WorldWideScience

Sample records for voluntary means comfort

  1. Superimposed electrical stimulation comfortably improves the endurance of maximal voluntary contractions.

    OpenAIRE

    Boisgontier, Matthieu; Moineau, Bastien; Nougier, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; AIM: Electrical stimulation has shown to improve muscle endurance in sub-maximal contractions but sessions were painful due to the electric stimuli parameters. Therefore, the present study tested the effects of the superimposed electrical stimulation technique using comfortable current on endurance in repetitions of maximal voluntary contraction. METHODS: Seventeen young healthy subjects performed fifty maximal voluntary contractions of the triceps brachii in two condi...

  2. Geriatric care: ways and means of providing comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patricia Cruz Pontifice Sousa Valente; Marques, Rita Margarida Dourado; Ribeiro, Marta Pontifice

    2017-01-01

    To know the ways and means of comfort perceived by the older adults hospitalized in a medical service. Ethnographic study with a qualitative approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 older adults and participant observation of care situations. The ways and means of providing comfort are centered on strategies for promoting care mobilized by nurses and recognized by patients(clarifying/informing, positive interaction/communication, music therapy, touch, smile, unconditional presence, empathy/proximity relationship, integrating the older adult or the family as partner in the care, relief of discomfort through massage/mobilization/therapy) and on particular moments of comfort (the first contact, the moment of personal hygiene, and the visit of the family), which constitute the foundation of care/comfort. Geriatric care is built on the relationship that is established and complete with meaning, and is based on the meeting/interaction between the actors under the influence of the context in which they are inserted. The different ways and means of providing comfort aim to facilitate/increase care, relieve discomfort and/or invest in potential comfort. Conhecer os modos e formas de confortar percecionadas pelos idosos hospitalizados num serviço de medicina. Estudo etnográfico com abordagem qualitativa. Realizamos entrevistas semiestruturadas com 22 doentes idosos e observação participante nas situações de cuidados. Os modos e formas de confortar centram-se em estratégias promotoras de conforto mobilizadas pelo enfermeiro e reconhecidas pelos doentes (informação/esclarecimento, interação/comunicação positiva, toque, sorriso, presença incondicional, integração do idoso/família nos cuidados e o alívio de desconfortos através da massagem/mobilização/terapêutica) e em momentos particulares de conforto (contato inaugural, visita da família., cuidados de higiene e arranjo pessoal), que se constituem como alicerces do cuidar

  3. the comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (waltertm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Special Edition. Diversifying ... selecting clothing to purchase or wear, the requirements varying ... African consumer to assess the potential comfort in ... breathable fabric can be used to simulate different ..... behaviour of the ensemble containing the 100% ...

  4. CRYPTOGRAPHIC MEANS OF INFORMATION PROTECTION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COMFORT OF THE USERS OF COMPUTER INFORMATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii A. Kotsiuk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article checks up the existence of functional relation between the level of psychological comfort of the users of computer informational systems and their awareness/skills to use cryptographic means of information protection.

  5. A theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort - Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Runming [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Li, Baizhan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment (Ministry of Education), Chongqing University (China); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Liu, Jing [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents in detail a theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort based on the ''Black Box'' theory, taking into account factors such as culture, climate, social, psychological and behavioural adaptations, which have an impact on the senses used to detect thermal comfort. The model is called the Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV) model. The aPMV model explains, by applying the cybernetics concept, the phenomena that the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) is greater than the Actual Mean Vote (AMV) in free-running buildings, which has been revealed by many researchers in field studies. An Adaptive coefficient ({lambda}) representing the adaptive factors that affect the sense of thermal comfort has been proposed. The empirical coefficients in warm and cool conditions for the Chongqing area in China have been derived by applying the least square method to the monitored onsite environmental data and the thermal comfort survey results. (author)

  6. An experimental study of thermal comfort at different combinations of air and mean radiant temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    , a lower air temperature is preferred. This paper presents an experimental study with 30 human subjects exposed to three different combinations of air- and mean radiant temperature with an operative temperature around 23 °C. The subjects gave subjective evaluations of thermal comfort and perceived air...... quality during the experiments. The PMV-index gave a good estimation of thermal sensation vote (TSV) when the air and mean radiant temperature were the same. In the environment with different air- and mean radiant temperatures, a thermal comfort evaluation shows an error up to 1 scale unit on the 7-point...... thermal sensation scale. The study could not confirm any preference regarding air and mean radiant temperature....

  7. Adaptive thermal comfort explained by means of the Fanger-model; Adaptief thermisch comfort verklaard met Fanger-model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, W.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-07-15

    This article examines the relation between the adaptive thermal comfort (ATC) model and the Fanger model. The most important data collected were the value ranges of individual parameters in relation to ATC assessment. The ATC model uses a relatively simple indicator of thermal comfort. It treats the desired operational indoor temperature as a measure of thermal comfort in direct comparison to the outdoor temperature. This has the advantage of providing a relatively straightforward and transparent way of assessing occupant comfort. The Fanger model makes use of human thermal equilibrium, and is more flexible and more widely applicable. The results of the comparison show that, in a temperate climate like that of the Netherlands, the Fanger model is fully capable of explaining the results of the ATC model. [Dutch] In dit artikel is de relatie tussen het adaptief thermisch comfort (ATC) model en het Fanger-model nader onderzocht. Hierbij is vooral gekeken naar de ranges van waarden van de individuele parameters in relatie tot de ATC-beoordeling. Her ATC-model maakt gebruik van een minder complexe indicator om een uitspraak te doen over het thermisch comfort. Bij deze aanpak wordt de gewenste operatieve binnentemperatuur, als maat voor her thermisch comfort, direct gerelateerd aan de buitentemperatuur. Een voordeel hiervan is dat op een relatief eenvoudige en inzichtelijke manier een waardering van her comfort kan worden gegeven. Het Fanger-model maakt gebruik van de warmtebalans van de mens en is flexibeler en breder toepasbaar. De resultaten van de vergelijking laten zien dat voor een gematigd klimaat als in Nederland het Fanger-model goed in staat is om de resultaten van het ATC-model te verklaren.

  8. PAIR INFLUENCE OF WIND SPEED AND MEAN RADIANT TEMPERATURE ON OUTDOOR THERMAL COMFORT OF HUMID TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkertadi Sangkertadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this article is to explore knowledge of outdoor thermal comfort in humid tropical environment for urban activities especially for people in walking activity, and those who stationary/seated with moderate action. It will be characterized the pair influence of wind speed and radiant temperature on the outdoor thermal comfort. Many of researchers stated that those two microclimate variables give significant role on outdoor thermal comfort in tropical humid area. Outdoor Tropical Comfort (OTC model was used for simulation in this study. The model output is comfort scale that refers on ASHRAE definition. The model consists of two regression equations with variables of air temperature, globe temperature, wind speed, humidity and body posture, for two types of activity: walking and seated. From the results it can be stated that there is significant role of wind speed to reduce mean radiant temperature and globe temperature, when the velocity is elevated from 0.5 m/s to 2 m/s. However, the wind has not play significant role when the speed is changed from 2 m/s to 3.5 m/s. The results of the study may inspire us to implement effectiveness of electrical-fan equipment for outdoor space in order to get optimum wind speed, coupled with optimum design of shading devices to minimize radiant temperature for thermal comfort.

  9. Comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (Walter (TM)), of clothing containing different fibre combinations : A preliminary investigation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available *Excluding suit jacket lining **Derived from the fabric mass and thickness ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Special Edition Diversifying clothing research in Southern Africa, Vol 1, 2016 The comfort, measured by means of a... containing different fibre types. A sweating manikin was to be used in preference to the more common and traditional tests on fabrics, since it far more closely simulates wear conditions by enabling clothing ensembles, more typical of real life...

  10. 29 CFR 37.99 - If the Director concludes that compliance cannot be secured by voluntary means, what actions must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If the Director concludes that compliance cannot be secured by voluntary means, what actions must he or she take? 37.99 Section 37.99 Labor Office of the... INVESTMENT ACT OF 1998 (WIA) Compliance Procedures § 37.99 If the Director concludes that compliance...

  11. Estimation of Comfortable/Uncomfortable Feeling Based on EEG by Using NN and k-means Algorithm for Massage Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramae, Tatsuya; Kushida, Daisuke; Takemori, Fumiaki; Kitamura, Akira

    A present massage chair realizes the massage motion and force designed by a professional masseur. However, appropriate massage force to the user can not be provided by the massage chair in such a method. On the other hand, the professional masseur can realize an appropriate massage force to more than one patient, because, the masseur considers the physical condition of the patient. Our research proposed the intelligent massage system of applying masseur's procedure for the massage chair using estimated skin elasticity and DB to relate skin elasticity and massage force. However, proposed system has a problem that DB does not adjust to unknown user, because user's feeling by massage can not be estimated. Then, this paper proposed the estimation method of comfortable/uncomfortable feeling based on EEG using the neural network and k-means algorithm. The realizability of the proposed method is verified by the experimental works.

  12. Use of a standard forage to reduce effects of animal variation on estimates of mean voluntary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, S M; Harpster, H W; Wangsness, P J; Shenk, J S; Keck, E; Rosenberger, J L

    1987-06-01

    Sixty test forages (alfalfa, timothy, bromegrass, and orchardgrass mixtures), of differing cuttings and maturities, were harvested as hay in each of 2 yr (30/yr) from three locations. Each of the 60 hays was chopped and fed to four growing sheep to determine voluntary intake. The duration of the trial was 2 yr with five experimental periods per year. In each period, immediately prior to feeding the test forages, intake of the same standard alfalfa hay (standard forage) was measured for every sheep. Use of intake of the standard forage as a covariate reduced mean square error by 38%. Regression of least squares means of intake of the test forages on chemical composition uniformly yielded higher coefficients of determination when means were generated from an analysis of variance that included intake of the standard forage as a covariate. This procedure can be used to increase the accuracy of estimates of mean voluntary intake or to reduce the number of animals needed to attain the same accuracy that would be achieved without use of the covariate.

  13. Thermal comfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  14. The comforted comforter: The meaning of παρακαλέω or παράκλησις terminology in 2 Corinthians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimund Bieringer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Pauline homologoumena, παρακαλέω or παράκλησις terminology is used almost two and a half times (in 2 Corinthians even six and a half times as frequently as in the remainder of the New Testament. In the first part of this article, a survey of the use of παρακαλέω or παράκλησις in the undisputed letters and its three major meanings was given: to request strongly, to exhort and to encourage or comfort. In the second part of the article, the LXX background of the unprecedented use of παρακαλέω or παράκλησις in 2 Corinthians 1:3–7 and 7:4.5–13, where God is the subject, was discussed. The conclusion was that when writing 2 Corinthians 1:3–7 and 7:4.5–13 Paul made use of the prophet Isaiah’s Book of Comfort and in his use of παρακαλέω or παράκλησις allows himself to be influenced by the way the LXX translator uses παρακαλέω to translate נחם.

  15. [Voluntary practice and subjective impact of abortion on women. Representations, meanings and social imaginary in clandestine scenario].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistani, María Laura; Ceccato, Melina Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The unplanned pregnancy is a common occurrence in women of reproductive age and at any social status since it is a critical and vital situation that forces women to make a decision. Despite being a public health issue, the act of voluntarily terminating a pregnancy is circumscribed to the clandestine, hidden, private sphere, due to the restrictive legal contexts that dominate the subject. The lack of professional assistance in these situations represents a risk to the health and lives of women. In this article we propose to visualize the meanings and senses that each woman assigns to the process, the reflection about the subjective impact and the eventually psychological effects of the practice; we introduce the conclusions reached from the analysis of the stories of women who went through this process from the notification of an unplanned pregnancy, decision making and the practice of it, in a context of illegality; with the professional support that is provided from the Integrated Counseling in Sexual and Reproductive Health. This counseling is part of the public policies to reduce risk and damage from induced abortions. In this context and through the professional accompaniment the words appear in order to elaborate, psychically and symbolically, the effects that the voluntary pregnancy interruption in women produces. The meanings that each woman gives to abortion depends on the appeal from that experience, either as a drama that shocks and destabilizes the mental equilibrium, a critical event but surmountable, or an opportunity to reaffirm their autonomy.

  16. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  17. Thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor;

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  18. Physiological comfort of biofunctional textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Volkmar T

    2006-01-01

    Statistics show that the wear comfort is the most important property of clothing demanded by users and consumers. Hence, biofunctional textiles only have a high market potential, if they are comfortable. In this work it is shown how the thermophysiological and skin sensorial wear comfort of biofunctional textiles can be measured effectively by means of the Skin Model and skin sensorial test apparatus. From these measurements, wear comfort votes can be predicted, assessing a textile's wear comfort in practice. These wear comfort votes match exactly the subjective perceptions of test persons. As a result validated by wearer trials with human test subjects, biofunctional textiles can offer the same good wear comfort as classical, non-biofunctional materials. On the other hand, some of the biofunctional treatments lead to a perceivably poorer wear comfort. In particular, the skin sensorial comfort is negatively affected by hydrophobic, smooth (flat) surfaces that easily cling to sweat-wetted skin, or which tend to make textiles stiffer. As guidelines for the improvement of the thermophysiological or skin sensorial wear comfort, it is recommended to use hydrophilic treatments in a suitable concentration and spun yarns instead of filaments.

  19. Ventilation on demand is the trend. Energy conservation by means of comfort improvement; Ventileren naar behoefte is de trend. Energiebesparing door comfortverbetering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, E.M.M. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Op ' t Veld, P.J.M. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    A brief overview is given of new developments with regard to ventilation systems, focusing on energy saving and comfort improvement. [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van nieuwe ontwikkelingen op het gebied van ventilatiesystemen met speciale aandacht voor energiebesparing en verbetering van comfort.

  20. The Comfortable Home and Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates relations between notions of comfort and notions of home, aiming at a better understanding of residential comfort and the related energy consumption. Residential comfort is examined through a practice-theoretical lens and as something that appears in between the social...... concludes that the notion of home is central in understanding comfort and energy consumption in dwellings, as conceptions of comfort and home are intertwined but also carry different meanings. The different rooms of a house relate differently to the notions of home and comfort, which has implications...... for how energy is consumed within the home....

  1. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  2. Voluntary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.

  3. Voluntary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.

  4. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  5. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  6. Robotic comfort zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  7. Learning in Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Students spend hours a day in classrooms, so it is critical to their learning to have places to sit that are healthful and comfortable. Schools and universities should outfit their classrooms and other learning spaces with furniture that enables students to carry out their school work comfortably and does not detract from their ability to focus…

  8. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  9. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mária Jármai, Erzsébet; Palányi, Ildikó Zsupanekné

    2015-01-01

    The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR…

  10. Everyday Comfort Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja

    according to international building codes and standards, which are being based on engineering scientists' controlled experiments, classfiication and analysis. Since the last two decades, scholars from a diverse range of disciplines, such as sociology, anthropology, philosophy, adaptive engineering......, engineering scientists and practitioners still seem to struggle with the kinds of alternative processes and products that are needed to achieve sustainable comfort. This dissertation applies everyday practice-oriented design ethnography to a field that has traditionally been investigated by scientific...... as professional practice') in order to find design directions for scenarios for innovative, sustainable products that are based on people's everyday lives and interlinking 'comfort practices'....

  11. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  12. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  13. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  14. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Dialogues, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  15. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    This report describes the results of the Comfort Houses measuring programme conducted by Aalborg University in the period 2008 to 2011. The results from the houses included in the project are examined in detail in 8 house-specific reports. All house-specific reports referred to in this report can...

  16. Fostering academic competence or putting students under general suspicion? Voluntary plagiarism check of academic papers by means of a web-based plagiarism detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Eleonora Kohl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing number of cases of plagiarism and the ease of use of online published texts, universities are faced with a considerable challenge to prevent and take action against plagiarism in academic student papers. In reaction to plagiarism, web-based plagiarism detection systems (PDSs are increasingly used to check submitted papers - this checking entails various problems, for example the percentage of plagiarism found is only an indication of the actual extent of plagiarism and not all types of plagiarism can be identified. To cope with this problematic situation the voluntary plagiarism check (VPC, an alternative preventive university didactic concept, was developed at the University of Education, Freiburg (Germany. It focused on the development of individual skills. Students were able to submit their academic papers (e.g. an undergraduate paper, final thesis anonymously. These were then tested with the PDS Ephorus. Following interpretation and summary of the findings by the project team - plagiarism as well as referencing mistakes - we advised the students on a suitable approach to academic writing based on their own typical mistakes. The VPC was conducted as a three-semester research project and was later evaluated. About 500 academic papers were tested. In 90% of the undergraduates' work incorrect and/or missing citations were found. This high percentage decreased among students in later semesters. Instances of plagiarism were detected in about 40% of the papers when the texts of advanced students (≥6th semester were tested. At the same time the length of the plagiarised texts decreased. Around half of the students stated that it was acceptable to copy single sentences or short passages from other sources without citation; they did not consider plagiarising on a limited scale as cheating. A similar number of students admitted to having doubts about whether they could write a good paper without plagiarising. Almost all

  17. 5 CFR 919.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 919.1020 Section 919.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED...) Definitions § 919.1020 Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. (a) Voluntary exclusion means a person's...

  18. Improving the comfort of garments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Comfort is a highly subjective phenomenon, with no unanimously agreed quantitative definition. In the Oxford English Dictionary and Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, comfort is defined as ‘freedom from pain, trouble and anxiety...

  19. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  20. Comfort can Boost Productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace doesn't call for NASA scientists or a big budget. From setting the right temperature in the office to providing chairs with back support and lights that minimize eyestrain, CPA firms that attend to staff comfort and health are rewarded with greater productivity and job loyalty. There are basic principles to follow in setting up a work environment correctly.

  1. The uncomfortable comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Whenever we achieve the satisfaction of our expectations and anxiety dissolves, we feel as if we were in a comfort zone – safe, complete, free from risks and in peace with ourselves. We might even have a little taste of heaven when we feel that we have fulfilled our duty. And as a fact, scientists are entitled to this kind of reward… but not for too long! In science, to enter a comfort zone can be as pleasant as dangerous. On one hand we may have a safe ground available to develop new modes of reasoning, protocols and theories. And on the other, we may stay stuck in a conventional but fragile ground, missing opportunities to reveal novel secrets or to address edge issues. ... The community of HD researchers seems to have entered a new comfort zone when nanostructures were found in HD. Nanostructures have been raised to the level of ultimate evidence doing away with Avogadro’s limit and leading homeopathy and HD research into mainstream science. We really should enjoy this moment and collect more information about the HD phenomenon. However, we must be wary to not fall into a trap.

  2. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  3. Adaptive thermal comfort standards in the hot-humid tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, F. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom). Oxford Centre for Sustainable Development

    2004-07-01

    Field studies conducted in tropical climates have found that the International standard for indoor climate, IS07730 based on Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV/PPD) equations, does not adequately describe comfortable conditions. This paper presents some of the evidence and suggests ways in which International standards are failing and how they might be complemented using adaptive comfort standards derived from the results of local comfort surveys. In particular the implications of air movement and humidity for adaptive comfort standards are considered. (author)

  4. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  5. Occupant thermal comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiardi, Gena L.

    1999-03-01

    Throughout the automotive industry there has been an increasing concern and focus on the thermal comfort of occupants. Manufacturers are continuously striving to improve heating and air conditioning performance to comply with expanding customer needs. To optimize these systems, the technology to acquire data must also be enhanced. In this evaluation, the standard use of isolated thermocouple location technology is compared to utilizing infrared thermal vision in an air conditioning performance assessment. Infrared data on an actual occupant is correlated to breath and air conditioning output temperatures measured by positioned thermocouples. The use of infrared thermal vision highlights various areas of comfort and discomfort experienced by the occupant. The evaluation involves utilizing an infrared thermal vision camera to film an occupant in the vehicle as the following test procedure is run. The vehicle is soaked in full sun load until the interior temperature reaches a minimum of 150 degrees F (65.6 degrees Celsius). The occupant enters the vehicle and takes an initial temperature reading. The air conditioning is turned on to full cold, full fan speed, and recirculation mode. While being filmed, the driver drives for sixty minutes at 30 miles per hour (48.3 kph). The thermocouples acquire data in one minute intervals while the infrared camera films the cooling process of the occupant.

  6. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  7. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  8. Honeywell: Comfort and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaszewski, J.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation of the Company starts with having it ranked among the ones operating on the customers` market or those acting on the professional market. But it is not so. Honeywell is beyond such simple criteria. We are a company supplying products, systems and services related with generally conceived automatic control engineering, yet the operational range does comprise so many apparently diversified fields, for instance automatic control in aeronautics, heavy power engineering, building of apartment buildings, detached houses, heat engineering and some others. Nevertheless, our targets are always the same: maximum increase in efficiency and reliability of the process lines controlled by our systems as well as securing the best comfort of work and rest for people who stay in the buildings controlled by our devices. Simultaneously, the utilization of energy sources and the natural environment resources must be as sensible as possible.

  9. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  10. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  11. Averting comfortable lifestyle crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Rod

    2013-01-01

    : alternative non-sugar sweeteners; toxic side-effects of aspartame. Stevia and xylitol as healthy sugar replacements; the role of food processing in dietary health; and beneficial effects of resistant starch in natural and processed foods. The rise of maize and soya-based vegetable oils have led to omega-6 fat overload and imbalance in the dietary ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fats. This has led to toxicity studies with industrial trans fats; investigations on health risks associated with stress and comfort eating; and abdominal obesity. Other factors to consider are: diet, cholesterol and oxidative stress, as well as the new approaches to the chronology of eating and the health benefits of intermittent fasting.

  12. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  13. The parallel programming of voluntary and reflexive saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin; McSorley, Eugene

    2006-06-01

    A novel two-step paradigm was used to investigate the parallel programming of consecutive, stimulus-elicited ('reflexive') and endogenous ('voluntary') saccades. The mean latency of voluntary saccades, made following the first reflexive saccades in two-step conditions, was significantly reduced compared to that of voluntary saccades made in the single-step control trials. The latency of the first reflexive saccades was modulated by the requirement to make a second saccade: first saccade latency increased when a second voluntary saccade was required in the opposite direction to the first saccade, and decreased when a second saccade was required in the same direction as the first reflexive saccade. A second experiment confirmed the basic effect and also showed that a second reflexive saccade may be programmed in parallel with a first voluntary saccade. The results support the view that voluntary and reflexive saccades can be programmed in parallel on a common motor map.

  14. Thermal Comfort in a Naturally-Ventilated Educational Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mwale Ogoli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study of thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated education building (88,000 ft2 in a Chicago suburb will be conducted with 120 student subjects in 2007. This paper discusses some recent trends in worldwide thermal comfort studies and presents a proposal of research for this building through a series of questionnaire tables. Two research methods used inthermal comfort studies are field studies and laboratory experiments in climate-chambers. The various elements that constitute a “comfortable” thermal environment include physical factors (ambient air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air movement and humidity, personal factors(activity and clothing, classifications (gender, age, education, etc. and psychological expectations (knowledge, experience, psychological effect of visual warmth by, say, a fireplace. Comparisons are made using data gathered from Nairobi, Kenya.Keywords: Comfort, temperature, humidity and ventilation

  15. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  16. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served a

  17. Beyond Comfort in Built Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazley, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Every person on the planet lives a significant portion of his or her life in a built indoor environment. Ideally, the built environment serves as protection from the extremes of the outdoor environment and is preferably comfortable. The first ‘built environment’ was a painted cave. The cave served a

  18. ON THE DESIGN OF A NEW HUMAN COMFORT INDEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯业荣; 王安宇; 林镇国

    2004-01-01

    In designing the human comfort index (CI) used in Guangzhou, a Gaussian curve was adopted as the fundamental profile to develop a "straw hat" model of comfort index. The model projects low or high temperatures into low index values and the moderate temperatures into high index values. Air temperature was chosen as a basic factor in the model. Other factors such as humidity, sunshine and wind speed were introduced by considering them as temperature departures to an equivalent apparent temperature (EAT). Since the index is a relative index, 25(C was chosen as an ideal apparent temperature (the most comfortable state) and a maximum CI value of 100 was assigned at this temperature. While in other circumstances, the index would be lower than 100. By utilizing this model, the daily comfort index values had been calculated for Guangzhou city for 1998-1999, using mean temperature, mean humidity, mean wind speed and total hours of sunshine. Results show that the new model was reasonable and practicable. Not only could it reflect the monthly variation of human comfort in Guangzhou, but also was sensitive to short-term changes of weather conditions.

  19. Analysis of Thermal Comfort in an Intelligent Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Grzegorz; Telejko, Marek; Orman, Łukasz J.

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of thermal comfort in the ENERGIS Building, an intelligent building in the campus of the Kielce University of Technology, Poland is the focus of this paper. For this purpose, air temperature, air relative humidity, air flow rate and carbon dioxide concentration were measured and the mean radiant temperature was determined. Thermal sensations of the students occupying the rooms of the building were evaluated with the use of a questionnaire. The students used a seven-point scale of thermal comfort. The microclimate measurement results were used to determine the Predicted Mean Vote and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied indices.

  20. The Political Importance of Voluntary Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneman, Harry

    This paper aims to develop a complex articulation of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work that clarifies its political importance as a countervailing narrative pointing beyond dominant neoliberal and consumptive articulations of a good life. To start with, it sketches a hermeneutic perspective on civic meaningfulness based on the work of Paul Ricoeur. Subsequently, it introduces the ideas of 'ethical complexity', 'epistemological complexity' and 'diapoiesis', building on insights from critical complexity thinking and relational biology. It argues that these notions can provide a bridge between hermeneutic perspectives on meaning and values, on the one hand, and questions of meaning and values on the level of scientific and technological developments and within professional organizations, on the other. Thus a broader, more complex picture emerges of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work in our times.

  1. Uncertainty Analysis of Thermal Comfort Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. Silva; Alves e Sousa, J.; Cox, Maurice G.; Forbes, Alistair B.; Matias, L. Cordeiro; Martins, L. Lages

    2015-08-01

    International Standard ISO 7730:2005 defines thermal comfort as that condition of mind that expresses the degree of satisfaction with the thermal environment. Although this definition is inevitably subjective, the Standard gives formulae for two thermal comfort indices, predicted mean vote ( PMV) and predicted percentage dissatisfied ( PPD). The PMV formula is based on principles of heat balance and experimental data collected in a controlled climate chamber under steady-state conditions. The PPD formula depends only on PMV. Although these formulae are widely recognized and adopted, little has been done to establish measurement uncertainties associated with their use, bearing in mind that the formulae depend on measured values and tabulated values given to limited numerical accuracy. Knowledge of these uncertainties are invaluable when values provided by the formulae are used in making decisions in various health and civil engineering situations. This paper examines these formulae, giving a general mechanism for evaluating the uncertainties associated with values of the quantities on which the formulae depend. Further, consideration is given to the propagation of these uncertainties through the formulae to provide uncertainties associated with the values obtained for the indices. Current international guidance on uncertainty evaluation is utilized.

  2. Double face: Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; De Ruiter, P.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Chang Lara, C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Teuffel, P.; Van Bommel, W.

    2015-01-01

    The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at

  3. Double face: Adjustable translucent system to improve thermal comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Tenpierik, M.J.; De Ruiter, P.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Chang Lara, C.; Heinzelmann, F.; Teuffel, P.; Van Bommel, W.

    2015-01-01

    The DoubleFace project aims at developing a new product that passively improves thermal comfort of indoor and semi-indoor spaces by means of lightweight materials for latent heat storage, while simultaneously allowing daylight to pass through as much as possible. Specifically, the project aims at de

  4. Thermal comfort findings: Scenario at Malaysian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmad Rasdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the findings of thermal comfort assessment at Malaysian automotive industry. Nine critical workstations were chosen as subjects for the study in order to determine the thermal comfort among workers at Malaysian automotive industry. The human subjects for the study comprises of the operators from tire receiving, dashboard assembly, drum tester, body assembly, seat assembly, door check assembly, stamping workstation, engine sub assembly and paint shop of the factory. The environmental factors such as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT, relative humidity, air velocity, illuminance were measured using BABUC A apparatus and Thermal Comfort Measurement equipment. Through questionnaire survey, the demographic data of subjects and their perceptions on thermal comfort at each workstation were assessed based on ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Then, Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal satisfaction of occupants. The results indicated that most of the workstations of the automotive industry are considered as uncomfortable. Tire receiving station is considered having better working environment compared to other stations with lowest PMV index of 1.09 to 1.41 and PPD of 46%. Meanwhile, the engine sub assembly station and paint shop of assembly are considered the worst thermal environment with the PMV index values ranging between 2.1 to 2.9 and PPD values of 81% to 99%. Therefore, these two workstations are considered not comfortable because the thermal sensation scale is warm and almost hot.

  5. Coupling of the Models of Human Physiology and Thermal Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, J.; Jicha, M.

    2013-04-01

    A coupled model of human physiology and thermal comfort was developed in Dymola/Modelica. A coupling combines a modified Tanabe model of human physiology and thermal comfort model developed by Zhang. The Coupled model allows predicting the thermal sensation and comfort of both local and overall from local boundary conditions representing ambient and personal factors. The aim of this study was to compare prediction of the Coupled model with the Fiala model prediction and experimental data. Validation data were taken from the literature, mainly from the validation manual of software Theseus-FE [1]. In the paper validation of the model for very light physical activities (1 met) indoor environment with temperatures from 12 °C up to 48 °C is presented. The Coupled model predicts mean skin temperature for cold, neutral and warm environment well. However prediction of core temperature in cold environment is inaccurate and very affected by ambient temperature. Evaluation of thermal comfort in warm environment is supplemented by skin wettedness prediction. The Coupled model is designed for non-uniform and transient environmental conditions; it is also suitable simulation of thermal comfort in vehicles cabins. The usage of the model is limited for very light physical activities up to 1.2 met only.

  6. Controlling automobile thermal comfort using optimized fuzzy controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzaneh, Yadollah; Tootoonchi, Ali A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    Providing thermal comfort and saving energy are two main goals of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A controller with temperature feedback cannot best achieve the thermal comfort. This is because thermal comfort is influenced by many variables such as, temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, environment radiation, activity level and cloths insulation. In this study Fanger's predicted mean value (PMV) index is used as controller feedback. It is simplified without introducing significant error. Thermal models of the cabin and HVAC system are developed. Evaporator cooling capacity is selected as a criterion for energy consumption. Two fuzzy controllers one with temperature as its feedback and the other PMV index as its feedback are designed. Results show that the PMV feedback controller better controls the thermal comfort and energy consumption than the system with temperature feedback. Next, the parameters of the fuzzy controller are optimized by genetic algorithm. Results indicate that thermal comfort level is further increased while energy consumption is decreased. Finally, robustness analysis is performed which shows the robustness of optimized controller to variables variations. (author)

  7. Benefits of voluntary industry standards: The triumph of experience over regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Leary, J.T. [National Mining Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Voluntary international standards for mining machinery may gradually replace many national regulations. The days of establishing voluntary standards nation by nation, inhibiting the important flow of international trade, could be numbered. This does not mean that nations will cease domestic regulatory activities within their boundaries, but rulemaking will pay considerable attention to voluntary international standards and will likely strive for compatibility with voluntary international standards. International standards setting bodies are developing standards for machine safety. When these standards are complete and adopted, some nations will require machinery to comport with them. International commerce in products that do not conform to these voluntary international standards may be discouraged.

  8. Voluntary Simplicity: A Lifestyle Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This guide provides practical ideas for incorporating the concept of voluntary simplicity into home economics classes. Discussed in the first chapter are the need to study voluntary simplicity, its potential contributions to home economics, and techniques and a questionnaire for measuring student attitudes toward the concept. The remaining…

  9. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  10. Toward voluntary parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S

    2000-06-01

    David Lykken's proposal to license married parents for child rearing, and to deny the same opportunity to single and inept parents, springs from his deep concern for millions of youngsters cruelly subjected to abusive and neglectful rearing circumstances. Children from such inadequate homes grow up to have high rates of school failure, criminality, and drug addiction. The problem is clear, but Lykken's remedies of mandated marriage and parental licensure are unacceptable in U.S. society, where our reproductive rights are fortunately protected by our Constitution. As a devoted proponent of reproductive rights, I propose a legally and morally acceptable proposal to the same end. Increasing women's effective control of reproduction and moving toward entirely voluntary parenthood will accomplish the same goals without compromising our civil liberties.

  11. Human beings and thermal comfort. Thermal comfort is a complex matter; De mens weer centraal bij de comfortbenadering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Currently thermal comfort is determined by means of the Fanger Theory, which is based on six parameters: metabolism, clothing, air and radiation temperature, air humidity and air velocity. 10-26% dissatisfaction is considered to be acceptable, which in fact is unacceptable. [Dutch] Tot op heden wordt het thermisch comfort veelal bepaald conform de Theorie van Fanger. Op basis van zes parameters (metabolisme, kleding, lucht- en stralingstemperatuur, luchtvochtigheid en luchtsnelheid) wordt de ontevredenheid over het binnenklimaat bepaald. Acceptabel is een ontevredenheidspercentage van 10 tot 26%, maar dergelijke percentages zijn eigenlijk te gek voor woorden.

  12. Determining the bioclimatic comfort in Kastamonu City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    Bioclimatic comfort defines the optimal climatic conditions in which people feel healthy and dynamic. Bioclimatic comfort mapping methods are useful to urban managers and planners. For the purposes of planning, climatic conditions, as determined by bioclimatic comfort assessments, are important. Bioclimatic components such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind speeds are important in evaluating bioclimatic comfort. In this study of the climate of Kastamonu province, the most suitable areas in terms of bioclimatic comfort have been identified. In this context, climate values belonging to the province of Kastamonu are taken from a total of nine meteorological stations. Altitude (36-1050 m) between stations is noted for revealing climatic changes. The data collected from these stations, including average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values are transferred to geographical information system (GIS) using ArcMap 10.2.2 software. GIS maps created from the imported data has designated the most suitable comfort areas in and around the city of Kastamonu. As a result, the study shows that Kastamonu has suitable ranges for bioclimatic comfort zone. The range of bioclimatic comfort value for Kastamonu is 17.6 °C. It is between a comfort ranges which is 15-20 °C. Kastamonu City has suitable area for bioclimatic comfort.

  13. Cardiovascular responses to voluntary and nonvoluntary static exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D B; Peel, C; Mitchell, J H

    1992-11-01

    We have measured the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and nonvoluntary (electrically induced) one-leg static exercise in humans. Eight normal subjects were studied at rest and during 5 min of static leg extension at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction performed voluntarily and nonvoluntarily in random order. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac output (CO) were determined, and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and stroke volume (SV) were calculated. HR increased from approximately 65 +/- 3 beats/min at rest to 80 +/- 4 and 78 +/- 6 beats/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. CO increased from 5.1 +/- 0.7 to 6.0 +/- 0.8 and 6.2 +/- 0.8 l/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. PVR and SV did not change significantly during voluntary or nonvoluntary contractions. Thus the cardiovascular responses were not different between voluntary and electrically induced contractions. These results suggest that the increases in CO, HR, SV, MAP, and PVR during 5 min of static contractions can be elicited without any contribution from a central neural mechanism (central command). However, central command could still have an important role during voluntary static exercise.

  14. Thermal comfort assessment of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Carlucci, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    A number of metrics for assessing human thermal response to climatic conditions have been proposed in scientific literature over the last decades. They aim at describing human thermal perception of the thermal environment to which an individual or a group of people is exposed. More recently, a new type of “discomfort index” has been proposed for describing, in a synthetic way, long-term phenomena. Starting from a systematic review of a number of long-term global discomfort indices, they are then contrasted and compared on a reference case study in order to identify their similarities and differences and strengths and weaknesses. Based on this analysis, a new short-term local discomfort index is proposed for the American Adaptive comfort model. Finally, a new and reliable long-term general discomfort index is presented. It is delivered in three versions and each of them is suitable to be respectively coupled with the Fanger, the European Adaptive and the American Adaptive comfort models.

  15. Analyzing voluntary medical incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yang; Richardson, James; Zhijian, Luan; Alafaireet, Patricia; Yoo, Illhoi

    2008-11-06

    Voluntary medical incident reports lacking consistency and accuracy impede the ultimate use of the reports for patient safety research. To improve this, two coders examined harm score usage in a voluntary medical incident reporting system where the harm scores were selected from a predefined list by different reporters. The two coders inter-rater agreement percent was 82%. The major categories and reviewed harm score jointly demonstrate that this process is critical and necessary in preparing the voluntary reports for further content and semantics analysis.

  16. Acoustic comfort in large dining spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, X.; Kang, J

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd This study carried out a questionnaire field investigation in two typical large dining spaces. The results suggest that the acoustic comfort of diners has an influence on the comfort evaluation of the overall dining environment, and background noise is an important factor affecting the acoustic comfort evaluation of diners. The role of various individual sound sources in background noise has been investigated, considering general background music, speech sound, activity so...

  17. Experiential reflective learning and comfort zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nehyba

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of experiential reflective learning. Firstlyit aims to discuss the concept of comfort zone in this area. It goes beyond the usualdefinition of the domestic comfort zone and it reflects in terms of experiential reflectivelearning in the world. The conclusions point to possible parallels with the concept ofcomfort zones and K. Lewin theory. Overall, the article focuses on topics that help toexpand the view on the issue of comfort zone.

  18. "What do You Mean I've Got to Wait for Six Weeks?!" Understanding the Sexual Behaviour of Men and Their Female Partners after Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoesrie Toefy

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in heterosexual men by up to 60%. However, there is an increased risk of transmission of STIs, including HIV, in the immediate post-operative period after receiving VMMC. This study is to understand sexual practices of couples in the post-operative period in a Coloured population in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.Coloured Males who had undergone VMMC in the previous six months in the Cape Town area and their partners participated in eight single-gender focus group discussions. The groups explored why the men decided to undergo VMMC, what kind of counselling they received, and how they experienced the 6-week post-operative period, including sexually.The primary motivation to VMMC uptake included religious injunction and hygiene reasons and protection against sexually transmitted infections not necessarily HIV. There was some exploration of alternative sexual practices. During the period immediately post operation the respondents spoke of pain and fear of any sexual arousal, but towards the end of the six week period, sexual desire returned. Both men and women felt that sex was important to maintain the relationship. Gaps were identified in the pre- and post-MC procedure counselling.There is a real risk that men in this population may begin sex before complete healing has occurred. VMMC counselling to encourage men to stay sexually safe in the wound-healing period, needs to take into account the real-life factors of the circumcised men. It is essential from a public health, and gender perspective that effective counselling strategies for the VMMC post-operative period, and the longer term, are developed and tested.

  19. The Notion of Voluntary Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Guy

    1981-01-01

    Considers the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment by analyzing six behavioral characteristics attributed to groups of workers suspected of indulging in the former, and the labor market mechanisms supposedly encouraging them. (Author/CT)

  20. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  1. Thermal Comfort and Optimum Humidity Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Jokl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal microclimate is the main component in indoor comfort. The optimum hydrothermal level can be ensured by suitable changes in the sources of heat and water vapor within the building, changes in the environment (the interior of the building and in the people exposed to the conditions inside the building. A change in the heat source and the source of water vapor involves improving the heat - insulating properties and the air permeability of the peripheral walls and especially of the windows. The change in the environment will bring human bodies into balance with the environment. This can be expressed in terms of an optimum or at least an acceptable globe temperature, an adequate proportion of radiant heat within the total amount of heat from the environment (defined by the difference between air and wall temperature, uniform cooling of the human body by the environment, defined a by the acceptable temperature difference between head and ankles, b by acceptable temperature variations during a shift (location unchanged, or during movement from one location to another without a change of clothing. Finally, a moisture balance between man and the environment is necessary (defined by acceptable relative air humidity. A change for human beings means a change of clothes which, of course, is limited by social acceptance in summer and by inconvenient heaviness in winter. The principles of optimum heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification are presented in this paper.Hydrothermal comfort in an environment depends on heat and humidity flows (heat and water vapors, occurring in a given space in a building interior and affecting the total state of the human organism.

  2. Investigation of Comfort Temperature and Occupant Behavior in Japanese Houses during the Hot and Humid Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the comfort temperature and to investigate the behavioral adaptation in Japanese houses, we have conducted a thermal comfort survey and occupant behavior survey in 30 living rooms during the hot and humid season in the Kanto region of Japan. We collected 3991 votes from 52 subjects. The comfort temperature was predicted by Griffiths’ method. They are analyzed according to humidity levels and compared with the adaptive model. The logistic regression analysis was conducted in order to understand occupant behavior. The mean comfort temperature in naturally ventilated mode is 27.6 °C which is within the acceptable zone of the adaptive model. The comfort temperature is related with skin moisture sensation. The results showed that the residents adapt to the hot and humid environments by increasing the air movement using behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use.

  3. Air humidity requirements for human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    level near 100% rh. For respiratory comfort are the requirements much more stringent and results in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g. ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity...

  4. Selected Sports Bras: Overall Comfort and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, LaJean; Lorentzen, Deana

    This study evaluated currently marketed sports bras on subjective measures of comfort and support both within an entire group of women and within cup sizes, correlated the subjective measures of comfort and support with previously reported biomechanical findings of support on the same bras, and further developed empirically based guidelines for…

  5. Thermal comfort study of plastics manufacturing industry in converting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of ergonomics factors that can create a significant impact to workers performance. For a better thermal comfort, several environment factors (air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity should be considered in this research. The object of the study is a building for converting process of plastics manufacturing industry located in Malang, Indonesia. The maximum air temperature inside the building can reach as high as 36°C. The result of this study shows that heat stress is dominantly caused by heat source from machine and wall building. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation is used to show the air characteristic through inside the building. By using the CFD simulation, some scenarios of solution are successfully presented. Employees thermal comfort was investigated based on predicted mean vote model (PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied model (PPD. Existing condition gives PMV in range from 1.83 to 2.82 and PPD in range from 68.9 to 98%. Meanwhile, modification of ventilation and replacing ceiling material from clear glass into reflective clear glass gave significant impact to reduce PMV into range from 1.63 to 2.18 and PPD into range from 58.2 to 84.2%. In sort, new design converting building process has more comfortable for workers.

  6. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David F

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience.

  7. Objective and subjective thermal comfort evaluation in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajtar Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort sensation can be predicted in the most exact way based on Fanger’s predicted mean vote (PMV model. This evaluation method takes all the six influencing factors into consideration: air temperature and humidity, air velocity, mean radiant temperature of surrounding surfaces, clothing insulation, and occupants’ activities. Fanger’s PMV method was developed for temperate climate and European people, with the participation of university students as subjects. Many researchers had investigated its validity in different geographic locations (i. e. climatic conditions, people and under non-laboratory circumstances. The results were summarised by van Hoof which had been published in the scientific references. The articles gave us the idea to elaborate the former measurement results. During the last decades thermal comfort was evaluated by our research team using subjective scientific questionnaires and applying the objective Fanger’s model in several office buildings in Hungary. The relation between the PMV and actual mean vote values were analysed based on these results. Investigations were carried out under steady-state conditions in winter time. We performed objective thermal comfort evaluations based on instrumental measurements using the PMV theory. Parallel to this we assessed the subjective thermal sensation using scientific questionnaires. The mathematical relationship between the actual mean vote and PMV was defined according to the evaluated thermal environment: AMV = PMV + 0.275, (arg. –1.7 ≤ PMV ≤ +0.5.

  8. Effects of Drains on Pain, Comfort and Anxiety in Patients Undergone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummu Yildiz Findik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: Surgical drains negatively affect patients’ comfort, cause anxiety along with pain, as they are used to promote healing after surgery.Purpose: This study aimed to determine pain, comfort and anxiety levels of patients with drains postoperatively.Methodology: Research was performed with 192 patients undergone abdominal, neck, breast and open heart surgery and had surgical and underwater chest drains at the postoperative period. Patient Information Form, Numerical Pain Scale, General Comfort Questionnaire and Trait Anxiety Scale was used for collection of data. In evaluating the data, we used the t-test, variance and correlation analysis, mean, percentage and frequency.Results: The patients’ mean score of pain was 4.67±2.93, comfort was 2.75±0.29 and anxiety was 39.31±9.21. It was found statistically significant that the comfort level decreases as the pain level increases and that the patients undergone open heart surgery and with underwater chest drains have higher pain levels. It was found statistically significant that, comfort level in patients undergone abdominal or cardiac surgery is lower than patients undergone breast or neck surgery, and that the comfort level decreases as the duration of drains increases. The increasing state anxiety while pain increases and comfort decreases was found statistically significant.Conclusions: Surgeries and drains applied after these procedures decrease the comfort level of the patients as increases the pain level. Also, pain and discomfort increase the patients’ anxiety. Nurses who providing care to these patients are suggested to improve measures about pain and anxiety reduction for maintaining of comfort.

  9. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  10. Voluntary organisation and adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Elsdon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The author starts by offering a definition of voluntary organisations. He then discusses their importance and role, focusing on the issue of adult education wi­ thin these organisations. He also wells upon learning and change of voluntary organisation members, making use of the results of a study he conducted together with his collaborators. One of their fin­dings has been that voluntary organisati­ons, due to their organisational targets li­ke painting, singing or caring for people in need, lead their members to learning, i.e. essentially content learning. Moreo­ver, voluntary organisations offer a fair number of opportunities for social lear­ning and change. ln spite of the fact that the respondents were mostly not aware of the outcomes of their learning and change, careful listeners conducting the interview made them understand the im­portance of the learning they had gone through. The author concludes by poin­ ting out that formal education of adults can get its inspiration in learning in voluntary organisations. On the other hand, such learning would benefit greatly from findings and methods of formal education of adults.

  11. Thermal Comfort Assessment: A Case Study at Malaysian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Thermal comfort has a great influence on the productivity and satisfaction of indoor building occupants. The exposure to excessive heat during work may cause discomfort and contributed to low productivity among workers. Malaysia known with its hot and humid weather where in most of the survey study published indicated that workers in Malaysia automotive industries had exposed to excessive temperature while working. The study investigated the thermal comfort level experienced by workers at Malaysian automotive industry. Approach: The study had been conducted at one automotive parts assembly factory in Malaysia. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at tire receiving section of the factory. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, WBGT, air temperature and radiant temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ASHRAE thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD was used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The trend of relative humidity curve from the graph also indicated the increasing level of discomfort. The radiant temperature observed seems consistent during the study while there was decreasing of WBGT start from afternoon due to the rain. The study revealed that the PPD value of 54% of the workers population at the workstation are likely to be satisfied with thermal comfort at this station while the PMV index from ASHRAE indicated the value 1

  12. Determination of bioclimatic comfort in Sirjan desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mahmoodi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate plays an important role in assessment of quality of outdoor built environments and bioclimatic comfort physiologically influences on human body's characteristics. In this paper, we present an empirical study on bioclimatic comfort in Sirjan desert located in the province of Kerman, Iran. The results of our study shows that velocity of air can reach one meter per second during the daily hours only during the month of September, which causes comfort on people's body. However, even this velocity cannot cause comfort during the night. During the months of March, April and October, whether maintains a velocity of 0.1 meter/second, which brings comfort and it is possible to live with simple dress. During the months of May, June and July it is possible to reach comfort with simple cover during the night. It is possible to reach the same condition with thicker coverage in nightly hours during the months of May and September. However, it is not possible to reach comfort with thick dress any nightly hours of year.

  13. Effect of Three Interventions on Contact Lens Comfort in Symptomatic Wearers: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Navascues-Cornago

    Full Text Available To investigate whether carrying out various interventions part way through the day influences comfort in symptomatic daily disposable (DD contact lens wearers.A subject-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in thirty symptomatic soft lens wearers who wore their habitual DD contact lenses bilaterally for 12 h on two separate days. Five hours after lens application, one of the following three interventions or a control was performed on each eye: replacing the existing lens with a new lens; removing and reapplying the same lens; performing a 'scleral swish'; and no action (control. Comfort scores were recorded using SMS text messages every hour following lens application using a 0 (causes pain to 100 (excellent comfort scale. Comfort scores before lens application, at 6 mins post-application, and at 6 mins post-intervention were also recorded.There was a significant reduction in comfort from pre-lens application to 6 mins post-application for all groups (all p0.05. After the intervention, comfort continued to decline (p<0.0001 with slightly lower mean scores for the control group compared to the new lens group (p = 0.003. Change in comfort relative to pre-intervention (5 h was similar for all groups (p = 0.81. There was no difference in comfort at 12 h between groups (p = 0.83.This work has confirmed that comfort shows a continual and significant decline over a 12-h wearing period in symptomatic DD contact lens wearers. None of the interventions investigated had any significant impact on end-of-day comfort. These data suggest discomfort in lens wearers is more heavily influenced by changes to the ocular environment rather than to the lens itself.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN10419752 http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN10419752.

  14. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  15. Optimization Algorithm for Operation Comfortability of Master Manipulator of Minimally Invasive Surgery Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进华; 王雪生; 邢元; 王树新; 李建民; 梁科

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the operation comfortability in the master-slave robotic minimally invasive surgery (MIS), an optimal function was built with two operation comfortability decided indices, i.e., the center distance and volume contact ratio. Two verifying experiments on Phantom Desktop and MicroHand S were conducted. Experimental results show that the operation effect at the optimal relative location is better than that at the random location, which means that the optimal function constructed in this paper is effective in optimizing the operation comfortability.

  16. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    separate measures assuming all solar radiation can be blocked from entering the room as heat.In the reference cases the cooling load is significantly lower with higher thermal mass and the heating load does not significantly vary with thermal mass; this is due to the good basic insulation of the dwelling and sufficient solar gain which causes the drop in temperature during the non-heated periods to be very low regardless the thermal mass. The energy saving for cooling by the adaptive strategies is higher with higher thermal mass more drastically reducing the already much lower cooling demand for the references with higher thermal mass. In case of the North orientation it can be an option to build with lower thermal mass because there is significantly less solar radiation available to lower the heating demand; showing a slight increase in heating demand for the higher thermal mass variant. The advantages of adaptive solar shading are significantly lower with the North orientation due to the lower range of solar gain.As the definition suggests the control of the thermal comfort system adaptive to the occupancy and the variable thermal comfort demand resulting from it is an essential part of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort System. This effect is most apparent in the case of adaptive heating; high occupancy means less heating demand than if a standard heating schedule is used because of higher internal gain while the heating demand with control for presence shows less deviation between the occupancy profiles and higher heating demands with higher occupancy. This means that the improvement of energy efficiency is larger the lower the occupancy level. Furthermore, the control algorithm designed in chapter 4 is significantly less accurate in case of the occupancy profile with highest occupancy especially because the temperature falls below the heating setpoint by the time the occupants re-enter the room resulting in higher heating demands than the reference, which can be prevented

  17. Adaptive thermal comfort opportunities for dwellings: Providing thermal comfort only when and where needed in dwellings in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Alders

    2016-08-01

    separate measures assuming all solar radiation can be blocked from entering the room as heat.In the reference cases the cooling load is significantly lower with higher thermal mass and the heating load does not significantly vary with thermal mass; this is due to the good basic insulation of the dwelling and sufficient solar gain which causes the drop in temperature during the non-heated periods to be very low regardless the thermal mass. The energy saving for cooling by the adaptive strategies is higher with higher thermal mass more drastically reducing the already much lower cooling demand for the references with higher thermal mass. In case of the North orientation it can be an option to build with lower thermal mass because there is significantly less solar radiation available to lower the heating demand; showing a slight increase in heating demand for the higher thermal mass variant. The advantages of adaptive solar shading are significantly lower with the North orientation due to the lower range of solar gain.As the definition suggests the control of the thermal comfort system adaptive to the occupancy and the variable thermal comfort demand resulting from it is an essential part of the Adaptive Thermal Comfort System. This effect is most apparent in the case of adaptive heating; high occupancy means less heating demand than if a standard heating schedule is used because of higher internal gain while the heating demand with control for presence shows less deviation between the occupancy profiles and higher heating demands with higher occupancy. This means that the improvement of energy efficiency is larger the lower the occupancy level. Furthermore, the control algorithm designed in chapter 4 is significantly less accurate in case of the occupancy profile with highest occupancy especially because the temperature falls below the heating setpoint by the time the occupants re-enter the room resulting in higher heating demands than the reference, which can be prevented

  18. Voluntary activation of human knee extensors measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, S; Romer, L M; Ross, E Z

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability and reliability of a transcranial magnetic stimulation twitch interpolation technique for measuring voluntary activation of a lower limb muscle group. Cortical voluntary activation of the knee extensors was determined in nine healthy men on two separate visits by measuring superimposed twitch torques evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during isometric knee extensions of varying intensity. Superimposed twitch amplitude decreased linearly with increasing voluntary torque between 50 and 100% of mean maximal torque, allowing estimation of resting twitch amplitude and subsequent calculation of voluntary activation. There were no systematic differences for maximal voluntary activation within day (mean +/- s.d. 90.9 +/- 6.2 versus 90.7 +/- 5.9%; P = 0.98) or between days (90.8 +/- 6.0 versus 91.2 +/- 5.7%; P = 0.92). Systematic bias and random error components of the 95% limits of agreement were 0.23 and 9.3% within day versus 0.38 and 7.5% between days. Voluntary activation was also determined immediately after a 2 min maximal voluntary isometric contraction; in four of these subjects, voluntary activation was determined 30 min after the sustained contraction. Immediately after the sustained isometric contraction, maximal voluntary activation was reduced from 91.2 +/- 5.7 to 74.2 +/- 12.0% (P knee extensors.

  19. Reliability of an instrument to determine lower limb comfort in professional football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Kinchington1, Kevin Ball1, Geraldine Naughton21School of Human Movement, Recreation and Performance, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia; 2The Centre of Physical Activity Across the Lifespan (COPAAL, Australian Catholic University, Victoria, AustraliaAims and Objectives: This study extends previous work in the field of injury awareness using a novel lower limb comfort index (LLCI, which was developed to assess comfort in professional football. Participants rated comfort for designated anatomical segments of the lower limb utilizing a seven point Likert scale. The aims of the study were (i to assess the reliability of the LLCI in a competitive football environment (Australian Rules and Rugby League, and (ii to assess whether LLCI measurements were responsive to changes in lower limb comfort over time.Methods and Results: The reliability of the LLCI was observed in two professional football environments: Training Week (mean difference 0.1 point, intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC 0.99 for n = 41 participants; and Match Day (mean difference 0.2 points, ICC 0.97 for n = 22 players. Measurements of lower limb comfort were responsive to changes in comfort over time. Within-player differences were not significant for periods 0–8 hrs (P > 0.05 but, generally, significant for time periods 0–24 hrs (P < 0.05, and significant between 24–96 hrs (P < 0.01. The results indicate that the LLCI was reliable when tested for repeated measures and indicated how the index measures lower limb comfort changes over time.Conclusion: This study shows that the use of a lower limb comfort index, when used in a competitive football environment, is both reliable and responsive to change during both a training week and under match day conditions.Keywords: lower limb comfort, musculoskeletal, football, injury

  20. Thermal Comfort-CFD maps for Architectural Interior Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Lee, Daniel Sang-Hoon; Fabbri, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    are prepared with the use of Computational Fluid Dynamic simulation method, could integrate energy simulation outputs to uphold qualitative architectural design decisions. Mean radiant temperature maps were thus used to design the retrofit of a small educational building in Copenhagen. The thermal...... opportunities of movable interior partitions (operated by the users) could be estimated, providing a new layer of information to the designer. The applicability of the thermal maps within an architectural design process is discussed adopting standard energy simulation comfort outputs as a reference......Within the context of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings, it is debated that the energy-centred notion of design, proposed by regulatory frames, needs to be combined with a further focus toward users’ comfort and delight. Accordingly, the underlying theory of the research is that designers should take...

  1. Human comfort in relation to sinusoidal vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Rao, B. K. N.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the overall subjective comfort levels to sinusoidal excitations over the range 1 to 19 Hz using a two axis electrohydraulic vibration simulator. Exposure durations of 16 minutes, 25 minutes, 1 hour, and 2.5 hours have been considered. Subjects were not exposed over such durations, but were instructed to estimate the overall comfort levels preferred had they been constantly subjected to vibration over such durations.

  2. Potential energy savings and thermal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed.......The simulation results on the energy saving potential and influence on indoor thermal comfort by replacement of common windows with aerogel windows as well as commercial low-energy windows are described and analysed....

  3. Social Cohesion and Voluntary Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    Voluntary organizations exert great influence over how social norms and ethical codes are guided into action. As such, they have a significant impact on societal levels of social cohesion. Although social capital involves generalized trust becoming manifest as spontaneous sociability, social cohesion is determined by how that sociability is…

  4. Voluntary disclosure: Evidence from UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Zourarakis (Nicolaos)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the voluntary disclosure of Intellectual Capital (IC) of British firms and provides some evidence on an unexplored area of the literature; that of the association of Corporate Governance (CG) with IC disclosure. Inconsistent with expectations, the results show tha

  5. INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT IN MALAYSIAN URBAN HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaik-Wah Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, terraced houses have been rapidly constructed since 50 years ago and account for 44% of the existing urban housings. However, these houses have very limited use of natural ventilation and daylighting due to openings with small window-to-floor ratio. The deep plan design causes gloomy indoor spaces, low air change rate and poor indoor air quality. Studies showed that indoor environments have major impact on occupants’ well-being. Thereby this study evaluates the effects of indoor comforts on occupants’ perceived health in Malaysian typical terraced houses. Survey of terraced houses in Johor Bahru, Malaysia was conducted using questionnaire. Various terraced houses were studied to identify the critical comfort and health issues in terraced housing. The relationships among occupants’ perceived comforts, health and behavior were studied. The variance of types of terraced house was also analyzed. The findings demonstrated significant linear relationships between indoor comfort and health. However, occupants’ behavior did not give significant impact on thermal comfort. This study concludes that it is very essential to improve indoor comfort in Malaysian typical terraced houses through tropical design strategies to enhance occupants’ well-being.

  6. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research.

  7. Occupant comfort in UK offices - How adaptive comfort theories might influence future low energy office refurbishment strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlow, Stuart [De Montfort University, Leicester and Reid Architecture, West End House, 11 Hills Place, London W1F 7SE (United Kingdom); Fiala, Dusan [IESD, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); FBTA, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    With the UK commercial sector replacing buildings at 1-1.5% per year adaptations to existing buildings are needed to maintain comfort levels, while reducing energy use and carbon emissions. In this study, occupants of a refurbished office recorded their thermal sensations, assessment of lighting and air movement, perceptions of comfort and their reactions to adaptive opportunities. The observed mean thermal sensation votes and the overall comfort votes correlated best with mean diurnal internal and external temperatures, respectively. The results appear to indicate heat balance models not fully explaining surveyed responses as occupants reported higher discomfort levels than predicted by the PMV model using on-site temperature and air velocity measurements. In the study opening windows was voted to be the most favourite adaptive opportunity followed by controlling solar glare, turning lights off locally and controlling solar gain. Occupants also expressed desires to intervene with heating and ventilation currently operated centrally. An interesting result of the survey was that the occupants generally did not change their clothing during the day. The study concluded that both passive and active adaptive opportunities are important in future low energy office refurbishment strategies. (author)

  8. Comparison of subjective comfort ratings between anatomically shaped and cylindrical handles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harih, Gregor; Dolšak, Bojan

    2014-07-01

    Most authors have provided diameter recommendations for cylindrical handle design in order to increase performance, avoid discomfort, and reduce the risk of cumulative trauma disorders. None of the studies has investigated the importance of determining the correct handle shape on the subjective comfort ratings, which could further improve the handles' ergonomics. Therefore, new methods based on a virtual hand model in its optimal power grasp posture have been developed in order to obtain customised handles with best fits for targeted subjects. Cylindrical and anatomically shaped handles were evaluated covering ten subjects by means of an extensive subjective comfort questionnaire. The results suggest large impact of the handle shape on the perceived subjective comfort ratings. Anatomically shaped handles were rated as being considerably more comfortable than cylindrical handles for almost all the subjective comfort predictors. They showed that handle shapes based on optimal power grasp postures can improve subjective comfort ratings, thus maximising performance. Future research should consider real conditions, since the comfort ratings can vary based on the specific task and by the tool selected for the task.

  9. Assessment of Thermal Comfort: A Study at Closed and Ventilated Call Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aims of study were to investigate the effects of environmental factors including the human physiology and thermal comfort during the cycle of process works in workplace. Approach: The selected production line was handling the restoration of trouble report. The environment examined was the relative humidity (%, wind speed (m sec-1, illuminance (lux and air temperature (°C of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using thermal comfort apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then the thermal comfort of the workers was assessed by using ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Further Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. Results: The thermal comfort assessment of this workplace which is slightly warm following by thermal sensation and likely to be dissatisfied by the occupant. Conclusion: The result indicated that the activity level and clothing more influenced comfort to the occupants.

  10. Using a Music Video Parody to Promote Breastfeeding and Increase Comfort Levels Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Erin L; Beadle, Julie; Lukeman, Sionnach; Lukeman, Ellen; Aquino, Nicola

    2017-08-01

    North Americans are not meeting the World Health Organization's breastfeeding recommendations. Young adults understand that breastfeeding is healthy but are uncomfortable seeing breastfeeding. Research aim: The aim of the current project was to determine if a music video parody promoting breastfeeding is perceived by young adults to be an effective means of promotion and if exposure to such a video could increase comfort levels. Young adults rated how comfortable they felt looking at breastfeeding and bottle-feeding images (pretest). Two months later, a subset of participants watched the music video parody "Breastfeeding My Baby." In Phase 1, participants completed the picture-rating task again (posttest) after a 2-month delay, plus a survey to assess memory and perception of the video. In Phase 2, participants were reminded of the video before completing the comfort ratings, and in the final phase, posttest measures were administered only 1 week after exposure to the video. Across all phases, the video was perceived to be effective and was memorable. Breastfeeding comfort ratings were comparable at pretest across participant groups; comfort ratings improved at posttest for participants who saw the video but only if they were reminded of seeing it before providing their ratings. At shorter intervals between seeing the video and completing the posttests, comfort ratings for breastfeeding images increased for all participants, highlighting the general importance of exposure to breastfeeding. Young adults are receptive to using a music video parody to promote breastfeeding, which can help to increase comfort levels with breastfeeding.

  11. Outdoor thermal comfort in public space in warm-humid Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Yahia, Moohammed Wasim; Arroyo, Ivette; Bengs, Christer

    2017-03-01

    The thermal environment outdoors affects human comfort and health. Mental and physical performance is reduced at high levels of air temperature being a problem especially in tropical climates. This paper deals with human comfort in the warm-humid city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The main aim was to examine the influence of urban micrometeorological conditions on people's subjective thermal perception and to compare it with two thermal comfort indices: the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the standard effective temperature (SET*). The outdoor thermal comfort was assessed through micrometeorological measurements of air temperature, humidity, mean radiant temperature and wind speed together with a questionnaire survey consisting of 544 interviews conducted in five public places of the city during both the dry and rainy seasons. The neutral and preferred values as well as the upper comfort limits of PET and SET* were determined. For both indices, the neutral values and upper thermal comfort limits were lower during the rainy season, whereas the preferred values were higher during the rainy season. Regardless of season, the neutral values of PET and SET* are above the theoretical neutral value of each index. The results show that local people accept thermal conditions which are above acceptable comfort limits in temperate climates and that the subjective thermal perception varies within a wide range. It is clear, however, that the majority of the people in Guayaquil experience the outdoor thermal environment during daytime as too warm, and therefore, it is important to promote an urban design which creates shade and ventilation.

  12. The Limitations of Voluntary Repatriation and Resettlement of Refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieck, M.; Chetail, V.; Bauloz, C.

    2014-01-01

    UNHCR is charged with the pursuit of durable solutions for the problem of refugees. Those solutions are voluntary repatriation and assimilation within new national communities which means either local integration in the country of refuge - tangentially touched upon in this paper - or resettlement in

  13. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    OpenAIRE

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is a...

  14. 22 CFR 513.210 - Voluntary exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary exclusion. 513.210 Section 513.210... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action § 513.210 Voluntary exclusion. Persons who accept voluntary exclusions under § 513.315 are excluded in accordance with the terms of...

  15. Maximal force, voluntary activation and muscle soreness after eccentric damage to human elbow flexor muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartwuth, O; Taylor, JL; Gandevia, SC

    2005-01-01

    Muscle damage reduces voluntary force after eccentric exercise but impaired neural drive to the muscle may also contribute. To determine whether the delayed-onset muscle soreness, which develops ∼1 day after exercise, reduces voluntary activation and to identify the possible site for any reduction, voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles was examined with both motor cortex and motor nerve stimulation. We measured maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVC), twitch torque, muscle soreness and voluntary activation in eight subjects before, immediately after, 2 h after, 1, 2, 4 and 8 days after eccentric exercise. Motor nerve stimulation and motor cortex stimulation were used to derive twitch torques and measures of voluntary activation. Eccentric exercise immediately reduced the MVC by 38 ± 3% (mean ±s.d., n = 8). The resting twitch produced by motor nerve stimulation fell by 82 ± 6%, and the estimated resting twitch by cortical stimulation fell by 47 ± 15%. While voluntary torque recovered after 8 days, both measures of the resting twitch remained depressed. Muscle tenderness occurred 1–2 days after exercise, and pain during contractions on days 1–4, but changes in voluntary activation did not follow this time course. Voluntary activation assessed with nerve stimulation fell 19 ± 6% immediately after exercise but was not different from control values after 2 days. Voluntary activation assessed by motor cortex stimulation was unchanged by eccentric exercise. During MVCs, absolute increments in torque evoked by nerve and cortical stimulation behaved differently. Those to cortical stimulation decreased whereas those to nerve stimulation tended to increase. These findings suggest that reduced voluntary activation contributes to the early force loss after eccentric exercise, but that it is not due to muscle soreness. The impairment of voluntary activation to nerve stimulation but not motor cortical stimulation suggests that the activation deficit lies in the

  16. Interracial Social Comfort and Its Relationship to Adjustment to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott D.; Vrana, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of interracial social comfort on college adjustment for 45 Black and 82 White students at a predominantly-White university. Black students reporting more comfort with Whites, regardless of level of comfort with Blacks, experienced better college adjustment. Furthermore, more social comfort with Blacks…

  17. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  18. Comfortable and leisurely: Old women on style and dress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This article uses wardrobe interviews with women in the ages of 62-94 to explore transitions and continuities during the life course. During interviews the women have defined their style preferences. One categorization favored by several of them was comfortable. Different meanings were attached to this concept. Practical and convenient outfits were described as increasingly important when aging. Garments that did not expose the body-and its changes with aging-were preferred. The informants talked about the importance of feeling at ease, appropriately dressed for the occasion and situation. They were concerned with feeling nice in their outfits but also stressed becoming more laid-back and prioritizing convenience in their later years. All of these examples had to do with comfort and being comfortable. Uncomfortable clothes were too tight, deemed wrong for the occasion, and unwanted sources of self-consciousness and visibility. Transitions in their style of dress had been gradual, slowly adapting to changes in everyday life as well as in their bodies.

  19. The HVAC Control Technology Making Energy Saving Compatible with Comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasuo; Yonezawa, Kenzo; Murayama, Dai; Nishimura, Nobutaka; Hanada, Yuuichi; Yamazaki, Kenichi

    The new air-conditioning control technology for the energy saving for buildings is proposed. The method is mainly focused on the compatibility of energy savings and comfort. The energy saving is achieved through the next generation air handling unit that controls room humidity without energy loss and the optimal operation of HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and air-conditioning) system, manipulating the supplying airflow temperature to the rooms, room temperature and the humidity. The comfort is kept by the index (PMV: Predicted Mean Vote) that calculated with room temperature, humidity, radiation temperature, wind velocity and so on. In order to find the HVAC system operation conditions that satisfy the comfort and energy saving at the same time, very large-scale nonlinear programming with nonlinear constraints must be solved on real time basis. To make the programming of the system practical, the driving function loaded onto a control computer is introduced. The function is made by the spline interpolation to achieve calculation stable and to adapt to various HVAC operation modes. The effectiveness of the HVAC control technology is proved through a building HVAC data and the simulations using the data.

  20. Post-occupancy evaluation and field studies of thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, F.; Roaf, S.

    2005-08-01

    The similarities and differences are explored in both the aims and the methods between post-occupancy evaluations and field studies of thermal comfort in buildings. The interpretations of the field study results are explored, especially the ways the results differ from laboratory experiments. Particular attention is drawn to the dynamic nature of the interaction between buildings and their occupants. Answers to questions of the type used in post-occupancy evaluations are compared with results from field studies of thermal comfort, and the implications of these findings for the evaluation of buildings and the conduct of post-occupancy evaluation are explored. Field studies of thermal comfort have shown that the way in which occupants evaluate the indoor thermal environment is context-dependent and varies with time. In using occupants as part of the means of measuring buildings, post-occupancy evaluations should be understood as reflecting the changing nature of the relationship between people, the climate and buildings. Surveys are therefore measuring a moving target, and close comparison based on such surveys need to take this in to account. (author)

  1. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  2. Development of Light Powered Sensor Networks for Thermal Comfort Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications have enabled easy installation of sensor networks with air conditioning equipment control applications. However, the sensor node power supply, through either power lines or battery power, still presents obstacles to the distribution of the sensing systems. In this study, a novel sensor network, powered by the artificial light, was constructed to achieve wireless power transfer and wireless data communications for thermal comfort measurements. The sensing node integrates an IC-based temperature sensor, a radiation thermometer, a relative humidity sensor, a micro machined flow sensor and a microprocessor for predicting mean vote (PMV calculation. The 935 MHz band RF module was employed for the wireless data communication with a specific protocol based on a special energy beacon enabled mode capable of achieving zero power consumption during the inactive periods of the nodes. A 5W spotlight, with a dual axis tilt platform, can power the distributed nodes over a distance of up to 5 meters. A special algorithm, the maximum entropy method, was developed to estimate the sensing quantity of climate parameters if the communication module did not receive any response from the distributed nodes within a certain time limit. The light-powered sensor networks were able to gather indoor comfort-sensing index levels in good agreement with the comfort-sensing vote (CSV preferred by a human being and the experimental results within the environment suggested that the sensing system could be used in air conditioning systems to implement a comfort-optimal control strategy.

  3. Energy saving or comfort?; Energieeinsparung contra Behaglichkeit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlewein, C. (comp.)

    2007-07-01

    Energy saving versus summer thermal comfort? - A series of German verdicts concerning inadequate summer thermal comfort in commercial buildings has raised serious questions concerning the existing national building code's, claim to thermal comfort and sustainable building design. In this context the German Federal Office of Building and Regional Planning placed a contract to a working group of the University of Wuppertal and the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems to investigate the framework, the legal situation, the physical possibilities and economic aspects. The study undertaken is based on (a) detailed analysis of the operative temperatures, mainly measured in a number of new, energy efficient office buildings applying various measures of passive cooling and (b) dynamic building simulations. To express the comfort expectations a set of national, European and international comfort standards were applied to the measured data and simulation results. This includes the new approaches with the definition of comfort classes as included in the draft prEN15251, the Dutch ISSO-74 and the ASHRAE-55. Both, the measured data and simulations results underline, that the application of passive cooling measures such as efficient solar shading devices, solar control glass, activated thermal mass, night ventilation, earth-to-air heat exchanger, etc. result in suitable operative temperatures under a normal German summer climate. Taking the extreme summer conditions of 2003 as characteristic for a global warming scenario, comparable comfort can not be ensured: Rising ambient temperatures decrease the cooling potential of night ventilation, longer hot periods exceed the building's thermal storage capacity. Based on simulations it was found, that the demands set by the current German building code DIN 4108-2 do not ensure thermal comfort in free running indoor environments as generally expected by tenants, even in normal summers. Therefore modifications are

  4. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy

    2012-08-31

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  5. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Historically thermal comfort in buildings has been controlled by simple dry bulb temperature settings. As we move into more sophisticated low energy building systems that make use of alternate systems such as natural ventilation, mixed mode system and radiant thermal conditioning strategies, a more complete understanding of human comfort is needed for both design and control. This guide will support building designers, owners, operators and other stakeholders in defining quantifiable thermal comfort parameters?these can be used to support design, energy analysis and the evaluation of the thermal comfort benefits of design strategies. This guide also contains information that building owners and operators will find helpful for understanding the core concepts of thermal comfort. Whether for one building, or for a portfolio of buildings, this guide will also assist owners and designers in how to identify the mechanisms of thermal comfort and space conditioning strategies most important for their building and climate, and provide guidance towards low energy design options and operations that can successfully address thermal comfort. An example of low energy design options for thermal comfort is presented in some detail for cooling, while the fundamentals to follow a similar approach for heating are presented.

  6. Quantifying the relevance of adaptive thermal comfort models in moderate thermal climate zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoof, Joost van; Hensen, Jan L.M. [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Standards governing thermal comfort evaluation are on a constant cycle of revision and public review. One of the main topics being discussed in the latest round was the introduction of an adaptive thermal comfort model, which now forms an optional part of ASHRAE Standard 55. Also on a national level, adaptive thermal comfort guidelines come into being, such as in the Netherlands. This paper discusses two implementations of the adaptive comfort model in terms of usability and energy use for moderate maritime climate zones by means of literature study, a case study comprising temperature measurements, and building performance simulation. It is concluded that for moderate climate zones the adaptive model is only applicable during summer months, and can reduce energy for naturally conditioned buildings. However, the adaptive thermal comfort model has very limited application potential for such climates. Additionally we suggest a temperature parameter with a gradual course to replace the mean monthly outdoor air temperature to avoid step changes in optimum comfort temperatures. (author)

  7. A comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in the terms of thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fanger’s PMV equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative air velocity, humidity, activity level and clothing insulation. Methods This paper contains a comparison of suit dresses and summer clothes in terms of thermal comfort, Fanger’s PMV equation. Studies were processed in the winter for an office, which locates in Ankara, Turkey. The office was partitioned to fifty square cells. Humidity, relative air velocity, air temperature and mean radiant temperature were measured on the centre points of these cells. Thermal comfort analyses were processed for suit dressing (Icl = 1 clo) and summer clothing (Icl = 0.5 clo). Results Discomfort/comfort in an environment for different clothing types can be seen in this study. The relationship between indoor thermal comfort distribution and clothing type was discussed. Graphics about thermal comfort were sketched according to cells. Conclusions Conclusions about the thermal comfort of occupants were given by PMV graphics. PMID:24355097

  8. Thermal comfort in residential buildings: Comfort values and scales for building energy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Leen; D' haeseleer, William [Division of Applied Mechanics and Energy Conversion, University of Leuven (K.U.Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 300 A, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dear, Richard de [Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia); Hensen, Jan [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Building Energy Simulation (BES) programmes often use conventional thermal comfort theories to make decisions, whilst recent research in the field of thermal comfort clearly shows that important effects are not incorporated. The conventional theories of thermal comfort were set up based on steady state laboratory experiments. This, however, is not representing the real situation in buildings, especially not when focusing on residential buildings. Therefore, in present analysis, recent reviews and adaptations are considered to extract acceptable temperature ranges and comfort scales. They will be defined in an algorithm, easily implementable in any BES code. The focus is on comfortable temperature levels in the room, more than on the detailed temperature distribution within that room. (author)

  9. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome

    the terminal towards the space and on the parameters influencing the effectiveness of terminals. Therefore the comfort conditions and energy consumption of four types of terminals (active chilled beam, radiant floor, wall and ceiling) have been compared for a typical office room, both numerically...... beam. The higher the air change rate and the warmer the outdoor air, the larger the savings achieved with a radiant cooling terminals. Therefore radiant terminals have a large potential of energy savings for buildings with high ventilation rates (e.g. shop, train station, industrial storage). Among...... comfort, a similar global level has been observed for the radiant and air-based terminals in both numerical and experimental investigations. But the different terminals did not achieve the same uniformity in space. The active chilled beam theoretically achieves the most uniform comfort conditions (when...

  10. On the potential of voluntary environmental programmes for the built environment: A critical analysis of LEED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary environmental programmes (VEPs) are increasingly gaining traction as a means of improving the environmental performance of buildings and their occupants. These programmes are of interest because they incentivise developers, property owners and occupants to improve such performance voluntar

  11. Urban environment and vegetation: comfort and urban heat island mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Magliocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the outcomes of an experimental simulation on the microclimatic effects and on thermal comfort of vegetation in urban environment, conducted by means of a three-dimensional microclimate model, ENVI- met 3.1. The simulation considers a wide range of hypothetical cases of typical city areas with different characteristics related to: building density, building height, vegetation type and density. The results of the study show how different combinations of amount and type of vegetation, density and height of buildings affect the urban heat island phenomenon in Mediterranean climate.

  12. Effect of warm air supplied facially on occupants' comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sliva,, D.

    2010-01-01

    was supplied with a constant velocity of 0.4 m/s by means of personalized ventilation towards the face of the subjects. The airflow at 21 °C decreased the subjects' thermal sensation and increased draught discomfort, but improved slightly the perceived air quality. Heating of the supplied air by 6 K...... and number of eye irritation reports. Results suggest that increasing the temperature of the air locally supplied to the breathing zone by only a few degrees above the room air temperature will improve occupants' thermal comfort and will diminish draught discomfort. This strategy will extend...

  13. Integration of human physiology. Individual Thermal comfort in thermal comfort models; Integratie van de menselijke fysiologie. Individueel thermisch comfort in thermische comfortmodellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, A. [Faculteit Werktuigbouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.; Kingsma, B. [Department of Human Biology, Nutrim School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    When designing climate installations, the PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied index) values are used as guidelines. Installations are designed in such a way that the 'average' user in a 'steady-state' condition experiences thermal comfort. Studies show that individual physiological processes might be suitable for integration in the design models. [Dutch] Bij het ontwerp van klimaatinstallaties worden de PMV/PPD-waarden van Fanger (PMV staat voor de Predicted Mean Vote index en PPD is de Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied index) als richtlijn gebruikt. Installaties worden zodanig ontworpen dat een 'gemiddelde' persoon in een 'steady-state' conditie deze als thermisch comfortabel ervaart. Studies wijzen uit dat individuele fysiologische processen mogelijk ook in ontwerpmodellen inpasbaar zijn.

  14. Exploring the design of a lightweight, sustainable and comfortable aircraft seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorikou, A; Vink, P; de Pauw, I C; Braca, A

    2016-07-19

    Making a lightweight seat that is also comfortable can be contradictory because usually comfort improvement means adding a feature (e.g. headrest, adjustable lumbar support, movable armrests, integrated massage systems, etc.), which makes seats heavier. This paper explores the design of an economy class aircraft seat that aims to be lightweight, comfortable and sustainable. Theory about comfort in seats, ergonomics, lightweight design, Biomimicry and Cradle to cradle was studied and resulted in a list of requirements that the new seat should satisfy. The design process resulted in a new seat that is 36% lighter than the reference seat, which showed that a significant weight reduction can be achieved. This was completed by re-designing the backrest and seat pan and integrating their functions into a reduced number of parts. Apart from the weight reduction that helps in reducing the airplane's environmental impact, the seat also satisfies most of the other sustainability requirements such as the use of recyclable materials, design for disassembly, easy to repair. A user test compared the new seat with a premium economy class aircraft seat and the level of comfort was similar. Strong points of the new design were identified such as the lumbar support and the cushioning material, as well as shortcomings on which the seat needs to be improved, like the seat pan length and the first impression. Long term comfort tests are still needed as the seat is meant for long-haul flights.

  15. New Equation for Estimating Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Humid-Tropical Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sangkertadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research focusing on thermal comfort at outdoor spaces in humid tropical climate. The study was conducted in the city of Manado, Indonesia inthe years 2011 and 2012, by way of field-experimentation and measurements of microclimate.From the results of measurements and questionnaires, it was carried out development of regression equations. Through statistical analysis it has been generated three thermal comfort equations for outdoor, which each for normal walking, briskwalking, and sitting with doing a moderate activity. Equations are functions of Ta(air temperature, Tg(globe temperature, v(wind velocity, RH(Relative humidity and Adu(body surface area. The output of the equations is scale of thermal comfort level referring to PMV (Predicted Mean Vote, where 0 is comfortable or neutral, +3 is very hot, -2 is cold, .etc. The equations are uniquely for the people wearing tropical clothing type (about 0.5 to 0.7 clo. The validation of the equations was done through comparison with other equations that originated from the studies of non-tropical humid climates. Simulations using the equations were also be done in order to know effect of micro climate on outdoor thermal comfort.Keywords: thermal comfort, tropical-humid, micro-climate, Manado

  16. Effects of shoe sole hardness on plantar pressure and comfort in older people with forefoot pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Tamara J; Landorf, Karl B; Bonanno, Daniel R; Raspovic, Anita; Menz, Hylton B

    2014-01-01

    Plantar forefoot pain is common in older people and is related to increased peak pressures under the foot during gait. Variations in the hardness of the shoe sole may therefore influence both the magnitude of loading under the foot and the perceived comfort of the shoe in this population. The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of varying shoe sole hardness on plantar pressures and comfort in older people with forefoot pain. In-shoe plantar pressures under the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot were recorded from 35 older people (mean age 73.2, SD 4.5 years) with current or previous forefoot pain using the pedar-X(®) system. Participants walked at their normal comfortable speed along an 8m walkway in shoes with three different levels of sole hardness: soft (Shore A25), medium (Shore A40) and hard (Shore A58). Shoe comfort was measured on a 100mm visual analogue scale. There were statistically significant differences in peak pressure of between 5% and 23% across the forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot (phard-soled shoe registered the highest peak pressures and the soft-soled shoe the lowest peak pressures. However, no differences in comfort scores across the three shoe conditions were observed. These findings demonstrate that as shoe sole hardness increases, plantar pressure increases, however this does not appear to have a significant effect on shoe comfort.

  17. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analysed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  18. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...... indices provide substantially new information and constitute much better decision tools....

  19. 78 FR 49382 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... English, reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and computer skills that are essential to successful job... education advisor: Education Services Specialist, Education Services Officer (ESO), Voluntary...

  20. Dynamics of Voluntary Cough Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naire, Shailesh

    2008-11-01

    Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.

  1. Lateral asymmetry of voluntary attention orienting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Castro-Barros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that automatic attention favors the right side of space and, in the present study, we investigated whether voluntary attention also favors this side. Six reaction time experiments were conducted. In each experiment, 12 new 18-25-year-old male right-handed individuals were tested. In Experiments 1, 2, 3 (a, b and 4 (a, b, tasks with increasing attentional demands were used. In Experiments 1, 2, 3a, and 4a, attention was oriented to one or both sides by means of a central spatially informative visual cue. A left or right side visual target appeared 100, 300, or 500 ms later. Attentional effects were observed in the four experiments. In Experiments 2, 3a and 4a, these effects were greater when the cue indicated the right side than when it indicated the left side (respectively: 16 ± 10 and 44 ± 6 ms, P = 0.015, for stimulus onset asynchrony of 500 ms in Experiment 2; 38 ± 10 and 70 ± 7 ms, P = 0.011, for Experiment 3a, and 23 ± 11 and 61 ± 10 ms, P = 0.009, for Experiment 4a. In Experiments 3b and 4b, the central cue pointed to both sides and was said to be non-relevant for task performance. In these experiments right and left reaction times did not differ. The most conservative interpretation of the present findings is that voluntary attention orienting favors the right side of space, particularly when a difficult task has to be performed.

  2. The comfort triangles: a new tool for bioclimatic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables,

  3. Comfort Agent: FACT. From technology to value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, W. [Univ. of Technology Eindhoven, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning (Netherlands)]|[Kropman Building Services Contracting (Netherlands); Wortel, W. [Kropman Building Services Contracting (Netherlands); Hommelberg, M. [Univ. of Technology Eindhoven, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning (Netherlands)]|[Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Kamphuis, R. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Bakker, L. [TNO Building and Infrastructure (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Global warming, which is mainly caused by energy consumption, is becoming a major problem. In order to reduce energy consumption of office buildings even further, new control technology is needed. A very exciting development occurs in the field of control strategy, which integrates the end-user behaviour. In the frame of the SMART (Smart Multi Agent internet Technology) and IIGO (Intelligent Internet mediated control in the built environment) project, an external real time information system was integrated into a Building Management System in order to improve energy and comfort control. In the EBOB, Energy Efficient Behaviour of Office Buildings, a European EU-FP5 program project a different type of technology, Forgiving Technology, was developed. This paper presents insights into SMART, IIGO and EBOB and the resulting combined technology; FACT, Forgiving Agent Comfort Technology. The TU/e developed this FACT technology into a concept for Careful Buildings. (orig.)

  4. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  5. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... to such environments as commercial kitchens? This article describes a data collection protocol based on measurements of physical and subjective parameters. The procedure was used to investigate more than 100 commercial kitchens in the United States in both summer and winter. The physical measurements revealed...

  6. MONITORING OF LOWER LIMB COMFORT AND INJURY IN ELITE FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kinchington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relation between lower limb comfort scores and injury and to measure the responsiveness of a lower limb comfort index (LLCI to changes over time, in a cohort of professional footballers. Lower limb comfort was recorded for each individual using a comfort index which assessed the comfort status of five anatomical segments and footwear. Specifically we tested the extent to which comfort zones as measured by the LLCI were related to injury measured as time loss events. The hypothesis for the study was that poor lower limb comfort is related to time loss events (training or match day. A total of 3524 player weeks of data was collected from 182 professional athletes encompassing three codes of football (Australian Rules, Rugby league, Rugby Union. The study was conducted during football competition periods for the respective football leagues and included a period of pre- season training. The results of regression indicated that poor lower limb comfort was highly correlated to injury (R2 =0.77 and accounted for 43.5 time loss events/ 1000hrs football exposure. While poor comfort was predictive of injury 47% of all time loss events it was not statistically relevant (R2 =0.18. The results indicate lower limb comfort can be used to assess the well-being of the lower limb; poor comfort is associated with injury, and the LLCI has good face validity and high criterion-related validity for the relationship between comfort and injury

  7. The Role of Interpersonal Comfort in Mentoring Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tammy D.; Day, Rachel; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This research examined interpersonal comfort as a potential mediating mechanism in mentoring relationships. Results indicated that interpersonal comfort mediated the relationship between gender similarity and protege reports of career and psychosocial mentoring. Contrary to prediction, interpersonal comfort did not mediate relationships involving…

  8. Domotics. Comfortable and energy efficient?; Domotica. Comfortabel en energiezuinig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wolferen, H.; Hendriksen, L.; Traversari, R. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    Insight is given into the added value of domotics (home automation) in the handling and control of comfort installations, focusing on comfort and energy consumption. Costs are indicated. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de toegevoegde waarde van domotica bij de bediening en regeling van comfortinstallaties. Hierbij wordt de meeste aandacht gegeven aan comfort en energiegebruik. De kosten worden alleen indicatief besproken.

  9. Olfactory comfort awareness (OCA). A new unit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempski, D. von [DVK air vitalizing system, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    It is generally known that the perceived air quality has a great impact on the well-being of room occupants. Engineers tend to rely completely on measuring the absence of pollutants aiming for objectively clean air, but neglect the subjective awareness of room occupants or how they perceive indoor air quality. Neurophysiological and psychological research has shown that the hedonic value often plays the key role in determining that perception. It has to be understood that not only thermal conditions but also the sense of olfaction play major roles. This lack of awareness of the interactions between thermal and olfactory conditions frequently accounts for the dissatisfaction rate. This paper will concentrate on demonstrating the influence of the hedonic value on room occupants and on how to achieve air that from an olfactory perspective is perceived to be natural. This is different from the commonly known, perceived ''artificial'' air. Furthermore, it will show how important it is to evaluate healthy buildings not only for the absence of negative odors as expressed by the olf and decipol units. Olfactory comfort goes far beyond this scale and, therefore, it is necessary to introduce a new unit called olfactory comfort awareness OCA. OCA is a score between -10 and 10 that expresses the grade of olfactory comfort the room occupants perceive. This measure does not replace the well-accepted decipol unit but complements it, emphasising the importance not only of the absence of negative influencing odorants, but also the importance of olfactory comfort as measurement by the new unit. (Orig.)

  10. Markets - domestic comfort; Marches - Confort domestique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-03-01

    Established in 'Charente' and employing 150 workers, the firm 'Cheminees de Chazelles' is one of the first French firms of design/manufacturing and distribution of chimneys and closed fires, particularly at gas (propane or natural gas). The gas fire brings to the consumer the aesthetics, the safety and the comfort without the disadvantages of the wood fire. (O.M.)

  11. 75 FR 47504 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... America. TTT helps relieve teacher shortages, especially in math, science, special education, and other... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 68 RIN 0790-AI50 Voluntary Education Programs AGENCY: Office of the... for the operation of voluntary education programs within DoD. Included are: Procedures for Service...

  12. 14 CFR 234.7 - Voluntary reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary reporting. 234.7 Section 234.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY PERFORMANCE REPORTS § 234.7 Voluntary reporting. (a) In addition to the...

  13. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  14. 12 CFR 546.4 - Voluntary dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary dissolution. 546.4 Section 546.4... ASSOCIATIONS-MERGER, DISSOLUTION, REORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 546.4 Voluntary dissolution. A Federal savings association's board of directors may propose a plan for dissolution of the association. The plan...

  15. Viewing Race in the Comfort Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Hughes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carter suggests the concept of a “comfort zone” to explain the inability of dramatic African American programs to be successful on television. He argues that a workable formula has been developed for successful African American series, “portray black people in a way that would be acceptable to the millions of potential purchasers (whites of advertised products. That is, non-threatening and willing to ‘stay in their place.’”. Using a data set constructed from television ratings and shares, this study examines “black-centeredness” within the context of program success and failure. The comfort zone concept argues Black-centered television series are only successful in a comedic genre because White audiences, who have the majority of the ratings power, will only watch Black-centered series with which they are comfortable. The findings suggest that, in general, race, that is Black-centeredness, did not negatively influence program ratings or shares.

  16. Measurement Uncertainty Budget of the PMV Thermal Comfort Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Can

    2016-05-01

    Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, humidity activity level and clothing thermal resistance. PMV is a mathematical model of thermal comfort which was developed by Fanger. The uncertainty budget of the PMV equation was developed according to GUM in this study. An example is given for the uncertainty model of PMV in the exemplification section of the study. Sensitivity coefficients were derived from the PMV equation. Uncertainty budgets can be seen in the tables. A mathematical model of the sensitivity coefficients of Ta, hc, T_{mrt}, T_{cl}, and Pa is given in this study. And the uncertainty budgets for hc, T_{cl}, and Pa are given in this study.

  17. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...... Communication towards Children (hereafter: CODE) – with its dependence on a supportive institutional environment and acceptance of as well as dynamics between involved key stakeholders like consumers, political actors and firms – contributes to fighting the obesity pandemic.Thus, we explore within this article...... what information about the process of implementing the CODE as well as about the evolved dynamics between key stakeholders is already available. Here, the recently published report of the PolMark project sheds light on the dynamics between the key stakeholders in relation to the current Danish...

  18. On the determination of the thermal comfort conditions of a metropolitan city underground railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Assimakopoulos, Margarita N; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N

    2016-10-01

    Although the indoor thermal comfort concept has received increasing research attention, the vast majority of published work has been focused on the building environment, such as offices, residential and non-residential buildings. The present study aims to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in the unique and complex underground railway environment. Field measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air velocity, globe temperature and the number of passengers were conducted in the modern underground railway of Athens, Greece. Environmental monitoring was performed in the interior of two types of trains (air-conditioned and forced air ventilation cabins) and on selected platforms during the summer period. The thermal comfort was estimated using the PMV (predicted mean vote) and the PPD (predicted percentage dissatisfied) scales. The results reveal that the recommended thermal comfort requirements, although at relatively low percentages are met only in air-conditioned cabins. It is found that only 33% of the PPD values in air-conditioned cabins can be classified in the less restrictive comfort class C, as proposed by ISO-7730. The thermal environment is "slightly warm" in air-conditioned cabins and "warm" in forced air ventilation cabins. In addition, differences of the thermal comfort conditions on the platforms are shown to be associated with the depth and the design characteristics of the stations. The average PMV at the station with small depth is 0.9 scale points higher than that of the station with great depth. The number of passengers who are waiting at the platforms during daytime reveals a U-shaped pattern for a deep level station and an inverted course of PMV for a small depth station. Further, preliminary observations are made on the distribution of air velocity on the platforms and on the impact of air velocity on the thermal comfort conditions.

  19. Repeatability of maximal voluntary force and of surface EMG variables during voluntary isometric contraction of quadriceps muscles in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainoldi, A; Bullock-Saxton, J E; Cavarretta, F; Hogan, N

    2001-12-01

    The repeatability of initial values and rate of change of EMG signal mean spectral frequency (MNF), average rectified values (ARV), muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was investigated in the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of both legs of nine healthy male subjects during voluntary, isometric contractions sustained for 50 s at 50% MVC. The values of MVC were recorded for both legs three times on each day and for three subsequent days, while the EMG signals have been recorded twice a day for three subsequent days. The degree of repeatability was investigated using the Fisher test based upon the ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA), the Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Data collected showed a high level of repeatability of MVC measurement (normalized SEM from 1.1% to 6.4% of the mean). MNF and ARV initial values also showed a high level of repeatability (ICC>70% for all muscles and legs except right VMO). At 50% MVC level no relevant pattern of fatigue was observed for the VMO and VL muscles, suggesting that other portions of the quadriceps might have contributed to the generated effort. These observations seem to suggest that in the investigation of muscles belonging to a multi-muscular group at submaximal level, the more selective electrically elicited contractions should be preferred to voluntary contractions.

  20. Comfort-box controls individual level of comfort. Domotica home network for indoor climate management; Comfort-box regelt individueel comfort-niveau. Domotica-huisnetwerk voor beheer binnenklimaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, I.G; Warmer, C.J.; Bakker, E.J. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-03-01

    The Comfort-Box (or C-Box) project is an automatic and continuous control system for energy efficient and cost-effective thermal comfort in houses. In this article detailed information is given of the design and performance of the C-Box. [Dutch] De huidige regelsystemen voor het binnenklimaat in woningen zijn voor verbetering vatbaar. Met het Comfort-boxconcept is een regeling ontwikkeld die automatisch en continu het individuele comfortniveau regelt in woningen, waarbij afwegingen worden gemaakt tussen kosten en comfort. De Comfort-box blijkt in staat te zijn het binnencomfort op energie- en kostenefficiente wijze te beheren.

  1. A new thermal comfort approach comparing adaptive and PMV models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, Jose A. [Universidade da Coruna, Departamento de Energia y P. M. Paseo de Ronda, n :51, 15011. A Coruna (Spain); Oliveira, Armando C. [Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, New Energy Tec. Unit. Rua Dr Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    In buildings with heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), the Predicted Mean Vote index (PMV) was successful at predicting comfort conditions, whereas in naturally ventilated buildings, only adaptive models provide accurate predictions. On the other hand, permeable coverings can be considered as a passive control method of indoor conditions and, consequently, have implications in the perception of indoor air quality, local thermal comfort, and energy savings. These energy savings were measured in terms of the set point temperature established in accordance with adaptive methods. Problems appear when the adaptive model suggests the same neutral temperature for ambiences with the same indoor temperature but different relative humidities. In this paper, a new design of the PMV model is described to compare the neutral temperature to real indoor conditions. Results showed that this new PMV model tends to overestimate thermal neutralities but with a lower value than Fanger's PMV index. On the other hand, this new PMV model considers indoor relative humidity, showing a clear differentiation of indoor ambiences in terms of it, unlike adaptive models. Finally, spaces with permeable coverings present indoor conditions closer to thermal neutrality, with corresponding energy savings. (author)

  2. A CFD study for evaluating the effects of natural ventilation on indoor comfort conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mora-Pérez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings due to the increased awareness about environmental impact and energy cost. Natural ventilation is an environmentally friendly technique which has become more attractive way for reducing energy use while it also provides acceptable comfort conditions. The research shows a case study building in which the natural ventilation effect due to wind-driven forces on indoor comfort conditions is evaluated. Moreover, the architectural solutions selected during the building design phase to improve the natural ventilation behaviour are successfully validated in a full-scale building. The indoor comfort conditions are evaluated through contrasted performance indicators: draught risk (DR, predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD and predicted mean vote (PMV indexes. The results show that air movement due to natural ventilation allows increasing indoor air temperature maintaining the initial comfort conditions. Therefore, the mechanical air conditioning use can be postponed until the indoor air temperature is high and would, consequently, reduce the total building energy consumption. Thereby, a proper natural ventilation focus during the initial design stage could improve the building energy efficiency without compromising the indoor comfort conditions.

  3. WESBES: A Wireless Embedded Sensor for Improving Human Comfort Metrics using Temporospatially Correlated Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Hewlett; Milos Manic; Craig Rieger

    2012-08-01

    When utilized properly, energy management systems (EMS) can offer significant energy savings by optimizing the efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. However, difficulty often arises due to the constraints imposed by the need to maintain an acceptable level of comfort for a building’s occupants. This challenge is compounded by the fact that human comfort is difficult to define in a measurable way. One way to address this problem is to provide a building manager with direct feedback from the building’s users. Still, this data is relative in nature, making it difficult to determine the actions that need to be taken, and while some useful comfort correlations have been devised, such as ASHRAE’s Predicted Mean Vote index, they are rules of thumb that do not connect individual feedback with direct, diverse feedback sensing. As they are a correlation, quantifying effects of climate, age of buildings and associated defects such as draftiness, are outside the realm of this correlation. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is the Wireless Embedded Smart Block for Environment Sensing (WESBES); an affordable wireless sensor platform that allows subjective human comfort data to be directly paired with temporospatially correlated objective sensor measurements for use in EMS. The described device offers a flexible research platform for analyzing the relationship between objective and subjective occupant feedback in order to formulate more meaningful measures of human comfort. It could also offer an affordable and expandable option for real world deployment in existing EMS.

  4. The Comfort app prototype: introducing a web-based application for monitoring comfort in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sara; Almeida, Filipe; Caldeira, Sílvia; Martins, José Carlos

    2017-09-02

    To introduce a web-based application for monitoring comfort in patients receiving palliative care. Multi-phase electronic application development process that concluded with a pilot design to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the developed app (n=7 patients). The app is compatible with Android, iOS and Windows. The results from phases I and II provided the knowledge about monitoring comfort. In phase III, five experts analysed the content of the app. The assessment of comfort comprises 11 self-reported items (pain, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, shortness of breath, depression, anxiety, fear of the future, peace and the will to live). In phase IV, a total of 117 messages were retrieved. Participants considered the app simple, easy to use and useful. This prototype is feasible and user-friendly. Further research is needed to continue the app development, particularly in terms of data protection.

  5. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  6. Examination of thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated hostel using PMV-PPD model and field survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLANIPEKUN Emmanuel Abiodun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of Predicted Mean Vote (PMV and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD indices for thermal comfort quality assessment in naturally ventilated (NV buildings in warm-humid climate has been observed to lead to overestimation of occupants` comfort and dissatisfaction levels. The thermal comfort quality in a naturally ventilated hostel located in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife was determined using PMV and PPD indices. The measured indoor air temperature and relative humidity were 28.1-34oC and 30.8%-75.5%. The subjective assessments showed that more than 80% of the respondents were comfortable (PD ˂ 20% while the PPD index predicted that 58% of the occupants were not comfortable. The calculated PMV index on the average was +1.63. There was no correspondence between the thermal conditions predicted by PMV-PPD index and actual comfort vote. Fanger`s PMV-PPD model cannot be used to predict indoor climate in the study area as it overestimated occupants` comfort and dissatisfaction levels.

  7. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  8. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  9. The First "Comfort Houses" in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    The "Comfort Houses" is the most ambitious building project in passive houses in Denmark until today. Eight single family houses are built and designed by seven different consortiums. Besides fulfilling the German passive house standard the goal was to build the houses according to Danish traditi...... qualities some of them are often cut back in the process primarily because of cost savings....... of architecture and construction. The objective of this research was to clarify the different design processes according to method, tool and teamwork. The processes are evaluated according to the "Integrated Design Process" and the "Traditional Design Process" and show very different take-offs. Analyzing the data...

  10. Improving comfort and health with personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality in buildings affects occupants¿ health, comfort and performance. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform room environment. However, large individual differences exist between occupants in regard...... microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfil the above requirements. This paper reviews...

  11. Evaporative Condensers in Comfortable Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ying-de; ZHU Dong-sheng; DU Gui-mei; LI Yuan-xi; SUN He-jing; LIU Qing-ming

    2009-01-01

    The operating theory of an evaporative condenser was expatiated.The difference between an e-vaporative condensing refrigeration system and a general refrigeration system was analyzed.Compared with the air-cooled and the water-cooled,the virtues of energy-conservation and water-conservation of evaporative con-densers were analyzed.Some questions existing in the application of evaporative condensers were pointed out,the corresponding solving methods were analyzed accordingly,and the development trend of evaporative con-densing technique in mechanical refrigeration system field and the applied foreground of evaporative condensers in comfortable air conditioning were prospected.

  12. An investigation into thermal comfort in the summer season of Ghadames, Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ealiwa, M.A.; Taki, A.H.; Seden, M.R. [De Montfort Univ., School of Architecture, Leicester (United Kingdom); Howarth, A.T. [Nottingham Univ., School of the Built Environment, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    This paper reviews the results from a field survey of thermal comfort within two types of buildings; old (traditional) and new (contemporary), in Ghadames oasis in Libya. The survey was undertaken in the summer seasons 1997 and 1998, which were typical of the hot-dry climate of North Africa. It shows how the 237 residents responded to the environmental conditions. Questionnaires were collected from the residents of 51 buildings: 24 old buildings that employ natural ventilation systems with courtyards and 27 new buildings that employ air-conditioning systems. In addition the environmental parameters were measured in 11 buildings (5 old, 6 new) representing 50 subjects, to calculate the predicted mean vote value of the subject using Fanger's model as presented in ISO 7730 standard 1995. The survey has shown that the measurements of predicted mean vote (PMV) in new air-conditioned buildings provide satisfactory comfort conditions according to ISO 7730 and the occupants agreed by indicating a satisfactory actual mean vote (AMV). The equivalent measurements and survey results in old traditional buildings indicated that although the PMV, based on measurements and ISO 7730, implied discomfort (hot), the occupants expressed their thermal satisfaction with the indoor comfort conditions. The field study also investigated occupants' overall impression of the indoor thermal environments; the results suggest that people have an overall impression of higher standard to thermal comfort in old buildings than in new buildings. (Author)

  13. Monitoring and assessment of thermical comfort in hygrothermically moderate offices and laboratories; Monitoraggio e valutazione del comfort termico negli ambienti di lavoro termoigrometricamente moderati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1998-12-31

    This study reports the results of the micro climatic measurements carried out in some ENEA work environments. The work conditions in the surveyed areas, have been evaluated following welfare indexes or thermical comfort: PMV= Predicted Mean Vote (ISO recommendation 7730); PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (ISO recommendation 7730). [Italiano] In questo studio sono riportati i risultati delle misure microclimatiche eseguite in alcuni ambienti di lavoro dei centri ENEA di Bologna. Le condizioni di lavoro (delle zone che sono state sottoposte ad indagine) sono state valutate mediante i seguenti indici di benessere o `comfort` termico: Voto Medio Previsto (PMV= Predicted Mean Vote) - raccomandazione ISO 7730; Percentuale Prevista di Insoddisfatti (PPD= Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied) - raccomandazione ISO 7730.

  14. Whom are We Comforting? An Analysis of Comfort Medications Delivered to Dying Neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janvier, Annie; Meadow, William; Leuthner, Steven R.; Andrews, Bree; Lagatta, Joanne; Bos, Arend; Lane, Laura; Verhagen, A. A. Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the use of end-of-life comfort medications or neuromuscular blockers (NMBs) in culturally different neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Study design Review of medical files of newborns > 22 weeks gestation who died in the delivery room or the NICU during 12 months in four NI

  15. Anticipatory signatures of voluntary memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Leipold, Philipp; Pastötter, Bernhard; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-03-04

    Voluntary memory suppression can keep unwanted memories from entering consciousness, inducing later forgetting of the information. In the present study, we searched for the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating such voluntary memory suppression. Using the think/no-think paradigm, subjects received a cue whether to prepare to think of a previously studied cue-target pair or whether to not let a previously studied cue-target pair enter consciousness. Examining event-related potentials, we identified two electrophysiological processes of voluntary memory suppression: (1) an early anticipatory process operating before the memory cue for a to-be-suppressed memory was provided, and (2) a later process operating after memory cue presentation. Both ERP effects were due to a decreased right frontal and left parietal positivity. They were positively related and predicted later forgetting. The results point to the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating voluntary memory suppression.

  16. Corticospinal excitability in human voluntary movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elswijk, G.A.F. van

    2008-01-01

    The research described in this thesis addressed the neurophysiologic changes in the human corticospinal system during preparation and execution of voluntary hand movements. The experiments involved transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex combined with electromyography (EMG) and e

  17. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  18. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism.......This paper draws attention to the importance of the understanding of voluntary actions in the free market construct. Failing to understand the role of voluntary actions in the free market construct will often result in discussions of capitalism versus socialism focusing on asset ownership...... and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...

  19. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  20. Heating methods and comfort; Oppvarmingsloesninger og komfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skree, Jostein

    2004-07-01

    Comfort is subjective. The feeling of pleasant temperature is affected by the relationship between the temperatures of the floors, walls and ceiling, and the air temperature. These temperatures should be relatively close. When energy conservation advertisements state that a room temperature of 20 - 22 degrees centigrade is enough, they refrain from making it clear that the temperature is felt differently in different situations. Different heating systems have different properties. The temperature at which the heat is transferred is also a topic. In new and energy-efficient flats it is quite common that fireplaces and stoves are little used; it is getting too hot and the temperature must be regulated by opening the windows, which results in draught problems. Some electric heaters have small surface and large airflow to the heating element. This type of heater is energy-saving because the air heats up rapidly and little heat energy is stored. But large airflow and possible dust burning are inconveniences. The most popular electric heaters, with electronic thermostat, represent a compromise between surface area, radiation heat and hot air. Comfort and selection of heating system also have something to do with the shape of the house and flat. Wood stoves and heat pumps, which deliver the heat as air, are most appropriate in houses with open spaces and small base.

  1. Transient analysis and improvement of indoor thermal comfort for an air-conditioned room with thermal insulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Prakash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulations over the building envelop reduce the heat gain due to solar radiation and may enhance good and uniform indoor thermal comfort for the occupants. In this paper, the insulation layer-wood wool is laid over the roof and exposed wall of an air-conditioned room and its performance on indoor thermal comfort is studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique. From this study, 3% of indoor thermal comfort index-predicted mean vote (PMV is improved by providing wood wool layer. In addition, the optimum supply air temperature of air-conditioning unit for good thermal comfort is predicted as in the range of 299–300 K (26–27 °C.

  2. Pull factors of Finland and voluntary work

    OpenAIRE

    Jurvakainen, Janika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies pull factors of Finland and voluntary work. The aim of this study is to understand the pull factors of Finland from the perspective of young travelers. Which pull factors attract to choose Finland as their destination? In addition, which pull factors attract young travelers to participate in international voluntary work? The commissioner of this thesis is Allianssi Youth Exchange. The thesis is research-based and includes a quantitative Webropol survey and some qualit...

  3. 47 CFR 80.310 - Watch required by voluntary vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Watches § 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC must.... Voluntary vessels equipped with VHF-DSC equipment must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz and on either 156.525... used to communicate. Voluntary vessels equipped with MF-HF DSC equipment must have the radio turned...

  4. Voluntary Saccadic Eye Movements Ride the Attentional Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze

    2016-10-01

    Visual perception seems continuous, but recent evidence suggests that the underlying perceptual mechanisms are in fact periodic-particularly visual attention. Because visual attention is closely linked to the preparation of saccadic eye movements, the question arises how periodic attentional processes interact with the preparation and execution of voluntary saccades. In two experiments, human observers made voluntary saccades between two placeholders, monitoring each one for the presentation of a threshold-level target. Detection performance was evaluated as a function of latency with respect to saccade landing. The time course of detection performance revealed oscillations at around 4 Hz both before the saccade at the saccade origin and after the saccade at the saccade destination. Furthermore, oscillations before and after the saccade were in phase, meaning that the saccade did not disrupt or reset the ongoing attentional rhythm. Instead, it seems that voluntary saccades are executed as part of an ongoing attentional rhythm, with the eyes in flight during the troughs of the attentional wave. This finding for the first time demonstrates that periodic attentional mechanisms affect not only perception but also overt motor behavior.

  5. Influence of Phase-Change Materials on Thermo-Physiological Comfort in Warm Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Celcar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to investigate the influence of phase-change materials (PCMs on thermo-physiological comfort of different male business clothing systems evaluated in warm environment. The impact of particular business clothing on the thermo-physiological comfort of the wearer during different physical activity and environmental conditions (between 25°C and 10°C with step of 5°C, artificially created in a climate chamber, was determined experimentally, as a change of three physiological parameters of a human being: mean skin temperature, heart rate, and the amount of evaporated and condensed sweat. A questionnaire and an assessment scale were also used before, during, and after each experiment in order to evaluate the wearer’s subjective feeling of comfort. The results of the performed research work show that male business clothing systems in combination with PCMs do not affect the thermal-physiological comfort of the wearer in warm environment significantly, except at an ambient temperature of 15°C, where clothing systems in combination with PCMs produce a small heating effect. Furthermore, it was concluded that clothing systems in combination with PCMs indicate a small temporary thermal effect that is reflected in a slight rising or lowering of mean skin temperature during activity changes.

  6. Does variation in clothing make us more thermally comfortable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    In the same room, people will wear different amounts of clothes if there is no strict dress code. Ideally everybody would put on just the right amount to feel thermally comfortable, but that is not always the case. To improve simulations of thermal comfort, an estimate of clothing insulation...... among people is higher at low temperatures than at high temperatures, and that people do choose their clothing according to thermal preference, but that the distribution of thermal comfort votes is the same....

  7. Aircraft passenger comfort experience: underlying factors and differentiation from discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Robert, Jean-Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies defined passengers' comfort based on their concerns during the flight and a set of eight experiential factors such as 'peace of mind', 'physical wellbeing', 'pleasure', etc. One Objective of this paper was to determine whether the factors underlying the passengers' experience of comfort differ from those of discomfort. Another objective was to cross-validate those factors. In the first study, respondents provided written reports of flight comfort and discomfort experiences separately and gave ratings on the impact of the eight factors on each experience. Follow up interviews were also conducted. Significant difference was found between comfort and discomfort ratings for two factors of 'pleasure', denoted by one's concern for stimulation, ambience and exceeded expectations, and 'physical wellbeing' characterized in terms of bodily support and energy. However, there were no significant differences between the comfort and discomfort ratings on the other six factors. The evidence does not support the proposition that passenger comfort and discomfort are underline by different sets of factors. It is therefore suggested that the evaluation of overall passenger comfort experience, as a whole, employ one spectrum ranging from extreme comfort to discomfort. In study two, a pool of comfort descriptors was collected. Those that were less relevant to passenger comfort were eliminated in a number of steps. Factor analysis was used to classify the remaining descriptors, using respondents' ratings on their potential impact on passenger comfort. Seven factors corresponded to the pre-determined passenger comfort factors from previous research, validating those with an exception of 'proxemics' (concerning one's privacy and control over their situation) but it was argued that this is due to the nature of the factor itself, which is context dependent and generally perceived unconsciously.

  8. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  9. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dear, R J; Akimoto, T; Arens, E A; Brager, G; Candido, C; Cheong, K W D; Li, B; Nishihara, N; Sekhar, S C; Tanabe, S; Toftum, J; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and the urgency of decarbonizing the built environment are driving technological innovation in the way we deliver thermal comfort to occupants. These changes, in turn, seem to be setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research. This article presents a literature review of major changes, developments, and trends in the field of thermal comfort research over the last 20 years. One of the main paradigm shift was the fundamental conceptual reorientation that has taken place in thermal comfort thinking over the last 20 years; a shift away from the physically based determinism of Fanger's comfort model toward the mainstream and acceptance of the adaptive comfort model. Another noticeable shift has been from the undesirable toward the desirable qualities of air movement. Additionally, sophisticated models covering the physics and physiology of the human body were developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we deliver comfortable indoor environments. These trends, in turn, continue setting the directions for contemporary thermal comfort research for the next decades.

  10. A neural network evaluation model for individual thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weiwei; Lian, Zhiwei; Zhao, Bo [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2007-10-15

    An evaluation model for individual thermal comfort is presented based on the BP neural network. The train data came from a thermal comfort survey. The evaluation results of the model showed a good match with the subject's real thermal sensation, which indicated that the model can be used to evaluate individual thermal comfort rightly. Taken a room air conditioner as an example, the application of the NNEM in creating a microenvironment for individual was discussed. The result showed that the NNEM can play an important role of connecting individual thermal comfort with the control on the air conditioner. (author)

  11. Evaporative cooling: water for thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rui Camargo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaporative cooling is an environmentally friendly air conditioning system that operates using induced processes of heat and mass transfer, where water and air are the working fluids. It consists, specifically, in water evaporation, induced by the passage of an air flow, thus decreasing the air temperature. This paper presents three methods that can be used as reference for efficient use of evaporative cooling systems, applying it to several Brazilian cities, characterized by different climates. Initially it presents the basic operation principles of direct and indirect evaporative cooling and defines the effectiveness of the systems. Afterwards, it presents three methods that allows to determinate where the systems are more efficient. It concludes that evaporative cooling systems have a very large potential to propitiate thermal comfort and can still be used as an alternative to conventional systems in regions where the design wet bulb temperature is under 24ºC.

  12. Physiological alterations of maximal voluntary quadriceps activation by changes of knee joint angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R; Awiszus, F

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different angles of the knee joint on voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle, estimating the ability of a subject to activate a muscle maximally by means of voluntary contraction. Isometric torque measurement was performed on 6 healthy subjects in 5 degrees intervals between 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee joint flexion. Superimposed twitches at maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and at a level of 60% and 40% of the MVC were applied and the voluntary activation estimated. At between 30 degrees and 75 degrees of knee flexion, the maximal extension torque increased at an average rate of 2.67 +/- 0.6 Nm/degree, followed by a decline with further flexion. However, throughout the joint-angle range tested, voluntary activation increased on average by 0.37%/degree with a maximum at 90 degrees of flexion. Due to the influence of joint position it is not possible to generalize results obtained at the knee joint angle of 90 degrees of flexion, which is usually used for the quadriceps twitch-interpolation technique. Consequently, it is useful to investigate voluntary activation deficits in knee joint disorders at a range of knee joint angles that includes, in particular, the more extended joint angles used frequently during daily activity.

  13. Frequency Weighting Filter Design for Automotive Ride Comfort Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Feng

    2016-01-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low-and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m•s–2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m•s–2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  14. Frequency weighting filter design for automotive ride comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Few study gives guidance to design weighting filters according to the frequency weighting factors, and the additional evaluation method of automotive ride comfort is not made good use of in some countries. Based on the regularities of the weighting factors, a method is proposed and the vertical and horizontal weighting filters are developed. The whole frequency range is divided several times into two parts with respective regularity. For each division, a parallel filter constituted by a low- and a high-pass filter with the same cutoff frequency and the quality factor is utilized to achieve section factors. The cascading of these parallel filters obtains entire factors. These filters own a high order. But, low order filters are preferred in some applications. The bilinear transformation method and the least P-norm optimal infinite impulse response(IIR) filter design method are employed to develop low order filters to approximate the weightings in the standard. In addition, with the window method, the linear phase finite impulse response(FIR) filter is designed to keep the signal from distorting and to obtain the staircase weighting. For the same case, the traditional method produces 0.330 7 m • s-2 weighted root mean square(r.m.s.) acceleration and the filtering method gives 0.311 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. The fourth order filter for approximation of vertical weighting obtains 0.313 9 m • s-2 r.m.s. Crest factors of the acceleration signal weighted by the weighting filter and the fourth order filter are 3.002 7 and 3.011 1, respectively. This paper proposes several methods to design frequency weighting filters for automotive ride comfort evaluation, and these developed weighting filters are effective.

  15. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-08-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

  16. Objective Evaluation Method of Steering Comfort Based on Movement Quality Evaluation of Driver Steering Maneuver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yiyong; LIU Yahui; WANG Man; JI Run; JI Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.

  17. Voluntary control of human jaw stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Houle, Guillaume; Ostry, David J

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies of human arm movement have suggested that the control of stiffness may be important both for maintaining stability and for achieving differences in movement accuracy. In the present study, we have examined the voluntary control of postural stiffness in 3D in the human jaw. The goal is to address the possible role of stiffness control in both stabilizing the jaw and in achieving the differential precision requirements of speech sounds. We previously showed that patterns of kinematic variability in speech are systematically related to the stiffness of the jaw. If the nervous system uses stiffness control as a means to regulate kinematic variation in speech, it should also be possible to show that subjects can voluntarily modify jaw stiffness. Using a robotic device, a series of force pulses was applied to the jaw to elicit changes in stiffness to resist displacement. Three orthogonal directions and three magnitudes of forces were tested. In all conditions, subjects increased the magnitude of jaw stiffness to resist the effects of the applied forces. Apart from the horizontal direction, greater increases in stiffness were observed when larger forces were applied. Moreover, subjects differentially increased jaw stiffness along a vertical axis to counteract disturbances in this direction. The observed changes in the magnitude of stiffness in different directions suggest an ability to control the pattern of stiffness of the jaw. The results are interpreted as evidence that jaw stiffness can be adjusted voluntarily, and thus may play a role in stabilizing the jaw and in controlling movement variation in the orofacial system.

  18. Cortical potentials associated with voluntary mandibular movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Kaji, R; Hamano, T; Kohara, N; Kimura, J; Shibasaki, H; Iizuka, T

    2000-07-01

    Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) are negative potentials over the scalp, which gradually increase prior to voluntary movements, and might be applied to elucidate the cortical efferent function of the mandibular movements. We compared the MRCPs accompanying various mandibular movements to study the motor control mechanism underlying these movements. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from 11 electrodes placed over the scalp (F3, Fz, F4, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, P3, Pz, and P4), according to the International 10-20 System, and electromyograms (EMGs) were obtained from surface electrodes over the masseter muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Ten healthy subjects were requested to make brisk and self-paced mandibular movements in 4 different directions (mouth-opening and -closing, and left and right lateral movements). We obtained MRCPs by averaging the EEG, using the visually determined EMG onset as a trigger signal. In all the movements, a slowly increasing, bilaterally widespread negativity starting 1.5 to 2.0 sec before the EMG onset (Bereitschaftspotential, or BP proper) was observed, with the maximum over the vertex region. The negative slope (NS') occurred about 300 to 700 msec before the EMG onset. The cortical maps of BP/NS' (BP and NS' combined), immediately prior to the mouth-opening and closing, showed a symmetrical distribution, whereas that for the lateral movements showed a tendency of predominance over the hemisphere ipsilateral to the direction of the movement. BP/NS' amplitudes at the onset of movement differed significantly or tended to do so between open, close, and lateral movements, suggesting that MRCP recordings may thus provide a means to explore the role of the cerebral cortex in the control of mandibular movements.

  19. Voluntary organizations in development in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    The governments of South Asian countries have become aware of the substantial role that nongovernment organizations (NGOs) or voluntary agencies can play in rural development and other nation building activities. Although private agencies cannot substitute for government programs, there is general consensus that NGOs use development funds more efficiently and innovatively than government programs. NGOs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan exemplify the influence these organizations have on development in South Asia. The Lutheran World Service in Bangladesh, a foreign origin NGO, has branched out from its original aim of providing relief and war rehabilitation to give skills training and technical assistance to the poor. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, an indigenous NGO, works for the well-being and self-reliance of the landless poor, those with very small farms, and women. NGOs in Bangladesh have been especially innovative in developing methods to encourage self-help, such as local organization and credit, which are often combined with training in practical skills, literacy, nutrition, and family planning. Present NGO activity in India is dominated by the Gandhian tradition. There is a potential conflict between the philosophy of the NGO's in terms of building on the people's felt needs from the bottom up and the tendency of government agencies to want to plan for the people. In Pakistan, the concept of development-oriented NGOs is recent and not yet strong, although the government has adopted a policy of routing funds from government and from bilateral donor agencies through NGOs in 2 areas--family planning and women's welfare. The chief limitation of NGOs is their scope, meaning that the major burden of the development process rests on government agencies.

  20. Comfort of workers in office buildings: The European HOPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Aries, M.; Dommelen, P. van

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that building, social and personal factors can influence one's perceived health and comfort. The aim of the underlying study was to get a better understanding of the relationships between these factors and perceived comfort. Self-administered questionnaires from 5732 resp

  1. Interior effects on comfort in healthcare waiting areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, C; Vink, P; Montgomery, J; Hedge, A

    2016-07-21

    This study compared the effects of pre-experience and expectations on participant comfort upon waking, arrival to, and after an appointment, as well as the assessment of properly placed Feng Shui elements in three healthcare waiting rooms. Participants assessed comfort levels using self-report surveys. The researcher conducted 'intention interviews' with each doctor to assess the goals of each waiting area design, and conducted a Feng Shui assessment of each waiting area for properly placed Feng Shui elements. The waiting area designed by the Feng Shui expert rated 'most comfortable', followed by the waiting area design by a doctor, and the lowest comfort rating for the conventional waiting room design. Results show a sufficiently strong effect to warrant further research. Awareness of the external environment, paired with pre-experience and expectation, influences comfort for people over time. Fostering and encouraging a holistic approach to comfort utilizing eastern and western concepts and ergonomic principles creates a sense of "placeness" and balance in the design for comfort in built environments. This is new research information on the influences of the comfort experience over time, to include pre-experience, expectations and the placement of elements in the external environment.

  2. HOT WATER COMFORT TEST PROCEDURE FOR SOLAR COMBISYSTEMS: PROPOSAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    A proposal for a test procedure for hot water comfort for solar heating systems for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was worked out.......A proposal for a test procedure for hot water comfort for solar heating systems for combined space heating and domestic hot water supply was worked out....

  3. Measurement of dynamic comfort in cycling using wireless acceleration sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, Mark; Marin-Perianu, Raluca; Marin-Perianu, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Comfort in cycling is related to the level of vibration of the bicycle: more vibration results in less comfort for the rider. In this study, the level of vibration is measured in real time using wireless inertial acceleration sensors mounted at four places on the bike: front wheel axel, rear wheel a

  4. Definition of specific comfort parameters, indoor environmental and architectural quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2017-01-01

    that improvements in indoor environment, comfort and architecture can motivate the Danish homeowners to complete energy renovations. In order to utilize these results and thereby reduce the energy consumption in the existing Danish building stock, this paper examines which aspects of indoor environment and comfort...... motivating the homeowners since this can influence the effect of the motivation in both negative and positive direction....

  5. Comfort Food: Nourishing Our Collective Stomachs and Our Collective Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D.; Wright, Julian W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Food is a powerful motivator in human functioning--it serves a biological need, as emotional support, and as a cultural symbol. Until recently, the term "comfort food" has been inadequately and unscientifically defined. In addition, the popular media have oversimplified the concept of comfort food as purely unhealthy food, often consumed…

  6. The aircraft interior comfort experience of 10,032 passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Mastrigt, S. van

    2011-01-01

    One airline strategy aimed at selling more tickets is to provide a superior comfort experience. However, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger’s opinion on comfort. In this study, 10,032 internet trip reports were used to gather opinions about

  7. Comfort Food: Nourishing Our Collective Stomachs and Our Collective Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Jordan D.; Wright, Julian W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Food is a powerful motivator in human functioning--it serves a biological need, as emotional support, and as a cultural symbol. Until recently, the term "comfort food" has been inadequately and unscientifically defined. In addition, the popular media have oversimplified the concept of comfort food as purely unhealthy food, often consumed…

  8. The aircraft interior comfort experience of 10,032 passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Mastrigt, S. van

    2011-01-01

    One airline strategy aimed at selling more tickets is to provide a superior comfort experience. However, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger’s opinion on comfort. In this study, 10,032 internet trip reports were used to gather opinions about asp

  9. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Shehabi, Yahya; Walsh, Timothy S;

    2016-01-01

    and Delirium guidelines, is conveyed in the mnemonic eCASH-early Comfort using Analgesia, minimal Sedatives and maximal Humane care. eCASH aims to establish optimal patient comfort with minimal sedation as the default presumption for intensive care unit (ICU) patients in the absence of recognised medical...

  10. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  11. Impact of summer office set air-conditioning temperature on energy consumption and thermal comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红; 马小磊; 高亚峰

    2009-01-01

    To explore the relationship between summer office set air-conditioning temperature and energy consumption related to air conditioning use to provide human thermal comfort,a comparison experiment was conducted in three similar offices at temperatures of 24,26 and 28 ℃ respectively. A thermal comfort questionnaire survey was conducted. It is demonstrated that air-conditioner energy consumption at the set temperature of 28 ℃ is 113% and 271% lower than at 26 ℃ and 24 ℃,respectively. A linear relationship exists between air-conditioner energy consumption and the indoor and outdoor temperature difference. When comfortably dressed,over 80% of research participants accept the set temperature of 28 ℃. The regression analysis leads to a neutral temperature of 26.2 ℃ and an acceptable temperature of 28.2 ℃ for over 80% of the research participants subjects,indicating that the current 26 ℃ set temperature for offices in summer,required by Chinese General Office of the State Council,can be increased to 28 ℃. Moreover,analysis of predicted mean vote(PMV) index shows that a set temperature of 27 ℃,not 26 ℃,is sufficiently comfortable for office staff wearing long-sleeve shirts,long pants and leather shoes.

  12. Thermal comfort analysis of hostels in National Institute of Technology Calicut, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K KUMAR LACHIREDDI; P MUTHUKUMAR; SUDHAKAR SUBUDHI

    2017-01-01

    Thermal comfort study was carried out in the hostels of National Institute of Technology Calicut,Kerala, which is located in a warm humid climatic zone of India. Measurements of ambient temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, air velocity and illuminance were carried out in eight hostels, and in parallel a paper-based survey was conducted among students to know about their Thermal Preference Vote (TPV) and Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) based on an ASHRAE seven-point scale. Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) have been evaluated based on Fanger’s theory of thermal comfort by utilizing the field measurements. Preferred operative temperature and neutral effective temperature were obtained based on the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV). Similarly the preferred operative temperature and neutraleffective temperature were identified, for both Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) and Thermal Preference Vote (TPV). Thermal comfort conditions for 80% satisfaction were also determined in each case. Correlations between the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and the Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) as well as between the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and the Thermal Preference Vote (TPV) were obtained.

  13. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    internationalization. Based on our results, we suggest that, depending on the field of action, voluntary collective action and organized collaboration are substitutes with regard to performance. Our study contributes to the literature on collective action and to research on public organizations in pluralistic......Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...... in three fields of action: the training of young scientists, internationalization, and gender diversity. The findings indicate that organized collaboration may lead to improved performance in the training of young scientists and gender diversity. Conversely, voluntary collective action enhances...

  14. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  15. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    this theoretical frame to analyse case studies of three voluntary organisations.  As a part of the analysis I describe four sets of institutional settings that can influence voluntary organisations ability to create institutional dynamic: institutionalization, moderation, self-organisation and loose-coupling....... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...

  16. Micrometeorological simulations to predict the impacts of heat mitigation strategies on pedestrian thermal comfort in a Los Angeles neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani, Mohammad; Sailor, David; Ban-Weiss, George A.

    2016-02-01

    The urban heat island impacts the thermal comfort of pedestrians in cities. In this paper, the effects of four heat mitigation strategies on micrometeorology and the thermal comfort of pedestrians were simulated for a neighborhood in eastern Los Angeles County. The strategies investigated include solar reflective ‘cool roofs’, vegetative ‘green roofs’, solar reflective ‘cool pavements’, and increased street-level trees. A series of micrometeorological simulations for an extreme heat day were carried out assuming widespread adoption of each mitigation strategy. Comparing each simulation to the control simulation assuming current land cover for the neighborhood showed that additional street-trees and cool pavements reduced 1.5 m air temperature, while cool and green roofs mostly provided cooling at heights above pedestrian level. However, cool pavements increased reflected sunlight from the ground to pedestrians at a set of unshaded receptor locations. This reflected radiation intensified the mean radiant temperature and consequently increased physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by 2.2 °C during the day, reducing the thermal comfort of pedestrians. At another set of receptor locations that were on average 5 m from roadways and underneath preexisting tree cover, cool pavements caused significant reductions in surface air temperatures and small changes in mean radiant temperature during the day, leading to decreases in PET of 1.1 °C, and consequent improvements in thermal comfort. For improving thermal comfort of pedestrians during the afternoon in unshaded locations, adding street trees was found to be the most effective strategy. However, afternoon thermal comfort improvements in already shaded locations adjacent to streets were most significant for cool pavements. Green and cool roofs showed the lowest impact on the thermal comfort of pedestrians since they modify the energy balance at roof level, above the height of pedestrians.

  17. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. (a) Location. The following area is designated as a security zone: all waters of the Corpus Christi...

  18. Tabriz Bazaar: sustainability and human comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Master of Department of Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Miyaneh Branch (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Fard, Fariborz Mahdavi Tabatabaei [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Sustainable developments in energy and the environment have become a main focus of many groups. The built environment has a great influence on environmental sustainability generally. Solutions that respond to the impact of human activities on the environment in urban areas are required. On one hand, averting resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by facilities and infrastructures over their life cycle is a principal goal. On the other hand, it is also a principal goal to create livable, comfortable, safe and productive built environments. Tabriz bazaar, in Iran, is an example of sustainable architecture. It is designed to be suited to the local climate and urban texture with spaces that are varied and have a strong connection to open space. The bazaar plays a significant role in creation of safe urban space as a cultural, social, commercial, educational and sanitarian area. It connects different activities and different people in a safe place. The purpose of this paper is to determine the sustainability of the Tabriz bazaar and the effect that the character of this commercial area has on the quality of human life.

  19. THE "COMFORT WOMEN" OF THE PACIFIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA YURI OKAMOTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the pacific war, about 80 to 200 thousand women were mobilized by the Japanese imperial army to sexually serve its soldiers, in one of world’s largest cases of human trafficking. Most of the victims, euphemistically known as "comfort women", came from Korea, Japan's colony at the time, and was attracted by false promises of employment or simply kidnapped by Japanese troops. Taken to military brothels throughout the pacific, they were subjected to repeated rape and beatings. Some of them, as young as age 12, were daily forced to have sex with Japanese soldiers, 10, 30, 50 times a day. The few women who survived and were able to return home at the end of the war continued to suffer for their past, through psychological trauma and social ostracism. They remained silent about their experience because of fear and shame. These women would have like to live in peace, being wives, mothers, sisters, grandmothers ... but this choice was denied to all. None received any compensation from the Japanese government official, who continues to evade its legal and moral responsibilities regarding war crime. Sixty-eight years later, they are still waiting for justice.

  20. Differential effects of low-intensity motor cortical stimulation on the inspiratory activity in scalene muscles during voluntary and involuntary breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Taylor, Janet L; Murray, Nicholas P S

    2011-01-01

    To assess the cortical contribution to breathing, low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered over the motor cortex in 10 subjects during: (i) voluntary static inspiratory efforts, (ii) hypocapnic voluntary ventilation (end-tidal CO(2), 2.7±0.4% mean±SD), and (iii) hyperca...

  1. The effects of solar radiation and black body re-radiation on thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Simon; Parsons, Ken

    2008-04-01

    When the sun shines on people in enclosed spaces, such as in buildings or vehicles, it directly affects thermal comfort. There is also an indirect effect as surrounding surfaces are heated exposing a person to re-radiation. This laboratory study investigated the effects of long wave re-radiation on thermal comfort, individually and when combined with direct solar radiation. Nine male participants (26.0 +/- 4.7 years) took part in three experimental sessions where they were exposed to radiation from a hot black panel heated to 100 degrees C; direct simulated solar radiation of 600 Wm(-2) and the combined simulated solar radiation and black panel radiation. Exposures were for 30 min, during which subjective responses and mean skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that, at a surface temperature of 100 degrees C (close to maximum in practice), radiation from the flat black panel provided thermal discomfort but that this was relatively small when compared with the effects of direct solar radiation. It was concluded that re-radiation, from a dashboard in a vehicle, for example, will not have a major direct influence on thermal comfort and that existing models of thermal comfort do not require a specific modification. These results showed that, for the conditions investigated, the addition of re-radiation from internal components has an effect on thermal sensation when combined with direct solar radiation. However, it is not considered that it will be a major factor in a real world situation. This is because, in practice, dashboards are unlikely to maintain very high surface temperatures in vehicles without an unacceptably high air temperature. This study quantifies the contribution of short- and long-wave radiation to thermal comfort. The results will aid vehicle designers to have a better understanding of the complex radiation environment. These include direct radiation from the sun as well as re-radiation from the dashboard and other internal surfaces.

  2. 77 FR 72941 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... decision will be made by the selected DoD contractor for the complete `third party review' process. Comment... seeks to enhance the educational opportunities to Service members who may have difficulty in completing... transitions to second careers in teaching. Voluntary education programs. Continuing, adult, or...

  3. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  4. Social orienting: reflexive versus voluntary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julia L; Patel, Saumil; Gu, Xue; Seyedali, Nassim S; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Sereno, Anne B

    2010-09-24

    Many studies have shown that the direction of gaze of a face covertly facilitates the response to a target presented in the matching direction. In this study we seek to determine whether there exist separate reflexive and voluntary forms of such covert social orienting and how they interact with each other. We measured the effect of the predictive value of a gaze cue on manual choice reaction times. When the predictive value of the gaze cue was zero, a facilitatory cueing effect was still observed which peaked at a cue onset to target onset delay (CTD) of 150ms and largely diminished beyond a CTD of 500ms. When the gaze cue was 100% predictive of the future location of the target, at CTDs greater than 200, the predictive cue resulted in a significantly greater facilitation of response than occurred with a non-predictive cue. These results suggest that given enough time (about 200ms), the social cue is interpreted and a willful or voluntary spatially-specific social cueing effect occurs. In addition, we found that a predictive cue resulted in a significant slowing of the observer's responses up to a CTD of 200ms. These findings show that, similar to non-social spatial orienting, there appear to be two forms of social orienting including a reflexive component and voluntary component. We suggest a model of social orienting in which the voluntary social orienting system modulates tonic inhibition of the reflexive social orienting system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Merry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A prim

  6. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  7. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  8. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.

  9. Voluntary Organizations: Commitment, Leadership, and Organizational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, Terry P.

    2004-01-01

    Voluntary organizations offer a unique opportunity to interpret participant relationships, leadership influences, and organizational effectiveness unencumbered by employment relationships. Regardless of organizational structure or purpose, all organizations are affected to some degree by their leadership and their membership. Based on the…

  10. Environmental Voluntary Agreements in the Dutch Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; de Bruijn, Theo; Croci, Edoardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the use of environmental voluntary agreements, or covenants, in Dutch environmental policy. Covenants have become a widely used policy instrument in the Netherlands. This trend reinforces the strong neo-corporatist traits of Dutch society with its tendency towards

  11. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    While short-term enrolling of citizens in urban regeneration projects often has proven quite successful, permanent embedding of projects in voluntary community-based settings seems to be much more difficult to obtain. This has implications for long term sustainability of urban regeneration projec...

  12. [Comfort and noise level in infants with helmet interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  14. Eligibility and Exclusion of Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Levstik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis patients are excluded in many countries as voluntary blood donors. In 1991, changes in the Canadian Red Cross policy allowed healthy hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary donors.

  15. Results of the global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Lernoud, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Results of the global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards: - Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) area worldwide and selected commodities - Cocoa: Area growth by VSS 2008-2014 - Growth of VSS compliant area worldwide 2008-2013 (selected crops)

  16. China Initiates Voluntary Certification of Public Security Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reporters learned from the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China(CNCA)that burglar-proof door became the first batch of voluntary certification product in public security products.China has formally initiated voluntary certification of public security products.

  17. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  18. Near-infraed scattering method for fabric thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shou-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetting behavior of a clothing assembly plays an important role in thermophysiological body comfort. The instruments and methods utilised for testing purposes should adequately quantify wetting parameters of fabric thermal comfort. The surface conductivity method has been used to for moisture management testing in fabrics, but that method cannot give the detailed information for fiber-liquid interaction. With the new near-infrared scattering method, the wetting mechanism is introduced and interpreted through liquid transfer process from an infinite liquid reservoir. Wetting results from two kinds of fabrics show the difference in fabric thermal comfort.

  19. Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation during voluntary and non-voluntary stepping movements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Kazennikov, O V; Ivanenko, Y P

    2014-09-05

    Here, we compared motor evoked potentials (MEP) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and the H-reflex during voluntary and vibration-induced air-stepping movements in humans. Both the MEPs (in mm biceps femoris, rectus femoris and tibialis anterior) and H-reflex (in m soleus) were significantly smaller during vibration-induced cyclic leg movements at matched amplitudes of angular motion and muscle activity. These findings highlight differences between voluntary and non-voluntary activation of the spinal pattern generator circuitry in humans, presumably due to an extra facilitatory effect of voluntary control/triggering of stepping on spinal motoneurons and interneurons. The results support the idea of active engagement of supraspinal motor areas in developing central pattern generator-modulating therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Achieving success: moving beyond the comfort level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, I

    1993-11-01

    Understanding the stages of growth, saturation and transition is the first step to setting meaningful career goals. While this concept is fairly new in dentistry, it is not new in other commercial enterprises. Business managers and owners have known for decades that growth stagnates after a period of time. At that point, a new infusion of energy and a reformation of the business's objectives and methods are needed to launch forward into the next phase of growth. Transition management in dentistry represents periods of growth that are followed by saturation and a comparatively rapid changeover to a new practice form. Saturation occurs when the clinical capacity of a practice is exceeded by the needs of a growing patient base. The key transitions in the career of a dentist are those from school to practising, and practising to retirement. A great number of dentists (due to low motivation, the comfort level or poor management skills) never reach the saturation point during their practising career. For these dentists, starting out and retirement are the only transitions that will ever apply to them. Dentists evaluating transition options must first identify which career stage they belong to since their objectives will be different at each stage. Dentists in the growth phase should focus on practice management and achieving saturation before attempting a transition. Since transitions like start-up, retirement, partnerships, associateships and buy-ins have pivotal roles in the life cycle of a practice, transitions must be managed carefully to achieve successful results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. 27 CFR 4.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... major food allergens. 4.32a Section 4.32a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Requirements for Wine § 4.32a Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section the following terms have the meanings indicated. (1) Major food allergen. Major...

  2. 27 CFR 5.32a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... major food allergens. 5.32a Section 5.32a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Labeling Requirements for Distilled Spirits § 5.32a Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. (a... allergen. Major food allergen means any of the following: (i) Milk, egg, fish (for example, bass,...

  3. 27 CFR 7.22a - Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... major food allergens. 7.22a Section 7.22a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.22a Voluntary disclosure of major food allergens. (a... allergen. Major food allergen means any of the following: (i) Milk, egg, fish (for example, bass,...

  4. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle contraction may be directly linked to muscle fatigue.

  5. Geometric uncertainties in voluntary deep inspiration breath hold radiotherapy for locally advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josipovic, Mirjana; Persson, Gitte Bjørnsen Fredberg; Dueck, Jenny;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) increases lung volume and can potentially reduce treatment-related toxicity in locally advanced lung cancer. We estimated geometric uncertainties in visually guided voluntary DIBH and derived the appropriate treatment margins for different...... image-guidance strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients were included prospectively. An optical marker-based respiratory monitoring with visual guidance enabled comfortable DIBHs, adjusted to each patient's performance. All patients had three consecutive DIBH CTs at each of the treatment...... fractions 2, 16 and 31. DIBH reproducibility was evaluated as inter- and intra-fractional variations in lung volume, tumour position and differential motion between primary tumour and mediastinal lymph nodes. RESULTS: Lung volume increased by median 60% in DIBH. Inter- and intra-fractional lung volume...

  6. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  7. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and...

  8. 15 CFR 12.3 - Development of voluntary product standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of voluntary product... AND LABELING § 12.3 Development of voluntary product standards. (a) Invitation to participate in the development of a voluntary product standard. Whenever the Secretary publishes a final determination of...

  9. The Evaluation of Thermal Comfort on Primary Schools in Hot-Humid Climates: A Case Study for Antalya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sılay Emir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermal comfort provides undoubtedly a great contribution to sustainability. Thermal comfort of classrooms has a direct impact on both learning and energy conservation through a careful temperature control. This study is aimed to emphasize economic, environmental sustainability in schools.Urbanisation and modernisation have led to spend an essential part of people’s lives in indoor spaces. Targeted climatic comfort conditions do not change very much despite the fact that significant change of external climatic conditions depending on climate zones and periods during the year. Therefore, this topic has a great importance in terms of keeping at maximum level of expected performance of architectural structure and carrying positive samples to future.Temperatures that might cause thermal discomfort starts in May for Antalya. After selecting a primary school in Antalya dominated by hot-humid Mediterranean climate conditions, questionnaire prepared according to Fanger’s 7-point sensation scale was conducted on 7th and 8th grade students. The questionnaire was implemented on 74 students (41 male and 33 female. At the end of the research, thermal comfort data in primary school classrooms was obtained according to thermal comfort variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, activity level, air speed, clothing choice, gender, age. The level of thermal comfort of the students and thermal environment conditions of the classes was determined.As a result of obtained data, PMV (predicted mean vote and PDD (predicted percentage dissatisfied were identified. According to ASHRAE 55 Standard, examined classrooms were evaluated.  Key Words: Thermal Comfort, Sustainable Schools, Hot-Humid Climates

  10. Clothing selection behavior of the aged women for thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, W S

    1999-05-01

    Wearing behavior and thermoregulatory responses of five young women (YG; 20 +/- 1 yr) and five aged women (AG; 65 +/- 3 yr) to indoor cold in summer were investigated in this study. The subjects were exposed to 21.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and 55 +/- 5% RH while seated during a 90-minute experiment. The subjects were allowed to select and wear for thermal comfort clothing whenever they needed additional clothing during the experiment. Rectal temperature (Tre) and temperatures of 7 sites (head, chest, forearm, hand, thigh, leg, foot) of the skin of the subjects were measured every 10 minutes. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) of the subject was obtained every 10 minutes. First selection time of additional clothing was monitored and weight of selected total clothing was calculated. The results for this study were as follows: Tre and Tsk gradually decreased in YG and AG, however Tre decreased less than Tsk which decreased greater in AG than YG (p clothing and thermal sensation response were slower than YG's. Furthermore, total clothing weight was less in AG than YG. It was concluded that clothing selection behavior would modify the intrinsic thermoregulatory responses of the aged women to the cold stress in the summer.

  11. Voluntary strategy suppresses the positive impact of preferential selection in prisoner’s dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Lin, Pei-jie; Chen, Ya-shan

    2014-11-01

    Impact of aspiration is ubiquitous in social and biological disciplines. In this work, we try to explore the impact of such a trait on voluntary prisoners’ dilemma game via a selection parameter w. w=0 returns the traditional version of random selection. For positive w, the opponent of high payoff will be selected; while negative w means that the partner of low payoff will be chosen. We find that for positive w, cooperation will be greatly promoted in the interval of small b, at variance cooperation is inhibited with large b. For negative w, cooperation is fully restrained, irrespective of b value. It is found that the positive impact of preferential selection is suppressed by the voluntary strategy in prisoner’s dilemma. These observations can be supported by the spatial patterns. Our work may shed light on the emergence and persistence of cooperation with voluntary participation in social dilemma.

  12. Summer residence hall renovations focus on student comfort, environmental sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    DeLauder, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    With the majority of students home for the summer, Virginia Tech Housing Services has undertaken a variety of improvements and renovations in its residence halls aimed at increasing comfort and safety for students, while decreasing overall environmental impact.

  13. Static and Dynamic Sensory Comfort of Knit Underwear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-ling; FANG Fang; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper relationships have been investigated between overall comfort estimate and five main factors on nine knit underwear at (29±2)℃ and relative humidity, (85±2)% .The values of thermal and moisture comfort rise obviously,yet the values of roughness, softness and tightness are near the static values after finishing movement. The analysis shows that the overall estimation has the negative correlation with the thermal and moisture comfort and the positive correlation with the roughness and softness under static state. After movement the effects on overall estimate of thermal and moisture increase. Oppositely, the effects of roughness and softness decrease. Overall estimation has positive correlation with tightness at static. But it has no evident effect on overall comfort after movement and 5-minute-rest according to this experiment. The relationships between tightness and thermal, moisture, roughness,softness were also discussed in this paper.

  14. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Ibrahim, A. Baharun, M.D. Abdul Mannan, D.A. Abang Adenan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  15. [Patient's pain feeling and surgeon's comfort--ECCE versus phacoemulsification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałuzny, Jakub J; Eliks, Iwona; Mierzejewski, Andrzej; Kałuzny, Bartłomiej

    2004-01-01

    To compare patient's pain and surgeon's comfort during ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia and phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. 120 patients scheduled for planned routine cataract extraction were divided in 2 groups: group 1-60 eyes, ECCE under retrobulbar anesthesia and group II-60 eyes, phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Immediately after operation patients were asked, to answer questions about their feeling during surgery. Simultaneously, the surgeon filled up the questionnaire, concerning patients behavior during the entire procedure. Statistically significant higher level of pain was reported in group I (ECCE). The most painful moment of the procedure was retrobulbar injection. During surgery pain feeling in both groups was similar. Both types of anesthesia provided very good level of surgeon's comfort. The longer operation, the higher level of pain and lower surgeon's comfort were reported in both groups. Patients having ECCE performed under retrobulbar anesthesia reported more pain comparing to phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia. Both anesthesia methods provided high level of surgeon's comfort.

  16. does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering care?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Physicians and AIDS care: does knowledge influence their attitude and comfort in rendering ... experience, age and being a consultant or a senior resident influenced attitude, while male ..... having or not having children, prior instructions on ...

  17. implications of climate change on human comfort in buildings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    needed to maintain the condition of air in spaces at comfort levels keep increasing. It is therefore ... present day building design, if not it could pose severe consequences. Resilience of .... 4a: Sandcrete wall with louver blades window. Fig.

  18. The HVAC Control Technology Making Energy Saving Compatible with Comfort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    高木, 康夫; 米沢, 憲造; 村山, 大; 西村, 信孝; 花田, 雄一; 山崎, 謙一

    2010-01-01

    .... The method is mainly focused on the compatibility of energy savings and comfort. The energy saving is achieved through the next generation air handling unit that controls room humidity without energy loss and the optimal operation of HVAC...

  19. Importance of thermal comfort for library building in Kuching, Sarawak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, S.H.; Baharun, A.; Abdul Mannan, M.D.; Abang Adenan, D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2013-07-01

    Malaysian Government takes an initiative to provide library in housing areas to improve the quality of human capital. However, the government has to evaluate every aspect of their provision to ensure the services provided meet the demands of the users, including the aspect of thermal comfort in the building. For this study, a library constructed using Industrialised Building System (IBS) are selected for thermal comfort evaluation. The data were analyzed using Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) index. From the data analysis, it shows that thermal comfort in the library could not be achieved most of the time unless when the mechanical cooling is used. A series of technical design improvements are then recommended to improve the thermal comfort inside the library by incorporating construction details without increasing the cost.

  20. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2016-07-01

    .Simulations and measurementsContextual aspects and combinations of measures can seriously influence the effects of measures. To get a grip on such effects and their co-occurrence (interrelations, possible adaptations to an existing rural configuration were modelled and their effects on the microclimate were simulated using the numerical program ENVI-met. It is demonstrated that, for instance, trees combined with highly reflective façades do often not provide cooling, whereas trees combined with moderate façade colouring does.To assess the effects of a single measure, independent of its context, single parameter simulations of thermal comfort (PET were performed. This is the first time that such a comparative study was undertaken in The Netherlands. The complexity of the situations was increased gradually from an empty field with only pavement or only grass, to pavement with grass and a single building, moving up to a building with a few trees to many trees, multiple buildings and built forms. During this study it became clear that airflow has a significant influence on the comfort temperature. However, cooling by means of creating drafts on a mesoscale is difficult to manage and control. The low wind speed, which is typical for Dutch heat waves, provides ventilation through thermal stratification. Airflow between warm and cool spaces only occurs with sufficient temperature differences and low wind speed. This principle was investigated on the side towards new measures because little is known about the effects of generating airflow as a result of façade colour. Measurements were performed first in a small-scale experiment in a controlled area and when results seemed promising this was extended to a full-scale situation on an average Summer’s day. Research designIn current practice, urban design pays little or no attention to the urban microclimate and urban-heat stress. Designers indicate that they have insufficient knowledge and evaluation instruments. The design study

  1. Physiological and Comfort Assessments of Volunteers Wearing Battle-Dress (BDU) Uniforms of Different Fabrics During Intermittent Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    and Vokac et al. (1971) reported similar results. The popular method by Fanger (1972) to predict thermal sensations calledPredicted Mean Vote or PMV...Climatic assessment indices. Ergonomics, 38(1):47-57, 1995. 8. Fanger , P.O. Thermal Comfort, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1972. 9. Fuzek, J.F. Some factors

  2. Design methodology and criteria for daylight and thermal comfort in nearly-zero energy office buildings in Nordic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth

    The objective of this PhD thesis was to arrange for an integrated building design with respect to thermal comfort, daylighting and energy use, applicable for office buildings in Nordic climate. In order to achieve this, it is suggested that modelling of mean radiant temperature (MRT) should...

  3. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari, Svenja D.; Matthews, Ben

    2009-11-01

    The concept of 'comfort' has been influential in shaping aspects of our built environment. For the construction industry, comfort is predominantly understood in terms of the balance between an ideal human physiological state and a finite number of measurable environmental parameters that can be controlled (temperature, humidity, air quality, daylighting, noise). It is such a notion of comfort that has informed the establishment of universally applied comfort standards and guidelines for the built environment. When buildings rigidly conform to these standards, they consume vast quantities of energy and are responsible for higher levels of GHG emissions. Recent researchers have challenged such instrumental definitions of comfort on moral and environmental grounds. In this paper, we address this issue from two different standpoints: one empirical, one related to the design of technology. Empirically, we present an analysis of ethnographic field material that has examined how, in what circumstances, and at what times ordinary users employ energy-intensive indoor climate technologies in their daily lives. We argue that when comfort is viewed as an achievement, rather than as a reified and static ideal homeostasis between humans and their environmental conditions, it becomes easier to appreciate the extent to which comfort is, for ordinary people, personally idiosyncratic, culturally relative, socially influenced and highly dependent on temporality, sequence and activity. With respect to design, we introduce a set of provocative designed prototypes that embody alternative conceptions of 'comfort' than those to which the building industry typically subscribes. Our discussion has critical implications for the types of technologies that result from a 'comfort standards' conception. Firstly, we show that comfort is not simply a homeostatic equilibrium-such a view is overly narrow, inflexible and ultimately an inaccurate conception of what comfort is for ordinary people

  4. Radiation doses to paediatric patients and comforters undergoing chest X rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulieman, A; Vlychou, M; Tsougos, I; Theodorou, K

    2011-09-01

    Pneumonia is an important cause of hospital admission among children in the developed world and it is estimated to be responsible for 3-18 % of all paediatric admissions. Chest X ray is an important examination for pneumonia diagnosis and for evaluation of complications. This study aims to determine the entrance surface dose (ESD), organ, effective doses and propose a local diagnostic reference level. The study was carried out at the university hospital of Larissa, Greece. Patients were divided into three groups: organ and effective doses were estimated using National Radiological Protection Board software. The ESD was determined by thermoluminescent dosemeters for 132 children and 76 comforters. The average ESD value was 55 ± 8 µGy. The effective dose for patients was 11.2 ± 5 µSv. The mean radiation dose for comforter is 22 ± 3 µGy. The radiation dose to the patients is well within dose constraint, in the light of the current practice.

  5. Thermal comfort analysis of a low temperature waste energy recovery system. SIECHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Martin, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain); Rey Martinez, F.J.; Velasco Gomez, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, ETSII, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    The use of a recovery device is justified in terms of energy savings and environmental concerns. But it is clear that the use of a recovery system also has to lead to controlling indoor environmental quality, nowadays a priority concern. In this article, experimental research has been carried out whose aim is to study the thermal comfort provided by a combined recovery equipment (SIECHP), consisting of a ceramic semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC) and a heat pipe device (HP) to recover energy at low temperature in air-conditioning systems. To characterize this device empirically in terms of thermal comfort (TC), Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV), draught rate, and vertical air temperature difference were used in this study as the TC criteria. (author)

  6. Floor cooling and air-cooling, the effects on thermal comfort or different cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijpheer, N.C.; Bakker, E.J.; Ligthart, F.A.T.M.; Opstelten, I.J. [ECN Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving en Netten, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    One of the research areas of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) concerns the built environment. Several facilities to conduct research activities are at ECN's disposal. One of these facilities, are five research dwellings located on the premises of ECN. Measured data from these facilities together with weather data and computer models are used to evaluate innovative energy concepts and components in energy systems. Experiments with different cooling systems in ECN's research dwellings are executed to evaluate their effective influence on both energy use and thermal comfort. Influence of inhabitants' behaviour is taken into account in these experiments. The thermal comfort is indicated by the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) as defined by P.O. Fanger. For this paper, the results of measurements with a floor cooling and air cooling system are assessed. Effects on the PMV measured during experiments with the two different cooling systems will be presented.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  8. Thermal comfort conditions in the NBS/DoE direct gain passive solar test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. T.

    1982-12-01

    The thermal comfort conditions in a direct gain cell of passive solar test facility were analyzed. It was found that the daytime operative temperature as measured by the black globe temperature sensors in an area near the large south glazing exceeded the upper boundary of the ASHRAE comfort envelope by a large amount in a clear day during both the thermal transition month of October and the cold winter month of January. The reflected solar radiation from the interior surfaces and the snow covered ground plays a significant role on the measured black globe temperature and should be included in the computation of the mean radiant temperature for a space with large glazed areas.

  9. Comfort in using hand tools : theory, design and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Everyone uses hand tools in their daily life, like knife and fork. Moreover, many people use hand tools in their profession as well as during leisure time. It is important that they can work with hand tools that provide comfort. Until now, the avoidance of discomfort was emphasized during the design process of hand tools, like screwdrivers, hand saws and paint brushes. In the near future, the focus will shift towards providing comfort. However, some questions need to be answered to make this ...

  10. The effect of yarn folding on some comfort properties

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković, Snežana; Popović, Dušan; Poparić, Goran

    2013-01-01

    The compressive nature of textile fabrics is known to be a significant factor influencing tactile comfort. In addition, the transport of the heat through the fabric is considered to be the major factor in thermal comfort. Since the thermal behavior of textile fabrics is highly correlated with thickness and porosity, the changes in bulk density of the fabric caused by the compression force would change the heat flux through the fabric. The operation of yarn folding modifies the existing single...

  11. Indoor temperatures for optimum thermal comfort and human performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dear, R.; Arens, E. A.; Candido, C.;

    2014-01-01

    A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue.......A response by R. J. de Dear et al to a letter to the editor in response to their article "Progress in thermal comfort research over the last 20 years," published in a 2013 issue....

  12. Health and thermal comfort : from WHO guidance to housing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ormandy, David; Ezratty, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    There are many references to the WHO guidance on thermal comfort in housing, but not to the original source material. Based on archive material, this paper gives the evidential basis for the WHO guidance. It then reports on evidence that some groups may be more susceptible to high or low indoor temperatures than others. It examines different methods for measuring thermal comfort, such as air temperature measurement, assessing residents' perception, and predicting satisfaction. Resident's perc...

  13. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  14. Physical Environment Comfort Impacts on Office Employee’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Shirley Jin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Office workplaces today is now no longer only consisting of passive and fixed activity but also towards a more flexible environment activity. The number of office workplaces is hiking from day to day which leads to the increase of the office workers. The productivity will be improved by providing optimum physical environment. The physical environment comfort in a workplace is claimed to be vital as it will encourages healthier, more productive and lower absenteeism rate among employees. The physical environment comfort encompassed optimum room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. This research intend to investigate the importance of physical environment comfort by evaluating the comfort based on the existing workplace and determine its effect on employee’s performance. Evaluation between the selected case studies are made in the aspects of employee’s comfort perceive health and absenteeism rate by wielding the elements of physical comfort consisting room temperature, relative humidity and illuminance level. Field study was carried out for 3 institutional building particularly management department. High correlations are found between room temperature, lighting and relative humidity with health related issue such as stuffy, easily tired and difficulty in concentration which affect employees’ productivity and work performances.

  15. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  16. Role of feedback in voluntary control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, S B; Levenson, R W; Hinrichsen, J J; Gryll, S L

    1975-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of biofeedback techniques on the voluntary control of heart rate was examined by randomly assigning 32 Ss to one of four feedback conditions in a bi-directional heart-rate control task: (1) no feedback, (2) binary feedback--S was signaled when an interbeat interval had changed in the correct direction, (3) "real-time," proportional feedback--S was provided information about the relative duration of successive interbeat intervals, and (4) numerical, proportional feedback--each interbeat interval was represented as a numeral indicating its relationship to pre-trial mean by direction and magnitude. Significant over-all heart-rate changes were evidenced for both increase and decrease directions, but no differences were found between the feedback conditions. While these data suggest that feedback may be a relatively insignificant factor in voluntary heart-rate control, it was recommended that further investigation examine the role of feedback within the context of other training, mediating and motivational variables.

  17. Maternal Silences: Motherhood and Voluntary Childlessness in Contemporary Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Llewellyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Christianity, there is an ideology of motherhood that pervades scripture, ritual, and doctrine, yet there is an academic silence that means relatively little space has been given to motherhood and mothering, and even less to voluntary childlessness, from a faith perspective. By drawing on qualitative in-depth interviews with Christian women living in Britain, narrating their experiences of motherhood and voluntary childlessness, I suggest there are also lived maternal silences encountered by women in contemporary Christianity. There is a maternal expectation produced through church teaching, liturgy and culture that constructs women as ‘maternal bodies’ (Gatrell 2008; this silences and marginalises women from articulating their complex relationship with religion, motherhood, and childlessness in ways that challenge their spiritual development. However, this article also introduces the everyday and intentional tactics women employ to disrupt the maternal expectation, and hereby interrupt the maternal silence.

  18. Norms to establish the most elementary environmental control system which ensures summer thermal comfort in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, W.; Mathews, E.H. (Pretoria Univ. (ZA). Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow)

    1992-01-01

    Various types of environmental control systems (ECS) such as natural ventilation, mechanical ventilation, evaporative cooling and full air-conditioning can be used to cool buildings in hot climates. It is not always clear which of these would be the most elementary ECS that would still ensure thermal comfort in a thermally efficient building for a specific climate. No method to establish norms describing a minimum acceptable ECS was found. This paper proposes a method and gives the norms for South African buildings. The norms are based on existing thermally efficient reference buildings. The minimum ECS to provide comfort in the reference building for a specific summer climate is established by means of a novel and easy to use thermal simulation procedure. The design must then ensure thermal comfort in new designs by utilizing this minimum ECS. (author).

  19. Feasibility study of context-awareness device Comfort calculation methods and their application to comfort-based access control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jingjing; Jensen, Christian D.; Ma, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    . This allows us to analyze the influence of the context on the comfort level of the device in different perceived contexts in the real world. Moreover, to demonstrate the utility of our device comfort calculation methods, we apply it to comfort-based access control for mobile devices. We present the policy......Mobile devices have become more powerful and are increasingly integrated in the everyday life of people; from playing games, taking pictures and interacting with social media to replacing credit cards in payment solutions. Some actions may only be appropriate in some situations, so the security...... of a mobile device is therefore increasingly linked to its context, such as its location, surroundings (e.g. objects in the immediate environment) and so on. However, situational awareness and context are not captured by traditional security models. In this paper, we examine the notion of Device Comfort...

  20. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  1. Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Nielsen, Mette Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education Hanne Selberg1, Mette Elisabeth Nielsen1, Mette Wenzel Horsted2, Karen Bertelsen2, Marianne Linnet Rasmussen2,Rikke Lohmann Panton3, Copenhagen, Mette Kjeldal Jensen4 Background Changes in nursing education in Denmark towards an academic approach...... with more theory and less practical training have resulted in discussions regarding the lack of practical skills amongst novice nurses. A Danish study of students’ drop-out from the nursing education indicates that difficulties in combining theory and practice are one of the motivating factors behind...... the students’ decision to drop out (Jensen et al. 2008). Within the past year our faculty has conducted several projects with the aim of integrating simulation into the curriculum. Furthermore, voluntary simulation workshop has been carried out as an additional offer in the nursing education. The purpose has...

  2. Voluntary Management Earnings Forecasts and Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramlich, Jeffrey; Sørensen, Ole Vagn

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether Danish managers exercise discretionary accruals to reach earnings forecast targets they voluntarily specify in conjunction with initial public offerings (IPOs). Because the Danish accounting and legal environment is more permissive than the US, we use Denmark...... as a natural laboratory for learning how business would occur without strict rules, enforcement and sanctions. Danish managers often volunteer pro forma financial statements for results that are expected to occur subsequent to the IPO. We examine a sample of 58 Danish firms that issue voluntary management...... earnings forecasts in connection with IPOs that occur between 1984 and 1996. The evidence we uncover strongly suggests that pre-managed earnings are adjusted toward these targets. In contrast with Kasznik's (1999 Kasznik, R. (1999). On the association between voluntary disclosure and earnings management...

  3. Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2015-02-15

    During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P contraction (MVC) (experiment 2; n = 8), mean voluntary activation was also lower with than without ischemia (59 ± 21% vs. 79 ± 9%; P muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents.

  4. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination.

  5. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  6. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-05-01

    Various factors influence the development of the voluntary 'green' power market--the market in which consumers purchase or produce power from non-polluting, renewable energy sources. These factors include climate policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, consumers' interest in purchasing green power, and utilities' interest in promoting existing programs and in offering new green options. This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for green power through 2015 that were made using historical data and three scenarios: low-growth, high-growth, and negative-policy impacts. The resulting forecast projects the total voluntary demand for renewable energy in 2015 to range from 63 million MWh annually in the low case scenario to 157 million MWh annually in the high case scenario, representing an approximately 2.5-fold difference. The negative-policy impacts scenario reflects a market size of 24 million MWh. Several key uncertainties affect the results of this forecast, including uncertainties related to growth assumptions, the impacts that policy may have on the market, the price and competitiveness of renewable generation, and the level of interest that utilities have in offering and promoting green power products.

  7. Downregulation of cough by exercise and voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  8. Simulation of Thermal Comfort of a Residential House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masine Md. Tap

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In hot and humid climates thermal comfort can become a problem to the occupants of many residential buildings especially when they are not equipped with air-conditioning system. This paper presents outcomes of an ongoing research work to investigate thermal comfort level in a naturally ventilated residential house in Malaysia using computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Actual measurements of the temperature distribution, relative humidity and air flow pattern were conducted. CFD simulations on the model of the house allow us to visualize the temperature distribution and air flow pattern and velocity in the house. The thermal comfort in the house was found to be well outside the limits specified by ASHRAE standards. CFD simulation was used to investigate the effects of using a ceiling fan installed in the middle of the hall section and rotating at 150 RPM. It was found that the fan produced swirling flow pattern in the hall section resulting in a more uniform temperature distribution inside the house. However, there is no significant improvement in the thermal comfort level in the house. Results of CFD simulations also show that the use of small extractor fans installed on the front and back walls has no significant effects on the thermal comfort level in the house. Although the mechanical ventilation devices did not help improve the thermal comfort in the house being studied, the CFD simulation results can be used by building designers and engineers to further improved the level of thermal comfort in residential houses in hot and humid climates that are naturally ventilated.

  9. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors.

  10. Using the Comfortability-in-Learning Scale to Enhance Positive Classroom Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiener, Michael; Green, Peter; Ahuna, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    A goal of higher education is to advance learning. This study examined the role "comfortability" plays in that process. Defined as the level of comfort students experience with their classmates, instructor, and course material, comfortability addresses how secure a student feels in the classroom. Comfortability was assessed multiple…

  11. On the estimation of wind comfort in a building environment by micro-scale simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Gross

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional micro-scale model is used to study some aspects of wind comfort in a built-up area. The equations for calculating the mean wind have been extended by a Markov approach for short-term wind fluctuations. The model components have been successfully verified against wind tunnel measurements and observations of a field experiment. The simulated time series are used to estimate wind comfort measures. It turns out that the frequency of exceedance of prescribed thresholds depends strongly on the specification of the gust duration time. It was also possible to calculate the spatial distribution of a gust factor g$g$ depending on local wind characteristics. The simulated range is much broader than a value of g=3–3.5$g=3\\text{--}3.5$ commonly used for wind comfort assessments. Again, the order of magnitude and the bandwidth of g$g$ depends strongly on the definition of a gust.

  12. How I Left My Comfort Zone in Pure Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyda UYSAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Why am I writing a diary? What did I gain by writing a diary? When I write randomly on a piece of paper, it gives me inspiration about my life and about my academic plans. I discovered my interests with writing practice, and I thought sharing my story with others might be a good idea. I studied mathematics as my major. When I was a senior, I already felt tired of abstract mathematics. Psychology of education could be better for me, or another field which has its concrete application in real life. However, at the same time, I did not want to move away from mathematics. Then I met the Department of Education, and I started to take some classes related to education to get ready for my teaching carrier. Because with some background in pedagogy, I knew that I would be able to be more helpful to my students in the future. Then I realized that some mathematical issues which my professors probably worked on for hours were quite barren and not useful for my purposes: teaching mathematics, I mean, usable mathematics that is lots of fun! When I started teaching after having my bachelor’s degree, the biggest challenge for me was to motivate my students. The classroom had good materials and I had the skills to solve the advanced problem sets in mathematics. But how could I find the opportunity to have good communication with my students? These years were worse than my college years. I loved mathematics and I did not understand why they did not! I pondered and made observations about it for almost a year, and I realized that there could be a bigger reason; not related to me personally or to math. I kept records of my teaching experience and wrote down my opinions daily. My husband and I discussed specific problematic situations in the classroom. Finally I happened to figure it out that I decided to leave my comfort zone. What was my comfort zone? It was where I felt safe and what I felt comfortable in doing. I was solving mathematics problems by myself, but

  13. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2016-07-01

    .Simulations and measurementsContextual aspects and combinations of measures can seriously influence the effects of measures. To get a grip on such effects and their co-occurrence (interrelations, possible adaptations to an existing rural configuration were modelled and their effects on the microclimate were simulated using the numerical program ENVI-met. It is demonstrated that, for instance, trees combined with highly reflective façades do often not provide cooling, whereas trees combined with moderate façade colouring does.To assess the effects of a single measure, independent of its context, single parameter simulations of thermal comfort (PET were performed. This is the first time that such a comparative study was undertaken in The Netherlands. The complexity of the situations was increased gradually from an empty field with only pavement or only grass, to pavement with grass and a single building, moving up to a building with a few trees to many trees, multiple buildings and built forms. During this study it became clear that airflow has a significant influence on the comfort temperature. However, cooling by means of creating drafts on a mesoscale is difficult to manage and control. The low wind speed, which is typical for Dutch heat waves, provides ventilation through thermal stratification. Airflow between warm and cool spaces only occurs with sufficient temperature differences and low wind speed. This principle was investigated on the side towards new measures because little is known about the effects of generating airflow as a result of façade colour. Measurements were performed first in a small-scale experiment in a controlled area and when results seemed promising this was extended to a full-scale situation on an average Summer’s day. Research designIn current practice, urban design pays little or no attention to the urban microclimate and urban-heat stress. Designers indicate that they have insufficient knowledge and evaluation instruments. The design study

  14. Improvements in children with cerebral palsy following intrathecal baclofen: use of the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago Care and Comfort Caregiver Questionnaire (RIC CareQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karin W; Tann, Beverley; Mutlu, Akmer; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah

    2014-03-01

    Implantation of an intrathecal baclofen pump is recommended for children with cerebral palsy as a means to improve care and comfort when other options fail to control severe hypertonia. Making an assessment of a child's spasticity-related limitations in both routine care and activity is a necessary component of selection of intrathecal baclofen candidates. The Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago Care and Comfort Caregiver Questionnaire (RIC CareQ) is a validated, easy-to-use questionnaire that elicits information about the ease of daily activity and caregiving in patients with severe spasticity. Questionnaires completed by caregivers and patients at a pediatric physiatry spasticity clinic over an 11-year period were reviewed to evaluate whether the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago Care and Comfort Caregiver Questionnaire captured improved caregiving and comfort of children with cerebral palsy and severe spasticity following intrathecal baclofen pump implantation. The Questionnaire scores showed improvement after intrathecal baclofen pump implantation, consistent with subjective reports of patient and caregiver satisfaction.

  15. Remote guidance of untrained turtles by controlling voluntary instinct behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serin Lee

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been carried out on the direct control of behavior in insects and other lower animals in order to apply these behaviors to the performance of specialized tasks in an attempt to find more efficient means of carrying out these tasks than artificial intelligence agents. While most of the current methods cause involuntary behavior in animals by electronically stimulating the corresponding brain area or muscle, we show that, in turtles, it is also possible to control certain types of behavior, such as movement trajectory, by evoking an appropriate voluntary instinctive behavior. We have found that causing a particular behavior, such as obstacle avoidance, by providing a specific visual stimulus results in effective control of the turtle's movement. We propose that this principle may be adapted and expanded into a general framework to control any animal behavior as an alternative to robotic probes.

  16. COMFORT: evaluating a new communication curriculum with nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty face increasing instructional demands to keep pace with mounting knowledge and competency requirements for student nurses. In the context of nursing practice, tasks and time pressures detract from the high skill and aptitude expectation of communication. The communication, orientation and opportunity, mindful presence, family, openings, relating, and team (COMFORT) curriculum, an acronym that represents 7 basic nursing communication principles, has been introduced into the communication module of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium, which currently provides the only standardized undergraduate and graduate nurse training in hospice and palliative care. This study examines the potential efficacy of the COMFORT curriculum for everyday communication challenges experienced by members of the Georgia Organization of Nurse Leaders. Participants were prompted to describe communication barriers and then apply an aspect of the COMFORT curriculum to this barrier. Responses revealed primary communication barriers with co-workers and patient/families. Nurses predominantly identified directly correlating components in the COMFORT framework (C-communication, F-family) as solutions to the topics described as barriers. Based on confirmation of extant literature addressing generalist nurse communication challenges, there is support for the inclusion of COMFORT across the nursing curriculum to efficiently and effectively teach communication strategies to nurses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The psychobiology of comfort eating: implications for neuropharmacological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E Leigh

    2012-09-01

    Comfort eating, that is eating induced by negative affect, has been a core theme of explanations for overeating and obesity. Psychobiological explanations and processes underlying comfort eating are examined, as well as its prevalence in clinical and nonclinical populations, to consider who may be susceptible, whether certain foods are comforting, and what the implications for treatment may be. Comfort eating may occur in a substantial minority, particularly in women and the obese. Human and animal theories and models of emotional or stress-induced eating show some convergence, and may incorporate genetic predispositions such as impulsivity and reward sensitivity, associated with dopamine dysregulation underlying incentive salience. Comfort eaters show vulnerability to depression, emotional dysregulation and a need to escape negative affect and rumination. During negative affect, they preferentially consume sweet, fatty, energy-dense food, which may confer protection against stress, evidenced by suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response, although activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may itself drive appetite for these palatable foods, and the risk of weight gain is increased. Benefits to mood may be transient, but perhaps sufficient to encourage repeated attempts to prolong mood improvement or distract from negative rumination. Cognitive behavioural treatments may be useful, but reliable drug therapy awaits further pharmacogenomic developments.

  18. Teaching outside the comfort zone: An overstated problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vang Rasmussen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most teachers will eventually be assigned to teach topics that are outside their main area of expertise. In such situations, the teaching is often considered a major challenge. Lecture-based teaching has been framed as a survival strategy as teachers thereby can seek to control the classroom and avoid unforeseen questions from the students. However, limited literature exists on what can help make teaching efficient and comfortable when teachers have to teach outside their comfort zonether teaching styles have, however, largely been ignored and there is no consensus on how student learning is affected when teachers are working outside their comfort zone. To provide insight into the challenges and opportunities related to teaching outside the comfort zone, I refer to a pedagogical experiment from the ‘Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Programme’ offered by the University of Copenhagen. During this programme, I was assigned to teach a course that was outside my main specialization. Rather than turning to lecture-based teaching, I conducted a number of pedagogical activities including think-pair-share activities and role-play exercises. Based on these experiences, I argue that teachers should break away from the perception that lecture-based teaching is more comfortable. Even more importantly, I believe that teachers must shift their focus to student learning rather than their own performance.

  19. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  20. The current situation of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among children in Takatsuki, Japan: focus on Hib and pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Komiyama, Maki; Kono, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the current scenario of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among 18-month-old children of Takatsuki City, Japan. Based on 1167 parents responses, we found that voluntary vaccination coverage rates were low when compared with routine vaccination rates. The children who were not the first born of the family and who had young and poorly educated parents were less likely to receive voluntary vaccination. Japanese government-supported vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccine, had a higher coverage than the vaccines for which parents had to bear the entire vaccination cost. Furthermore, it was found that mass communication media and family pediatricians were effective means to disseminate voluntary vaccination-related information. We envisage that an active participation of medical professionals, easy access to vaccinations, and mass awareness programs will increase voluntary vaccination coverage in Takatsuki.

  1. Polynomial-time Approximation Algorithm for finding Highly Comfortable Team in any given Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    S, Lakshmi Prabha; Janakiraman, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    There are many indexes (measures or metrics) in Social Network Analysis (SNA), like density, cohesion, etc. In this paper, we define a new SNA index called "comfortability". One among the lack of many factors, which affect the effectiveness of a group, is "comfortability". So, comfortability is one of the important attributes (characteristics) for a successful team work. It is important to find a comfortable and successful team in any given social network. In this paper, comfortable team, bet...

  2. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Marini, Kyle; Ghatikar, Girish; Diamond, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Federal agencies are taking many steps to improve the sustainability of their operations, including improving the energy efficiency of their buildings, promoting recycling and reuse of materials, encouraging carpooling and alternative transit schemes, and installing low flow water fixture units are just a few of the common examples. However, an often overlooked means of energy savings is to provide feedback to building users about their energy use through information dashboards connected to a building?s energy information system. An Energy Information System (EIS), broadly defined, is a package of performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems that is used to collect, store, analyze, and display energy information. At a minimum, the EIS provides the whole-building energy-use information (Granderson 2009a). We define a ?dashboard? as a display and visualization tool that utilizes the EIS data and technology to provide critical information to users. This information can lead to actions resulting in energy savings, comfort improvements, efficient operations, and more. The tools to report analyzed information have existed in the information technology as business intelligence (Few 2006). The dashboard is distinguished from the EIS as a whole, which includes additional hardware and software components to collect and storage data, and analysis for resources and energy management (Granderson 2009b). EIS can be used for a variety of uses, including benchmarking, base-lining, anomaly detection, off-hours energy use evaluation, load shape optimization, energy rate analysis, retrofit and retro-commissioning savings (Granderson 2009a). The use of these EIS features depends on the specific users. For example, federal and other building managers may use anomaly detection to identify energy waste in a specific building, or to benchmark energy use in similar buildings to identify energy saving potential and reduce operational cost. There are

  3. Experimental Study on the Ride Comfort of a Crawler Power Chassis Scale Model Based on the Similitude Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianzhu; WANG Fengchen; YU Bin; TONG Pengcheng; CHEN Kuifu

    2015-01-01

    The ride comfort experimental assessment of crawler off-road vehicle is relatively overlooked, and is expensive and difficult to execute with higher and higher ride comfort performance requirements. To trade off between precise and cost, an experimental method based on the similitude theory is proposed. Under the guidance of the similitude theory, a 1:5 crawler power chassis scale model equipped with a kind of variable stiffness suspension system is used. The power spectrum density(PSD), the root mean square(RMS) of weighed acceleration, peak factor, average absorbed power(AAP) and vibration dose value(VDV) are selected as ride comfort evaluation indexes, and tests results are transformed via similarity indexes to predict the performance of full-scale power chassis. PSD shows that the low-order natural frequency of the vertical natural frequency(z axis) is 1.1 Hz, and the RMS, AAP and VDV values indicate the ride comfort performance of this kind of power chassis is between the“A little uncomfortable”and“Rather uncomfortable”. From the results, low-order vertical natural frequency, obtalned by PSD, validates that the similarity relationship between two models is satisfied, and 1:5 scale model used in experiment meets the similarity relationship with the full-scale model; consequently, the ride comfort prophase evaluation with the 1:5 scale model is feasible. The attempt of applying the similitude theory to crawler vehicle ride comfort test study decreases the cost and improves the test feasibility with sufficient test precise.

  4. Improvement of Thermal Comfort Conditions in an Urban Space (Case Study: The Square of Independence, Sétif, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor Ballout

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies all around the world were conducted on the phenomenon of the urban heat island, and referring to the results obtained, one of the most important factors that influence this phenomenon is the mineralization of the cities which means the reducing of evaporative urban surfaces, replacing vegetation and wetlands with concrete and asphalt. The use of vegetation and water can change the urban environment and improve comfort, thus reduce the heat island. The trees act as a mask to the sun, wind, and sound, and also as a source of humidity which reduces air temperature and surrounding surfaces. Water also acts as a buffer to noise; it is also a source of moisture and regulates temperature not to mention the psychological effect on humans. Our main objective in this paper is to determine the impact of vegetation, ponds and fountains on the urban microclimate in general and on the thermal comfort of people along the Independence square in the Algerian city of Sétif, which is a semi-arid climate, in particularly. In order to reach this objective, a comparative study between different scenarios has been done; the use of the Envi-met program enabled us to model the urban environment of the Independence Square and to study the possibility of improving the conditions of comfort by adding an amount of vegetation and water ponds. After studying the results obtained (temperature, relative humidity, PMV and PPD indicators, the efficiency of the additions we've made on the square was confirmed and this is what helped us to confirm our assumptions regarding the terms of comfort in the studied site, and in the end we are trying to develop recommendations and solutions which may contribute to improve the conditions for greater comfort in the Independence square. Keywords: microclimate, vegetation, water ponds, simulation, Envi-Met software, comfort.

  5. Bottom-"wide" Approach to Climate Change - Typology and Analysis on Climate Vulnerability Reduction through Voluntary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoto Yamaura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change risk is mostly and often unfairly cast upon those who are vulnerable. As one of the effective and spreadable means in reducing human vulnerability to climate change, this paper and its findings address the role, strength and limitations of voluntary actions. Through an extensive review of various climate change literature, projects and interviews among practitioners, the authors looked at thetypes of interventions and results that voluntary actions have achieved. The paperintroducesvarious types of voluntary activities such as awareness raising, community mobilization and empowerment, community-based adaptation and mitigation, and voluntary environmental regulations and schemes. Such bottom-"wide" approach to climate change is closely linked with civil environmentalism with broad focus and also scientifically strengthened by its engagement with civic science. It urges shifting the mind-set of international development agencies to flexibly accommodate and maximize the potential of voluntary, bottom-wide actions in combating climate change. Finally, the paper lists out pieces of recommendation to further improve and fully utilize voluntary actions in reducing vulnerabilityon the ground, by emphasizing long-term orientation, capacity development, monitoring and evaluation and building partnerships at the local level.

  6. Impact of Manually Controlled Solar Shades on Indoor Visual Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daylight plays a significant role in sustainable building design. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the impact of manual solar shades on indoor visual comfort. A developed stochastic model for manual solar shades was modeled in Building Controls Virtual Test Bed, which was coupled with EnergyPlus for co-simulation. Movable solar shades were compared with two unshaded windows. Results show that movable solar shades have more than half of the working hours with a comfortable illuminance level, which is about twice higher than low-e windows, with a less significant daylight illuminance fluctuation. For glare protection, movable solar shades increase comfortable visual conditions by about 20% compared to low-e windows. Moreover, the intolerable glare perception could be reduced by more than 20% for movable solar shades.

  7. Analysis of impact of suspension rubber mounts on ride comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao; Chen, Zheming; Lei, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Two multi-body car models with rubber mounts and without rubber mounts have been built up to research how the suspension rubber mounts impact ride comfort. The comfort mount was used to simulate the impact process. Two scenarios have been set up, and time integrations have been performed to get the acceleration-time histories of seat surface in the x-, y-, and z-direction. A MATLAB program was compiled to calculate the weighted RMS acceleration. For the first scenario, the relative difference of weighted RMS acceleration between the car models with rubber mounts and without rubber mounts gradually decreases as the road roughness increases. For the second scenario, the relative difference increases as the driving speed increases. The conclusion shows that the change of driving speed or road roughness impacts ride comfort. Especially for high driving speed this impact is quite obvious.

  8. Comfort Theory: Unraveling the Complexities of Veterans' Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudiab, Lina Daou; Kolcaba, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    The health care needs of veterans, especially those who have served in combat zones and their families are complicated, challenging, and interrelated. Physical limitations impact mental health, and mental health problems affect every aspect of adjustment to civilian life. Comfort theory offers a simple and holistic pattern for identifying needs, creating interventions to meet those needs, and evaluating the effects of those interventions. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how comfort theory has been applied throughout 1 Veterans Administration System to fulfill the goal of providing quality veteran-centric care. The application of comfort theory to daily patient and family care, discharge planning, and follow-up in various settings, as well as ways to enhance institutional integrity and branding are discussed.

  9. Does the wrist flexion affect on the electrophysiological studies in the healthy voluntaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Doruk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects on the median nerve distal sensory latencies (dsl, first digit median vs. radial sensory latency difference, fourth digit median vs. ulnar sensory latency difference which are repeated after performing the provocative wrist flexion for about five minutes in the healhty voluntaries. MATERIALS-METHODS: In this study, 20 women, 5 men voluntaries (total 46 hands were investigated. The median nerve dsl, the first digit median vs. radial sensory latency differences, the fourth digit median vs. ulnar sensory latency differences were recorded. After performing the provocative wrist flexion (bilaterally 90 degree for about five minutes, above mentioned studies were repeated. RESULTS: The mean age of the voluntaries in the study was 32.8±8.4 years. Before and after provocation, the mean dsl of median nerve was 2.71±0.19 msc, and 2.73±0.17 msc, and the mean amplitude of median nerve was 35.8±21.8, and 40.2±22.2 microvolt, the mean of fourth digit median vs. ulnar sensory latency differences was 0.12±0.18 msc, and 0.15±0.19 msc, the mean of first digit median vs. radial sensory latency differences was 0.13±0.23 msc and 0.24±0.47 msc, respectively. Statistically, there were no significance between before and after the provocation at the mean value of amplitude and dsl, the median vs. radial first digit and the median vs. ulnar fourth digit sensory latency differences measurements (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The provocative wrist flexion in the healthy voluntaries has no effect on the electrophysiological studies. [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1.000: 24-28

  10. Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, G.R.; Ranjbar, F. [Univ. of Tehran (IR). Dept. of Physical Geography; Orosa, J.A. [Univ. of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Energy

    2010-07-01

    In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 C and 5.6 C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.

  11. Voluntary energy optimisation - Taking responsibility; Verantwortungsvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baettig, I.

    2006-07-01

    This interview with Konrad Kyburz, CEO of a printing shop in Dielsdorf, Switzerland, discusses how energy consumption can be reduced on a voluntary basis. The provision free-of-charge of heat recovered from the drying ovens of the printing presses to a nearby sports facility is discussed. The realisation of an energy consumption analysis and the resulting increases in the efficiency of energy usage in the printing facility are discussed. Further improvements such as the use of variable-frequency compressor drives and heating with natural gas that helped in making energy savings of well over 15% are discussed.

  12. Comfort and patient-centred care without excessive sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Shehabi, Yahya; Walsh, Timothy S

    2016-01-01

    and Delirium guidelines, is conveyed in the mnemonic eCASH-early Comfort using Analgesia, minimal Sedatives and maximal Humane care. eCASH aims to establish optimal patient comfort with minimal sedation as the default presumption for intensive care unit (ICU) patients in the absence of recognised medical...... contribute to the larger aims of eCASH by facilitating promotion of sleep, early mobilization strategies and improved communication of patients with staff and relatives, all of which may be expected to assist rehabilitation and avoid isolation, confusion and possible long-term psychological complications...

  13. Comfort, hygiene, and safety in veterinary palliative care and hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Robin; Adams, Valarie Hajek; McClenaghan, Ann P

    2011-05-01

    Hygiene, comfort, and safety during pet palliative care and hospice are usually straightforward. The veterinary health care team must coordinate care to ensure that the pet and the family are fully informed and engaged in the process. End-of-life issues, euthanasia, and death are typically not everyday concerns for the pet owner. Pet owners and veterinary patients rely on the veterinary health care team to help create the structure within which the pet will die. The veterinary team can give the family-pet unit the gift of structure and multifaceted comfort. The veterinary profession must take seriously this unique niche of care. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. COMFORTABLE HOUSING AND HAPPY LIVES OF TIBETAN FARMERS AND HERDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENKYI

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, a hot topic arose in regard to Tibetan economic development. This was the“ comfortable housing project”. A range of new houses and enumerable new villages are rising above the ground at accessible sights such as the sides of roads and grasslands close to villages. Beaming smiles are fixed on the faces of farmers and herders while they are moving into new houses. Since the beginning of 2006, Tibet has launched a comfortable housing project to settle herders, transferring living places for the sak...

  15. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms.

  16. Reinforcement learning for energy conservation and comfort in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalamagkidis, K. [Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Kolokotsa, D. [Technical Educational Institute of Crete, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Chania, Crete (Greece); Kalaitzakis, K.; Stavrakakis, G.S. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Chania, Crete (Greece)

    2007-07-15

    This paper deals with the issue of achieving comfort in buildings with minimal energy consumption. Specifically a reinforcement learning controller is developed and simulated using the Matlab/Simulink environment. The reinforcement learning signal used is a function of the thermal comfort of the building occupants, the indoor air quality and the energy consumption. This controller is then compared with a traditional on/off controller, as well as a Fuzzy-PD controller. The results show that, even after a couple of simulated years of training, the reinforcement learning controller has equivalent or better performance when compared to the other controllers. (author)

  17. Investigation and analysis of human body thermal comfort in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xue

    2017-05-01

    In this survey, we selected the 11th building of North China Electric Power University as the research object. Data were measured and distributed on each floor. We record the temperature of the classroom, humidity, wind speed, average radiation temperature and other environmental parameters. And we used spare time to create a questionnaire survey of the subjective feeling of the survey, to get everyone in the classroom TSV (hot feeling vote value) and TCV (thermal comfort vote). We analyzed the test data and survey data. What's more we discuss and reflect on the thermal comfort of the human body in different indoor temperature atmospheres.

  18. Prevalence and Factors Affecting Dysmenorrhea in Female University Students: Effect on General Comfort Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Demet

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the affecting factors of dysmenorrhea and its effects on overall comfort among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study. The research was carried out between October and November 2013 at a university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 200 female students. The data were analyzed using frequencies, means, SD, χ(2) tests, independent t tests and analysis of variance. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire, the visual analog scale (VAS) and the General Comfort Questionnaire. The mean age of students in this study group was 20.85 ± 2.15 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the students was 84%. The mean severity of pain was 5.78 ± 2.45 on the VAS. The present study found that 45.8% of female students experienced moderate menstrual pain and the most common co-occurring symptoms were irritability (34.6%) and fatigue (21.5%). One-fourth of the students with dysmenorrhea consulted the advice of a physician and the most commonly used methods for pain were analgesics (69%), heat application (56.5%), and rest (71.4%). Family history of dysmenorrhea, education about menstruation, and frequency of menstrual cycle were identified as important factors in the development of dysmenorrhea (p students with dysmenorrhea (2.57 ± 0.25) was lower than that of students without the condition (2.65 ± 0.23). Also, use of the methods for management of dysmenorrhea was found to increase students' general comfort levels. Therefore, it is important for nurses to educate and advise adolescents and young women about dysmenorrhea.

  19. Perception of the thermal environment in high school and university classrooms: Subjective preferences and thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Filippi, Marco; Viazzo, Sara [Department of Energy (DENER), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2007-02-15

    This work shows some of the results of a field study about environmental comfort investigations in classrooms. In this project thermal, acoustic, visual and air quality aspects were analysed in a number of classrooms-13 classrooms at four different high schools of the Provincia di Torino and four typical medium-sized university classrooms of the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. The investigations were carried out during the heating period. Both field measurements and subjective surveys were performed at the same time during the regular lesson periods. This paper focuses on thermal comfort, which may have a significant effect on the students' performance, in terms of attention, comprehension and learning levels. The measurement campaign consisted in measuring the thermal environment parameters-air temperature, mean radiant temperatures, air relative humidity and air velocity. Through these data, the thermal comfort Fanger's indices (predicted mean vote (PMV), and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD)people) were calculated, the actual people clothing and metabolic rate being known. The subjective survey involved questions on the thermal environmental perception. They basically investigated the thermal environment acceptability and preference. Moreover, a judgement based on the typical seven point thermal sensation scale (Fanger 7-points scale) was also asked. Through the elaboration of the questionnaire data, the actual percentage of dissatisfied (PD) people of the felt thermal environment was evaluated. The judgements about the thermal environment were compared with the results of the field measurements. Moreover, the subjective mean votes were compared with the thermal environment perceptions in terms of acceptability and preference. (author)

  20. Voluntary participation and cooperation in a collective-good game.

    OpenAIRE

    Kene Boun My; Benoît Chalvignac

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of voluntary participation in the context of a collective-good experiment. We investigate whether the freedom to participate in the game or not increases contribution levels and enhances their evolution. The analysis of two voluntary participation treatments supports a positive effect of an attractive exit option on both contribution levels and their sustainability. We conclude that the voluntary contribution mechanism can provide sustainable cooperation levels and that th...

  1. Reversal of optic neuropathy secondary to voluntary globe luxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Aylin; Ozturk, Taylan; Soylev, Meltem F

    2009-04-01

    Luxation of the globe is rare in the general population and may be spontaneous, voluntary, or traumatic. Spontaneous or voluntary globe luxation results from shallow orbit, floppy eyelids, lax orbital ligaments, backward displacement of orbital septum, or proptotic eyes due to orbital tumors or infiltrative processes, as in Grave's ophthalmopathy. The authors report a case with unilateral voluntary globe luxation presented with unilateral progressive visual loss.

  2. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  3. In search of the comfortable indoor environment: A comparison of the utility of objective and subjective indicators of indoor comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Niklas; Skoog, Jennie [Building Services Engineering, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Vaestfjaell, Daniel [Department of Psychology, Goeteborg University (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Today, many procedures for assessing the indoor environment rely on both subjective and objective indicators (e.g. ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2004; ISO 10551). It is however unclear how these two types of measurements are related to perceived comfort. This article aims at assessing the relative utility of subjective (rating scale measures) and objective indicators of perceived comfort of indoor environments. In a hospital setting, physical environmental variables (e.g. temperature, relative humidity and noise level) were simultaneously measured as respondents (both patients and staff) rated their perception of the indoor environment. Regression analyses indicated that the subjective sensory ratings were significantly better than objective indicators at predicting overall rated indoor comfort. These results are discussed in relation to existing measurement procedures and standards. (author)

  4. Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data collectors administered a self-made questionnaire to each participant using an interview based format. All data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS 16. Results. 350 participants, having a mean age of 21.47 ± 1.36, were included in our study with 30.6% (107/350 being males and 69.4% (243/350 being females. 93.4% (327/350 of participants agreed that donating blood was healthy, but only 26% had donated blood in the past with 79.1% donating voluntarily. 65.7% (230/350 of the participants agreed to take part in Short Message Service based behavioral interventions to become voluntary blood donors with 69.7% (244/350 also agreeing that Short Message Service reminders will promote them to donate blood more often. Conclusion. With university students willing to become voluntary blood donors, Pakistani blood banks can carry out Short Message Service based interventions to encourage them to donate blood.

  5. Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sana; Wasim, Anum; Sabih, Sidra; Khan, Ayisha Farooq; Rizvi, Madiha Hasan; Jillani, Umaima Ayesha; Syed, Mujtaba Jamal; Mumtaz, Madiha; Mumtaz, Yasmeen; Shehzad, Abdul Moid; Dawani, Om; Khan, Saima; Munir, Sheheryar; Asad, Nava; Kazi, Abdul Nafey

    2014-01-01

    All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data collectors administered a self-made questionnaire to each participant using an interview based format. All data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS 16. Results. 350 participants, having a mean age of 21.47 ± 1.36, were included in our study with 30.6% (107/350) being males and 69.4% (243/350) being females. 93.4% (327/350) of participants agreed that donating blood was healthy, but only 26% had donated blood in the past with 79.1% donating voluntarily. 65.7% (230/350) of the participants agreed to take part in Short Message Service based behavioral interventions to become voluntary blood donors with 69.7% (244/350) also agreeing that Short Message Service reminders will promote them to donate blood more often. Conclusion. With university students willing to become voluntary blood donors, Pakistani blood banks can carry out Short Message Service based interventions to encourage them to donate blood.

  6. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  7. Differences in thermal comfort between young and elderly people; Verschillen in thermisch comfort tussen jongeren en ouderen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellen, L. [Unit Building Physics and Services, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Part of a PhD research has been dedicated to finding out which temperature levels and fluctuations are thermally acceptable in air-conditioned buildings. The physiological response of users has also been examined. Finally, a comparison has been made of the optimal conditions for the thermal comfort of young people and of elderly people [Dutch] Als onderdeel van een promotieonderzoek is onderzocht binnen welke temperatuurniveaus temperatuurfluctuaties in geklimatiseerde gebouwen thermisch acceptabel zijn. Ook is gekeken naar de fysiologische response van gebruikers. Tenslotte is een vergelijking gemaakt voor de optimale condities met betrekking tot thermisch comfort voor jongere en oudere personen.

  8. A failing medical educational model: a self-assessment by physicians at all levels of training of ability and comfort to deliver bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Etan; McCarter, Robert; Jacobs, Shana

    2010-06-01

    Patient surveys consistently show physician communication remains less than ideal. While previous studies have demonstrated a lack of trainee confidence in delivering bad news, our study explores communication skills at all levels of practice and highlights potential barriers to improvement. Pediatric residents, fellows, and attendings involved in direct patient care at a major academic center participated in a voluntary questionnaire, consisting of self-assessed scales of comfort level, knowledge level, amount of training, and attitudes towards communication education. We also elicited barriers to learning and teaching as well as significant experiences. Eligible responses (n = 253) were evenly divided between trainees and faculty. Almost half of attendings and two thirds of fellows did not feel sufficiently knowledgeable to deliver bad news. Many attendings felt disproportionately more comfortable than they felt knowledgeable. All trainees felt insufficiently knowledgeable for independent practice of this skill. Educational barriers centered on time constraints, a deemphasis, a lack of positive modeling, and minimal awareness of existing resources. Poor experiences revolved around inappropriate language and settings as well as insufficient empathy or preparedness. Positive anecdotes highlighted the importance of education and the impact of role models. Independent of level of training, this study reveals a lack of self-assessed preparedness from many responsible for delivering bad news to patients and families. A significant barrier to improvement is the disproportionate level of self-assessed comfort versus knowledge level. Educational models should include both didactics to learn the skills and practice-based learning to refine the techniques.

  9. Thermal-comfort analysis and simulation for various low-energy cooling-technologies applied to an office building in a subtropical climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Ashfaque Ahmed; Rasul, M.G.; Khan, M.M.K. [College of Engineering and the Built Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Health, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Qld 4702 (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Simulation of buildings' thermal-performances is necessary to predict comfort of the occupants in buildings and to identify alternate cooling control-systems for achieving better indoor thermal environments. An analysis and prediction of thermal-comfort using DesignBuilder, based on the state-of-the-art building performance simulation software EnergyPlus, is carried out in an air-conditioned multi-storeyed building in the city of Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia. Rockhampton is located in a hot humid-region; therefore, indoor thermal-comfort is strongly affected by the outdoor climate. This study evaluates the actual thermal conditions of the Information Technology Division (ITD) building at Central Queensland University during winter and summer seasons and identifies the thermal comfort level of the occupants using low-energy cooling technologies namely, chilled ceiling (CC), economiser usages and pre-cooling. The Fanger comfort-model, Pierce two-node model and KSU two-node model were used to predict thermal performance of the building. A sophisticated building-analysis tool was integrated with the thermal comfort models for determining appropriate cooling-technologies for the occupants to be thermally comfortable while achieving sufficient energy savings. This study compares the predicted mean-vote (PMV) index on a seven-point thermal-sensation scale, calculated using the effective temperature and relative humidity for those cooling techniques. Simulated results show that systems using a chilled ceiling offer the best thermal comfort for the occupants during summer and winter in subtropical climates. The validity of the simulation results was checked with measured values of temperature and humidity for typical days in both summer and winter. The predicted results show a reasonable agreement with the measured data. (author)

  10. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could

  11. Improvement of thermal comfort by cooling clothing in warm climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kolencíková, Sona;

    2014-01-01

    comfort compared to convective cooling alone. The supply of a small amount of water allowed the cooling clothing to provide a continuous cooling effect, whereas the effect of convective cooling alone decreased as sweat dried. However, the controllability of the cooling clothing needs to be improved....

  12. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and ac

  13. Effects of Yaw Motion on Driving Behaviour, Comfort and Realism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Wentink, M.; Bertollini, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of large displacement yaw cueing is becoming more common as a part of the motion cueing in driving simulators. It is expected that driving behaviour, comfort and realism will be positively affected by adding a yaw table, especially during low-speed turning manoeuvres. We used TNO's advanced

  14. Portable+: A Ubiquitous And Smart Way Towards Comfortable Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Milan [IIIT-Delhi; Singh, Amarjeet [IIIT-Delhi; Chandan, Vikas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-30

    An air conditioner (AC) consumes a significant proportion of the total household power consumption. Primarily used in developing countries, decentralised AC has an inbuilt thermostat to cool the room to a temperature, manually set by the users. However, residents are incapable of specifying their goal through these thermostats - maximise their comfort or save AC energy. State-of-the-art portable thermostats emulate AC remotes and assist occupants in remotely changing the thermostat temperature, through their smartphones. We propose extending such thermostats to portable+ by adding a Comfort-Energy Trade-off (CET) knob, realised through an optimisation framework to allow users to balance their comfort and the savings without worrying about the right set temperature. Analysis based on real data, collected from a controlled experiment (across two rooms for two weeks) and an in-situ deployment (across five rooms for three months), indicates that portable+ thermostats can reduce residents’ discomfort by 23% (CET selection for maximal comfort) and save 26% energy when CET is set for maximising savings.

  15. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.M.; Lange, R. de; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could acceler

  16. Research and Design for Thermal Comfort in Dutch Urban Squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzholzer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal comfort in urban outdoor places was generally not an issue in Dutch urban design. This neglect shows problematic effects of discomfort, but also missed chances in urban life quality. The existing problems are alleviated due to the expected effects of climate change with even higher tem

  17. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and accura

  18. Progress in thermal comfort research over the last twenty years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dear, R. J. de; Akimoto, T.; Arens, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    developed, driven by the continuous challenge to model thermal comfort at the same anatomical resolution and to combine these localized signals into a coherent, global thermal perception. Finally, the demand for ever increasing building energy efficiency is pushing technological innovation in the way we...

  19. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and ac

  20. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

  1. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Bazley, C.; Kamp, I.; Blok, M.

    2012-01-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet t

  2. Determination of a comfortable volume of mouthwash for rinsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keukenmeester, R.S.; Slot, D.E.; Rosema, N.A.M.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess patient comfort when rinsing for 30 s with 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 ml volumes of mouthwash, with the goal of establishing the most agreeable volume. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a single-blind, clinical trial with duplicate assessments. Par

  3. Upper limits for air humidity based on human comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole; Jørgensen, Anette S.

    1998-01-01

    respiratory cooling. Human subjects perceived the condition of their skin to be less acceptable with increasing skin humidity. Inhaled air was rated warmer, more stuffy and less acceptable with increasing air humidity and temperature. Based on the subjects' comfort responses, new upper limits for air humidity...

  4. Three different anesthesia techniques for a comfortable prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Enabling pain and discomfort control in patients is very important during TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. In our study, we observed that the periprostatic block enables more comfortable compared with patient groups with intrarectal lidocaine gel and pudendal block and better reduction in pain scores.

  5. Possibilities to improve the aircraft interior comfort experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Bazley, C.; Kamp, I.; Blok, M.

    2012-01-01

    Comfort plays an increasingly important role in the interior design of airplanes. Although ample research has been conducted on airplane design technology, only a small amount of public scientific information is available addressing the passenger's opinion. In this study, more than 10,000 internet

  6. A Novel Exercise Thermophysiology Comfort Prediction Model with Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in a regular exercise program can improve health status and contribute to an increase in life expectancy. However, exercise accidents like dehydration, exertional heatstroke, syncope, and even sudden death exist. If these accidents can be analyzed or predicted before they happen, it will be beneficial to alleviate or avoid uncomfortable or unacceptable human disease. Therefore, an exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction model is needed. In this paper, coupling the thermal interactions among human body, clothing, and environment (HCE as well as the human body physiological properties, a human thermophysiology regulatory model is designed to enhance the human thermophysiology simulation in the HCE system. Some important thermal and physiological performances can be simulated. According to the simulation results, a human exercise thermophysiology comfort prediction method based on fuzzy inference system is proposed. The experiment results show that there is the same prediction trend between the experiment result and simulation result about thermophysiology comfort. At last, a mobile application platform for human exercise comfort prediction is designed and implemented.

  7. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sehgal, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX, to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless minisplit heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  8. Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump Comfort Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, K.; Sehgal, N.; Akers, C.

    2013-03-01

    Field tests were conducted in two homes in Austin, TX to evaluate the comfort performance of ductless mini-split heat pumps (DMSHPs), measuring temperature and relative humidity measurements in four rooms in each home before and after retrofitting a central HVAC system with DMSHPs.

  9. Materialities shape practices and notions of comfort in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff

    2017-01-01

    in heating systems between the housing types and shows how changes in technologies and material structures shape the practices of heating and airing. A shift in technology from radiators to underfloor heating was found to make a clear difference in both how houses are heated and thermal comfort is perceived...

  10. Comfort in using hand tools: theory, design and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Everyone uses hand tools in their daily life, like knife and fork. Moreover, many people use hand tools in their profession as well as during leisure time. It is important that they can work with hand tools that provide comfort. Until now, the avoidance of discomfort was emphasized during the desig

  11. Effects of Yaw Motion on Driving Behaviour, Comfort and Realism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Wentink, M.; Bertollini, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of large displacement yaw cueing is becoming more common as a part of the motion cueing in driving simulators. It is expected that driving behaviour, comfort and realism will be positively affected by adding a yaw table, especially during low-speed turning manoeuvres. We used TNO's advanced

  12. Improvement of Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Ventilated Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Jensen, J.; Larsen, J.

    The paper describes the results of laboratory investigations in a mock-up of an office space with the purpose of investigating the impact of different opening strategies on thermal comfort conditions in the occupied zone. The results show that different window opening strategies result in quite...

  13. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and

  14. Multicriteria analysis of health, comfort and energy efficiency in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulet, C.A.; Flourentzou, F.; Foradini, F.; Bluyssen, P.; Cox, C.; Aizlewood, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to comply with sustainable development policy, the minimum that buildings should achieve are a healthy, comfortable and energy-efficient environment. Criteria for individually assessing each of the many criteria are known: the occupant's perceived health; the provided thermal, visual and

  15. A novel medical bandage with enhanced clothing comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğlakcioğlu, N.; Sari, B.; Bedez Üte, T.; Marmarali, A.

    2016-07-01

    Compression garments are special textile products which apply a pressure on needed body zones for supporting medical, sport or casual activities. Medical bandages are a group of these garments and they have a very common usage for compression effect on legs or arms. These bandages are generally produced by using synthetic raw materials such as polyamide or polyester fibres. Medical bandages are in contact with skin. Even if the synthetic fibres are used, they may cause both comfort and health problems like allergies. Nowadays in textile sector, the expectations of clients include using of natural fibres as far as possible in all garments. Natural fibres have good advantages such as breathability, softness, moisture management ability, non-allergenic and ecologic structure and these characteristics present optimum utilization conditions. In this study, tubular medical bandages were manufactured by using core spun yarns (sheath fibres are selected as tencel, bamboo and cotton, core material is elastane) and their pressure and comfort (air and water vapour permeability) characteristics were investigated. The results indicated that the bandages have good comfort abilities beside adequate pressure values for compression effect. These garments can constitute a new production field for medical bandages with their comfort properties in addition to pressure characteristics.

  16. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often cau...

  17. Adaptive outdoor comfort model calibrations for a semitropical region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitisawat, M.; Polakit, K.; Caldieron, J.M.; Mangone, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a part of a research project funded by Architectural Research Centers Consortium (ARCC) and Florida Atlantic University (FAU). The project focuses on finding a way to assess outdoor comfort and developing design criteria for a semitropical region of South Florida. A series of surveys

  18. Two hospitals join forces to sponsor "A Woman's Comfort Day".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Two Baton Rouge, La., hospitals--usually strong competitors--decided to join forces and collaborate on a special event for the women of the community. "A Woman's Comfort Day," now in its third year, was the successful result. If they're feeling good about themselves, can the Super Bowl be far behind?

  19. Adaptive outdoor comfort model calibrations for a semitropical region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitisawat, M.; Polakit, K.; Caldieron, J.M.; Mangone, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a part of a research project funded by Architectural Research Centers Consortium (ARCC) and Florida Atlantic University (FAU). The project focuses on finding a way to assess outdoor comfort and developing design criteria for a semitropical region of South Florida. A series of surveys h

  20. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  1. Assessment of Outdoor Thermal Comfort and Wind Characteristics at Three Different Locations in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanipah Mohd Hafizal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and rapid growth in construction have led to the problems of global warming and urban heat island throughout the world. In order to reduce these problems particularly in hot and humid climatic region, a research on current level of outdoor thermal comfort and wind characteristics based on the local weather conditions around Malaysia should be conducted. This paper reports on the analysis of outdoor thermal comfort level at hottest temperatures and wind characteristics at three locations in Peninsular Malaysia by using hourly climatic data recorded by Malaysian Meteorological Department (MetMalaysia. The level of outdoor thermal comfort was assessed based on the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI. The results showed extreme heat stress conditions have occurred at Alor Setar, Kuantan, and Subang with UTCI values of 51.2°C, 49.7°C, and 49.0°C respectively taking into account only temperature data from the year 2012 to 2014. However, for 20 years data from 1994 to 2014, the calculated UTCI also showed extreme heat stress conditions with their respective values of 49.6°C, 43.8°C, and 49.7°C for Alor Setar, Kuantan, and Subang respectively. Meanwhile, the hourly mean wind speed for three years data at Alor Setar, Kuantan, and Subang, were 1.70m/s, 1.69m/s, and 1.63m/s respectively. The highest mean wind speed of 11.6m/s was observed at Subang, while no wind movement (i.e. 0m/s was considered to be the lowest hourly wind speed for all three locations. The observed prevailing wind direction for all the three locations was from the north (0°. It can be concluded that Peninsular Malaysia is generally facing extreme heat stress problem due to unfavourable climatic conditions.

  2. The Welfare Culture. Poetics of Comfort in Architecture of the 19th and 20th-centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Prieto González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractArchitectural history of the last two centuries shows that welfare, far from being a purely technical issue – a balance between weather and the physiological human constants – is a culturally constructed idea concerning diverse factors, such as the relationship between space and human body or the ways of conceiving nature in architecture. However, the notion of comfort has not received the historiographical attention it deserves, hence the need for a new perspective, aesthetic and multidisciplinary in nature. Such a view is discussed in this article through a brief and partial history of comfort that addresses the different meanings assigned to the concept over the past two centuries, in accordance with a kind of 'poetics': the longstanding poetics of fire, linked the regenerative comfort; the poetics of hygiene and habitat, developed during modernity as a scientifistic dogma and as an aesthetic alibi, and, finally, the poetics of atmospheres, which accounts for contemporary concerns about perception, memory and sociability. From this historical review we can conclude that welfare is not an objectifiable concept, nor an idea synthesized in the technician or scientist test tubes, but a complex notion consisting of several intertwined layers: physiological, constructive, aesthetic, existential, social. The history of comfort is, thus, a sort of small version of the history of culture.Key wordscomfort, architecture, hygiene, habitat, atmosphere

  3. Thermal Comfort While Sitting on Office Chairs – Subjective Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Vlaović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is related to human physiological reactions. In order to maintain a constant internal temperature, the human body must dissipate heat in a warm climate, and prevent heat losses in a cold climate. The overall sensation of comfort accompanies the warmest part of the body in a warm environment and the coldest one in a cold environment. Chair design and clothing may affect the difference in sensitivity between certain parts of the body, that is, they may affect thermal comfort. This research focused on subjective sensation of warmth and moisture while sitting on offi ce chairs. The subjective method of evaluating thermal discomfort is based on ISO 7730:2005 standard, according to which a questionnaire was made for this research. Six subjects took part in the research. They were sitting on five different office chairs as they performed their usual jobs in controlled conditions. From the point of view of the evaluation of the sensation of warmth, all chairs were evaluated neutrally. The sensation under the buttocks and thighs was reported to be somewhat warmer, while the sensation on the back was reported to be somewhat colder, which was affected by the design of the back of the chair. No correlation has been proven between the actual temperature and moisture measurements and subjective evaluations of thermal comfort, in spite of a number of direct links. The use of the present method offers the possibility of further research into this subject, which would prove more thoroughly a correlation between design and construction solutions of office chairs and the comfort perceived by sitting persons.

  4. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... contributions stop earning interest on the earliest of— (1) The date when OPM authorizes payment to the... voluntary contributions to purchase additional annuity, voluntary contributions stop earning interest on...

  5. Efficiency of voluntary closing hand and hook prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Delft Institute of Prosthetics and Orthotics has started a research program to develop an improved voluntary closing, body-powered hand prosthesis. Five commercially available voluntary closing terminal devices were mechanically tested: three hands [Hosmer APRL VC hand, Hosmer Soft VC Male hand,

  6. Voluntary and involuntary adaptation of gait in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Rutgers, AWF; Van Weerden, TW

    1998-01-01

    Voluntary and involuntary adaptation of gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) were studied in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, effects of changes in voluntary control were studied by asking PD patients and age-matched healthy subjects to adapt their walking pattern to visual cues result

  7. Re-Examining the Relationship between Age and Voluntary Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    In their quantitative review of the literature, Healy, Lehman, and McDaniel [Healy, M. C., Lehman, M., & McDaniel, M. A. (1995). Age and voluntary turnover: A quantitative review. "Personnel Psychology, 48", 335-345] concluded that age is only weakly related to voluntary turnover (average r = -0.08). However, with the significant changes in…

  8. Conditioning Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus Gilli) for Voluntary Diving Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-31

    heartrate (EKG) to validate "voluntary" nature of dive EXAMINE ACTIVE DIVING CONDITIONS (open Ocean Mewwmenr) dive profiles using TDR respiration... heartrate electrodes Open Ocean Experiments ’wear instrument package (TDR) perform voluntary dive up to 200 meters readily present tail flukes for

  9. Students' vocational choices and voluntary action: A 12-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Haski-Leventhal (Debbie); R.A. Cnaan (Ram); F. Handy (Femida); J.L. Brudney (Jeffrey); K. Holmes (Kirsten); L. Hustinx (Lesley); C. Kang (Chulhee); M. Kassam (Meenaz); L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas); B. Ranade (Bhagyashree); N. Yamauchi (Naoto); A.B. Yeung (Anne Birgitta); S. Zrinscak (Sinisa)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research on student involvement suggested that business and engineering students manifest lowest rates of voluntary action. Similarly, it was thought that social science students are the most involved in voluntary action, with students of natural sciences and humanities in the m

  10. Integrating Voluntary Simplicity of Lifestyle into Home Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This curriculum guide presents guidelines for teaching concepts of Voluntary Simplicity in home economics in Florida. (Voluntary Simplicity is a lifestyle in which individuals choose to live more simply, considering the limited nature of the world's resources.) It is designed for use as a separate unit within different subject matter areas or as…

  11. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... precedence set forth in section 8342(c) of title 5, United States Code, is entitled to payment of the balance... contributions. (a) Before receiving additional annuity payments based on the voluntary contributions, a person who has made voluntary contributions may withdraw the balance while still an employee or Member,...

  12. 78 FR 54444 - Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United... Aid (ACVFA). Date: Wednesday, September 18, 2013. Time: 2:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Location: Horizon Room..., Executive Director, Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for...

  13. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  14. Voluntary chemical castration of a mental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1988-06-01

    Britain's High Court recently overruled two decisions of the Mental Health Act Commission that denied certification of a voluntary experimental drug treatment to a mental patient, holding that the standard for informed consent is determined not by the subjective judgment of the commissioners but by whether the patient knows the nature and likely effects of treatment and that its use in his case is a novel one. The background facts of the case involving a 27-year-old pedophile receiving goserelin implantations to reduce testosterone levels are presented and the issues of jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 and the commissioners' duty to act fairly and to consider the likely benefits of treatment are discussed.

  15. A comparison of arthrocentesis teaching tools: cadavers, synthetic joint models, and the relative utility of different educational modalities in improving trainees' comfort with procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jessica R; Ben-Artzi, Ami; Fisher, Mark C; Bass, Anne R; Pillinger, Michael H

    2012-06-01

    Each year, rheumatology programs across the country teach incoming trainees the skill of arthrocentesis, but the relative effectiveness of various teaching techniques has not been assessed in a systematic way. We compared approaches to teaching arthrocentesis using cadavers versus anatomic models. In a pilot study, new rheumatology fellows (n = 7) from 2 academic institutions were surveyed at 3 points during arthrocentesis training: (1) before assuming patient care; (2) after lecture with handouts, followed by practice either on cadavers (group A) or on synthetic joint models (group B); and (3) 6 weeks into fellowship. Fellows rated their comfort levels for arthrocentesis of specific joints using 9-point Likert scales. Fellows also retrospectively rated the utility of individual teaching modalities in helping them to learn. As a follow-up study, internal medicine residents taking part in a month-long rheumatology rotation were similarly surveyed on their comfort level performing knee and shoulder arthrocentesis before a cadaver teaching laboratory and at the end of their month rotation. The initial mean comfort level performing arthrocentesis for all fellows was low (2.01). After the cadaver teaching session, group A fellows experienced an overall comfort level increase of 1.95, with the largest single increase reported for shoulder arthrocentesis (3.86). After the anatomic model teaching session, group B fellows reported a mean comfort increase of 1.29, with the largest increase reported for knee arthrocentesis (3.13). The subsequent study with residents confirmed significant increases in comfort after the cadaver laboratory. When surveyed, the learning experience fellows considered most effective was the opportunity to perform procedures under supervision and guidance, followed by training on cadavers. Although all teaching interventions for trainees learning arthrocentesis were helpful for increasing trainee's comfort with arthrocentesis, the use of cadavers

  16. Investigation on Hourly and Monthly Thermal Comfort in the Humid Tropics of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harimi Djamila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on hourly and monthly indoor neutral temperature variations in the humid tropics are limited in literature. In Malaysia, the variation of hourly outdoor mean temperature is slightly higher than the monthly mean temperature. Consequently, this leads to the hypothesis that the variation of hourly neutral temperatures might be higher than the monthly neutral temperatures. Understanding the impact of hourly and monthly temperature variation on thermal comfort will certainly provide the design direction of future indoor environments. In this study, extensive measurements from residential buildings were used to investigate the observed variation. Linear regression and Griffiths methods were explored for analyzing the results. There was almost no variation on hourly and monthly neutral temperatures within the range under study. Further research is highly recommended due to the limited data collection and the limitations of the employed methods. It is highly advised to further investigate the hourly temperature variation on thermal comfort during nighttime and early morning. This is for an accurate interpretation of the results.

  17. Priming voluntary autobiographical memories: Implications for the organisation of autobiographical memory and voluntary recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.

  18. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  19. Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Bergeron, Onil; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), along with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), the humidex (HX) and the wind chill index (WC), was calculated in Quebec City, Canada, a city with a strong seasonal climatic variability, over a 1-year period. The objective of this study is twofold: evaluate the operational benefits of implementing the UTCI for a climate monitoring program of public comfort and health awareness as opposed to relying on traditional and simple indices, and determine whether thermal comfort monitoring specific to dense urban neighborhoods is necessary to adequately fulfill the goals of the program. In order to do so, an analysis is performed to evaluate each of these indices' sensitivity to the meteorological variables that regulate them in different environments. Overall, the UTCI was found to be slightly more sensitive to mean radiant temperature, moderately more sensitive to humidity and much more sensitive to wind speed than the PET. This dynamic changed slightly depending on the environment and the season. In hot weather, the PET was found to be more sensitive to mean radiant temperature and therefore reached high values that could potentially be hazardous more frequently than the UTCI and the HX. In turn, the UTCI's stronger sensitivity to wind speed makes it a superior index to identify potentially hazardous weather in winter compared to the PET and the WC. Adopting the UTCI broadly would be an improvement over the traditionally popular HX and WC indices. The urban environment produced favorable conditions to sustain heat stress conditions, where the indices reached high values more frequently there than in suburban locations, which advocates for weather monitoring specific to denser urban areas.

  20. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2008 Brownfields Voluntary Cleanup Program Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Brownfields/Voluntary Cleanup Program (BVCP) provides property buyers, sellers, developers, bankers, development agencies, local government and other voluntary...

  1. Continuous Context-Aware Device Comfort Evaluation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jingjing; Jensen, Christian D.; Ma, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    to calculate the sensitivity of a specific action to the context. We present two different methods for a mobile device to dynamically evaluate its security status when an action is requested, either by the user or by another device. The first method uses the predefined ideal context as a standard to assess...... context, such as its location, surroundings (e.g. objects and people in the immediate environment) and so on, because some actions may only be appropriate in some situations; this is not captured by traditional security models. In this paper, we examine the notion of Device Comfort and propose a way...... the comfort level of a device in the current context. The second method is based on the familiarity of the device with doing the particular action in the current context. These two methods suit different situations of the device owner’s ability to deal with system security. The assessment result can activate...

  2. Predicting bicycle setup for children based on anthropometrics and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Karl; Dodson, Zoe; Korff, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Bicycling is a popular activity for children. In order for children to enjoy cycling and to minimize injury, it is important that they are positioned appropriately on the bicycle. The purpose of this study was therefore to identify a suitable bicycle setup for children aged between 7 and 16 years which accommodates developmental differences in anthropometrics, flexibility and perceptions of comfort. Using an adjustable bicycle fitting rig, we found the most comfortable position of 142 children aged 7 to 16. In addition, a number of anthropometric measures were recorded. Seat height and the horizontal distance between seat and handlebars were strongly predictable (R(2) > 0.999, p bicycle manufacturers.

  3. MIT-Skywalker: Evaluating comfort of bicycle/saddle seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Rogerio S; Hamilton, Taya; Daher, Ali R; Hirai, Hiroaki; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    The MIT-Skywalker is a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury. This device has been designed based on the concept of a passive walker and provides three distinct training modes: discrete movement, rhythmic movement, and balance training. In this paper, we present our efforts to evaluate the comfort of a bicycle/saddle seat design for the system's novel actuated body weight support device. We employed different bicycle and saddle seats and evaluated comfort using objective and subjective measures. Here we will summarize the results obtained from a study of fifteen healthy subjects and one stroke patient that led to the selection of a saddle seat design for the MIT-Skywalker.

  4. Comfort care packs: a little bit of hospice in hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mark A; Hillock, Sharon; Moore, Carol; Goble, Hannah; Asbury, Nicky

    2010-10-01

    The Comfort Care Pack initiative is an innovation designed to enhance the inpatient experience of end-of-life patients and their carers. The carer is given a pleasantly decorated box containing a variety of items for use by the patient or the carer themselves: snacks, toiletries and items to promote comfort. This project set out to evaluate the impact of these packs by reviewing the returns of the feedback questionnaires included with the packs. From the first 220 packs, 58 questionnaires were returned, giving quantitative and qualitative data. The response to the packs was overwhelmingly positive and they were much valued by the carers. This was the case despite the fact that relatively few of the items were actually used by the recipients. It is suggested that the value of the packs to recipients lies in the gesture of being thought about during what is a difficult time for them. The implications of this are discussed.

  5. Balancing Machine Work, Comfort Work, and Sentimental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria Ie; Hansen, Magnus; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and attention. We investigate ambulance care in three of Denmark’s five healthcare regions, which staff ambulances with emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and physicians. Using the concept of illness trajectory we analyse how the ambulance crews balance machine work, which involves continuously...... work, but also that this has negative consequences. Equipment for use in ambulances should aim at supporting the ambulance crews in competently and dynamically balancing the different types of work and should, consequently, avoid binding the crew’s attention for unbroken periods of time....... monitoring the equipment, comfort work, which is actions taken to relieve the pain or discomfort of the patient, and sentimental work, which is care for the patient’s physical and mental well-being, often verbal in nature. The analysis shows that comfort and sentimental work often takes priority over machine...

  6. Improved Generalized Force Model considering the Comfortable Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved generalized force model (IGFM that considers the driver’s comfortable driving behavior. Through theoretical analysis, we propose the calculation methods of comfortable driving distance and velocity. Then the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis. The problems of the unrealistic acceleration of the leading car existing in the previous models were solved. Furthermore, the simulation results show that IGFM can predict correct delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density, and it can exactly describe the driver’s behavior under an urgent case, where no collision occurs. The dynamic properties of IGFM also indicate that stability has improved compared to the generalized force model.

  7. Energy and comfort: a new type for TRNSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaini, G.; Dall`O, G.; Drago, P. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Rossi, G. [Istituto Universitario di Architettura, Venezia (Italy)

    1996-05-01

    Two subroutines have been developed which permit users of the TRNSYS programme to calculate the parameters of ambiental comfort (PMV and PPD). The first subroutine deals with the calculation of the view factors inside a room for all the values of the spatial coordinates and, thus, permits the average radiant temperature to be calculated in every position. The second subroutine has been developed in accordance with the indications of the ISO 7730 standard. Both subroutines have been validated and then interfaced to TRNSYS. The integrated programme has been utilised to compare the performances of different heating systems in terms of energy consumption and comfort, maintaining the temperature of the interior constant for different climatic conditions. (author)

  8. Vision Influence on Whole-Body Human Vibration Comfort Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Machado Duarte

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The well being of people needs to be a priority in the modern world. In that respect, vibration cannot be one more cause of stress. Besides that, vibration comfort is very important, since high levels may cause health or even tasks' accomplishment problems. Several parameters may influence the levels of vibration a human being supports. Among them, one can mention the influence of gender, age, corporeal mass index (CMI, temperature, humor, anxiety, hearing, posture, vision, etc. The first three parameters mentioned were already investigated in previous studies undertaken by GRAVI (Group of Acoustics and Vibration researchers. In this paper, the influence of vision is evaluated. The main objective with this series of tests performed is to try to quantify in a future the influence of each parameter in a global vibration comfort level. Conclusions are presented for the parameter investigated.

  9. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  10. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  11. Comfort Women in Human Rights Discourse: Fetishized Testimonies, Small Museums, and the Politics of Thin Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hee-Jung Serenity

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the issue of comfort women--the women and girls who were forced into sex slavery for the Japanese army before and during WWII--has risen to global attention. Tens of thousands of comfort women (the average estimate is anywhere between 80,000 and 200,000) were confined at comfort stations managed by the Japanese Imperial…

  12. Electric heating provides a high level of home comfort - economically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M.

    1997-11-01

    Research and development at IVO in the area of electric heating boasts a tradition going back almost thirty years. Research aimed at further progress is continuing. IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically heated houses of the century` project four years ago. The first results show that electric heating continues to be very competitive with other heating systems. It is an economical way of heating the home and it also increases the comfort of those living there

  13. Lyophobic heterogeneous system (LHS) application to payload comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Michelin-Jamois, Millán

    2014-01-01

    Competition in aerospace industry forces to follow a constant evolution of technologies linked to launching costs decreasing and reliability increasing. An improvement of payload protection systems is a way to achieve these conditions. The main issue of this PhD thesis is to verify the applicability of lyophobic heterogeneous systems (association of a nanoporous material and a non- wetting liquid) in vibrations damping for payload comfort. Intrusion of liquid in LH S requires a high mechanica...

  14. When Are Users Comfortable Sharing Locations with Advertisers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    suggest that users’ strong privacy concerns may hinder this potentially invasive form of advertising , as early efforts reach the market . We also find that...When Are Users Comfortable Sharing Locations with Advertisers ? Patrick Gage Kelley, Michael Benisch, Lorrie Faith Cranor, Norman Sadeh October 2010...15213-3890 As smartphones and other mobile computing devices have increased in ubiquity, advertisers have begun to realize a more effective way of

  15. Building Comfort Analysis Using BLAST: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Models were recently incorporated into the BLAST program. These are the Pierce, KSU, and Fanger models. All three are well recognized models in ASHRAE...program were developed. The new report is invoked by specifying the name of the comfort model desired (i.e., Pierce, Fanger , or KSU), and by adding the...number 123 to the reports statement in the input deck. For example, the following statement would generate reports using the Fanger and Pierce models

  16. Sexuality education: attitudes, knowledge, comfort and willingness of portuguese teachers

    OpenAIRE

    ALVAREZ, M.-J.; PINTO, A. Marques

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the widespread implementation of sexuality education (SE) in Portuguese schools, after becoming mandatory in 2009, we aim to understand Portuguese teachers' perspective on SE (N = 307). Through an on-line questionnaire, analysed by descriptive statistics and factorial and inferential analysis, we measured general attitudes on SE, knowledge, comfort and willingness to teach it, the importance assigned to several topics of SE and the grade level at which they should be int...

  17. Dataset on daytime outdoor thermal comfort for Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Queiroz da Silveira Hirashima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This dataset describe microclimatic parameters of two urban open public spaces in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil; physiological equivalent temperature (PET index values and the related subjective responses of interviewees regarding thermal sensation perception and preference and thermal comfort evaluation. Individuals and behavioral characteristics of respondents were also presented. Data were collected at daytime, in summer and winter, 2013. Statistical treatment of this data was firstly presented in a PhD Thesis (“Percepção sonora e térmica e avaliação de conforto em espaços urbanos abertos do município de Belo Horizonte – MG, Brasil” (Hirashima, 2014 [1], providing relevant information on thermal conditions in these locations and on thermal comfort assessment. Up to now, this data was also explored in the article “Daytime Thermal Comfort in Urban Spaces: A Field Study in Brazil” (Hirashima et al., in press [2]. These references are recommended for further interpretation and discussion.

  18. Evaluation of the thermal comfort of ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The uncomforting can be characterized by heated floor surfaces in external environments which are exposed to sun radiation (swimming polls areas or by cold floor surfaces in internal environments (bed rooms, path rooms. The property named thermal effusivity which defines the interface temperature when two semi-infinite solids are putted in perfect contact. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic tiles interferes in the contact temperature and also it can be a strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. Materials with low conductivities and densities can be obtained by porous inclusion are due particularly to the processing conditions usually employed. However, the presence of pores generally involves low mechanical strength. This work has the objective to evaluate the thermal comfort of ceramics floor obtained by incorporation of refractory raw materials (residue of the polishing of the porcelanato in industrial atomized ceramic powder, through the thermal and mechanical properties. The theoretical and experimental results show that the porosity and crustiness surface increases; there is sensitive improvement in the comfort by contact.

  19. Classifying EEG Signals during Stereoscopic Visualization to Estimate Visual Comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jérémy; Appriou, Aurélien; Lotte, Fabien; Hachet, Martin

    2016-01-01

    With stereoscopic displays a sensation of depth that is too strong could impede visual comfort and may result in fatigue or pain. We used Electroencephalography (EEG) to develop a novel brain-computer interface that monitors users' states in order to reduce visual strain. We present the first system that discriminates comfortable conditions from uncomfortable ones during stereoscopic vision using EEG. In particular, we show that either changes in event-related potentials' (ERPs) amplitudes or changes in EEG oscillations power following stereoscopic objects presentation can be used to estimate visual comfort. Our system reacts within 1 s to depth variations, achieving 63% accuracy on average (up to 76%) and 74% on average when 7 consecutive variations are measured (up to 93%). Performances are stable (≈62.5%) when a simplified signal processing is used to simulate online analyses or when the number of EEG channels is lessened. This study could lead to adaptive systems that automatically suit stereoscopic displays to users and viewing conditions. For example, it could be possible to match the stereoscopic effect with users' state by modifying the overlap of left and right images according to the classifier output.

  20. Wear/comfort Pareto optimisation of bogie suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milad Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed; Berbyuk, Viktor; Persson, Rickard

    2016-08-01

    Pareto optimisation of bogie suspension components is considered for a 50 degrees of freedom railway vehicle model to reduce wheel/rail contact wear and improve passenger ride comfort. Several operational scenarios including tracks with different curve radii ranging from very small radii up to straight tracks are considered for the analysis. In each case, the maximum admissible speed is applied to the vehicle. Design parameters are categorised into two levels and the wear/comfort Pareto optimisation is accordingly accomplished in a multistep manner to improve the computational efficiency. The genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to perform the multi-objective optimisation. Two suspension system configurations are considered, a symmetric and an asymmetric in which the primary or secondary suspension elements on the right- and left-hand sides of the vehicle are not the same. It is shown that the vehicle performance on curves can be significantly improved using the asymmetric suspension configuration. The Pareto-optimised values of the design parameters achieved here guarantee wear reduction and comfort improvement for railway vehicles and can also be utilised in developing the reference vehicle models for design of bogie active suspension systems.

  1. Evaluation technology of clothing comfortableness; Ifuku tekigosei hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwaya, H.

    1999-10-26

    Modern apparel industries are required to supply many kinds of products corresponding to various needs of consumers. Among consumers' needs, comfortableness to wear such as size-fitness is primarily important. To facilitate apparel industries, it is expected to develop a new technology of pattern designing of comfortable garment and measuring garment pressure distribution. Our research is aimed at developing technology that uses computer simulation to predict and evaluate wear comfort, including size suitability, without the need to actually sew up a garment. First, we developed a basic system to predict wearing silhouette, garment pressure, and ease looseness of the garment. Using this system, we carried on the following study. The 3-dimensional distributions of the garment pressure and ease looseness were reversely mapped on the paper pattern in order to indicate the preferable modification. The system was extended for several poses, e.g. twist, bend. From various parameters, we examined the factors of garment pressure and ease looseness. In addition, we selected the parameters for the size-fit indicators and investigated size-fit evaluation indicators. (author)

  2. Hygrothermal response of a dwelling house. Thermal comfort criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian IACOB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of local natural materials in order to reduce the environmental negative impact of buildings has become common practice in recent years; such buildings are to be found in all regions of the planet. The high level of thermal protection provided by the envelope elements made from natural materials such as straw bale insulation, hemp insulation or sheep wool, and their lack of thermal massiveness require a more complex analysis on their ability to keep interior comfort without accentuated variations. This paper proposes a comparative analysis between different solutions for a residential building located near a Romanian city, Cluj-Napoca. The elements of the building envelope are designed in three alternative solutions, using as substitute to classical solutions (concrete and polystyrene, masonry and polystyrene, straw bales and rammed earth for enclosing elements. For this purpose there are conducted numerical simulations of heat and mass transfer, using a mathematical model that allows the analysis of indoor comfort, by comparing both objective factors (air temperature, operative temperature and relative humidity and subjective factors, which are needed to define interior thermal comfort indices PPD and PMV. Finally, a set of conclusions are presented and future research directions are drawn.

  3. Standards guidelines for human comfort tested on timber footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Activities such as walking, running and jumping can produce undesirable dynamic excitations, which are a phenomenon that occurs due to pedestrian-induced dynamic forces whenever a footbridge features a natural frequency within stepping frequency ranges. Dynamic evaluations of timber footbridges are necessary to verify the level of human comfort and the suitability of the bridges when subjected to human traffic. The objective of this paper is to present a bibliography review on the standards guidelines contained in international codes BS 5400, SIA 160, OHBDC, CEB, EUROCODE 5, AASHTO, BRO and ISO 10137 as well as in studies by various researchers, in order to verify the serviceability limit state for vibrations. In Brazil, codes ABNT NBR 7190 and ABNT NBR 7188 set the sizing criteria for timber footbridges considering the ultimate and serviceability limit states, with the latter ignoring human comfort with regard to vibrations. Thus, the information contained in this study can contribute to the refinement of Brazilian code ABNT NBR 7190, as it takes into account human comfort in pedestrian-induced vibrations on footbridges.

  4. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  5. A framework of comfort for practice: An integrative review identifying the multiple influences on patients' experience of comfort in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, Cynthia; Botti, Mari; McKillop, Ann; Merry, Alan F

    2017-04-01

    Comfort is central to patient experience but the concept of comfort is poorly defined. This review aims to develop a framework representing patients' complex perspective of comfort to inform practice and guide initiatives to improve the quality of healthcare. CINAHL, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO and Google Scholar (November 2016); reference lists of included publications. Qualitative and theoretical studies advancing knowledge about the concept of comfort in healthcare settings. Studies rated for methodological quality and relevance to patients' perspectives. Data on design, methods, features of the concept of comfort, influences on patients' comfort. Data were systematically coded and categorized using Framework method. Sixty-two studies (14 theoretical and 48 qualitative) were included. Qualitative studies explored patient and staff perspectives in varying healthcare settings including hospice, emergency departments, paediatric, medical and surgical wards and residential care for the elderly. From patients' perspective, comfort is multidimensional, characterized by relief from physical discomfort and feeling positive and strengthened in one's ability to cope with the challenges of illness, injury and disability. Different factors are important to different individuals. We identified 10 areas of influence within four interrelated levels: patients' use of self-comforting strategies; family presence; staff actions and behaviours; and environmental factors. Our data provide new insights into the nature of comfort as a highly personal and contextual experience influenced in different individuals by different factors that we have classified into a framework to guide practice and quality improvement initiatives.

  6. Voluntary Noise Mapping for Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time

  7. VOLUNTARY NOISE MAPPING FOR SMART CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Poslončec-Petrić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems. i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the

  8. The spinal reflex cannot be perceptually separated from voluntary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arko; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Both voluntary and involuntary movements activate sensors in the muscles, skin, tendon and joints. As limb movement can result from a mixture of spinal reflexes and voluntary motor commands, the cortical centres underlying conscious proprioception might either aggregate or separate the sensory inputs generated by voluntary movements from those generated by involuntary movements such as spinal reflexes. We addressed whether healthy volunteers could perceive the contribution of a spinal reflex during movements that combined both reflexive and voluntary contributions. Volunteers reported the reflexive contribution in leg movements that were partly driven by the knee-jerk reflex induced by a patellar tendon tap and partly by voluntary motor control. In one condition, participants were instructed to kick back in response to a tendon tap. The results were compared to reflexes in a resting baseline condition without voluntary movement. In a further condition, participants were instructed to kick forwards after a tap. Volunteers reported the perceived reflex contribution by repositioning the leg to the perceived maximum displacement to which the reflex moved the leg after each tendon tap. In the resting baseline condition, the reflex was accurately perceived. We found a near-unity slope of linear regressions of perceived on actual reflexive displacement. Both the slope value and the quality of regression fit in individual volunteers were significantly reduced when volunteers were instructed to generate voluntary backward kicks as soon as they detected the tap. In the kick forward condition, kinematic analysis showed continuity of reflex and voluntary movements, but the reflex contribution could be estimated from electromyography (EMG) recording on each trial. Again, participants' judgements of reflexes showed a poor relation to reflex EMG, in contrast to the baseline condition. In sum, we show that reflexes can be accurately perceived from afferent information. However

  9. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  10. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lokey, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  11. Ecological Research of the Voluntary Disclosure about Listed Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing-Jing; Yan, Guang-Le

    In the paper, the research subject is the ecological relationship between the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises(SMEs) and the Large-scale Enterprises(Les). From the perspective of ecology, setting up the competitive model basic on the Logistic model, and carrying out further analysis about the voluntary information disclosure of listed company, then getting the strategic choice about the voluntary information disclosure and the ecological explanation of false information, and the dynamic mechanism and strategy of the voluntary information disclosure of listed company.

  12. ComfortPower - System improvements and long-term evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Catator has previously developed a novel heating system abbreviated ComfortPower in a RandD-programme supported by Catator, Swedish Gas Centre (SGC), Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (FMV), Skanska, Nibe and Alfa Laval. The ComfortPower unit comprises a multi fuel reformer system tied to a high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEM) and a heat pump system. Since the residual heat from the fuel cell system can be utilized in a very effective way, it is possible to reach high thermal efficiencies. Indeed, the thermal efficiency in the unit has previously been shown to reach values as high as 175 - 200 % based on the lower heating value of the fuel. In addition to heat, ComfortPower can supply comfort cooling and surplus electricity. This project phase has focused on the following elements: 1. System improvements to further enhance the efficiency with existing fuel cell (HT-PEM). 2. System simplifications (e.g. DC-compressor system) to manage issues with start-up currents. 3. Tests with biogas qualities (various levels of CO{sub 2}) and biogas/air. 4. Long-term test with biogas quality (upgraded biogas). 5. Additional tests with liquid fuels (alcohols and diesel). 6. Map the need for cooling and heating in various applications. 7. Investigate how ComfortPower can reduce the primary energy consumption and reduce the environmental impact. 8. Study the possibility with a SOFC-based system with internal reforming. It was found that the Optiformer technology can be used to derive a suitable reformate gas for the HT-PEM unit from a wide range of fuels. Even if operation with fuel gases is the natural choice in most cases, it is possible also to use alcohols and other liquid fuels (e.g. in Campus applications). The heat pump system was equipped with a 24 V DC-compressor provided by Nibe. The compressor could be directly powered by the accumulator system and start-up currents, harmful to the inverter, could be avoided. Some improvements were made on the

  13. Dynamic evaluation of thermal comfort environment of air-conditioned buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanqing, Wang; Zhiyong, Wang [Department of Civil Engineering, Zhuzhou Institute of Technology, Zhuzhou Hunan 412008 (China); Chunhua, Huang; Yingyun, Liu [Nanhua University, Hengyang 421001 (China); Zhiqiang, Liu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guangfa, Tang [School of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2006-11-15

    In this paper, based upon Fanger's thermal comfort concept, several concepts, which utilize computing results obtained from the large eddy simulation (LES), are put forward, such as thermal comfort index based on time-averaged parameters, instantaneous thermal index, time-averaged thermal comfort index and time-averaged thermal comfort index along walking routes. Also their discrepancies and calculation methods are discussed in the paper. Apart from these, we have calculated PD value as an example, whose results indicate that the distributions of four indices are obviously different. Therefore, it is suggested to distinguish different cases and select correspondingly thermal comfort evaluation indices.

  14. Standardized, Interdepartmental, Simulation-Based Central Line Insertion Course Closes an Educational Gap and Improves Intern Comfort with the Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudziak, Joanna; Herndon, Blair; Dancel, Ria D; Arora, Harendra; Tignanelli, Christopher J; Phillips, Michael R; Crowner, Jason R; True, Nicholas A; Kiser, Andy C; Brown, Rebecca F; Goodell, Harry P; Murty, Neil; Meyers, Michael O; Montgomery, Sean P

    2017-06-01

    Central line placement is a common procedure, routinely performed by junior residents in medical and surgical departments. Before this project, no standardized instructional course on the insertion of central lines existed at our institution, and few interns had received formal ultrasound training. Interns from five departments participated in a simulation-based central line insertion course. Intern familiarity with the procedure and with ultrasound, as well as their prior experience with line placement and their level of comfort, was assessed. Of the 99 interns in participating departments, 45 per cent had been trained as of October 2015. Forty-one per cent were female. The majority (59.5%) had no prior formal ultrasound training, and 46.0 per cent had never placed a line as primary operator. Scores increased significantly, from a precourse score mean of 13.7 to a postcourse score mean of 16.1, P interns reported the course was "very much" helpful, and 100 per cent reported they felt "somewhat" or "much" more comfortable with the procedure after attendance. To our knowledge, this is the first hospital-wide, standardized, simulation-based central line insertion course in the United States. Preliminary results indicate overwhelming satisfaction with the course, better ultrasound preparedness, and improved comfort with central line insertion.

  15. An investigation of thermal comfort inside an automobile during the heating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynakli, Omer; Kilic, Muhsin [Uludag Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Bursa (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a combined theoretical and experimental study of thermal comfort during the heating period inside an automobile. To investigate the effects of thermal conditions on the human physiology and thermal comfort during the heating period, temperature, humidity and air velocity were measured at a number of points inside the automobile, so thermal conditions were accurately determined. The human body was divided into 16 sedentary segments, and the change of temperature was observed both experimentally and theoretically. During transient conditions of the heating period, heat and mass transfer between the human body and the interior environment of an automobile were simulated by a computational model, and predictions were compared with the measured data. It is shown that there is a good agreement between the model predictions and experimental results. By means of the present model, the effects of the fast transient conditions of the heating period on the sensible and latent heat transfer from the body, body segments skin temperatures and thermal sensation were investigated in detail. (Author)

  16. Implications of climate and outdoor thermal comfort on tourism: the case of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salata, Ferdinando; Golasi, Iacopo; Proietti, Riccardo; de Lieto Vollaro, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Whether a journey is pleasant or not usually depends on the climatic conditions which permit to perform outdoor activities. The perception of climatic conditions, determined by physiological and psychological factors, can vary according to different adaptation phenomena related to the person involved and the weather conditions of the place where they live. Studying the bioclimatology of a country characterized by a high flux of tourism, as e.g. Italy, can provide some important information about where and when is it better to visit a place. Some differences have to be specified though, like the local tourism, which is used to that type of climate, and international tourism, which is formed by people coming from countries with different types of climates. Therefore this paper examined the climatic conditions and outdoor thermal comfort through the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI) for local tourism and through the predicted mean vote (PMV) for international tourism. The cities examined were three (Venice, Rome and Palermo located in the North, Centre and South of Italy, respectively), where average information were collected every week for an entire year. Finally, a map of the entire Italian territory reporting the seasonal average values of these indexes was also reported.

  17. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  18. Influence of central buckle on suspension bridge dynamic characteristics and driving comfort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王达; 邓扬; 刘扬

    2015-01-01

    The central buckle, which is often used in a suspension bridge, can improve bridges’ performance in the actual operation condition. The influence of the central buckle on natural vibration characteristics and bridge-deck driving comfort of a long-span suspension bridge is studied by using a case study of Siduhe Suspension Bridge in China. Based on the finite element software ANSYS and independently complied program, the influence of the central buckle on the structure force-applied characteristics of a long-span suspension bridge has been explored. The results show that the huge increases of natural frequencies can result in the presence of central buckles because of the increases of bending and torsional rigidities. The central buckle basically makes the stiffening girders and cables within the triangular area covered as a relatively approximate rigid area. Hence, the central buckle can reduce the torsional displacement of the main girder. However, the increases of bending and torsional rigidities have little influence on the impact factor, which is obtained by using vehicle-bridge coupled vibration analysis. This means that the central buckle has little effect on the comfort indices. In addition, it is found that the central buckle can enhance the bridge deck’s driving stability due to the decrease of the torsional displacements of the main girder.

  19. The Impact of Electronic Reading Devices on Reading Speed and Comfort in Patients with Decreased Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry L. Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. To evaluate the impact of back-illuminated and nonilluminated electronic reading devices on reading speed and comfort in patients with decreased vision. Methods. A prospective study involving a convenience sample of 167 patients at a single retina practice from January 2011 to December 2012. Participants were asked to read five different excerpts on five different media in a randomly assigned order. Media included a printed book at 12-point font (12PF, iPad2 at 12PF, iPad2 at 18-point font (18PF, Kindle2 at 12PF, and Kindle2 at 18PF. Reading speed in words per minute (WPM and medium preference were recorded and stratified by visual acuity (VA. Results. Mean reading speeds in WPM: iPad2 at 18PF (217.0, iPad2 at 12PF (209.1, Kindle2 at 18PF (183.3, Kindle2 at 12PF (177.7, and printed book at 12PF (176.8. Reading speed was faster on back-illuminated media compared to nonilluminated media. Text magnification minimized losses in reading performance with worsening patient VA. The majority of participants preferred reading on the iPad2 at 18PF. Conclusions. Back-illuminated devices may increase reading speed and comfort relative to nonilluminated devices and printed text, particularly in patients with decreased VA.

  20. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Azevedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  1. Expectations and voluntary attrition in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as an important factor in student decisions to voluntarily withdraw. A single case study design was selected to explore the causes of voluntary attrition in nursing students within a School of Nursing and Midwifery. The study population was obtained through purposeful sampling and consisted of 15 students who had previously voluntarily withdrawn from pre-registration nursing programmes. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from study participants. The interview schedule developed for use in the study reflected the key components of the conceptual model of higher education (HE) student attrition (Tinto, 1975, 1987, 1993). All interviews were tape recorded to facilitate later transcription. The Cyclical or Interactive Model of Qualitative Research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) was used to analyse data collected from study participants. This paper describes the unrealistic range of expectations which nursing students have of nursing, the information sources and experiences which inform student expectations and how ambiguous expectations contributed to voluntarily attrition.

  2. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  3. Thermal comfort modelling of body temperature and psychological variations of a human exercising in an outdoor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal comfort assessments pertaining to exercise while in outdoor environments can improve urban and recreational planning. The current study applied a simple four-segment skin temperature approach to the COMFA (COMfort FormulA) outdoor energy balance model. Comparative results of measured mean skin temperature ( {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{Msk}} ) with predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} indicate that the model accurately predicted {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} , showing significantly strong agreement ( r = 0.859, P compared to the original and updated COMFA models. This psychological improvement, plus {{bar{T}}}nolimits_{{sk}} and T c validations, enables better application to a variety of outdoor spaces. This model can be used in future research studying linkages between thermal discomfort, subsequent decreases in physical activity, and negative health trends.

  4. Impact of façade window design on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in nearly zero-energy houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker;

    2015-01-01

    a solution space defined by targets for daylighting and thermal comfort. In contrast with existing guidelines, the results show an upper limit for energy savings and utilisation of solar gains in south-oriented rooms. Instead, low U-values are needed in both north- and south oriented rooms before large......Appropriate window solutions are decisive for the design of 'nearly zero-energy' buildings with healthy and comfortable indoor environment. This paper focuses on the relationship between size, orientation and glazing properties of façade windows for different side-lit room geometries in Danish...... 'nearly zero-energy' houses. The effect of these parameters on space heating demand, daylighting and thermal environment is evaluated by means of EnergyPlus and DAYSIM and presented in charts illustrating how combinations of design parameters with minimum space heating demand can be selected within...

  5. The influence of local effects on thermal sensation under non-uniform environmental conditions — Gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity during convective and radiant cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellen, L.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; de Wit, M.H.;

    2012-01-01

    , thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20–29years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During...... the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more...

  6. 9 CFR 592.1 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words. 592.1 Section 592.1... INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS Definitions § 592.1 Meaning of words. Under the regulations in this part words in the singular shall be deemed to import the plural and vice versa, as the...

  7. Voluntary work organization in higher educational establishment: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Polatayko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses basic questions of voluntary work formation in higher educational establishment, its conceptual and legislative basis, defines basic directions of students agencies activities and forms of their participation in higher educational establishment activities.

  8. Respiratory inductance plethysmography is suitable for voluntary hyperventilation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Pascale; Besleaga, Tudor; Eberhard, André; Vovc, Victor; Baconnier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the goodness of fit of a signal issued of the respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) derivative to the airflow signal during rest, voluntary hyperventilation, and recovery. RIP derivative signal was filtered with an adjusted filter based on each subject airflow signal (pneumotachography). For each subject and for each condition (rest, voluntary hyperventilation, and recovery) comparisons were performed between the airflow signal and the RIP derivative signal filtered with an adjusted filter obtained either on rest signal or on the studied part of the signals (voluntary hyperventilation or recovery). Results show that the goodness of fit was : (1) higher than 90% at almost all comparisons (122 on 132), (2) not improved by applying an adjusted filter obtained on the studied part of the signals. These results suggest that RIP could be used for studying breathing during voluntary hyperventilation and recovery using adjusted filters obtained from comparison to airflow signal at rest.

  9. 78 FR 71476 - Authority for Voluntary Withholding on Other Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...)(3) authorizes the Secretary to provide regulations for withholding from (A) remuneration for... AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Temporary regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains temporary regulations under the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to voluntary withholding...

  10. Improving Voluntary Environmental Management Programs: Facilitating Learning and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.; Wood, Danielle M.

    2011-05-01

    Environmental planners and managers face unique challenges understanding and documenting the effectiveness of programs that rely on voluntary actions by private landowners. Programs, such as those aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution or improving habitat, intend to reach those goals by persuading landowners to adopt behaviors and management practices consistent with environmental restoration and protection. Our purpose with this paper is to identify barriers for improving voluntary environmental management programs and ways to overcome them. We first draw upon insights regarding data, learning, and adaptation from the adaptive management and performance management literatures, describing three key issues: overcoming information constraints, structural limitations, and organizational culture. Although these lessons are applicable to a variety of voluntary environmental management programs, we then present the issues in the context of on-going research for nonpoint source water quality pollution. We end the discussion by highlighting important elements for advancing voluntary program efforts.

  11. Assessing voluntary muscle activation with the twitch interpolation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Anthony; Zhou, Shi

    2004-01-01

    The twitch interpolation technique is commonly employed to assess the completeness of skeletal muscle activation during voluntary contractions. Early applications of twitch interpolation suggested that healthy human subjects could fully activate most of the skeletal muscles to which the technique had been applied. More recently, however, highly sensitive twitch interpolation has revealed that even healthy adults routinely fail to fully activate a number of skeletal muscles despite apparently maximal effort. Unfortunately, some disagreement exists as to how the results of twitch interpolation should be employed to quantify voluntary activation. The negative linear relationship between evoked twitch force and voluntary force that has been observed by some researchers implies that voluntary activation can be quantified by scaling a single interpolated twitch to a control twitch evoked in relaxed muscle. Observations of non-linear evoked-voluntary force relationships have lead to the suggestion that the single interpolated twitch ratio can not accurately estimate voluntary activation. Instead, it has been proposed that muscle activation is better determined by extrapolating the relationship between evoked and voluntary force to provide an estimate of true maximum force. However, criticism of the single interpolated twitch ratio typically fails to take into account the reasons for the non-linearity of the evoked-voluntary force relationship. When these reasons are examined, it appears that most are even more challenging to the validity of extrapolation than they are to the linear equation. Furthermore, several factors that contribute to the observed non-linearity can be minimised or even eliminated with appropriate experimental technique. The detection of small activation deficits requires high resolution measurement of force and careful consideration of numerous experimental details such as the site of stimulation, stimulation intensity and the number of interpolated

  12. Study of Air Velocity and Temperature Gradient in Lecture Room Through Mixed and Displacement Ventilation Systems to Improve the Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iskandriawan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Air ventilation system is considered crucial in the target of maintaining clean and fresh room air at all times. It will improve the thermal comfort and indoor air quality along with the activities of occupant. This investigation explores the influence of fresh air diffuser location to the thermal comfort factor especially in the lecture room. It will contrast two types of ventilation: the mixed and the displacement ventilation. The thermal comfort factor is represented by means of air velocity and temperature. Using Fluent 6.2 as CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation program, all the variables will be exploited. The specific boundary type’s room model is verified in GAMBIT software generating such a specific lecture room. The finding shows that the displacement ventilation system has benefit in the propensity of controlling the heat and air velocity compare to the mixed ventilation

  13. Voluntary reaction time and long-latency reflex modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgaard, Christopher J; Franks, Ian M; Maslovat, Dana; Chin, Laurence; Chua, Romeo

    2015-12-01

    Stretching a muscle of the upper limb elicits short (M1) and long-latency (M2) reflexes. When the participant is instructed to actively compensate for a perturbation, M1 is usually unaffected and M2 increases in size and is followed by the voluntary response. It remains unclear if the observed increase in M2 is due to instruction-dependent gain modulation of the contributing reflex mechanism(s) or results from voluntary response superposition. The difficulty in delineating between these alternatives is due to the overlap between the voluntary response and the end of M2. The present study manipulated response accuracy and complexity to delay onset of the voluntary response and observed the corresponding influence on electromyographic activity during the M2 period. In all active conditions, M2 was larger compared with a passive condition where participants did not respond to the perturbation; moreover, these changes in M2 began early in the appearance of the response (∼ 50 ms), too early to be accounted for by voluntary overlap. Voluntary response latency influenced the latter portion of M2, with the largest activity seen when accuracy of limb position was not specified. However, when participants aimed for targets of different sizes or performed movements of various complexities, reaction time differences did not influence M2 period activity, suggesting voluntary activity was sufficiently delayed. Collectively, our results show that while a perturbation applied to the upper limbs can trigger a voluntary response at short latency (reflex gain modulation remains an important contributor to EMG changes during the M2 period. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Voluntary "involuntary" commitment--the briar-patch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1980-01-01

    Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.

  15. Voluntary euthanasia under control? Further empirical evidence from The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochemsen, H; Keown, J

    1999-01-01

    Nineteen ninety-six saw the publication of a major Dutch survey into euthanasia in the Netherlands. This paper outlines the main statistical findings of this survey and considers whether it shows that voluntary euthanasia is under effective control in the Netherlands. The paper concludes that although there has been some improvement in compliance with procedural requirements, the practice of voluntary euthanasia remains beyond effective control. PMID:10070633

  16. Students' vocational choices and voluntary action: A 12-nation study

    OpenAIRE

    Haski-Leventhal, Debbie; Cnaan, Ram; Handy, Femida; Brudney, Jeffrey; Holmes, Kirsten; Hustinx, Lesley; Kang, ChulHee; Kassam, Meenaz; Meijs, Lucas; Ranade, Bhagyashree; Yamauchi, Naoto; Yeung, Anne Birgitta; Zrinscak, Sinisa

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research on student involvement suggested that business and engineering students manifest lowest rates of voluntary action. Similarly, it was thought that social science students are the most involved in voluntary action, with students of natural sciences and humanities in the middle. However, there were very few studies that empirically compared these assertions. Furthermore, these assertions were not investigated from cross-cultural perspectives. Based on a study of stu...

  17. The We and the I: The Logic of Voluntary Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Ekaterina; Zimmermann, Jean-Benoît

    2015-01-01

    This paper sheds new light on the economic logic of voluntary associations and the relationship between individual contribution and collective action. The aims are twofold. Firstly, we seek to explain how "team reasoning" (Bacharach et al. 2006) can deeply change the functioning of voluntary associations (which are considered to produce a public good) when some or all of the individual members group together to make collective decisions about their involvement or contribution, rather than dec...

  18. Interaction of poststroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Nathaniel; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may be able to augment functional arm and hand movement after stroke. Poststroke neuroprostheses that incorporate voluntary effort and FES to produce the desired movement must consider how forces generated by voluntary effort and FES combine, even in the same muscle, in order to provide an appropriate level of stimulation to elicit the desired assistive force. The goal of this study was to determine whether the force produced by voluntary effort and FES add together independently of effort or whether the increment in force depends on the level of voluntary effort. Isometric force matching tasks were performed under different combinations of voluntary effort and FES. Participants reached a steady level of force, and while attempting to maintain a constant effort level, FES was applied to augment the force. Results indicate that the increment in force produced by FES decreases as the level of initial voluntary effort increases. Potential mechanisms causing the change in force output are proposed, but the relative contribution of each mechanism is unknown.

  19. What Does the Mean Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier, Nicholas N.; Lamontagne, Claude; Chartier, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    The arithmetic mean is a fundamental statistical concept. Unfortunately, social science students rarely develop an intuitive understanding of the mean and rely on the formula to describe or define it. According to constructivist pedagogy, educators that have access to a variety of conceptualizations of a particular concept are better equipped to…

  20. Default Meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. M. Jaszczolt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I present some aspects of the controversy surrounding the semantics/pragmatics boundary and offer a possible solution in the form of Default Semantics. First, I present a brief introduction to Paul Grice's approach to meaning as intentional communication. Next, I address the problem of the unit of which truth conditions should be predicated, assuming after Grice that the most successful approach to meaning has to make use of truth conditions.Further, I extend the discussion to some aspects of neo-Gricean pragmatics, most notably the issue of pragmatic processing that contributes to the truth-conditional representation and the proposed shortcuts through this processing in the form of default meanings. In the main part, I present the theory of Default Semantics ( Jaszczolt 2005a) , assess some arguments in favour of such an interactive theory of meaning that combines information from various sources, and address the issue of compositionality of meaning so conceived. In the final part, I apply the theory of Default Semantics to expressions with future-time reference in English in order to demonstrate the advantages of a framework that combines various types of information about utterance meaning in one, merged semantic representation. The main advantage turns out to be, in this domain, the unified treatment of all expressions with future-time reference.

  1. Intonational meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, prosodic studies have focused on the study of intonational form and the study of intonational meaning has been relatively neglected. Similarly, the fields of semantics and pragmatics have paid little attention to the pragmatic uses of intonation. As a result, there is no firm agreement within the linguistic community on how to integrate the analysis of intonational meaning across languages into a unified prosodic, semantic, and pragmatic approach. This article provides an overview of the literature on intonational meaning, describing the recent advances made in the fields of prosody, semantics/pragmatics, and syntax. Several theoretical approaches to explaining the semantics and pragmatics of intonation are presented. A common feature to most frameworks is that intonation (1) should be regarded as an integral part of linguistic grammar; and (2) typically encodes meanings related to the modal aspect of propositions. However, features such as compositionality, duality of structure, and context-dependency are still hotly debated issues. These features will be discussed from different theoretical perspectives, and we will identify potential advances related to the full integration of intonational meaning into dynamic and multidimensional models of meaning.

  2. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia debate in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrich W Jordaan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, not on the merits. This means that in future the courts can be approached again to consider the legalisation of voluntary active euthanasia. As such, Stransham-Ford presents a learning opportunity for both sides of the legalisation divide. In particular, conceptual errors pertaining to human dignity were made in Stransham-Ford, and can be avoided in future. In this article, I identify these errors and propose the following three corrective principles to inform future debate on the subject: (i human dignity is violable; (ii human suffering violates human dignity; and (iii the ‘natural’ causes of suffering due to terminal illness do not exclude the application of human dignity.

  3. Changes in spatial memory and BDNF expression to concurrent dietary restriction and voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Alzubi, Mohammad A

    2010-05-01

    Substantial data suggest that cognitive function can be influenced by many lifestyle activities associated with changes in energy metabolism such as exercise and diet. In the current study, we investigated the combined effects of voluntary exercise (access to running wheels) and dietary restriction (every other day fasting, EODF) on spatial memory formation and on the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus of Wistar male rats. Spatial learning and memory formation was assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM) paradigm, while BDNF protein was measured using ELISA test. Voluntary exercise and/or EODF were instituted for 6 weeks. Voluntary exercise alone significantly enhanced short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term memory formation, and increased BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus. EODF enhanced mean running wheel activity by approximately twofold. However, EODF did not modulate the effects of exercise on memory formation and expression of BDNF. In addition, EODF alone had no effect on memory and BDNF protein in the hippocampus. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that exercise enhanced while EODF had neutral effect on both spatial memory formation and hippocampus BDNF levels.

  4. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Berning

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open. In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device. We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02 than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  5. Hedonic value of intentional action provides reinforcement for voluntary generation but not voluntary inhibition of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Jim; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Intentional inhibition refers to stopping oneself from performing an action at the last moment, a vital component of self-control. It has been suggested that intentional inhibition is associated with negative hedonic value, perhaps due to the frustration of cancelling an intended action. Here we investigate hedonic implications of the free choice to act or inhibit. Participants gave aesthetic ratings of arbitrary visual stimuli that immediately followed voluntary decisions to act or to inhibit action. We found that participants for whom decisions to act produced a strong positive hedonic value for the immediately following visual stimulus made more choices to act than those with weaker hedonic value for action. This finding is consistent with reinforcement learning of action decisions. However, participants who experienced inhibition as generating more positive hedonic value did not choose to inhibit more than other participants. Thus, voluntary inhibition of action did not act as reinforcement for future inhibitory behaviour. Our finding that inhibition of action lacks motivational capacity may explain why self-control is both difficult and limited.

  6. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Kelsey; Cohick, Sarah; Johnson, Reva; Miller, Laura Ann; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2014-01-01

    Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open). In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis) and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device). We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02) than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  7. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  8. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKrippl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS,Ekman et al., 2002. The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1. Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser, AU4 (brow lowerer, AU12 (lip corner puller and AU24 (lip presser, each in alternation with a resting phase.Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g. M1, premotor cortex, SMA, putamen, as well as in the thalamus, insula and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU 4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the like attracts like principle (Donoghue et al., 1992 . AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  9. EXAMINING COMFORT PROPERTIES OF LEATHER and ARTIFICIAL LEATHER COVER MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÇETİN Münire Sibel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and regulation of workplace, working instruments, the comfort of office chair, business environment (sound, lighting, climate, vibration, temperature, and humidity, work and break times, analysis and editing of the organization, are some of the topics of interest of ergonomics. Environmental impact and conditions have important role on the employee’s working comfortably and efficiently. Therefore these conditions need to be aligned to the human body nature. Unsuitable working conditions (noise, etc. cause additional load, which the human body endures, and this additional load reveals the signs of tiredness in the body. Even an office environment, unsuitable physical environment impairs health of workers and reduces the performance. Therefore, office climate, environmental factors such as lighting and noise must be harmonized with the employee’s body nature in all working environments. Seating comfort is one of the important factors affecting the performance of employees in the office environment. There are so many studies about chair dimensions and the disorders on human body which were caused by the inappropriate chair dimensions and sitting positions. However, there are a spot of studies about the surface of the chair and the discomfort caused by the chair cover and its negative performance effects. In this study, some results of seat cover analysis for the design of an ergonomic chair. Recently, ease of cleaning, low cost advantages caused the increasing of the use of artificial leather especially on the surface of the seat used in offices. The physical properties of natural leather and artificial leather were compared as the candidate covers to be used on the design of an ergonomic office chair.

  10. [Visitation policy, design and comfort in Spanish intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, D; Martín, L; Viña, L; Quindós, B; Espina, M J; Forcelledo, L; López-Amor, L; García-Arias, B; del Busto, C; de Cima, S; Fernández-Rey, E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the design and comfort in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs), by analysing visiting hours, information, and family participation in patient care. Descriptive, multicentre study. Spanish ICUs. A questionnaire e-mailed to members of the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Critical and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC), subscribers of the Electronic Journal Intensive Care Medicine, and disseminated through the blog Proyecto HU-CI. A total of 135 questionnaires from 131 hospitals were analysed. Visiting hours: 3.8% open 24h, 9.8% open daytime, and 67.7% have 2 visits a day. Information: given only by the doctor in 75.2% of the cases, doctor and nurse together in 4.5%, with a frequency of once a day in 79.7%. During weekends, information is given in 95.5% of the cases. Information given over the phone 74.4%. Family participation in patient care: hygiene 11%, feeding 80.5%, physiotherapy 17%. Personal objects allowed: mobile phone 41%, computer 55%, sound system 77%, and television 30%. Architecture and comfort: all individual cubicles 60.2%, natural light 54.9%, television 7.5%, ambient music 12%, clock in the cubicle 15.8%, environmental noise meter 3.8%, and a waiting room near the ICU 68.4%. Visiting policy is restrictive, with a closed ICU being the predominating culture. On average, technological communication devices are not allowed. Family participation in patient care is low. The ICU design does not guarantee privacy or provide a desirable level of comfort. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Extraphysical parameters of thermal comfort; Thermischer Komfort - die extraphysikalischen Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, Wolfgang; Brasche, Sabine [Arbeitsgruppe Raumklimatologie, Institut fuer Arbeits-, Sozial-, Umweltmedizin und -Hygiene, Klinikum der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany); Hellwig, Runa Tabea [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik (IBP) Holzkirchen, Valley (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Standards define thermal comfort as a function of physical and thermophysiological parameters. From investigations of building related symptoms it is well known that satisfaction with the indoor environment also interacts with extraphysical parameters. Thus, data of 1,497 office workers investigated in phase II of the ProKlimA study have been analysed by multiple logistic regression to find associations between thermal sensation or comfort and potential non-environmental variables. The results show diverse effects: While thermal sensation seems almost independent from non-environmental impacts, thermal comfort and satisfaction with the indoor temperature are significantly associated with building characteristics, demographic and job related variables. From these significant and partly strong interactions we conclude, in case of analyses and assessment of complaints about thermal discomfort relevant non environmental impact factors should be considered. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Grad der Zufriedenheit mit den thermischen Umgebungsbedingungen von Aufenthaltsraeumen wird im derzeitigen Normwerk als Funktion physikalischer und thermophysiologischer Parameter ermittelt. Aus Untersuchungen zur Befindlichkeit von Bueroarbeitern ist seit laengerem bekannt, dass die Zufriedenheit mit raumklimatischen Bedingungen auch durch extraphysikalische Variablen beeinflusst wird. Anhand von Daten aus der ProKlimA-Studie wurde untersucht, inwieweit extraphysikalische Variablen das Temperaturempfinden, die thermische Behaglichkeit, die Zufriedenheit mit und die Erwartungshaltung bezueglich der Raumtemperatur beeinflussen. Im Ergebnis multipler logistischer Regressionsanalysen zeigt sich, dass thermisches Empfinden weitgehend unabhaengig von extraphysikalischen Einfluessen ist. Thermische Behaglichkeit und Zufriedenheit jedoch stehen in deutlicher Wechselwirkung mit extraphysikalischen Variablen, zu denen neben demographischen Charakteristika auch

  12. THE USE OF VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE IN DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS: EVIDENCE FROM THE NIGERIA LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyerogba Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the use of voluntary disclosure in determining the quality of financial statements among the listed companies in Nigeria. Specifically the study investigated on the effects of voluntary disclosure on investor decision and performance of listed companies in Nigeria. This study adopted anexploratory design which is described as a method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals. The instrument of data collection for this research was a questionnaire as the study used primary data. The study targeted all the 258 listed companies in Nigeria. The study population used in this research comprised of preparers (accountants, external auditors and users of accounting information (financial analysts, stockbrokers, bankers, regulators and educators. The sample of this study was 140 whereby twenty questionnaires were distributed in every category of the respondents.Descriptive statistics such as mode, median, mean, standard deviation, etc were used to perform data analysis. These measures were calculated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 software. SPSS tool (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to organize and analyze data. The study findings indicated that there was increased performance and investor decision making was easy to makedue to voluntary disclosure. The results indicate that voluntary disclosurewas satisfactory in explaining investor decision making and performance of listed companies. It was possible to conclude from the study findings that voluntary disclosure was statistically significant in explaining investor’s decision and performance of listed companies in Nigeria. It was also possible to conclude that there was high level of voluntary disclosure in Nigeria listed firms which led to high performance of the firms and made it easy for investors to make decision whether to invest in the companies or

  13. Thermal comfort and energy-efficient cooling of nonresidential buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Kalz, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    This book supports HVAC planners in reducing the cooling energy demand, improving the indoor environment and designing more cost-effective building concepts. High performance buildings have shown that it is possible to go clearly beyond the energy requirements of existing legislation and obtaining good thermal comfort. However, there is still a strong uncertainty in day-to-day practice due to the lack of legislative regulations for mixed-mode buildings which are neither only naturally ventilated nor fully air-conditioned, but use a mix of different low-energy cooling techniques. Based on the f

  14. Validity of thermal comfort models; Gueltigkeit thermischer Behaglichkeitsmodelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellwig, Runa Tabea [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik (IBP) Stuttgart (Germany); Bischof, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Arbeits-, Sozial-, Umweltmedizin und Hygiene des Klinikums der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Bachstr. 18, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    The lack of regulations for room climate have caused uncertainties in the planning of free-ventilation office buildings in Germany. An interdisciplinary research study was carried out using enquiries among users as well as measured data in order to find out about the differences in thermal comfort, if any, between freely ventilated and mechanically ventilated buildings. The data are based on 14 offices of the ProKlimA project. The relevant literature describes four main methods for assessment and prediction of thermal comfort. On the one hand, the PMV model by Fanger and a modification of this model by Mayer were used; on the other hand, a Netherlands guideline and an approach presented in an ASHRAE study. In contrast to the PMV model, these two approaches define the optimal room temperature as a function of an averaged ambient temperature. The four methods were investigated with regard to their applicability for assessing the thermal comfort of buildings with free and mechanical ventilation. In the case of mechanical ventilation, the best results were achieved using Mayer's method; in the case of free ventilation, with the ASHRAE method. The results show that in both cases new models for thermal comfort planning will be required that are not included in German standards so far. (orig.) [German] Zur Zeit fuehren fehlende Richtlinien fuer das Raumklima zu Planungsunsicherheit bei frei beluefteten Buerogebaeuden in Deutschland. Eine interdisziplinaere Forschungsarbeit wurde durchgefuehrt, um anhand von Befragungs- und Messdaten zu untersuchen, ob es Unterschiede in der thermischen Behaglichkeit von Personen in frei beluefteten und mechanisch beluefteten Gebaeuden gibt. Es werden Befragungs- und Messdaten von 14 Buerogebaeuden aus dem ProKlimA-Projekt verwendet. Die relevante Literatur nennt vier bedeutende Methoden zur Bewertung und Vorhersage der thermischen Behaglichkeit. Auf der einen Seite werden das PMV-Modell von Fanger sowie eine Modifizierung dieses

  15. Speakers’ comfort and voice level variation in classrooms: Laboratory research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Teachers adjust their voice levels under different classroom acoustics conditions, even in the absence of background noise. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to understand further this relationship and to determine optimum room acoustic conditions for speaking. Under simulated...... from 0.93 dB/dB, with free speech, to 0.1 dB/dB with other less demanding communication tasks as reading and talking at short distances. The room effect for some individuals can be as strong as 1.7 dB/dB. A questionnaire investigation showed that the acoustic comfort for talking in classrooms...

  16. How to Come Out of Your Comfort Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Windy

    2012-01-01

    We all love comfort - but, psychologically, it can be a real trap, holding you back and keeping you stuck in dead-end situations. Using the principles of Rational Emotive Therapy, this book helps people deal with discomfort in life, with advice on how to get things done, achieve goals and overcome inertia. The book covers the problems of those who take a masochistic approach to life's frustrations, and those who use "quick fixes" such as alcohol and drugs. It discusses how to overcome emotion...

  17. Facial nerve palsy: Providing eye comfort and cosmesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsuhaibani Adel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of facial nerve palsy (FNP may lead to dramatic change in the patient′s facial function, expression, and emotions. The ophthalmologist may play an important role in the initial evaluation, and the long-term management of patients with new-onset of FNP. In patients with expected temporary facial weakness, no efforts should be wasted to ensure proper corneal protection. Patients with permanent functional deficit may require combination of surgical procedures tailored to the patient′s clinical findings that may require good eye comfort and cosmesis.

  18. Facial Nerve Palsy: Providing Eye Comfort and Cosmesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H.

    2010-01-01

    Development of facial nerve palsy (FNP) may lead to dramatic change in the patient's facial function, expression, and emotions. The ophthalmologist may play an important role in the initial evaluation, and the long-term management of patients with new-onset of FNP. In patients with expected temporary facial weakness, no efforts should be wasted to ensure proper corneal protection. Patients with permanent functional deficit may require combination of surgical procedures tailored to the patient's clinical findings that may require good eye comfort and cosmesis. PMID:20616921

  19. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often...... in most residential buildings. For each room variation, we perform 100.000 simulations while varying important design inputs such as window-floor-ratio, ventilation rates, glazing properties, and shading properties. Prior to this, the Morris method was used to identify and fixate insignificant inputs...

  20. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A. Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC:HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01. Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively. Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively. Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08, BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients.

  1. Modelling the maximum voluntary joint torque/angular velocity relationship in human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; Wilson, Cassie

    2006-01-01

    The force exerted by a muscle is a function of the activation level and the maximum (tetanic) muscle force. In "maximum" voluntary knee extensions muscle activation is lower for eccentric muscle velocities than for concentric velocities. The aim of this study was to model this "differential activation" in order to calculate the maximum voluntary knee extensor torque as a function of knee angular velocity. Torque data were collected on two subjects during maximal eccentric-concentric knee extensions using an isovelocity dynamometer with crank angular velocities ranging from 50 to 450 degrees s(-1). The theoretical tetanic torque/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a four parameter function comprising two rectangular hyperbolas while the activation/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a three parameter function that rose from submaximal activation for eccentric velocities to full activation for high concentric velocities. The product of these two functions gave a seven parameter function which was fitted to the joint torque/angular velocity data, giving unbiased root mean square differences of 1.9% and 3.3% of the maximum torques achieved. Differential activation accounts for the non-hyperbolic behaviour of the torque/angular velocity data for low concentric velocities. The maximum voluntary knee extensor torque that can be exerted may be modelled accurately as the product of functions defining the maximum torque and the maximum voluntary activation level. Failure to include differential activation considerations when modelling maximal movements will lead to errors in the estimation of joint torque in the eccentric phase and low velocity concentric phase.

  2. Contextual Meaning and Word Meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Istvan Kecskes

    2006-01-01

    The paper has three goals: 1 ) Explain the role of context and word in meaning construction and comprehension. 2) Present a model that can explain meaning generated by both monolingual and multilingual meaning construction systems. 3) Discuss how the model can be applied to explain major issues in pragmatics.Pragmatics is understood here in a narrow sense as defined by Sperber & Noveck: "...pragmatics is the study of how linguistic properties and contextual factors interact in the interpretation of utterances" ( Sperber & Noveck 2004:1 ). It is argued that world knowledge is available to interlocutors in two forms: as encapsulated in lexical items based on prior encounters and experience (conventionalized cognitive context), and as provided by the actual situational context framed by the situation in which the interaction takes place. Meaning formally expressed in the linguistic interactional context is created on-the-spot, and is the result of the interaction of the two sides of world knowledge and the actual situational context.The paper makes three claims: First, supremacy of context is not unconditional in language processing. Second,salient meaning rather than literal meaning of lexical units plays a central role in comprehension. Third, intercultural communication differs from intracultural communication in the conceptual content of conventionalized cognitive contexts rather than in communicative means.

  3. Operating Comfort Prediction Model of Human-Machine Interface Layout for Cabin Based on GEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Chen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In view of the evaluation and decision-making problem of human-machine interface layout design for cabin, the operating comfort prediction model is proposed based on GEP (Gene Expression Programming), using operating comfort to evaluate layout scheme. Through joint angles to describe operating posture of upper limb, the joint angles are taken as independent variables to establish the comfort model of operating posture. Factor analysis is adopted to decrease the variable dimension; the model's input variables are reduced from 16 joint angles to 4 comfort impact factors, and the output variable is operating comfort score. The Chinese virtual human body model is built by CATIA software, which will be used to simulate and evaluate the operators' operating comfort. With 22 groups of evaluation data as training sample and validation sample, GEP algorithm is used to obtain the best fitting function between the joint angles and the operating comfort; then, operating comfort can be predicted quantitatively. The operating comfort prediction result of human-machine interface layout of driller control room shows that operating comfort prediction model based on GEP is fast and efficient, it has good prediction effect, and it can improve the design efficiency.

  4. Model Based Predictive Control of Thermal Comfort for Integrated Building System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Tz.; Jonkov, T.; Yonchev, E.; Tsankov, D.

    2011-12-01

    This article deals with the indoor thermal control problem in HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems. Important outdoor and indoor variables in these systems are: air temperature, global and diffuse radiations, wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, and so on. The aim of this article is to obtain the thermal comfort optimisation by model based predictive control algorithms (MBPC) of an integrated building system. The control law is given by a quadratic programming problem and the obtained control action is applied to the process. The derived models and model based predictive control algorithms are investigated based on real—live data. All researches are derived in MATLAB environment. The further research will focus on synthesis of robust energy saving control algorithms.

  5. Experimental determination about thermal comfort conditions in buildings; Determinacion experimental de las condiciones de confort termico en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz Garcia, Juan Jose; Garcia Chavez, Jose Roberto; Paredes Rubio, Hernando Romero [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)]. E-mail: agj@xanum.uam.mx; jgc@correo.azc.uam.mx; hrp@xanum.uam.mx

    2006-04-15

    This paper analyzes the thermal comfort importance in a building. And the influence it exerts on quality of life as well as the efficiency of people work activities. There are comments about some models which better help to estimate the recommended temperature levels. The experimental evaluation results from a Mexico City population sampler are presented. This work was done in a Controlled Environment Laboratory; the obtained outcomes proved the preferences occupants exceed the comfort zone greatest limit accepted in the reference international standards. The meaning of this conclusion is thermal comfort can be reached with higher temperatures and consequently an energy consumption and an environment impact decrease. [Spanish] En este trabajo se analiza la importancia que tiene el confort termico en la calidad de vida de las personas que ocupan una edificacion y en la eficiencia de sus actividades. Se comentan algunos modelos con los cuales se estiman los niveles de temperatura recomendados y se presentan los resultados de una evaluacion experimental realizada en un Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado con una muestra de la poblacion del Distrito Federal. Los resultados que se obtuvieron demuestran que los ocupantes tienen preferencias que rebasan el limite superior de la zona de confort comunmente aceptada en los estandares internacionales de referencia. Esto quiere decir que el confort puede lograrse con mayores temperaturas, lo que se traduce en menor consumo de energia y menor impacto en el ambiente.

  6. Aspects of seat modelling for seating comfort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, M M; de Lange, R; van Hoof, J; Wismans, J S H M

    2005-01-01

    The development of more comfortable seats is an important issue in the automotive industry. However, the development of new car seats is very time consuming and costly since it is typically based on experimental evaluation using prototypes. Computer models of the human-seat interaction could accelerate this process. The objective of this paper is to establish a protocol for the development of seat models using numerically efficient simulation techniques. The methodology is based on multi-body techniques: arbitrary surfaces, providing an accurate surface description, are attached to rigid bodies. The bodies are connected by kinematic joints, representing the seat back recliner and head restraint joint. Properties of the seat foam and frame have been lumped together. Further, experiments have been defined to characterise the mechanical properties required for the seat model for comfort applications. The protocol has been exemplified using a standard car seat. The seat model has been validated based on experiments with rigid loading devices with human-like shapes in terms of force-deflection characteristics. The response of the seat model agrees well with the experimental results. Therefore the presented method can be a useful tool in the seat development process, especially in early stages of the design process.

  7. Assessing occupant comfort in an iconic sustainable education building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Best

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The building that houses the Mirvac School of Sustainable Development at Bond University is the first educational building to achieve a six Green Star rating from the Green Building Council of Australia. It has won numerous awards since opening in August 2008 including being judged the RICS (Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors Sustainable Building of 2009. After more than two years in use a post-occupancy evaluation study was carried out to assess the performance of the building from the viewpoint of the users; both resident staff and transient students. Results for factors such as lighting, thermal comfort, noise and air quality. were compared to benchmarks established by the Usable Buildings Trust. The evaluation also assessed the occupants’ perceptions of the building’s impact on their own productivity. Users generally find the building provides a comfortable work environment although a number of areas of performance were noted as posing some concerns. These included intrusive noise in some parts of the building and some issues with glare in daylit teaching spaces. Such concerns were found to be in accord with the results of previous studies and they highlight some recurrent problems in “green” buildings designed to maximise the use of natural ventilation and natural light. These design challenges and how occupant satisfaction is to be measured and benchmarked are also discussed in the context of this comparative building study.

  8. Super stereoscopy technique for comfortable and realistic 3D displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşit, Kaan; Niaki, Amir Hossein Ghanbari; Ulusoy, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2014-12-15

    Two well-known problems of stereoscopic displays are the accommodation-convergence conflict and the lack of natural blur for defocused objects. We present a new technique that we name Super Stereoscopy (SS3D) to provide a convenient solution to these problems. Regular stereoscopic glasses are replaced by SS3D glasses which deliver at least two parallax images per eye through pinholes equipped with light selective filters. The pinholes generate blur-free retinal images so as to enable correct accommodation, while the delivery of multiple parallax images per eye creates an approximate blur effect for defocused objects. Experiments performed with cameras and human viewers indicate that the technique works as desired. In case two, pinholes equipped with color filters per eye are used; the technique can be used on a regular stereoscopic display by only uploading a new content, without requiring any change in display hardware, driver, or frame rate. Apart from some tolerable loss in display brightness and decrease in natural spatial resolution limit of the eye because of pinholes, the technique is quite promising for comfortable and realistic 3D vision, especially enabling the display of close objects that are not possible to display and comfortably view on regular 3DTV and cinema.

  9. Effect of Various Ring Yarns on Fabric Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comfort performance of woven structures made of various types of ring spun yarns like carded, combed, and compact spun yarns has been reported in the present study. Carded, combed, and compact spun yarns are entirely different in structure in terms of fibre migration inside the yarn body, level of free space inside the yarn, number of hairs, and length of hairs on yarn surfaces. In this study, 197 dtex and 144 dtex (30s Ne and 40s Ne ring spun combed yarns are used as a warp. The same cotton mixing was used to manufacture 30s Ne and 40s Ne carded, combed, and compact yarns. Both 30s and 40s Ne linear density yarns were prepared by all three carded, combed, and compact yarn manufacturing routes. The structure of fibre strand in filling yarn has a great impact on comfort related properties, that is, thermal conductivity, , air permeability, wicking, and moisture vapour permeability.

  10. Desiccant Cooling System for Thermal Comfort: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEMANT PARMAR,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Desiccant cooling system (DCS is alternate suitable option against conventional cooling system in humid climates. A typical system combines a dehumidifier that uses dry desiccant wheel, with direct or indirect evaporative systems and a sensible cooling system. DCS is the environmental protection technique for cooling purpose of the building. This system reduces the CFC level in the environment because it restricts the use of conventional refrigerant. In this paper, all the working principles and expected research areashave been discussed. Through detailed literature survey it has been observed that a desiccant cooling system may be a suitable option for thermal comfort in the climate where the humidity is higher. Thedesiccant cooling system (DCS has proven their feasibility and cost saving in the field of air conditioning. This review provides a brief overview on the development of desiccant cooling system in different fields. Finally, concluding remarks regarding further development of desiccant cooling for thermal comfort are also provided. This technology is economically feasible and optimizes with low cost. This review is useful for making opportunities to further research in different areas of desiccant cooling system.

  11. Retrofitted green roofs and walls and improvements in thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Renato Castiglia; Wilkinson, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Increased urbanization has led to a worsening in the quality of life for many people living in large cities in respect of the urban heat island effect and increases of indoor temperatures in housing and other buildings. A solution may be to retrofit existing environments to their former conditions, with a combination of green infrastructures applied to existing walls and rooftops. Retrofitted green roofs may attenuate housing temperature. However, with tall buildings, facade areas are much larger compared to rooftop areas, the role of green walls in mitigating extreme temperatures is more pronounced. Thus, the combination of green roofs and green walls is expected to promote a better thermal performance in the building envelope. For this purpose, a modular vegetated system is adopted for covering both walls and rooftops. Rather than temperature itself, the heat index, which comprises the combined effect of temperature and relative humidity is used in the evaluation of thermal comfort in small scale experiments performed in Sydney - Australia, where identical timber framed structures prototypes (vegetated and non-vegetated) are compared. The results have shown a different understanding of thermal comfort improvement regarding heat index rather than temperature itself. The combination of green roof and walls has a valid role to play in heat index attenuation.

  12. Opt-out HIV testing in prison: informed and voluntary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; May, Jeanine; Bowling, J Michael; DeVellis, Robert F; White, Becky L; Wohl, David A

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing in prison settings has been identified as an important mechanism to detect cases among high-risk, underserved populations. Several public health organizations recommend that testing across health-care settings, including prisons, be delivered in an opt-out manner. However, implementation of opt-out testing within prisons may pose challenges in delivering testing that is informed and understood to be voluntary. In a large state prison system with a policy of voluntary opt-out HIV testing, we randomly sampled adult prisoners in each of seven intake prisons within two weeks after their opportunity to be HIV tested. We surveyed prisoners' perception of HIV testing as voluntary or mandatory and used multivariable statistical models to identify factors associated with their perception. We also linked survey responses to lab records to determine if prisoners' test status (tested or not) matched their desired and perceived test status. Thirty-eight percent (359/936) perceived testing as voluntary. The perception that testing was mandatory was positively associated with age less than 25 years (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 1.71) and preference that testing be mandatory (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.31) but negatively associated with entry into one of the intake prisons (aRR: 0.41 95% CI: 0.27, 0.63). Eighty-nine percent of prisoners wanted to be tested, 85% were tested according to their wishes, and 82% correctly understood whether or not they were tested. Most prisoners wanted to be HIV tested and were aware that they had been tested, but less than 40% understood testing to be voluntary. Prisoners' understanding of the voluntary nature of testing varied by intake prison and by a few individual-level factors. Testing procedures should ensure that opt-out testing is informed and understood to be voluntary by prisoners and other vulnerable populations.

  13. Assessment of thermal comfort level at pedestrian level in high-density urban area of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Ng, E.; Yuan, C.; Lai, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hong Kong is a subtropical city which is very hot and humid in the summer. Pedestrians commonly experience thermal discomfort. Various studies have shown that the tall bulky buildings intensify the urban heat island effect and reduce urban air ventilation. However, relatively few studies have focused on modeling the thermal load at pedestrian level (~ 2 m). This study assesses the thermal comfort level, quantified by PET (Physiological Equivalent Temperature), using a GIS - based simulation approach. A thermal comfort level map shows the PET value of a typical summer afternoon in the high building density area. For example, the averaged PET in Sheung Wan is about 41 degree Celsius in a clear day and 38 degree Celsius in a cloudy day. This map shows where the walkways, colonnades, and greening is most needed. In addition, given a start point, a end point, and weather data, we generate the most comfort walking routes weighted by the PET. In the simulation, shortwave irradiance is calculated using the topographic radiation model (Fu and Rich, 1999) under various cloud cover scenarios; longwave irradiance is calculated based the radiative transfer equation (Swinbank, 1963). Combining these two factors, Tmrt (mean radiant temperature) is solved. And in some cases, the Tmrt differ more than 40 degree Celsius between areas under the sun and under the shades. Considering thermal load and wind information, we found that shading from buildings has stronger effect on PET than poor air ventilation resulted from dense buildings. We predict that pedestrians would feel more comfortable (lower PET) in a hot summer afternoon when walking in the higher building density area.

  14. The influence of the summer sea breeze on thermal comfort in Funchal (Madeira). A contribution to tourism and urban planning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Antonio; Lopes, Sergio; Joao Alcoforado, Maria [Univ. de Lisboa (Portugal). Centro der Estudos Geograficos; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    2011-10-15

    Tourism plays a crucial role for the development of coastal areas. Despite the mildness of Madeira's climate, very hot days can occur during summer, a situation to which most tourists from northern Europe (the majority of foreign tourists) are poorly adapted. As sea breezes strongly contribute to moderate heat stress in urban environments, their influence on the thermal comfort on the island has been studied. Sea breezes occurred on 84 % of the days during the period under study (May to October 2006). They usually start around 09:30 h and end after 22:00 h, with an average duration of about 12:50 hours and a mean velocity of 2.9 m/s. Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) was used to evaluate the thermal comfort of a sample of days during the summer of 2006. It was concluded that most of the sites in the city are ''slightly comfortable'' during normal days with sea breeze, but only shore sites and the highest green areas offer some comfort during hot days. Inside the city, the thermal perception is generally ''hot'' and strong heat stress can occur. As sea breezes are important to mitigate heat stress, some basic guidelines were presented: urban planners should take advantage of this wind system avoiding dense construction near the shoreline that would act as a barrier to the renewal of the air inside the city. In terms of tourism, planners and local authorities should provide solutions to mitigate the negative effects during hot periods, creating a system to warn and relocate more vulnerable tourists to places near the shore line, to the mountains, to gardens and air-conditioned buildings. In combination with other components (beauty of the island, gastronomy, cultural values and safety), climate information can be a factor of attractiveness to tourists. (orig.)

  15. Modelling thermal comfort of visitors at urban squares in hot and arid climate using NN-ARX soft computing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminia, Shahab; Motamedi, Shervin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Piri, Jamshid; Mohammadi, Kasra; Hashim, Roslan; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Petković, Dalibor; Bonakdari, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Visitors utilize the urban space based on their thermal perception and thermal environment. The thermal adaptation engages the user's behavioural, physiological and psychological aspects. These aspects play critical roles in user's ability to assess the thermal environments. Previous studies have rarely addressed the effects of identified factors such as gender, age and locality on outdoor thermal comfort, particularly in hot, dry climate. This study investigated the thermal comfort of visitors at two city squares in Iran based on their demographics as well as the role of thermal environment. Assessing the thermal comfort required taking physical measurement and questionnaire survey. In this study, a non-linear model known as the neural network autoregressive with exogenous input (NN-ARX) was employed. Five indices of physiological equivalent temperature (PET), predicted mean vote (PMV), standard effective temperature (SET), thermal sensation votes (TSVs) and mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) were trained and tested using the NN-ARX. Then, the results were compared to the artificial neural network (ANN) and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The findings showed the superiority of the NN-ARX over the ANN and the ANFIS. For the NN-ARX model, the statistical indicators of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were 0.53 and 0.36 for the PET, 1.28 and 0.71 for the PMV, 2.59 and 1.99 for the SET, 0.29 and 0.08 for the TSV and finally 0.19 and 0.04 for the T mrt.

  16. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  17. Voluntary ingestion of nut paste for administration of buprenorphine in rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Sundbom, Renée

    2012-01-01

    An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve the postoperative recovery and welfare of laboratory rats and mice. It is desirable that the method for administering the drug is non-invasive and stress-free. We have previously validated a method for administering buprenorphine in a nut paste...... for voluntary ingestion. This method has many advantages over parenteral administration. To use the method in a successful way, however, it is important to prepare and administer the mix correctly. The present paper describes in detail how to implement the method, by means of habituation, presentation, adequate...

  18. Voluntary ingestion of nut paste for administration of buprenorphine in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Sundbom, Renée; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann

    2012-10-01

    An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve the postoperative recovery and welfare of laboratory rats and mice. It is desirable that the method for administering the drug is non-invasive and stress-free. We have previously validated a method for administering buprenorphine in a nut paste for voluntary ingestion. This method has many advantages over parenteral administration. To use the method in a successful way, however, it is important to prepare and administer the mix correctly. The present paper describes in detail how to implement the method, by means of habituation, presentation, adequate concentrations and amounts of buprenorphine/nut paste, and dosage of buprenorphine to rats and mice.

  19. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  20. Web application for thermal comfort visualization and calculation according to ASHRAE Standard 55

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, Stefano; Hoyt, Tyler; Piccioli, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the fundamental aspects of indoor environmental quality and it is strongly related to occupant satisfaction and energy use in buildings. This paper describes a new web application for thermal comfort visualization and calculation according to ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 and 2013. Compared to existing software, the web application is free, cross-platform, and provides a visual and highly interactive accurate representation of the comfort zone. Its main features are: dynam...

  1. It costs to be clean and fit: energetics of comfort behavior in breeding-fasting penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A Viblanc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birds may allocate a significant part of time to comfort behavior (e.g., preening, stretching, shaking, etc. in order to eliminate parasites, maintain plumage integrity, and possibly reduce muscular ankylosis. Understanding the adaptive value of comfort behavior would benefit from knowledge on the energy costs animals are willing to pay to maintain it, particularly under situations of energy constraints, e.g., during fasting. We determined time and energy devoted to comfort activities in freely breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus, seabirds known to fast for up to one month during incubation shifts ashore. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A time budget was estimated from focal and scan sampling field observations and the energy cost of comfort activities was calculated from the associated increase in heart rate (HR during comfort episodes, using previously determined equations relating HR to energy expenditure. We show that incubating birds spent 22% of their daily time budget in comfort behavior (with no differences between day and night mainly devoted to preening (73% and head/body shaking (16%. During comfort behavior, energy expenditure averaged 1.24 times resting metabolic rate (RMR and the corresponding energy cost (i.e., energy expended in excess to RMR was 58 kJ/hr. Energy expenditure varied greatly among various types of comfort behavior, ranging from 1.03 (yawning to 1.78 (stretching times RMR. Comfort behavior contributed 8.8-9.3% to total daily energy expenditure and 69.4-73.5% to energy expended daily for activity. About half of this energy was expended caring for plumage. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to estimate the contribution of comfort behavior to overall energy budget in a free-living animal. It shows that although breeding on a tight energy budget, king penguins devote a substantial amount of time and energy to comfort behavior. Such findings underline the importance of comfort

  2. CFD validation of the thermal comfort in a room using draft rates

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Air temperature and velocity are the two main factors affecting the thermal comfort indoors. These two values can be easily obtained using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations together with the turbulence kinetic energy value. This paper evaluates methods of calculating thermal comfort indices using CFD. Simulated results are compared against experimental data measured in a purpose build full-scale model room. The results show that CFD data can reliably predict thermal comfort values...

  3. Voluntary HIV counseling and testing during prenatal care in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zubaran Goldani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Voluntary HIV counseling and testing are provided to all Brazilian pregnant women with the purpose of reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to assess characteristics of HIV testing and identify factors associated with HIV counseling and testing. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out comprising 1,658 mothers living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Biological, reproductive and social variables were obtained from mothers by means of a standardized questionnaire. Being counseling about HIV testing was the dependent variable. Confidence intervals, chi-square test and hierarchical logistic model were used to determine the association between counseling and maternal variables. RESULTS: Of 1,658 mothers interviewed, 1,603 or 96.7% (95% CI: 95.7-97.5 underwent HIV testing, and 51 or 3.1% (95% CI: 2.3-4.0 were not tested. Four (0.2% refused to undergo testing after counseling. Of 51 women not tested in this study, 30 had undergone the testing previously. Of 1,603 women tested, 630 or 39.3% (95% CI: 36.9-41.7 received counseling, 947 or 59.2% (95% CI: 56.6-61.5 did not, and 26 (1.6% did not inform. Low income, lack of prenatal care, late beginning of prenatal care, use of rapid testing, and receiving prenatal in the public sector were variables independently associated with a lower probability of getting counseling about HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirmed the high rate of prenatal HIV testing in Porto Alegre. However, women coming from less privileged social groups were less likely to receive information and benefit from counseling.

  4. Environmental and comfort upgrading through lean technologies in informal settlements: Case study in Nairobi, Kenia and New Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Tagliabue, Lavinia Chiara; Zecchini, Paolo; Milanesi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    Informal settlements, namely slums (or bidonville or favelas) are one of the stronger challenge for urban context in developing countries. The increase of urban population leads to a widespread poverty and critical life conditions for a large segment of population, in particular in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a high percentage of people lives in informal settlements. The problems in slums are multiple: people suffer malnutrition and poor sanitation, flooding or drought, and live in shelters providing no thermal comfort in many days of the year, furthermore scarce and highly polluting energy sources are available. Climate change and an unavoidable heat island effect make these living conditions nearly catastrophic. This paper focuses on the main characters of these slums and on how to what promote the improvement of living conditions with a lean, low cost, low impact, feasible upgrading of the housing or more properly shelters. The subject of the analysis is the Mathare 4A Upgrading Programme in the city of Nairobi, Kenya, one of the highest slum-dwellers growing rate. The technological solutions applied in this context have been verified in a different climate condition such as the city of New Delhi, India where the phenomenon of the slums is significantly burdensome. The analysis of the comfort conditions inside a type housing has been carried out using hourly weather data and dynamic heat transfer simulation, without any HVAC system and striving only natural ventilation. Data about internal temperature and relative humidity conditions have been applied to evaluate the comfort hours using the Predicted Mean Vote method, the adaptive thermal comfort principles and the bioclimatic charts for the two climates in Nairobi and New Delhi. The percentage of hours within the comfort range and the amount of degree-hours exceeding comfort values showed for different upgrading strategies, how it is possible to deeply influence the living conditions by technological and

  5. Stress-induced endocrine response and anxiety: the effects of comfort food in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Daniela; Garcia, Márcia Carvalho; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2014-05-01

    The long-term effects of comfort food in an anxiogenic model of stress have yet to be analyzed. Here, we evaluated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic parameters in rats submitted or not to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), with access to commercial chow alone or to commercial chow and comfort food. Stress did not alter the preference for comfort food but decreased food intake. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, stressed rats were less likely to enter/remain in the open arms, as well as being more likely to enter/remain in the closed arms, than were control rats, both conditions being more pronounced in the rats given access to comfort food. In the open field test, stress decreased the time spent in the centre, independent of diet; neither stress nor diet affected the number of crossing, rearing or grooming episodes. The stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated in rats given access to comfort food. Serum concentration of triglycerides were unaffected by stress or diet, although access to comfort food increased total cholesterol and glucose. It is concluded that CUMS has an anorexigenic effect. Chronic stress and comfort food ingestion induced an anxiogenic profile although comfort food attenuated the endocrine stress response. The present data indicate that the combination of stress and access to comfort food, common aspects of modern life, may constitute a link among stress, feeding behavior and anxiety.

  6. Using the Comfortability-in-Learning Scale to Enhance Positive Classroom Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kiener, PhD, CRC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A goal of higher education is to advance learning. This study examined the role “comfortability” plays in that process. Defined as the level of comfort students experience with their classmates, instructor, and course material, comfortability addresses how secure a student feels in the classroom. Comfortability was assessed multiple times during one semester with undergraduate students and found student comfortability significantly increased across the course of the semester and significantly predicted affective learning. These findings suggest the importance of the classroom environment in the learning process and support the need for faculty to consider “non-academic” factors in addition to course content.

  7. Comfort eating, psychological stress, and depressive symptoms in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Laura E; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether comfort eating actually functions to reduce psychological stress. In addition, the effectiveness of comfort eating may be particularly relevant in the context of depression, but no study has tested whether comfort eating processes might depend on severity of depressive symptomology. This study tested 1) whether greater comfort eating statistically buffers the relationship between adverse life events and perceived psychological stress at age 18-19, and 2) whether potential stress-buffering effects may differ by level of depressive symptoms. These relationships were examined in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study, comprising 2379 young adult women. Participants self-reported experiences with adverse life events, their perceived psychological stress, and whether they tended to eat more while experiencing certain negative emotions. As hypothesized, the relationship between adverse life events and perceived stress depended on comfort eating status (p = .033). The effect of adverse events on perceived stress was attenuated among comfort eaters compared to non-comfort eaters (p = .004), but this buffering effect was not shown in participants with an elevated level of depressive symptoms. In conclusion, among young adult women without high depressive symptoms, comfort eaters may experience reduced perceived stress compared to those who do not engage in this behavior. Intervention researchers should also consider the possible benefits of comfort eating.

  8. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for Maintaining Human Comfort within Intelligent Building System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrodin .T. Mustapha, Momoh J. E. Salami, Nazim and M. Nasiri

    2012-10-01

    proper control of AHU dampers and fans is an effective and practical means to satisfy human comfort with minimum energy consumption.Keywords: Human comfort, Intelligent control, Air handling unit, Adaptive fuzzy logic control

  9. Effect of asymmetrical street canyons on pedestrian thermal comfort in warm-humid climate of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Algeciras, José; Tablada, Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Walkability and livability in cities can be enhanced by creating comfortable environments in the streets. The profile of an urban street canyon has a substantial impact on outdoor thermal conditions at pedestrian level. This paper deals with the effect of asymmetrical street canyon profiles, common in the historical centre of Camagüey, Cuba, on outdoor thermal comfort. Temporal-spatial analyses are conducted using the Heliodon2 and the RayMan model, which enable the generation of accurate predictions about solar radiation and thermal conditions of urban spaces, respectively. On these models, urban settings are represented by asymmetrical street canyons with five different height-to-width ratios and four street axis orientations (N-S, NE-SW, E-W, SE-NW). Results are evaluated for daytime hours across the street canyon, by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index) which allows the evaluation of the bioclimatic conditions of outdoor environments. Our findings revealed that high profiles (façades) located on the east-facing side of N-S streets, on the southeast-facing side of NE-SW streets, on the south-facing side of E-W street, and on the southwest-facing side of SE-NW streets, are recommended to reduce the total number of hours under thermal stress. E-W street canyons are the most thermally stressed ones, with extreme PET values around 36 °C. Deviating from this orientation ameliorates the heat stress with reductions of up to 4 h in summer. For all analysed E-W orientations, only about one fifth of the street can be comfortable, especially for high aspect ratios (H/W > 3). Optimal subzones in the street are next to the north side of the E-W street, northwest side of the NE-SW street, and southwest side of the SE-NW street. Besides, when the highest profile is located on the east side of N-S streets, then the subzone next to the east-facing façade is recommendable for pedestrians. The proposed urban guidelines enable urban planners to create

  10. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  11. Suicide and voluntary active euthanasia: why the difference in attitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, I

    1995-06-01

    It appears that the attitudes of health professionals differ towards suicide and voluntary active euthanasia. An acceptance of, if not an agreement with, voluntary active euthanasia exists, while there is a general consensus that suicide should be prevented. This paper searches for a working definition of suicide, to discover ethical reasons for the negative value that suicide assumes, and also to provide a term of reference when comparing suicide with euthanasia. On arriving at a working definition of suicide, it is compared with voluntary active euthanasia. An analysis of utilitarian and deontological considerations is provided and proves to be inconclusive with respect to the ethical principles informing the attitudes of professionals. Therefore, a search for other influences is attempted; this indicates that psychological influences inform attitudes to a greater degree than ethical principles.

  12. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;

    2013-01-01

    implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  13. Designing for Comfort and Reliability in an Intelligent Car Seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, intelligent safety systems are installed in modern cars in view of minimising road hazards. An intelligent air bag system for example, comprised several subsystems that are integrated to include the weight sensor system, image sensor system, crash sensor system and tyre pressure monitoring system. These systems when poorly positioned into the car seat, will certainly affect comfort and reliability of the car seat. This research presents the design work on an intelligent car seat, which is equipped with a load cell type-sensory system. The load cells are used to detect the weight of a passenger for the deployment of an air bag system. The proposed design is validated against displacement and stress analysis using an 80 kg load to simulate the weight of a passenger. Results from the design validation indicated that the proposed configuration and material is appropriate for use in the intelligent car seat application.

  14. Speaking comfort and voice use of teachers in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    Teachers suffer from voice problems more often than the rest of the population, as a consequence of the intensive use of their voices during teaching. Noise and classroom acoustics have been defined as hazards eventually leading to voice problems. In order to make a good classroom acoustic design...... to preserve the teachers’ voices and maximize their comfort, it is necessary to understand the underlaying relationship between classroom acoustics and teachers’ voice production. This paper presents a brief summary of investigations looking into this relationship. A pilot study, carried out in different...... located at various distances, in rooms with very different acoustics. A field study in schools of southern Sweden found out that teachers with and without voice problems, during actual teaching, are affected differently by the support of the classroom. A last laboratory experiment was carried out...

  15. Classroom acoustics design for speakers’ comfort and speech intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, David Pelegrin; Rasmussen, Birgit; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Current European regulatory requirements or guidelines for reverberation time in classrooms have the goal of enhancing speech intelligibility for students and reducing noise levels in classrooms. At the same time, school teachers suffer frequently from voice problems due to high vocal load...... experienced at work. With the aim of improving teachers’ working conditions, this paper proposes adjustments to current regulatory requirements on classroom acoustics in Europe from novel insights on classroom acoustics design that meet simultaneously criteria of vocal comfort for teachers and speech...... are combined with a model of speech intelligibility based on the useful-to-detrimental ratio and empirical models of signal-to-noise ratio in classrooms in order to derive classroom acoustic guidelines, taking into account physical volume restrictions linked to the number of students present in a classroom...

  16. Climate characterization methodology for comfort purposes. A case in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, G.; Gijon, M.A.; Medrano, C.; Ovidio, J.; Xaman, J.; Flores, J.J.; Sima, E. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico - CENIDET-DGEST-SEP, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a climate characterization methodology for comfort purposes. The climate characterization is based on the measured climatic variables collected by a meteorological automatic station for 7 municipalities of the State of Morelos, Mexico. Then, a typical building in the State of Morelos is selected to calculate energy loads by two methodologies: the heating and cooling degree-days and TRNSYS for different micro-climate conditions of the 7 municipalities. The two methodologies are compared. Maps and graphs of monthly average temperatures, incident solar radiation, degree-days and energy loads are presented. The results show that, if we built the typical building built in Morelos, the center and south locations of the State of Morelos requires a very high amount of energy for cooling, 5528 KW-h. Also, the north of the State of Morelos requires an amount, 2130 KW-h, for heating in some municipalities for the same type of building. (orig.)

  17. The social comfort of wearable technology and gestural interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E; Profita, Halley; Zeagler, Clint; Clawson, James; Gilliland, Scott; Do, Ellen Yi-Luen; Budd, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The "wearability" of wearable technology addresses the factors that affect the degree of comfort the wearer experiences while wearing a device, including physical, psychological, and social aspects. While the physical and psychological aspects of wearing technology have been investigated since early in the development of the field of wearable computing, the social aspects of wearability have been less fully-explored. As wearable technology becomes increasingly common on the commercial market, social wearability is becoming an ever-more-important variable contributing to the success or failure of new products. Here we present an analysis of social aspects of wearability within the context of the greater understanding of wearability in wearable technology, and focus on selected theoretical frameworks for understanding how wearable products are perceived and evaluated in a social context. Qualitative results from a study of social acceptability of on-body interactions are presented as a case study of social wearability.

  18. 服装的舒适感%Clothing Comfort Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉钗; 冯勋伟

    2003-01-01

    @@ 服装的舒适感觉说到底就是服装穿用者在一定环境条件下的心理感受或主观评价.Pontrelli 建立了一个"舒适图"(Comfort's Gestalt),在这个图中影响到穿用者舒适状态的各种变化因素被全面地罗列出来.这些变化因素被分为三组:涉及环境及服装的物理变量;穿用者的心理-生理参数;以及穿用者大脑的心理学筛选.舒适图指出穿用者的舒适状态取决于所有这些因素以及它们的相互作用.

  19. Evaluation of the Indoor Environment in the Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2012-01-01

    and in a process of doing so, it is important to maintain a good and healthy indoor environment and not on the expense of it. One way of saving energy is to build passive houses. This paper presents the result of a case study of some of the first certified passive houses in Denmark, called the Comfort Houses......Today the build environment accounts for about 40 % of the energy consumption in the EU and it is continuing to increase. It is a result of an effort to give the building users an optimum indoor environment. New buildings and renovation projects need to improve the energy performance....... The paper evaluates the indoor environment through both quantitative measurements in the houses and qualitative interviews with the occupants about their experiences of the indoor environment. Two set of knowledge which together gives a more complete and holistic picture of the indoor environment. The study...

  20. Final voluntary release assessment/corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-12

    The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.