for its medicinal qualities in grazing animals. Mutagenesis technique was applied to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation at 30, 60, 90, and 120 Gy on mitotic behavior, in vitro growth factors, phytochemical and nutritional constituents of sainfoin. Although a percentage of plant necrosis and non-growing seed were enhanced by irradiation increment, the germination speed was significantly decreased. It was observed that gamma irradiated seeds had higher value of crude protein and dry matter digestibility compared to control seeds. Toxicity of copper was reduced in sainfoin irradiated seeds at different doses of gamma rays. Anthocyanin content also decreased in inverse proportion to irradiation intensity. Accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was enhanced by gamma irradiation exposure in leaf cells. HPLC profiles differed in peak areas of the two important alkaloids, Berberine and Sanguinarine, in 120 Gy irradiated seeds compared to control seeds. There were positive correlations between irradiation dose and some abnormality divisions such as laggard chromosome, micronucleus, binucleated cells, chromosome bridge, and cytomixis. In reality, radiocytological evaluation was proven to be essential in deducing the effectiveness of gamma irradiation to induce somaclonal variation in sainfoin.

  9. Stimulatory effects of gamma irradiation on phytochemical properties, mitotic behaviour, and nutritional composition of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajer, Sadegh; Taha, Rosna Mat; Lay, Ma Ma; Esmaeili, Arash Khorasani; Khalili, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. Syn. Onobrychis sativa L.) is a bloat-safe forage crop with high levels of tannins, which is renowned for its medicinal qualities in grazing animals. Mutagenesis technique was applied to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation at 30, 60, 90, and 120 Gy on mitotic behavior, in vitro growth factors, phytochemical and nutritional constituents of sainfoin. Although a percentage of plant necrosis and non-growing seed were enhanced by irradiation increment, the germination speed was significantly decreased. It was observed that gamma irradiated seeds had higher value of crude protein and dry matter digestibility compared to control seeds. Toxicity of copper was reduced in sainfoin irradiated seeds at different doses of gamma rays. Anthocyanin content also decreased in inverse proportion to irradiation intensity. Accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was enhanced by gamma irradiation exposure in leaf cells. HPLC profiles differed in peak areas of the two important alkaloids, Berberine and Sanguinarine, in 120 Gy irradiated seeds compared to control seeds. There were positive correlations between irradiation dose and some abnormality divisions such as laggard chromosome, micronucleus, binucleated cells, chromosome bridge, and cytomixis. In reality, radiocytological evaluation was proven to be essential in deducing the effectiveness of gamma irradiation to induce somaclonal variation in sainfoin.

  10. Technical note: utilization of sainfoin by grazing steers and a method for predicting daily gain from small-plot grazing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, D P; Matches, A G; Preston, R L

    1992-07-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.) is adapted to the calcareous soils of the southern Great Plains and can provide early season forage that does not induce bloating; however, little is known about performance by ruminants grazing sainfoin. Our objective was to determine the effect of plant growth stage and grazing pressures on potential animal production from sainfoin as predicted from energy intake as a multiple of maintenance. Nitrogen-fertilized (100 kg of N/ha) Renumex sainfoin was grown under irrigation on a Pullman clay loam (fine, mixed, thermic Torretic Paleustoll) near Lubbock, TX. Light (L), medium (M), and heavy (H) grazing pressures were applied with steers grazing sainfoin that was at the bud (B), flower (F), and seed shatter (S) stages of growth. The L, M, and H pressures were grazed to remove 50, 75, and 90% of the standing plant height. Across growth stages, L, M, and H grazing pressures averaged 52, 69, and 87% removal of pregrazed herbage mass. Dry matter intake as a percentage of BW of steers averaged 3.9, 2.8, and 1.7 for L, M, and H grazing pressures. Across growth stages, predicted live weight gain for L, M, and H grazing pressures averaged .86, .67, and .03 kg/d. Our findings indicate that the multiple of maintenance method may be useful for evaluating treatments from small-plot grazing experiments.

  11. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management. PMID:28731144

  12. The Use of Gene Modification and Advanced Molecular Structure Analyses towards Improving Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yaogeng; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-29

    Alfalfa is one of the most important legume forage crops in the world. In spite of its agronomic and nutritive advantages, alfalfa has some limitations in the usage of pasture forage and hay supplement. High rapid degradation of protein in alfalfa poses a risk of rumen bloat to ruminants which could cause huge economic losses for farmers. Coupled with the relatively high lignin content, which impedes the degradation of carbohydrate in rumen, alfalfa has unbalanced and asynchronous degradation ratio of nitrogen to carbohydrate (N/CHO) in rumen. Genetic engineering approaches have been used to manipulate the expression of genes involved in important metabolic pathways for the purpose of improving the nutritive value, forage yield, and the ability to resist abiotic stress. Such gene modification could bring molecular structural changes in alfalfa that are detectable by advanced structural analytical techniques. These structural analyses have been employed in assessing alfalfa forage characteristics, allowing for rapid, convenient and cost-effective analysis of alfalfa forage quality. In this article, we review two major obstacles facing alfalfa utilization, namely poor protein utilization and relatively high lignin content, and highlight genetic studies that were performed to overcome these drawbacks, as well as to introduce other improvements to alfalfa quality. We also review the use of advanced molecular structural analysis in the assessment of alfalfa forage for its potential usage in quality selection in alfalfa breeding.

  13. Dose-response study of probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei CRL-341 in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C.N.; Nielsen, S.; Kaestel, P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to investigate the dose-response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora was analy......Objective: This study was performed to investigate the dose-response effects of supplementation with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei (CRL-431) on blood lipids, recovery from feces and bowel habits. Changes of the fecal microflora...... weeks intervention and 2 weeks wash-out. Diary reporting bowel habits and well being (abdominal bloating, flatulence and headache) was kept for all 7 weeks and blood lipids, fecal recovery of BB-12 and CRL-431, as well as fecal microflora was tested before, immediately and 2 weeks after intervention....... Results: The fecal recovery of BB-12 increased significantly (P BB-12 was recovered from 13 out of 15 volunteers. CRL-431 was not recovered in any of the fecal samples. Supplementation with probiotics did not change the fecal bacterial...

  14. Results of a Qualitative Study to Develop a Patient Reported Outcome Measure for Patients with 4 Subtypes of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Skalicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this research was to develop a disease-specific symptom inventory for soft tissue sarcoma. Methods. Literature review and clinical expert and patient interviews were conducted to determine disease-specific symptoms important to patients with one of the four STS subtypes. Clinical experts identified the most relevant STS symptom items from the item pool developed from literature review. Concept elicitation interviews were conducted with patients to elicit their STS symptom experiences followed by a completion of the draft symptom list via web survey. A cognitive interview was conducted on the comprehension and importance of the symptom items. Results. Eighty-three symptom items were compiled and discussed with three clinical experts who identified 26 symptoms specific to the four STS subtypes. A total sample of 27 STS participants with self-reported leiomyosarcoma (74%, undifferentiated sarcoma (15%, synovial sarcoma (7%, or liposarcoma (4% diagnosis completed the web survey and 10 were interviewed. The draft 12-item STS-specific symptom inventory includes abdominal pain, pressure in abdomen, early satiety, bloating, gastrointestinal pain, muscle pain, bone pain, heavy menstrual flow, shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and painful menstruation. Conclusion. A number of symptoms are common across STS subtypes and may form a single STS symptom inventory.

  15. Chronic appendicitis in an atrophic appendix: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeray Trujillo L

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic appendicitis is a rare entity characterized by pain in the right iliac Fossa during 2 years of evolution. Some surgeons and pathologists deny the existence of this disease; in contrast, there are studies of different authors that reported findings of chronic appendicitis. Male patient, 71 years- old, with pain in the right iliac Fossa of 2 weeks of evolution which remitted partially throughout his presentation, not associated with nausea, vomiting or anorexia. Physical examination revealed bounce in right iliac Fossa and blood count without Leukocytosis and forms segmented within normal parameters. History of 2 years of similar symptoms with resolution spontaneously. It was decided to carry out exploratory laparotomy; the operative finding was a cecal appendix of 1 cm of length with adherence of its distal part to the abdominal wall, exerting traction. Postoperatively the patient presented mild bloating and complete remission of pain. The pathological anatomy of the operative part was informed as cecal appendix 1 cm of length with chronic inflammation and fibrosis.

  16. Case report on babesiosis associated pre-hepatic jaundice in a malabari goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ajith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pre-hepatic jaundice associated with babesiosis in a malabari goat and its successful management is described. The animal was presented with muco-purulent nasal discharge, dyspnoea, coughing, icteric sclera and oral mucosa, bloated abdomen, diarrhoea, hematochezia and coffee coloured urine. History of tick infestation was reported by the owner. Clinical examination revealed pyrexia, tachycardia, tachypnea, pre-scapular and pre-femoral lymphadenopathy and respiratory wheezes. Laboratory investigations revealed anaemia, neutrophilia, thrombocytopaenia, hypoproteinemia, hyperbilirubinemia and haemoglobinuria. On microscopic examination, small pyriform Babesia sp. (probably B. ovis could be detected in Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear. The animal had undergone babesicidal therapy using diminazene aceturate (3.5 mg/kg bodyweight deep IM, two doses at 48hr interval and oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg body weight once daily for 5 days, and supportive therapy using NSAIDs, polyionic isotonic fluids, antihistamines, B complex vitamins, stomachic and iron supplements. The animal made an uneventful clinical recovery after two weeks.

  17. Premenstrual symptoms in dysmenorrheic college students: prevalence and relation to vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Bayan A; Alchalabi, Haifa A; Abdul-Razzak, Khalid K; Al-Farras, Mudhaffar I

    2012-11-16

    To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS) due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH) levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. A cross-sectional study. One Jordanian university. A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation-related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.

  18. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-02-01

    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Utilisation of different types of coal fly ash in the production of ceramic tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kockal, N. U.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of varying proportions of different types of fly ash (used in place of feldspar and different sintering temperatures on the sintered properties of ceramic tile bodies was evaluated. The results indicated that sintering ceramic tiles with a high fly ash content at a high temperature caused a decrease in the properties because of bloating. The ceramic samples containing a higher amount of fly ash that were sintered at low temperature exhibited lower water absorption, larger shrinkage and strength because of the densification observed also in microstructural investigation.

    Se ha evaluado la influencia de la proporción de diferentes tipos de cenizas volantes (en lugar de feldespato y diferentes temperaturas de sinterización en las propiedades de soportes cerámicos. Los resultados indicaron que las composiciones con un alto contenido de cenizas volantes provocaron una disminución en las propiedades de las piczas cocidas a alta temperatura como consecuencia del hinchamiento. Las composiciones con una mayor cantidad de cenizas sinterizadas a baja temperatura mostraron una menor absorción de agua, mayor contracción y resistencia mecánica debido a la densificación como también se observó en la investigación microestructural.

  20. Celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtmeier Wolfgang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen; often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years.

  1. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma: case report of an infrequent tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Moreno-Loaíza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma is an infrequent tumor both in our environment and in the world. There is no conclusive evidence on its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, treatment or prognosis. Clinical case. We report a 77 year-old female patient, of mixed racial origin, native of Cusco (Peru who consulted for abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, postprandial vomiting and bloating of three months course. At the time of examination she had second to third degree protein malnutrition with a BMI of 16.88 kg/m2, signs of moderate to severe chronic anemia and an 8 cm abdominal tumor in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. The multislice spiral abdominal CT and ultrasonography revealed the presence of a solid tumor in the second portion of the duodenum. The patient was submitted to a gastroenterostomy without tumor resection. Biopsy confirmed tubular adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, no other primary tumors were found in the stomach, pancreas, biliary tree and colon. The patient was stabilized and was treated with 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan and leucovorin. Literature review. The article includes a brief review on the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this condition. Discussion. Management is not straightforward. There is little literature on the subject leaving decisions up to the attending physician’s criteria. We believe that all cases of rare diseases should be studied in depth, give rise to a thorough review of literature and, above all, be brought to the attention of the medical community.

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA, as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions.

  3. A Preliminary Analysis of Insects of Medico-legal Importance in Curitiba, State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Osvaldo Moura

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the carrion fauna was made at two sites in Curitiba, State of Paraná, with the objective of describing the insects associated with carrion and setting up a preliminary data-base for medico-legal purposes in south Brazil. Vertebrate exclusion experiments were carried out in each season between 1994 and 1995 with a 250 g laboratory-bred rat (Rattus norvegicus. Five stages of decomposition were identified: fresh, bloated, decaying, dry and adipocere-like. Some species showed seasonal and site preference and so could be used to identify the probable place and season where death took place. Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera, Calliphoridae was restricted to an open field site and to cooler months. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Diptera, Calliphoridae and Pattonella resona (Diptera, Sarcophagidae were restricted to the forest site and warmer months. Phaenicia eximia (Diptera, Calliphoridae and Oxyletrum discicolle (Coleoptera, Silphidae were present at both sites throughout the year and could be useful for population level analysis. Dissochaetus murray (Coleoptera, Cholevidae was present throughout the year at the forest site and was associated with the adipocere-like stage. Ants played an important role producing post-mortem injuries to the carcasses. Insects of 32 species are reported as being useful in community level approaches

  4. Forensic entomology of decomposing humans and their decomposing pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R

    2015-02-01

    Domestic pets are commonly found in the homes of decedents whose deaths are investigated by a medical examiner or coroner. When these pets become trapped with a decomposing decedent they may resort to feeding on the body or succumb to starvation and/or dehydration and begin to decompose as well. In this case report photographic documentation of cases involving pets and decedents were examined from 2009 through the beginning of 2014. This photo review indicated that in many cases the pets were cats and dogs that were trapped with the decedent, died and were discovered in a moderate (bloat to active decay) state of decomposition. In addition three cases involving decomposing humans and their decomposing pets are described as they were processed for time of insect colonization by forensic entomological approach. Differences in timing and species colonizing the human and animal bodies were noted as was the potential for the human or animal derived specimens to contaminate one another at the scene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of inhomogeneous static magnetic field-exposure on patients with erosive gastritis: a randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, single centre, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F

    2014-09-06

    This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Fecal Microbial Transplant In Children With Ulcerative Colitis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sonia

    2017-10-06

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon and is related to a genetically and environmentally-generated altered immune response to the enteric microbiome. Previous work in the PI laboratory suggests that children with UC harbor a unique gut microbial profile, which can predict therapeutic response. We hypothesized that children with ulcerative colitis will benefit from fecal transplant therapy (FMT). To this date there have been a number of reports describing the role of FMT in this disease albeit without uniform success and without controlled pediatric studies. Therefore, there is a strong need to determine its safety and efficacy in controlled trials. We report pilot data in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of FMT from healthy donor versus placebo (subject's own stools) in combination with 5-ASA in mild to moderate disease. Twelve children were randomized to receive FMT or placebo. Subjects were monitored for 12 months. Remission or a 20-point improvement of PUCAI scores were seen in 60% of children receiving FMT versus 28% receiving placebo. More importantly, children receiving FMT did not require escalation of therapy in contrast to 71% receiving placebo. No serious adverse events related to FMT. Bloating and fever were adverse events that were considered related to FMT. To summarize, there appears to be a prospect of benefit in this small number of children receiving FMT for mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. FMT appeared to be safe in this patient population.

  7. Serial Frozen Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lili; Ding, Chao; Tian, Hongliang; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Xuelei; Hua, Yue; Zhu, Yifan; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Jieshou; Li, Ning

    2017-04-30

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a serious, life-threatening motility disorder that is often related to bacterial overgrowth. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) results in restoration of the normal intestinal microbial community structure. We investigated the efficacy of FMT in the treatment of CIPO patients. Nine patients (age 18-53 years) with CIPO were enrolled in this prospective, open-label study. Patients received FMT for 6 consecutive days through nasojejunal (NJ) tubes and were followed up for 8 weeks after treatment. We evaluated the rate of clinical improvement and remission, feeding tolerance of enteral nutrition, and CT imaging scores of intestinal obstructions. Lactulose hydrogen breath tests were performed before FMT and 8 weeks after FMT to evaluate for the presence small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). FMT significantly alleviated bloating symptoms, and symptoms of pain were relieved 2 weeks after FMT. Enteral nutrition administered through a NJ tube after FMT was well-tolerated by 66.7% (6/9) of patients. CT scores of intestinal obstructions were significantly reduced after FMT (P = 0.014). SIBO was eliminated in 71.0% (5/7) of patients. This pilot study demonstrated the safety of using FMT. FMT may relieve symptoms in selected patients with CIPO. FMT may also improve patient tolerance of enteral nutrition delivered via a NJ tube.

  8. Effect of Apium graveolens and Trachyspermum copticom on clinical symptoms of patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Azimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study aimed at investigating the effect of Iranian traditional remedy prepared from Apium graveolens and Trachyspermum copticom (AT on the severity and frequency of symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD. Material and Methods:In total, 150 FD patients were included in this randomized double-blind trial, based on the ROME III diagnostic criteria, and they were divided into three intervention groups namely, AT, Placebo and omeprazole. Then, severity and frequency of symptoms during this eight-week trial were measured. Obtained information was analyzed using Chi-square test and repeated measures test. Result:In general, the severity and frequency of symptoms after the 4th week significantly decreased in the AT group as compared to the omeprazole and placebo groups, and continued to reduce by the end of the eighth week. General reduction of symptom severity and frequency in the omeprazole group was significantly different from the placebo group by the end of the 4th and 8th weeks. With respect to each individual symptom, AT markedly improved symptoms, such as burning, pain, early satiation, fullness, bloating, belching and nausea, as compared to placebo-treated group. Moreover, AT significantly improved symptoms, like vomiting, and nausea, except for pain, as compared to omeprazole-treated subjects. Conclusion:According to the results, AT, as Iranian traditional remedy, was more effective than omeprazole and placebo in reducing the symptoms in FD patients.

  9. Intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds: Report of three cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya-González, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasconcellea spp., is a species of Andean papaya commonly cultivated in rural communities close to Medellín, Colombia. Due to the pleasant and sweet flavor of its fruits, children frequently ingest its seeds accidentally. After ingestion, the seeds are engaged in the colonic lumen and block the exit of stools, causing pain and bloating, and promoting bacterial translocation. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and rectal examination. Treatment depends on the degree of local and systemic involvement and includes disimpaction of rectal contents under general anesthesia and colonic washes with 0.9% saline solution. In severe cases derivative colostomy has been required. In the literature there are no reports of intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds, possibly because it has been mistaken for seeds of the genus Carica. In this article, three cases treated at pediatric services in Medellín, Colombia, in 2012 and 2013 are described. We note that this is a rarely suspected disease, leading to late diagnosis and potential catastrophic consequences. It is important to educate people to prevent the ingestion of the seeds.

  10. Acute toxicity of various oral doses of dried Nerium oleander leaves in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, S E; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Farhan, A H

    2001-01-01

    The acute toxicity of dried Nerium oleander leaves to Najdi sheep is described in 12 sheep assigned as untreated controls, N. oleander-treated once at 1 and 0.25 g/kg body weight and N. oleander-treated daily at 0.06 g/kg body weight by drench. Single oral doses of 1 or 0.25 g of dried N. oleander leaves/kg body weight caused restlessness, chewing movements of the jaws, dyspnea, ruminal bloat, incoordination of movements, limb paresis, recumbency and death 4-24 hr after dosing. Lesions were widespread congestion or hemorrhage, pulmonary cyanosis and emphysema, hepatorenal fatty change and catarrhal abomasitis and enteritis. The daily oral doses of 0.06 g dried N. oleander leaves/kg body weight caused less severe signs and death occurred between days 3 and 14. In these animals, the main lesions were hepatonephropathy and gelatinization of the renal pelvis and mesentry and were accompanied by significant increases in serum AST and LDH activities, in bilirubin, cholesterol and urea concentrations and significant decreases in total protein and albumin levels, anemia and leucopenia.

  11. Median arcuate ligament syndrome in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Jeffrey N; Haskins, Ivy N; Brody, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) is a common entity in young athletes. Most occurrences are due to a "cramp" or "stitch," but an uncommon, and often overlooked, etiology of ETAP is median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS). The initial presentation of MALS typically includes postprandial nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, but in athletes, the initial presentation may be ETAP. We present a case series of three athletes who presented with exercise-related transient abdominal pain and were ultimately diagnosed and treated for MALS. Unlike other patients with median arcuate ligament syndrome, these athletes presented with exercise-induced pain, rather than the common postprandial symptoms. These symptoms persisted despite conservative measures. Work-up of patients with suspected MALS include a computed tomography or magnetic resonance angiography showing compression of the celiac artery with post-stenotic dilation, or a celiac artery ultrasound demonstrating increased velocities (>200 cm/s(2)) with deep exhalation. All patients underwent a laparoscopic median arcuate ligament release. Postoperatively, there were no complications, and all were discharged home on postoperative day #2. All patients have subsequently returned to athletics with resolution of their symptoms. ETAP is common in athletes and often resolves with preventative or conservative strategies. When ETAP persists despite these methods, alternative causes, including MALS, should be considered. A combination of a thorough history and physical exam, as well as radiographic data, is essential to make the appropriate diagnosis and treatment strategy.

  12. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth May Increase the Likelihood of Lactose and Sorbitol but not Fructose Intolerance False Positive Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perets, Tsachi Tsadok; Hamouda, Dalal; Layfer, Olga; Ashorov, Olga; Boltin, Doron; Levy, Sigal; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is defined as a bacterial count of more than 10 5 colony-forming units per milliliter in duodenal aspirate. It shares many symptoms with carbohydrate intolerance, which makes the clinical distinction of the disorders difficult. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between a positive carbohydrate breath test and the presence of SIBO suggested by a positive lactulose hydrogen breath test. The electronic database of the gastroenterology laboratory of a tertiary medical center was searched for all patients clinically tested for SIBO in 2012-2013 for whom previous results for lactose, fructose, and/or sorbitol breath test were available. The correlation between positive findings for carbohydrate intolerance and for SIBO was statistically analyzed. The study group included 349 patients, 231 female and 118 male, of mean age 53±19 years. All had symptoms of abdominal bloating and gas. There was a statistically significant difference in rates of a positive breath test for lactose and sorbitol at ≤90 minutes between patients who were positive and negative for SIBO [χ 2 (1)=12.8, p intolerance. It may be especially prudent to exclude SIBO patients with an early peak (≤90 minutes) in H 2 excretion. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  13. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance. PMID:24917953

  14. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of ¹³C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Meir; Almogy, Gideon; Adar, Tomer; Lysy, Joseph

    2011-09-19

    Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome.

  15. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of 13C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. Case presentation We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Conclusions Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome. PMID:21929798

  16. Subjective taste to polyethylene glycol is associated with efficacy of right colon preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Young; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Chung, Jin Ook; Chung, Min-Woo; Myung, Eun; Koh, Han-Ra; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Chang-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2017-04-01

    A prospective observational trial with preparations using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to compare patient compliance and adverse events according to individual subjective taste. A total of 299 outpatients (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 56.5 ± 13.8 years, 172 males) were recruited for our study. We assessed the efficacy of bowel preparation, subjective taste to their regimens, compliance and adverse events during the preparation. We achieved adequate preparation in 267 (89.3%). A total of 124 patients (41.5%) had 'unacceptable taste' to their regimens. The patients with acceptable taste had better compliance than the patients with unacceptable taste (p = .009). The patients with unacceptable taste had more frequent adverse events such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal bloating than the patients with acceptable taste (all p taste (16.1%) had more frequent inadequate preparation in overall colon than patients with acceptable taste (6.9%, p = .011). There was a significant difference in the efficacy of preparation of right colon between the two groups (p = .004). Subjective taste to PEG is associated with efficacy of right colon preparation. In addition, subjective taste to PEG is associated with compliance and adverse events.

  17. Neurostimulation for Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Worsøe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD. It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NBD treated by sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS, sacral nerve stimulation (SNS, peripheral nerve stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and nerve re-routing was made in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Results. SARS improves bowel function in some patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI. Nerve re-routing is claimed to facilitate defecation through mechanical stimulation of dermatomes in patients with complete or incomplete SCI or myelomeningocele. SNS can reduce NBD in selected patients with a variety of incomplete neurological lesions. Peripheral stimulation using electrical stimulation or magnetic stimulation may represent non-invasive alternatives. Conclusion. Numerous methods of neurostimulation to treat NBD have been investigated in pilot studies or retrospective studies. Therefore, larger controlled trials with well-defined inclusion criteria and endpoints are recommended before widespread clinical use of neurostimulation against NBD.

  18. Primary Care Management of Chronic Constipation in Asia: The ANMA Chronic Constipation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Chua, Andrew Seng Boon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Wu, Justin C Y; Chen, Min-Hu; Gong, Xiao-Rong; Lu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Chien-Lin; Pratap, Nitesh; Abraham, Philip; Hou, Xiao-Hua; Ke, Meiyun; Ricaforte-Campos, Jane D; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Abdullah, Murdani

    2013-01-01

    Chronic constipation (CC) may impact on quality of life. There is substantial patient dissatisfaction; possible reasons are failure to recognize underlying constipation, inappropriate dietary advice and inadequate treatment. The aim of these practical guidelines intended for primary care physicians, and which are based on Asian perspectives, is to provide an approach to CC that is relevant to the existing health-care infrastructure. Physicians should not rely on infrequent bowel movements to diagnose CC as many patients have one or more bowel movement a day. More commonly, patients present with hard stool, straining, incomplete feeling, bloating and other dyspeptic symptoms. Physicians should consider CC in these situations and when patients are found to use laxative containing supplements. In the absence of alarm features physicians may start with a 2-4 week therapeutic trial of available pharmacological agents including osmotic, stimulant and enterokinetic agents. Where safe to do so, physicians should consider regular (as opposed to on demand dosing), combination treatment and continuous treatment for at least 4 weeks. If patients do not achieve satisfactory response, they should be referred to tertiary centers for physiological evaluation of colonic transit and pelvic floor function. Surgical referral is a last resort, which should be considered only after a thorough physiological and psychological evaluation. PMID:23667746

  19. Analytical Study of Short- and Long-term Results of Home-based Palliative Care Services to Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dhritiman; Majumdar, Gautam; Debbarma, Shiromani; Janapati, Badan; Datta, Amit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Identification and selection of patients suffering from terminal stage in bed ridden condition upto village level and to determine the type of palliative care need. Also to asses the effectiveness of the palliative care provided at the bed side. All registered patients under palliative care of Regional Cancer Centre, Agartala from 2014 April to 2016 March. A retrospective study. Ten teams comprising of doctors, nurses, pharmacists & Social Workers were trained and engaged in this study for symptom assessment and pain relief of palliative patients. It is highly beneficial for the bed ridden & home bound cancer patients with improved quality of life due to regular home visits and medicine distribution by trained medical personnel. Short term benefits in symptom like pain, nausea & vomiting, retention of urine, constipation, bloating, fever etc. was dramatic after medication by palliative team. Patients also get relief as a result of repeated visit of palliative care team. Home based palliative care is beneficial for the bed ridden and home bound chronically ill patients including cancer patients. Bed ridden patients should be cared by palliative care team at least in every week.

  20. What is the evidence for the use of probiotics in functional disorders?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-02-03

    A rationale for the use of probiotics for a number of functional gastrointestinal symptoms and syndromes can be developed, and an experimental basis for their use continues to emerge, but data from well-conducted clinical trials of probiotics in this area remain scarce. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has attracted the most attention; recent revelations regarding the potential pathogenic roles of the enteric flora and immune activation have led to reawakened interest in bacterio-therapy for this common and challenging disorder. Some recent randomized, controlled studies attest to the efficacy of some probiotics in alleviating individual IBS symptoms, and selected strains have a more global impact. Evidence for long-term efficacy is also beginning to emerge, though more studies are needed in this regard. In other functional syndromes, data are far from adequate to make recommendations, but there is evidence for efficacy of probiotics in treating individual symptoms such as diarrhea, constipation, and bloating. The interpretation of much of the literature in this area is complicated by lack of quality control, use of many different species and strains, and, above all, significant deficiencies in trial methodology.

  1. Emerging treatment options for management of malignant ascites in patients with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskander RN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ramez N Eskander, Krishnansu S TewariDivision of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Malignant ascites affects approximately 10% of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer and is associated with troublesome symptoms, including abdominal pressure and distension, dyspnea, bloating, pelvic pain, and bowel/bladder dysfunction. To date, no effective therapy has been identified for the treatment of malignant ascites in patients with recurrent, advanced ovarian cancer. In this article, we discuss currently existing options for the treatment of ascites associated with ovarian cancer, and review the literature as it pertains to novel, targeted therapies. Specifically, preclinical and clinical trials exploring the use of the antiangiogenic agents, bevacizumab and vascular endothelial growth factor-trap, as well as the nonangiogenic agent, catumaxomab, will be reviewed. Despite current limitations in treatment, knowledge regarding management options in the palliation of ascites is critical to practicing physicians. Ultimately, as with all novel therapies, symptom relief and treatment goals must be weighed against patient discomfort and potentially significant adverse events.Keywords: angiogenesis, ascites, epithelial ovarian cancer

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: Important Immunoregulatory Factors Contributing to Chemotherapy-Induced Gastrointestinal Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masooma Sultani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Mucositis” is the clinical term used to describe ulceration and damage of the mucous membranes of the entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT following cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhoea, vomiting, and constipation resulting in both a significant clinical and financial burden. Chemotherapeutic drugs cause upregulation of stress response genes including NFκB, that in turn upregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. These proinflammatory cytokines are responsible for initiating inflammation in response to tissue injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines and specific cytokine inhibitors are also released to limit the sustained or excessive inflammatory reactions. In the past decade, intensive research has determined the role of proinflammatory cytokines in development of mucositis. However, a large gap remains in the knowledge of the role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the setting of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This critical paper will highlight current literature available relating to what is known regarding the development of mucositis, including the molecular mechanisms involved in inducing inflammation particularly with respect to the role of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as provide a detailed discussion of why it is essential to consider extensive research in the role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in chemotherapy-induced mucositis so that effective targeted treatment strategies can be developed.

  3. Association of Medical Directors of Information Systems consensus on inpatient electronic health record documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoolin, J; Ozeran, L; Hamann, C; Bria, W

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, electronic documentation of clinical care stands at a crossroads. The benefits of creating digital notes are at risk of being overwhelmed by the inclusion of easily importable detail. Providers are the primary authors of encounters with patients. We must document clearly our understanding of patients and our communication with them and our colleagues. We want to document efficiently to meet without exceeding documentation guidelines. We copy and paste documentation, because it not only simplifies the documentation process generally, but also supports meeting coding and regulatory requirements specifically. Since the primary goal of our profession is to spend as much time as possible listening to, understanding and helping patients, clinicians need information technology to make electronic documentation easier, not harder. At the same time, there should be reasonable restrictions on the use of copy and paste to limit the growing challenge of 'note bloat'. We must find the right balance between ease of use and thoughtless documentation. The guiding principles in this document may be used to launch an interdisciplinary dialogue that promotes useful and necessary documentation that best facilitates efficient information capture and effective display.

  4. The low-FODMAP diet in the management of functional dyspepsia in East and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Victoria P

    2017-03-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder in East and Southeast Asia where subjects experience post prandial fullness/bloating, early satiety, belching, epigastric pain, and/or burning. A subset of patients with FD experience triggers exclusively related to meals, defined as the post prandial distress syndrome in the Rome IV guidelines. There is significant overlap of symptoms and implicated pathogenic factors with another common functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and in fact, a significant proportion of subjects have FD/IBS overlap. The introduction of the low-FODMAP diet has changed the paradigm of treatment for IBS. Like IBS, dietary management appears to be important to patients with FD and clinicians treating the condition. This review aims to examine the current role of diet in the management of FD in East and Southeast Asia, with an exploration of the likely efficacy and mechanisms of action of the low-FODMAP diet in this region. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. A new acupuncture method for management of irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized double blind clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Ataie, Mehdi; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Etemadi, Ali; Ataei, Behrooz; Nikyar, Hamidreza; Abdoli, Saman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is gastrointestinal functional disorder which is multifactorial with unknown etiology. There are several modalities for treatment of it. Acupuncture is increasingly used in numerous diseases, also in gastrointestinal disorders like IBS. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of catgut embedding acupuncture in improving of IBS. Materials and Methods: A randomized double blind sham control clinical trial was designed. A total of 60 IBS patients assigned to three separated groups. The first group received clofac as drug only group (DO). The second one received catgut embedding acupuncture in special point (AP) and the last group received sham acupuncture (SA). Symptoms, pain, depression and anxiety assessed before and after two weeks at the end of study. Results: There was statistically significant difference between AP and SA and DO in constipation and bloating. Differences that were statistically significant favored acupuncture on pain (F = 6.409, P = 0.003), and depression (F = 6.735, P = 0.002) as the other outcomes. The average (standard deviation (SD)) of weight loss was 2 kg (0.88) in acupuncture group. Conclusion: Our finding showed a significant positive associated between acupuncture and IBS. Catgut embedding acupuncture is a new method which can eliminated IBS symptoms and can use as alternative therapeutic method for improvement of IBS. PMID:25538771

  6. The opioid effects of gluten exorphins: asymptomatic celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruimboom, Leo; de Punder, Karin

    2015-11-24

    Gluten-containing cereals are a main food staple present in the daily human diet, including wheat, barley, and rye. Gluten intake is associated with the development of celiac disease (CD) and related disorders such as diabetes mellitus type I, depression, and schizophrenia. However, until now, there is no consent about the possible deleterious effects of gluten intake because of often failing symptoms even in persons with proven CD. Asymptomatic CD (ACD) is present in the majority of affected patients and is characterized by the absence of classical gluten-intolerance signs, such as diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain. Nevertheless, these individuals very often develop diseases that can be related with gluten intake. Gluten can be degraded into several morphine-like substances, named gluten exorphins. These compounds have proven opioid effects and could mask the deleterious effects of gluten protein on gastrointestinal lining and function. Here we describe a putative mechanism, explaining how gluten could "mask" its own toxicity by exorphins that are produced through gluten protein digestion.

  7. Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan A. Obeidat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: One Jordanian university. Subjects: A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation- related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Results: Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.

  8. Partial versus complete fundoplication for the correction of pediatric GERD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Glen

    Full Text Available There is no consensus as to what extent of "wrap" is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD.To evaluate if a complete (360 degree or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD.A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25% used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor.The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis.

  9. Clinical evaluation, biochemistry and genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in a population from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Lins Ponte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate and correlate symptoms, biochemical blood test results and single nucleotide polymorphisms for lactose intolerance diagnosis. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with a total of 119 patients, 54 of whom were lactose intolerant. Clinical evaluation and biochemical blood tests were conducted after lactose ingestion and blood samples were collected for genotyping evaluation. In particular, the single nucleotide polymorphisms C>T-13910 and G>A-22018 were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism/polymerase chain reaction and validated by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: Lactose-intolerant patients presented with more symptoms of flatulence (81.4%, bloating (68.5%, borborygmus (59.3% and diarrhea (46.3% compared with non-lactose-intolerant patients (pT-13910 and G>A-22018 with lactose tolerance in this population and suggest clinical management for patients with lactose intolerance that considers single nucleotide polymorphism detection and a change in the biochemical blood test cutoff from <25 mg/dL to <15 mg/dL.

  10. Safety evaluation of lubiprostone in the treatment of constipation and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Sherman M; Rao, Satish S C

    2012-09-01

    Lubiprostone is approved in the United States for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation and constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). Lubiprostone causes secretion of fluid and electrolytes in the small bowel, through the activation of chloride channels, and thereby induces laxation and improvement of bowel functions. It is generally considered to be safe and effective. Common side effects of lubiprostone include nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating, and the rare side effect dyspnea. Likely mechanisms for these side effects may be related to lubiprostone's primary action on small bowel secretion and the associated intestinal distension, as well as smooth muscle contraction. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of lubiprostone, with particular relevance to the two FDA-approved dosages. Lubiprostone acts topically in the gut lumen and is almost completely metabolized in the gut lumen. Lubiprostone's M3 metabolite can be detected in low concentrations in the serum and may be responsible for some of its side effects. However, the exact mechanisms by which the side effects are produced are currently unknown.

  11. Lubiprostone--a novel treatment for irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Richard T

    2008-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, highly prevalent gastrointestinal motility disorder characterized by abdominal discomfort/pain associated with altered bowel habits such as diarrhea or constipation or both. Current therapy for the constipation-predominant form (IBS-C) comprises fiber or osmotic or stimulant laxatives. However, these may exacerbate the condition or cause electrolyte disturbances. Lubiprostone is a novel selective chloride channel-2 activator that increases fluid secretion in the intestinal apical cell membrane, increasing gut motility and frequency of stool passage, and alleviating abdominal discomfort/pain. Lubiprostone has very low systemic bioavailability and cannot be quantitated in blood, but its active metabolite, M3, has been pharmacokinetically profiled. Lubiprostone reaches peak plasma concentrations within approximately 1 h and has a half-life of 0.9-1.4 h. Despite this short half-life, lubiprostone can be administered orally twice daily. Its efficacy in IBS-C has been demonstrated in two phase III studies; spontaneous bowel movement frequency increased and stool consistency improved, whereas straining, bloating and severity of constipation decreased. The beneficial effects continued for up to 4 weeks after cessation of lubiprostone. Lubiprostone was well tolerated in the long-term, with nausea and diarrhea being the commonest adverse events. Further studies are ongoing in opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-dose lubiprostone along with split-dose PEG solution without dietary restrictions for bowel cleansing prior to colonoscopy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Joel Z; Jones, David P

    2008-09-01

    Proper colonic cleansing prior to colonoscopy is paramount to ensuring complete mucosal visualization and polyp identification. In a double-blind fashion, we compared single-dose lubiprostone (24 microg) versus placebo pretreatment prior to a split-dose polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG-E) bowel preparation without dietary restriction to determine the efficacy, safety, and patient tolerability. Two hundred patients referred for outpatient colorectal cancer screening were randomized to receive a single-dose of unlabeled lubiprostone (24 microg) or placebo prior to a split-dose PEG-E bowel preparation without dietary restriction. The patients were surveyed prior to the colonoscopy on the tolerability of the bowel preparation, and any adverse events were recorded. The cleanliness of the colon was graded by the endoscopist during the procedure utilizing the Ottawa bowel preparation scale. One hundred ninety-one patients completed the study (95%). Split-dose PEG-E with lubiprostone pretreatment was found to be more effective at bowel cleansing in each segment of the colon when compared with split-dose PEG-E with placebo (P lubiprostone treatment arm rated the overall experience as more tolerable (P 0.003) and complained of less abdominal bloating (P 0.049). No differences were observed between the groups for treatment-emergent side effects or adverse events (P > 0.05). Single-dose lubiprostone prior to split-dose PEG-E without dietary restriction significantly improves colonic mucosa visualization during colonoscopy and is well tolerated by patients.

  13. Frequency of Celiac Disease in Patients With Increased Intestinal Gas (Flatulence).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Mohsen; Mokhtare, Marjan; Agah, Shahram; Sina, Mohammad; Soltani-Kermanshahi, Mojtaba

    2015-10-26

    Excessive flatulence which impairs social performance in patients is one of the common reasons for referrals to gastroenterology clinics. Celiac Disease is a rare but important cause of increased intestinal gas (bloating) and if not diagnosed, patients face complications such as malabsorption, anemia, osteoporosis and even intestinal lymphoma. This study aimed to determine the frequency of Celiac Disease in patients with excessive flatulence.One hundred and fifty patients with a chief complaint of experiencing flatulence more than 15 times a day and lasting for three months were referred to the gastroenterology clinic of Rasoul-e-Akram Teaching Hospital. Serological tests for Celiac Disease, Anti TTG Ab (IgA-IgG) were requested and the patients with positive tests underwent upper GI endoscopy. Biopsies of the second part of the duodenum were then sent to the laboratory.From one hundred and thirty patients who completed the study, 92 (70.7%) were female. Mean age of the patients was 32 ± 13 years. Anti TTG Ab was found in 5 patients (3.85%). Only 2 patients (1.5%) had a documented positive pathology for Celiac Disease.According to the results of this study and other studies, we conclude that Celiac Disease is an uncommon etiology for excessive flatulence but it is of importance to investigate it in excessive flatulence patients.

  14. Chronic Urticaria: A Cutaneous Manifestation of Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Haussmann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease, or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an immune-mediated disease of the small bowel that results in malabsorption. It classically presents with gastrointestinal symptoms including chronic diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal bloating and anorexia. It is becoming more frequently identified in asymptomatic patients with a diagnosis of deficiencies related to malabsorption of iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D. It is increasingly identified as a cause for early or refractory osteoporosis. Occasionally, celiac disease presents with cutaneous manifestations alone. Dermatitis herpetiformis is a well-recognized cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease. Other cutaneous manifestations include alopecia, angular stomatitis and aphthous ulcerations. Described here is a case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with intermittent urticaria and gastrointestinal complaints. She was found to have celiac disease on small-bowel biopsy. Both her gastrointestinal symptoms and urticaria resolved when she was put on a gluten-free diet, suggesting that her urticaria was a cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease.

  15. The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira Krüger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of environment on development and survival of pupae of the necrophagous fly Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes (Diptera, Muscidae. Species of Ophyra Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are found in decomposing bodies, usually in fresh, bloated and decay stages. Ophyra albuquerquei Lopes, for example, can be found in animal carcasses. The influence of environmental factors has not been evaluated in puparia of O. albuquerquei. Thus, the focus of this work was motivated by the need for models to predict the development of a necrophagous insect as a function of abiotic factors. Colonies of O. albuquerquei were maintained in the laboratory to obtain pupae. On the tenth day of each month 200 pupae, divided equally into 10 glass jars, were exposed to the environment and checked daily for adult emergence of each sample. We concluded that the high survival rate observed suggested that the diets used for rearing the larvae and maintaining the adults were appropriate. Also, the data adjusted to robust generalized linear models and there were no interruptions of O. albuquerquei pupae development within the limits of temperatures studied in southern Rio Grande do Sul, given the high survival presented.

  16. Clinical experience with the use of anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies in patients with diarrhea in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, M; Balbuena, R; Corona de Law, C

    Circulating anti-CdtB/anti-vinculin antibodies have been validated as biomarkers to distinguish IBS-D from IBD, but there is no experience with them in Latin America. The analysis was carried out on patients seen at a FGIDs/motility clinic over the last 7 months for diarrhea with abdominal pain and/or bloating who were tested for these antibodies. The patients were diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria or with organic disorders, and those presenting with IBS were further classified as post-infectious (PI) or non-PI-IBS. Thirty patients were studied. Positive biomarkers were found in IBS-D and IBS-D Overlap (58.8%) and IBS-M (33.3%), with no differences between PI-IBS (71.4%) vs. non-PI-IBS (41.7%) subjects (P=.21). There was no positivity in patients with other FGIDs or organic diarrhea, except for one with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Our findings support the use of this test as a first-line diagnostic tool to confirm the presence of IBS-D/IBS-M according to the Rome III criteria. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of the consumption of a fermented dairy product containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 on constipation in childhood: a multicentre randomised controlled trial (NTRTC: 1571).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbers, Merit M; Chmielewska, Ania; Roseboom, Maaike G; Boudet, Claire; Perrin, Catherine; Szajewska, Hania; Benninga, Marc A

    2009-03-18

    Constipation is a frustrating symptom affecting 3% of children worldwide. Randomised controlled trials show that both polyethylene glycol and lactulose are effective in increasing defecation frequency in children with constipation. However, in 30-50%, these children reported abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, diarrhoea, nausea and bad taste of the medication. Two recent studies have shown that the fermented dairy product containing Bifidobacterium lactis strain DN-173 010 is effective in increasing stool frequency in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients with a defecation frequency bad taste) and intake of rescue medication (Bisacodyl). Rate of success and rate of responders are also evaluated, with success defined as > or = 3 bowel movements per week and or = 3 on the last week of product consumption. To demonstrate that the success percentage in the intervention group will be 35% and the success percentage in the control group (acidified milk without ferments, toilet training, bowel diary) will be 15%, with alpha 0.05 and power 80%, a total sample size of 160 patients was calculated. This study is aimed to show that the fermented dairy product containing Bifidobacterium lactis strain DN-173 010 is effective in increasing stool frequency after 3 weeks of product consumption in children with functional constipation and a defecation frequency < 3/week.

  18. The therapeutic potential of truffle fungi: a patent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gajos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to research and retrieve patent information regarding the therapeutic use of truffles. Truffles have a unique value as a foodstuff and impact positively on human health and well-being. They are applied in such industries as the pharmaceutical industry and the cosmetic industry. Patent documentation available in the Espacenet network and the Patentscope service were analyzed by key word and patent specifications were examined to describe state of the art and to identify scientific research trends in therapeutic applications of truffles. Medicinal properties of truffles such as the anticancer or cardiovascular effect, a reduction in blood lipids, immunological resistance and increased energy were identified. Other therapeutic benefits include sedative action, prevention of hormonal imbalances in women, pre-menopause symptom relief, senile urethritis and prostate disorders, sleep disorders and increased absorption of calcium from milk. Truffles can also be used to alleviate symptoms of milk intolerance such as diarrhoea or bloating, to ease rheumatic pains and to treat and prevent further development or recurrence of senile cataract.

  19. Veal calves’ clinical/health status in large groups fed with automatic feeding devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical/health status of veal calves in 3 farms that adopt large group housing and automatic feeding stations in Italy. Visits were scheduled in three phases of the rearing cycle (early, middle, and end. Results showed a high incidence of coughing, skin infection and bloated rumen particularly in the middle phase while cross-sucking signs were present at the early stage when calves’ nibbling proclivity is still high. Throughout the rearing cycle, the frequency of bursitis increased reaching 53% of calves at the end. The percentage of calves with a poorer body condition than the mid-range of the batch raised gradually as well, likely due to the non-proportioned teat/calves ratio that increases competition for feed and reduces milk intake of the low ranking animals. The remarked growth differences among pen-mates and the mortality rate close to 7% showed by the use of automatic feeding devices for milk delivery seem not compensating the lower labour demand, therefore its sustainability at the present status is doubtful both for the veal calves’ welfare and the farm incomes.

  20. Herbal Medicines for the Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hamid Reza; Hamedi, Shokouhsadat; Salari, Roshanak; Noras, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic digestive disorder, which is characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea and constipation periods. The etiology is unknown. Based on the different mechanisms in the etiology, treatment focuses on controlling symptoms. Due to the longtime of syndrome, inadequacy of current treatments, financial burden for patients and pharmacologic effects, several patients have turned to the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Complementary and alternative treatments for IBS include hypnosis, acupuncture, cognitive behavior therapy, yoga, and herbal medicine. Herbal medicines can have therapeutic effects and adverse events in IBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbal medicines in the control of IBS, and their possible mechanisms of action were reviewed. Herbal medicines are an important part of the health care system in many developing countries It is important for physicians to understand some of the more common forms of CAM, because some herbs have side effects and some have interactions with conventional drugs. However herbal medicines may have therapeutic effects in IBS, and further clinical research is needed to assess its effectiveness and safety. PMID:27757180

  1. Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellumori, Thomas P; Famula, Thomas R; Bannasch, Danika L; Belanger, Janelle M; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2013-06-01

    To determine the proportion of mixed-breed and purebred dogs with common genetic disorders. Case-control study. 27,254 dogs with an inherited disorder. Electronic medical records were reviewed for 24 genetic disorders: hemangiosarcoma, lymphoma, mast cell tumor, osteosarcoma, aortic stenosis, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mitral valve dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, hypothyroidism, elbow dysplasia, hip dysplasia, intervertebral disk disease, patellar luxation, ruptured cranial cruciate ligament, atopy or allergic dermatitis, bloat, cataracts, epilepsy, lens luxation, and portosystemic shunt. For each disorder, healthy controls matched for age, body weight, and sex to each affected dog were identified. Genetic disorders differed in expression. No differences in expression of 13 genetic disorders were detected between purebred dogs and mixed-breed dogs (ie, hip dysplasia, hypo- and hyperadrenocorticism, cancers, lens luxation, and patellar luxation). Purebred dogs were more likely to have 10 genetic disorders, including dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, cataracts, and hypothyroidism. Mixed-breed dogs had a greater probability of ruptured cranial cruciate ligament. Prevalence of genetic disorders in both populations was related to the specific disorder. Recently derived breeds or those from similar lineages appeared to be more susceptible to certain disorders that affect all closely related purebred dogs, whereas disorders with equal prevalence in the 2 populations suggested that those disorders represented more ancient mutations that are widely spread through the dog population. Results provided insight on how breeding practices may reduce prevalence of a disorder.

  2. [Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: visceral myopathy. Report of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pini, A F; de Dávila, M T; Marín, A; Guastavino, E; Ruiz, J A; De Rosa, S

    1993-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is the term applied to a heterogeneous group of functional motility disorders sharing a common clinical expression: signs and symptoms of bowel obstruction in absence of mechanical occlusion. It is caused by ineffective intestinal propulsion. The chronic form of intestinal pseudo-obstruction may be primary or secondary. Primary pseudo-obstruction or chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) defines a group of propulsive disorders having no recognized underlying diseases. This study presents four female patients, aged between 4 months to 7 years, and makes a review of the literature. The symptoms, very similar in three of them, were bilious vomiting, abdominal distention and constipation, alternating with diarrhea and malnutrition. The fourth patient, different from the others in the age of onset and evolution, only had severe constipation and abdominal bloating. The diagnostic was made by full thickness biopsies during laparotomy, getting specimens by mapping, at different heights of intestine and stomach. Samples were studied by optic and electronic microscopy and visceral myopathies were found. None of them had urinary disorders. Medical treatment consisted of total parental nutrition and/or enteral nutrition. Cisapride was not effective in the two patients who received it.

  3. The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, T N; McNabb, W C

    1999-04-01

    New methodology for measuring forage condensed tannin (CT) content is described and the effects of CT upon forage feeding and nutritive value for ruminant animals are reviewed. CT react with forage proteins in a pH-reversible manner, with reactivity determined by the concentration, structure and molecular mass of the CT. Increasing concentrations of CT in Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus reduce the rates of solubilization and degradation of fraction 1 leaf protein in the rumen and increase duodenal non-NH3 N flow. Action of medium concentrations of total CT in Lotus corniculatus (30-40 g/kg DM) increased the absorption of essential amino acids from the small intestine and increased wool growth, milk secretion and reproductive rate in grazing sheep without affecting voluntary feed intake, thus improving the efficiency of food conversion. High concentrations of CT in Lotus pedunculatus (75-100 g/kg DM) depressed voluntary feed intake and rumen carbohydrate digestion and depressed rates of body and wool growth in grazing sheep. The minimum concentration of CT to prevent rumen frothy bloat in cattle is defined as 5 g/kg DM and sheep grazing CT-containing legumes were shown to better tolerate internal parasite infections than sheep grazing non CT-containing forages. It was concluded that defined concentrations of forage CT can be used to increase the efficiencies of protein digestion and animal productivity in forage-fed ruminants and to develop more ecologically sustainable systems of controlling some diseases under grazing.

  4. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

    2011-01-15

    Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Systematic review: the perceptions, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care--a Rome Foundation working team report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungin, A P S; Molloy-Bland, M; Claes, R; Heidelbaugh, J; Cayley, W E; Muris, J; Seifert, B; Rubin, G; de Wit, N

    2014-11-01

    To review studies on the perceptions, diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in primary care. Systematic searches of PubMed and Embase. Of 746 initial search hits, 29 studies were included. Relatively few primary care physicians were aware of (2-36%; nine studies) or used (0-21%; six studies) formal diagnostic criteria for IBS. Nevertheless, most could recognise the key IBS symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating and disturbed defaecation. A minority of primary care physicians [7-32%; one study (six European countries)] preferred to refer patients to a specialist before making an IBS diagnosis, and few patients [4-23%; three studies (two European, one US)] were referred to a gastroenterologist by their primary care physician. Most PCPs were unsure about IBS causes and treatment effectiveness, leading to varied therapeutic approaches and broad but frequent use of diagnostic tests. Diagnostic tests, including colon investigations, were more common in older patients (>45 years) than in younger patients [European, one US)]. There has been much emphasis about the desirability of an initial positive diagnosis of IBS. While it appears most primary care physicians do make a tentative IBS diagnosis from the start, they still tend to use additional testing to confirm it. Although an early, positive diagnosis has advantages in avoiding unnecessary investigations and costs, until formal diagnostic criteria are conclusively shown to sufficiently exclude organic disease, bowel investigations, such as colonoscopy, will continue to be important to primary care physicians. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Urban poor program launched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  7. The low-FODMAP diet for irritable bowel syndrome: Lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Serra, Jordi; Fernandez-Bañares, Fernando; Mearin, Fermín

    2016-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 10-15% of the western population. Drug therapy for this entity has shown limited efficacy. The low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAP) diet has recently emerged as an effective intervention for reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Currently, several mechanistic studies have proven the rational basis of carbohydrate restriction. In addition, high-quality evidence (prospective studies and randomized controlled trials) from a variety of countries supports the high effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet for IBS symptoms (70%), especially abdominal bloating, pain, and diarrhea. Importantly, this diet seems to be superior to a gluten-free diet for patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The most controversial features of the low FODMAP diet are its short- and long-term limitations (a high level of restriction, the need for monitoring by an expert dietitian, potential nutritional deficiencies, significant gut microbiota reduction, lack of predictors of response), as well as the potential lack of advantage over alternative dietary, pharmacological and psychological interventions for IBS. Although liberalization of carbohydrate intake is recommended in the long-term, the reintroduction process remains to be clarified as, theoretically, global carbohydrate restriction is deemed to be necessary to avoid additive effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey of current enteral nutrition practices in treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, May; Hubbard, Jane; Rudnicki, Stacy A; Johansen, Carolyn S; Dalton, Kate; Heiman-Patterson, Terry; Forshew, Dalles A; Wills, Anne-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) is commonly prescribed for dysphagia and weight loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but there are currently no ALS-specific EN guidelines. We aimed to survey current practices prescribing EN to ALS patients. An online survey was distributed using list servers administered by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA), and ALS Association (ALSA). A total of 148 dietitians, nurses, and physicians participated in the survey, of whom 50% were dietitians and 68% were associated with an ALS clinic. Only 47% of respondents reported their patients to be fully compliant with EN recommendations. Side effects (fullness, diarrhea, constipation, and bloating) were the most important reason for patient noncompliance, followed by dependence on caregivers. By contrast, only 3% of providers rated depression/hopelessness as the most important reason for noncompliance. Half of those surveyed reported that more than 25% of patients continued to lose weight after starting EN. Our survey results show a high frequency of gastrointestinal side effects and weight loss in ALS patients receiving EN. These findings may be limited by sampling error and non-response bias. Prospective studies are needed to help establish EN guidelines for ALS.

  9. Combination could be another tool for bowel preparation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Jae Seung; Kim, Kyung-Jo

    2016-03-14

    Optimal bowel preparation increases the cecal intubation rate and detection of neoplastic lesions while decreasing the procedural time and procedural-related complications. Although high-volume polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution is the most frequently used preparation for bowel cleansing, patients are often unwilling to take PEG solution due to its large volume, poor palatability, and high incidence of adverse events, such as abdominal bloating and nausea. Other purgatives include osmotic agents (e.g., sodium phosphate, magnesium citrate, and sodium sulfate), stimulant agents (e.g., senna, bisacodyl, and sodium picosulfate), and prokinetic agents (e.g., cisapride, mosapride, and itopride). A combination of PEG with an osmotic, stimulant, or prokinetic agent could effectively reduce the PEG solution volume and increase patients' adherence. Some such solutions have been found in several published studies to not be inferior to PEG alone in terms of bowel cleansing quality. Although combination methods showed similar efficacy and safety, the value of these studies is limited by shortcomings in study design. New effective and well-tolerated combination preparations are required, in addition to rigorous new validated studies.

  10. A Prokinetic Agent with a Dual Effect – Itopride – In the Treatment of Dysmotility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of dyspeptic symptoms in clinical practice reflect the high prevalence of functional disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI tract. Prokinetic agents are the current mainstay in the therapy of functional dyspepsia. One of these drugs is itopride. We evaluated therapeutic efficacy of itopride according to the literature review. The therapeutic potential of itopride is connected with a dual effect: influencing of enzyme acetylcholinesterase activity and blocking dopamine D2 receptors. After the itopride administration, the contractility of smooth muscle in the upper GI tract increases. Itopride is a drug with rapid absorption from the small bowel; its peak serum concentration occurs 35 minutes after oral administration. Itopride does not pass the blood-brain barrier and does not affect the heart rate by influencing the QT segment. Itopride is a safe prokinetic agent with positive influence on the symptoms of functional dyspepsia such as postprandial fullness, bloating, and gastric emptying. Itopride could also be used for the therapy of the mild form of gastro-oesophageal reflux.

  11. Medical image of the week: splenic infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey DJ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 52-year-old Hispanic woman with a past medical history significant for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension, and rheumatoid arthritis presented with left upper quadrant pain for one day. Her review of systems was positive for bloating, severe epigastric and left upper quadrant tenderness that radiated to the back and left shoulder, nausea with non-bilious emesis, and diarrhea for one day prior to admission. Physical exam only revealed epigastric and left upper quadrant tenderness to light palpation without rebound or guarding. Abdominal computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated a new acute or subacute splenic infarct with no clear evidence of an embolic source in the abdomen or pelvis (Figure 1. Echocardiogram with bubble study and contrast did not demonstrate valve abnormalities, cardiac mass, vegetation, valve or wall motion abnormalities and no evidence of patent foramen ovale. Splenic infarction should be suspected when patients present with sharp, acute left upper quadrant pain ...

  12. Parasites in Mexican patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Angulo Alberto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One hundred and fifteen patients with symptoms suggestive of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS according to Rome III criteria and 209 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms different from IBS (control were identified through medical records from the Gastroenterology Clinic of the "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez General Hospital" from January 2008 to March 2010. No statistical differences in IBS data as compared with control groups were observed except in bloating, that was more frequent in the IBS group (P = 0.043. Although the pathogenicity of specific intestinal protozoa could not be demonstrated due to lack of association with the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, Blastocystis spp, in the IBS group, exhibited a trend of association to diarrhoea (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-8.80, P = 0.053, while having any parasite and diarrhoea was significant (odds ratio = 3.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.33-8.57, P = 0.008. The association between Blastocystis and diarrhoea in IBS patients although not conclusive is an interesting finding; nonetheless more extensive case-controlled studies are required to clearly define the role of some "non-pathogenic" parasites in intestinal disease and IBS.

  13. Fluid Retention over the Menstrual Cycle: 1-Year Data from the Prospective Ovulation Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Colin P.; Hitchcock, Christine L.; Vigna, Yvette M.; Prior, Jerilynn C.

    2011-01-01

    We report menstrual and mid-cycle patterns of self-reported “fluid retention” in 765 menstrual cycles in 62 healthy women. Self-reported “fluid retention,” commonly described as bloating, is one element of the clinical assessment and diagnosis of premenstrual symptoms. These daily diary data were collected as part of an observational prospective one-year study of bone changes in healthy women of differing exercise characteristics. Ovulation was documented by quantitative basal temperature analysis, and serum estradiol and progesterone levels were available from initial and final cycles. Fluid retention scores (on a 0–4 scale) peaked on the first day of menstrual flow (mean ± SE : 0.9 ± 0.1), were lowest during the mid-follicular period, and gradually increased from 0.22 ± 0.05 to 0.50 ± 0.09 over the 11 days surrounding ovulation. Mid-cycle, but not premenstrual, fluid scores tended to be lower in anovulatory cycles (ANOVA P = 0.065), and scores were higher around menstruation than at midcycle (P cycles. PMID:21845193

  14. Adverse Food Reaction and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Role of the Dietetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqui, Francesca; Poli, Carolina; Colecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2015-09-01

    Bloating, abdominal discomfort or pain, disturbed bowel habits are very common symptoms, frequently reported by the patients soon after food ingestion. These symptoms may occur in different clinical conditions, such as functional bowel disorders, food adverse reactions, gluten-related syndromes, which frequently are interrelated. Consequently, in clinical practice, it is necessary to perform a correct diagnosis in order to identify, for the single patient, the most appropriate therapeutic strategy, which may include not only specific drugs, but also, and mainly, life style changes (healthy nutritional behavior and constant physical activity). The aim of this review is to provide to the general physician, according to the available evidence, the most appropriate diagnostic work-ups for recognizing the different clinical scenarios (i.e. food allergy and intolerance, functional bowel diseases, gluten-related syndromes), to identify their clinical interrelationships and to suggest the most appropriate management. In fact, as far as food intolerances are concerned, it is well known that the number of patients who believe that their symptoms are related to food intolerance is increasing and consequently they restrict their diet, possibly causing nutritional deficiencies. Furthermore, there is an increasing use of unconventional diagnostic tests for food intolerance which lack accurate scientific evidence; the application of their results may induce misdiagnosis and unhealthy therapeutic choices. Consequently the recognition of food intolerance has to be performed on the basis of reliable tests within an agreed diagnostic workup.

  15. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Kolida, Sofia; Klinder, Annett; Gietl, Eva; Bäuerlein, Michael; Frohberg, Claus; Landschütze, Volker; Gibson, Glenn R

    2010-10-01

    There is growing interest in the use of inulins as substrates for the selective growth of beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli because recent studies have established that their prebiotic effect is linked to several health benefits. In the present study, the impact of a very-long-chain inulin (VLCI), derived from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus), on the human intestinal microbiota compared with maltodextrin was determined. A double-blind, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-two healthy adults who were randomised into two groups and consumed 10 g/d of either VLCI or maltodextrin, for two 3-week study periods, separated by a 3-week washout period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher upon VLCI ingestion compared with the placebo. Additionally, levels of Atopobium group significantly increased, while Bacteroides-Prevotella numbers were significantly reduced. No significant changes in faecal SCFA concentrations were observed. There were no adverse gastrointestinal symptoms apart from a significant increase in mild and moderate bloating upon VLCI ingestion. These observations were also confirmed by in vitro gas production measurements. In conclusion, daily consumption of VLCI extracted from globe artichoke exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human faecal microbiota composition and was well tolerated by all volunteers.

  16. [Comparative study on irritable bowel syndrome treated with acupuncture and western medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Ye-Shan; Wang, Qing-Xian; Lei, Miao-Na

    2011-07-01

    To compare the differences in the therapeutic effect on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) between acupuncture at Tianshu (ST 25) and Dachangshu (BL 25) and western medication with Trimebutine Maleate. Forty cases were divided randomly into an acupuncture group and a western medication group, 20 cases in each one. In acupuncture group, acupuncture was applied to Tianshu (ST 25) and Dachangshu (BL 25). Ziwu Daojiu needling technique was adopted, once daily. In western medication group, Trimebutine Maleate capsule was administered, 2 capsules in each time, 3 times per day. The assessment on the therapeutic effect was performed in 4 weeks of treatment in two groups. As compared with those before treatment, the time of abdominal pain, the frequency of abdominal pain, the morbidity of abnormal stool appearance, the morbidity of defecation abnormality, the morbidity of mucus stool and the score of bloating or abdominal pain on bowel movement were all reduced after treatment in two groups (all P acupuncture group were much more significant than those in western medication group (the total score: 16.70 +/- 2.40 vs 15.70 +/- 3.01, P acupuncture group was 95.0% (19/20), which was superior to that of 70.0% (14/20) in western medication group (P Acupuncture at Tianshu (ST 25) and Dachangshu (BL 25) may remarkably relieve the clinical symptoms of IBS and its efficacy is superior to that of oral medication with Trimebutine Maleate.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: the role of gut neuroendocrine peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Seim, Inge; Chopin, Lisa; Gundersen, Doris; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve

    2012-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder with a prevalence ranging from 5 to 10 percent of the world's population. This condition is characterised by abdominal discomfort or pain, altered bowel habits, and often bloating and abdominal distension. IBS reduces quality of life in the same degree of impairment as major chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure and diabetes and the economic burden on the health care system and society is high. Abnormalities have been reported in the neuroendocrine peptides/amines of the stomach, small- and large intestine in patients with IBS. These abnormalities would cause disturbances in digestion, gastrointestinal motility and visceral hypersensitivity, which have been reported in patients with IBS. These abnormalities seem to contribute to the symptom development and appear to play a central role in the pathogenesis of IBS. Neuroendocrine peptides/amines are potential tools in the treatment and diagnosis of IBS. In particular, the cell density of duodenal chromogranin A expressing cells appears to be a good histopathological marker for the diagnosis of IBS with high sensitivity and specificity.

  18. Decomposition patterns of buried remains at different intervals in the Central Highveld region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais-Werner, A; Myburgh, J; Meyer, A; Nienaber, W C; Steyn, M

    2017-07-01

    Burial of remains is an important factor when one attempts to establish the post-mortem interval as it reduces, and in extreme cases, excludes oviposition by Diptera species. This in turn leads to modification of the decomposition process. The aim of this study was to record decomposition patterns of buried remains using a pig model. The pattern of decomposition was evaluated at different intervals and recorded according to existing guidelines. In order to contribute to our knowledge on decomposition in different settings, a quantifiable approach was followed. Results indicated that early stages of decomposition occurred rapidly for buried remains within 7-33 days. Between 14 and 33 days, buried pigs displayed common features associated with the early to middle stages of decomposition, such as discoloration and bloating. From 33 to 90 days advanced decomposition manifested on the remains, and pigs then reached a stage of advanced decomposition where little change was observed in the next ±90-183 days after interment. Throughout this study, total body scores remained higher for surface remains. Overall, buried pigs followed a similar pattern of decomposition to those of surface remains, although at a much slower rate when compared with similar post-mortem intervals in surface remains. In this study, the decomposition patterns and rates of buried remains were mostly influenced by limited insect activity and adipocere formation which reduces the rate of decay in a conducive environment (i.e. burial in soil).

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation in the primary-care setting: focus on linaclotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandar AK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Apoorva Krishna Chandar1,2 1Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease, Case Western Reserve University, 2Digestive Health Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a complex functional gastrointestinal disorder that is exceedingly common in clinical practice. IBS with predominant constipation (IBS-C is a subtype of IBS that accounts for more than a third of the IBS diagnosed. Diagnosis of IBS requires a careful personalized approach, a comprehensive clinical history, limited but relevant investigations, and continued follow-up. Major IBS societies and guidelines recommend offering a positive diagnosis of IBS based on presenting symptomatology. Abdominal pain that may or may not be relieved by defecation is the cardinal symptom of IBS; distension and bloating are other common symptoms. Careful attention should be paid to alarm symptoms before a diagnosis of IBS is made. Pharmacotherapy with linaclotide is recommended for moderate–severe IBS-C, based on high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials. Diarrhea is the major side effect of linaclotide, and limited cost-effectiveness data currently exist. Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation, primary care, Rome IV, linaclotide, systematic review 

  20. Management of the clinical issue of constipation with abdominal complaints in adults: a national survey of Primary Care physicians and gastroenterologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rey

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation represent a relevant and common health issue. However, real-world clinical practice includes patients with constipation who may or may not have other abdominal complaints (pain, bloating, abdominal discomfort with variable frequency. The goal of the present study was to obtain information on the workload entailed by patients with constipation and associated abdominal complaints, predominant clinical behaviors, education needs, and potential daily practice aids both in Primary Care and gastroenterology settings. The clinical behavior of doctors is generally similar at both levels, despite differences in healthcare approach: use of empiric therapies and clinically guided diagnostic tests, with some differences in colonoscopy use (not always directly accessible from Primary Care. Regarding perceptions, general support and osmotic laxatives are most valued by PC doctors, whereas osmotic laxatives, combined laxatives, and linaclotide are most valued by GE specialists. Furthermore, over half of respondents considered differentiating both diagnoses as challenging. Finally, considerable education needs are self-acknowledged at both levels, as is a demand for guidelines and protocols to help in managing this issue in clinical practice. A strength of this study is its providing a joint photograph of the medical approach and the perceptions of constipation with abdominal discomfort from a medical standpoint. Weaknesses include self-declaration (no formal validation and a response rate potentially biased by professional motivation.

  1. Gluten sensitivity and neurological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Berio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on six cases of gluten-sensitivity, also defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity, characterized by abdominal features (diarrhea, bloating, pain, genetic positivity for predisposition to celiac disease (DQB1* 02 in all cases; DQA1*05 in three; DQA1*02 in two, DQB1*03 in two, negative anti-t-Transglutaminase antibodies, normal mucosa on biopsy in four cases, type 1 of Marsh in one case. The subjects presented frequent central nervous system (CNS symptoms: headache in three patients, somnolence in one, electroencephalogram aspecific alterations in three (in two of them with previous seizures, leptomeningeal cyst in one, intracranial calcification in one, cerebral gliosis in two. After a gluten-free diet, all intestinal and clinical CNS features remitted, but re-appeared after gluten reintroduction. On the basis of the neurological signs, the authors stress the relevance of immune innate system in the pathogenesis of these cases with possible subsequent evolution on immune adaptive system involvement.

  2. [Myasthenic crisis and Takotsubo syndrome: a non-chance relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor-Gomez, S; Lacruz, F; Ezpeleta, D

    2012-12-16

    INTRODUCTION. Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a rare condition that mimics an acute myocardial infarction. It is associated with precordial pain, ST segment elevation, absence of coronary occlusion and reversible deformation of the left ventricle due to anteroapical dyskinesia that is reminiscent of a Japanese art of fishing octopuses (tako-tsubo). It is related with emotional and physical stress, and is thought to be mediated by an acute release of catecholamines. CASE REPORT. An 83-year-old woman with hypertension. She was admitted to the heart unit with a suspected acute coronary syndrome and respiratory failure, and thus required mechanical ventilation. An echocardiography scan showed severe ventricular dysfunction with apical dyskinesia. Cardiac catheterisation ruled out heart disease and a ventriculography scan revealed a bloated systolic deformation of the anterior and apical segments (TTS). Attempts to withdraw ventilation were unsuccessful and the neurology department was consulted. A directed medical history revealed that the patient had been suffering from generalised weakness, and progressive dysphagia and dyspnoea for several months. Results of an edrophonium test were positive. Single-fibre electromyography showed a pathological jitter and acetylcholine anti-receptor antibodies were positive. The patient was treated with immunoglobulins, corticoids and pyridostigmine. A control echocardiogram showed resolution of the TTS. CONCLUSIONS. TTS must be considered within the extra-neurological complications arising from myasthenic crisis. The neurologist must take this into account when faced with any symptom or sign of a potentially cardiac origin in myasthenic crisis and other neurocritical conditions.

  3. Infantile scurvy: an old diagnosis revisited with a modern dietary twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Cynthia J; Molodow, Rona

    2007-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is necessary for the formation of collagen, reducing free radicals, and aiding in iron absorption. Scurvy, a disease of dietary ascorbic acid deficiency, is uncommon today. Indeed, implementation of dietary recommendations largely eradicated infantile scurvy in the US in the early 1900s. We present a case of an otherwise healthy 2-year-old Caucasian girl who presented with refusal to walk secondary to pain in her lower extremities, generalized irritability, sleep disturbance, and malaise. The girl's parents described feeding the patient an organic diet recommended by the Church of Scientology that included a boiled mixture of organic whole milk, barley, and corn syrup devoid of fruits and vegetables. Physical examination revealed pale, bloated skin with edematous, violaceous gums and loosening of a few of her teeth. Dermatologic findings included xerosis, multiple scattered ecchymoses of the extremities, and perifollicular hemorrhage. Laboratory and radiographic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of scurvy. The patient showed dramatic improvement after only 3 days of treatment with oral ascorbic acid and significant dietary modification. In this case report, we revisit the old diagnosis of scurvy with a modern dietary twist secondary to religious practices. This case highlights the importance of taking a detailed dietary history when evaluating diseases involving the skin.

  4. Prolonged treatment with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) modulates neuro-gastric motility and plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), motilin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNearney, Terry A; Sallam, Hanaa S; Hunnicutt, Sonya E; Doshi, Dipti; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on neurogastric functioning in scleroderma patients. Seventeen SSc patients underwent 30 min TENS treatment >10Hz at GI acupuncture points PC6 and ST36, once (acute TENS) and then after two weeks of TENS sessions for 30 min twice daily (prolonged TENS). Data collected at Visits 1 and 2 included gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) by surface electrogastrography (EGG), heart rate variability (HRV) by surface electrocardiography (EKG), GI specific symptoms and health related SF-36 questionnaires. Plasma VIP, motilin and IL-6 levels were determined. Statistical analyses were performed by Student's t-test, Spearman Rank and p-values TENS, the percentages of normal slow waves and average slow wave coupling (especially channels 1, 2 reflecting gastric pacemaker and corpus regions) were significantly increased; 2. the percentage of normal slow waves was significantly correlated to sympathovagal balance; 3. Mean plasma VIP and motilin levels were significantly decreased after acute TENS, (vs. baseline), generally maintained in the prolonged TENS intervals. Compared to baseline, mean plasma IL-6 levels were significantly increased after acute TENS, but significantly decreased after prolonged TENS. 4. After prolonged TENS, the frequency of awakening due to abdominal pain and abdominal bloating were significantly and modestly decreased, respectively. In SSc patients, two weeks of daily TENS improved patient GMA scores, lowered plasma VIP, motilin and IL-6 levels and improved association between GMA and sympathovagal balance. This supports the therapeutic potential of prolonged TENS to enhance gastric myoelectrical functioning in SSc.

  5. Correlation between postpartum depression and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jae; Yi, Sang-Wook; Ju, Da-Hye; Lee, Sang-Soo; Sohn, Woo-Seok; Kim, In-Ju

    2015-09-01

    To describe the prevalence and correlates of the postpartum depression and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. One hundred sixty six women were assessed around 10th to 14th days after delivery in Gangneung Asan Hospital, Korea, from September 2011 to March 2012. We checked their risk factors for postpartum depressive disorders using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder was evaluated retrospectively and was defined as having more than 5 of the following 10 symptoms: breast tenderness, bloating, headache, peripheral edema (hand and foot), depressive symptoms, anger, irritability, anxiety, oversensitivity, and exaggerated mood swings. The prevalence rate of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ≥10 and Beck Depression Inventory ≥10 was 13.9% (23/166). We found statistical differences (Ppremenstrual syndrome (PMS) was 9% (15/166) and among 23 women in the postpartum depression group, eight were determined to have premenstrual dysphoric disorder, yielding a prevalence rate of 34.8% (8/23). Among 143 women in the postpartum non-depression group, seven were determined to have PMS, yielding a prevalence rate of 4.9% (7/143). A correlation between postpartum depression and PMS was thus found (P<0.01). PMS appears to be associated with postpartum depression. This means that a hormone-related etiology appears to be one risk factor for postpartum depression.

  6. Update on Research and Treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joanne; Yonkers, Kimberly Ann; O'Brien, Shaughn; Eriksson, Elias

    2011-01-01

    Many women in their reproductive years experience some mood, behavioral. or physical symptoms in the week prior to menses. Variability exists in the level of symptom burden in that some women experience mild symptoms, whereas a small minority experience severe and debilitating symptoms. For an estimated 5%–8% of premenopausal women, work or social functioning are affected by severe premenstrual syndrome. Many women in this group meet diagnostic criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Among women who suffer from PMDD, mood and behavioral symptoms such as irritability, depressed mood, tension, and labile mood dominate. Somatic complaints, including breast tenderness and bloating, also can prove disruptive to women's overall functioning and quality of life. Recent evidence suggests that individual sensitivity to cyclical variations in levels of gonadal hormones may predispose certain women to experience these mood, behavioral, and somatic symptoms. Treatments include: antidepressants of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor class, taken intermittently or throughout the menstrual cycle; medications that suppress ovarian cyclicity; and newer oral contraceptives with novel progestins. (Harv Rev Psychiatry 2009;17:120–137.) PMID:19373620

  7. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Lee, Arum; Jeon, Dong-Su; Park, Junsik; Kim, Yesol

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) of perimenopausal women at a university hospital along with their menstrual characters. A questionnaire survey regarding premenstrual symptoms was carried out in 100 perimenopausal women (43 to 53, years). The pattern of menstruation and, the intensity of dysmenorrhea were assessed; and further, the symptoms were classified according to their number, intensity, and persistence. The PMS criteria of American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and PMDD criteria by American Psychiatric Association (APA) were evaluated. The approximate prevalence of PMS criteria was 95% and that of PMDD criteria was 23%. The most dominant symptoms were 'breast tenderness', 'abdominal bloating', 'and headache'. PMDD was significantly associated with the severity of dysmenorrhea (P = 0.020). There was no significant relation with age, height, weight, body mass index and the cycle of menstruation. Most women experience PMS and PMDD, which and have a significant impact on the activity of perimenopause women. However in most women that do not know well about PMS and PMDD. We should educate and inform women of PMS and PMDD, thus helping them increase their quality of life.

  8. Point of view: Paul Simon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P

    1999-02-01

    In this article, former US Senator Paul Simon notes that, in his lifetime, the population of the world has tripled and is expected to quadruple. Among the effects of this population growth will be a 55% increase in nitrate emissions that will feed algae and compromise fish supplies. The US was extremely short-sighted when it reduced funding for the international family planning (FP) programs that benefit all nations. False accusations that the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) operates with a "bloated bureaucracy" ignore the fact that this agency has only 166 employees. More appropriate criticism would assert that the task the UNFPA is trying to accomplish is too important and too vast for such a small staff. Without FP programs, earth would now have to support an additional 400 million people. While contraceptive use by married women in developing countries has increased from 10% in 1965 to above 50% today and life expectancy is increasing, we must recognize the fact that we are currently unable to provide most of the world's population with safe water and sanitation and that increased population size will only exacerbate this problem. Encouraging voluntary FP is humanitarian and prudent and will help protect the entire population of the world.

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome: new insights into symptom mechanisms and advances in treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Despite being one of the most common conditions leading to gastroenterological referral, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood. However, recent years have seen major advances. These include new understanding of the role of both inflammation and altered microbiota as well as the impact of dietary intolerances as illuminated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has thrown new light on IBS. This article will review new data on how excessive bile acid secretion mediates diarrhea and evidence from post infectious IBS which has shown how gut inflammation can alter gut microbiota and function. Studies of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have also shown that even when inflammation is in remission, the altered enteric nerves and abnormal microbiota can generate IBS-like symptoms. The efficacy of the low FODMAP diet as a treatment for bloating, flatulence, and abdominal discomfort has been demonstrated by randomized controlled trials. MRI studies, which can quantify intestinal volumes, have provided new insights into how FODMAPs cause symptoms. This article will focus on these areas together with recent trials of new agents, which this author believes will alter clinical practice within the foreseeable future. PMID:27158477

  10. Effect of diet and individual dietary guidance on gastrointestinal endocrine cells in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzawi, Tarek; El-Salhy, Magdy

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorder that is characterized by a combination of abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating and alterations in bowel movements. This review presents recent developments concerning the roles of diet and GI endocrine cells in the pathophysiology of IBS and of individual dietary guidance in the management of IBS. Patients with IBS typically report that food aggravates their IBS symptoms. The interactions between specific types of foodstuffs rich in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and GI endocrine cells induce changes in cell densities. Providing individual dietary guidance about a low FODMAP intake, high soluble-fiber intake, and changing the proportions of protein, fat and carbohydrates helps to reduce the symptoms experienced by patients with IBS and to improve their quality of life. These improvements are due to restoring the densities of the GI endocrine cells back to normal. The reported observations emphasize the role of GI endocrine cells in the pathophysiology of IBS and support the provision of dietary guidance as a first-line treatment for managing IBS. PMID:28849091

  11. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one’s diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. PMID:27355647

  12. Is a low FODMAP diet beneficial for patients with inflammatory bowel disease? A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yong-le; Zhan, Yong-An; Dai, Shi-Xue

    2017-05-24

    To assess the current evidence regarding the benefit of a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyol (FODMAP) diet in the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Medline were comprehensively searched for relevant studies through January 2017. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to analyze the dichotomous variables (diarrhea response, abdominal pain and bloating, etc.) and the continuous variables. Random- and fixed-effects models were chosen according to heterogeneity. Two RCTs and four before-after studies with a total of 319 patients (96% in remission) were identified. Except for the constipation response, there was a significant improvement in other symptoms: diarrhea response (OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.11-0.52, p = 0.0003), satisfaction with gut symptoms (OR: 26.84, 95% CI: 4.6-156.54, p FODMAP diet is beneficial for reducing gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with quiescent IBD. With the inherent limitations, the findings of this analysis remain to be confirmed and updated by further high-volume, well-designed and long-term follow-up studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Wathsala S; Skidmore, Paula Ml; O'Brien, Leigh; Wilkinson, Tim J; Gearry, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the published clinical studies concerning the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharide, Disaccharide, Monosaccharide, and Polyols in the diet (low FODMAP diet). In recent years, the data supporting low FODMAP diet for the management of IBS symptoms have emerged, including several randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and other observational studies. Unlike most dietary manipulations tried in the past to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS, all studies on low FODMAP diet have consistently shown symptomatic benefits in the majority of patients with IBS. However, dietary adherence by the patients and clear dietary intervention led by specialized dietitians appear to be vital for the success of the diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS find improvement in overall gastrointestinal symptoms as well as individual symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, and flatulence following the diet. FODMAP restriction reduces the osmotic load and gas production in the distal small bowel and the proximal colon, providing symptomatic relief in patients with IBS. Long-term health effects of a low FODMAP diet are not known; however, stringent FODMAP restriction is not recommended owing to risks of inadequate nutrient intake and potential adverse effects from altered gut microbiota. In conclusion, the evidence to date strongly supports the efficacy of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of IBS. Further studies are required to understand any potential adverse effects of long-term restriction of FODMAPs.

  14. Medium-chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet, An Effective Treatment for Drug-resistant Epilepsy and A Comparison with Other Ketogenic Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-mei Christiana Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KD is one of the most effective therapies for drug-resistant epilepsy. The efficacy of the medium-chain triglyceride KD (MCTKD is as excellent as the classic KD (CKD, which has been documented in several subsequent retrospective, prospective, and randomized studies. MCT oil is more ketogenic than long-chain triglycerides. Therefore, the MCTKD allows more carbohydrate and protein food, which makes the diet more palatable than the CKD. The MCTKD is not based on diet ratios as is the CKD, but uses a percentage of calories from MCT oil to create ketones. There has also been literature which documents the associated gastrointestinal side effects from the MCTKD, such as diarrhea, vomiting, bloating, and cramps. Therefore, the MCTKD has been an underutilized diet therapy for intractable epilepsy among children.The author has used up to >70% MCTKD diet to maximize seizure control with gastrointestinal side effects optimally controlled. As long as health care professionals carefully manage MCTKD, many more patients with epilepsy who are not appropriate for CKD or modified Atkins diet or low glycemic index treatment will benefit from this treatment. A comparison between the MCTKD and other KDs is also discussed.

  15. Evaluation of Self-Perceived Changes in Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Ramadan Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshteli, A H; Sadeghpour, S; Feizi, A; Boyce, P; Adibi, P

    2017-10-01

    Little is known regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on common gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the alterations of these symptoms in a healthy Iranian adult population during Ramadan. In a cross-sectional study, self-administered questionnaires were used to evaluate the alterations in seven groups of gastrointestinal symptoms (esophageal symptoms, dyspeptic symptoms, bloating and abdominal distension, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea) after Ramadan. A total of 900 individuals participated in the study. Almost 87 % of participants reported to fast for at least 2 weeks during Ramadan. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found no relationship between alteration in frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and Ramadan fasting, except for constipation which increased significantly after Ramadan fasting (odds ratio 1.99, 95 % confidence interval 1.05-3.80, P Ramadan fasting. We found that Ramadan fasting does not increase frequency and severity of common gastrointestinal symptoms in the general population except for constipation that may be experienced more frequently and severely among those who fast for 2 weeks or more.

  16. A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniadka, Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Sunita, Venkatesh; Palatty, Princy L; Fayad, Raja; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-06-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger is an important kitchen spice and also possess a myriad health benefits. The rhizomes have been used since antiquity in the various traditional systems of medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, catarrh, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke and diabetes. Ginger is also used as home remedy and is of immense value in treating various gastric ailments like constipation, dyspepsia, belching, bloating, gastritis, epigastric discomfort, gastric ulcerations, indigestion, nausea and vomiting and scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal uses. Ginger is also shown to be effective in preventing gastric ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs like indomethacin, aspirin], reserpine, ethanol, stress (hypothermic and swimming), acetic acid and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric ulcerations in laboratory animals. Various preclinical and clinical studies have also shown ginger to possess anti-emetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion on its effectiveness as a broad spectrum anti-emetic. Ginger has been shown to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant; inhibition of lipid peroxidation and that these properties might have contributed to the observed gastroprotective effects. This review summarizes the various gastroprotective effects of ginger and also emphasizes on aspects that warranty future research to establish its activity and utility as a gastroprotective agent in humans.

  17. Diff-Quik cytologic recognition of Chlamydophila psittaci in orolabial lesions of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Cesar V

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydophila psittaci causes psittacosis, an ornithosis acquired usually from infected birds. The disease is often focal and pneumonic but on rare instances can be protean and fatal. Diagnosis is by Chlamydophila serology, which may take as long as 21 days or more. The recovery of the organisms from mice, eggs or tissue culture inoculated with the patient's blood or sputum is tedious and dangerous for laboratory personnel. On occasion, C psittaci inclusion bodies have also been detected in infected cells by fluorescent antibody, Giemsa or Gimenez staining. This report describes heretofore not previously reported recognition of the causative organisms in Diff-Quik-stained clinical cytologic materials. A 17-year-old man presented with fever and sore throat, associated with Steven-Johnson syndrome, of 6 days' duration. In the touch and scrape smears of the orolabial mucosal lesions, C psittaci inclusion bodies were recognizable in Diff-Quik-stained but not with Papanicolaou-stained smears and Gram stain. There were few to numerous organisms per macrophage, which were enlarged or bloated and usually collared by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The diagnosis was supported by a therapeutic trial with doxycycline and confirmed by a positive third serological tests for C psittaci 3 weeks after discharge. In a suspected or probable case of ornithosis, a rapid diagnosis of C psittaci inclusion bodies is possible in clinical cytology materials using Diff-Quik.

  18. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Gils

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Methods: Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS. Results: Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2% reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%, abdominal discomfort (49% and flatulence (47%. A total of 23 (47% srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms.

  19. Chili Peppers, Curcumins, and Prebiotics in Gastrointestinal Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence for the role of several natural products as either useful agents or adjuncts in the management of functional GI disorders (FGIDs). In this review, we examine the medical evidence for three such compounds: chili, a culinary spice; curcumin, another spice and active derivative of a root bark; and prebiotics, which are nondigestible food products. Chili may affect the pathogenesis of abdominal pain especially in functional dyspepsia and cause other symptoms. It may have a therapeutic role in FGIDs through desensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor. Curcumin, the active ingredient of turmeric rhizome, has been shown in several preclinical studies and uncontrolled clinical trials as having effects on gut inflammation, gut permeability and the brain-gut axis, especially in FGIDs. Prebiotics, the non-digestible food ingredients in dietary fiber, may serve as nutrients and selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of certain colonic bacteria. The net effect of this change on colonic microbiota may lead to the production of acidic metabolites and other compounds that help to reduce the production of toxins and suppress the growth of harmful or disease-causing enteric pathogens. Although some clinical benefit in IBS has been shown, high dose intake of prebiotics may cause more bloating from bacterial fermentation.

  20. Lactose Breath Test in Children: Relationship Between Symptoms During the Test and Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel; Reif, Shimon; Scolnik, Dennis; Rom, Liat; Yerushalmy-Feler, Anat; Dali-Levy, Margalit; Cohen, Shlomi

    2016-08-17

    Lactose malabsorption affects 70% of the world population. The hydrogen breath test (HBT) is used clinically to test for this condition. The aim of our study was to describe the relationship between symptoms experienced before and during the HBT and test results. We included children who underwent the HBT in the pediatric gastroenterology unit at Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital during a 6-month period. Previous symptoms and those experienced before and after the HBT were assessed using a questionnaire and a validated pain scale. Ninety-five children were included in the study, and 66.3% had a positive HBT. Diarrhea and flatulence during the test were significantly more frequent in the group with a positive HBT compared to those with a negative test (31.7% vs. 9.4%, P = 0.016 and 69.8% vs. 40.6%, P = 0.006, respectively). The frequency of abdominal pain and bloating was similar. Diarrhea and flatulence during the HBT are the most specific symptoms of lactose intolerance. Abdominal pain should not be automatically attributed to lactose intolerance even in the presence of lactose malabsorption. Coupling the HBT with a real-time questionnaire facilitates interpretation of results and subsequent recommendations.