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Sample records for voluntary leg movements

  1. Impaired Interlimb Coordination of Voluntary Leg Movements in Poststroke Hemiparesis

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    Tseng, Shih-Chiao

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate interlimb coordination of the lower extremities is particularly important for a variety of functional human motor behaviors such as jumping, kicking a ball, or simply walking. Specific interlimb coordination patterns may be especially impaired after a lesion to the motor system such as stroke, yet this has not been thoroughly examined to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor deficits in individuals with chronic stroke and hemiparesis when performing unilateral versus bilateral inphase versus bilateral antiphase voluntary cyclic ankle movements. We recorded ankle angular trajectories and muscle activity from the dorsiflexors and plantarflexors and compared these between subjects with stroke and a group of healthy age-matched control subjects. Results showed clear abnormalities in both the kinematics and EMG of the stroke subjects, with significant movement degradation during the antiphase task compared with either the unilateral or the inphase task. The abnormalities included prolonged cycle durations, reduced ankle excursions, decreased agonist EMG bursts, and reduced EMG modulation across movement phases. By comparison, the control group showed nearly identical performance across all task conditions. These findings suggest that stroke involving the corticospinal system projection to the leg specifically impairs one or more components of the neural circuitry involved in lower extremity interlimb coordination. The express susceptibility of the antiphase pattern to exaggerated motor deficits could contribute to functional deficits in a number of antiphase leg movement tasks, including walking. PMID:20463199

  2. Voluntary Movement Frequencies in Submaximal One- and Two-Legged Knee Extension Exercise and Pedaling.

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    Stang, Julie; Wiig, Håvard; Hermansen, Marte; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n = 16, thereof eight women; 23.4 ± 2.7 years; 1.70 ± 0.11 m; 68.6 ± 11.2 kg). High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75) occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95) occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence. The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs) of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs appeared

  3. Voluntary movement frequencies in submaximal one- and two-legged knee extension exercise and pedaling

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    Julie Sørbø Stang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of behavior and control of human voluntary rhythmic stereotyped leg movements is useful in work to improve performance, function, and rehabilitation of exercising, healthy, and injured humans. The present study aimed at adding to the existing understanding within this field. To pursue the aim, correlations between freely chosen movement frequencies in relatively simple, single-joint, one- and two-legged knee extension exercise were investigated. The same was done for more complex, multiple-joint, one- and two-legged pedaling. These particular activities were chosen because they could be considered related to some extent, as they shared a key aspect of knee extension, and because they at the same time were different. The activities were performed at submaximal intensities, by healthy individuals (n=16, thereof 8 women; 23.4±2.7 years; 1.70±0.11 m; 68.6±11.2 kg.High and fair correlations (R-values of 0.99 and 0.75 occurred between frequencies generated with the dominant leg and the nondominant leg during knee extension exercise and pedaling, respectively. Fair to high correlations (R-values between 0.71 and 0.95 occurred between frequencies performed with each of the two legs in an activity, and the two-legged frequency performed in the same type of activity. In general, the correlations were higher for knee extension exercise than for pedaling. Correlations between knee extension and pedaling frequencies were of modest occurrence.The correlations between movement frequencies generated separately by each of the legs might be interpreted to support the following working hypothesis, which was based on existing literature. It is likely that involved central pattern generators (CPGs of the two legs share a common frequency generator or that separate frequency generators of each leg are attuned via interneuronal connections. Further, activity type appeared to be relevant. Thus, the apparent common rhythmogenesis for the two legs

  4. The spinal reflex cannot be perceptually separated from voluntary movements.

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    Ghosh, Arko; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Both voluntary and involuntary movements activate sensors in the muscles, skin, tendon and joints. As limb movement can result from a mixture of spinal reflexes and voluntary motor commands, the cortical centres underlying conscious proprioception might either aggregate or separate the sensory inputs generated by voluntary movements from those generated by involuntary movements such as spinal reflexes. We addressed whether healthy volunteers could perceive the contribution of a spinal reflex during movements that combined both reflexive and voluntary contributions. Volunteers reported the reflexive contribution in leg movements that were partly driven by the knee-jerk reflex induced by a patellar tendon tap and partly by voluntary motor control. In one condition, participants were instructed to kick back in response to a tendon tap. The results were compared to reflexes in a resting baseline condition without voluntary movement. In a further condition, participants were instructed to kick forwards after a tap. Volunteers reported the perceived reflex contribution by repositioning the leg to the perceived maximum displacement to which the reflex moved the leg after each tendon tap. In the resting baseline condition, the reflex was accurately perceived. We found a near-unity slope of linear regressions of perceived on actual reflexive displacement. Both the slope value and the quality of regression fit in individual volunteers were significantly reduced when volunteers were instructed to generate voluntary backward kicks as soon as they detected the tap. In the kick forward condition, kinematic analysis showed continuity of reflex and voluntary movements, but the reflex contribution could be estimated from electromyography (EMG) recording on each trial. Again, participants' judgements of reflexes showed a poor relation to reflex EMG, in contrast to the baseline condition. In sum, we show that reflexes can be accurately perceived from afferent information. However

  5. Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation during voluntary and non-voluntary stepping movements in humans.

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    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Kazennikov, O V; Ivanenko, Y P

    2014-09-05

    Here, we compared motor evoked potentials (MEP) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and the H-reflex during voluntary and vibration-induced air-stepping movements in humans. Both the MEPs (in mm biceps femoris, rectus femoris and tibialis anterior) and H-reflex (in m soleus) were significantly smaller during vibration-induced cyclic leg movements at matched amplitudes of angular motion and muscle activity. These findings highlight differences between voluntary and non-voluntary activation of the spinal pattern generator circuitry in humans, presumably due to an extra facilitatory effect of voluntary control/triggering of stepping on spinal motoneurons and interneurons. The results support the idea of active engagement of supraspinal motor areas in developing central pattern generator-modulating therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Corticospinal excitability in human voluntary movement

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    Elswijk, G.A.F. van

    2008-01-01

    The research described in this thesis addressed the neurophysiologic changes in the human corticospinal system during preparation and execution of voluntary hand movements. The experiments involved transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex combined with electromyography (EMG) and e

  7. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in patients with movement disorders: Specific considerations.

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    Högl, Birgit; Stefani, Ambra

    2017-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a frequent neurological disorder with potentially serious and highly distressing treatment complications. The role and potential implications of periodic leg movements during sleep range from being a genetic risk marker for restless legs syndrome to being a cardiovascular risk factor. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome in patients with daytime movement disorders is challenging and restless legs syndrome needs to be differentiated from other sleep-related movement disorders. This article provides an update on the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome as an independent disorder and the role of periodic leg movements and reviews the association of restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Pavlov's conceptualization of voluntary movements within the framework of the theory of higher nervous activity.

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    Windholz, G

    1998-01-01

    Pavlov became interested in the nature of voluntary movements after receiving Konorski and Miller's letter in 1928 describing their experiments on conditioning of motor movements in dogs. Their paradigmatic experiment involved presenting an indifferent stimulus, followed by passive raising of the dog's leg and then reinforcement. If the same stimulus was provided during a number of trials, the animal lifted its corresponding leg. In 1928 Pavlov asked his students to condition motor movements in his laboratory. Although their findings were equivocal, Pavlov incorporated the so-called voluntary movements into his theory of higher nervous activity. Voluntary movements were responses to external environmental contingencies. On the cortical level, the motor analyzer's cells had both afferent and efferent functions. In Pavlov's view, the motor analyzer's cells established connections with the afferent cells of other sensory analyzers. Pavlov held that motor movements, as responses to external and internal environments, give humans the illusion of voluntary behavior.

  9. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans.

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    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.

  10. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements of sleep.

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    Rye, David B; Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2012-11-01

    Women are more commonly affected than men by restless legs syndrome, and prevalence is highest amongst those of northern European heritage. The motor manifestations include nonvolitional myoclonus (periodic leg movements). Disinhibition of spinal sensorimotor circuits may underlie these primary features and can be affected by peripheral as well as supraspinal networks. Insufficient mobilizable iron stores increase expressivity in some individuals. The sensorimotor features are relieved by dopamine, especially dopamine agonists, gabapentin and its derivatives, and opioids. A diagnosis relies on recognition of key primary and supportive features, and treatments are generally well tolerated, efficacious, and life-changing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cortical potentials associated with voluntary mandibular movements.

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    Yoshida, K; Kaji, R; Hamano, T; Kohara, N; Kimura, J; Shibasaki, H; Iizuka, T

    2000-07-01

    Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) are negative potentials over the scalp, which gradually increase prior to voluntary movements, and might be applied to elucidate the cortical efferent function of the mandibular movements. We compared the MRCPs accompanying various mandibular movements to study the motor control mechanism underlying these movements. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from 11 electrodes placed over the scalp (F3, Fz, F4, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, P3, Pz, and P4), according to the International 10-20 System, and electromyograms (EMGs) were obtained from surface electrodes over the masseter muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Ten healthy subjects were requested to make brisk and self-paced mandibular movements in 4 different directions (mouth-opening and -closing, and left and right lateral movements). We obtained MRCPs by averaging the EEG, using the visually determined EMG onset as a trigger signal. In all the movements, a slowly increasing, bilaterally widespread negativity starting 1.5 to 2.0 sec before the EMG onset (Bereitschaftspotential, or BP proper) was observed, with the maximum over the vertex region. The negative slope (NS') occurred about 300 to 700 msec before the EMG onset. The cortical maps of BP/NS' (BP and NS' combined), immediately prior to the mouth-opening and closing, showed a symmetrical distribution, whereas that for the lateral movements showed a tendency of predominance over the hemisphere ipsilateral to the direction of the movement. BP/NS' amplitudes at the onset of movement differed significantly or tended to do so between open, close, and lateral movements, suggesting that MRCP recordings may thus provide a means to explore the role of the cerebral cortex in the control of mandibular movements.

  12. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

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    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  13. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

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    Martin eKrippl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS,Ekman et al., 2002. The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1. Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser, AU4 (brow lowerer, AU12 (lip corner puller and AU24 (lip presser, each in alternation with a resting phase.Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g. M1, premotor cortex, SMA, putamen, as well as in the thalamus, insula and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU 4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the like attracts like principle (Donoghue et al., 1992 . AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  14. Validation of a leg movements count and periodic leg movements analysis in a custom polysomnography system.

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    Stefani, Ambra; Heidbreder, Anna; Hackner, Heinz; Högl, Birgit

    2017-02-23

    Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep (PLMS) are considered strongly related to restless legs syndrome (RLS), and are associated with polymorphisms in RLS risk genes. Various software for automatic analysis of PLMS are available, but only few of them have been validated. Aim of this study was to validate a leg movements count and analysis integrated in a commercially available polysomnography (PSG) system against manual scoring. Twenty RLS patients with a PLMS index > 20/h and 20 controls with a PLMS index PLM was performed according to the standard American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria. LM and PLM indices during sleep and wakefulness, the rate of PLMS associated with respiratory events, intermovement interval and periodicity indices were manually and automatically scored. The correlation between manual and computerized scoring was high for all investigated parameters (Spearman correlation coefficients 0.751-0.996, p PLM analysis against the gold standard manual scoring according to AASM criteria. The data demonstrate that the software used in this study has an outstanding performance for computerized LM and PLM scoring, and LM and PLM indices generated with this software can be reliably integrated in the routine PSG report. This automatic analysis is also an excellent tool for research purposes.

  15. Altering spinal cord excitability enables voluntary movements after chronic complete paralysis in humans.

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    Angeli, Claudia A; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gerasimenko, Yury P; Harkema, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    Previously, we reported that one individual who had a motor complete, but sensory incomplete spinal cord injury regained voluntary movement after 7 months of epidural stimulation and stand training. We presumed that the residual sensory pathways were critical in this recovery. However, we now report in three more individuals voluntary movement occurred with epidural stimulation immediately after implant even in two who were diagnosed with a motor and sensory complete lesion. We demonstrate that neuromodulating the spinal circuitry with epidural stimulation, enables completely paralysed individuals to process conceptual, auditory and visual input to regain relatively fine voluntary control of paralysed muscles. We show that neuromodulation of the sub-threshold motor state of excitability of the lumbosacral spinal networks was the key to recovery of intentional movement in four of four individuals diagnosed as having complete paralysis of the legs. We have uncovered a fundamentally new intervention strategy that can dramatically affect recovery of voluntary movement in individuals with complete paralysis even years after injury.

  16. Restless legs syndrome, periodic leg movements, and periodic limb movement disorder in children.

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    Durmer, Jeffrey S; Quraishi, Ghazala H

    2011-06-01

    The characteristic symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been known for hundreds of years and were first reported in medicine in the 1600s. Clinicians must consider potential mimics, comorbid, and associated conditions when evaluating children with RLS symptoms. The traditional differentiation of RLS from periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is noted in children as well as adults. Because current pediatric RLS research is sparse, this article provides the most up-to-date evidence-based as well as consensus opinion-based information on the subject of childhood RLS and PLMD. Prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical associations are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Interrelationships among Voluntary and Prosthetic Leg Joint Parameters Using Cyclograms

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    Nur Azah Hamzaid

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The walking mechanism of a prosthetic leg user is a tightly coordinated movement of several joints and limb segments. The interaction among the voluntary and mechanical joints and segments requires particular biomechanical insight. This study aims to analyze the inter-relationship between amputees' voluntary and mechanical coupled leg joints variables using cyclograms. From this analysis, the critical gait parameters in each gait phase were determined and analyzed if they contribute to a better powered prosthetic knee control design. To develop the cyclogram model, 20 healthy able-bodied subjects and 25 prosthesis and orthosis users (10 transtibial amputees, 5 transfemoral amputees, and 10 different pathological profiles of orthosis users walked at their comfortable speed in a 3D motion analysis lab setting. The gait parameters (i.e., angle, moment and power for the ankle, knee and hip joints were coupled to form 36 cyclograms relationship. The model was validated by quantifying the gait disparities of all the pathological walking by analyzing each cyclograms pairs using feed-forward neural network with backpropagation. Subsequently, the cyclogram pairs that contributed to the highest gait disparity of each gait phase were manipulated by replacing it with normal values and re-analyzed. The manipulated cyclograms relationship that showed highest improvement in terms of gait disparity calculation suggested that they are the most dominant parameters in powered-knee control. In case of transfemoral amputee walking, it was identified using this approach that at each gait sub-phase, the knee variables most responsible for closest to normal walking were: knee power during loading response and mid-stance, knee moment and knee angle during terminal stance phase, knee angle and knee power during pre-swing, knee angle at initial swing, and knee power at terminal swing. No variable was dominant during mid-swing phase implying natural pendulum effect of the

  18. [Cortical Areas for Controlling Voluntary Movements].

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    Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Hoshi, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    The primary motor cortex is located in Brodmann area 4 at the most posterior part of the frontal lobe. The primary motor cortex corresponds to an output stage of motor signals, sending motor commands to the brain stem and spinal cord. Brodmann area 6 is rostral to Brodmann area 4, where multiple higher-order motor areas are located. The premotor area, which is located in the lateral part, is involved in planning and executing action based on sensory signals. The premotor area contributes to the reaching for and grasping of an object to achieve a behavioral goal. The supplementary motor area, which occupies the mesial aspect, is involved in planning and executing actions based on internalized or memorized signals. The supplementary motor area plays a central role in bimanual movements, organizing multiple movements, and switching from a routine to a controlled behavior. Thus, Brodmann areas 4 and 6 are considered as central motor areas in the cerebral cortex, in which the idea of an action is transformed to an actual movement in a variety of contexts.

  19. Leg movements during wakefulness in restless legs syndrome: time structure and relationships with periodic leg movements during sleep.

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    Ferri, Raffaele; Manconi, Mauro; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco

    2012-05-01

    Approximately one third of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) also show periodic leg movements (PLM) during relaxed wake fulness (PLMW). In contrast with the large amount of data published on periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), PLMW have received less attention from the scientific community. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlations/differences of time-structure and response to a dopamine-agonist between PLMW and PLMS in patients with RLS. Ninety idiopathic RLS patients and 28 controls were recruited. Subjects underwent clinical and neurophysiological evaluation, hematological screening, and one or two consecutive full-night polysomnographic studies. A subset of patients received 0.25mg of pramipexole or placebo before the second recording. Polysomnographic recordings were scored and LM activity was analyzed during sleep and during the epochs of wakefulness occurring during the first recording hour. RLS patients had higher LM activity during wakefulness than controls, but with a similar periodicity. Even if correlated, the ability of the PLMW index to predict the PLMS index decreased with increasing LM activity. Intermovement intervals during wakefulness showed one peak only at approximately 4s, gradually decreasing with increasing interval in both patients and controls. The effect of pramipexole was very limited and involved the small periodic portion of LM activity during wakefulness. PLMW index and PLMS index were correlated; however, the magnitude of this correlation was not sufficient to suggest that PLMW can be good predictors of PLMS. Short-interval LM activity during wakefulness and sleep might be linked to the severity of sleep disruption in RLS patients and the differences between their features obtained during wakefulness or sleep might be relevant for the diagnosis of sleep disturbances in RLS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-class EEG classification of voluntary hand movement directions

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    Robinson, Neethu; Guan, Cuntai; Vinod, A. P.; Keng Ang, Kai; Tee, Keng Peng

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Studies have shown that low frequency components of brain recordings provide information on voluntary hand movement directions. However, non-invasive techniques face more challenges compared to invasive techniques. Approach. This study presents a novel signal processing technique to extract features from non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings for classifying voluntary hand movement directions. The proposed technique comprises the regularized wavelet-common spatial pattern algorithm to extract the features, mutual information-based feature selection, and multi-class classification using the Fisher linear discriminant. EEG data from seven healthy human subjects were collected while they performed voluntary right hand center-out movement in four orthogonal directions. In this study, the movement direction dependent signal-to-noise ratio is used as a parameter to denote the effectiveness of each temporal frequency bin in the classification of movement directions. Main results. Significant (p movement direction dependent modulation in the EEG data was identified largely towards the end of movement at low frequencies (≤6 Hz) from the midline parietal and contralateral motor areas. Experimental results on single trial classification of the EEG data collected yielded an average accuracy of (80.24 ± 9.41)% in discriminating the four different directions using the proposed technique on features extracted from low frequency components. Significance. The proposed feature extraction strategy provides very high multi-class classification accuracies, and the results are proven to be more statistically significant than existing methods. The results obtained suggest the possibility of multi-directional movement classification from single-trial EEG recordings using the proposed technique in low frequency components.

  1. Creating a movement heuristic for voluntary action: electrophysiological correlates of movement-outcome learning.

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    Bednark, Jeffery G; Reynolds, John N J; Stafford, Tom; Redgrave, Peter; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    Performance of voluntary behavior requires the selection of appropriate movements to attain a desired goal. We propose that the selection of voluntary movements is often contingent on the formation of a movement heuristic or set of internal rules governing movement selection. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify the electrophysiological correlates of the formation of movement heuristics during movement-outcome learning. In two experiments, ERPs from non-learning control tasks were compared to a movement-learning task in which a movement heuristic was formed. We found that novelty P3 amplitude was negatively correlated with improved performance in the movement-learning task. Additionally, enhancement of novelty P3 amplitude was observed during learning even after controlling for memory, attentional and inter-stimulus interval parameters. The feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) was only elicited by sensory effects following intentional movements. These findings extend previous studies demonstrating the role of the fCRP in performance monitoring and the role of the P3 in learning. In particular, the present study highlights an integrative role of the fCRP and the novelty P3 for the acquisition of movement heuristics. While the fCRP indicates that the goal of intentional movements has been attained, the novelty P3 engages stimulus-driven attentional mechanisms to determine the primary aspects of movement and context required to elicit the sensory effect.

  2. Short-interval leg movements during sleep entail greater cardiac activation than periodic leg movements during sleep in restless legs syndrome patients.

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    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are sequences of ≥4 motor events with intermovement intervals (IMI) of 10-90 s. PLMS are a supportive diagnostic criterion for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and entail cardiac activation, particularly when associated with arousal. RLS patients also over-express short-interval leg movements during sleep (SILMS), which have IMI leg movements. We found that the duration of the R-R interval decrease with SILMS doublets was significantly longer than that with PLMS, whereas the maximal decrease in R-R interval was similar. Scoring SILMS in RLS patients may therefore be relevant from a cardiac autonomic perspective. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. 5 CFR 630.1014 - Movement between voluntary leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave...

  4. Saddle and leg forces during lateral movements in dressage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.; Mooren, M.; Dortmans, A.; Weeren, van P.R.; Timmermans, M.; Muller, M.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: In the equestrian world it is assumed that riders use changes in weight distribution and leg forces as important instruments to give horses directions about speed and direction of movement. However, the changes of these forces have never been quantified. Objectives: To

  5. Computer-assisted detection of nocturnal leg motor activity in patients with restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements during sleep.

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    Ferri, Raffaele; Zucconi, Marco; Manconi, Mauro; Bruni, Oliviero; Miano, Silvia; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2005-08-01

    To assess the performance of a new method for automatic detection of periodic leg movements during sleep. Leg movements during sleep were visually detected in the tibialis anterior muscles recordings of 15 patients with restless legs syndrome and 15 normal controls. Leg movements were detected automatically by means of a new computer method with which electromyogram signals are first digitally band-pass filtered and then rectified; subsequently, the detection of leg movements is performed by using 2 thresholds: one for the starting point and another to detect the end point of each leg movement. Sensitivity and false-positive rate were obtained; the American Sleep Disorders Association parameters were also computed, and the results analyzed by means of the Kendall W coefficient, the linear correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plots. N/A. Fifteen patients with restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements and 15 controls. High values of the Kendall W coefficient of concordance between automatic and visual analysis were found with values close to 1 and the linear correlation coefficient for leg movements index and total leg movements index was > 0.950 (p visual and computer detection, which were -9.01 and +9.89 for the periodic leg movement index. None of the normal controls was found to have periodic leg movement indexes >5 after automatic analysis. Our method can be applied to the clinical evaluation of periodic leg movements during sleep, with some caution in patients with a low periodic leg movement indexes. Large-scale research application is possible and can be considered as reliable.

  6. Voluntary Saccadic Eye Movements Ride the Attentional Rhythm.

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    Hogendoorn, Hinze

    2016-10-01

    Visual perception seems continuous, but recent evidence suggests that the underlying perceptual mechanisms are in fact periodic-particularly visual attention. Because visual attention is closely linked to the preparation of saccadic eye movements, the question arises how periodic attentional processes interact with the preparation and execution of voluntary saccades. In two experiments, human observers made voluntary saccades between two placeholders, monitoring each one for the presentation of a threshold-level target. Detection performance was evaluated as a function of latency with respect to saccade landing. The time course of detection performance revealed oscillations at around 4 Hz both before the saccade at the saccade origin and after the saccade at the saccade destination. Furthermore, oscillations before and after the saccade were in phase, meaning that the saccade did not disrupt or reset the ongoing attentional rhythm. Instead, it seems that voluntary saccades are executed as part of an ongoing attentional rhythm, with the eyes in flight during the troughs of the attentional wave. This finding for the first time demonstrates that periodic attentional mechanisms affect not only perception but also overt motor behavior.

  7. Actigraphic assessment of periodic leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippà, Maria A T; Baumann, Christian R; Siccoli, Massimiliano M; Bassetti, Claudio L; Poryazova, Rositsa; Werth, Esther

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) relies upon diagnostic criteria which are based on history only, and dopaminergic treatment is not normally the first choice of treatment for all patients. It would be worthwhile to identify patients non-responsive to dopaminergic treatment beforehand, because they may suffer from a restless legs-like syndrome and may require alternative treatment. We included retrospectively 24 adult patients fulfilling the four essential criteria for restless legs and 12 age-matched healthy controls. They were investigated by ambulatory actigraphy from both legs over three nights, and patients started treatment with dopamine agonists after this diagnostic work-up. We examined 12 responders to dopaminergic treatment and 12 non-responders and studied the association between response to dopaminergic treatment and the periodic limb movement index (PLMI) as assessed with actigraphy. Demographic characteristics, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue at baseline were similar in all three groups. Baseline RLS severity was similar between responders and non-responders [International Restless Legs Severity Scale (IRLS): 25 ± 9 and 24 ± 8]. Group comparisons of PLMI before treatment initiation showed significant differences between the three groups. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed that healthy controls had significantly lower PLMI (4.9 ± 4.5) than responders (29.3 ± 22.7) and non-responders (13.3 ± 11.2). Similarly, the PLMI in responders was lower than in non-responders. PLMI day-to-day variability did not differ between responders and non-responders and there was no correlation between treatment effect, as assessed by the decrease of the IRLS and baseline PLMI. Our retrospective study indicates that actigraphy to assess periodic limb movements may contribute to a better diagnosis of dopamine-responsive restless legs syndrome.

  8. The hyperaemic response to passive leg movement is dependent on nitric oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Askew, Christopher D; Walker, Meegan;

    2012-01-01

    interstitial space. Inhibition of NO synthesis lowered the vasodilatory response to passive leg movement by ~90%. The increase in leg blood flow was lower in elderly subjects compared to young subjects and leg blood flow did not increase when passive leg movement was performed by elderly with peripheral artery...... disease. The results suggest that the hyperaemia induced by passive leg movement is NO dependent. The hyperaemic response to passive leg movement and to ACh was also assessed in elderly subjects and patients with peripheral artery disease....

  9. New actigraphic assessment method for periodic leg movements (PLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazenwadel, J; Pollmächer, T; Trenkwalder, C; Oertel, W H; Kohnen, R; Künzel, M; Krüger, H P

    1995-10-01

    A new actigraphic method by which periodic leg movements (PLM) can be measured is presented. Data acquistion and analysis were brought into line to distinguish short-lasting repetive leg movements from random motor restlessness. The definition of PLM follows the generally accepted criteria for PLM scoring. Thirty restless legs patients, all also suffering from PLM, were investigated three times by polysomnography, including tibialis anterior surface electromyography and actigraphy. A high correlation (reliability) was found for the number of PLM per hour spent in bed between the two methods. Furthermore, the actigraph records PLM specifically. An index of random motor restlessness is not sufficient for a reliable PLM according. In addition, periodic movements in sleep (PMS) and PLM show comparable variability in general. The actigraphic assessment of PLM, however, gives a better measure because PMS recordings may result in a substantial underestimation of PLM when sleep efficiency is reduced. This method is an ambulatory assessment tool that can also be used for screening purposes.

  10. Investigation into the correlation between sensation and leg movement in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birinyi, Paul V; Allen, Richard P; Lesage, Susan; Dean, Terry; Earley, Christopher J

    2005-09-01

    We evaluated rest effects on restless legs syndrome (RLS) sensory and motor symptoms. During two 60-minute Suggested Immobilization Tests (SIT) subject's signals of RLS leg sensations and periodic leg movements while awake (PLMW) were recorded. Sensations, PLMW, sensations preceding or after PLMW, sensations occurring without following PLMW, and PLMW occurring without preceding sensation were determined. The RLS patients were divided into equal-sized high and low PLMW groups for further analysis. Data from 46 subjects (28 RLS and 18 controls) revealed sensations increased linearly with rest in RLS patients and controls. Movement rate increased linearly with rest for controls but increased rapidly for the first 45 minutes for all RLS patients. PLMW/hour increased with further rest for low but not high PLMW patients. Sensations followed by PLMW and PLMW without preceding sensations followed similar patterns. Sensations without subsequent PLMW increased dramatically in the last 15 minutes of the SITs. Whereas both sensory and motor signs of RLS increase with rest, there is minimal increase for controls. Patients with higher but not lower PLMW rates reached a ceiling for PLMW after 35 to 40 minutes. The temporal dissociation between sensory and motor events supports viewing these motor and sensory events as separate but loosely linked manifestations of RLS. (c) 2005 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. The simultaneous perception of auditory–tactile stimuli in voluntary movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao eHao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND, an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory–tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy.

  12. The simultaneous perception of auditory-tactile stimuli in voluntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ogata, Taiki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Kwon, Jinhwan; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND), an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory-tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy.

  13. The simultaneous perception of auditory–tactile stimuli in voluntary movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ogata, Taiki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Kwon, Jinhwan; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND), an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory–tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy. PMID:26441799

  14. Damping of the wrist joint during voluntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, T E; Cloutier, C

    1998-10-01

    Damping characteristics of the musculoskeletal system were investigated during rapid voluntary wrist flexion movements. Oscillations about the final position were induced by introducing a load with the characteristics of negative damping, which artificially reduced the damping of the wrist. Subjects responded to increases in the negatively damped load by stronger cocontraction of wrist flexor and extensor muscles during the stabilization phase of the movement. However, their ability to counteract the effects of the negatively damped load diminished as the negative damping increased. Consequently, the number and frequency of oscillations increased. The oscillations were accompanied by phase-locked muscle activity superimposed on underlying tonic muscle activation. The wrist stiffness and damping coefficient increased with the increased cocontraction that accompanied more negatively damped loads, although changes in the damping coefficient were less systematic than the stiffness. Analysis of successive half-cycles of the oscillation revealed that the wrist stiffness and damping coefficient increased, despite decreasing muscle activation, as oscillation amplitude and velocity declined. This indicates that the inverse dependence of the damping coefficient on oscillation velocity contributes significantly to damping of joint motion. It is suggested that this property helps to offset a negative contribution to damping from the stretch reflex.

  15. Dissociation of periodic leg movements from arousals in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Mauro; Ferri, Raffaele; Zucconi, Marco; Bassetti, Claudio L; Fulda, Stephany; Aricò, Debora; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature of the relation between periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and cortical arousals to contribute to the debate on the clinical significance and treatment of PLMS. A prospective, placebo-controlled, single-blind, parallel group study was carried out including 46 drug-naive patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS). Each patient underwent 2 consecutive full-night polysomnographic studies. The first night was the baseline night. Prior to the second night, 1 group received a single oral dose of 0.25mg pramipexole, whereas a second group received a single oral dose of 0.5mg clonazepam, and the remaining patients received placebo. Sleep stages, cyclic alternating pattern (CAP), and leg movement activity were scored following standard criteria; symptoms of RLS were also assessed. Pramipexole suppressed PLMS without affecting electroencephalographic (EEG) instability (CAP) and arousals (corresponding to CAP A3 and, partially, A2 subtypes), whereas clonazepam did the opposite, reducing non-rapid eye movement sleep EEG instability without effects on PLMS. Both drugs were effective on sensory RLS symptoms. This study demonstrates that a selective pharmacological approach can disconnect PLMS from arousal events, suggesting an indirect relation between each other. These results might weaken the hypothesis of a direct pathological role of PLMS in sleep disruption and can be important for the discussion on the existence of a distinct entity called periodic limb movements disorder. Moreover, the study opens the doors to the possibility of a joint treatment for RLS targeting sensory and motor symptoms, as well as sleep instability. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  16. APAs Constraints to Voluntary Movements: The Case for Limb Movements Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Fausto G.; Tesio, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    When rhythmically moving two limbs in either the same or in opposite directions, one coupling mode meets constraints that are absent in the other mode. Isodirectional (ISO) flexion-extensions of the ipsilateral hand and foot can be easily performed with either the hand prone or supine. Instead, antidirectional (ANTI) movements require attentive effort and irresistibly tend to reverse into ISO when frequency increases. Experimental evidence indicates that the direction dependent easy-difficult dichotomy is caused by interference of the anticipatory postural commands associated to movements of one limb with voluntary commands to the other limb. Excitability of the resting wrist muscles is subliminally modulated at the period of ipsilateral foot oscillations, being phase-opposite in the antagonists and distributed so as to facilitate ISO and obstacle ANTI coupling of the hand (either prone or supine) with the foot. Modulation is driven by cortical signals dispatched to the forearm simultaneously with the voluntary commands moving the foot. If right foot oscillations are performed when standing on the left foot with the right hand touching a fixed support, the subliminal excitability modulation is replaced by overt contractions of forearm muscles conforming the APAs features. This suggests that during hand-foot ANTI coupling the voluntary commands to forearm muscles are contrasted by APAs commands of opposite sign linked to foot oscillations. Correlation between the easy-difficult dichotomy and the APAs distribution is also found in coupled adduction-abduction of the arms or hands in the transverse plane and in coupled flexion-extension of the arms in the parasagittal plane. In all these movements, APAs commands linked to the movement of each limb reach the motor pathways to the contralateral muscles homologous to the prime movers and can interfere during coupling with their voluntary activation. APAs are also generated in postural muscles of trunk and lower limbs and

  17. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper LS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Luke S Hopper,1 Nahoko Sato,2 Andries L Weidemann1 1Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley, WA, Australia; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Nagoya Gakuin University, Seto, Japan Abstract: The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. Keywords: injury, motion capture, clinical assessment

  18. Single-leg squats can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements in “turnout”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Sato, Nahoko; Weidemann, Andries L

    2016-01-01

    The physical assessments used in dance injury surveillance programs are often adapted from the sports and exercise domain. Bespoke physical assessments may be required for dance, particularly when ballet movements involve “turning out” or external rotation of the legs beyond that typically used in sports. This study evaluated the ability of the traditional single-leg squat to predict the leg alignment of dancers performing ballet movements with turnout. Three-dimensional kinematic data of dancers performing the single-leg squat and five ballet movements were recorded and analyzed. Reduction of the three-dimensional data into a one-dimensional variable incorporating the ankle, knee, and hip joint center positions provided the strongest predictive model between the single-leg squat and the ballet movements. The single-leg squat can predict leg alignment in dancers performing ballet movements, even in “turned out” postures. Clinicians should pay careful attention to observational positioning and rating criteria when assessing dancers performing the single-leg squat. PMID:27895518

  19. Design and validation of a periodic leg movement detector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyatt Moore

    Full Text Available Periodic Limb Movements (PLMs are episodic, involuntary movements caused by fairly specific muscle contractions that occur during sleep and can be scored during nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG. Because leg movements (LM may be accompanied by an arousal or sleep fragmentation, a high PLM index (i.e. average number of PLMs per hour may have an effect on an individual's overall health and wellbeing. This study presents the design and validation of the Stanford PLM automatic detector (S-PLMAD, a robust, automated leg movement detector to score PLM. NPSG studies from adult participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC, n = 1,073, 2000-2004 and successive Stanford Sleep Cohort (SSC patients (n = 760, 1999-2007 undergoing baseline NPSG were used in the design and validation of this study. The scoring algorithm of the S-PLMAD was initially based on the 2007 American Association of Sleep Medicine clinical scoring rules. It was first tested against other published algorithms using manually scored LM in the WSC. Rules were then modified to accommodate baseline noise and electrocardiography interference and to better exclude LM adjacent to respiratory events. The S-PLMAD incorporates adaptive noise cancelling of cardiac interference and noise-floor adjustable detection thresholds, removes LM secondary to sleep disordered breathing within 5 sec of respiratory events, and is robust to transient artifacts. Furthermore, it provides PLM indices for sleep (PLMS and wake plus periodicity index and other metrics. To validate the final S-PLMAD, experts visually scored 78 studies in normal sleepers and patients with restless legs syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, narcolepsy-cataplexy, insomnia, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. PLM indices were highly correlated between expert, visually scored PLMS and automatic scorings (r² = 0.94 in WSC and r² = 0.94 in SSC. In conclusion, The S-PLMAD is a robust

  20. Daily Quantity of Infant Leg Movement: Wearable Sensor Algorithm and Relationship to Walking Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A. Smith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normative values are lacking for daily quantity of infant leg movements. This is critical for understanding the relationship between the quantity of leg movements and onset of independent walking, and will begin to inform early therapy intervention for infants at risk for developmental delay. Methods: We used wearable inertial movement sensors to record full-day leg movement activity from 12 infants with typical development, ages 1–12 months. Each infant was tested three times across 5 months, and followed until the onset of independent walking. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify infant-produced leg movements. Results: Infants moved their legs tens of thousands of times per day. There was a significant effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset. Infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less, even when adjusting for age, developmental level or percentile length. We will need a much larger sample to adequately capture and describe the effect of movement experience on developmental rate. Our algorithm defines a leg movement in a specific way (each pause or change in direction is counted as a new movement, and further assessment of movement characteristics are necessary before we can fully understand and interpret our finding that infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less. Conclusions: We have shown that typically-developing infants produce thousands of leg movements in a typical day, and that this can be accurately captured in the home environment using wearable sensors. In our small sample we can identify there is an effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset, however we cannot fully explain it.

  1. Ropinirole in restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Erichsen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Erichsen1, Raffaelle Ferri2, David Gozal11Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Oasi Institute IRCCS, Troina, ItalyAbstract: Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder of sleep are now recognized as prevalent, distinct, yet overlapping disorders affecting all age groups. Although delineation of the mechanisms underlying these disorders continues to be the focus of very intense research efforts, it has become apparent that there is a prominent role for dopaminergic agents in the clinical management of these patients. Among the various dopaminergic drugs, ropinirole has undergone relatively intense and critical scrutiny, and appears to provide a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with these two conditions. The more recent development of a controlled formulation for this drug is likely to yield additional benefits such as improved adherence and reduced fluctuations in daytime and nighttime symptoms. However, there is not enough evidence at this time to support such assumption.Keywords: dopaminergic drugs, restless legs syndrome, ropinirole, period limb movement disorder

  2. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Umut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG by analysing polysomnography (PSG data with digital signal processing (DSP and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87% and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850, multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29% and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705. Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87% without leg EMG record being present.

  3. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015...

  4. Frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is an unrecognized risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahek Mirza

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea has been recognized as a factor predisposing to atrial fibrillation recurrence and progression. The effect of other sleep-disturbing conditions on atrial fibrillation progression is not known. We sought to determine whether frequent periodic leg movement during sleep is a risk factor for progression of atrial fibrillation. In this retrospective study, patients with atrial fibrillation and a clinical suspicion of restless legs syndrome who were referred for polysomnography were divided into two groups based on severity of periodic leg movement during sleep: frequent (periodic movement index >35/h and infrequent (≤35/h. Progression of atrial fibrillation to persistent or permanent forms between the two groups was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. Of 373 patients with atrial fibrillation (77% paroxysmal, 23% persistent, 108 (29% progressed to persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation during follow-up (median, 33 months; interquartile range, 16-50. Compared to patients with infrequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=168, patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep (n=205 had a higher rate of atrial fibrillation progression (23% vs. 34%; p=0.01. Patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep were older and predominantly male; however, there were no significant differences at baseline in clinical factors that promote atrial fibrillation progression between both groups. On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of atrial fibrillation progression were persistent atrial fibrillation at baseline, female gender, hypertension and frequent periodic leg movement during sleep. In patients with frequent periodic leg movement during sleep, dopaminergic therapy for control of leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome reduced risk of atrial fibrillation progression. Frequent leg movement during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome is

  5. Review of periodic limb movement and restless leg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic limb movement (PLM and Restless leg syndrome (RLS are types of sleep disorders that are not very well recognized in clinical practice. While RLS is a clinical diagnosis, the diagnosis of PLM is made by polysomnography. They share the same pathophysiology and often respond to the same treatment. To date all the epidemiological studies have reported the prevalence between 2% and 15%. It has recently become known that mild obstructive sleep apnea and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS can masquerade as PLM syndrome. New discoveries have been made with regard to genetics and PLM and RLS. Detailed review on this subject should improve the awareness of these disorders, both among general physicians and specialists. Extensive review of journals in the past 20 years was made using Medline search.

  6. Arm movements can increase leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping in neurologically intact individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, D. de; Rijken, H.; Manintveld, T.; Nienhuis, B.; Dietz, V.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Facilitation of leg muscle activity by active arm movements during locomotor tasks could be beneficial during gait rehabilitation after spinal cord injury. The present study explored the effects of arm movements on leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping. Healthy subjects exercised

  7. Plasma apelin level in patients with restless legs syndrome and its association with periodic leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Selda; Aksu, Murat; Baskol, Gulden

    2017-03-01

    Apelin is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule secreted by adipose tissue and has a protective effect on cardiac and neuronal tissue. Recent studies have reported that the risk of vascular disease is increased in restless legs syndrome (RLS). We aimed to measure plasma levels of apelin in patients with RLS. Additionally, we wanted to determine if there is any relationship between apelin levels and RLS disease severity and the periodic leg movement index (PLMI). A total of 14 RLS patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms and 14 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All participants had no concomitant medical disorder nor took medications. The international RLS rating scale (IRLSS) was used to determine disease severity. Polysomnography (PSG) served to exclude other sleep disorders such as sleep-related breathing disorders and to measure sleep parameters. The mean plasma apelin level was significantly lower in the patient group compared to the control group independent of IRLSS score and PSG findings (p = 0.004). After comparison between the RLS patient group and control group, the patient group was divided into two subgroups based on a PLMI above or below 15 events per hour. A reduced mean apelin level was observed in the patient group having a PLMI above 15 compared to the patient group with PLMI below 15 and the control group (p = 0.003). There was no correlation between plasma apelin levels and disease severity and PLMI in the two patient subgroups. RLS patients especially those with a PLMI above 15 have low plasma apelin levels independent of disease severity and sleep parameters such as sleep duration and quality. Decreased apelin levels may explain the increased risk for vascular diseases in those patients.

  8. Arm movements can increase leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping in neurologically intact individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kam, Digna; Rijken, Hennie; Manintveld, Toos; Nienhuis, Bart; Dietz, Volker; Duysens, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    Facilitation of leg muscle activity by active arm movements during locomotor tasks could be beneficial during gait rehabilitation after spinal cord injury. The present study explored the effects of arm movements on leg muscle activity during submaximal recumbent stepping. Healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepping machine both with and without arm movements. Activity of five leg muscles was recorded and compared for stepping with and without arm movements. To determine which arm movements are optimal for leg muscle facilitation, subjects were instructed to step with 1) mechanically coupled vs. decoupled arm and leg movements, 2) synchronous vs. asynchronous arm movements, and 3) at 50 vs. 70 RPM. Leg muscle activity was increased by active arm movements in all muscles, except the vastus lateralis muscle. Activity of other extensors (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, and biceps femoris) was primarily increased during the extension phase, whereas activity of flexors (tibialis anterior) was also increased during the flexion phase. Facilitation was more or less consistent for both frequencies and for synchronous and asynchronous movements. For coupled arm movements, facilitation tended to be diminished or absent. The observed facilitation in the present study is probably of neuromuscular rather than biomechanical origin, since the arms are probably hardly involved in postural control or weight-bearing during recumbent stepping. Further studies in patients should explore the possibility to integrate neuromuscular facilitation in rehabilitation programs.

  9. Lower Limb Voluntary Movement Improvement Following a Robot-Assisted Locomotor Training in Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirbagheri Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI suffer from severe impairments in voluntary movements. Literature reports a reduction in major kinematic and kinetic parameters of lower limbs’ joints. A body weight support treadmill training with robotic assistance has been widely used to improve lower-extremity function and locomotion in persons with SCI. Our objective was to explore the effects of 4-weeks robot-assisted locomotor training on voluntary movement of the ankle musculature in patients with incomplete SCI. In particular, we aimed to characterize the therapeutic effects of Lokomat training on kinematic measures (range of motion, velocity, smoothness during a dorsiflexion movement. We hypothesized that training would improve these measures. Preliminary results show an improvement of kinematic parameters during ankle dorsiflexion voluntary movement after a 4-weeks training in the major part of our participants. Complementary investigations are in progress to confirm these results and understand underlying mechanisms associated with the recovery.

  10. Sequence analysis of leg movements during sleep with different intervals (90 s) in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define the time structure of leg movements during sleep occurring with an intermovement interval (onset-to-onset) shorter than 10 s in patients with restless legs syndrome and controls, and to compare it to the structure of movements with intervals of 10-90 s or >90 s. Polysomnographic recordings of 141 untreated patients and 68 age-matched normal controls were analysed. All movements were detected and classified into three categories, separated by intervals of 90 s. The number of movements included in each category was significantly higher in patients than in controls. The movements with an interval of >90 s occurred steadily during the night, whereas the hourly distribution of movements with intervals of 90 s. The time structure features of the three categories of movements considered in this study were found to be clearly different. This, together with previous observations on the differential effects of dopamine agonists on movements with different intervals, suggests that movements with intervals of 90 s are regulated by neurotransmitter mechanisms different from those modulating movements with an interval of 10-90 s. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. The influence of antidepressants on restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Mansukhani, Meghna P; Bostwick, J Michael

    2017-06-15

    Restless legs syndrome is commonly co-morbid with medical conditions that are treated with antidepressant medications, such as depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, and chronic insomnia disorder. Evidence from case reports and cross-sectional studies suggests that antidepressants may induce or worsen restless legs syndrome and increase periodic limb movements. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to identify and collate all prospective studies that measured restless legs syndrome symptoms and/or periodic limb movements following the introduction of an antidepressant. Eighteen studies were eligible for inclusion. Current data indicate that onset or exacerbation of restless legs syndrome and rise in frequency of periodic limb movements are uncommon following the initiation of an antidepressant. Among the various antidepressants, mirtazapine may be associated with higher rates of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements. One small study of normal volunteers suggested that venlafaxine may be associated with an increase in restless legs syndrome symptoms and periodic limb movements. Sertraline, fluoxetine, and amitriptyline appear to increase periodic limb movements that do not disrupt sleep and are thus unlikely to be clinically significant. On the other hand, bupropion may reduce restless legs syndrome symptoms, at least in the short term. Sedating antidepressants such as trazodone, nefazodone, and doxepin do not seem to aggravate periodic limb movements. The current evidence is limited by poor study design, inadequate use of standardized questionnaires, and heterogeneous populations studied for variable lengths of time. Future research should attempt to remedy these shortcomings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting Recovery of Voluntary Upper Extremity Movement in Subacute Stroke Patients with Severe Upper Extremity Paresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chia-Lin; Pan, Shin-Liang; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chen, Bang-Bin; Wang, Yen-Ho; Hsueh, I-Ping; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Prediction of voluntary upper extremity (UE) movement recovery is largely unknown in patients with little voluntary UE movement at admission. The present study aimed to investigate (1) the extent and variation of voluntary UE movement recovery, and (2) the best predictive model of the recovery of voluntary UE movement by clinical variables in patients with severe UE paresis. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods 140 (out of 590) stroke patients with severe UE paresis completed all assessments. Voluntary UE movement was assessed using the UE subscale of the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM-UE). Two outcome measures, STREAM-UE scores at discharge (DCSTREAM-UE) and changes between admission and discharge (ΔSTREAM-UE), were investigated to represent the final states and improvement of the recovery of voluntary UE movement. Stepwise regression analyses were used to investigate 19 clinical variables and to find the best predictive models of the two outcome measures. Results The participants showed wide variation in both DCSTREAM-UE and ΔSTREAM-UE. 3.6% of the participants almost fully recovered at discharge (DCSTREAM-UE > 15). A large improvement (ΔSTREAM-UE >= 10) occurred in 16.4% of the participants, while 32.9% of the participants did not have any improvement. The four predictors for the DCSTREAM-UE (R2 = 35.0%) were ‘baseline STREAM-UE score’, ‘hemorrhagic stroke’, ‘baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score’, and ‘cortical lesion excluding primary motor cortex’. The three predictors for the ΔSTREAM-UE (R2 = 22.0%) were ‘hemorrhagic stroke’, ‘baseline NIHSS score’, and ‘cortical lesion excluding primary motor cortex’. Conclusions Recovery of voluntary UE movement varied widely in patients with severe UE paresis after stroke. The predictive power of clinical variables was poor. Both results indicate the complex nature of voluntary UE movement recovery in patients

  13. Neuromagnetic fields accompanying unilateral and bilateral voluntary movements: topography and analysis of cortical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, R; Cheyne, D; Deecke, L

    1991-08-01

    Movement-related magnetic fields (MRMFs) accompanying left and right unilateral and bilateral finger flexions were studied in 6 right-handed subjects. Six different MRMF components occurring prior to, and during both unilateral and bilateral movements are described: a slow pre-movement readiness field (RF, 1-0.5 sec prior to movement onset); a motor field (MF) starting shortly before EMG onset; 3 separate "movement-evoked" fields following EMG onset (MEFI at 100 msec; MEFII at 225 msec; and MEFIII at 320 msec); and a "post-movement" field (PMF) following the movement itself. The bilateral topography of the RF and MF for both unilateral and bilateral movements suggested bilateral generators for both conditions. Least-squares fitting of equivalent current dipole sources also indicated bilateral sources for MF prior to both unilateral and bilateral movements with significantly greater strength of contralateral sources in the case of unilateral movements. Differences in pre-movement field patterns for left versus right unilateral movements indicated possible cerebral dominance effects as well. A single current dipole in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex could account for the MEFI for unilateral movements and bilateral sensorimotor sources for bilateral movements. Other MRMF components following EMG onset indicated similar sources in sensorimotor cortex related to sensory feedback or internal monitoring of the movement. The results are discussed with respect to the possible generators active in sensorimotor cortex during unilateral and bilateral movement preparation and execution and their significance for the study of cortical organization of voluntary movement.

  14. Speed, amplitude, and asymmetry of lip movement in voluntary puckering and blowing expressions: implications for facial assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karen L; VanSwearingen, Jessie M; Levenstein, Rachel M

    2005-07-01

    The context of voluntary movement during facial assessment has significant effects on the activity of facial muscles. Using automated facial analysis, we found that healthy subjects instructed to blow produced lip movements that were longer in duration and larger in amplitude than when subjects were instructed to pucker. We also determined that lip movement for puckering expressions was more asymmetric than lip movement in blowing. Differences in characteristics of lip movement were noted using facial movement analysis and were associated with the context of the movement. The impact of the instructions given for voluntary movement on the characteristics of facial movement might have important implications for assessing the capabilities and deficits of movement control in individuals with facial movement disorders. If results generalize to the clinical context, assessment of generally focused voluntary facial expressions might inadequately demonstrate the full range of facial movement capability of an individual patient.

  15. Spike-coding mechanisms of cerebellar temporal processing in classical conditioning and voluntary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kenji; Sakurai, Yoshio

    2014-10-01

    Time is a fundamental and critical factor in daily life. Millisecond timing, which is the underlying temporal processing for speaking, dancing, and other activities, is reported to rely on the cerebellum. In this review, we discuss the cerebellar spike-coding mechanisms for temporal processing. Although the contribution of the cerebellum to both classical conditioning and voluntary movements is well known, the difference of the mechanisms for temporal processing between classical conditioning and voluntary movements is not clear. Therefore, we review the evidence of cerebellar temporal processing in studies of classical conditioning and voluntary movements and report the similarities and differences between them. From some studies, which used tasks that can change some of the temporal properties (e.g., the duration of interstimulus intervals) with keeping identical movements, we concluded that classical conditioning and voluntary movements may share a common spike-coding mechanism because simple spikes in Purkinje cells decrease at predicted times for responses regardless of the intervals between responses or stimulation.

  16. Behavioral outcomes following below-knee amputation in the coordination between balance and leg movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchnino, L; Mille, M-L; Martin, N; Baroni, G; Cincera, M; Bardot, A; Delarque, A; Massion, J; Pedotti, A

    2006-08-01

    Lateral leg movement is accompanied by opposite movements of the supporting leg and trunk segments. This kinematic synergy shifts the center of mass (CM) towards the supporting foot and stabilizes its final position, while the leg movement is being performed. The aim of the present study was to provide insight in the behavioral substitution process responsible for the performance of this kinematic synergy. The kinematic synergy was assessed by the principal component analysis (PCA) applied to both hip joints and supporting ankle joint. Patients after unilateral below-knee amputation and control subjects were asked to perform a lateral leg raising. The first principal component (PC(1)) accounted for more than 99% of the total angular variance for all subjects (amputees and controls). PC(1) thus well represents the possibility to describe this complex multi-joint movement as a one degree of freedom movement with fixed ratios between joint angular time course. In control subjects, the time covariation between joints changes holds during all phases of the leg movement (postural phase, ascending and braking phases). In amputees, PC(1) score decreased during the ascending phase of the movement (i.e. when the body weight transfer is completed, while the movement is initiated). We conclude that a feedback mechanism is involved and discuss the hypothesis that this inter-joint coordination in amputees results from a failure in the pre-setting of the inter-joint coupling.

  17. The voluntary community health movement in India: a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Bhatia, G

    1996-12-01

    There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A review of the literature in the form of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis was the method of this study. Some of the key trends which emerged as the priority areas for progress and for strengthening voluntary organizations in the future were enhancing linkages between health and development; building upon collective force; greater utilization of participatory training; establishing egalitarian and effectual linkages for decision making at the international level; developing self-reliant community-based models; and the need for attaining holistic empowerment at individual, organizational, and community levels through "duty consciousness" as opposed to merely asking for rights.

  18. Impaired Voluntary Movement Control and Its Rehabilitation in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is caused by early damage to the developing brain, as the most common pediatric neurological disorder. Hemiplegia (unilateral spastic cerebral palsy) is the most common subtype, and the resulting impairments, lateralized to one body side, especially affect the upper extremity, limiting daily function. This chapter first describes the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying impaired upper extremity control of cerebral palsy. It will be shown that the severity of impaired hand function closely relates to the integrity of the corticospinal tract innervating the affected hand. It will also shown that the developing corticospinal tract can reorganize its connectivity depending on the timing and location of CNS injury, which also has implications for the severity of hand impairments and rehabilitation. The mechanisms underlying impaired motor function will be highlighted, including deficits in movement execution and planning and sensorimotor integration. It will be shown that despite having unimanual hand impairments, bimanual movement control deficits and mirror movements also impact function. Evidence for motor learning-based therapies including Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy and Bimanual Training, and the possible pathophysiological predictors of treatment outcome and plasticity will be described. Finally, future directions for rehabilitations will be presented.

  19. [Human traveling wave EEG during voluntary movement of the hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, D R; Stepanova, P A; Kolodiazhnyĭ, S F

    2014-01-01

    The traveling wave trajectories connected with the movements of the right hand were revealed. Above sensomotor cortex 28 electrodes were set as a rectangle--4 rows with 7 electrodes in each one. 2D center-out reaching task was used. The target appeared on the screen edge through the random intervals 0.5-2.5 s equiprobably at the left, on the right, from above or from below. The task was to touch the target with the joystick-operated cursor displacing the cursor in one of the sides from the center to edge. EEG from the target occurrence till cursor contact with it was analyzed. Leading on phase of spontaneous EEG waves in the local area of the left sensomotor cortex and in the centre of back-parietal cortex during cursor movement downwards (the hand with joystick moves to oneself) comparing to rest state and movements in three other directions is revealed. The over time smoothing of data concerning phase alignment reveals hidden constant components in EEG resembling evoked potentials.

  20. Higher ventilatory responses during and after passive walking-like leg movement in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hisayoshi; Fujimaru, Ikuyo; Yamada, Keiko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2013-11-08

    Minute ventilation (V · E) during walking has been shown to be higher in older individuals than in young individuals, but the mechanisms underlying the higher ventilatory response is unclear. Central command and peripheral neural reflex are important neural control mechanisms underlying ventilatory response during exercise. Passive leg movement has been used to exclude the influence of central command due to the lack of voluntary activation of muscles. The aim of the present study was to compare the ventilatory response during and after passive walking-like leg movement (PWM) in young and older individuals. Eight young subjects (20 ± 2 years) and seven older subjects (70 ± 1 years) participated in this study. Subjects spent 7 minutes in a quiet standing (QS) position. Thereafter, they performed 14-minute rhythmic PWM at 1 Hz and this was followed by 7 minutes of QS. V · E values during pre-PWM QS were calculated as 1-minute averages using data obtained between 5 and 6 minutes. V · E values at pre-PWM QS in the young and older groups were 8.4 ± 2.1 and 7.5 ± 1.2 l/minute, respectively. V · E values increased significantly at the first minute of PWM to 11.4 ± 2.2 and 10.4 ± 2.5 l/minute in the young and older groups, respectively (P <0.001). In the young group, V · E at the last minute of PWM (9.2 ± 2.0 l/minute) was not significantly different from that at pre-PWM QS due to a decline in V · E, whereas V · E at the last minute of PWM in the older group (9.4 ± 2.2 l/minute) was still significantly higher (P <0.01). On the other hand, V · E at the first minute of post-PWM QS (7.2 ± 1.8 l/minute) was significantly lower than that during pre-PWM QS in the young group (P <0.05) but not in the older group. Ventilatory response during and after PWM is higher in older individuals than in young individuals. This may be associated with a mechanism(s) other than central command. Our findings may explain part of the higher V · E response while walking in older

  1. Auditory-somatosensory temporal sensitivity improves when the somatosensory event is caused by voluntary body movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimichi Kitagawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When we actively interact with the environment, it is crucial that we perceive a precise temporal relationship between our own actions and sensory effects to guide our body movements.Thus, we hypothesized that voluntary movements improve perceptual sensitivity to the temporal disparity between auditory and movement-related somatosensory events compared to when they are delivered passively to sensory receptors. In the voluntary condition, participants voluntarily tapped a button, and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press. The participants made either 'sound-first' or 'touch-first' responses. We found that the performance of temporal order judgment (TOJ in the voluntary condition (as indexed by the just noticeable difference was significantly better (M=42.5 ms ±3.8 s.e.m than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition: M=66.8 ms ±6.3 s.e.m. We further examined whether the performance improvement with voluntary action can be attributed to the prediction of the timing of the stimulation from sensory cues (sensory-based prediction, kinesthetic cues contained in voluntary action, and/or to the prediction of stimulation timing from the efference copy of the motor command (motor-based prediction. When the participant’s finger was moved passively to press the button (involuntary condition and when three noise bursts were presented before the target burst with regular intervals (predictable condition, the TOJ performance was not improved from that in the passive condition. These results suggest that the improvement in sensitivity to temporal disparity between somatosensory and auditory events caused by the voluntary action cannot be attributed to sensory-based prediction and kinesthetic cues. Rather, the prediction from the efference copy of the motor command would be crucial for improving the temporal sensitivity.

  2. Leg-robot with MR clutch to realize virtual spastic movements

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    Kikuchi, T; Oda, K; Yamaguchi, S; Furusho, J [Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we propose a leg-robot with an MR clutch to realize virtual haptic control for spastic movements of brain-injured patients. This system can be used in the practical training for trainees of physical therapy. Additionally, we will study to figure out the physiological mechanism of spastic movements of human with the process to simulate patientlike spastic motion by this robot. In this paper, basic structure and mechanism of the leg-robot with the MR clutch are explained. Finally, experimental results of some kinds of haptic control for spastic movements are described.

  3. Regulation of arm and leg movement during human locomotion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehr, E.P.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Walking can be a very automated process, and it is likely that central pattern generators (CPGs) play a role in the coordination of the limbs. Recent evidence suggests that both the arms and legs are regulated by CPGs and that sensory feedback also regulates the CPG activity and assists in mediating

  4. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-13

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part.

  5. Voluntary movement affects simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to a non-moving body part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ora, Hiroki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ogata, Taiki; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal sensory information has a crucial role for effective reactions to the external environment. Voluntary movements are known to occasionally affect simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the moving body part. However, little is known about spatial limits on the effect of voluntary movements on simultaneous perception, especially when tactile stimuli are presented to a non-moving body part. We examined the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to the non-moving body part. We considered the possible mechanism using a temporal order judgement task under three experimental conditions: voluntary movement, where participants voluntarily moved their right index finger and judged the temporal order of auditory and tactile stimuli presented to their non-moving left index finger; passive movement; and no movement. During voluntary movement, the auditory stimulus needed to be presented before the tactile stimulus so that they were perceived as occurring simultaneously. This subjective simultaneity differed significantly from the passive movement and no movement conditions. This finding indicates that the effect of voluntary movement on simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli extends to the non-moving body part. PMID:27622584

  6. The cerebellum linearly encodes whisker position during voluntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Susu; Augustine, George J; Chadderton, Paul

    2016-01-19

    Active whisking is an important model sensorimotor behavior, but the function of the cerebellum in the rodent whisker system is unknown. We have made patch clamp recordings from Purkinje cells in vivo to identify whether cerebellar output encodes kinematic features of whisking including the phase and set point. We show that Purkinje cell spiking activity changes strongly during whisking bouts. On average, the changes in simple spike rate coincide with or slightly precede movement, indicating that the synaptic drive responsible for these changes is predominantly of efferent (motor) rather than re-afferent (sensory) origin. Remarkably, on-going changes in simple spike rate provide an accurate linear read-out of whisker set point. Thus, despite receiving several hundred thousand discrete synaptic inputs across a non-linear dendritic tree, Purkinje cells integrate parallel fiber input to generate precise information about whisking kinematics through linear changes in firing rate.

  7. Time-course of coherence in the human basal ganglia during voluntary movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talakoub, Omid; Neagu, Bogdan; Udupa, Kaviraja; Tsang, Eric; Chen, Robert; Popovic, Milos R.; Wong, Willy

    2016-01-01

    We are interested in characterizing how brain networks interact and communicate with each other during voluntary movements. We recorded electrical activities from the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the motor cortex during voluntary wrist movements. Seven patients with dystonia and six patients with Parkinson’s disease underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement. Local field potentials from the DBS electrodes and scalp EEG from the electrodes placed over the motor cortices were recorded while the patients performed externally triggered and self-initiated movements. The coherence calculated between the motor cortex and STN or GPi was found to be coupled to its power in both the beta and the gamma bands. The association of coherence with power suggests that a coupling in neural activity between the basal ganglia and the motor cortex is required for the execution of voluntary movements. Finally, we propose a mathematical model involving coupled neural oscillators which provides a possible explanation for how inter-regional coupling takes place. PMID:27725721

  8. The Role of Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep in Restless Legs Syndrome: A Selective Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, Stephany

    2015-09-01

    Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) are a highly active research topic and accumulating recent evidence has led to reevaluation of key aspects on the role of PLMS in restless legs syndrome (RLS). This article summarizes the recent developments in 3 areas: the relationship of PLMS to cortical arousals in patients with RLS, the differential effect of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic treatment on PLMS, and the possible emergence of PLMS as a sleep-related cardiovascular risk factor.

  9. A work-loop method for characterizing leg function during sagittal plane movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maykranz, Daniel; Grimmer, Sten; Seyfarth, Andre

    2013-10-01

    The work-loop method is frequently used to determine the mechanical work performed by a system, for instance, when analyzing muscles or describing the work balance at the joint level. While for these examples usually only one-dimensional movements are investigated, for two- or three-dimensional movements, such as leg function during walking and running, the work-loop has to be adapted. In this paper, we present an analytical derivation that extends the work-loop method to two-dimensional sagittal plane movements. Three effects contribute to the mechanical work of the leg: (1) forces directed along the leg axis, (2) forces acting perpendicular to the leg axis, and (3) a shift of the center of pressure (COP) during stance. These three contributors to the mechanical work performed can be interpreted as three general tasks of the leg. To demonstrate the new work-loop method, we analyzed experimental data on hopping, running and walking. The results indicate that the proposed new generalized work-loop concept is suitable for describing the overall mechanical work performed on the COM during stance with energy consistent net work balances. Depending on the type of gait, specific contributions of each work term were found that characterize leg function during locomotion.

  10. Elevated C-reactive protein is associated with severe periodic leg movements of sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotti, Lynn Marie; Rye, David B; De Staercke, Christine; Hooper, W Craig; Quyyumi, Arshed; Bliwise, Donald L

    2012-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sleep disorder in which urges to move the legs are felt during rest, are felt at night, and are improved by leg movement. RLS has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease. Periodic leg movements (PLMs) may be a mediator of this relationship. We evaluated systemic inflammation and PLMs in RLS patients to further assess cardiovascular risk. 137 RLS patients had PLM measurements taken while unmedicated for RLS. Banked plasma was assayed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Mean (SD) PLM index was 19.3 (22.0). PLMs were unrelated to TNF-a and IL-6, but were modestly correlated with logCRP (r(129)=0.19, p=0.03). Those patients with at least 45PLMs/h had an odds ratio of 3.56 (95% CI 1.26-10.03, p=0.02, df=1) for having elevated CRP compared to those with fewer than 45PLMs/h. After adjustment for age, race, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, inflammatory disorders, CRP-lowering medications, and body mass index, the OR for those with ≥ 45PLMs/h was 8.60 (95% CI 1.23 to 60.17, p=0.03, df=10). PLMs are associated with increased inflammation, such that those RLS patients with at least 45PLMs/h had more than triple the odds of elevated CRP than those with fewer PLMs. Further investigation into PLMs and inflammation is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatigue of intermittently stimulated human quadriceps during imposed cyclical lower leg movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Henry M.; Veltink, Peter H.; Fidder, Marc; Boom, Herman B.K.

    1993-01-01

    In this study the torque output of intermittently stimulated paralyzed human knee extensor muscles during imposed isokinetic cyclical lower leg movements was investigated in four paraplegic subjects. During prolonged (10 min) experiments the influence of knee angular velocity and stimulation paramet

  12. An Evidence-based Analysis of the Association between Periodic Leg Movements during Sleep and Arousals in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Zucconi, Marco; Manconi, Mauro; Bruni, Oliviero; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Fulda, Stephany

    2015-06-01

    To analyze statistically the association between periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and arousals, in order to eventually support or challenge the current scoring rules and to further understand their reciprocal influence. Sleep research center. Twenty untreated consecutive patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (13 women and 7 males, mean age 60.9 y). In each recording, we selected all PLMS/arousal pairs that met the following inclusion criteria: (a) PLMS events that were separated from another PLMS event (preceding or following) by at least 10 s of EMG inactivity; (b) arousal events separated from another arousal event (preceding or following) by at least 10 s of stable EEG baseline activity; (c) PLMS/arousal pairs were then selected among events identified according to the previous two criteria, when PLMS and arousals were separated (offset-to-onset) by no more than 10 s, regardless of which was first. We selected a mean of 46.1 (SD 25.55) PLMS/arousal pairs per subject; in these pairs, average PLMS duration was 3.2 s (0.65) and average arousal duration was 6.5 s (0.92). Within these event pairs, the great majority (on average 98.4%, SD 3.88) was separated by less than 0.5 s (i.e., between the end of one event and the onset of the other, regardless of which was first). Arousal onsets preceded PLMS onset in 41.2% of pairs, while the opposite was true for the remaining 58.8% of pairs. A significant correlation between PLMS duration and arousal duration was also found (r = 0.447, P leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and arousals. The tight time relationship between PLMS and arousals and their correlated durations seem to indicate that both events might be regulated by a complex mechanism, rather than being connected by a simple reciprocal cause/effect relationship. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Governing GMOs: The (Counter Movement for Mandatory and Voluntary Non-GMO Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Bain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2012 the anti-GMO (genetically modified organism movement has gained significant grassroots momentum in its efforts to require mandatory GMO food labels through state-level ballot and legislative efforts. Major food and agriculture corporations are opposed to mandatory GMO labels and have successfully defeated most of these initiatives. Nevertheless, these battles have garnered significant media attention and re-energized the debate over GMO crops and foods. In this paper, we argue that one of the most significant outcomes of this fight is efforts by food retailers and value-based food companies to implement voluntary non-GMO labels and brands. We draw on the governance and political consumerism literature to explore (counter movement efforts for mandatory labels and how these efforts are being institutionalized through private voluntary governance institutions. Our assessment is based on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with key informants from consumer and environmental organizations, agriculture and biotech companies, and government regulatory agencies, as well as a content analysis of food industry websites. A growing number of food retailers recognize the reputational and economic value that new niche markets for non-GMO foods can offer, while the anti-GMO movement views these efforts as a step in the direction of mandatory GMO labels. We conclude that voluntary labels may act to settle the labeling debate by mollifying agri-food industry concerns about mandatory labeling and meeting the desire of political consumers for greater choice and transparency but without addressing the broader social and environmental sustainability concerns that drives the anti-GMO movement in the first place.

  14. Bilateral leg movements during sleep: detailing their structure and features in normal controls and in patients with restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Manconi, Mauro; Rundo, Francesco; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Fulda, Stephany

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze statistically the number of single leg movements (LMs) forming bilateral LMs during sleep, along with their combined duration, to eventually provide evidence-based data for the adjustment of the current scoring rules defining bilateral LMs. Polysomnographic recordings of 111 untreated patients with RLS with a median age of 56.0 years, along with 42 normal controls with a mean age of 60.0 years, were included. In each recording, we identified all LMs that were considered as bilateral when two or more LMs were overlapping or the onset of the following movement was 4 individual movements, and only 0.16% and 1.90% of bilateral LMs were >15 seconds in RLS patients and healthy controls, respectively. Our results strongly suggest that bilateral LMs during sleep should be constituted by no more than four individual LMs and should have a maximum duration of 15 seconds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring leg movements during sleep using accelerometry: comparison with EMG and piezo-electric scored events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Leong, Matthew; Barton, Katrina; Freakley, Craig; Downey, Carl; Vanniekerk, Mark; Jorgensen, Greg; Douglas, James

    2013-01-01

    Periodic Limb Movements during Sleep (PLMS) can cause significant disturbance to sleep, resulting in daytime sleepiness and reduced quality of life. In conventional clinical practice, PLMS are measured using overnight electromyogram (EMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, although historically they have also been measured using piezo-electric gauges placed over the muscle. However, PLMS counts (PLM index) do not correlate well with clinical symptomology. In this study, we propose that because EMG and piezo derived signals measure muscle activation rather than actual movement, they may count events with no appreciable movement of the limb and therefore no contribution to sleep disturbance. The aim of this study is thus to determine the percentage of clinically scored limb movements which are not associated with movement of the great toe measured using accelerometry. 9 participants were studied simultaneously with an overnight diagnostic polysomnogram (including EMG and piezo instrumentation of the right leg) and high temporal resolution accelerometry of the right great toe. Limb movements were scored, and peak acceleration during each scored movement was quantified. Across the participant population, 54.9% (range: 26.7-76.3) and 39.0% (range: 4.8-69.6) of limb movements scored using piezo and EMG instrumentation respectively, were not associated with toe movement measured with accelerometry. If sleep disturbance is the consequence of the limb movements, these results may explain why conventional piezo or EMG derived PLMI is poorly correlated with clinical symptomology.

  16. Modelling the maximum voluntary joint torque/angular velocity relationship in human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A; Wilson, Cassie

    2006-01-01

    The force exerted by a muscle is a function of the activation level and the maximum (tetanic) muscle force. In "maximum" voluntary knee extensions muscle activation is lower for eccentric muscle velocities than for concentric velocities. The aim of this study was to model this "differential activation" in order to calculate the maximum voluntary knee extensor torque as a function of knee angular velocity. Torque data were collected on two subjects during maximal eccentric-concentric knee extensions using an isovelocity dynamometer with crank angular velocities ranging from 50 to 450 degrees s(-1). The theoretical tetanic torque/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a four parameter function comprising two rectangular hyperbolas while the activation/angular velocity relationship was modelled using a three parameter function that rose from submaximal activation for eccentric velocities to full activation for high concentric velocities. The product of these two functions gave a seven parameter function which was fitted to the joint torque/angular velocity data, giving unbiased root mean square differences of 1.9% and 3.3% of the maximum torques achieved. Differential activation accounts for the non-hyperbolic behaviour of the torque/angular velocity data for low concentric velocities. The maximum voluntary knee extensor torque that can be exerted may be modelled accurately as the product of functions defining the maximum torque and the maximum voluntary activation level. Failure to include differential activation considerations when modelling maximal movements will lead to errors in the estimation of joint torque in the eccentric phase and low velocity concentric phase.

  17. Centrifugal regulation of task-relevant somatosensory signals to trigger a voluntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Tetsuo; Wasaka, Toshiaki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2006-03-01

    Many previous papers have reported the modulation of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) during voluntary movement, but the locus and mechanism underlying the movement-induced centrifugal modulation of the SEPs elicited by a task-relevant somatosensory stimulus still remain unclear. We investigated the centrifugal modulation of the SEPs elicited by a task-relevant somatosensory stimulus which triggers a voluntary movement in a forewarned reaction time task. A pair of warning (S1: auditory) and imperative stimuli (S2: somatosensory) was presented with a 1 s interstimulus interval. Subjects were instructed to respond by moving the hand ipsilateral or contralateral to the somatosensory stimulation which elicits the SEPs. In four experiments, the locus and selectivity of the SEPs' modulation, the contribution of cutaneous afferents and the effect of contraction magnitude were examined, respectively. A control condition where subjects had no task to perform was compared to several task conditions. The amplitude of the frontal N30, parietal P30, and central P25 was decreased and that of the long latency P80 and N140 was increased when the somatosensory stimuli triggered a voluntary movement of the stimulated finger compared to the control condition. The N60 decreased with the movement of any finger. These results were considered to be caused by the centrifugal influence of neuronal activity which occurs before a somatosensory imperative stimulus. The present findings did not support the hypothesis that the inhibition of afferent inputs by descending motor commands can occur at subcortical levels. A higher contraction magnitude produced a further attenuation of the amplitude of the frontal N30, while it decreased the enhancement of the P80. Moreover, the modulation of neuronal responses seems to result mainly from the modulation of cutaneous afferents, especially from the moved body parts. In conclusion, the short- and long-latency somatosensory neuronal activities

  18. Age-related deficits in voluntary control over saccadic eye movements: consideration of electrical brain stimulation as a therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po Ling; Machado, Liana

    2016-05-01

    Sudden changes in our visual environment trigger reflexive eye movements, so automatically they often go unnoticed. Consequently, voluntary control over reflexive eye movements entails considerable effort. In relation to frontal-lobe deterioration, adult aging adversely impacts voluntary saccadic eye movement control in particular, which compromises effective performance of daily activities. Here, we review the nature of age-related changes in saccadic control, focusing primarily on the antisaccade task because of its assessment of 2 key age-sensitive control functions: reflexive saccade inhibition and voluntary saccade generation. With an ultimate view toward facilitating development of therapeutic strategies, we systematically review the neuroanatomy underpinning voluntary control over saccadic eye movements and natural mechanisms that kick in to compensate for age-related declines. We then explore the potential of noninvasive electrical brain stimulation to counteract aging deficits. Based on evidence that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation can confer a range of benefits specifically relevant to aging brains, we put forward this neuromodulation technique as a therapeutic strategy for improving voluntary saccadic eye movement control in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demšar, Ivan; Duhovnik, Jože; Lešnik, Blaž; Supej, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW), various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA) and Range of Motion (RoM) in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1°) was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8°) and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°). In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2°) was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°). The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing. Key points The RoM in the ski boot on the side of the prosthetic leg was smaller than the RoM of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the ankle joint of prosthetic leg was comparable to that of the intact leg and the control group of healthy subjects. The RoM in the prosthetic knee joint was greater than the RoM in the knee joint of the

  20. The Perceived Naturalness of Virtual Locomotion Methods Devoid of Explicit Leg Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Christian; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Walking-In-Place (WIP) techniques have potential in terms of solving the problem arising when an immersive virtual environment offers a larger freedom of movement than the physical environment. Such techniques are particularly useful when the spatial constraints are very prominent......, as they are likely to be in relation to immersive gaming systems located in the homes of consumers. However, most existing WIP techniques rely on movement of the legs which may cause users, wearing a head mounted display, to unintentionally move. This paper details a within-subjects study performed...

  1. The resonant component of human physiological hand tremor is altered by slow voluntary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakie, Martin; Vernooij, Carlijn A; Osborne, Timothy M; Reynolds, Raymond F

    2012-05-15

    Limb resonance imparts a characteristic spectrum to hand tremor. Movement will alter the resonance. We have examined the consequences of this change. Rectified forearm extensor muscle EMG and physiological hand tremor were recorded. In postural conditions the EMG spectrum is relatively flat whereas the acceleration spectrum is sharply peaked. Consequently, the gain between EMG and acceleration is maximal at the frequency where the tremor is largest (∼8 Hz). The shape of the gain curve implies mechanical resonance. Substantial alterations in posture do not significantly change the characteristics of the tremor or the shape or size of the gain curve. By contrast, slow or moderately paced voluntary wrist flexion–extension movements dramatically increase the hand tremor size and lower its peak frequency. These changes in size and frequency of the tremor cannot be attributed to changes in the EMG. Instead they reflect a very large change in the size and shape of the gain curve relating EMG to acceleration. The gain becomes larger and the peak moves to a lower frequency (∼6 Hz). We suggest that a movement-related (thixotropic) alteration in resonant properties of the wrist provides a simple explanation for these changes. The mechanism is illustrated by a model. Our new findings confirm that resonance plays a major role in wrist tremor. We also demonstrate that muscles operate very differently under postural and dynamic conditions. The different coupling between EMG and movement in posture and when moving must pose a considerable challenge for neural predictive control of skeletal muscles.

  2. Suppression of cardiocirculatory responses to orthostatic stress by passive walking-like leg movement in healthy young men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogata, Hisayoshi; Fujimaru, Ikuyo; Yamada, Keiko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2012-01-01

    Although passive walking-like leg movement in the standing posture (PWM) has been used in the clinical field, the safety of PWM has not been fully determined despite the risks of orthostatic intolerance due to standing posture...

  3. Quantification of reflex activity in stroke survivors during an imposed multi-joint leg extension movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Iian; Nichols, Diane; Pelliccio, Marlena; Hidler, Joseph

    2007-11-01

    The goal of this study was to compare short- and long-latency reflex responses in eight major lower-extremity muscle groups following an imposed multi-joint leg movement between a group of 14 chronic (>1 year) stroke survivors and 10 healthy age-matched controls, and to investigate the influence of joint velocities and muscle excitation levels on these reflex responses in each respective group. Subjects were seated with their foot anchored to a sliding footplate that could extend their leg. Prior to the leg being moved, subjects were instructed to pre-activate hip and knee flexors and extensors. Feedback of joint torque was used to help subjects activate muscles over a range of excitation levels. Following pre-activation, the subject's leg was passively extended so the knee or hip joint rotated at one of three different speeds (30, 60, and 120 degrees /s). In general, it was found that the magnitude of stroke survivors' reflex response was greater compared to controls' in certain biarticular muscles, notably the gastrocnemius and medial hamstring, and the uniarticular adductor longus, and that the long-latency reflex component (between 40 and 150 ms post-movement) accounted for most of the observed differences. Furthermore, while reflex response amplitudes increased in both groups with increasing movement speed, the rate of increase was significantly larger in stroke subjects than in controls. Clinically, these findings may help explain why stroke survivors walk slowly since it is under these conditions that reflex responses better emulate those of their able-bodied counterparts.

  4. Control of leg movements driven by EMG activity of shoulder muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eLa Scaleia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During human walking there exists a functional neural coupling between arms and legs, and between cervical and lumbosacral pattern generators. Here we present a novel approach for associating the electromyographic (EMG activity from upper limb muscles with leg kinematics. Our methodology takes advantage of the high involvement of shoulder muscles in most locomotor-related movements and of the natural coordination between arms and legs. Nine healthy subjects were asked to walk at different constant and variable speeds (3-5 km/h, while EMG activity of shoulder (deltoid muscles and the kinematics of walking were recorded. To ensure a high level of EMG activity in deltoid, the subjects performed slightly larger arm swinging than they usually do. The temporal structure of the burst-like EMG activity was used to predict the spatiotemporal kinematic pattern of the forthcoming step. A comparison of actual and predicted stride leg kinematics showed a high degree of correspondence (r>0.9. This algorithm has been also implemented in pilot experiments for controlling avatar walking in a virtual reality setup and an exoskeleton during overground stepping. The proposed approach may have important implications for the design of human-machine interfaces and neuroprosthetic technologies such as those of assistive lower limb exoskeletons.

  5. Multi-Axis Prosthetic Knee Resembles Alpine Skiing Movements of an Intact Leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Demšar, Jože Duhovnik, Blaž Lešnik, Matej Supej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyse the flexion angles of the ski boot, ankle and knee joints of an above-knee prosthesis and to compare them with an intact leg and a control group of skiers. One subject with an above-knee amputation of the right leg and eight healthy subjects simulated the movement of a skiing turn by performing two-leg squats in laboratory conditions. By adding additional loads in proportion to body weight (BW; +1/3 BW, +2/3 BW, +3/3 BW, various skiing regimes were simulated. Change of Flexion Angle (CoFA and Range of Motion (RoM in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were calculated and compared. An average RoM in the skiing boot on the side of prosthesis (4.4 ± 1.1° was significantly lower compared to an intact leg (5.9 ± 1.8° and the control group (6.5 ± 2.3°. In the ankle joint, the average RoM was determined to be 13.2±2.9° in the prosthesis, 12.7 ± 2.8° in an intact leg and 14.8±3.6 in the control group. However, the RoM of the knee joint in the prosthesis (42.2 ± 4.2° was significantly larger than that of the intact leg (34.7 ± 4.4°. The average RoM of the knee joint in the control group was 47.8 ± 5.4°. The influences of additional loads on the kinematics of the lower extremities were different on the side of the prosthesis and on the intact leg. In contrast, additional loads did not produce any significant differences in the control group. Although different CoFAs in the ski boot, ankle and knee joints were used, an above-knee prosthesis with a built-in multi-axis prosthetic knee enables comparable leg kinematics in simulated alpine skiing.

  6. Virtual reality aided training of combined arm and leg movements of children with CP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Robert; Dislaki, Evangelia; Keller, Urs; Koenig, Alexander; Van Hedel, Hubertus; Nagle, Aniket

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) occurs in over 2 out of 1000 live births and can impair motor control and cognition. Our goal was to create a robotic rehabilitation environment that mimics real-life situations by allowing simultaneous exercise of upper and lower limbs. We chose to use the Lokomat as a gait robot and added a novel removable arm robot, called PASCAL (pediatric arm support robot for combined arm and leg training), that was integrated into the Lokomat environment. We also added a virtual reality (VR) environment that enables the subject to perform motivating game-like scenarios incorporating combined arm and leg movements. In this paper we summarize the design of PASCAL and present the novel virtual environment including first experimental results. The next step will be to test whether a combined application of the virtual environment and the two simultaneously working robots is feasible in healthy participants, and finally to clinically evaluate the entire system on children with CP.

  7. Linear inverse source estimate of combined EEG and MEG data related to voluntary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, F; Carducci, F; Cincotti, F; Del Gratta, C; Pizzella, V; Romani, G L; Rossini, P M; Tecchio, F; Babiloni, C

    2001-12-01

    A method for the modeling of human movement-related cortical activity from combined electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) data is proposed. This method includes a subject's multi-compartment head model (scalp, skull, dura mater, cortex) constructed from magnetic resonance images, multi-dipole source model, and a regularized linear inverse source estimate based on boundary element mathematics. Linear inverse source estimates of cortical activity were regularized by taking into account the covariance of background EG and MEG sensor noise. EEG (121 sensors) and MEG (43 sensors) data were recorded in separate sessions whereas normal subjects executed voluntary right one-digit movements. Linear inverse source solution of EEG, MEG, and EEG-MEG data were quantitatively evaluated by using three performance indexes. The first two indexes (Dipole Localization Error [DLE] and Spatial Dispersion [SDis]) were used to compute the localization power for the source solutions obtained. Such indexes were based on the information provided by the column of the resolution matrix (i.e., impulse response). Ideal DLE values tend to zero (the source current was correctly retrieved by the procedure). In contrast, high DLE values suggest severe mislocalization in the source reconstruction. A high value of SDis at a source space point mean that such a source will be retrieved by a large area with the linear inverse source estimation. The remaining performance index assessed the quality of the source solution based on the information provided by the rows of the resolution matrix R, i.e., resolution kernels. The i-th resolution kernels of the matrix R describe how the estimation of the i-th source is distorted by the concomitant activity of all other sources. A statistically significant lower dipole localization error was observed and lower spatial dispersion in source solutions produced by combined EEG-MEG data than from EEG and MEG data considered separately (P < 0

  8. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    were analyzed for mRNA content of VEGF, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The passive leg movement caused an increase (P dialysate...... to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P dialysate obtained at rest. Passive movement also enhanced (P

  9. Influence of passive leg movements on blood circulation on the tilt table in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czell David

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One problem in the mobilization of patients with neurological diseases, such as spinal cord injury, is the circulatory collapse that occurs while changing from supine to vertical position because of the missing venous pump due to paralyzed leg muscles. Therefore, a tilt table with integrated stepping device (tilt stepper was developed, which allows passive stepping movements for performing locomotion training in an early state of rehabilitation. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if passive stepping and cycling movements of the legs during tilt table training could stabilize blood circulation and prevent neurally-mediated syncope in healthy young adults. Methods In the first experiment, healthy subjects were tested on a traditional tilt table. Subjects who had a syncope or near-syncope in this condition underwent a second trial on the tilt stepper. In the second experiment, a group of healthy subjects was investigated on a traditional tilt table, the second group on the tilt ergometer, a device that allows cycling movements during tilt table training. We used the chi-square test to compare the occurrence of near-syncope/syncope in both groups (tilt table/tilt stepper and tilt table/tilt ergometer and ANOVA to compare the blood pressure and heart rate between the groups at the four time intervals (supine, at 2 minutes, at 6 minutes and end of head-up tilt. Results Separate chi-square tests performed for each experiment showed significant differences in the occurrence of near syncope or syncope based on the device used. Comparison of the two groups (tilt stepper/ tilt table in experiment one (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly higher at the end of head-up tilt on the tilt stepper and on the tilt table there was a greater increase in heart rate (2 minutes after head-up tilt. Comparison of the two groups (tilt ergometer/tilt table in experiment 2 (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly

  10. Spiders avoid sticking to their webs: clever leg movements, branched drip-tip setae, and anti-adhesive surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R. D.; Eberhard, W. G.

    2012-04-01

    Orb-weaving spiders construct webs with adhesive silk but are not trapped by it. Previous studies have attributed this defense to an oily coating on their legs that protects against adhesion or, more recently, to behavioral avoidance of sticky lines. The old evidence is very weak, however, and the behavioral avoidance explanation is inadequate because orb-weavers push with their hind legs against sticky lines hundreds or thousands of times during construction of each orb and are not trapped. Video analyses of behavior and experimental observations of isolated legs pulling away from contact with sticky lines showed that the spider uses three anti-adhesion traits: dense arrays of branched setae on the legs that reduce the area of contact with adhesive material; careful engagement and withdrawal movements of its legs that minimize contact with the adhesive and that avoid pulling against the line itself; and a chemical coating or surface layer that reduces adhesion.

  11. Decoding of the spike timing of primary afferents during voluntary arm movements in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eUmeda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of encoding forelimb kinematics in the activity of peripheral afferents is essential for determining the optimal parameters of afferent stimulation to transmit proprioceptive signals in neuroprosthetics. To investigate whether the spike timing of dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons could be estimated from the forelimb kinematics of behaving monkeys, we implanted two multi-electrode arrays chronically in the DRGs at the level of the cervical segments in two monkeys. Neuronal activity during voluntary reach-to-grasp movements were recorded simultaneously with the trajectories of hand/arm movements, which were tracked in three-dimensional space using a motion capture system. Sixteen and 13 neurons, including muscle spindles, skin receptors, and tendon organ afferents, were recorded in the two monkeys, respectively. We were able to reconstruct forelimb joint kinematics from the temporal firing pattern of a subset of DRG neurons using sparse linear regression (SLiR analysis, suggesting that DRG neuronal ensembles encoded information about joint kinematics. Furthermore, we estimated the spike timing of the DRG neuronal ensembles from joint kinematics using an integrate-and-fire model (IF incorporating the SLiR algorithm. The temporal change of firing frequency of a subpopulation of neurons was reconstructed precisely from forelimb kinematics using the SLiR. The spike timing of the DRG neurons was calculated using an IF model, in which a spike occurs if the cumulative sum of the firing frequency value exceeded a constant threshold. The estimated firing pattern of the DRG neuronal ensembles encoded forelimb joint angles and velocities as precisely as the originally recorded neuronal activity. These results suggest that the simple model can be used to generate an accurate estimate of the spike timing of DRG neuronal ensembles from forelimb joint kinematics, and is useful for designing a proprioceptive decoder in a brain machine

  12. Decoding of the spike timing of primary afferents during voluntary arm movements in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Hidenori; Sato, Masa-Aki; Kawato, Mitsuo; Isa, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of encoding forelimb kinematics in the activity of peripheral afferents is essential for developing a somatosensory neuroprosthesis. To investigate whether the spike timing of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons could be estimated from the forelimb kinematics of behaving monkeys, we implanted two multi-electrode arrays chronically in the DRGs at the level of the cervical segments in two monkeys. Neuronal activity during voluntary reach-to-grasp movements were recorded simultaneously with the trajectories of hand/arm movements, which were tracked in three-dimensional space using a motion capture system. Sixteen and 13 neurons, including muscle spindles, skin receptors, and tendon organ afferents, were recorded in the two monkeys, respectively. We were able to reconstruct forelimb joint kinematics from the temporal firing pattern of a subset of DRG neurons using sparse linear regression (SLiR) analysis, suggesting that DRG neuronal ensembles encoded information about joint kinematics. Furthermore, we estimated the spike timing of the DRG neuronal ensembles from joint kinematics using an integrate-and-fire model (IF) incorporating the SLiR algorithm. The temporal change of firing frequency of a subpopulation of neurons was reconstructed precisely from forelimb kinematics using the SLiR. The estimated firing pattern of the DRG neuronal ensembles encoded forelimb joint angles and velocities as precisely as the originally recorded neuronal activity. These results suggest that a simple model can be used to generate an accurate estimate of the spike timing of DRG neuronal ensembles from forelimb joint kinematics, and is useful for designing a proprioceptive decoder in a brain machine interface.

  13. Functional exploration of the human spinal cord during voluntary movement and somatosensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Paul E; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Porro, Carlo A

    2010-10-01

    Demonstrations of the possibility of obtaining functional information from the spinal cord in humans using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been growing in number and sophistication, but the technique and the results that it provides are still perceived by the scientific community with a greater degree of scepticism than fMRI investigations of brain function. Here we review the literature on spinal fMRI in humans during voluntary movements and somatosensory stimulation. Particular attention is given to study design, acquisition and statistical analysis of the images, and to the agreement between the obtained results and existing knowledge regarding spinal cord anatomy and physiology. A striking weakness of many spinal fMRI studies is the use of small numbers of subjects and of time-points in the acquired functional image series. In addition, spinal fMRI is characterised by large physiological noise, while the recorded functional responses are poorly characterised. For all these reasons, spinal fMRI experiments risk having low statistical power, and few spinal fMRI studies have yielded physiologically relevant information. Thus, while available evidence indicates that spinal fMRI is feasible, we are only approaching the stage at which the technique can be considered to have been rigorously established as a viable means of noninvasively investigating spinal cord functioning in humans.

  14. The bereitschaftspotential paradigm in investigating voluntary movement organization in humans using magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva-Feige, R; Rossi, S; Feige, B; Mergner, T; Lücking, C H; Rossini, P M

    1997-02-01

    In 1965, Kornhuber and Deecke first described the bereitschaftspotential (BP), a paradigm for investigating the organization of voluntary movement in humans, using electroencephalography (EEG). This paradigm has since been used in many studies for investigating motor control in healthy humans and patients. Over the last years, the advantages of magnetoencephalography (MEG) have been applied to the BP paradigm by a number of researchers. The main advantage of magnetoencephalography over electroencephalography is that MEG has a higher localization accuracy. This is due to the fact that the different structures of the head (brain, liquor cerebrospinalis, skull and scalp) influence the magnetic fields less than the volume current flow that causes the EEG. Additionally, the MEG is reference free, so that the localization of sources with a given precision is easier for MEG than it is for EEG. The present protocol shows in detail how the bereitschaftspotential paradigm can be applied using MEG. Some additional paradigms for investigating motor plasticity, somatosensory gating, Parkinson disease, and the efference copy theory are suggested as well.

  15. On the other hand: overflow movements of infants' hands and legs during unimanual object exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soska, Kasey C; Galeon, Margaret A; Adolph, Karen E

    2012-05-01

    Motor overflow is extraneous movement in a limb not involved in a motor action. Typically, overflow is observed in people with neurological impairments and in healthy children and adults during strenuous and attention-demanding tasks. In the current study, we found that young infants produce vast amounts of motor overflow, corroborating claims of symmetry being the default state of the motor system. While manipulating an object with one hand, all 27 of the typically developing 4.5- to 7.5-month-old infants who we observed displayed overflow movements of the free hand (on 4/5 of unimanual actions). Mirror-image movements of the hands occurred on 1/8 of unimanual actions, and the hands and legs moved in synchrony on 1/3 of unimanual acts. Motor overflow was less frequent when infants were in a sitting posture and when infants watched their acting hand, suggesting that upright posture and visual examination may help to alleviate overflow and break obligatory symmetry in healthy infants.

  16. Single passive leg movement-induced hyperemia: a simple vascular function assessment without a chronotropic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Massimo; Layec, Gwenael; Trinity, Joel; Hart, Corey R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-01-01

    Passive leg movement (PLM)-induced hyperemia is a novel approach to assess vascular function, with a potential clinical role. However, in some instances, the varying chronotropic response induced by PLM has been proposed to be a potentially confounding factor. Therefore, we simplified and modified the PLM model to require just a single PLM (sPLM), an approach that may evoke a peripheral hemodynamic response, allowing a vascular function assessment, but at the same time minimizing central responses. To both characterize and assess the utility of sPLM, in 12 healthy subjects, we measured heart rate (HR), stroke volume, cardiac output (CO), mean arterial pressure (MAP), leg blood flow (LBF), and calculated leg vascular conductance (LVC) during both standard PLM, consisting of passive knee flexion and extension performed at 1 Hz for 60 s, and sPLM, consisting of only a single passive knee flexion and extension over 1 s. During PLM, MAP transiently decreased (5 ± 1 mmHg), whereas both HR and CO increased from baseline (6.0 ± 1.1 beats/min, and 0.8 ± 0.01 l/min, respectively). Following sPLM, MAP fell similarly (5 ± 2 mmHg; P = 0.8), but neither HR nor CO responses were identifiable. The peak LBF and LVC response was similar for PLM (993 ± 189 ml/min; 11.9 ± 1.5 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively) and sPLM (878 ± 119 ml/min; 10.9 ± 1.6 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1), respectively). Thus sPLM represents a variant of the PLM approach to assess vascular function that is more easily performed and evokes a peripheral stimulus that induces a significant hyperemia, but does not generate a potentially confounding, chronotropic response, which may make sPLM more useful clinically.

  17. Spinal cord injury as a trigger to develop periodic leg movements during sleep: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Cristina Lerosa Telles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary trigger to periodic limb movement (PLM during sleep is still unknown. Its association with the restless legs syndrome (RLS is established in humans and was reported in spinal cord injury (SCI patients classified by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA as A. Its pathogenesis has not been completely unraveled, though recent advances might enhance our knowledge about those malfunctions. PLM association with central pattern generator (CPG is one of the possible pathologic mechanisms involved. This article reviewed the advances in PLM and RLS genetics, the evolution of CPG functioning, and the neurotransmitters involved in CPG, PLM and RLS. We have proposed that SCI might be a trigger to develop PLM.

  18. Adaptability in frequency and amplitude of leg movements during human locomotion at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, J; Thorstensson, A

    1987-01-01

    In this study of human locomotion we investigate to what extent the normal frequency and amplitude of leg movements can be modified voluntarily at different constant velocities, and how these modifications are accomplished in terms of changes in duration and length of the support and swing phases of the stride cycle. Eight healthy male subjects performed walking and running on a motor-driven treadmill at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 3.0 m s-1 (walking) and 1.5 to 8.0 m s-1 (running), respectively. At each speed the subjects walked and ran with: normal stride frequency; the highest possible stride frequency, and the lowest possible stride frequency. Time for foot contact was measured with a special pressure transducer system under the sole of each shoe. At all speeds of walking and running it was possible to either increase or decrease the frequency of leg movements; that is, to decrease or increase stride cycle duration. The range of variation decreased with increasing speed. The mean overall stride frequency range was 0.41 (low frequency walk 1.0 m s-1)-3.57 Hz (high-frequency run 1.5 m s-1). Stride length ranged 0.40 (high frequency walk 1.0 m s-1)-5.00 m (low frequency run 6.0 m s-1). At normal frequency the overall ranges of stride frequency and length were 0.83-1.95 Hz and 1.16-4.10 m, respectively. The stride frequency increased with speed in low frequency walking and running (as in normal frequency) and decreased in high frequency, despite the effort to maintain extreme frequencies. Only in high frequency walking could the stride frequency be kept approximately constant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Night-to-night variability of periodic leg movements during sleep in restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder: comparison between the periodicity index and the PLMS index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Fulda, Stephany; Manconi, Mauro; Högl, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco

    2013-03-01

    The number of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS index) shows high night-to-night variability, requiring multiple nights for its reliable estimation. It is currently not known if this is also the case for the degree of periodicity of leg movements, quantified by the Periodicity index. To compare night-to-night variability of PLMS and Periodicity indices in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). Eighteen idiopathic RLS patients and 9 PLMD patients were recruited. Subjects underwent two consecutive full night polysomnographic studies. Polysomnographic recordings were scored and leg movement activity analyzed during sleep for the computation of the PLMS and Periodicity indices. In both patient groups, the Periodicity index showed a significantly lower degree of variability than that of PLMS index, being >6.5 times lower in RLS patients and 2 times lower in PLMD patients. These data support the use of the Periodicity index in the evaluation of PLMS in RLS and PLMD and indicate that this parameter seems to be more stable than the widely used PLMS index which has higher night-to-night variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Beamformer source analysis and connectivity on concurrent EEG and MEG data during voluntary movements.

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    Muthuraman Muthuraman

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG are the two modalities for measuring neuronal dynamics at a millisecond temporal resolution. Different source analysis methods, to locate the dipoles in the brain from which these dynamics originate, have been readily applied to both modalities alone. However, direct comparisons and possible advantages of combining both modalities have rarely been assessed during voluntary movements using coherent source analysis. In the present study, the cortical and sub-cortical network of coherent sources at the finger tapping task frequency (2-4 Hz and the modes of interaction within this network were analysed in 15 healthy subjects using a beamformer approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS with subsequent source signal reconstruction and renormalized partial directed coherence analysis (RPDC. MEG and EEG data were recorded simultaneously allowing the comparison of each of the modalities separately to that of the combined approach. We found the identified network of coherent sources for the finger tapping task as described in earlier studies when using only the MEG or combined MEG+EEG whereas the EEG data alone failed to detect single sub-cortical sources. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR level of the coherent rhythmic activity at the tapping frequency in MEG and combined MEG+EEG data was significantly higher than EEG alone. The functional connectivity analysis revealed that the combined approach had more active connections compared to either of the modalities during the finger tapping (FT task. These results indicate that MEG is superior in the detection of deep coherent sources and that the SNR seems to be more vital than the sensitivity to theoretical dipole orientation and the volume conduction effect in the case of EEG.

  1. Beamformer source analysis and connectivity on concurrent EEG and MEG data during voluntary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Hellriegel, Helge; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Mideksa, Kidist Gebremariam; Krause, Holger; Schnitzler, Alfons; Deuschl, Günther; Raethjen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are the two modalities for measuring neuronal dynamics at a millisecond temporal resolution. Different source analysis methods, to locate the dipoles in the brain from which these dynamics originate, have been readily applied to both modalities alone. However, direct comparisons and possible advantages of combining both modalities have rarely been assessed during voluntary movements using coherent source analysis. In the present study, the cortical and sub-cortical network of coherent sources at the finger tapping task frequency (2-4 Hz) and the modes of interaction within this network were analysed in 15 healthy subjects using a beamformer approach called the dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) with subsequent source signal reconstruction and renormalized partial directed coherence analysis (RPDC). MEG and EEG data were recorded simultaneously allowing the comparison of each of the modalities separately to that of the combined approach. We found the identified network of coherent sources for the finger tapping task as described in earlier studies when using only the MEG or combined MEG+EEG whereas the EEG data alone failed to detect single sub-cortical sources. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level of the coherent rhythmic activity at the tapping frequency in MEG and combined MEG+EEG data was significantly higher than EEG alone. The functional connectivity analysis revealed that the combined approach had more active connections compared to either of the modalities during the finger tapping (FT) task. These results indicate that MEG is superior in the detection of deep coherent sources and that the SNR seems to be more vital than the sensitivity to theoretical dipole orientation and the volume conduction effect in the case of EEG.

  2. GPi Oscillatory Activity Differentiates Tics from the Resting State, Voluntary Movements, and the Unmedicated Parkinsonian State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi; Telkes, Ilknur; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Ince, Nuri F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). Thalamic (Cm-Pf) and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi) targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs) within the STN in PD patients is pathologic. Methods: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials (LFPs) from the postero-ventrolateral GPi in three adult patients with TS at rest, during voluntary movements, and during tic activity and compared them to the intraoperative GPi-LFP activity recorded from four unmedicated PD patients at rest. Results: In all PD patients, we noted excessive beta band activity (13–30 Hz) at rest which consistently modulated the amplitude of the co-existent HFOs observed between 200 and 400 Hz, indicating the presence of beta-HFO CFC. In all 3TS patients at rest, we observed theta band activity (4–7 Hz) and HFOs. Two patients had beta band activity, though at lower power than theta oscillations. Tic activity was associated with increased high frequency (200–400 Hz) and gamma band (35–200 Hz) activity. There was no beta-HFO CFC in TS patients at rest. However, CFC between the phase of 5–10 Hz band activity and the amplitude of HFOs was found in two TS patients. During tics, this shifted to CFC between the phase of beta band activity and the amplitude of HFOs in all subjects. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study that shows that beta-HFO CFC exists in the GPi of TS patients during tics and at rest in PD patients, and suggests that this pattern might be specific to pathologic/involuntary movements. Furthermore, our findings suggest that during tics

  3. GPi oscillatory activity differentiates tics from the resting state, voluntary movements, and the unmedicated parkinsonian state

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    Joohi Jimenez-Shahed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS. Thalamic (Cm-Pf and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson’s disease (PD in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs within the STN in PD patients is pathologic. Methods: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials (LFPs from the postero-ventrolateral GPi in three adult patients with TS at rest, during voluntary movements, and during tic activity and compared them to the intraoperative GPi-LFP activity recorded from four unmedicated PD patients at rest. Results: In all PD patients, we noted excessive beta band activity (13-30Hz at rest which consistently modulated the amplitude of the co-existent HFOs observed between 200-400Hz, indicating the presence of beta-HFO CFC. In all 3 TS patients at rest, we observed theta band activity (4-7Hz and HFOs. Two patients had beta band activity, though at lower power than theta oscillations. Tic activity was associated with increased high frequency (200-400Hz and gamma band (35-200Hz activity. There was no beta-HFO CFC in TS patients at rest. However, CFC between the phase of 5-10Hz band activity and the amplitude of HFOs was found in two TS patients. During tics, this shifted to CFC between the phase of beta band activity and the amplitude of HFOs in all subjects. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study that shows that beta-HFO CFC exists in the GPi of TS patients during tics and at rest in PD patients, and suggests that this pattern might be specific to pathologic/involuntary movements. Furthermore, our findings suggest that during tics, resting

  4. A loud auditory stimulus overcomes voluntary movement limitation in cervical dystonia.

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    Tereza Serranová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with cervical dystonia (CD present with an impaired performance of voluntary neck movements, which are usually slow and limited. We hypothesized that such abnormality could involve defective preparation for task execution. Therefore, we examined motor preparation in CD patients using the StartReact method. In this test, a startling auditory stimulus (SAS is delivered unexpectedly at the time of the imperative signal (IS in a reaction time task to cause a faster execution of the prepared motor programme. We expected that CD patients would show an abnormal StartReact phenomenon. METHODS: Fifteen CD patients and 15 age matched control subjects (CS were asked to perform a rotational movement (RM to either side as quick as possible immediately after IS perception (a low intensity electrical stimulus to the II finger. In randomly interspersed test trials (25% a 130 dB SAS was delivered simultaneously with the IS. We recorded RMs in the horizontal plane with a high speed video camera (2.38 ms per frame in synchronization with the IS. The RM kinematic-parameters (latency, velocity, duration and amplitude were analyzed using video-editing software and screen protractor. Patients were asked to rate the difficulty of their RMs in a numerical rating scale. RESULTS: In control trials, CD patients executed slower RMs (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.10(-5, and reached a smaller final head position angle relative to the midline (p<0.05, than CS. In test trials, SAS improved all RMs in both groups (p<0.10(-14. In addition, patients were more likely to reach beyond their baseline RM than CS (χ(2, p<0.001 and rated their performance better than in control trials (t-test, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: We found improvement of kinematic parameters and subjective perception of motor performance in CD patients with StartReact testing. Our results suggest that CD patients reach an adequate level of motor preparation before task execution.

  5. Passive leg movement-induced vasodilation in women: the impact of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, H Jonathan; Rossman, Matthew J; Trinity, Joel D; Layec, Gwenael; Ives, Stephen J; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-09-01

    Passive leg movement (PLM), an assessment of predominantly nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation, is decreased with age and cannot be augmented by posture-induced increases in femoral perfusion pressure in older men. However, this novel method of assessing vascular function has yet to be used to evaluate alterations in nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation with age in females. PLM was performed in 10 young (20 ± 1 yr) and 10 old (73 ± 2 yr) women in both the supine and upright-seated postures, whereas central and peripheral hemodynamic measurements were acquired second by second using noninvasive techniques (finger photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound, respectively). The heart rate response to PLM was attenuated in the old compared with the young in both the supine (young, 10 ± 1; and old, 5 ± 1 beats/min; P vasodilation with age and extend these findings to include the female population, thus bolstering the utility of PLM as a novel assessment of vascular function across the life span in humans.

  6. Periodic leg movement (PLM) monitoring using a distributed body sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhushri, Priyanka; Ahmed, Beena; Penzel, Thomas; Jovanov, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensors networks represent the architecture of choice for distributed monitoring due to the ease of deployment and configuration. We developed a distributed sleep monitoring system which combines wireless inertial sensors SP-10C by Sensoplex controlled by a custom smartphone application as an extension of the polysomnographic (PSG) monitor SOMNOscreen plus from Somnomedics. While existing activity monitors are wired to the SOMNOscreen, our system allows the use of wireless inertial sensors to improve user's comfort during sleep. The system is intended for monitoring of periodic leg movements (PLM) and user's activity during sleep. Wireless sensors are placed on ankle and toes of the foot in a customized sock. An Android app communicates with wireless sensors over Bluetooth Smart (BTS) link and streams 3D accelerometer values, 4D unit quaternion values and timestamps. In this paper we present a novel method of synchronization of data streams from PSG and inertial sensors, and original method of detection of PLM events. The system was tested using five experiments of simulated PLM, and achieved 96.51% of PLM detection accuracy.

  7. A limit-cycle model of leg movements in cross-country skiing and its adjustments with fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, F; Schena, F; Mottet, D; Rouard, A

    2010-08-01

    Using dynamical modeling tools, the aim of the study was to establish a minimal model reproducing leg movements in cross-country skiing, and to evaluate the eventual adjustments of this model with fatigue. The participants (N=8) skied on a treadmill at 90% of their maximal oxygen consumption, up to exhaustion, using the diagonal stride technique. Qualitative analysis of leg kinematics portrayed in phase planes, Hooke planes, and velocity profiles suggested the inclusion in the model of a linear stiffness and an asymmetric van der Pol-type nonlinear damping. Quantitative analysis revealed that this model reproduced the observed kinematics patterns of the leg with adequacy, accounting for 87% of the variance. A rising influence of the stiffness term and a dropping influence of the damping terms were also evidenced with fatigue. The meaning of these changes was discussed in the framework of motor control.

  8. Leg mechanics contribute to establishing swing phase trajectories during memory-guided stepping movements in walking cats: a computational analysis

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    Keir Gordon Pearson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available When quadrupeds stop walking after stepping over a barrier with their forelegs, the memory of barrier height and location is retained for many minutes. This memory is subsequently used to guide hind leg movements over the barrier when walking is resumed. The upslope of the initial trajectory of hind leg paw movements is strongly dependent on the initial location of the paw relative to the barrier. In this study, we have attempted to determine whether mechanical factors contribute significantly in establishing the slope of the paw trajectories by creating a 4-link biomechanical model of a cat hind leg and driving this model with a variety of joint-torque profiles, including average torques for a range on initial paw positions relative to the barrier. Torque profiles for individual steps were determined by an inverse dynamic analysis of leg movements in three normal cats. Our study demonstrates that limb mechanics can contribute to establishing the dependency of trajectory slope on the initial position of the paw relative to the barrier. However, an additional contribution of neuronal motor commands was indicated by the fact that the simulated slopes of paw trajectories were significantly less that the observed slopes. A neuronal contribution to the modification of paw trajectories was also revealed by our observations that both the magnitudes of knee flexor muscle EMG bursts and the initial knee flexion torques depended on initial paw position. Previous studies have shown that a shift in paw position prior to stepping over a barrier changes the paw trajectory to be appropriate for the new paw position. Our data indicate that both mechanical and neuronal factors contribute to this updating process, and that any shift in leg position during the delay period modifies the working memory of barrier location.

  9. Movement-related cortical activation with voluntary pinch task: simultaneous monitoring of near-infrared spectroscopy signals and movement-related cortical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yosuke; Fukuda, Masafumi; Oishi, Makoto; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate hemodynamic and electrophysiological motor cortex responses to voluntary finger pinching in humans, with simultaneous recording of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP). Six healthy, right-handed subjects performed 100 trials of voluntary right-thumb index-finger pinching with about a 10-second interval at their own pace. Throughout the session, 48 regions over the bilateral motor cortex were assessed by NIRS, while MRCP and electromyogram (EMG) were simultaneously monitored. MRCP started 1536+/-58 ms before EMG onset and peaked 127+/-24 ms after EMG onset. NIRS data showed bilateral prefrontal cortex at 0.5+/-0.1 s before EMG onset and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex activations at 0.6+/-0.1 s before EMG onset. The hand area of the sensorimotor cortex was activated left-dominantly, seen obviously peaked at 3.7+/-0.2 s after EMG onset. The comparison between MRCP and NIRS results raised the possibility that the vascular response to neural activity occurs within 4 s with a voluntary pinch task. These results indicate that our technique allows detailed study of the motor control. Our method is a promising strategy for event-related motor control and neurovascular coupling studies.

  10. Premotor cortex modulates somatosensory cortex during voluntary movements without proprioceptive feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Geertsen, Svend Sparre;

    2007-01-01

    Movement perception relies on sensory feedback, but the involvement of efference copies remains unclear. We investigated movements without proprioceptive feedback using ischemic nerve block during fMRI in healthy humans, and found preserved activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. This act......Movement perception relies on sensory feedback, but the involvement of efference copies remains unclear. We investigated movements without proprioceptive feedback using ischemic nerve block during fMRI in healthy humans, and found preserved activation of the primary somatosensory cortex...

  11. Three non-ambulatory adults with multiple disabilities exercise foot-leg movements through microswitch-aided programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Alberti, Gloria; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    This study assessed the use of microswitch-aided programs to help three non-ambulatory adults with multiple disabilities exercise foot-leg responses. Those responses served to activate a largely neglected part of the participants' body, with possibly positive physical implications (e.g., for blood circulation, swelling, and muscle strength). Intervention focused on the left and right foot-leg response, separately. Eventually, sessions with one response were alternated with sessions with the other response. Responses were monitored via microswitches and followed by 8s of preferred stimulation (e.g., music and vibrotactile stimulation), which was automatically delivered. The results showed that all three participants had high levels of foot-leg responses during the intervention phases and a 3-week post-intervention check. The participants also displayed expressions of positive involvement during those study periods (i.e., engaged in behaviors, such as music-related head movements, smiles, or touching the vibratory devices) that could be interpreted as forms of interest/pleasure and happiness. These results are in line with previous findings in this area and can be taken as an important confirmation of the strength and dependability of the approach in motivating non-ambulatory persons with multiple disabilities to engage in foot-leg movements. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Remission of severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep after bilateral excision of multiple foot neuromas: a case report

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    Lettau Ludwig A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs in response to uncomfortable leg sensations. While asleep, 70 to 90 percent of patients with restless legs syndrome have periodic limb movements in sleep. Frequent periodic limb movements in sleep and related brain arousals as documented by polysomnography are associated with poorer quality of sleep and daytime fatigue. Restless legs syndrome in middle age is sometimes associated with neuropathic foot dysesthesias. The causes of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep are unknown, but the sensorimotor symptoms are hypothesized to originate in the central nervous system. We have previously determined that bilateral forefoot digital nerve impingement masses (neuromas may be a cause of both neuropathic foot dysesthesias and the leg restlessness of restless legs syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bilateral foot neuromas as a cause of periodic limb movements in sleep. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman with severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep and bilateral neuropathic foot dysesthesias was diagnosed as having neuromas in the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head interspaces of both feet. The third interspace neuromas represented regrowth (or 'stump' neuromas that had developed since bilateral third interspace neuroma excision five years earlier. Because intensive conservative treatments including repeated neuroma injections and various restless legs syndrome medications had failed, radical surgery was recommended. All six neuromas were excised. Leg restlessness, foot dysesthesias and subjective sleep quality improved immediately. Assessment after 18 days showed an 84 to 100 percent reduction of visual analog scale scores for specific dysesthesias and marked reductions of pre-operative scores of the Pittsburgh sleep

  13. Pelvic movement strategies and leg extension power in patients with end-stage medial compartment knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Signe; Jørgensen, Peter Bo; Dalgas, Ulrik; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2015-09-01

    During movement tasks, patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis use compensatory strategies to minimise the joint load of the affected leg. Movement strategies of the knees and trunk have been investigated, but less is known about movement strategies of the pelvis during advancing functional tasks, and how these strategies are associated with leg extension power. The aim of the study was to investigate pelvic movement strategies and leg extension power in patients with end-stage medial compartment knee osteoarthritis compared with controls. 57 patients (mean age 65.6 years) scheduled for medial uni-compartmental knee arthroplasty, and 29 age and gender matched controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Leg extension power was tested with the Nottingham Leg Extension Power-Rig. Pelvic range of motion was derived from an inertia-based measurement unit placed over the sacrum bone during walking, stair climbing and stepping. Patients had lower leg extension power than controls (20-39 %, P 0.06). Furthermore, an inverse association (coefficient: -0.03 to -0.04; R (2) = 13-22 %) between leg extension power and pelvic range of motion during stair and step descending was found in the patients. Compared to controls, patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis use greater pelvic movements during advanced functional performance tests, particularly when these involve descending tasks. Further studies should investigate if it is possible to alter these movement strategies by an intervention aimed at increasing strength and power for the patients.

  14. Post-stroke restless leg syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, H G; Lee, D; Hwang, K J; Ahn, T-B

    2017-02-01

    Primary restless leg syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) frequently co-exist, obscuring the boundaries between the two conditions. In such instances, a study of secondary cases with focal lesions such as post-stroke RLS and PLMS (psRLS and psPLMS, respectively) can be helpful in identifying characteristics of the individual conditions. Patients who had suffered strokes and who subsequently developed psRLS or psPLMS were recruited. To determine the overall features of psRLS/PLMS, historical cases were selected from the literature. All cases with either psRLS or psPLMS alone were further analyzed to elucidate the distinctive pathomechanisms of the two conditions. Six patients with either psRLS or psPLMS were recruited from our hospital; two patients had both conditions contemporaneously. The literature contains details on 30 cases of psRLS or psPLMS. The causative lesion was most frequently located in the pons. We found that psRLS was more often bilateral, and usually detected later in time. Lesions in both the pontine base and tegmentum (together) were associated with unilateral psPLMS, whereas lesions in the corona radiata and adjacent basal ganglia were associated with bilateral RLS. Lesions confined to the corona radiata resulted in either unilateral or bilateral RLS. The observed differences in the clinical and radiological features of psRLS and psPLMS suggest that the pathophysiologies of the two conditions are distinct. Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiologies of primary RLS and PLMS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Emotion, Intent and Voluntary Movement in Children with Autism. an Example: The Goal Directed Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuet, Sophie; Ferrel-Chapus, Carole; Oreve, Marie-Joelle; Chamot, Jean-Marc; Vernazza-Martin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of intentionality on goal directed locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Closely linked with emotions and motivation, it is directly connected with movement planning. Is planning only preserved when the goal of the action appears motivating for healthy and autistic children? Is movement programming similar…

  16. Loading the limb during rhythmic leg movements lengthens the duration of both flexion and extension in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Kristin E; Yang, Jaynie F

    2007-02-01

    Sensory input is critical for adapting motor outputs to meet environmental conditions. A ubiquitous force on all terrestrial animals is gravity. It is possible that when performing rhythmic movements, animals respond to load-related feedback in the same way by prolonging the muscle activity resisting the load. We hypothesized that for rhythmic leg movements, the period (extension or flexion) experiencing the higher load will be longer and vary more strongly with cycle period. Six rhythmic movements were studied in human infants (aged 3-10 mo), each providing different degrees of load-related feedback to the legs during flexion and extension of the limb. Kicking in supine provided similar loads (inertial) during flexion and extension. Stepping on a treadmill, kicking in supine against a foot-plate, and kicking in sitting loaded the legs during extension more than flexion, whereas air-stepping and air-stepping with ankle weights did the opposite. Video, electrogoniometry, surface electromyography, and contact forces were recorded. We showed that load-related feedback could make either the duration of flexion or extension longer. Within the tasks of stepping and kicking against a plate, infants who exerted lower forces showed shorter extensor durations than those who exerted higher forces. Because older babies tend to step with greater force, we wished to rule out the contribution of age. Eight babies (>8 mo old) were studied during stepping, in which we manipulated the amount of weight-bearing. The same effect of load was seen. Hence, the degree of loading directly affects the duration of extension in an incremental way.

  17. Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease and Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep in the Elderly with and without Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figorilli, Michela; Puligheddu, Monica; Ferri, Raffaele

    2015-09-01

    There is great interest in the study of sleep in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly. Sleep disorders have been related to quality of aging. Sleep-related movements are a frequent cause of disordered sleep and daytime sleepiness. Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is often unrecognized in the elderly. This review explores RLS/WED in the elderly population. The elderly population may be subdivided into 3 groups: healthy, dependent, and frail. The RLS/WED could be a predictor for lower physical function; its burden on quality of life and health care-related costs, in the elderly, should be an important clinical and public health concern.

  18. Initiation of voluntary movements at free will and ongoing 0.1-Hz BOLD oscillations in the insula – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert ePfurtscheller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently we hypothesized that the intention to initiate a voluntary movement at free will may be related to the dynamics of hemodynamic variables, which may be supported by the intertwining of networks for the timing of voluntary movements and the control of cardiovascular variables in the insula. In the present study voluntary movements of 3 healthy subjects were analyzed using fMRI scans at 1.83-s intervals along with the time course of slow hemodynamic changes in sensorimotor networks. For the analyses of BOLD time courses the Wavelet transform coherence (WTC and calculation of phase-locking values were used. Analyzed was the frequency band between 0.07 and 0.13 Hz in the supplementary motor area (SMA and insula, two widely separated regions co-active in motor behavior. BOLD signals displayed slow fluctuations, concentrated around 0.1 Hz whereby the intrinsic oscillations in the insula preceded those in the SMA by 0.5 to 1 seconds. These preliminary results suggest that slow hemodynamic changes in SMA and insula may condition the initiation of a voluntary movement at free will.

  19. Interaction of electrical stimulation and voluntary hand movement in SII and the cerebellum during simulated therapeutic functional electrical stimulation in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftime-Nielsen, Simona Denisia; Christensen, Mark Schram; Vingborg, Rune Jersin

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) has shown promising clinical results in the rehabilitation of post-stroke hemiplegia. It appears that the effect is optimal when the patterned electrical stimulation is used in close synchrony with voluntary movement, although...

  20. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced.

  1. Impact on Clinical Outcomes of Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep in Hospitalized Patients Following Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsu, Shoichiro; Kasai, Takatoshi; Suda, Shoko; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Shiroshita, Nanako; Kato, Mitsue; Kawana, Fusae; Murata, Azusa; Kato, Takao; Hiki, Masaru; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-24

    Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLM) are characterized by regularly recurring movement of the legs during sleep. Although PLM is common and a predictor of death in patients with chronic heart failure, the clinical significance of PLM in hospitalized patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) remains unknown.Methods and Results:After initial improvement of acute signs and symptoms of ADHF, 94 consecutive patients with reduced LVEF who underwent polysomnography were enrolled. They were divided into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of severe PLM defined as PLM index ≥30. The risks for clinical events, composite of all-cause death and rehospitalization, were assessed using a stepwise multivariable Cox proportional model including variables showing PPLM was observed in 21 patients (22%). At a median follow-up of 5.2 months, 30 patients experienced clinical events (32%). In the multivariable analysis, the presence of severe PLM was significantly associated with increasing clinical events (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-4.54; P=0.042) independent of hemoglobin level and the severity of sleep-disordered breathing. In hospitalized patients with systolic dysfunction following ADHF, severe PLM was prevalent and significantly associated with increased risk of death and/or rehospitalization.

  2. Periodic leg movements in RLS patients as compared to controls: Are there differences beyond the PLM index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Gwendolyn; Wetter, Thomas C; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2009-05-01

    To characterize periodic leg movements (PLM) and their association with sleep disturbances in drug-free patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and healthy subjects without sleep complaints. Polysomnographic recordings of 95 patients with idiopathic RLS and 31 age-matched controls were compared, and correlation analysis between sleep efficiency and PLM variables was performed. All patients and controls were free of medication for 10 days prior to polysomnography. PLM measures revealed a significantly longer mean duration of single PLM during wakefulness and non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in RLS patients as compared to controls. PLM indices were higher in RLS patients than in controls during all sleep stages, but not during wakefulness and slow wave sleep. A significantly higher number of PLM sequences was found in RLS patients than in controls. In RLS patients decreased sleep efficiency was associated with a higher number and a shorter duration of PLM sequences. The mean duration of single PLM might be an appropriate parameter to discriminate between healthy subjects with PLM and patients with RLS. High numbers of PLM sequences of short duration might be an indicator for the decreased sleep quality in RLS patients.

  3. Three-dimensional localization of SMA activity preceding voluntary movement. A study of electric and magnetic fields in a patient with infarction of the right supplementary motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, W; Cheyne, D; Kristeva, R; Beisteiner, R; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies by magnetoencephalography (MEG) failed to consistently localize the activity of the supplementary motor area (SMA) prior to voluntary movements in healthy human subjects. Based on the assumption that the SMA of either hemisphere is active prior to voluntary movements, the negative findings of previous studies could be explained by the hypothesis that magnetic fields of current dipole sources in the two SMAs may cancel each other. The present MEG study was performed in a patient with a complete vascular lesion of the right SMA. In this case it was possible to consistently localize a current dipole source in the intact left SMA starting about 1200 msec prior to the initiation of voluntary movements of the right thumb. Starting at about 600 msec prior to movement onset the assumption of a current dipole source in the left primary motor cortex was needed to account for the observed fields. Measurements of brain potentials were consistent with MEG findings of activity of the left SMA starting about 1200 msec prior to movement onset.

  4. Interaction of electrical stimulation and voluntary hand movement in SII and the cerebellum during simulated therapeutic functional electrical stimulation in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftime-Nielsen, Simona Denisia; Christensen, Mark Schram; Vingborg, Rune Jersin; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Roepstorff, Andreas; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) has shown promising clinical results in the rehabilitation of post-stroke hemiplegia. It appears that the effect is optimal when the patterned electrical stimulation is used in close synchrony with voluntary movement, although the neural mechanisms that underlie the clinical successes reported with therapeutic FES are unknown. One possibility is that therapeutic FES takes advantage of the sensory consequences of an internal model. Here, we investigate fMRI cortical activity when FES is combined with voluntary effort (FESVOL) and we compare this activity to that produced when FES and voluntary activity (VOL) are performed alone. FESVOL revealed greater cerebellar activity compared with FES alone and reduced activity bilaterally in secondary somatosensory areas (SII) compared with VOL alone. Reduced activity was also observed for FESVOL compared with FES alone in the angular gyrus, middle frontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings indicate that during the VOL condition the cerebellum predicts the sensory consequences of the movement and this reduces the subsequent activation in SII. The decreased SII activity may reflect a better match between the internal model and the actual sensory feedback. The greater cerebellar activity coupled with reduced angular gyrus activity in FESVOL compared with FES suggests that the cortex may interpret sensory information during the FES condition as an error-like signal due to the lack of a voluntary component in the movement.

  5. Restless legs syndrome and central nervous system gamma-aminobutyric acid: preliminary associations with periodic limb movements in sleep and restless leg syndrome symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, John W; Schoerning, Laura; Platt, Sam; Jensen, J Eric

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abnormalities in glutamate and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in the thalamus in individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) compared with healthy matched controls. However, levels of these transmitters in other RLS-related brain areas and levels of the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have not been assessed. This study examined GABA, glutamate, and NAA levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), thalamus and cerebellum with the use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 4 tesla (4 T) and Megapress difference-editing in 18 subjects with RLS and a matched control group without RLS. Actigraphy was performed on the nights before scans to assess periodic limb movements of sleep (PLMS). Levels of GABA, glutamate, and NAA were no different between RLS and control subjects in any of the three voxels of interest. However, GABA levels were positively correlated with both PLM indices and RLS severity in the thalamus and negatively with both of these measures in the cerebellum in RLS subjects. In addition, NAA levels were higher in the ACC in RLS than in controls. Our preliminary data suggest that known cerebellar-thalamic interactions may modulate the intensity of RLS sensory and motor symptoms. In addition, anterior cingulate cortex may be associated with the affective components of the painful symptoms in this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of rest-duration, time-of-day and their interaction on periodic leg movements while awake in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard P; Dean, Terry; Earley, Christopher J

    2005-09-01

    The diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome (RLS) indicate that both time-of-day and rest effects induce or aggravate symptoms. Periodic limb movements while awake (PLMW) provide an objective motor sign of RLS that can be measured during an awake suggested immobilization test (SIT). This study uses the SIT at different times of the day and analyzes time-of-day and duration-of-rest effects and their interaction on the PLMW. Twenty-eight RLS patients who were not on medications had SIT tests at 10 pm, 8 am and 4 pm on two consecutive days. PLMW for each 20-min period were analyzed for time-of-day and rest effects and their interaction. PLMW increase from the first to last 20-min SIT period assessed the rest-effects. Significant effects were found for rest, time-of-day and rest-time-of-day interaction. The rest-effect increased most from morning to afternoon while total PLMW increased more from afternoon to night. Males compared to females had significantly more PLMW and a larger rest-effect change with time-of-day. Rest and time-of-day effects and their interaction all increase RLS symptoms. PLMW increase with rest may provide a sensitive measure of symptom severity.

  7. Excitability changes in the left primary motor cortex innervating the hand muscles induced during speech about hand or leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onmyoji, Yusuke; Kubota, Shinji; Hirano, Masato; Tanaka, Megumi; Morishita, Takuya; Uehara, Kazumasa; Funase, Kozo

    2015-05-06

    In the present study, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the changes in the excitability of the left primary motor cortex (M1) innervating the hand muscles and in short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) during speech describing hand or leg movements. In experiment 1, we investigated the effects of the contents of speech on the amplitude of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced during reading aloud and silent reading. In experiment 2, we repeated experiment 1 with an additional condition, the non-vocal oral movement (No-Voc OM) condition, and investigated the change in SICI induced in each condition using the paired TMS paradigm. The MEP observed in the reading aloud and No-Voc OM conditions exhibited significantly greater amplitudes than those seen in the silent reading conditions, irrespective of the content of the sentences spoken by the subjects or the timing of the TMS. There were no significant differences in SICI between the experimental conditions. Our findings suggest that the increased excitability of the left M1 hand area detected during speech was mainly caused by speech-related oral movements and the activation of language processing-related brain functions. The increased left M1 excitability was probably also mediated by neural mechanisms other than reduced SICI; i.e., disinhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vascular function assessed by passive leg movement and flow-mediated dilation: initial evidence of construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Groot, H Jonathan; Garten, Ryan S; Witman, Melissa A H; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-11-01

    The vasodilatory response to passive leg movement (PLM) appears to provide a novel, noninvasive assessment of vascular function. However, PLM has yet to be compared with the established noninvasive assessment of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Therefore, as an initial evaluation of the construct validity of PLM and upright seated and supine PLM as well as brachial (BA) and superficial femoral (SFA) artery FMDs were performed in 10 young (22 ± 1) and 30 old (73 ± 2) subjects. During upright seated PLM, the peak change in leg blood flow (ΔLBF) and leg vascular conductance (ΔLVC) was significantly correlated with BA (r = 0.57 and r = 0.66) and SFA (r = 0.44 and r = 0.41, ΔLBF and ΔLVC, respectively) FMD. Furthermore, although the relationships were not as strong, the supine PLM response was also significantly correlated with BA (r = 0.38 and r = 0.35) and SFA (r = 0.39 and r = 0.35, ΔLBF and ΔLVC, respectively) FMD. Examination of the young and old separately, however, revealed that significant relationships persisted in both groups only for the upright seated PLM response and BA FMD (young: r = 0.73 and r = 0.77; old: r = 0.35 and r = 0.45, ΔLBF and ΔLVC, respectively). Normalizing FMD for shear rate during PLM abrogated all significant relationships between the PLM and FMD response, suggesting a role for nitric oxide (NO) in these associations. Collectively, these data indicate that PLM, particularly upright seated PLM, likely provides an index of vascular health analogous to the traditional FMD test. Given the relative ease of PLM implementation, these data have important positive implications for PLM as a clinical vascular health assessment.

  9. Posture effects on spontaneous limb movements, alternated stepping, and the leg extension response in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Gallardo, Valerie; Roberto, Megan E; Kauer, Sierra D; Brumley, Michele R

    2016-03-01

    The development of postural control is considered an important factor for the expression of coordinated behavior such as locomotion. In the natural setting of the nest, newborn rat pups adapt their posture to perform behaviors of ecological relevance such as those related to suckling. The current study explores the role of posture in the expression of three behaviors in the newborn rat: spontaneous limb activity, locomotor-like stepping behavior, and the leg extension response (LER). One-day-old rat pups were tested in one of two postures--prone or supine--on each of these behavioral measures. Results showed that pups expressed more spontaneous activity while supine, more stepping while prone, and no differences in LER expression between the two postures. Together these findings show that posture affects the expression of newborn behavior patterns in different ways, and suggest that posture may act as a facilitator or a limiting factor in the expression of different behaviors during early development.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF SPINAL MOBILIZATION WITH LEG MOVEMENT (SMWLM IN PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR RADICULOPATHY (L5 / S1 NERVE ROOT IN LUMBAR DISC HERNIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahiba Yadav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various manual therapy techniques are known to treat discogenic pain. Research is limited and controversial in the effectiveness of manual therapy for treatment of lumbar radiculopathy due to lumbar disc disease. In manual therapy, Mulligan has described spinal mobilisation with leg movement technique, for improvement in lumbar lesion resulting in pain and other signs below knee. Purpose of the study: To find out if Mulligan’s Spinal Mobilisation with Leg Movement technique (SMWLM in conjunction with conventional treatment is better than conventional treatment alone in improving leg pain intensity (VAS, localization of leg pain (body diagram by Donelson, back specific disability (RMQ in patients with lumbar radiculopathy (L5/ S1 nerve root in lumbar disc herniation. Methods: The study is a randomized controlled trial performed on 30 patients with lumbar radiculopathy. Both the groups received back extension exercises, hot pack, precautions and ergonomic advice. The experimental group received SMWLM technique in addition to the conventional treatment. Outcomes included leg pain intensity, Roland Morris Questionnaire and body diagram by Donelson. Results: There was significant improvement in VAS (p=0.000, body diagram (p=0.000 for experimental group and p=0.003 for conventional group and Roland Morris Questionnaire score (p=0.000 within the groups. Between group analysis showed significant improvement in VAS (p=0.000, body diagram score (p=0.000. Although there was significant improvement in Roland Morris Questionnaire score within the groups but there no significant difference between the group (p=0.070. Conclusion: Spinal Mobilization with Leg Movement technique in addition to conventional physical therapy produced significant improvement in leg pain intensity, location of pain and back specific disability in patients with lumbar radiculopathy in lumbar disc herniation.

  11. Therapeutic subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation reverses cortico-thalamic coupling during voluntary movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Kahan

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS has become an accepted treatment for patients experiencing the motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD. While its successes are becoming increasingly apparent, the mechanisms underlying its action remain unclear. Multiple studies using radiotracer-based imaging have investigated DBS-induced regional changes in neural activity. However, little is known about the effect of DBS on connectivity within neural networks; in other words, whether DBS impacts upon functional integration of specialized regions of cortex. In this work, we report the first findings of fMRI in 10 subjects with PD and fully implanted DBS hardware receiving efficacious stimulation. Despite the technical demands associated with the safe acquisition of fMRI data from patients with implanted hardware, robust activation changes were identified in the insula cortex and thalamus in response to therapeutic STN DBS. We then quantified the neuromodulatory effects of DBS and compared sixteen dynamic causal models of effective connectivity between the two identified nodes. Using Bayesian model comparison, we found unequivocal evidence for the modulation of extrinsic (between region, i.e. cortico-thalamic and thalamo-cortical connections. Using Bayesian model parameter averaging we found that during voluntary movements, DBS reversed the effective connectivity between regions of the cortex and thalamus. This casts the therapeutic effects of DBS in a fundamentally new light, emphasising a role in changing distributed cortico-subcortical interactions. We conclude that STN DBS does impact upon the effective connectivity between the cortex and thalamus by changing their sensitivities to extrinsic afferents. Furthermore, we confirm that fMRI is both feasible and is tolerated well by these patients provided strict safety measures are adhered to.

  12. Electromyographic Responses during Elbow Movement at Two Angles with Voluntary Contraction: Influences of Muscle Activity on Upper Arm Biceps Brachii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizam Uddin Ahamed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Electromyography (EMG signals generated by individuals is part of human musculoskeletal system research and signals are always influenced by the electrode placement in the muscle. This characteristic is also obvious at Biceps Brachii (BB muscles during the movement of elbow at different angles. The purpose of this study was to monitor and determine the BB muscle function in 3 conditions: (i electrodes were placed at 3 locations on the BB, (ii elbow was fixed at the two angles (90° and 150° and (iii isometric contractions were performed to record EMG data. EMG data were obtained from six healthy subjects (n = 6, mean±SD age = 24.4±3.1 years, body mass = 68±6.3 kg, height = 164±4.1 cm, BMI = 21.2±2.3, right arm dominated. A Bluetooth-enabled laptop, wireless EMG sensors, digital dynamometer and angle meter were used for data recording. EMG data were calculated and analyzed by average value, standard deviation, Root Mean Square (RMS and highest peak of the signal during maximum voluntary contraction. All the dependent variables were calculated using repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The results from the research showed that (i according to the calculation of average RMS and the maximum peaks of EMG signals, there was a significant difference between 2 angles (p = 0.047, i.e., p<0.05, but no interaction at the same angles when overall average EMG and standard deviation value are considered and (ii majority of the outcomes showed that EMG activity is higher in the order of middle, upper and lower BB muscle. It is therefore important that electrical signals generated upon different electrode placements and angles on the BB muscle are used for biceps rehabilitation and other physiological measurements on upper arm.

  13. An anterior cruciate ligament injury does not affect the neuromuscular function of the non-injured leg except for dynamic balance and voluntary quadriceps activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zult, Tjerk; Gokeler, Alli; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Brouwer, Reinoud W.; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    The function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients' non-injured leg is relevant in light of the high incidence of secondary ACL injuries on the contralateral side. However, the non-injured leg's function has only been examined for a selected number of neuromuscular outcomes and often

  14. An anterior cruciate ligament injury does not affect the neuromuscular function of the non-injured leg except for dynamic balance and voluntary quadriceps activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zult, Tjerk; Gokeler, Alli; van Raay, Jos J A M; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients' non-injured leg is relevant in light of the high incidence of secondary ACL injuries on the contralateral side. However, the non-injured leg's function has only been examined for a selected number of neuromuscular outcomes and o

  15. Effect of Straight-leg-raising Movement on Epidural Fibrosis in Early Stage after Laminectomy in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effect of straight-leg-raising (SLR) movement on epidural fibrosis after laminectomy, 40 adult New Zealand rabbits were selected as laminectomy models in the study. They were divided into 2 groups: a SLR group (group S) and a control group (group C) randomly, with each group having 20 animals. All rabbits were subjected to total laminectomy in the site of S1. Every 5 rabbits in each group selected randomly were killed at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 8th week after the surgery. Segments of spines from L7 to S2 were removed en bloc. After gross evaluation, specimens were sliced up. The slices were stained by HE and Masson's trichrome methods respectively for histological examination. Our results showed that formation process of scar in group S was retarded as compared with that of group C at the time of the 2nd-week, but there was no statistical difference between groups in the adhesion degree (P≥0.05). At the 4th and 8th week, the epidural fibrosis of group S was more serious than that of group C. Since the 2nd-week, the area of scar in group S was larger than that of group C. The number of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells in group S were larger than those of group C at early stage. But in later stage, there was no statistical significance between the two groups. It is concluded that SLR movement after laminectomy may promote the formation of epidural fibrosis and retard the maturity of scar. SLR movement can also aggravate scar adhesion.

  16. Roles of eyes, leg proprioceptors and statocysts in the compensatory eye movements of freely walking land crabs (Cardisoma guanhumi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul; Barnes; Varju

    1998-12-01

    The compound eyes, the canal organs of the statocysts and proprioceptors in the legs all generate compensatory eye movements in the horizontal plane in the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Frequency analyses of the compensatory eye reflexes elicited by each of these inputs show that visual (V) and proprioceptive (P) reflexes respond best below 0.1 Hz, while statocyst (S) reflexes only achieve a high gain above this frequency. They thus increase the range of frequencies over which compensation can occur. Eye and body movements were recorded in an arena under all possible combinations of crabs seeing or blind (V+ or V-), with or without statocysts (S+ or S-) and freely walking or passively transported on a trolley (P+ or P-). Intact crabs (V+S+P+) show good stabilisation of the eyes in space, the only movements with respect to external coordinates being saccadic resetting movements (fast phases of nystagmus). The eyes thus compensate well for body turns, but are unaffected by translatory movements of the body and turns that are not accompanied by a change in the orientation of the long axis of the body in space. In the absence of any one sense, compensation for rotation is significantly impaired, whether measured by the increase in the width of the histograms of changes in the angular positions of the eyes in space ( capdelta &phgr; E), by the mean angular velocity of the eyes (slope of regression line, mE) with respect to the angular velocity of the body (mB) or by response gain plotted against angular acceleration of body turn (a). The absence of two senses reduces the crab's ability to compensate still further, with the statocyst-only condition (V-S+P-) being little better than the condition when all three senses are absent (V-S-P-).Such multisensory control of eye compensation for body rotation is discussed both in terms of making use of every available cue for reducing retinal slip and in making available the information content of the optic flow field.

  17. Force-velocity, force-power relationships of bilateral and unilateral leg multi-joint movements in young and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Junichiro; Mishima, Chizuko; Nakayama, Satoshi; Ishii, Naokata

    2009-09-18

    The present study investigated force-velocity and force-power relationships of bilateral and unilateral knee-hip extension movement in young and elderly women. Twelve healthy young (age, 19-31 yr) and 12 healthy elderly (age, 60-82 yr) women performed bilateral and unilateral knee-hip extension movements on the dynamometer against loads controlled by the servo system. Under the isotonic force condition, force-velocity relationships were measured. The maximum isometric force (F(max)), unloaded velocity (V(max)) and power output (P(max)) of the movements were calculated from extrapolating force-velocity and force-power relationships. F(max) and P(max) of bilateral and unilateral knee-hip extension movements were 20-30% lower in elderly than in young women. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in V(max) between young and elderly women and between bilateral and unilateral movements. Bilateral deficit was larger as the generation of force was larger in both young and elderly women. Also, bilateral deficit of F(max) and P(max) were not different between young and elderly women. The results were that lower maximum power output of bilateral and unilateral leg multi-joint movements in elderly women did not depend on the intrinsic shortening velocity of muscle action, but largely on reduction in force generating capacity. This suggests the importance of preventing a loss of force generating capacity of muscles during leg multi-joint movements in elderly women.

  18. Suppression of cardiocirculatory responses to orthostatic stress by passive walking-like leg movement in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata Hisayoshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although passive walking-like leg movement in the standing posture (PWM has been used in the clinical field, the safety of PWM has not been fully determined despite the risks of orthostatic intolerance due to standing posture. The aim of the present study was to examine cardiocirculatory response during PWM in healthy young men. Methods The subjects (n = 13 spent 5 min in a sitting position and then 5 min in a quiet standing position to determine baseline levels. Thereafter, they underwent 25-min rhythmic PWM at 1 Hz while standing. In another bout, subjects experienced the same protocol except that they underwent 25-min quiet standing (QS instead of 25-min PWM. Two subjects dropped out of the 25-min QS due to feeling of discomfort. Thus, data obtained in the remaining eleven subjects are presented. Results In the PWM trial, systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP decreased from 112 ± 8 mmHg during the sitting baseline period to 107 ± 8 mmHg during the standing baseline period (p Conclusions The results suggest that PWM is effective for suppressing cardiocirculatory responses to orthostatic stress.

  19. Non-pharmacological management of periodic limb movements during hemodialysis session in patients with uremic restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Sakkas, Giorgos K; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Karatzaferi, Christina; Patramani, Gianna; Lavdas, Eleftherios; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is very common in hemodialysis patients. RLS induces motor excitability and discomfort during rest periods, and those symptoms have also been observed during hemodialysis sessions. The aim of the study was to assess whether a single bout of exercise could reduce periodic limb movements (PLM) occurring during hemodialysis. Eighteen hemodialysis patients were eligible and participated in the study. Using the RLS criteria and further verified by the presence of PLM during sleep, patients were divided to non-RLS and RLS groups. Three scenarios were studied during three different sessions: 1) light exercise, including cycling for 45 minutes with no added resistance, 2) heavy exercise, including cycling for 45 minutes with a resistance set at 60% of their exercise capacity, and 3) no exercise, including rest for the same period of time. In all sessions, PLM per hour of hemodialysis (PLM/hHD) was recorded. A single bout of either light or heavy exercise was equally effective in significantly reducing PLM/hHD in patients with RLS compared with the no-exercise scenario, whereas in non-RLS patients, no effect was observed. Independent of intensity, a single bout of intradialytic exercise reduces PLM/hHD in hemodialysis patients with RLS. Further research is needed to establish the acute role of exercise in ameliorating the RLS symptoms.

  20. 自主控制眼跳脑神经机制%The neural mechanisms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静; 李秀红

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary control of saccadic eye movements is a kind of saccades controlled by conscious and always used to investigate the brain areas related to saccades and ability of response inhibition and work memory.Researching the neural mechanisms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements could provide a basis to study the advanced cognitive function of brain and facilitate to explore basic neural mechanisms of abnormal saccadic in brain disorders.As neuroimaging technologies develops,intensive studies about the neural mechanisms of voluntary control of saccadic eye movements have been made great progress.It is showed that several brain areas such as prefrontal cortex,subcortical areas and parietal cortex mainly in participate.These multiple brain regions are involved in voluntary control of saccadic eye movements at different stages.Antisaccades and memory-guided saccades including different brain regions because of their different characteristics of saccadic.The future direction of the research is to combine study with neural imaging technology,and to study more about the brain regions and their functional connectivity involved in voluntary control of saccadic eye movements.%自主控制眼跳是一种受意识控制的眼跳,可用来考察调控眼跳的大脑区域、反应抑制和空间工作记忆等能力.研究自主控制眼跳的脑神经机制可为探讨大脑的高级认知功能提供依据,对于探索一些脑功能失调疾病中异常眼跳的脑神经基础有重要意义.随着神经成像技术的发展,自主控制眼跳的脑神经机制有了较深入的研究,自主控制眼跳需要额叶皮层、皮层下区域和顶叶区域等多个脑区的共同参与,这些脑区参与了自主控制眼跳的不同阶段,而且反向眼跳和记忆导向眼跳由于各自眼跳特征不同分别涉及不同的脑区.未来的研究方向是将研究与神经成像技术相结合,更多地考察参与自主控制眼跳的大脑区域和脑区间的功能连接.

  1. Influence of the Perspectives on the Movement of One-Leg Lifting in an Interactive-Visual Virtual Environment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have confirmed the feasibility of active video games for clinical rehabilitation. To maximize training effectiveness, a personal program is necessary; however, little evidence is available to guide individualized game design for rehabilitation. This study assessed the perspectives and kinematic and temporal parameters of a participant’s postural control in an interactive-visual virtual environment. Methods Twenty-four healthy participants performed one-leg standing by leg lifting when a posture frame appeared either in a first- or third-person perspective of a virtual environment. A foot force plate was used to detect the displacement of the center of pressure. A three-way mixed factor design was applied, where the perspective was the between-participant factor, and the leg-lifting times (0.7 and 2.7 seconds) and leg-lifting angles (30°and 90°) were the within-participant factors. The reaction time, accuracy of the movement, and ability to shift weight were the dependent variables. Results Regarding the reaction time and accuracy of the movement, there were no significant main effects of the perspective, leg-lifting time, or angle. For the ability to shift weight, however, both the perspective and time exerted significant main effects, F(1,22) = 6.429 and F(1,22) = 13.978, respectively. Conclusions Participants could shift their weight more effectively in the third-person perspective of the virtual environment. The results can serve as a reference for future designs of interactive-visual virtual environment as applied to rehabilitation. PMID:27649536

  2. Non-sagittal Movements in Lower Leg and Foot, and Some of Their Underlying Anatomical and Kinematical Principles

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ZWIETEN, Koos Jaap; Biesmans, Steven; Schmidt, Klaus; Lippens, Peter; REYSKENS, Ann; ROBEYNS, Inge; Vandersteen, Marjan; MAHABIER, Roberto; Narain, Faridi; Lamur, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    In human gait, at the end of the stance phase, the lower leg normally performs a slight temporary lateral rotation, while the foot simultaneously shows inversion through mid-stance until toe-off. The subsequent swing phase mostly shows the foot swaying more or less in inversion, in order to be repositioned, as the lower leg does, during late swing and after touchdown. While these non-sagittal events in lower leg, ankle and foot have been hitherto insufficiently analyzed in quadrupeds, more pr...

  3. Activation timing patterns of the abdominal and leg muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Heon; Choi, Jong-Duk; Lee, Nam-Gi

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the activation timing patterns of abdominal and leg muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects] Twenty adults with chronic hemiparetic stroke participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed five sit-to-stand movements at a self-selected velocity without using their hands. Surface electromyography was used to measure the reaction time of the bilateral transverse abdominis/internal oblique, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles during the sit-to-stand movement. [Results] There were significant differences in the reaction time between the affected and unaffected sides of the abdominal and leg muscles. Muscles on the unaffected side had faster reaction time than those on the affected side. Activation of the transverse abdominis/internal oblique muscles was delayed relative to activation of the tibialis anterior muscle during the sit-to-stand movement. [Conclusion] Our findings provide information that may aid clinicians in the examination and management of paretic muscles for transfers in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

  4. Brain regions involved in voluntary movements as revealed by radioisotopic mapping of CBF or CMR-glucose changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Ingvar, D H

    1990-01-01

    area SMA on both sides increase in CBF/CMR-glucose and even internally ("mentally") going through the trained movements, causes such changes; complex purposeful movements also activate the premotor cortex, a response that is bilateral with greatest response contralaterally. Studies in patients...

  5. Effects of Two Football Stud Types on Knee and Ankle Kinetics of Single-Leg Land-Cut and 180° Cut Movements on Infilled Synthetic Turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hunter J; Brock, Elizabeth; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C; Zhang, Songning

    2015-10-01

    Higher ACL injury rates have been recorded in cleats with higher torsional resistance in American football, which warrants better understanding of shoe/stud-dependent joint kinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in knee and ankle kinetics during single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts on synthetic infilled turf while wearing 3 types of shoes. Fourteen recreational football players performed single-leg land cuts and 180° cuts in nonstudded running shoes (RS) and in football shoes with natural (NTS) and synthetic turf studs (STS). Knee and ankle kinetic variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated-measures ANOVA (P < .05). A significant shoe-by-movement interaction was found in loading response peak knee adduction moments, with NTS producing smaller moments compared with both STS and RS only in 180° cuts. Reduced peak negative plantar flexor powers were also found in NTS compared with STS. The single-leg land cut produced greater loading response and push-off peak knee extensor moments, as well as peak negative and positive extensor and plantar flexor powers, but smaller loading peak knee adduction moments and push-off peak ankle eversion moments than 180° cuts. Overall, the STS and 180° cuts resulted in greater frontal plane knee loading and should be monitored for possible increased ACL injury risks.

  6. Intra-Cyclic Phases of Arm-Leg Movement and Index of Coordination in Relation to Sprint Breaststroke Swimming in Young Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Strzala

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the limitations set by FINA regulations, execution technique in breaststroke swimming is being improved thanks to more and more advanced analyses of the efficiency of the swimmer’s movements. The aim of this study was to detect the parameters of the time structure of the cycle correlated with the maximal swimming speed at the of 50 meters distance, in order to focus to specific technical aspects in the breaststroke training. In the group of 23 participants, between the age of 15.0 ± 1.17, the breaststroke cycle movement of the arms and legs was divided into two phases: propulsive or non-propulsive. In addition, indices characterizing the temporal coordination of movements of the upper limbs in relation to the lower limbs were distinguished: 1 Arm-Leg Lag - determines the interval between the phases of propulsion generated by upper and lower limbs; 2 Glide or Overlap - the inter-cyclic glide or overlap of the propulsive movement of the upper on lower limbs. Significant dependence was noted between the swim speed (V50surface breast and the percentage of time of the arm propulsive in-sweep phase 0.64, p < 0.01. A significant correlation was observed between the V50surface breast with the percentage of partially surfaced hand phase of arm recovery 0.54, p < 0.01. Correlation between total leg propulsion and non-propulsion phases with V50surface breast was 0.49 and -0.49 respectively, both p < 0.01. The Glide or Overlap index was significantly related to the swimming speed V50surface breast 0.48, p < 0.05. This type of analysis suggests how to refine the swimming technique, with the goal to improve the current speed capabilities; furthermore the results also indicate the direction of its development in the future swimmers of the group studied.

  7. Concurrent validity and reliability of using ground reaction force and center of pressure parameters in the determination of leg movement initiation during single leg lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, Daniela; de Castro, Marcelo Peduzzi; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bussey, Melanie Dawn

    2016-09-01

    Postural adjustment evaluations during single leg lift requires the initiation of heel lift (T1) identification. T1 measured by means of motion analyses system is the most reliable approach. However, this method involves considerable workspace, expensive cameras, and time processing data and setting up laboratory. The use of ground reaction forces (GRF) and centre of pressure (COP) data is an alternative method as its data processing and setting up is less time consuming. Further, kinetic data is normally collected using frequency samples higher than 1000Hz whereas kinematic data are commonly captured using 50-200Hz. This study describes the concurrent-validity and reliability of GRF and COP measurements in determining T1, using a motion analysis system as reference standard. Kinematic and kinetic data during single leg lift were collected from ten participants. GRF and COP data were collected using one and two force plates. Displacement of a single heel marker was captured by means of ten Vicon(©) cameras. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a sample frequency of 1000Hz. Data were analysed in two stages: identification of key events in the kinetic data, and assessing concurrent validity of T1 based on the chosen key events with T1 provided by the kinematic data. The key event presenting the least systematic bias, along with a narrow 95% CI and limits of agreement against the reference standard T1, was the Baseline COPy event. Baseline COPy event was obtained using one force plate and presented excellent between-tester reliability.

  8. Suppression of cardiocirculatory responses to orthostatic stress by passive walking-like leg movement in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Hisayoshi; Fujimaru, Ikuyo; Yamada, Keiko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2012-09-12

    Although passive walking-like leg movement in the standing posture (PWM) has been used in the clinical field, the safety of PWM has not been fully determined despite the risks of orthostatic intolerance due to standing posture. The aim of the present study was to examine cardiocirculatory response during PWM in healthy young men. The subjects (n = 13) spent 5 min in a sitting position and then 5 min in a quiet standing position to determine baseline levels. Thereafter, they underwent 25-min rhythmic PWM at 1 Hz while standing. In another bout, subjects experienced the same protocol except that they underwent 25-min quiet standing (QS) instead of 25-min PWM. Two subjects dropped out of the 25-min QS due to feeling of discomfort. Thus, data obtained in the remaining eleven subjects are presented. In the PWM trial, systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) decreased from 112 ± 8 mmHg during the sitting baseline period to 107 ± 8 mmHg during the standing baseline period (p <0.05), while heart rate (HR) increased from 73 ± 9 bpm during the sitting baseline period to 84 ± 10 bpm during the standing baseline period (p <0.001). After the imposition of PWM, SAP increased from 107 ± 8 mmHg in the standing baseline period to 120 ± 6 mmHg (p <0.001), while HR decreased from 84 ± 10 bpm in the standing baseline period to 76 ± 9 bpm (p <0.05). In the QS trial, SAP, which had decreased during the standing baseline period compared to that during the sitting baseline period, remained lowered during the 25-min QS period, while HR, which had increased during the standing baseline period compared to that during the sitting baseline period, remained elevated during the 25-min QS period. In both bouts, HR showed almost mirror-image changes in the high-frequency component of HR variability, suggesting that the changes in HR were due to change in parasympathetic activation. Double product (HR × SAP), as a predictor of myocardial oxygen

  9. Valid measures of periodic leg movements (PLMs) during a suggested immobilization test using the PAM-RL leg activity monitors require adjusting detection parameters for noise and signal in each recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Myung Sung; Montplaisir, Jacques; Desautels, Alex; Winkelman, John W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Earley, Christopher J; Allen, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with restless legs syndrome (RLS) (Willis-Ekbom disease [WED]) usually have periodic leg movements (PLMs). The suggested immobilization test (SIT) measures sensory and motor features of WED during wakefulness. Surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings of the anterior tibialis (AT) are used as the standard for counting PLMs. However, due to several limitations, leg activity meters such as the PAM-RL were advanced as a potential substitute. In our study, we assessed the validity of the measurements of PLM during wakefulness (PLMW) in the SIT for PAM-RL using both default and custom detection threshold parameters compared to AT EMG. Data were obtained from 39 participants who were diagnosed with primary WED and who were on stable medication as part of another study using the SIT to repeatedly evaluate WED symptoms over 6-12 months. EMG recordings and PAM-RL, when available, were used to detect PLMW for each SIT. Complete PAM-RL and polysomnography (PSG) EMG data were available for 253 SITs from that study. The default PAM-RL (dPAM-RL) detected leg movements based on manufacturer's noise (resting) and signal (movement) amplitude criteria developed to accurately detect PLM during sleep (PLMS). The custom PAM-RL (cPAM-RL) similarly detected leg movements except the noise and movement detection parameters were adjusted to match the PAM-RL data for each SIT. The distributions of the differences between either dPAM-RL or cPAM-RL and EMG PLMW were strongly leptokurtic (Kurtosis >2) with many small differences and a few unusually large differences. These distributions are better described by median and quartile ranges than mean and standard deviation. Despite an adequate correlation (r=0.66) between the dPAM-RL and EMG recordings, the dPAM-RL on average significantly underscored the number of PLMW (median: quartiles=-13: -51.2, 0.0) and on Bland-Altman plots had a significant magnitude bias with greater underscoring for larger average PLMW/h. There also was an

  10. Spontaneous Aching Pain and Peculiar Involuntary Movements: A Case Report of Painful Legs and Moving Toes and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-yi Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Painful legs and moving toes (PLMT is a rare syndrome characterized by spontaneous neuropathic pain and peculiar involuntary movements in the lower limbs, especially the toes and feet. As it is a relatively rare disorder worldwide, the exact pathophysiology still remains a mystery. Until recently, numerous methods of clinical treatments have been tried; however, the success rate of the therapies is still very low. Here, we report a case of PLMT and also summarize the recent clinical and research literatures regarding clinical presentation, electrophysiological features, etiology, treatment methods, and prognosis of this disorder. Doctors should be aware of this rare syndrome in a patient with painful and/or restless legs. On the other hand, multiple clinical treatments should be tried, even those which usually produce a poor outcome.

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease and Periodic Limb Movements: A Comprehensive Review of Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Dyveke P

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) or Willis-Ekbom Disease is a common, but frequently under- recognized and misdiagnosed condition seen in many subspecialty practices including neurology, sleep medicine, primary care and rheumatology. Periodic limb movements are a frequent co-morbid diagnosis in RLS. Despite prior beliefs that the condition was "benign", it has been demonstrated to have a considerable impact on sufferers quality of life, physically and psychologically, as well as socially. This chapter is meant as a comprehensive review of RLS encompassing epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment considerations.

  12. Associations of Incident Cardiovascular Events With Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Leg Movements of Sleep in Older Men, for the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study (MrOS Sleep Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, John W; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Both restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) may be associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the individual contributions of these factors to adverse CVD outcomes are unknown. During the MrOS Sleep Study, 2823 men (mean age = 76.3 years) participated in a comprehensive sleep assessment from 2000 to 2002. RLS was identified by self-report of a physician diagnosis of RLS. A periodic limb movement of sleep index (PLMI) was derived from unattended in-home polysomnography. Incident cardiovascular events were centrally adjudicated during 8.7 ± 2.6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was all-cause CVD; secondary outcomes included incident myocardial infarction (MI) and cerebrovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for multiple covariates, including PLMI, to examine if there were independent associations of RLS and PLMI to the outcomes. Physician-diagnosed RLS was reported by 2.2% and a PLMI ≥ 15 was found in 59.6% of men. RLS was not associated with the composite CVD outcome. RLS was significantly associated with incident MI (Hazard ratio [HR] = 2.02, 95% CI, 1.04-3.91) even after adjustment for multiple covariates. Results were only modestly attenuated when PLMI was added to the model. PLMI also was found to predict incident MI (per SD increase in PLMI, HR = 1.14, 95% CI, 1.00-1.30, p = .05), and was materially unchanged after addition of RLS. The independent risk that RLS confers for MI suggests a role for non-PLMS factors such as sleep disturbance, shared genetic factors, or PLM-independent sympathetic hyperactivity.

  13. The movement stability analysis of double-half-rotation legged robot%双半转腿式机器人运动稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学坦; 汪永明; 卢琼琼; 宋嵩; 孙应秋

    2016-01-01

    提出一种新型的双半转腿式机器人,主要由车体支架、两条轮腿及其轮腿支架组成.根据双半转腿式机器人的步行运动特点,将机器人的一个完整步行周期分为4腿支撑阶段和双腿支撑阶段.针对双腿支撑阶段的稳定性问题,提出3点假设,将机器人的跨步过程简化成一个支点不变、摆长不断变化的倒立摆模型.以机器人平地行走为例,分别建立机器人各杆件的质心坐标方程,并推导出机器人的质心运动方程.根据机器人倒立摆模型,分析影响其运动稳定性的因素.以此为基础,利用MATLAB软件对机器人平地行走时的质心姿态、质心速度以及后跨步杆端部位姿进行仿真,仿真结果表明,双半转腿式机器人的平地运动是稳定的.%It proposes a new kind of double-half-rotation legged robot, which is mainly composed of a body bracket, two walking legs and corresponding leg brackets.According to its kinematic characteristic, it divides the striding period of the double-half-rotation legged robot into four-leg-support phase and two-leg-sup-port phase.For the stability analysis of the two-leg-support phase, it presents three assumptions.The striding process of the robot is simplified as an inverted pendulum model with a constant fulcrum and variable pendulum length.Takes the robot walking on flat ground as example, it establishes the mass center motion equation of each rod and derives the mass center position equation of the robot.Based on analysis of the inverted pendulum model of the robot, the factors that affect the movement stability of the robot are not only related to the mass center posi-tion, but also related to the velocity of the mass center.According to the inverted pendulum model, it obtains the mass center position, velocity curves of the robot in MATLAB, simulates the position curve of the rear striding leg rod end point.The results show that the double-half-rotation legged robot is stable when

  14. Movement

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the relationship between California red-legged frogs and their habitat in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened...

  15. World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) 2016 standards for recording and scoring leg movements in polysomnograms developed by a joint task force from the International and the European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Groups (IRLSSG and EURLSSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, R; Fulda, S; Allen, R P; Zucconi, M; Bruni, O; Chokroverty, S; Ferini-Strambi, L; Frauscher, B; Garcia-Borreguero, D; Hirshkowitz, M; Högl, B; Inoue, Y; Jahangir, A; Manconi, M; Marcus, C L; Picchietti, D L; Plazzi, G; Winkelman, J W; Zak, R S

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the results of the work by a joint task force of the International and European Restless Legs Syndrome Study Groups and World Association of Sleep Medicine that revised and updated the current standards for recording and scoring leg movements (LM) in polysomnographic recordings (PSG). First, the background of the decisions made and the explanations of the new rules are reported and then specific standard rules are presented for recording, detecting, scoring and reporting LM activity in PSG. Each standard rule has been classified with a level of evidence. At the end of the paper, Appendix 1 provides algorithms to aid implementation of these new standards in software tools. There are two main changes introduced by these new rules: 1) Candidate LM (CLM), are any monolateral LM 0.5-10 s long or bilateral LM 0.5-15 s long; 2) periodic LM (PLM) are now defined by runs of at least four consecutive CLM with an intermovement interval ≥10 and ≤ 90 s without any CLM preceded by an interval  0.5 s regardless of duration, otherwise the technician scores the LM as for the old standards. There is a new criterion for the morphology of LM that applies only to computerized LM detection to better match expert visual detection. Available automatic scoring programs will incorporate all the new rules so that the new standards should reduce technician burden for scoring PLMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of two football stud configurations on biomechanical characteristics of single-leg landing and cutting movements on infilled synthetic turf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Elizabeth; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare; Liu, Xuan; Brosnan, James T; Sorochan, John C

    2014-11-01

    Multiple playing surfaces and footwear used in American football warrant a better understanding of relationship between different combinations of turf and footwear. The purpose of this study was to examine effects of shoe and stud types on ground reaction force (GRF) and ankle and knee kinematics of a 180° cut and a single-leg 90° land-cut on synthetic turf. Fourteen recreational football players performed five trials of the 180° cut and 90° land-cut in three shoe conditions: non-studded running shoe, and football shoe with natural and synthetic turf studs. Variables were analyzed with a 3 × 2 (shoe × movement) repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). Peak vertical GRF (p < 0.001) and loading rate (p < 0.001) were greater during 90° land-cut than 180° cut. For 180° cut, natural turf studs produced smaller peak medial GRFs compared to synthetic turf studs and non-studded shoe (p = 0.012). For land-cut, peak eversion velocity was reduced in running shoes compared to natural (p = 0.016) and synthetic (p = 0.002) turf studs. The 90° land-cut movement resulted in greater peak vertical GRF and loading rate compared to the 180° cut. Overall, increased GRFs in the 90° land-cut movement may increase the chance of injury.

  17. Research of Humanoid Robot Voluntary Movement in 3D Computer Animation%电脑动画中3D虚拟人自主运动的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱驰波; 薛晓明

    2011-01-01

    电脑动画中复杂环境下3D虚拟人自主运动的研究,是计算机图像处理技术发展过程中急待突破的一个环节.主要原因是传统处理的方式过于复杂耗时.针对上述问题,应用计划分离器建立虚拟人的运动模型,使虚拟人在高低不平的环境中实现正步走、侧走、跑步及跳跃等程序性动画.实验结果表明:提出的方法简单、快捷.%It is urgent breakthrough technology for the development of computer image processing to research 3D humanoid robot voluntary movement in the complex environment due to the traditional way of dealing with timeconsuming and too complex. In response to these problems, a motion planning system capable of generating both global and local motions for a humanoid robot in a layered or two and half dimensional environment are proposed, so that the humanoid robot in the rugged environment to achieve frontal and side walking, jogging and jumping procedural animation. The results show that the proposed method is simple and fast.

  18. Postural adjustments for online corrections of arm movements in standing humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Julia A; Gritsenko, Valeriya; Ouckama, Ryan; Stapley, Paul J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how humans correct ongoing arm movements while standing. Specifically, we sought to understand whether the postural adjustments in the legs required for online corrections of arm movements are predictive or rely on feedback from the moving limb. To answer this question we measured online corrections in arm and leg muscles during pointing movements while standing. Nine healthy right-handed subjects reached with their dominant arm to a visual target in front of them and aligned with their midline. In some trials, the position of the target would switch from the central target to one of the other targets located 15°, 30°, or 45° to the right of the central (midline) target. For each target correction, we measured the time at which arm kinematics, ground reaction forces, and arm and leg muscle electromyogram significantly changed in response to the target displacement. Results show that postural adjustments in the left leg preceded kinematic corrections in the limb. The corrective postural muscle activity in the left leg consistently preceded the corrective reaching muscle activity in the right arm. Our results demonstrate that corrections of arm movements in response to target displacement during stance are preceded by postural adjustments in the leg contralateral to the direction of target shift. Furthermore, postural adjustments preceded both the hand trajectory correction and the arm-muscle activity responsible for it, which suggests that the central nervous system does not depend on feedback from the moving arm to modify body posture during voluntary movement. Instead, postural adjustments lead the online correction in the arm the same way they lead the initiation of voluntary arm movements. This suggests that forward models for voluntary movements executed during stance incorporate commands for posture that are produced on the basis of the required task demands.

  19. Analysis of Relationships between the Level of Errors in Leg and Monofin Movement and Stroke Parameters in Monofin Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejman, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the error structure in propulsive movements with regard to its influence on monofin swimming speed. The random cycles performed by six swimmers were filmed during a progressive test (900m). An objective method to estimate errors committed in the area of angular displacement of the feet and monofin segments was employed. The parameters were compared with a previously described model. Mutual dependences between the level of errors, stroke frequency, stroke length and amplitude in relation to swimming velocity were analyzed. The results showed that proper foot movements and the avoidance of errors, arising at the distal part of the fin, ensure the progression of swimming speed. The individual stroke parameters distribution which consists of optimally increasing stroke frequency to the maximal possible level that enables the stabilization of stroke length leads to the minimization of errors. Identification of key elements in the stroke structure based on the analysis of errors committed should aid in improving monofin swimming technique. Key points The monofin swimming technique was evaluated through the prism of objectively defined errors committed by the swimmers. The dependences between the level of errors, stroke rate, stroke length and amplitude in relation to swimming velocity were analyzed. Optimally increasing stroke rate to the maximal possible level that enables the stabilization of stroke length leads to the minimization of errors. Propriety foot movement and the avoidance of errors arising at the distal part of fin, provide for the progression of swimming speed. The key elements improving monofin swimming technique, based on the analysis of errors committed, were designated. PMID:24149742

  20. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE LEVEL OF ERRORS IN LEG AND MONOFIN MOVEMENT AND STROKE PARAMETERS IN MONOFIN SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rejman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the error structure in propulsive movements with regard to its influence on monofin swimming speed. The random cycles performed by six swimmers were filmed during a progressive test (900m. An objective method to estimate errors committed in the area of angular displacement of the feet and monofin segments was employed. The parameters were compared with a previously described model. Mutual dependences between the level of errors, stroke frequency, stroke length and amplitude in relation to swimming velocity were analyzed. The results showed that proper foot movements and the avoidance of errors, arising at the distal part of the fin, ensure the progression of swimming speed. The individual stroke parameters distribution which consists of optimally increasing stroke frequency to the maximal possible level that enables the stabilization of stroke length leads to the minimization of errors. Identification of key elements in the stroke structure based on the analysis of errors committed should aid in improving monofin swimming technique

  1. Nitric oxide-mediated vascular function in sepsis using passive leg movement as a novel assessment: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashley D; Rossman, Matthew J; Witman, Melissa A; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Groot, H Jonathan; Garten, Ryan S; Richardson, Russell S

    2016-05-01

    Post-cuff occlusion flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a proposed indicator of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and vascular function. FMD is reduced in patients with sepsis and may be a marker of end organ damage and mortality. However, FMD likely does not solely reflect NO-mediated vasodilation, is technically challenging, and often demonstrates poor reproducibility. In contrast, passive leg movement (PLM), a novel methodology to assess vascular function, yields a hyperemic response that is predominately NO-dependent, reproducible, and easily measured. This study evaluated PLM as an approach to assess NO-mediated vascular function in patients with sepsis. We hypothesized that PLM-induced hyperemia, quantified by the increase in leg blood flow (LBF), would be attenuated in sepsis. In a cross-sectional study, 17 subjects in severe sepsis or septic shock were compared with 16 matched healthy controls. Doppler ultrasound was used to assess brachial artery FMD and the hyperemic response to PLM in the femoral artery. FMD was attenuated in septic compared with control subjects (1.1 ± 1.7% vs. 6.8 ± 1.3%; values are means ± SD). In terms of PLM, baseline LBF (196 ± 33 ml/min vs. 328 ± 20 ml/min), peak change in LBF from baseline (133 ± 28 ml/min vs. 483 ± 86 ml/min), and the LBF area under the curve (16 ± 8.3 vs. 143 ± 33) were all significantly attenuated in septic subjects. Vascular function, as assessed by both FMD and PLM, is attenuated in septic subjects compared with controls. These data support the concept that NO bioavailability is attenuated in septic subjects, and PLM appears to be a novel and feasible approach to assess NO-mediated vascular function in sepsis.

  2. Neurobiology: reconstructing the neural control of leg coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R

    2009-05-12

    Walking is adaptable because the timing of movements of individual legs can be varied while maintaining leg coordination. Recent work in stick insects shows that leg coordination set by interactions of pattern generating circuits can be overridden by sensory feedback.

  3. Leg pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you walk or exercise and improves with rest. The leg is black and blue. The leg is cold ... chap 81. Marcussen B, Hogrefe C, Amendola A. Leg pain and exertional compartment syndromes. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee & Drez's ...

  4. Pharmacologically induced/exacerbated restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements of sleep, and REM behavior disorder/REM sleep without atonia: literature review, qualitative scoring, and comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Romy; Chesson, Andrew L

    2010-02-15

    Pharmacologically induced/exacerbated restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), and REM behavior disorder/REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) are increasingly recognized in clinical sleep medicine. A scoring system to evaluate the literature was created and implemented. The aim was to identify the evidence with the least amount of confound, allowing for more reliable determinations of iatrogenic etiology. Points were provided for the following criteria: manuscript type (abstract, peer-reviewed paper); population size studied (large retrospective study, small case series, case report); explicitly stated dosage timing; identification of peak symptoms related to time of medication administration (i.e., medication was ingested in the evening or at bedtime); initiation of a treatment plan; symptoms subsided or ceased with decreased dosage or drug discontinuation (for RLS articles only); negative personal history for RLS prior to use of the medication; exclusion of tobacco/alcohol/excessive caffeine use; exclusion of sleep disordered breathing by polysomnography (PSG); and PSG documentation of presence or absence of PLMS. For RLS and PLMS articles were also given points for the following criteria: each 2003 National Institutes of Health (NIH) RLS criteria met; exclusion of low serum ferritin; and exclusion of peripheral neuropathy by neurological examination. Thirty-two articles on drug-induced RLS, 6 articles on drug-induced PLMS, and 15 articles on drug-induced RBD/ RSWA were analyzed. Based on scores or = 10 are for the following drugs: bupropion, citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine. Based on scores > or = 10 and/or trials of medication cessation, the strongest evidence for drug induced RBD/ RSWA is for the following drugs: clomipramine, selegiline, and phenelzine.

  5. Voluntary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.

  6. Voluntary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.

  7. The Kinematic Chain Model Analysis of Two Technical Aspects of Sanda Whip Leg Movements%散打鞭腿动作技术的二环节链模型的运动学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江龙; 韩伟; 张欣然

    2013-01-01

    The whip leg action is the core of Sanda technology, in order to concise descriptions, the Sanda whip leg movement is simplified into a two link kinematic chain model. Whip leg movements of the hip, knee and thigh, calf links determine the position vector in three-dimensional plane, and by these to determine the whip leg movements the kinematics parameters of each joint, and links, and then determine the objective function (terminal velocity V), three-dimensional kinematics equation of human body whip leg action is established, and makes whip leg movement of each aspect have mathematical description. The study results include that: 1) the angular velocity of the thigh leg whip action is determined by the angular velocity and angular velocity of hip joint the calf, angular velocity is determined by the angular velocity of thigh and knee, work closely with the three determines the whip leg tip speed;2) in the T1 stage, leg dive after the curvature should less than 450°, while in the time of attacking leg leaving off the ground, the angular velocity greater than that of the leg link thigh, which is the most beneficial to increase the knee joint speed, and the angular velocity of knee joint as leg attack back away is mainly decided by leg pedaling the ground reaction force;3) in the T2 stage, the fully folding the leg and thigh is in favor of knee joint angular velocity Increase;4) in the whip leg link chain model of human body, the principle theory of whip compliance follows the momentum transfer from proximal to distal link by link, timely and effective braking cocoa hip to have knee momentum increase, the brake of the knee joint can make the momentum transfer to the end, and lead to the end acceleration. 5) in the chain model of Sanda whip leg links only links and joints having time coordination can they play the best effect at the end attack.%  鞭腿动作是散打腿法技术的核心,将散打鞭腿动作简化为一个二环节运动链模型,对散

  8. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Bhattacharya, Kalyan; Reichmann, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED), is a common movement disorder characterised by an uncontrollable urge to move because of uncomfortable, sometimes painful sensations in the legs with a diurnal variation and a release with movement. The pathophysiology is only partially known and a genetic component together with dopaminergic and brain iron dysregulation plays an important role. Secondary causes for RLS need to be excluded. Treatment depends on the severity and frequency of RLS symptoms, comprises non-pharmacological (eg lifestyle changes) and pharmacological interventions (eg dopaminergic medication, alpha-2-delta calcium channel ligands, opioids) and relieves symptoms only. Augmentation is the main complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of RLS. This article will provide a clinically useful overview of RLS with provision of diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, possible investigations and different treatment strategies with their associated complications. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  9. Restless legs syndrome in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorayeb, Imad; Dupouy, Sandrine; Tison, François; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the frequency of restless legs syndrome in 30 patients with multiple system atrophy. Eight patients complained from restless legs syndrome, their severity score was 19.4 ± 4.1. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly higher in patients with restless legs syndrome than those without (9.3 ± 3.7 vs. 4.8 ± 2.9, p = 0.00165). Periodic limb movements were found in 75% of patients with restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome is more prevalent in multiple system atrophy as compared to the acknowledged prevalence in the general population.

  10. Anticipatory control of center of mass and joint stability during voluntary arm movement from a standing posture: interplay between active and passive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patla, Aftab E; Ishac, Milad G; Winter, David A

    2002-04-01

    Anticipatory control of upright posture is the focus of this study that combines experimental and modeling work. Individuals were asked to raise or lower their arms from two initial postures such that the final posture of the arm was at 90 degrees with respect to the body. Holding different weights in the hand varied the magnitude of perturbation to postural stability generated by the arm movement. Whole body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured. Inverse dynamic analysis was used to determine the internal joint moments at the shoulder, hip, knee and ankle, and reaction forces at the shoulder. Center of mass (COM) of the arm, posture (rest of the body without the arms) and whole body (net COM) were also determined. Changes in joint moment at the hip, knee and ankle revealed a significant effect of the direction of movement. The polarities of the joint moment response were appropriate for joint stabilization. Net COM change showed a systematic effect of the direction of movement even though the arm COM was displaced by the same amount and in the same direction for both arm raising and lowering conditions. In order to determine the effects of the passive forces and moments on the posture COM, the body was modeled as an inverted pendulum. The model was customized for each participant; the relevant model parameters were estimated from data obtained from each trial. The ankle joint stiffness and viscosity were adjusted to ensure postural equilibrium prior to arm movement. Joint reactive forces and moments generated by the arm movements were applied at the shoulder level of this inverted pendulum; these were the only inputs and no active control was included. The posture COM profile from the model simulation was calculated. Results show that simulated posture COM profile and measured posture COM profile are identical for about 200 ms following the onset of arm movement and then they deviate. Therefore, the initial control of COM is passive in nature and the

  11. Muscle activity in the lower limbs during push-down movement with a new active-exercise apparatus for the leg

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Kenta; Kamada, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Aikawa, Shizu; Irie, Shun; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Sakane, Masataka; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Lower-limb deep vein thrombosis is a complication of orthopedic surgery. A leg-exercise apparatus named “LEX” was developed as a novel active-exercise apparatus for deep vein thrombosis prevention. Muscle activity was evaluated to assess the effectiveness of exercise with LEX in the prevention. [Subjects] Eight healthy volunteers participated in this study. [Methods] Muscle activities were determined through electromyography during exercise with LEX [LEX (+)] and during active ankle...

  12. Physiology of psychogenic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) are common, but their physiology is largely unknown. In most situations, the movement is involuntary, but in a minority, when the disorder is malingering or factitious, the patient is lying and the movement is voluntary. Physiologically, we cannot tell the difference between voluntary and involuntary. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) is indicative of certain brain mechanisms for generating movement, and is seen with ordinarily voluntary movements, but by itself does not indicate that a movement is voluntary. There are good clinical neurophysiological methods available to determine whether myoclonus or tremor is a PMD. For example, psychogenic myoclonus generally has a BP, and psychogenic stimulus-sensitive myoclonus has a variable latency with times similar to normal reaction times. Psychogenic tremor will have variable frequency over time, be synchronous in the two arms, and might well be entrained with voluntary rhythmic movements. These facts suggest that PMDs share voluntary mechanisms for movement production. There are no definitive tests to differentiate psychogenic dystonia from organic dystonia, although one has been recently reported. Similar physiological abnormalities are seen in both groups. The question arises as to how a movement can be produced with voluntary mechanisms, but not be considered voluntary.

  13. [Restless legs syndrome - a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur Arni; Sigurdsson, Albert Pall

    2012-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder with a prevalence between 10-20% in Iceland. There are two forms of RLS, idiopathic and secondary. Symptom onset of RLS before the age of 45 suggests an idiopathic form with no known underlying cause but inheritance. Symptom onset after age of 45 indicates a secondary form with an underlying cause without inheritance. Causes for secondary forms are for example: iron depletion, uraemia and polyneuropathy. Symptoms of RLS are uncomfortable and unpleasant deep sensations in the legs that are felt at rest, accompanied by an urge to move the legs, typically just before sleep. Accompanying RLS is a sleep disturbance that can lead to daytime somnolence, decreased quality of life, poor concentration, memory problems, depression and decreased energy. Dopamine agonists are currently the first line treatment for RLS. restless legs, periodic limb movements, sleep disturbance, dopamine agonists.

  14. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  15. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  16. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  17. [Mechanical stimulation of soles' support zones: non-invasive method of activation of generators of stepping movements in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilovskaia, E S; Moshonkina, T R; Gorodnichev, R M; Shigueva, T A; Zakirova, A Z; Pivovarova, E A; Savokhin, A A; Selionov, V A; Semenov, Iu S; Brevnov, V V; Kitov, V V; Gerasimenko, Iu P; Kozlovskaia, I B

    2013-01-01

    The effects of mechanical stimulation of the soles' support zones in regimens of slow and fastwalking (75 and 120 steps per minute) were studied using the model of supportlessness (legs suspension). 20 healthy subjects participated in the study. EMG activity of hip and shin muscles was recorded. Kinematic of leg movements was assessed with the use of videoanalysis system. Support stimulation was followed by leg movements in 80% of cases, in 53% it was a locomotion-like movement. EMG bursts accompanied the movements. Involvement order and alteration of bursts in muscles were similar to voluntary walking. EMG activity occurred with a delay of 5.17 ± 1.08 seconds for hip muscles and 14.01 ± 2.82 seconds for shin muscles, frequency of bursts differed from stimulation frequency. Support stimulation was followed by leg movements in 80% of cases, in 53% of which they had characteristics of locomotions being accompanied by the burst-like electromyographic activities. Involvement order of the leg muscles and organization of antagonistic muscles activities were analogous to that of voluntary walking. The latencies of electromyographic activity in hip muscles composed 5.17 ± 1.083 s and 14.01 ± 2.82 s - for shin muscles, frequency of bursts differed significantly from stimulation frequency. In 31% of cases the electromyographical activity following the stimulation of the soles' support zones was not burst-like. Its amplitude rose smoothly reaching a certain level that was subsequently maintained. Results of the study showed that soles' support zones stimulation in regimen of locomotion can activate a locomotor generator and that effect evoked by this stimulation includes not only rhythmical but also non-rhythmical (probably postural) components of walking.

  18. The validity of the PAM-RL device for evaluating periodic limb movements in sleep and an investigation on night-to-night variability of periodic limb movements during sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder using this system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mina; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Eiki; Nishida, Shingo; Nakamura, Masaki; Ueki, Yoichiro; Furudate, Naomichi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Usui, Akira; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The status of night-to-night variability for periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) has not been clarified. With this in mind, we investigated the validity of PLMS measurement by actigraphy with the PAM-RL device in Japanese patients with suspected restless legs syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and the night-to-night variability of PLMS among the subjects. Forty-one subjects (mean age, 52.1±16.1 years) underwent polysomnography (PSG) and PAM-RL measurement simultaneously. Thereafter, subjects used the PAM-RL at home on four more consecutive nights. The correlation between PLMS index on PSG (PLMSI-PSG) and PLM index on PAM-RL (PLMI-PAM) was 0.781 (P<.001). When the PLMSI cutoff value on PSG was set at 15 episodes per hour, the cutoff value for predicting this PLMSI level was 16.0 episodes per hour. When the condition was set to the level in which the mean interclass correlation coefficient reached ≥0.9, the number of required nights for repeated measurements was 26 nights for subjects with PLMI of <15 episodes per hour and three nights for those with PLMI ≥15 episodes per hour on PAM-RL. PAM-RL is thought to be valuable for assessing PLMS even in Japanese subjects. Recording of PAM-RL for three or more consecutive nights may be required to ensure the screening reliability of a patient with suspected pathologically frequent PLMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence of residual force enhancement for multi-joint leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Susanne; Schweizer, Katrin; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2010-05-28

    Force enhancement is a well accepted property of skeletal muscle and has been observed at all structural levels ranging from single myofibrils to voluntarily activated m. quadriceps femoris in vivo. However, force enhancement has not been studied for multi-joint movements like human leg extension; therefore knowledge about its relevance in daily living remains limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is force enhancement during maximal voluntary multi-joint leg extension. Human leg extension was studied (n=22) on a motor driven leg press dynamometer where external reaction forces under the feet as well as activity of 8 lower extremity muscles were measured. In addition, torque in the ankle and knee joints was calculated using inverse dynamics. The steady-state isometric force, joint torques, and muscle activation after active stretch (20 degrees stretch amplitude at 60 degrees/s) were compared with the corresponding values obtained during isometric reference contractions. There was consistent force enhancement during and following stretch for both forces and joint torques. Potentiation during stretch reached values between 26% and 30%, while a significant force enhancement of 10.5-12.3% and 4.3-7.4% remained 0.5-1 and 2.5-3s after stretch, respectively. During stretch, EMG signals of m. gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis were significantly increased, while following stretch all analyzed muscles showed the same activity as during the reference contractions. We conclude from these results that force enhancement exists in everyday movements and should be accounted for when analyzing or modelling human movement.

  20. Sensory signals of unloading in one leg follow stance onset in another leg: transfer of load and emergent coordination in cockroach walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Keller, Bridget R; Duke, Elizabeth R

    2009-05-01

    The transfer of load from one leg to another is an essential component in walking, but sense organs that signal this process have rarely been identified. We used high-speed digital imaging and neurophysiological recordings to characterize activities of tibial campaniform sensilla, receptors that detect forces via cuticular strains, in the middle legs of cockroaches during walking. Previous studies demonstrated that the distal tibial sensilla discharge when body load is suddenly decreased in freely standing animals. Sensory recordings during walking showed that distal receptors in the middle leg fired an intense burst near the end of the stance phase. We tested the hypothesis that initiation of distal firing resulted from the action of other legs entering stance. Analysis of leg movements in slow walking showed that sensory bursts in the middle leg closely followed stance onset of the ipsilateral hind leg while the ipsilateral front leg entered stance earlier in phase. Similar phases of leg movement were found in slow walking in experiments in which animals had no implanted recording wires. Those studies also demonstrated that the opposite middle leg entered stance earlier in phase. Measurements of leg positions in walking showed that the hind leg tarsus was placed closest to the middle leg, in keeping with a "targeting" strategy. Triggering of distal bursts in the middle leg by mechanical action of the hind leg could facilitate the onset of swing in the middle leg through local reflex effects and contribute to emergent coordination of leg movements in metachronal gaits.

  1. Cardiovascular responses to voluntary and nonvoluntary static exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D B; Peel, C; Mitchell, J H

    1992-11-01

    We have measured the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and nonvoluntary (electrically induced) one-leg static exercise in humans. Eight normal subjects were studied at rest and during 5 min of static leg extension at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction performed voluntarily and nonvoluntarily in random order. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac output (CO) were determined, and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and stroke volume (SV) were calculated. HR increased from approximately 65 +/- 3 beats/min at rest to 80 +/- 4 and 78 +/- 6 beats/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. CO increased from 5.1 +/- 0.7 to 6.0 +/- 0.8 and 6.2 +/- 0.8 l/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. PVR and SV did not change significantly during voluntary or nonvoluntary contractions. Thus the cardiovascular responses were not different between voluntary and electrically induced contractions. These results suggest that the increases in CO, HR, SV, MAP, and PVR during 5 min of static contractions can be elicited without any contribution from a central neural mechanism (central command). However, central command could still have an important role during voluntary static exercise.

  2. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror mov...

  3. Movement analysis in neonates with spina bifida aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A; Brouwer, O F; Bruggink, J L M; Vles, J S H; Staal-Schreinemachers, A L; Sollie, K M; Sauer, P J J; Bos, A F

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In neonates with spina bifida aperta (SBA), leg movements by myotomes caudal to the meningomyelocele (MMC) are transiently observed. It is unclear whether these leg movements relate to functional neural conduction through the MMC. For optimal therapeutical intervention, pathophysiologi

  4. Movement analysis in neonates with spina bifida aperta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sival, D A; Brouwer, O F; Bruggink, J L M; Vles, J S H; Staal-Schreinemachers, A L; Sollie, K M; Sauer, P J J; Bos, A F

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In neonates with spina bifida aperta (SBA), leg movements by myotomes caudal to the meningomyelocele (MMC) are transiently observed. It is unclear whether these leg movements relate to functional neural conduction through the MMC. For optimal therapeutical intervention, pathophysiologi

  5. Influence of Exercise-induced Fatigue on Brain Activity during Voluntary Movement%运动疲劳对大脑随意运动控制的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯莉娟; 宋争; 于勇; 朱凌泽; 王君

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察运动疲劳前后,随意运动执行阶段脑区激活情况,探讨运动疲劳中枢调控的机制。方法:采用全脑功能磁共振成像(fMRI)技术,在7名健康男性大学生一次性功率自行车力竭运动前后,进行手握拳运动阶段大脑功能活动的扫描。数据经过头动校正、空间标准化、高斯平滑等预处理后,通过相关分析获得随意运动阶段脑激活图,采用SPM软件对参与随意运动的脑区进行解剖定位,并对运动疲劳前后参与调控的脑区进行配对样本t检验组间分析,寻找激活程度发生变化的脑区。结果:运动疲劳前后非利手执行握拳随意运动时大脑激活位点分别包括对侧初级感觉运动区、双侧运动前区、辅助运动区、小脑、丘脑、岛叶、纹状体及苍白球等,激活位点没有显著差别。但运动疲劳前激活程度显著高于运动疲劳后的脑区包括同侧基底神经节的丘脑和纹状体。利手执行握拳随意运动时大脑激活位点及激活量没有显著差异。结论:运动疲劳对参与随意运动控制的脑区位点没有显著的影响,但是同侧基底神经节的纹状体和丘脑参与调控的激活程度发生显著变化。%Objective: Investigating the brain activity during hand voluntary movements before and after exercise-induced fatigue,and discussing the related central mechanism.Method: Seven healthy male volunteers recruited from university were scanned before and after exhaustive bicycling exercise while performing the visually instructive movement tasks with their right and left hands.Image datasets were spatially normalized according to the standard coordinate,and spatially smoothed with isotopic Guassian Kernel.Statistical parametric maps(activation maps) for left hand and difference active brain areas were found respectively by cross-correlation analysis.Result: Non-dominant hand movement before and after fatigue exercise mainly

  6. The Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder in Adults—An Update for 2012: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Rowley, James A.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Lamm, Carin I.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Rosenberg, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed to update the previous AASM practice parameters on the treatments, both dopaminergic and other, of RLS and PLMD. A considerable amount of literature has been published since these previous reviews were performed, necessitating an update of the corresponding practice parameters. Therapies with a STANDARD level of recommendation include pramipexole and ropinirole. Therapies with a GUIDELINE level of recommendation include levodopa with dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, opioids, gabapentin enacarbil, and cabergoline (which has additional caveats for use). Therapies with an OPTION level of recommendation include carbamazepine, gabapentin, pregabalin, clonidine, and for patients with low ferritin levels, iron supplementation. The committee recommends a STANDARD AGAINST the use of pergolide because of the risks of heart valve damage. Therapies for RLS secondary to ESRD, neuropathy, and superficial venous insufficiency are discussed. Lastly, therapies for PLMD are reviewed. However, it should be mentioned that because PLMD therapy typically mimics RLS therapy, the primary focus of this review is therapy for idiopathic RLS. Citation: Aurora RN; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Rowley JA: Zak RS; Casey KR; Lamm CI; Tracy SL; Rosenberg RS. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults—an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1039-1062. PMID:22851801

  7. [Restless-legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karroum, E; Konofal, E; Arnulf, I

    2008-01-01

    Restless-legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movements and is exacerbated or occurs at night and in the evening. RLS sufferers represent 2 to 3% of the general population in Western countries. Supportive criteria include a family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. The RLS phenotypes include an early onset form, usually idiopathic with a familial history and a late onset form, usually secondary to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, an atypical RLS phenotype without PLM and l-DOPA resistant has been characterized. RLS can occur in childhood and should be distinguished from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, growing pains and sleep complaints in childhood. RLS should be included in the diagnosis of all patients consulting for sleep complaints or discomfort in the lower limbs. It should be differentiated from akathisia, that is, an urge to move the whole body without uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test can detect PLM. Furthermore, an l-DOPA challenge has recently been validated to support the diagnosis of RLS. RLS may cause severe-sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In most cases, RLS is idiopathic. It may also be secondary to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drugs, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. The small-fiber neuropathy can mimic RLS or even trigger it. RLS is associated with many neurological and sleep disorders including Parkinson's disease, but does not predispose to these diseases. The pathophysiology of RLS includes an altered brain

  8. MIRROR MOVEMENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA. Momen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movement is an interesting but often overlooked neurological soft sign;these movements are described as simultaneous contralateral, involuntary, identical movements that accompany voluntary movements. This neurologic problem is very rarely seen in children; in familial cases there is a positive history of these movements in parents, diminishing with time. Here, we have presented the case of an 11-year old girl with mirror movements in her upper limbs which interfered with her hand writing. Her neurological examination revealed normal results. In this report, we have tried to explain some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms related to these abnormal movements.Keywords:Mirror Movements, Children, Soft neurologic sign

  9. Isokinetic leg strength and power in elite handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-06-28

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players.

  10. Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Into Relieved Are you experiencing symptoms linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS)? Find tools and support to help get ... I couldn’t sleep. Fortunately, I found the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation and learned what type of doctor to ...

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Teens, Men, WomenTags: neurological disorders, restless legs syndrome, RLS, sitting, sleep disorders, sleeping, uncomfortable feeling in legs at rest Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Women November ...

  12. A Terradynamics of Legged Locomotion on Granular Media

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1126/science.1229163

    2013-01-01

    The theories of aero- and hydrodynamics predict animal movement and device design in air and water through the computation of lift, drag, and thrust forces. Although models of terrestrial legged locomotion have focused on interactions with solid ground, many animals move on substrates that flow in response to intrusion. However, locomotor-ground interaction models on such flowable ground are often unavailable. We developed a force model for arbitrarily-shaped legs and bodies moving freely in granular media, and used this "terradynamics" to predict a small legged robot's locomotion on granular media using various leg shapes and stride frequencies. Our study reveals a complex but generic dependence of stresses in granular media on intruder depth, orientation, and movement direction and gives insight into the effects of leg morphology and kinematics on movement.

  13. Long-term paired associative stimulation can restore voluntary control over paralyzed muscles in incomplete chronic spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, Anastasia; Lioumis, Pantelis; Zubareva, Aleksandra; Brandstack, Nina; Kuusela, Linda; Kirveskari, Erika; Savolainen, Sarianna; Ylinen, Aarne; Mäkelä, Jyrki P

    2016-01-01

    Emerging therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury aim at sparing or restoring at least part of the corticospinal tract at the acute stage. Hence, approaches that strengthen the weak connections that are spared or restored are crucial. Transient plastic changes in the human corticospinal tract can be induced through paired associative stimulation, a noninvasive technique in which transcranial magnetic brain stimulation is synchronized with electrical peripheral nerve stimulation. A single paired associative stimulation session can induce transient plasticity in spinal cord injury patients. It is not known whether paired associative stimulation can strengthen neuronal connections persistently and have therapeutic effects that are clinically relevant. We recruited two patients with motor-incomplete chronic (one para- and one tetraplegic) spinal cord injuries. The patients received paired associative stimulation for 20-24 weeks. The paraplegic patient, previously paralyzed below the knee level, regained plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the ankles of both legs. The tetraplegic patient regained grasping ability. The newly acquired voluntary movements could be performed by the patients in the absence of stimulation and for at least 1 month after the last stimulation session. In this unblinded proof-of-principle demonstration in two subjects, long-term paired associative stimulation induced persistent and clinically relevant strengthening of neural connections and restored voluntary movement in previously paralyzed muscles. Further study is needed to confirm whether long-term paired associative stimulation can be used in rehabilitation after spinal cord injury by itself and, possibly, in combination with other therapeutic strategies.

  14. Knee and ankle joint torque-angle relationships of multi-joint leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Daniel; Olvermann, Matthias; Richtberg, Jan; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2011-07-28

    The force-length-relation (F-l-r) is an important property of skeletal muscle to characterise its function, whereas for in vivo human muscles, torque-angle relationships (T-a-r) represent the maximum muscular capacity as a function of joint angle. However, since in vivo force/torque-length data is only available for rotational single-joint movements the purpose of the present study was to identify torque-angle-relationships for multi-joint leg extension. Therefore, inverse dynamics served for calculation of ankle and knee joint torques of 18 male subjects when performing maximum voluntary isometric contractions in a seated leg press. Measurements in increments of 10° knee angle from 30° to 100° knee flexion resulted in eight discrete angle configurations of hip, knee and ankle joints. For the knee joint we found an ascending-descending T-a-r with a maximum torque of 289.5° ± 43.3 Nm, which closely matches literature data from rotational knee extension. In comparison to literature we observed a shift of optimum knee angle towards knee extension. In contrast, the T-a-r of the ankle joint vastly differed from relationships obtained for isolated plantar flexion. For the ankle T-a-r derived from multi-joint leg extension subjects operated over different sections of the force-length curve, but the ankle T-a-r derived from isolated joint efforts was over the ascending limb for all subjects. Moreover, mean maximum torque of 234.7 ± 56.6 Nm exceeded maximal strength of isolated plantar flexion (185.7 ± 27.8 Nm). From these findings we conclude that muscle function between isolated and more physiological multi-joint tasks differs. This should be considered for ergonomic and sports optimisation as well as for modelling and simulation of human movement.

  15. Bilateral Reflex Fluctuations during Rhythmic Movement of Remote Limb Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzarane, Rinaldo A.; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Zehr, E. Paul

    2017-01-01

    The modulation of spinal cord excitability during rhythmic limb movement reflects the neuronal coordination underlying actions of the arms and legs. Integration of network activity in the spinal cord can be assessed by reflex variability between the limbs, an approach so far very little studied. The present work addresses this question by eliciting Hoffmann (H-) reflexes in both limbs to assess if common drive onto bilateral pools of motoneurons influence spinal cord excitability simultaneously or with a delay between sides. A cross-covariance (CCV) sequence between reflexes in both arms or legs was evaluated under conditions providing common drive bilaterally through voluntary muscle contraction and/or rhythmic movement of the remote limbs. For H-reflexes in the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscle, either contraction of the FCR or leg cycling induced significant reduction in the amplitude of the peak at the zero lag in the CCV sequence, indicating independent variations in spinal excitability between both sides. In contrast, for H-reflexes in the soleus (SO) muscle, arm cycling revealed no reduction in the amplitude of the peak in the CCV sequence at the zero lag. This suggests a more independent control of the arms compared with the legs. These results provide new insights into the organization of human limb control in rhythmic activity and the behavior of bilateral reflex fluctuations under different motor tasks. From a functional standpoint, changes in the co-variability might reflect dynamic adjustments in reflex excitability that are subsumed under more global control features during locomotion. PMID:28725191

  16. Restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovallath S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sujith Ovallath, P DeepaJames Parkinson's Movement Disorder Research Centre, Kannur Medical College, Kerala, IndiaBackground: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a common sleep-related disorder characterized by abnormal sensation and an urge to move the lower limbs. Symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Although the exact etiopathogenesis of RLS remains elusive, the rapid improvement of symptoms with dopaminergic agents suggests that dopaminergic system dysfunction may be a basic mechanism. Dopaminergic agents are the best-studied agents, and are considered first-line treatment of RLS.Objective: To review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and the treatment options of RLS.Methods: The suggestions are based on evidence from studies published in peer-reviewed journals, or upon a comprehensive review of the medical literature.Results/conclusion: Extensive data are available for proving the link between the dopaminergic system and RLS. A possible genetic link also has been studied extensively. Dopamine agonists, especially pramipexole and ropinirole, are particularly useful in the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should however be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life.Keywords: dopamine, levodopa, pramipexole

  17. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  18. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  19. Brain-imaging during an isometric leg extension task at graded intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera eAbeln

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Imaging the brain during complex and intensive movements is challenging due to the susceptibility of brain-imaging methods for motion and myogenic artifacts. A few studies measured brain activity during either single-joint or low-intensity exercises; however, the cortical activation state during larger movements with increases up to maximal intensity has barely been investigated so far. Eleven right-handed volunteers (22-45 years in age performed isometric leg extensions with their right leg at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Contractions were hold for 20 seconds respectively. Electroencephalographic (EEG and electromyographic (EMG activity was recorded. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA was used to localize the cortical current density within the premotor (PMC, primary motor (M1, primary somatosensory (S1 and somatosensory association cortex (SAC. ANOVA was used for repeated measures for comparison of intensities and between the left and right hemispheres.The quality of the EEG signal was satisfying up to 80% intensity. At 100% half of the participants were not able to keep their neck and face muscles relaxed, leading to myogenic artifacts. Higher contralateral versus ipsilateral hemispheric activity was found for the S1, SAC and PMC. M1 possessed higher ipsilateral activity. The highest activity was localized in the M1, followed by S1, PMC and SAC. EMG activity and cortical current density within the M1 increased with exercise intensity. EEG recordings during bigger movements up to submaximal intensity (80% are possible, but maximal intensities are still hard to investigate when subjects contracted their neck and face muscles at the same time. Isometric contractions mainly involve the M1, whereas the S1, PMC and SAC seem not to be involved in the force output. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

  20. Brain-imaging during an isometric leg extension task at graded intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeln, Vera; Harig, Alexandra; Knicker, Axel; Vogt, Tobias; Schneider, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Imaging the brain during complex and intensive movements is challenging due to the susceptibility of brain-imaging methods for motion and myogenic artifacts. A few studies measured brain activity during either single-joint or low-intensity exercises; however, the cortical activation state during larger movements with increases up to maximal intensity has barely been investigated so far. Eleven right-handed volunteers (22-45 years in age) performed isometric leg extensions with their right leg at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Contractions were hold for 20 s respectively. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used to localize the cortical current density within the premotor (PMC), primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and somatosensory association cortex (SAC). ANOVA was used for repeated measures for comparison of intensities and between the left and right hemispheres. The quality of the EEG signal was satisfying up to 80% intensity. At 100% half of the participants were not able to keep their neck and face muscles relaxed, leading to myogenic artifacts. Higher contralateral vs. ipsilateral hemispheric activity was found for the S1, SAC and, PMC. M1 possessed higher ipsilateral activity. The highest activity was localized in the M1, followed by S1, PMC, and SAC. EMG activity and cortical current density within the M1 increased with exercise intensity. EEG recordings during bigger movements up to submaximal intensity (80%) are possible, but maximal intensities are still hard to investigate when subjects contracted their neck and face muscles at the same time. Isometric contractions mainly involve the M1, whereas the S1, PMC, and SAC seem not to be involved in the force output. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

  1. Influence of temporal pressure on anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral stability during rapid leg flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, E; Hussein, T; Larue, J

    2012-03-01

    During leg flexion from erect posture, postural stability along the medio-lateral direction is organized in advance during "anticipatory postural adjustments" (APAs). This study aimed to investigate the influence of temporal pressure on this anticipatory postural control of medio-lateral stability. Eight young healthy participants performed series of leg flexions (1) as soon as possible in response to an acoustic signal (reaction-time condition; condition with temporal pressure) and (2) in a self-initiated condition (no temporal pressure). Results showed that APAs duration was shorter in the reaction-time condition as compared to the self-initiated condition; this shortening was compensated by an increase in the medio-lateral center-of-pressure displacement so that the dynamic stability reached at foot-off, as measured by the "extrapolated center-of-mass", remained unchanged. It is concluded that when a complex task is performed under temporal pressure, the central nervous system is able to modulate the spatio-temporal features of APAs in a way to both hasten the initiation of the voluntary movement and maintain optimal conditions of dynamic stability. In other words, it seems that the central nervous system does not "trade off optimal stability for speed of movement initiation under reaction-time condition", as it had been proposed in the literature.

  2. On the relevance of residual force enhancement for everyday human movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiberl, Wolfgang; Paternoster, Florian; Achatz, Florian; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Hahn, Daniel

    2013-08-09

    Although residual force enhancement (RFE), i.e. enhanced force after active muscle stretch, is shown to be present in voluntarily activated human muscles, its relevance for everyday human movement is still elusive. Natural human motion is mainly composed of voluntarily submaximally activated muscle contractions driving coordinated multi-joint movements. Up to now there has been no study that directly investigated the presence of RFE following stretch when performing a submaximal multi-joint movement. For this purpose, n=13 subjects performed feedback controlled bilateral leg extensions at the level of 30% maximum voluntary activation in a motor-driven leg press dynamometer. Isometric-eccentric-isometric and purely isometric contractions were arranged in a randomized experimental protocol. Kinematics, forces and muscular activity were measured using optical motion tracking, 3d force plates and EMG of 9 lower extremity muscles. ANOVA identified significant RFE of external reaction force, and knee extension and plantar flexion torque (calculated by inverse dynamics). Enhanced force and torque ranged between 3% and 22% and was present for up to 22s post-stretch. In spite of motor redundancy for solving a given task, no differences between contraction conditions were observed for any of the analyzed muscles, except for tibialis anterior. On the basis of our results, RFE is present in everyday alike human movement and might be an evolutionary optimization mechanism to enhance muscular performance at a given amount of energetic effort.

  3. Repeatability of maximal voluntary force and of surface EMG variables during voluntary isometric contraction of quadriceps muscles in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainoldi, A; Bullock-Saxton, J E; Cavarretta, F; Hogan, N

    2001-12-01

    The repeatability of initial values and rate of change of EMG signal mean spectral frequency (MNF), average rectified values (ARV), muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was investigated in the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of both legs of nine healthy male subjects during voluntary, isometric contractions sustained for 50 s at 50% MVC. The values of MVC were recorded for both legs three times on each day and for three subsequent days, while the EMG signals have been recorded twice a day for three subsequent days. The degree of repeatability was investigated using the Fisher test based upon the ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA), the Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Data collected showed a high level of repeatability of MVC measurement (normalized SEM from 1.1% to 6.4% of the mean). MNF and ARV initial values also showed a high level of repeatability (ICC>70% for all muscles and legs except right VMO). At 50% MVC level no relevant pattern of fatigue was observed for the VMO and VL muscles, suggesting that other portions of the quadriceps might have contributed to the generated effort. These observations seem to suggest that in the investigation of muscles belonging to a multi-muscular group at submaximal level, the more selective electrically elicited contractions should be preferred to voluntary contractions.

  4. Epilepsy and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, James D; Geyer, Emery E; Fetterman, Zachary; Carney, Paul R

    2017-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological movement disorder occurring in approximately 10% of the general population. The prevalence of moderately severe RLS is 2.7% overall (3.7% for women and 1.7% for men). Epilepsy is also a common neurological disorder with significant associated morbidity and impact on quality of life. We evaluated the severity and frequency of primary RLS in patients with localization-related temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and investigated the role of prodromal RLS symptoms as a warning sign and lateralizing indicator. All epilepsy patients seen in the outpatient clinic were screened for movement disorders from 2005 to 2015. Ninety-eight consecutive patients with localization-related TLE (50 right TLE and 48 left TLE) who met inclusion criteria were seen in the outpatient clinic. The control group consisted of 50 individuals with no history or immediate family history of epilepsy. Each patient was evaluated with the International Restless Legs Study Group (IRLSSG) questionnaire, NIH RLS diagnostic criteria, ferritin level, and comprehensive sleep screening including polysomnography. Furthermore, patients with obstructive sleep apnea or a definite cause of secondary restless legs syndrome such as low serum ferritin or serum iron levels were also excluded from the study. There was a significant association between the type of epilepsy and whether or not patients had RLS χ(2) (1)=10.17, prestlessness was typically described as moderately severe. The RLS symptoms were more common and somewhat more severe in the right TLE group than the left TLE group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Molecular Genetics of Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, David B

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor trait defined by symptoms that interfere with sleep onset and maintenance in a clinically meaningful way. Nonvolitional myoclonus while awake and asleep is a sign of the disorder and an informative endophenotype. The genetic contributions to RLS/periodic leg movements are substantial, are among the most robust defined to date for a common disease, and account for much of the variance in disease expressivity. The disorder is polygenic, as revealed by recent genome-wide association studies. Experimental studies are revealing mechanistic details of how these common variants might influence RLS expressivity.

  6. Interaction of poststroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Nathaniel; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may be able to augment functional arm and hand movement after stroke. Poststroke neuroprostheses that incorporate voluntary effort and FES to produce the desired movement must consider how forces generated by voluntary effort and FES combine, even in the same muscle, in order to provide an appropriate level of stimulation to elicit the desired assistive force. The goal of this study was to determine whether the force produced by voluntary effort and FES add together independently of effort or whether the increment in force depends on the level of voluntary effort. Isometric force matching tasks were performed under different combinations of voluntary effort and FES. Participants reached a steady level of force, and while attempting to maintain a constant effort level, FES was applied to augment the force. Results indicate that the increment in force produced by FES decreases as the level of initial voluntary effort increases. Potential mechanisms causing the change in force output are proposed, but the relative contribution of each mechanism is unknown.

  7. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  8. A Dung Beetle-like Leg and its Adaptive Neural Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Canio, Giuliano; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetles show fascinating locomotion abilities. They can use their legs to not only walk but also manipulate objects. Furthermore, they can perform their leg movements at a proper frequency with respect to their biomechanical properties and quickly adapt the movements to deal with external pe...

  9. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der Jaap H.; Velthuis, Wubbe J.R.; Veltink, Peter H.; Vries, de Theo J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  10. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  11. Test of Gravel to South Leg - Siri Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    A grout connection between one of the legs of the offshore platform, Siri, and a water caisson at the seabed is failed. The failure leaves a gap in the grout connection meaning that the stiffness of the connection is disappeared resulting in movements of the platform. These movements cause cracks...

  12. Dimensional synthesis of a leg mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.

  13. Force-directed design of a voluntary closing hand prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, H.; Herder, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a body-powered voluntary closing prosthetic hand. It is argued that the movement of the fingers before establishing a grip is much less relevant for good control of the object held than the distribution of forces once the object has been contacted. Based on this not

  14. Leg 179 summary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pettigrew, T.J.; Casey, J.F.; Miller, D.J.; Araki, E.; Boissonnas, R.; Busby, R.; Einaudi, F.; Gerdom, M.; Guo, Z.P.; Hopkins, H.; Myers, G.; Rao, D.G.; Shibata, T.; Thy, P.

    Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 179 set out with two primary objectives. These objectives were (1) testing the recently developed hammer drill-in casing system on the Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and (2) drilling a cased reentry...

  15. RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Valer'evich Artem'ev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Recommendations are given how to choose therapeutic modalities and drugs in relation to different factors.

  16. Passive mechanical properties of legs from running insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Daniel M; Full, Robert J

    2006-04-01

    While the dynamics of running arthropods have been modeled as a spring-mass system, no such structures have been discovered that store and return energy during bouncing. The hindleg of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis is a good candidate for a passive, vertical leg spring because its vertically oriented joint axes of rotation limit the possibility of active movements and contributions of muscle properties. We oscillated passive legs while measuring force to determine the leg's dynamic, mechanical properties. The relative dimensionless stiffness of an individual cockroach leg was equal to that estimated for a single leg of a biped or quadruped. Leg resilience ranged from 60 to 75%, affording the possibility that the leg could function as a spring to store and return the mechanical energy required to lift and accelerate the center of mass. Because hysteresis was independent of oscillation frequency, we rejected the use of a Voigt model - a simple spring in parallel with a viscous damper. A hysteretic damping model fit the cockroach leg force-displacement data over a wide range of frequencies and displacement using just two parameters. Rather than simply acting as a spring to minimize energy, we hypothesize that legs must manage both energy storage and absorption for rapid running to be most effective.

  17. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Dixit, Puneet Kumar; Lalla, Rakesh; Singh, Babita

    2015-01-01

    Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand. PMID:26019431

  18. Mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movements are simultaneous, involuntary, identical movements occurring during contralateral voluntary movements. These movements are considered as soft neurologic signs seen uncommonly in clinical practice. The mirror movements are described in various neurological disorders which include parkinsonism, cranio veretebral junction anamolies, and hemiplegic cerebral palsy. These movements are intriguing and can pose significant disability. However, no such observation regarding mirror movements in progressive hemifacial atrophy have been reported previously. We are reporting a teenage girl suffering from progressive hemifacial atrophy and epilepsy with demonstrable mirror movements in hand.

  19. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-ying Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Painful legs and moving toes syndrome (PLMT is a rare movement disorder with low diagnostic rate, which is characterized by lower limb pain with involuntary movements of feet or toes. Etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is still unclear. Patients have different clinical manifestations, so the diagnosis is difficult. Treatment methods for PLMT are numerous, but so far the treatment of this disease is still a major challenge for clinicians. Further research is still needed to guide clinical work. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.013

  20. Voluntary Simplicity: A Lifestyle Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This guide provides practical ideas for incorporating the concept of voluntary simplicity into home economics classes. Discussed in the first chapter are the need to study voluntary simplicity, its potential contributions to home economics, and techniques and a questionnaire for measuring student attitudes toward the concept. The remaining…

  1. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  2. Voluntary reaction time and long-latency reflex modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgaard, Christopher J; Franks, Ian M; Maslovat, Dana; Chin, Laurence; Chua, Romeo

    2015-12-01

    Stretching a muscle of the upper limb elicits short (M1) and long-latency (M2) reflexes. When the participant is instructed to actively compensate for a perturbation, M1 is usually unaffected and M2 increases in size and is followed by the voluntary response. It remains unclear if the observed increase in M2 is due to instruction-dependent gain modulation of the contributing reflex mechanism(s) or results from voluntary response superposition. The difficulty in delineating between these alternatives is due to the overlap between the voluntary response and the end of M2. The present study manipulated response accuracy and complexity to delay onset of the voluntary response and observed the corresponding influence on electromyographic activity during the M2 period. In all active conditions, M2 was larger compared with a passive condition where participants did not respond to the perturbation; moreover, these changes in M2 began early in the appearance of the response (∼ 50 ms), too early to be accounted for by voluntary overlap. Voluntary response latency influenced the latter portion of M2, with the largest activity seen when accuracy of limb position was not specified. However, when participants aimed for targets of different sizes or performed movements of various complexities, reaction time differences did not influence M2 period activity, suggesting voluntary activity was sufficiently delayed. Collectively, our results show that while a perturbation applied to the upper limbs can trigger a voluntary response at short latency (reflex gain modulation remains an important contributor to EMG changes during the M2 period. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Toward voluntary parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S

    2000-06-01

    David Lykken's proposal to license married parents for child rearing, and to deny the same opportunity to single and inept parents, springs from his deep concern for millions of youngsters cruelly subjected to abusive and neglectful rearing circumstances. Children from such inadequate homes grow up to have high rates of school failure, criminality, and drug addiction. The problem is clear, but Lykken's remedies of mandated marriage and parental licensure are unacceptable in U.S. society, where our reproductive rights are fortunately protected by our Constitution. As a devoted proponent of reproductive rights, I propose a legally and morally acceptable proposal to the same end. Increasing women's effective control of reproduction and moving toward entirely voluntary parenthood will accomplish the same goals without compromising our civil liberties.

  4. 谭思欣平衡木交换腿结环跳三维虚拟动作的运动学分析%Kinematics Analysis of Tan Sixin ’s Virtual Reality Movement of Change Leg Ring Leap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊兰静; 王庆跃; 周继和

    2016-01-01

    通过三维拍摄2013年全运会体操平衡木冠军谭思欣的比赛录像,对谭思欣交换腿结环跳动作进行三维解析,获得该技术动作系统运动学参数;利用沉浸式三维虚拟现实技术对获得的运动学数据进行动作重建,经360°旋转后观察动作的三维动画,再进行运动学分析,找出谭思欣交换腿结环跳技术动作完成的优缺点。结果显示,谭思欣的动作技术比较标准、合理。%The performance of Tan Sixin,the champion in the 2013 National Games was filmed on the spot. The change leg ring leap movement was chosen and analyzed by three-dimensional video analysis method which could get a series of kinematics parameters of the movement;make the chosen movement re-display based on the kinematics parameters by using the Virtual Reality Technology(which could output the three-dimensional video), after 360°rotation and make kinematics analysis of the virtual reality movement. The advantages and disadvantages of the performance were found. It turned out that Tan’s movement was relatively normative and reasonable.

  5. Venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Andrea

    2011-12-21

    Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide

  6. [Restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Szu-Chia; Chen, Rou-Shayn

    2008-03-01

    The restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological disorder to take possession of increasing attention. RLS is characterized by an urge to move the legs, usually accompanied by uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations, that occurs or worsen at rest and is relieved by activity. The symptoms of RLS have a major impact on nocturnal sleep and daytime functions. The clinical diagnostic criteria were established and published in 2003 by International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). All four essential criteria must be met for a positive diagnosis. However, RLS encompassed an idiopathic form of genetic or unknown origin and secondary forms associated with many causes. Special awareness should be kept for differential diagnosis such as uremia, iron deficiency anemia, polyneuropathy, rheumatoid arthritis, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Polysomnography, actinography, L-dopa loading test, and suggested immobilization test (SIT) are helpful tools to reduce the diagnostic puzzle of false positive and false negative. Pathophysiological concepts of RLS are essentially based on the neuroimaging and neurophysiological data to assume a dysfunction of the dopaminergic system, possibly on the All neuron group localized in the hypothalamus. These neurons modulate spinal excitability and alter the sensory processing predominantly of leg afferents. Treatment may be closely linked to the dopaminergic system and iron metabolism. Dopaminergic stimulation with levodopa or dopamine agonists is the first choice in idiopathic restless legs syndrome, but the long-term adverse effect of augmentation should be carefully monitored.

  7. Characterizing rapid-onset vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the human leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credeur, Daniel P; Holwerda, Seth W; Restaino, Robert M; King, Phillip M; Crutcher, Kiera L; Laughlin, M Harold; Padilla, Jaume; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-02-15

    Rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) following single muscle contractions has been examined in the forearm of humans, but has not yet been characterized in the leg. Given known vascular differences between the arm and leg, we sought to characterize ROV following single muscle contractions in the leg. Sixteen healthy men performed random ordered single contractions at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using isometric knee extension made with the leg above and below heart level, and these were compared with single isometric contractions of the forearm (handgrip). Single thigh cuff compressions (300 mmHg) were utilized to estimate the mechanical contribution to leg ROV. Continuous blood flow was determined by duplex-Doppler ultrasound and blood pressure via finger photoplethysmography (Finometer). Single isometric knee extensor contractions produced intensity-dependent increases in peak leg vascular conductance that were significantly greater than the forearm in both the above- and below-heart level positions (e.g., above heart level: leg 20% MVC, +138 ± 28% vs. arm 20% MVC, +89 ± 17%; P contractions in the leg. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of a rapid and robust vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the leg that is largely independent of mechanical factors, thus establishing the leg as a viable model to study ROV in humans.

  8. Hemoglobinopathies and Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Kirsner, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Major hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell anemia, are becoming a global health issue. Leg ulcers are the most common cutaneous manifestation of sickle cell disease and an important contributor to morbidity burden in this population. Leg ulcers following sickling disorders are extremely painful, and hard to heal. The clinical evidence for the optimal management of these ulcers is limited. Treating the cause and the strategies to prevent sickling are the mainstay of treatment. The basic principles of wound bed preparation and compression therapy is beneficial in these patients.

  9. Déficit bilateral nos movimentos de flexão e extensão de perna e flexão do cotovelo Déficit bilateral en los movimientos de flexion y extension de la pierna y flexion del codo Bilateral deficit in leg flexion and extension and elbow flexion movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianne Pereira Giesbrecht Chaves

    2004-12-01

    and between the sum of these two results with that developed simultaneously by both legs and arms, respectively. Sixty individuals were submitted to leg flexion and extension and elbow flexion exercises at 1 RM. The results for left and right leg flexion and extension and left and right elbow flexion at ML were of 31.6 (± 7.9, 32.0 (± 8.0, 20.2 (± 9.2, 20.2 (± 9.8, 29.3 (± 13.9 and 29.8 (± 14.1 kg, respectively and seemed to be similar (p > 0.05 and strongly associated (r = 0.96, 0.96 and 0,98. When the sum of the unilateral values was compared with the bilateral values, the ML presented significant difference for the leg extension movements (p = 0.04 and elbow flexion (p = 0.03. The same behavior was not observed in the leg flexion movement (p = 0.75. This result may be explained due to the lower load increment two kilos and a half in this last movement in relation to the previous movements five kilos. Despite most subjects were right-handed, no unilateral differences were observed in ML, although not all subjects were trained. The sum of the unilateral results was higher in 9.8% and 4.0% for leg extension and elbow flexion movements, respectively, when compared with that previously obtained, showing a probable central limitation on the motor coordination of a complex movement performed at maximal speed and with high load. However, in the leg flexion movement, the sum of the unilateral results was lower that the sum of the bilateral results (-0.6%, indicating a possible learning of the movement and adaptation to training with weights from twelve weeks on.

  10. Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2015-02-15

    During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P contraction (MVC) (experiment 2; n = 8), mean voluntary activation was also lower with than without ischemia (59 ± 21% vs. 79 ± 9%; P muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents.

  11. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-09-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  12. Analyzing voluntary medical incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yang; Richardson, James; Zhijian, Luan; Alafaireet, Patricia; Yoo, Illhoi

    2008-11-06

    Voluntary medical incident reports lacking consistency and accuracy impede the ultimate use of the reports for patient safety research. To improve this, two coders examined harm score usage in a voluntary medical incident reporting system where the harm scores were selected from a predefined list by different reporters. The two coders inter-rater agreement percent was 82%. The major categories and reviewed harm score jointly demonstrate that this process is critical and necessary in preparing the voluntary reports for further content and semantics analysis.

  13. Efeitos hemodinâmicos e metabólicos da movimentação passiva dos membros inferiores em pacientes sob ventilação mecânica Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of passive leg movement in mechanically ventilated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Savi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A movimentação passiva dos membros executada por um fisioterapeuta demonstrou resultar em aumentos significantes nas variáveis metabólicas e hemodinâmicas em pacientes criticamente enfermos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se o movimento cíclico passivo dos membros inferiores aumenta as variáveis hemodinâmicas e metabólicas em pacientes sedados dependentes de ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados cinco pacientes sedados, dependentes de ventilação mecânica, internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva com 18 leitos de um hospital universitário. A movimentação cíclica passiva dos membros inferiores foi realizada por 10 minutos em uma freqüência de 30 movimentos por minuto. Foram registrados dados hemodinâmicos completos, e colhidas amostras de sangue arterial e venoso 5 minutos antes e 5 minutos após o término das manobras. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes apresentaram aumento do consumo de oxigênio (VO2. O aumento do VO2 ocorreu concomitantemente a uma queda na saturação de oxigênio no sangue venoso (SvO2, provavelmente ocorrendo por um aumento na taxa de extração de oxigênio (O2ER e índice cardíaco (IC. CONCLUSÕES: Os movimentos cíclicos passivos dos membros inferiores podem influenciar a condição hemodinâmica e metabólica de pacientes sedados dependentes de ventilação mecânica.OBJECTIVE: Limb movements, passively performed by a physiotherapist, have been shown to result in significant increases in critically ill patients' metabolic and hemodynamic variables. This study objective was to determine whether passive cycling leg movement increases hemodynamic and metabolic variables in sedated mechanical ventilation dependent patients. METHODS: Five sedated mechanical ventilation dependent patients in a 18-bed intensive care unit of a university hospital were evaluated. Passive cycling leg movements were performed for 10min at a 30 movements/min rate. Complete hemodynamical data were

  14. Adaptation to Coriolis perturbations of voluntary body sway transfers to preprogrammed fall-recovery behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Avijit; Ventura, Joel; DiZio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2014-03-01

    In a rotating environment, goal-oriented voluntary movements are initially disrupted in trajectory and endpoint, due to movement-contingent Coriolis forces, but accuracy is regained with additional movements. We studied whether adaptation acquired in a voluntary, goal-oriented postural swaying task performed during constant-velocity counterclockwise rotation (10 RPM) carries over to recovery from falling induced using a hold and release (H&R) paradigm. In H&R, standing subjects actively resist a force applied to their chest, which when suddenly released results in a forward fall and activation of an automatic postural correction. We tested H&R postural recovery in subjects (n = 11) before and after they made voluntary fore-aft swaying movements during 20 trials of 25 s each, in a counterclockwise rotating room. Their voluntary sway about their ankles generated Coriolis forces that initially induced clockwise deviations of the intended body sway paths, but fore-aft sway was gradually restored over successive per-rotation trials, and a counterclockwise aftereffect occurred during postrotation attempts to sway fore-aft. In H&R trials, we examined the initial 10- to 150-ms periods of movement after release from the hold force, when voluntary corrections of movement path are not possible. Prerotation subjects fell directly forward, whereas postrotation their forward motion was deviated significantly counterclockwise. The postrotation deviations were in a direction consistent with an aftereffect reflecting persistence of a compensation acquired per-rotation for voluntary swaying movements. These findings show that control and adaptation mechanisms adjusting voluntary postural sway to the demands of a new force environment also influence the automatic recovery of posture.

  15. The mangled lower leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Jochem Maarten

    2002-01-01

    A surgeon faced with a patient presenting with an open tibial/fibular fracture in combination with severe damage of the surrounding soft tissues, has to make the difficult decision whether to attempt salvage or to perform an immediate amputation of the leg. Until late in the nineteenth century the

  16. Leg med vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Mette; Bertelsen, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    alle med interesse for leg og bevægelse i daginstitutioner. Bogen er skrevet i et samarbejde mellem Ringsted Kommune og det nationale videncenter for sundhed, kost og motion for børn og unge, KOSMOS (www.vicekosmos.dk).Der er i samarbejde med to daginstitutioner indhentet vigtige og kvalificerede...

  17. Leg CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... x-ray beam rotates around you. (Modern "spiral" scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the body area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can be created by ...

  18. Leg design in hexapedal runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Full, R J; Blickhan, R; Ting, L H

    1991-01-01

    .... To explain how diverse leg designs can result in common whole-body dynamics, we used a miniature force platform to measure the ground reaction forces produced by individual legs of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis...

  19. The Notion of Voluntary Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Guy

    1981-01-01

    Considers the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment by analyzing six behavioral characteristics attributed to groups of workers suspected of indulging in the former, and the labor market mechanisms supposedly encouraging them. (Author/CT)

  20. Restless abdomen: a phenotypic variant of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Hernando; Iranzo, Alex; Rye, David B; Santamaría, Joan

    2011-09-27

    A diagnosis of restless legs syndrome (RLS) requires an urge to move the legs in combination with sensory leg discomfort. Localization of the symptoms to other body areas in the absence of leg involvement is not recognized as part of the phenotypic spectrum of RLS. We describe 3 patients who presented with sensorimotor symptoms confined to the abdominal wall and, with the exception of not involving the legs, satisfied the primary and secondary diagnostic criteria for RLS. Patients underwent detailed clinical history, video-polysomnography, abdominal imaging, and serologic and genotyping assessment. Unpleasant abdominal symptoms emerged at night during periods of rest and were accompanied by an urge to move and temporized by movement. Patients reported sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia due to their abdominal symptomatology. Abdominal imaging was normal. Secondary features included periodic leg movements of sleep (PLMS), and dramatic symptom amelioration with the D(2)-D(3) dopaminergic agonist pramipexole. Two subjects were anemic. Conventional RLS emerged in one subject and resolved after dose escalation. Each subject was homozygous for the most common RLS/PLMS-associated risk allele in the BTBD9 gene. Our observations indicate that the restricted abdominal symptomatology manifest in our subjects represents a phenotypic variant of RLS. Physicians should be vigilant to the existence of this unique phenotype when encountering subjects who present with insomnia and abnormal abdominal sensations. Our experience emphasizes the importance of supportive clinical features in rendering a correct diagnosis such that the most cost-effective workups and treatment can be realized.

  1. Vibration transmission characteristics of the legs of freely standing honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrseitz, Kristin; Kilpinen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The leg vibrations of honeybees standing on a vibrating substrate were measured with laser Doppler vibrometry, both in freely standing bees and in bees attached to a holder. In both cases, no resonances were found. In the fixed bee preparation, the legs moved with approximately the same amplitude...... as the stimulator. This was also the case in freely standing honeybees, except around 400 Hz, where an average attenuation of approximately 6 dB was observed. In the fixed bee preparation, the vertical movements of the legs were also measured during horizontal stimulation. The vertical vibration amplitude...... of the legs was 15-20 dB lower than the horizontal stimulation amplitude. The electrophysiologically and behaviourally determined thresholds for vibration stimulation increased by approximately 10 dB, when the stimulus direction was changed from vertical to horizontal. These observations support the notion...

  2. Restless legs syndrome: demographics, presentation, and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hening, Wayne; Allen, Richard P; Tenzer, Penny; Winkelman, John W

    2007-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by a distressing urge to move the legs and sometimes other parts of the body. Diagnosis is based on clinical features that may be easily remembered with the mnemonic URGE: Urge to move, Rest induced, Gets better with activity, and Evening and night accentuation. RLS is common, its prevalence increases with age, and women are more frequently affected. The course is chronic with often severe sleep disruption, including periodic leg movements. Differential diagnosis includes disorders of restlessness and leg discomfort. Primary RLS is familial and likely to be genetic. Important causes of secondary RLS are end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, and iron deficiency. Every patient should be checked for iron status with a serum ferritin measurement.

  3. Repetitive Arm Movements During Sleep: A Polysomnographic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Mehrabi, Samrad; Derman, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Sleep-related movement disorders should be differentiated from parasomnias, sleep-associated behavioral disorders, and epilepsy. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard in evaluating such disorders. Periodic leg movement disorder during sleep (PLMS), hypnic jerks, bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder, restless legs syndrome, and nocturnal leg cramps have broadly been discussed in the literature. However, periodic arm movement disorder in sleep (PAMS) is a less-appreciated entity perhaps because arm surface electromyography is not an integral part of the standard polysomnography. Results from our PSG study in a case suspected for PAMS prompted us to herewith discuss this problem. PMID:27563420

  4. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  5. Venous Leg Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Alejandra; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-08-02

    This issue provides a clinical overview of venous leg ulcers, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  6. have a hollow leg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话 A:We must prevent our family members from getting involved with drugs, really. B:That’s a sure thing.We must make sure that they never involve them- selves with that. A:By the way,does your husband drink a lot? B:Yeah.That’s the only thing that keeps worrying me.And he often boasts that he has a hollow leg and nobody can drink him under the ta- ble.

  7. Movement repetitions in physical and occupational therapy during spinal cord injury rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbogar, D; Eng, J J; Miller, W C; Krassioukov, A V; Verrier, M C

    2017-02-01

    Longitudinal observational study. To quantify the amount of upper- and lower-extremity movement repetitions (that is, voluntary movements as part of a functional task or specific motion) occurring during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI), physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT), and examine changes over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. Two stand-alone inpatient SCI rehabilitation centers. Participants: A total of 103 patients were recruited through consecutive admissions to SCI rehabilitation. Trained assistants observed therapy sessions and obtained clinical outcome measures in the second week following admission and in the second to last week before discharge. PT and OT time, upper- and lower-extremity repetitions and changes in these outcomes over the course of rehabilitation stay. We observed 561 PT and 347 OT sessions. Therapeutic time comprised two-thirds of total therapy time. Summed over PT and OT, the median upper-extremity repetitions in patients with paraplegia were 7 repetitions and in patients with tetraplegia, 42 repetitions. Lower-extremity repetitions and steps primarily occurred in ambulatory patients and amounted to 218 and 115, respectively (summed over PT and OT sessions at discharge). Wilcoxon-signed rank tests revealed that most repetition variables did not change significantly over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. In contrast, clinical outcomes for the arm and leg improved over this time period. Repetitions of upper- and lower-extremity movements are markedly low during PT and OT sessions. Despite improvements in clinical outcomes, there was no significant increase in movement repetitions over the course of inpatient rehabilitation stay.

  8. Opioids for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, César Osório; Carvalho, Luciane Bc; Carlos, Karla; Conti, Cristiane; de Oliveira, Marcio M; Prado, Lucila Bf; Prado, Gilmar F

    2016-06-29

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing and common neurological disorder that may have a huge impact in the quality of life of those with frequent and intense symptoms. Patients complain of unpleasant sensations in the legs, at or before bedtime, and feel an urge to move the legs, which improves with movement, such as walking. Symptoms start with the patient at rest (e.g. sitting or lying down), and follow a circadian pattern, increasing during the evening or at night. Many pharmacological intervention are available for RLS, including drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease (L-Dopa and dopaminergic agonists), epilepsy (anticonvulsants), anxiety (benzodiazepines), and pain (opioids). Dopaminergic drugs are those most frequently used for treatment of RLS, but some patients do not respond effectively and require other medication. Opioids, a class of medications used to treat severe pain, seem to be effective in treating RLS symptoms, and are recommended for patients with severe symptoms, because RLS and pain appear to share the same mechanism in the central nervous system. All available drugs are associated to some degree with side effects, which can impede treatment. Opioids are associated with adverse events such as constipation, tolerance, and dependence. This justifies the conduct of a systematic review to ascertain whether opioids are safe and effective for treatment of RLS. To asses the effects of opioids compared to placebo treatment for restless legs syndrome in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, CENTRAL 2016, issue 4 and MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS up to April 2016, using a search strategy adapted by Cochraneto identify randomised clinical trials. We checked the references of each study and established personal communication with other authors to identify any additional studies. We considered publications in all languages. Randomised controlled clinical trials of opioid treatment in adults with idiopathic RLS. Two

  9. Hip proprioceptors preferentially modulate reflexes of the leg in human spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Onushko, Tanya; Hyngstrom, Allison; Brian D Schmit

    2013-01-01

    Stretch-sensitive afferent feedback from hip muscles has been shown to trigger long-lasting, multijoint reflex responses in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). These reflexes could have important implications for control of leg movements during functional activities, such as walking. Because the control of leg movement relies on reflex regulation at all joints of the limb, we sought to determine whether stretch of hip muscles modulates reflex activity at the knee and ankle and, conv...

  10. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  11. Voluntary organisation and adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Elsdon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The author starts by offering a definition of voluntary organisations. He then discusses their importance and role, focusing on the issue of adult education wi­ thin these organisations. He also wells upon learning and change of voluntary organisation members, making use of the results of a study he conducted together with his collaborators. One of their fin­dings has been that voluntary organisati­ons, due to their organisational targets li­ke painting, singing or caring for people in need, lead their members to learning, i.e. essentially content learning. Moreo­ver, voluntary organisations offer a fair number of opportunities for social lear­ning and change. ln spite of the fact that the respondents were mostly not aware of the outcomes of their learning and change, careful listeners conducting the interview made them understand the im­portance of the learning they had gone through. The author concludes by poin­ ting out that formal education of adults can get its inspiration in learning in voluntary organisations. On the other hand, such learning would benefit greatly from findings and methods of formal education of adults.

  12. The Improved Sensitivity to Crossmodal Asynchrony Caused by Voluntary Action: Comparing Combinations of Sensory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimichi Kitagawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The brain has to assess the fine temporal relationship between voluntary actions and their sensory effects to achieve precise spatiotemporal control of body movement. Recently we found that voluntary action improved the subsequent perceptual temporal discrimination between somatosensory and auditory events. In voluntary condition, participants actively pressed a button and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press. The participants made either ‘sound-first’ or ‘touch-first’ responses. We found that the temporal order judgment performance in the voluntary condition (as indexed by just noticeable difference was significantly better than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition. Temporal attention and comparable involuntary movement did not explain the improvement caused by the voluntary action. The results suggest that predicting sensory consequences via a ‘forward’ model enhances perceptual temporal resolution for precise control of the body. The present study examined whether this improved temporal sensitivity caused by the voluntary action is also observed for the other combinations of sensory modalities. We compared the effects of voluntary action on the temporal sensitivity between auditory-somatosensory, visual-somatosensory, and somatosensory-somatosensory stimulus pairs.

  13. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in interlimb coordination of coupled arm movements in the parasagittal plane: I. APAs associated with fast discrete flexion and extension movements of one arm or of both arms ISO- and ANTI-directionally coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposti, Roberto; Baldissera, Fausto G

    2013-08-01

    Coupling stability during cyclic arm movements in the horizontal (transverse) plane is lower in ISO- than in ANTI-directional coupling. We proposed that such impairment arises from the interference exerted in ISO by the anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) linked to the primary movements. To evaluate if a link between coupling stability and postural adjustments also exist for arm movements with different postural requirements, we focused on arm(s) flexion-extension in the parasagittal plane and started by analysing the APAs distribution in arm, trunk and leg muscles. Fast flexion and extension of the right arm elicited APAs in the left anterior and posterior deltoid that replicated the excitation-inhibition of the homologous prime movers; this pattern would favour ISO and contrast ANTI-coupled movements. Instead, in the left latissimus dorsi, APAs were opposite to the voluntary actions in the right latissimus dorsi, thus favouring ANTI coupling. Symmetrical APAs were also elicited in right and left erector spinae (RES, LES) and asymmetrical APAs in Ischiocruralis (RIC, LIC), while an antero-posterior force (Fy) and a moment about the vertical axis (Tz) were discharged to the ground. When fast discrete movements were ISO-coupled, APAs were symmetrical in trunk (RES, LES) and leg (RIC, LIC) muscles and a large Fy but no Tz was generated. In ANTI coupling, APAs in RES and LES remained symmetrical, whereas they became antisymmetrical in RIC and LIC. A large Tz and a small Fy were recorded. In conclusion, during parasagittal movements, APAs in are elicited in both ISO and ANTI coupling, at variance with horizontal movements where they are only present in ISO. This would suggest that the difference in coupling stability between the two modes is smaller (or even reversed) in parasagittal with respect to horizontal arm movements.

  14. Differential diagnosis of leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannier, F; Rabe, E

    2013-03-01

    Leg and foot ulcers are symptoms of very different diseases. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers. The majority of leg ulcers occur in the lower leg or foot. In non-venous ulcers the localization in the foot area is more frequent. The most frequent underlying disease is chronic venous disease. In 354 leg ulcers, Koerber found 75.25% venous leg ulcers, 3.66% arterial leg ulcers, 14.66% ulcers of mixed venous and arterial origin and 13.5% vasculitic ulcers. In the Swedish population of Skaraborg, Nelzen found a venous origin in 54% of the ulcer patients. Each leg ulcer needs a clinical and anamnestic evaluation. Duplex ultrasound is the basic diagnostic tool to exclude vascular anomalies especially chronic venous and arterial occlusive disease. Skin biopsies help to find a correct diagnosis in unclear or non-healing cases. In conclusion, chronic venous disease is the most frequent cause of leg ulcerations. Because 25% of the population have varicose veins or other chronic venous disease the coincidence of pathological venous findings and ulceration is very frequent even in non-venous ulcerations. Leg ulcers without the symptoms of chronic venous disease should be considered as non-venous.

  15. Movement disorders emergencies: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Munhoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders (MD encompass acute and chronic diseases characterized by involuntary movements and/or loss of control or efficiency in voluntary movements. In this review, we covered situations in which the main manifestations are MDs that pose significant risks for acute morbidity and mortality. The authors examine literature data on the most relevant MD emergencies, including those related to Parkinson's disease, acute drug reactions (acute dystonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonergic syndrome and malignant hyperthermia, acute exacerbation of chronic MD (status dystonicus, hemiballism and stiff-person syndrome, highlighting clinical presentation, demographics, diagnosis and management.

  16. Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  17. Leg cramps and restless legs syndrome during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance during pregnancy can result in excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished daytime performance, inability to concentrate, irritability, and the potential for an increased length of labor and increased risk of operative birth. Sleep disturbance may be the result of a sleep disorder, such as leg cramps, a common yet benign disorder, or restless legs syndrome, a sensorimotor disorder. Both disrupt sleep, are distressing to the pregnant woman, and mimic one another and other serious disorders. During pregnancy, up to 30% of women can be affected by leg cramps, and up to 26% can be affected by restless legs syndrome.

  18. Textiloma in the leg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Amol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textiloma is defined as a tumor formed due to retained gauze. It is rarely reported in the musculoskeletal system. We are presenting a case with a soft tissue swelling over the lateral aspect of the lower third of the leg, come for implant removal of the distal tibia and fibular fracture. We removed the soft tissue mass enbloc thinking it to be a benign tumor. On cutting the mass on the operation table, a gauze piece encased by fibrous tissue was found. Textiloma can present as tumoral forms and can mimic as a pseudo-tumor.

  19. Combined application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary muscular contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Electromyostimulation (EMS) and voluntary muscle contraction (VC) constitute different modes of muscle activation and induce different acute physiological effects on the neuromuscular system. Long-term application of each mode of muscle activation can produce different muscle adaptations. It seems theoretically possible to completely or partially cumulate the muscle adaptations induced by each mode of muscle activation applied separately. This work consisted of examining the literature concerning the muscle adaptations induced by long-term application of the combined technique (CT) [i.e. EMS is combined with VC - non-simultaneously] compared with VC and/or EMS alone in healthy subjects and/or athletes and in post-operative knee-injured subjects. In general, CT induced greater muscular adaptations than VC whether in sports training or rehabilitation. This efficiency would be due to the fact that CT can facilitate cumulative effects of training completely or partially induced by VC and EMS practiced alone. CT also provides a greater improvement of the performance of complex dynamic movements than VC. However, EMS cannot improve coordination between different agonistic and antagonistic muscles and thus does not facilitate learning the specific coordination of complex movements. Hence, EMS should be combined with specific sport training to generate neuromuscular adaptations, but also allow the adjustment of motor control during a voluntary movement. Likewise, in a therapeutic context, CT was particularly efficient to accelerate recovery of muscle contractility during a rehabilitation programme. Strength loss and atrophy inherent in a traumatism and/or a surgical operation would be more efficiently compensated with CT than with VC. Furthermore, CT also restored more functional abilities than VC. Finally, in a rehabilitation context, EMS is complementary to voluntary exercise because in the early phase of rehabilitation it elicits a strength increase, which is necessary

  20. Sensorimotor organization of a sustained involuntary movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Alexander De Havas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary movements share much of the motor control circuitry used for voluntary movement, yet the two can be easily distinguished. The Kohnstamm phenomenon (where a sustained, hard push produces subsequent involuntary arm raising is a useful experimental model for exploring differences between voluntary and involuntary movement. Both central and peripheral accounts have been proposed, but little is known regarding how the putative Kohnstamm generator responds to afferent input. We addressed this by obstructing the involuntary upward movement of the arm. Obstruction prevented the rising EMG pattern that characterizes the Kohnstamm. Importantly, once the obstruction was removed, the EMG signal resumed its former increase, suggesting a generator that persists despite peripheral input. When only one arm was obstructed during bilateral involuntary movements, only the EMG signal from the obstructed arm showed the effect. Upon release of the obstacle, the obstructed arm reached the same position and EMG level as the unobstructed arm. Comparison to matched voluntary movements revealed a preserved stretch response when a Kohnstamm movement first contacts an obstacle, and also an overestimation of the perceived contact force. Our findings support a hybrid central and peripheral account of the Kohnstamm phenomenon. The strange subjective experience of this involuntary movement is consistent with the view that movement awareness depends strongly on efference copies, but that the Kohnstamm generator does not produces efference copies.

  1. Quantification of Dance Movement by Simultaneous Measurement of Body Motion and Biophysical Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woong Choi; Tadao Isaka; Mamiko Sakata; Seiya Tsuruta; Kozaburo Hachimura

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is a quantitative analysis of movement patterns of dance, which cannot be analyzed with a motion capture system alone, using simultaneous measurement of body motion and biophysical information. In this research, two kinds of same leg movement are captured by simultaneous measurement; one is a leg movement with given strength, the other is a leg movement without strength on condition of basic experiment using optical motion capture and electromyography (EMG) equipment in order to quantitatively analyze characteristics of leg movement. Also, we measured the motion of the traditional Japanese dance using the constructed system. We can visualize leg movement of Japanese dance by displaying a 3D CG character animation with motion data and EMG data. In addition, we expect that our research will help dancers and researchers on dance through giving new information on dance movement which cannot be analyzed with only motion capture.

  2. Voluntary imitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  3. Restless Legs Syndrome with Current Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bilgilisoy Filiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a chronic movement disorder, characterized by an urge to move legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations and sleep disorders. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges from 1% to 15% in the general population, and about 2% during childhood. RLS is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy. However RLS still remains underdiagnosed probably due to lack of accurate information about the disease. Family history is positive in 50-70% of the primary RLS patients. The secondary form of the syndrome is associated with iron deficiency, renal failure, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus and many rheumatologic disorders. Secondary forms generally manifest at older ages and have a rapid progression with a poorer prognosis. The pathophysiology of RLS is focused on the dopaminergic system, reduced central nervous system iron levels and genetic linkages. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the diagnostic criteria suggested by International RLS Study Group. Secondary causes must be carefully investigated before the treatment. In mild forms of the disease non-pharmacologic therapies might be useful, while in moderate or severe forms of the disease generally pharmacologic therapies such as dopamine agonists, anticonvulsants, opioids and benzodiazepines are required. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 87-95

  4. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  5. Social Cohesion and Voluntary Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    Voluntary organizations exert great influence over how social norms and ethical codes are guided into action. As such, they have a significant impact on societal levels of social cohesion. Although social capital involves generalized trust becoming manifest as spontaneous sociability, social cohesion is determined by how that sociability is…

  6. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Dialogues, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  7. Voluntary disclosure: Evidence from UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Zourarakis (Nicolaos)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the voluntary disclosure of Intellectual Capital (IC) of British firms and provides some evidence on an unexplored area of the literature; that of the association of Corporate Governance (CG) with IC disclosure. Inconsistent with expectations, the results show tha

  8. Voluntary initiation of movement: multifunctional integration of subjective agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneberg, Patrick; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates subjective agency (SA) as a special type of efficacious action consciousness. Our central claims are, firstly, that SA is a conscious act of voluntarily initiating bodily motion. Secondly, we argue that SA is a case of multifunctional integration of behavioral functions being analogous to multisensory integration of sensory modalities. This is based on new perspectives on the initiation of action opened up by recent advancements in robot assisted neuro-rehabilitation which depends on the active participation of the patient and yields experimental evidence that there is SA in terms of a conscious act of voluntarily initiating bodily motion (phenomenal performance). Conventionally, action consciousness has been considered as a sense of agency (SoA). According to this view, the conscious subject merely echoes motor performance and does not cause bodily motion. Depending on sensory input, SoA is implemented by means of unifunctional integration (binding) and inevitably results in non-efficacious action consciousness. In contrast, SA comes as a phenomenal performance which causes motion and builds on multifunctional integration. Therefore, the common conception of the brain should be shifted toward multifunctional integration in order to allow for efficacious action consciousness. For this purpose, we suggest the heterarchic principle of asymmetric reciprocity and neural operators underlying SA. The general idea is that multifunctional integration allows conscious acts to be simultaneously implemented with motor behavior so that the resulting behavior (SA) comes as efficacious action consciousness. Regarding the neural implementation, multifunctional integration rather relies on operators than on modular functions. A robotic case study and possible experimental setups with testable hypotheses building on SA are presented.

  9. Rapid Nonconjugate Adaptation of Vertical Voluntary Pursuit Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    applied to the post-adaptation data from the left eye magnification condition: YRpost(Transformed) = (2 * YRpre) - YRPost (6) For example, if the pie ...nonconjugate adaptation with spectacle- mounted plano -cylindrical lenses, Lemij (1990) demonstrated that nonconjugate pursuit adaptation was

  10. Force feedback reinforces muscle synergies in insect legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Büschges, Ansgar; Schmitz, Josef

    2015-11-01

    The nervous system solves complex biomechanical problems by activating muscles in modular, synergist groups. We have studied how force feedback in substrate grip is integrated with effects of sense organs that monitor support and propulsion in insects. Campaniform sensilla are mechanoreceptors that encode forces as cuticular strains. We tested the hypothesis that integration of force feedback from receptors of different leg segments during grip occurs through activation of specific muscle synergies. We characterized the effects of campaniform sensilla of the feet (tarsi) and proximal segments (trochanter and femur) on activities of leg muscles in stick insects and cockroaches. In both species, mechanical stimulation of tarsal sensilla activated the leg muscle that generates substrate grip (retractor unguis), as well as proximal leg muscles that produce inward pull (tibial flexor) and support/propulsion (trochanteral depressor). Stimulation of campaniform sensilla on proximal leg segments activated the same synergistic group of muscles. In stick insects, the effects of proximal receptors on distal leg muscles changed and were greatly enhanced when animals made active searching movements. In insects, the task-specific reinforcement of muscle synergies can ensure that substrate adhesion is rapidly established after substrate contact to provide a stable point for force generation.

  11. The phantom of the night: restless legs syndrome in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J; Bradshaw, John L

    2010-06-01

    Chronic pain conditions often "mimic" the symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with worse pain in the evening and upon rest, associated with an urge to move and relief upon movement. We propose that too little has been made of these parallels, with pain conditions resembling RLS being dismissed as mimics. We found, in a large questionnaire study (n=283) on phantom limb perception, a pattern of phantom pain that resembled RLS: amputees with nocturnal phantom pain were more likely to report worse pain upon rest and/or lying down, with an urge to move the phantom and/or walk to relieve their pain, and to experience spontaneous limb movements akin to periodic leg movements of RLS. We present the hypothesis that a model of restless legs syndrome may provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying phantom pain, and lead to new mechanism-based phantom pain treatment. In particular, central changes associated with sensory and motor symptoms of RLS, neuropathy, and dopamine may also be involved in those predisposed to experience phantom pain that mimics the symptoms of RLS. Ultimately, restless legs syndrome may indeed be a pain syndrome, and warrants further investigation in chronic pain populations. .

  12. Diagnosis of Restless Leg Syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom disease, is a neurosensorimotor disorder with significant impact that is diagnosed through 5 clinical criteria. Adherence to 5 criteria and a thorough physical examination are often sufficient for diagnosis. Associated features prove helpful in young children or the cognitively impaired. Polysomnography is not routinely required unless the patient has other sleep-related symptoms. The finding of periodic leg movements in sleep only suggests, instead of confirms, the diagnosis. It is important to arrive at appropriate diagnosis because the prevalence is in the millions and treatment significantly improves sleep quality and daytime function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 自主运动后BALB/c和C57BL/6小鼠学习记忆行为学指标的分析比较%Learning and memory abilities between BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice after voluntary movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪芹; 李睿; 崔佳彬; 陆利; 赵云鹤

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice are two inbred strains, but after voluntary movement, there is no report on how to scientifical y reasonably select behavioral experiment methods and indicators and to evaluate the learning and memory abilities of mice. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the behavioral indicators between BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice fol owing voluntary wheel running, to explore the effect of exercise on learning and memory, and to provide a reference for selecting reasonable behavioral indicators. METHODS: 2.5-month-old BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control and voluntary wheel running groups. Independent running wheel movement of mice was recorded with VitalView system. 4 weeks later, newborn neurons were labeled via DCX immunofluorescence. Spatial learning, memory and exploration abilities were compared through new arm test, new object recognition test and Morris water maze test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The mean spontaneous activity of BALB/c mice daily was 2.56 fold of that of C57BL/6 mice during wheel running (P   目的:分析比较自主运动后 BALB/c 和 C57BL/6小鼠与学习记忆相关的行为学指标差异,为探讨运动对学习记忆能力的影响,并选择合理的行为学指标提供参考。  方法:将2.5月龄 BALB/c 和 C57BL/6小鼠分别随机分为对照组和跑轮运动组,应用 VitalView 软件记录小鼠自主跑轮运动。跑轮运动4周后,通过 DCX 免疫荧光染色检测海马新生神经元;新异臂探索实验、新物体识别实验和水迷宫实验分析比较小鼠空间学习记忆和探索能力。  结果与结论:①BALB/c 小鼠平均每天运动量约是 C57BL/6小鼠的2.56倍(P <0.001)。②跑轮运动后两种品系小鼠海马 DCX 阳性细胞数较对照组增多。③跑轮运动后两种品系小鼠探索新异臂和新物体的次数、围绕新异臂和新物体探索的时间和距离均较对照组增高(P <0.001),其中 BALB/c

  14. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    OpenAIRE

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is a...

  15. Differentiating nocturnal leg cramps and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Fatima; Mosabbir, Abdullah; Ondo, William

    2014-07-01

    Leg pain and discomfort are common complaints in any primary physician's clinic. Two common causes of pain or discomfort in legs are nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) and restless leg syndrome (RLS). NLC present as painful and sudden contractions mostly in part of the calf. Diagnosis of NLC is mainly clinical and sometimes involves investigations to rule out other mimics. RLS is a condition characterized by the discomfort or urge to move the lower limbs, which occurs at rest or in the evening/night. The similarity of RLS and leg cramps poses the issue of errors in diagnosing and differentiating the two. In this paper we review the pathopysiology of each entity and their diagnosis as well as treatment. The two conditions are then compared to appreciate the differences and similarities. Finally, suggestions are recommended for complete assessment.

  16. Motor hyperactivity of the iron-deficient rat - an animal model of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yuan-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Hsieh, Kung-Chiao; Nguyen, Darian; Chew, Keng-Tee; Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

    2017-08-26

    Abnormal striatal dopamine transmission has been hypothesized to cause restless legs syndrome. Dopaminergic drugs are commonly used to treat restless legs syndrome. However, they cause adverse effects with long-term use. An animal model would allow the systematic testing of potential therapeutic drugs. A high prevalence of restless legs syndrome has been reported in iron-deficient anemic patients. We hypothesized that the iron-deficient animal would exhibit signs similar to those in restless legs syndrome patients. After baseline polysomnographic recordings, iron-deficient rats received pramipexole injection. Then, iron-deficient rats were fed a standard rodent diet, and polysomnographic recording were performed for 2 days each week for 4 weeks. Iron-deficient rats have low hematocrit levels and show signs of restless legs syndrome: sleep fragmentation and periodic leg movements in wake and in slow-wave sleep. Iron-deficient rats had a positive response to pramipexole treatment. After the iron-deficient rats were fed the standard rodent diet, hematocrit returned to normal levels, and sleep quality improved, with increased average duration of wake and slow-wave sleep episodes. Periodic leg movements decreased during both waking and sleep. Hematocrit levels positively correlated with the average duration of episodes in wake and in slow-wave sleep and negatively correlated with periodic leg movements in wake and in sleep. Western blot analysis showed that striatal dopamine transporter levels were higher in iron-deficient rats. The iron-deficient rat is a useful animal model of iron-deficient anemic restless legs syndrome. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Infant exploratory learning: influence on leg joint coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sargent

    Full Text Available A critical issue in the study of infant development is to identify the processes by which task-specific action emerges from spontaneous movement. Emergent leg action has been studied by providing contingent reinforcement to specific leg movements using an overhead infant-activated mobile, however, there is limited information on the strategies used by infants to support the emergence of task-specific leg action from spontaneous movement. The purpose of this study is to (1 determine the ability of 3 month old infants to learn, through discovery, the contingency between leg action and mobile activation using a virtual threshold, and (2 identify strategies, defined by variance of the end-effectors (feet and hip-knee joint coordination, used by infants that learned the contingency. Fourteen 3 month old infants participated in 2 sessions of mobile reinforcement on consecutive days. As a group, infants increased the percentage of mobile activation to meet performance criteria on Day 2, but did not meet memory or learning criteria across days. However, five infants learned the contingency based on individual learning criteria. When interacting with the mobile on Day 2 as compared to spontaneous kicking on Day 1, infants who learned the contingency, but not infants who did not learn the contingency, increased variance of the end-effectors (feet in the vertical, task-specific direction and demonstrated less in-phase hip-knee joint coordination. An important discovery is that infants can discover this very specific contingency, suggesting that this movement behavior (action can be shaped in future work. This may have implications for the rehabilitation of infants with atypical leg action.

  18. 22 CFR 513.210 - Voluntary exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary exclusion. 513.210 Section 513.210... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action § 513.210 Voluntary exclusion. Persons who accept voluntary exclusions under § 513.315 are excluded in accordance with the terms of...

  19. Voluntary control of human jaw stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Houle, Guillaume; Ostry, David J

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies of human arm movement have suggested that the control of stiffness may be important both for maintaining stability and for achieving differences in movement accuracy. In the present study, we have examined the voluntary control of postural stiffness in 3D in the human jaw. The goal is to address the possible role of stiffness control in both stabilizing the jaw and in achieving the differential precision requirements of speech sounds. We previously showed that patterns of kinematic variability in speech are systematically related to the stiffness of the jaw. If the nervous system uses stiffness control as a means to regulate kinematic variation in speech, it should also be possible to show that subjects can voluntarily modify jaw stiffness. Using a robotic device, a series of force pulses was applied to the jaw to elicit changes in stiffness to resist displacement. Three orthogonal directions and three magnitudes of forces were tested. In all conditions, subjects increased the magnitude of jaw stiffness to resist the effects of the applied forces. Apart from the horizontal direction, greater increases in stiffness were observed when larger forces were applied. Moreover, subjects differentially increased jaw stiffness along a vertical axis to counteract disturbances in this direction. The observed changes in the magnitude of stiffness in different directions suggest an ability to control the pattern of stiffness of the jaw. The results are interpreted as evidence that jaw stiffness can be adjusted voluntarily, and thus may play a role in stabilizing the jaw and in controlling movement variation in the orofacial system.

  20. Klinefelter Syndrome With Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Leg ulcers are frequently caused by venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, neuropathy, or a combination of these factors. Klinefelter syndrome in association with chronic leg ulcers have been reported earlier. We report a case of Klinefelter syndrome with non- healing ulcer. The diagnosis of the Klinefelter syndrome was confirmed by karyotyping.

  1. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Berning

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open. In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device. We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02 than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  2. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Kelsey; Cohick, Sarah; Johnson, Reva; Miller, Laura Ann; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2014-01-01

    Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open). In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis) and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device). We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02) than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  3. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schram Christensen; Jesper Lundbye-Jensen; Michael James Grey; Alexandra Damgaard Vejlby; Bo Belhage; Jens Bo Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was...

  4. Biomechanics of Counterweighted One-Legged Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Steven J; McDaniel, John; Martin, James C

    2016-02-01

    One-legged cycling has served as a valuable research tool and as a training and rehabilitation modality. Biomechanics of one-legged cycling are unnatural because the individual must actively lift the leg during flexion, which can be difficult to coordinate and cause premature fatigue. We compared ankle, knee, and hip biomechanics between two-legged, one-legged, and counterweighted (11.64 kg) one-legged cycling. Ten cyclists performed two-legged (240 W), one-legged (120 W), and counterweighted one-legged (120 W) cycling (80 rpm). Pedal forces and limb kinematics were recorded to determine work during extension and flexion. During counterweighted one-legged cycling relative ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, and hip flexion work were less than one-legged but greater than two-legged cycling (all P cycling were greater than one-legged but less than two-legged cycling (all P cycling reduced but did not eliminate differences in joint flexion and extension actions between one- and two-legged cycling. Even with these differences, counterweighted one-legged cycling seemed to have advantages over one-legged cycling. These results, along with previous work highlighting physiological characteristics and training adaptations to counterweighted one-legged cycling, demonstrate that this exercise is a viable alternative to one-legged cycling.

  5. Leg Regrowth in Blaberus discoidalis (Discoid Cockroach following Limb Autotomy versus Limb Severance and Relevance to Neurophysiology Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Marzullo

    Full Text Available Many insects can regenerate limbs, but less is known about the regrowth process with regard to limb injury type. As part of our neurophysiology education experiments involving the removal of a cockroach leg, 1 the ability of Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches to regenerate a metathoracic leg was examined following autotomy at the femur/trochanter joint versus severance via a transverse coxa-cut, and 2 the neurophysiology of the detached legs with regard to leg removal type was studied by measuring spike firing rate and microstimulation movement thresholds.First appearance of leg regrowth was after 5 weeks in the autotomy group and 12 weeks in the coxa-cut group. Moreover, regenerated legs in the autotomy group were 72% of full size on first appearance, significantly larger (p<0.05 than coxa-cut legs (29% of full size at first appearance. Regenerated legs in both groups grew in size with each subsequent molt; the autotomy-removed legs grew to full size within 18 weeks, whereas coxa-cut legs took longer than 28 weeks to regrow. Removal of the metathoracic leg in both conditions did not have an effect on mortality compared to matched controls with unmolested legs.Autotomy-removed legs had lower spontaneous firing rates, similar marked increased firing rates upon tactile manipulation of tibial barbs, and a 10% higher electrical microstimulation threshold for movement.It is recommended that neurophysiology experiments on cockroach legs remove the limb at autotomy joints instead of coxa cuts, as the leg regenerates significantly faster when autotomized and does not detract from the neurophysiology educational content.

  6. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Johns Hopkins Medicine MalaCards: restless legs syndrome Merck Manual Professional Version Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) European Alliance for Restless Legs Syndrome National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Restless Leg Syndrome Foundation ...

  8. Comparison of whole-body vertical stiffness and leg stiffness during single-leg hopping in place in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerse, Matthew; Wu, Jianhua

    2017-05-03

    In the hopping literature, whole-body vertical stiffness and leg stiffness are used interchangeably, due to most of the movement occurring in the vertical direction. However, there is some anterior/posterior movement of the center of mass and displacements of the foot during hopping in place in both children and adults. Further it is not understood if leg stiffness show a similar pattern as whole-body vertical stiffness when increasing hopping frequency. The purpose of this study was to test if whole-body vertical stiffness and leg stiffness are different during single-leg hopping in-place in children and adults, across a range of frequencies. Seventeen children aged 5-11years and 16 young adults participated in this study. The subjects hopped at their preferred frequency as well as 20% below, 20% above and 40% above preferred frequency. Our results demonstrate that both whole-body vertical stiffness and leg stiffness increase when increasing hopping frequency for children and adults. However, whole-body vertical stiffness consistently overestimates leg stiffness due to a similar peak force but a greater leg length change compared to vertical COM displacement. This suggests a considerable horizontal COM movement from landing to mid-stance during hopping. Children aged 5-11years old showed lower absolute values but higher normalized values of two stiffness measures than adults. This suggests somewhat adult-like stiffness control in children, but a reduced ability to manipulate the horizontal movement during single-leg hopping in place when compared to adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Ferric carboxymaltose in patients with restless legs syndrome and nonanemic iron deficiency: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Winkelmann, Juliane; Oertel, Wolfgang; Virgin, Garth; Roubert, Bernard; Mezzacasa, Anna

    2017-06-23

    Compromised iron status is important in restless legs syndrome pathophysiology. We compared the efficacy and tolerability of ferric carboxymaltose (single intravenous dose) versus placebo for restless legs syndrome treatment in iron-deficient nonanemic patients. Patients with moderate to severe restless legs syndrome and serum ferritin Restless Legs Syndrome Severity Scale score from baseline to week 4 was the primary end point; week 12 was a secondary end point. Ferric carboxymaltose treatment (n = 59) led to nonsignificant improvement over placebo (n = 51) in International Restless Legs Syndrome Severity Scale score at week 4 (difference [95% confidence interval], -2.5 [-5.93 to 1.02], P = 0.163), reaching significance by week 12 (-4.66 [-8.59 to -0.73], P = 0.021). In patients who responded to treatment, ferric carboxymaltose may require more time to stabilize restless legs syndrome than previously assumed. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Restless legs syndrome: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Symvoulakis

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome is a distressing condition, with negative effects on sleep and daytime activities that affect personal, family and occupational life. The overall impact of restless legs syndrome on quality of life is comparable to that of chronic and frustrating conditions such as depression and diabetes. Misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment may increase patients' suffering in terms of uncertainty, overuse or misuse of care services and lack of trust. Presenting a synthesis of the main topics in the literature on restless legs syndrome facilitates for a better understanding and its management in primary care settings.

  11. Enhancing voluntary imitation through attention and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Judith; Poliakoff, Ellen; Marshall, Hannah; Trueman, Sophie; Gowen, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Action observation activates brain areas involved in performing the same action and has been shown to increase motor learning, with potential implications for neurorehabilitation. Recent work indicates that the effects of action observation on movement can be increased by motor imagery or by directing attention to observed actions. In voluntary imitation, activation of the motor system during action observation is already increased. We therefore explored whether imitation could be further enhanced by imagery or attention. Healthy participants observed and then immediately imitated videos of human hand movement sequences, while movement kinematics were recorded. Two blocks of trials were completed, and after the first block participants were instructed to imagine performing the observed movement (Imagery group, N = 18) or attend closely to the characteristics of the movement (Attention group, N = 15), or received no further instructions (Control group, N = 17). Kinematics of the imitated movements were modulated by instructions, with both Imagery and Attention groups being closer in duration, peak velocity and amplitude to the observed model compared with controls. These findings show that both attention and motor imagery can increase the accuracy of imitation and have implications for motor learning and rehabilitation. Future work is required to understand the mechanisms by which these two strategies influence imitation accuracy.

  12. Man with leg rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Michael Huynh; Khesbak, Ziyad; Liu, Yiju Teresa

    2017-10-01

    A 51-year-old male presented to the ED with a rash to his left thigh (figure 1) with erythema, swelling and pain. He endorsed paraesthesias, pruritus, fevers, vomiting and diarrhoea. Initial vitals were unremarkable. He was well appearing with an 8×8 cm violaceous patch on his left medial thigh with vesicles, surrounding erythema and induration with a second, smaller lesion on the right thigh. Both rashes were extremely tender.emermed;34/10/686/F1F1F1Figure 1Erythematosus and vesicular rash in bilateral legs.A bedside ultrasound image of the rash was obtained (figure 2).emermed;34/10/686/F2F2F2Figure 2Bedside ultrasound of rash. What is the most likely cause of the patient's rash?A. Herpes zosterB. CellulitisC. Necrotising fasciitisD. Bullous pemphigoid. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Eye movements in ataxia-telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloh, R W; Yee, R D; Boder, E

    1978-11-01

    The spectrum of eye movement disorders in six patients with ataxia-telangiectasia at different stages of progression was assessed quantitatively by electrooculography. All patients demonstrated abnormalities of voluntary and involuntary saccades. The youngest and least involved patient had significantly increased reaction times of voluntary saccades, but normal accuracy and velocity. The other patients demonstrated increased reaction times and marked hypometria of horizontal and vertical voluntary saccades. Saccade velocity remained normal. Vestibular and optokinetic fast components (involuntary saccades) had normal amplitude and velocity but the eyes deviated tonically in the direction of the slow component. We conclude that patients with ataxia-telangiectasia have a defect in the initiation of voluntary and involuntary saccades in the earliest stages. These findings are distinctly different from those in other familial cerebellar atrophy syndromes.

  14. Adjustable hinge permits movement of knee in plaster cast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, W. E.

    1967-01-01

    Metal knee hinge with an adjustable sleeve worn on the outside of a leg cast facilitates movement of the knee joint. This helps eliminate stiffness of the knee and eliminates bulkiness and adjustment difficulty.

  15. Painful legs and moving toes syndrome responsive to pregabalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F H Rossi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Report three cases of painful legs and moving toes (PLMT syndrome responsive to pregabalin along with a review of its literature. Three patients with PLMT syndrome improved with pregabalin. The first and third patient reported improvement in pain scores, quality of life, and quality of sleep sustained over time. The second and third patient had near complete remission of toe movements, but pregabalin was discontinued in the second patient due to aggravation of leg edema. PLMT is a rare and debilitating disorder characterized by lower limb pain and involuntary toes or feet movements. Its pathophysiology remains unknown and its therapy refractory to most drugs, except for pregabalin, as shown in this case series. PLMT is a rare and incapacitating syndrome due to the lack of an effective pain therapy. We report three patients with PLMT who favorable responded to pregabalin. We propose pregabalin be considered in the management of PLMT.

  16. D-ribose benefits restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shecterle, Linda; Kasubick, Robert; St Cyr, John

    2008-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations and pain, predominantly in the lower extremities while at rest, accompanied by an uncontrollable urge for movement for relief. We report on two affected male individuals, a father and son, ages 71 and 47, from a family in which three generations carry the diagnosis. To evaluate any potential benefit of D-ribose in this condition, each individual orally consumed 5-g doses of D-ribose daily at different trial stages. Each stage lasted 3 weeks with a 2-week washout period between stages. The initial stage involved a single 5 gm dose of D-ribose consumed at breakfast. Throughout the second stage, D-ribose was taken at breakfast and lunch. In the third stage, D-ribose was taken at all meals, breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Diaries by the subjects pertaining to their documentation and severity of restless legs syndrome symptoms was compiled. During the initial stage both men reported a general feeling of more energy and less fatigue, most notably after exercise, without any significant changes in their symptoms. With the increase in the daily dose of D-ribose, in the second stage, their leg twitching and the feeling to move during the day was reduced for 1 subject, and rarely present in the other. Both still experienced the unpleasant sensations during the night. However, during the final stage, a further increase in the daily dose of D-ribose eliminated their daily symptoms and the symptoms at night were of a lesser degree and had a later occurrence. Both men reported that D-ribose did not totally eliminate their discomfort, but the severity and onset of symptoms affecting their quality of life was substantially improved with D-ribose without any adverse reactions.

  17. The Effect of Voluntary Ventilation on Acid-base Responses to a Moo Duk Tkow Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a study that investigated the acid-base and lactate reponses to voluntary integration of breathing and exercise movements during beginning level form Ki Cho I, performed at competitive intensities. Findings suggest that respiratory compensation does not occur and that respiratory acidosis may contribute to metabolic…

  18. Effects of non-motorized voluntary running on experimental and spontaneous metastasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity is any form of movement using skeletal muscles. Human population and laboratory studies show that physical exercise may play a favorable role in primary cancer prevention.The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on the development and growth of secondary ca...

  19. Neuromuscular control of scapula muscles during a voluntary task in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C M; Søgaard, Karen; Chreiteh, S S

    2013-01-01

    Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population with and w...

  20. Restless leg syndrome in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Aarti; Clark-Bilodeau, Courtney; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, more recently renamed Willis-Ekbom disease, is a condition that disrupts sleep and occurs more frequently in the pregnant population. We present a 39-year-old woman with restless legs syndrome in the third trimester and discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology and therapeutic options in the pregnant population while highlighting the challenges posed by the lack of safety data of approved drugs.

  1. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rafie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  2. [RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME--WILLIS-EKBOM DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Élisabeth; Bataillard, Marc; Bourgin, Patrice

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder with a high prevalence (10% in Caucasian populations). It is a purely clinical diagnosis characterized by an urge to move the lower limbs usually accompanied or caused by unpleasant sensations in the legs with an improvement in symptoms with movement. These sensations occur during inactivity or at rest and worsen in the evening or at night. RLS may not only impact the quality of life for an individual, but may also increase mortality. Disease markers such as genetic predispositions have been identified, as well as reduced iron stores with altered intracerebral iron homeostasis and dopaminergic dysfunction. Medication is often necessary in severe forms, with low doses of dopaminergic agonists being the first-line of treatment. The use of α2δ ligands is an alternative. Finally benzodiazepines and opioid medications can be effective in refractory cases. In less severe forms of RLS, a non-pharmacological approach is usually sufficient with avoidance of stimulants and correction of contributing factors.

  3. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafie, Shahram; Jafari, Majid; Azizi, Mostafa; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Jafari, Shima

    2016-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms.

  4. Restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletić, Vladimir; Relja, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Being of the most frequent causes of insomnia, which in the end leads to chronic fatigue, inadequate performance of daily activities, and serious disruption of quality of living, restless legs syndrome (RLS) is nowadays not only a serious medical problem but a socio-economical one as well. Prevalence of the disorder in general population is estimated at 5 to 15%. Family history is positive in over 50% of idiopathic RLS patients which points to genetic basis of the disorder. The characteristics of the secondary or acquired form of RLS are symptoms that start later in life as well as a rapid progression of the disease. On the other hand, idiopathic RLS more often starts at a younger age and the prognoses are better. Over twenty disorders and conditions are brought in connection with secondary RLS. Although the cause of primary RLS is still unknown, there is a strong connection between central metabolism of iron as well as dopamine levels and RLS manifestation. A differential diagnosis of RLS includes a wide specter of motor and sensory disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the history of disease. To correctly diagnose idiopathic RLS one must first eliminate secondary causes of RLS and then also exclude any disorders with clinical features that mimic those of RLS. It has been estimated that some 20 to 25% of patients need pharmacological therapy. Best initial therapy is the application of nonergot dopamine agonists. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and opioides can be given to patients who are refractory to dopaminergic therapy, those suffering from RLS with emphasized painful sensory component and those with RLS connected with insomnia.

  5. Intrinsic muscle strength and voluntary activation of both lower limbs and functional performance after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Astrid M; Beltman, Marijke J; Gerrits, Karin H; Koppe, Peter; Janssen, Thomas W; Elich, Peter; de Haan, Arnold

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nature of muscle weakness in both legs after stroke compared with able-bodied control individuals and to examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of muscle weakness and coactivation of knee extensors and flexors as well as voluntary activation capacity of knee extensors of both paretic and non-paretic legs and indices of functional performance. Maximal voluntary isometric torques of knee extensors (MVCe) and flexors (MVCf) were determined in 14 patients (bilaterally) and 12 able-bodied controls. Simultaneous measurements were made of torque and surface EMG from agonist and antagonist muscles. Coactivation was calculated. Supramaximal triplets were evoked with electrical stimulation to estimate maximal torque capacity and degree of voluntary activation of knee extensors. MVCs, activation and coactivation parameters were correlated to scores of seven functional performance tests. MVCe, MVCf and voluntary activation were lower in paretic lower limb (PL) compared with both non-paretic lower limb (NL) and control. Besides, all these parameters of NL were also lower than control. Electrically evoked torque capacity of knee extensors of PL was about 60% of both NL and control, which were not significantly different from each other. Strong significant correlations between strength, as well as voluntary activation, and functional performance were found. Coactivation did not correlate well with functional performance. Thus, whereas for NL activation failure can explain weakness, for PL both activation failure and reduced intrinsic torque capacity are responsible for the severe weakness. Activation capacity and muscle strength correlated strongly to functional performance, while coactivation did not.

  6. Unilateral eccentric contraction of the plantarflexors leads to bilateral alterations in leg dexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nagamori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric contractions can affect musculotendon mechanical properties and disrupt muscle proprioception, but their behavioral consequences are poorly understood. We tested whether repeated eccentric contractions of plantarflexor muscles of one leg affected the dexterity of either leg. Twenty healthy male subjects (27.3+/-4.0 yrs compressed a compliant and slender spring prone to buckling with each isolated leg. The maximal instability they could control (i.e., the maximal average sustained compression force, or lower extremity dexterity force, LEDForce quantified the dexterity of each leg. We found that eccentric contractions did not affect LEDForce, but reduced force variability (LEDSD. Surprisingly, LEDForce increased in the non-exposed, contralateral leg. These effects were specific to exposure to eccentric contractions because an effort-matched exposure to walking did not affect leg dexterity. In the exposed leg, eccentric contractions (i reduced voluntary error corrections during spring compressions (i.e., reduced 0.5-4 Hz power of LEDForce; (ii did not change spinal excitability (i.e., unaffected H-reflexes; and (iii changed the structure of the neural drive to the alpha-motoneuron pool (i.e., reduced EMG power within the 4-8 Hz physiological tremor band. These results suggest that repeated eccentric contractions alter the feedback control for dexterity in the exposed leg by reducing muscle spindle sensitivity. Moreover, the unexpected improvement in LEDForce in the non-exposed contralateral leg was likely a consequence of crossed-effects on its spinal and supraspinal feedback control. We discuss the implications of these bilateral effects of unilateral eccentric contractions, their effect on spinal and supraspinal control of dynamic foot-ground interactions, and their potential to facilitate rehabilitation from musculoskeletal and neuromotor impairments.

  7. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can make symptoms worse, is recommended. Taking vitamin and mineral supplements that contain vitamin C and iron may help if iron levels ... Hemorrhage of blood vessels in the brain (stroke) Lyme disease Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Health ...

  8. A simple rule for quadrupedal gait generation determined by leg loading feedback: a modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Habu, Yasushi; Fukui, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    We discovered a specific rule for generating typical quadrupedal gaits (the order of the movement of four legs) through a simulated quadrupedal locomotion, in which unprogrammed gaits (diagonal/lateral sequence walks, left/right-lead canters, and left/right-lead transverse gallops) spontaneously emerged because of leg loading feedbacks to the CPGs hard-wired to produce a default trot. Additionally, all gaits transitioned according to speed, as seen in animals. We have therefore hypothesized that various gaits derive from a trot because of posture control through leg loading feedback. The body tilt on the two support legs of each diagonal pair during trotting was classified into three types (level, tilted up, or tilted down) according to speed. The load difference between the two legs led to the phase difference between their CPGs via the loading feedbacks, resulting in nine gaits (32: three tilts to the power of two diagonal pairs) including the aforementioned.

  9. 78 FR 49382 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... English, reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and computer skills that are essential to successful job... education advisor: Education Services Specialist, Education Services Officer (ESO), Voluntary...

  10. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders. PMID:26504610

  11. Dynamics of Voluntary Cough Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naire, Shailesh

    2008-11-01

    Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.

  12. Quantitation of progressive muscle fatigue during dynamic leg exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulco, C S; Lewis, S F; Frykman, Peter

    1995-01-01

    to quadriceps femoris. The slope of the linear relationship between O2 uptake and work rate was 13.7 ml O2/W (r = 0.93). This slope and the increase of heart rate relative to increasing work intensity agreed with published values for D leg exercise. Test-retest values for O2 uptake were similar (P > 0...... (*P rates). Virtually identical declines in MVC were observed by the end of graded work rate DKE and submaximal constant work rate DKE tests. Quantitation of progressive muscle fatigue during D leg exercise provides a framework to study the effects of a variety......There is virtually no published information on muscle fatigue, defined as a gradual decline in force-generating capacity, during conventional dynamic (D) leg exercise. To quantitate progression of fatigue, we developed 1) a model featuring integration of maximal voluntary static contraction (MVC...

  13. The keystone-design perforator-based flap for leg defects: a synthesis of philosophies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R John

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The classical keystone-design flap, although elegantly employed for various trunk defects, has limited movement on the leg. This study aims to modify the keystone-design flaps for leg defects. Methods: A keystone-design flap, in which perforators are identified and dissected, is described specifically for elliptical defects overlying the tibia. Results: It retains the unique advantages of both the perforator island flap concept as well as the keystone-design philosophy. Conclusion: The technique as well as the possibilities of raising such flaps over various areas of the leg is outlined.

  14. Painless Legs and Moving Toes as an Initial Presentation of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Mi Oh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Painless legs and moving toes is an unusual syndrome, which has not previously been reported as an initial presentation of ischemic stroke. We encountered a 78-year-old woman who developed dysarthria and involuntary movement of her left toes that was clinically regarded as painless legs and moving toes. These symptoms appeared abruptly and simultaneously as the initial symptoms of stroke, and improved gradually with conservative management by intravenous hydration for a month. We suggest that, in our case, a cortical brain lesion caused by ischemic stroke might be associated with the development of painless legs and moving toes.

  15. Remote guidance of untrained turtles by controlling voluntary instinct behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serin Lee

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been carried out on the direct control of behavior in insects and other lower animals in order to apply these behaviors to the performance of specialized tasks in an attempt to find more efficient means of carrying out these tasks than artificial intelligence agents. While most of the current methods cause involuntary behavior in animals by electronically stimulating the corresponding brain area or muscle, we show that, in turtles, it is also possible to control certain types of behavior, such as movement trajectory, by evoking an appropriate voluntary instinctive behavior. We have found that causing a particular behavior, such as obstacle avoidance, by providing a specific visual stimulus results in effective control of the turtle's movement. We propose that this principle may be adapted and expanded into a general framework to control any animal behavior as an alternative to robotic probes.

  16. Association between restless leg syndrom and slow coronary flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, İsmail; Çakcak Erden, Emine; Durmuş, Hacer; Tıbıllı, Hakan; Tabakçı, Mustafa; Kalkan, Mehmet Emin; Türker, Yasin; Akçakoyun, Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sleep disorder in which patients feel unpleasent leg sensations and urge to move the legs during rest, especially at night, and symptoms are improved by leg movement. Prior studies analyzing the associations between cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome has shown controversial results. The goal of the study was to estimate the relationship between restless legs syndrome and slow coronary flow (SCF). The present study was cross-sectional and observational and consists of 176 individuals who underwent coronary angiography and had angiographically normal coronary arteries of varying coronary flow rates. The study included 86 patients with isolated SCF and 90 control participants with normal coronary flow (NCF). RLS was assessed the day after the coronry flow was evaluated, using a self-administered questionnaire based on the International Restless Legs Study Group criteria. The following question was asked: "Do you have unpleasant leg sensations (like crawling, paraesthesia, or pain) combined with motor restlessness and an urge to move?" The possible responses were as follows: no, less than once/month, 2-4 times/month, 5-14 times/month, and 15 or more times per month. Those who answered that they had these feelings were asked the following two more questions: 1) "Do these symptoms occur only at rest and does moving improve them?" and 2) "Are these symptoms worsen in the evening/at night compared with the morning?" RLS is considered to be probable if the participant has answered "yes" for all three of the above questions, and has a frequency of ≥5 times/month. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, multiple logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of restless legs syndrome was 48 (27%) and increased significantly with age. Patients with SCF have more likely had RLS than the control group (p<0.001). The age-adjusted prevalence odds of SCF were 3.11 times higher (95% CI: 1

  17. Intersegmental coordination of walking movements in stick insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwar, Björn Ch; Göritz, Marie L; Schmidt, Joachim

    2005-03-01

    Locomotion requires the coordination of movements across body segments, which in walking animals is expressed as gaits. We studied the underlying neural mechanisms of this coordination in a semi-intact walking preparation of the stick insect Carausius morosus. During walking of a single front leg on a treadmill, leg motoneuron (MN) activity tonically increased and became rhythmically modulated in the ipsilateral deafferented and deefferented mesothoracic (middle leg) ganglion. The pattern of modulation was correlated with the front leg cycle and specific for a given MN pool, although it was not consistent with functional leg movements for all MN pools. In an isolated preparation of a pair of ganglia, where one ganglion was made rhythmically active by application of pilocarpine, we found no evidence for coupling between segmental central pattern generators (CPGs) that could account for the modulation of MN activity observed in the semi-intact walking preparation. However, a third preparation provided evidence that signals from the front leg's femoral chordotonal organ (fCO) influenced activity of ipsilateral MNs in the adjacent mesothoracic ganglion. These intersegmental signals could be partially responsible for the observed MN activity modulation during front leg walking. While afferent signals from a single walking front leg modulate the activity of MNs in the adjacent segment, additional afferent signals, local or from contralateral or posterior legs, might be necessary to produce the functional motor pattern observed in freely walking animals.

  18. Force depression following muscle shortening in sub-maximal voluntary contractions of human adductor pollicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub

  19. Voluntary driven elbow orthosis with speed controlled tremor suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eHerrnstadt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology is gradually becoming commonplace in the medical sector and in the service of patients. Medical conditions that have benefited from significant technological development include stroke, for which rehabilitation with robotic devices is administered, and surgery assisted by robots. Robotic devices have also been proposed for assistance of movement disorders. Pathological tremor, among the most common movement disorders, is such one example. In practice, the dissemination and availability of tremor suppression robotic systems has been limited. Devices in the marketplace tend to either be non-ambulatory or to target specific functions such as eating and drinking.We have developed a one degree-of-freedom (DOF elbow orthosis that could be worn by an individual with tremor. A speed controlled voluntary driven suppression approach is implemented with the orthosis. Typically tremor suppression methods estimate the tremor component of the signal and produce a canceling counterpart signal. The suggested approach, instead estimates the voluntary component of the motion. A controller then actuates the orthosis based on the voluntary signal while simultaneously rejecting the tremorous motion.In this work, we tested the suppressive orthosis using a 1 DOF robotic system that simulates the human arm. The suggested suppression approach does not require a model of the human arm. Moreover, the human input along with the orthosis forearm gravitational forces, of nonlinear nature, are considered as part of the disturbance to the suppression system. Therefore, the suppression system can be modeled linearly. Nevertheless, the orthosis forearm gravitational forces can be compensated by the suppression system.The electromechanical design of the orthosis is presented, and data from an Essential Tremor patient is used as the human input. Velocity tracking results demonstrate an RMS error of 0.31 rad/s, and a power spectral density shows a reduction of

  20. EFFECTS OF VIEWING DISTANCE AND HEAD FLEXION ON POSTURAL CONTROL DURING ONE AND TWO-LEGGED STANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Aoki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Short viewing distances and head flexion decrease and increase postural sway, respectively. Few studies have examined the effects of these factors during one-legged stance or voluntary body leaning within the base of support, both of which often occur in daily life. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of viewing distance and head flexion in several postural control conditions. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy young subjects participated in this study, and center of pressure (CoP displacement was measured in five conditions (gazing 600 cm forward, 150 cm forward, downward, forward with eyes closed, and downward with eyes closed during two- and one-legged stances and voluntary body leaning. Measurements included that the root mean square (RMS of the anteroposterior (A-P and mediolateral (M-L directions during two- and one-legged stance, and maximum A-P and M-L distances during voluntary body leaning. Results: Our results showed that the M-L RMS of 150 cm was less than that of 600 cm during one-legged stance (p = 0.01. Moreover, the A-P and M-L RMS values of downward gazing were lower than those of 600 cm (A-P RMS: p = 0.003 and M-L RMS: p = 0.002. The M-L distances of 150 cm and downward were larger than that of 600 cm (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the effect of viewing distance was more evident during one-legged stance and voluntary body leaning.

  1. 75 FR 47504 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... America. TTT helps relieve teacher shortages, especially in math, science, special education, and other... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 68 RIN 0790-AI50 Voluntary Education Programs AGENCY: Office of the... for the operation of voluntary education programs within DoD. Included are: Procedures for Service...

  2. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mária Jármai, Erzsébet; Palányi, Ildikó Zsupanekné

    2015-01-01

    The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR…

  3. 14 CFR 234.7 - Voluntary reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary reporting. 234.7 Section 234.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY PERFORMANCE REPORTS § 234.7 Voluntary reporting. (a) In addition to the...

  4. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  5. 12 CFR 546.4 - Voluntary dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary dissolution. 546.4 Section 546.4... ASSOCIATIONS-MERGER, DISSOLUTION, REORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 546.4 Voluntary dissolution. A Federal savings association's board of directors may propose a plan for dissolution of the association. The plan...

  6. Flexibility in infant actions during arm- and leg-based learning in a mobile paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2009-01-01

    To understand young infants' flexible changes of learned actions when abrupt environmental changes occur, we examined fifty-four 3-month-olds who performed a mobile task, in which they learned to move the mobile by a string attached to their arms or legs (arm-based or leg-based learning). We manipulated the order of tests-arm to leg (AL) and leg to arm (LA)-and observed the time course of motion of four limbs. The infants in the AL condition showed a differentiated movement pattern, in which the movement of the connected arm was dominant, and when the connected limb changed, they immediately inhibited the prior movement pattern. The infants in the LA condition produced undifferentiated movement pattern of multiple limbs, which was maintained even when the critical limb was changed. The results suggest that the infants' flexibility of actions in a novel situation depends on the prior experience. We speculate neural mechanisms, which may underlie the difference between the arm-based and leg-based learning.

  7. Bilateral restless legs affecting a phantom limb, treated with dopamine agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, F M; Drago, Valeria; Foster, P S; Heilman, K M

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterised by unpleasant sensations deep inside the legs, which usually occurs at rest and especially at night. These sensations are accompanied by an urge to move the limb, and movements result in a temporary relief of the symptoms. The pathophysiology of RLS is not completely known, especially the role of afferent feedback. An individual with a below the knee amputation who developed restless legs in his real and phantom limbs is reported. A 54-year-old man with a left leg amputation 22 years ago developed RLS, primarily at night, that met the International RLS Study Group's criteria for RLS. This RLS, however, involved both his real and phantom lower limbs. Movement and phantom movements, as well as treatment with dopamine agonists, relieved this symptom in both the real and amputated limbs. However, creating an image of the limb moving without "moving" the limb did not improve the uncomfortable sensations in either limb. That restless legs can occur simultaneously in a phantom as well as a real limb and that the perception of movement in a phantom limb as well as dopaminergic treatment improved the symptoms provides further support for the important role of central nervous system dysfunction in the development of this disorder.

  8. Leg ulcers due to hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Shankar D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic leg ulcers are rare in young adults and generally indicate a vascular cause. We report a case of a 26-year-old man with leg ulcers of eight months duration. Doppler study indicated venous incompetence and a postphlebitic limb. However, as the distribution and number of ulcers was not consistent with stasis alone and no features of collagen vascular disease were noted, a hyperviscosity state was considered and confirmed with significantly elevated homocysteine level in the serum. Administration of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, trimethyl-glycine, mecobalamine, folic acid and povidone iodine dressings with culture-directed antibiotic therapy led to a satisfactory healing of ulcers over a period of one month. Hyperhomocysteinemia must be considered in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in young individuals.

  9. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  10. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...... Communication towards Children (hereafter: CODE) – with its dependence on a supportive institutional environment and acceptance of as well as dynamics between involved key stakeholders like consumers, political actors and firms – contributes to fighting the obesity pandemic.Thus, we explore within this article...... what information about the process of implementing the CODE as well as about the evolved dynamics between key stakeholders is already available. Here, the recently published report of the PolMark project sheds light on the dynamics between the key stakeholders in relation to the current Danish...

  11. A leg-local neural mechanism mediates the decision to search in stick insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Eva M; Hooper, Scott L; Schmidt, Joachim; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-08-01

    In many animals, individual legs can either function independently, as in behaviors such as scratching or searching, or be used in coordinated patterns with other legs, as in walking or climbing. While the control of walking has been extensively investigated, the mechanisms mediating the behavioral choice to activate individual legs independently are poorly understood. We examined this issue in stick insects, in which each leg can independently produce a rhythmic searching motor pattern if it doesn't find a foothold [1-4]. We show here that one non-spiking interneuron, I4, controls searching behavior in individual legs. One I4 is present in each hemi-segment of the three thoracic ganglia [5, 6]. Search-inducing sensory input depolarizes I4. I4 activity was necessary and sufficient to initiate and maintain searching movements. When substrate contact was provided, I4 depolarization no longer induced searching. I4 therefore both integrates search-inducing sensory input and is gated out by other sensory input (substrate contact). Searching thus occurs only when it is behaviorally appropriate. I4 depolarization never elicited stepping. These data show that individual, locally activated neurons can mediate the behavioral choice to use individual legs independently. This mechanism may be particularly important in insects' front legs, which can function independently like vertebrate arms and hands [7]. Similar local command mechanisms that selectively activate the pattern generators controlling repeated functional units such as legs or body segments may be present in other systems.

  12. Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer E; Tolson, Jerry M

    2008-08-01

    To review the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and its relevance to nurse practitioners (NPs). Comprehensive review of the scientific literature on the diagnosis and treatment of RLS in adults. RLS is a chronic neurological disorder that, with varying degrees of severity, affects 5%-10% of the general population. Because of the circadian pattern of onset, the symptoms of RLS may be associated with significant sleep disturbance and may have a negative impact on quality of life. RLS is characterized by a compelling urge to move the legs and usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable sensations in the legs. Symptoms begin or worsen during periods of rest or inactivity and are worse in the evening or at night. Other features supportive of a diagnosis include a family history, the presence of periodic leg movements in sleep, and the relief of symptoms after treatment with a dopaminergic therapy. Although the etiology of RLS is unknown, it is thought that symptoms result from a central dopaminergic dysfunction and dopamine agonists are considered first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe primary RLS. Nondopaminergic therapies and nonpharmacologic interventions may also be appropriate in the management of less severe cases of RLS. NPs are often the first healthcare providers to see patients with RLS and therefore need to be able to accurately recognize and diagnose the disorder; this, in turn, will enable them to successfully manage the treatment of RLS.

  13. Ropinirole for the treatment of restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Clete A

    2006-01-01

    Dopaminergic agents, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, opiates, and iron supplementation comprise the classes of medications commonly used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is a disorder that is estimated to affect about 1 in 10 individuals worldwide and impacts an affected patient’s sleep, mood, daytime function, and quality of life. RLS is characterized by an urge to move the legs that is worse at bedtime and at rest; the symptoms are temporarily relieved by leg movement. It is frequently accompanied by periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS), which may independently disrupt sleep and may cause daytime drowsiness. Dopaminergic agents are considered to be first-line therapy in the management of RLS as well as PLMS. Ropinirole (Requip®, GlaxoSmithKline) is a dopamine agonist that was the first medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of moderate-to-severe primary RLS. Based on several large-scale clinical trials and open-label clinical series, this medication has been demonstrated to be effective and safe in treating the motor symptoms of RLS and improving sleep quality. PMID:19412490

  14. Movement parameters that distinguish between voluntary movements and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.W.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that long-term use of levodopa by patients with Parkinson's disease causes dyskinesia. Several methods have been proposed for the automatic, unsupervised detection and classification of levodopa induced dyskinesia. Recently, we have demonstrated that neural networks are highly

  15. FAQs on leg ulcer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene; King, Brenda; Knight, Susan; Keynes, Milton

    In a webchat on leg ulcer management issues, hosted by Nursing Times, participants raised three key areas of care: the role of healthcare assistants in compression bandaging; reporting and investigating damage caused by compression therapy; and recommendations for dressings to be used under compression. This article discusses each of these in turn.

  16. Phantom hand and wrist movements in upper limb amputees are slow but naturally controlled movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, J B; Jarrassé, N; Nicol, C; Touillet, A; Coyle, T; Maynard, L; Martinet, N; Paysant, J

    2016-01-15

    After limb amputation, patients often wake up with a vivid perception of the presence of the missing limb, called "phantom limb". Phantom limbs have mostly been studied with respect to pain sensation. But patients can experience many other phantom sensations, including voluntary movements. The goal of the present study was to quantify phantom movement kinematics and relate these to intact limb kinematics and to the time elapsed since amputation. Six upper arm and two forearm amputees with various delays since amputation (6months to 32years) performed phantom finger, hand and wrist movements at self-chosen comfortable velocities. The kinematics of the phantom movements was indirectly obtained via the intact limb that synchronously mimicked the phantom limb movements, using a Cyberglove® for measuring finger movements and an inertial measurement unit for wrist movements. Results show that the execution of phantom movements is perceived as "natural" but effortful. The types of phantom movements that can be performed are variable between the patients but they could all perform thumb flexion/extension and global hand opening/closure. Finger extension movements appeared to be 24% faster than finger flexion movements. Neither the number of types of phantom movements that can be executed nor the kinematic characteristics were related to the elapsed time since amputation, highlighting the persistence of post-amputation neural adaptation. We hypothesize that the perceived slowness of phantom movements is related to altered proprioceptive feedback that cannot be recalibrated by lack of visual feedback during phantom movement execution.

  17. Movement disorders induced by gastrointestinal drugs: two paediatric cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga-Huttenga, J.; Hekster, Y.A.; Bijl, A.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    A number of frequently prescribed gastrointestinal drugs can cause movement disorders in children, as well as in adults. In our centre for paediatric neurology, we saw a 3-year-old girl with abnormal movements mostly of the legs with an inner restlessness (akathisia) while using cisapride. Another

  18. Movement disorders induced by gastrointestinal drugs: two paediatric cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga-Huttenga, J.; Hekster, Y.A.; Bijl, A.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    A number of frequently prescribed gastrointestinal drugs can cause movement disorders in children, as well as in adults. In our centre for paediatric neurology, we saw a 3-year-old girl with abnormal movements mostly of the legs with an inner restlessness (akathisia) while using cisapride. Another p

  19. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview & Facts Causes & Symptoms Self-Tests & Diagnosis Treatment Restless Legs Syndrome - Causes & Symptoms Causes What causes of restless legs syndrome varies from person to person. In some cases ...

  20. Hip proprioceptors preferentially modulate reflexes of the leg in human spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onushko, Tanya; Hyngstrom, Allison; Schmit, Brian D

    2013-07-01

    Stretch-sensitive afferent feedback from hip muscles has been shown to trigger long-lasting, multijoint reflex responses in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). These reflexes could have important implications for control of leg movements during functional activities, such as walking. Because the control of leg movement relies on reflex regulation at all joints of the limb, we sought to determine whether stretch of hip muscles modulates reflex activity at the knee and ankle and, conversely, whether knee and ankle stretch afferents affect hip-triggered reflexes. A custom-built servomotor apparatus was used to stretch the hip muscles in nine chronic SCI subjects by oscillating the legs about the hip joint bilaterally from 10° of extension to 40° flexion. To test whether stretch-related feedback from the knee or ankle would be affected by hip movement, patellar tendon percussions and Achilles tendon vibration were delivered when the hip was either extending or flexing. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) and joint torques were recorded from both legs. Patellar tendon percussions and Achilles tendon vibration both elicited reflex responses local to the knee or ankle, respectively, and did not influence reflex responses observed at the hip. Rather, the movement direction of the hip modulated the reflex responses local to the joint. The patellar tendon reflex amplitude was larger when the perturbation was delivered during hip extension compared with hip flexion. The response to Achilles vibration was modulated by hip movement, with an increased tonic component during hip flexion compared with extension. These results demonstrate that hip-mediated sensory signals modulate activity in distal muscles of the leg and appear to play a unique role in modulation of spastic muscle activity throughout the leg in SCI.

  1. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  2. Pediatric restless legs syndrome diagnostic criteria: an update by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchietti, Daniel L; Bruni, Oliviero; de Weerd, Al; Durmer, Jeffrey S; Kotagal, Suresh; Owens, Judith A; Simakajornboon, Narong

    2013-12-01

    Specific diagnostic criteria for pediatric restless legs syndrome (RLS) were published in 2003 following a workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Due to substantial new research and revision of the adult RLS diagnostic criteria, a task force was chosen by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) to consider updates to the pediatric diagnostic criteria. A committee of seven pediatric RLS experts developed a set of 15 consensus questions to review, conducted a comprehensive literature search, and extensively discussed potential revisions. The committee recommendations were approved by the IRLSSG executive committee and reviewed by the IRLSSG membership. The pediatric RLS diagnostic criteria were simplified and integrated with the newly revised adult RLS criteria. Specific recommendations were developed for pediatric application of the criteria, including consideration of typical words used by children to describe their symptoms. Pediatric aspects of differential diagnosis, comorbidity, and clinical significance were then defined. In addition, the research criteria for probable and possible pediatric RLS were updated and criteria for a related condition, periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD), were clarified. Revised diagnostic criteria for pediatric RLS have been developed, which are intended to improve clinical practice and promote further research. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  4. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Hayano, Junichiro; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Mano, Tadaaki

    2004-05-01

    Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied muscles remain unknown. We hypothesized that bed rest would augment sympathetic responses to isometric exercise using antigravity leg muscles in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers were subjected to 14-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Before and after bed rest, they performed isometric exercises using leg (plantar flexion) and forearm (handgrip) muscles, followed by 2-min postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) that continues to stimulate the muscle metaboreflex. These exercises were sustained to fatigue. We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the contralateral resting leg by microneurography. In both pre- and post-bed-rest exercise tests, exercise intensities were set at 30 and 70% of the maximum voluntary force measured before bed rest. Bed rest attenuated the increase in MSNA in response to fatiguing plantar flexion by approximately 70% at both exercise intensities (both P antigravity leg muscles.

  5. [Slowly progressive anarthria and disturbed voluntary respiration--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eiyai; Uchihara, Toshiki; Machida, Akira; Watabiki, Sadakiyo

    2007-06-01

    A 68 year-old right-handed male initially felt an abnormal sensation in the throat and slight difficulties in phonation and articulation. The difficulties slowly progressed. Dementia and kinetic disorder of limbs has not been observed over two years after onset. Although bilateral cortico-bulbar tract sign such as pathological laughter was noted. His articulatory movements were small and indistinct. Phonation was slightly explosive and breathy as if panting out. His clinical feature could be differentiated from primary progressive aphasia because he was not aphasic with excellent word finding, and fell into the realm of progressive anarthria. On SPECT, hypoperfusion was seen in the left frontal region, the left parieto-temporal region, and the right frontal region to a lesser extent. A peculiarity of the patient was in that he had accompanied a difficulty in voluntary inspiration such as taking a deep breath. Because fiberoptic examination of the larynx demonstrated that the vocal cords opened normally when he tried to take a deep breath, the difficulty in inspiration was best explained by loss of voluntary control over diaphragmatic contractions. On voluntary expiration, sustained blowing through the pursued lips (soft blowing) was not successful either. On the other hand, blowing out several candles one by one or blowing up a balloon (hard blowing) was successful. In soft blowing, a voluntary and meticulous control of the diaphragm is necessary to counteract the spontaneous recoil of the lungs. In hard blowing, expiratory muscles may contract forcefully without participation of the diaphragm. This discrepancy is again explained by loss of voluntary control over the diaphragmatic movements. This deficit could have affected phonation; maintaining an adequate vibration on the vocal cords for a certain period of time, it is necessary to control the subglotal pressure at an appropriate level by diaphragmatic control. We believe this is the first patient with a

  6. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodson, Paul D.; Dreyer, Jakob K.; Jennings, Katie Ann

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to ...

  7. [Restless legs syndrome and nocturnal leg pain : Differential diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, M; Stiasny-Kolster, K; Evers, S; Happe, S

    2011-09-01

    Pain in the legs belongs to the five most frequent regional pain symptoms. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) presents a particular differential diagnosis for pain in the legs, which is characterized by a nocturnal urge to move the legs often associated with painful sensations in the legs. It is one of the most common neurological disorders and probably the leading cause of nocturnal pain in the legs. In this overview, the diagnosis and therapy of RLS as well as aspects of pain therapy of the disorder are presented. In addition, the differential diagnoses for exclusion of other specific causes of nocturnal pain in the legs are discussed.

  8. Anticipatory signatures of voluntary memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Leipold, Philipp; Pastötter, Bernhard; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-03-04

    Voluntary memory suppression can keep unwanted memories from entering consciousness, inducing later forgetting of the information. In the present study, we searched for the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating such voluntary memory suppression. Using the think/no-think paradigm, subjects received a cue whether to prepare to think of a previously studied cue-target pair or whether to not let a previously studied cue-target pair enter consciousness. Examining event-related potentials, we identified two electrophysiological processes of voluntary memory suppression: (1) an early anticipatory process operating before the memory cue for a to-be-suppressed memory was provided, and (2) a later process operating after memory cue presentation. Both ERP effects were due to a decreased right frontal and left parietal positivity. They were positively related and predicted later forgetting. The results point to the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating voluntary memory suppression.

  9. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  10. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  11. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  12. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism.......This paper draws attention to the importance of the understanding of voluntary actions in the free market construct. Failing to understand the role of voluntary actions in the free market construct will often result in discussions of capitalism versus socialism focusing on asset ownership...... and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...

  13. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  14. Pull factors of Finland and voluntary work

    OpenAIRE

    Jurvakainen, Janika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies pull factors of Finland and voluntary work. The aim of this study is to understand the pull factors of Finland from the perspective of young travelers. Which pull factors attract to choose Finland as their destination? In addition, which pull factors attract young travelers to participate in international voluntary work? The commissioner of this thesis is Allianssi Youth Exchange. The thesis is research-based and includes a quantitative Webropol survey and some qualit...

  15. The effect of neoprene shorts on leg proprioception in Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Matthew L; Adams, Roger D; Maher, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Our purpose was to assess the effect of wearing close-fitting neoprene shorts on swinging leg movement discrimination (MD) scores in elite level Australian Football players. Twenty players had their swinging leg MD assessed using the active movement extent discrimination apparatus (AMEDA), once wearing close-fitting neoprene and once wearing loose-fitting running shorts. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of the shorts conditions prior to repeating the test in the other condition. The AMEDA was used to assess the accuracy at which subjects judge the extent of a standing backward swinging leg movement corresponding to the late swing early stance phase of running. Each subject performed 40 movements made to one of five randomly set physical limits, and without the aid of vision made a judgment as to the perceived limit position. From the accuracy of these judgments, a movement discrimination (MD) score was calculated for each subject under each condition. Subjects were grouped as having low or high neuromuscular control, or ability to use proprioception when controlling active movements without vision, based on their loose-shorts MD score. Analysis was performed on the MD scores obtained for each limb from subjects in the two groups, under the two shorts-wearing conditions. There was no main effect of wearing close-fitting shorts when the cohort was treated as a whole. A significant interaction effect was obtained (F=17.027, p=0.0006) whereby the mean MD score of the low neuromuscular control ability group was improved when wearing neoprene shorts but was reduced for the high ability group. Wearing close-fitting neoprene shorts has a beneficial effect on leg swing judgment accuracy in subjects with low neuromuscular control ability. Conversely, leg swing judgment accuracy for subjects with high ability was reduced by wearing neoprene shorts.

  16. Multiple Chaotic Central Pattern Generators with Learning for Legged Locomotion and Malfunction Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guanjiao; Chen, Weihai; Dasgupta, Sakyasingha

    2015-01-01

    on a simulated annealing algorithm. In a normal situation, the CPGs synchronize and their dynamics are identical. With leg malfunction or disability, the CPGs lose synchronization leading to independent dynamics. In this case, the learning mechanism is applied to automatically adjust the remaining legs...... chaotic CPG controller has difficulties dealing with leg malfunction. Specifically, in the scenarios presented here, its movement permanently deviates from the desired trajectory. To address this problem, we extend the single chaotic CPG to multiple CPGs with learning. The learning mechanism is based...... in a physical simulation of a quadruped as well as a hexapod robot and finally in a real six-legged walking machine called AMOSII. The experimental results presented here reveal that using multiple CPGs with learning is an effective approach for adaptive locomotion generation where, for instance, different body...

  17. Common mechanics of mode switching in locomotion of limbless and legged animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Shigeru; Kunita, Itsuki; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Ishiguro, Akio; Kobayashi, Ryo; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-06

    Crawling using muscular waves is observed in many species, including planaria, leeches, nemertea, aplysia, snails, chitons, earthworms and maggots. Contraction or extension waves propagate along the antero-posterior axis of the body as the crawler pushes the ground substratum backward. However, the observation that locomotory waves can be directed forward or backward has attracted much attention over the past hundred years. Legged organisms such as centipedes and millipedes exhibit parallel phenomena; leg tips form density waves that propagate backward or forward. Mechanical considerations reveal that leg-density waves play a similar role to locomotory waves in limbless species, and that locomotory waves are used by a mechanism common to both legged and limbless species to achieve crawling. Here, we report that both mode switching of the wave direction and friction control were achieved when backward motion was induced in the laboratory. We show that the many variations of switching in different animals can essentially be classified in two types according to mechanical considerations. We propose that during their evolution, limbless crawlers first moved in a manner similar to walking before legs were obtained. Therefore, legged crawlers might have learned the mechanical mode of movement involved in walking long before obtaining legs.

  18. [Compartment syndrome in bilateral lower legs after total cystectomy: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Takayuki; Utsunomiya, Noriaki; Segawa, Takehiko; Muguruma, Koei; Ichikawa, Koichi; Kawakita, Mutsushi

    2011-02-01

    We report a case of compartment syndrome in bilateral lower legs after total cystectomy with urethrectomy and ileal conduit diversion. A 64-year-old man who had diabetes mellitus for 20 years underwent an operation for invasive bladder cancer. He was placed in the lithotomy position and both lower legs were protected with an elastic stocking and intermittent pneumatic compression for prevention of deep vein thrombosis during the operation. Seven hours postoperatively, he complained of bilateral calf pain. Eleven hours postoperatively, skin redness, swelling, movement and sensory disorder of bilateral lower legs were found. Contrasting computed tomography (CT) of lower legs showed the swelling of bilateral soleus muscles and gastrocnemius muscles without any contrasting effect. Creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) increased to 46, 740 IU/l and the intramuscular pressure was 50 mmHg. He was diagnosed with compartment syndrome, in bilateral lower legs and emergent fasciotomy was performed. Bilateral calf pain was improved immediately after fasciotomy and could walk on his own after rehabilitation. Lower leg compartment syndrome is an uncommon disease but may require lower leg amputation or result in death if the treatment is delayed. Urologists should recognize this disease as a complication after prolonged operation in the lithotomy position.

  19. Elastic actuation for legged locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chongjing; Conn, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The inherent elasticity of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) gives this technology great potential in energy efficient locomotion applications. In this work, a modular double cone DEA is developed with reduced manufacturing and maintenance time costs. This actuator can lift 45 g of mass (5 times its own weight) while producing a stroke of 10.4 mm (23.6% its height). The contribution of the elastic energy stored in antagonistic DEA membranes to the mechanical work output is experimentally investigated by adding delay into the DEA driving voltage. Increasing the delay time in actuation voltage and hence reducing the duty cycle is found to increase the amount of elastic energy being recovered but an upper limit is also noticed. The DEA is then applied to a three-segment leg that is able to move up and down by 17.9 mm (9% its initial height), which demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing this DEA design in legged locomotion.

  20. 47 CFR 80.310 - Watch required by voluntary vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Watches § 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC must.... Voluntary vessels equipped with VHF-DSC equipment must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz and on either 156.525... used to communicate. Voluntary vessels equipped with MF-HF DSC equipment must have the radio turned...

  1. A review of current treatment strategies for restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Cova, Ilaria; Gupta, Sheena; Chaudhuri, Kallol Ray

    2014-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), recently renamed Willis-Ekbom disease (WED), is a common movement disorder. It is characterised by the need to move mainly the legs due to uncomfortable, sometimes painful sensations in the legs, which have a diurnal variation and a release with movement. Management is complex. First, centres should establish the severity of RLS using a simple 10-item RLS severity rating scale (IRLS). They should also exclude secondary causes, in particular ensuring normal iron levels. Mild cases can be managed by lifestyle changes, but patients with a IRLS score above 15 usually require pharmacological treatment. Dopaminergic therapies remain the mainstay of medical therapies, with recent evidence suggesting opioids may be particularly effective. This article focuses on the different treatment strategies in RLS, their associated complications and ways to manage them. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  2. Foot loading characteristics during three fencing-specific movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Caroline; Martinelli, Nicolo; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Plantar pressure characteristics during fencing movements may provide more specific information about the influence of foot loading on overload injury patterns. Twenty-nine experienced fencers participated in the study. Three fencing-specific movements (lunge, advance, retreat) and normal running were performed with three different shoe models: Ballestra (Nike, USA), Adistar Fencing Lo (Adidas, Germany), and the fencers' own shoes. The Pedar system (Novel, Munich, Germany) was used to collect plantar pressures at 50 Hz. Peak pressures, force-time integrals and contact times for five foot regions were compared between four athletic tasks in the lunge leg and supporting leg. Plantar pressure analysis revealed characteristic pressure distribution patterns for the fencing movements. For the lunge leg, during the lunge and advance movements the heel is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. For the supporting leg, during the lunge and advance movements the forefoot is predominantly loaded; during retreat, it is the hallux. Fencing-specific movements load the plantar surface in a distinct way compared with running. An effective cushioning in the heel and hallux region would help to minimize foot loading during fencing-specific movements.

  3. Effect of sensory stimuli on restless legs syndrome: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeman, Anouk D; Ottolini, Truus; Grootendorst, Diana C; Vogels, Oscar J M; Rijsman, Roselyne M

    2014-08-15

    A variety of sensory stimuli relieve restless legs syndrome symptoms. Because systematic evaluations of sensory stimulation in restless legs syndrome are largely lacking, we performed a randomized crossover study to evaluate the effect of external sensory stimulation on restless legs syndrome symptoms. Eighteen patients underwent 3 consecutive suggestive immobilization tests with the order of the following 3 conditions randomly assigned: no electrical stimulation (condition 1), tactile and proprioceptive sensory stimulation (condition 2), and tactile sensory stimulation only (condition 3). Restless legs syndrome symptoms were quantified by visual analog scales, and periodic leg movements during wake were measured. Baseline visual analogue scale score was 4.5 (range 0-60) in condition 1, 10.5 (range 0-96) in condition 2, and 8.5 in condition 3 (p = 0.21). There was a tendency towards a higher maximum visual analogue scale score and visual analogue scale score at the end of the suggested immobilization test in the conditions with tactile sensory stimulation, though not significant (p = 0.74 and p = 0.29, respectively). Fifteen patients suffered from periodic leg movements during wake. Median indices were 18 (range 0-145) in condition 1, 26 (range 0-190) in condition 2, and 49 (range 0-228) in condition 3 (p = 0.76). We found a tendency towards less leg discomfort in the conditions in which an external sensory input was applied. This potential benefit of sensory stimuli on restless legs syndrome severity merits further investigation as this could open new ways towards a better pathophysiological understanding and non-pharmacological treatments.

  4. Regulation of animal experimentation: Canada's program of voluntary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, H C

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), is an autonomous advisory and supervisory body responsible for surveillance of experimental animal care and use in Canada's universities, government laboratories and pharmaceutical houses. Its 20-organization membership includes representatives of government, industry, academia and the humane movement. CCAC's voluntary peer review program depends heavily on institutional animal care committees who evaluate the ethical aspects of animal study protocols, and provide day-to-day surveillance of animal care. Its scientific teams, each of which also includes an appointee of the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies (CFHS), conduct assessments based on CCAC's "Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals" (Volume 1, 1980; Volume 2, 1984). Canada's two major funding agencies, the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), have recently stated that, in the event of an institution's continued non-compliance with CCAC requirements, sanctions may include the "freezing or withdrawal of any or all research programs funded by either or both Research Councils in an institution". This presentation describes the CCAC program of voluntary peer review and examines historic aspects of animal issues in Canada, from that country's early reliance on the fur trade, to today's almost defunct harp seal fishery, from Banting and Best's discovery of insulin, to development of the pacemaker.

  5. Isokinetic Leg Flexion and Extension Strength of Elite Adolescent Female Track and Field Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housh, Terry J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Adolescent female track-and-field athletes were measured to compare isokinetic strength of leg flexion and extension movements. Throwers, jumpers, middle-distance runners, and sprinters participated in the study. Throwers were found to be stronger in absolute strength, but there were no significant differences in relative strength. Results are…

  6. Biologically Inspired Modular Neural Control for a Leg-Wheel Hybrid Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Wörgötter, Florentin; Laksanacharoen, Pudit

    2014-01-01

    processing and state memorization. Its outputs drive two front wheels while the rear wheel is controlled through a velocity regulating network (VRN) module. In parallel, a neural oscillator network module serves as a central pattern generator (CPG) controls leg movements for sidestepping. Stepping directions...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF LOWER LIMB MOVEMENT ON UPPER LIMB MOVEMENT SYMMETRY WHILE SWIMMING THE BREASTSTROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaszczak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study 1 examined the influence of lower limb movement on upper limb movement symmetry, 2 determined the part of the propulsion phase displaying the greatest hand movement asymmetry, 3 diagnosed the range of upper limb propulsion phase which is the most prone to the influence of the lower limbs while swimming the breaststroke. Twenty-four participants took part in two tests. Half of them performed an asymmetrical leg movement. The propulsion in the first test was generated by four limbs while in the second one only by the upper limbs. The pressure differentials exerted by the water on the back and on the palm of the right and left hand were measured. Then, the asymmetry coefficient of the hand movement was determined. No changes in the level of the asymmetry index in participants performing correct (symmetrical lower limb movement were observed. Incorrect (asymmetrical leg motion resulted in an increase of hand asymmetry. It could be concluded that lower limb faults neutralize upper limb performance when swimming on a rectilinear path. However, most asymmetrical arm performance should be identified with the conversion of propulsion into recovery. Nevertheless, its proneness to influence improper leg performance might be expected at the beginning of arm propulsion.

  8. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verneau; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes.

  9. Relationships between skinfold thickness and electromyographic and mechanomyographic amplitude recorded during voluntary and non-voluntary muscle actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Phillip M; Fry, Andrew C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible correlations between skinfold thicknesses and the a terms from the log-transformed electromyographic (EMGRMS) and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS)-force relationships, EMG M-Waves, and MMG gross lateral movements (GLM). Forty healthy subjects performed a 6-s isometric ramp contraction from 5% to 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction with EMG and MMG sensors placed on the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). A single electrical stimulus was applied to the femoral nerve to record the EMG M-waves and MMG GLMs. Skinfold thickness was assessed at the site of each electrode. Pearson's product correlation coefficients were calculated comparing skinfold thicknesses with the a terms from the log-transformed EMGRMS-and MMGRMS-force relationships, EMG M-waves, and MMG GLMs. There were no significant cor1relations (p>0.05) between the a terms and skinfold thicknesses for the RF and VL from the EMGRMS and MMGRMS-force relationships. However, there were significant correlations (pskinfold thicknesses and the EMG M-waves and MMG GLMs for the RF (r=-0.521, -0.376) and VL (r=-0.479, -0.484). Relationships were only present between skinfold thickness and the amplitudes of the EMG and MMG signals during the non-voluntary muscle actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 设计师访谈:Three Legged Legs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOE; RUSS

    2007-01-01

    Greg Gunn、Casey Hunt和Reza Rasoli,又称Three Legged Legs。于2006年获得了全球学生动画奖(Global Student Animation Award)。现在他们又带回了一个精彩的新短片《Samurai》。我们自然也不会放过这次机会,看看能不能了解到更多内幕信息。

  11. Contralateral leg deficits in kinetic and kinematic variables during running in Australian rules football players with previous hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Kinsella, Dave; Nosaka, Ken

    2010-09-01

    Contralateral leg deficits between lower limbs during athletic movements are thought to increase the risk of injury and compromise performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude of leg deficits during running in noninjured and previously injured Australian Rules football (ARF) players. The players included a group of noninjured ARF players (n = 11) and a group of previously injured ARF players (n = 11; hamstring injuries only). The players in the injured group (IG) had at least 1 acute hamstring injury in the previous 2 years. The legs of the noninjured players (NIG) were classified as right and left, whereas the legs of the injured players were classified as injured or noninjured. The players ran on a nonmotorized force treadmill at approximately 80% of their maximum velocity (Vmax). For the NIG, there were no significant differences between right and left legs for any of the variables. For the IG, the only variable that was significantly (p velocities.

  12. Precocious locomotor behavior begins in the egg: development of leg muscle patterns for stepping in the chick.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young U Ryu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chicken is capable of adaptive locomotor behavior within hours after hatching, yet little is known of the processes leading to this precocious skill. During the final week of incubation, chick embryos produce distinct repetitive limb movements that until recently had not been investigated. In this study we examined the leg muscle patterns at 3 time points as development of these spontaneous movements unfolds to determine if they exhibit attributes of locomotion reported in hatchlings. We also sought to determine whether the deeply flexed posture and movement constraint imposed by the shell wall modulate the muscle patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Synchronized electromyograms for leg muscles, force and video were recorded continuously from embryos while in their naturally flexed posture at embryonic day (E 15, E18 and E20. We tested for effects of leg posture and constraint by removing shell wall anterior to the foot. Results indicated that by E18, burst onset time distinguished leg muscle synergists from antagonists across a 10-fold range in burst frequencies (1-10 Hz, and knee extensors from ankle extensors in patterns comparable to locomotion at hatching. However, burst durations did not scale with step cycle duration in any of the muscles recorded. Despite substantially larger leg movements after shell removal, the knee extensor was the only muscle to vary its activity, and extensor muscles often failed to participate. To further clarify if the repetitive movements are likely locomotor-related, we examined bilateral coordination of ankle muscles during repetitive movements at E20. In all cases ankle muscles exhibited a bias for left/right alternation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the findings lead us to conclude that the repetitive leg movements in late stage embryos are locomotor-related and a fundamental link in the establishment of precocious locomotor skill. The potential importance of differences

  13. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-08-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

  14. Restless legs syndrome: pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkwalder, Claudia; Paulus, Walter

    2010-06-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a somatosensory network disorder that is clinically diagnosed according to four main criteria: an urge to move the legs, usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations; induction or exacerbation of symptoms by rest; symptom relief on activity; and diurnal fluctuations in symptoms with worsening in the evening and at night. Genetic variants in four chromosomal regions have been identified that increase the risk of RLS. In addition, various different lesions, ranging from peripheral neuropathies to spinal cord lesions or alterations of brain metabolism, are implicated in RLS. In most cases, sleep disorders with frequent sleep fragmentation and characteristic periodic limb movements during sleep can be identified during a polysomnographic recording. The first-line drugs for RLS are dopaminergic agents, which are effective in low to moderate doses. Alternative or additional treatments include opioids and anticonvulsants. Augmentation-paradoxical worsening of symptoms by dopaminergic treatment-is the main problem encountered in difficult-to-treat patients. Iron deficiency must be identified and treated by supplementation, both to improve RLS symptoms and to potentially lower the risk of augmentation. Here, we review the latest studies pertaining to the pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management of RLS.

  15. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-of...

  16. [Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorayeb, I; Tison, F

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic sensorimotor disorder where patients complain of an almost irresistible urge to move their legs. This urge can often be accompanied by pain or other unpleasant sensations, it either occurs or worsens with rest particularly at night, and improves with activity. The International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group has established four essential criteria for clinical diagnosis of RLS. Affecting an estimated 7.2 to 11.5% of the adult population, the symptoms of RLS may be associated with significant sleep disturbance and may have a negative impact on quality of life. The prevalence of RLS increases with age, and women are more frequently affected than men. In France, the estimated prevalence is 8.5%. Among sufferers, 4.4% complain of very severe symptoms. Although RLS is mainly idiopathic, several clinical conditions have been associated with it, especially iron deficiency with or without anemia, end-stage renal disease and pregnancy. These conditions may share a common pathophysiological mechanism involving a disorder of iron metabolism. By contrast, controversy persists as to whether polyneuropathy, particularly when associated with diabetes, is to be considered as an important cause of secondary RLS. This association is difficult to demonstrate as conventional electromyography is not adequate to detect small fiber neuropathy often associated with diabetes. RLS is often underdiagnosed and few subjects receive recommended RLS drug treatment. There is a clear need for complementary education to improve the accurate diagnosis of RLS. Indeed, better knowledge of this syndrome is a prerequisite to prompt an appropriate therapeutic management.

  17. A 6-Year-Old With Leg Cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Brian P; Lautz, Andrew J; Orthmann-Murphy, Jennifer L; Yum, Sabrina W; Waanders, Angela; Fox, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    A 6-year-old girl presented with a history of leg pain and cramping that progressively worsened over a 2- to 3-week period of time. Her examination was notable for normal vital signs, limited range of motion of her left hip, and a limp. Inflammatory markers were slightly elevated, but the serum electrolytes, calcium, and magnesium, complete blood cell count and differential, and creatine kinase level were normal. She was hospitalized for further diagnostic evaluation and was noted to have abnormal muscle movements classified as myokymia (continuous involuntary quivering, rippling, or undulating movement of muscles). Electromyography confirmed the myokymia but did not reveal evidence of a myopathy or neuropathy, prompting additional evaluation for a systemic etiology.

  18. Neuroimaging in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provini, Federica; Chiaro, Giacomo

    2015-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies are of crucial relevance in defining the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). MRI studies showed no structural brain lesions and confirmed a central iron deficiency. Structural and functional studies showed an involvement of the thalamus, sensorimotor cortical areas, and cerebellum in RLS and assessed neurotransmission abnormalities in the dopaminergic and opiate systems. Finally, glutamatergic hyperactivity has been proposed as a cause of disrupted and shortened sleep in RLS. Differences among the results of the studies make it difficult to draw any definitive conclusions, thus, suggesting the need for future research.

  19. Do ground reaction forces during unilateral and bilateral movements exhibit compensation strategies following ACL reconstruction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Schubert, Markus; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Gokeler, Alli; Freiwald, Juergen

    The aims of the study were (1) to evaluate the leg asymmetry assessed with ground reaction forces (GRFs) during unilateral and bilateral movements of different knee loads in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed patients and (2) to investigate differences in leg asymmetry depending on the

  20. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  1. Does cycling effect motor coordination of the leg during running in elite triathletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill; Blanch, Peter; Dowlan, Steve; Hodges, Paul W

    2008-07-01

    Triathletes report incoordination when running after cycling. We investigated the influence of the transition from cycling to running on leg movement and muscle recruitment during running in elite international level triathletes. Leg movement (three-dimensional kinematics) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle activity (surface electromyography) were compared between a control-run (no prior exercise) and a 30-min transition-run (preceded by 20 min of cycling; i.e., run versus cycle-run). The role of fatigue in motor changes was also investigated. Leg kinematics were not different between control- and transition-runs in any triathlete. Recruitment of TA was different in 5 of 14 triathletes, in whom altered TA recruitment patterns during the transition-run were more similar to recruitment patterns of TA during cycling. Changes in TA recruitment during the transition-run were not associated with altered force production of TA or other leg muscles during isometric fatigue testing, or myoelectric indicators of fatigue (median frequency, average rectified value). These findings suggest that short periods of cycling do not influence running kinematics or TA muscle activity in most elite triathletes. However, our findings are evidence that leg muscle activity during running is influenced by cycling in at least some elite triathletes despite their years of training. This influence is not related to kinematic variations and is unlikely related to fatigue but may be a direct effect of cycling on motor commands for running.

  2. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    internationalization. Based on our results, we suggest that, depending on the field of action, voluntary collective action and organized collaboration are substitutes with regard to performance. Our study contributes to the literature on collective action and to research on public organizations in pluralistic......Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...... in three fields of action: the training of young scientists, internationalization, and gender diversity. The findings indicate that organized collaboration may lead to improved performance in the training of young scientists and gender diversity. Conversely, voluntary collective action enhances...

  3. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  4. A Somatic Movement Approach to Fostering Emotional Resiliency through Laban Movement Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle P. Tsachor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although movement has long been recognized as expressing emotion and as an agent of change for emotional state, there was a dearth of scientific evidence specifying which aspects of movement influence specific emotions. The recent identification of clusters of Laban movement components which elicit and enhance the basic emotions of anger, fear, sadness and happiness indicates which types of movements can affect these emotions (Shafir et al., 2016, but not how best to apply this knowledge. This perspective paper lays out a conceptual groundwork for how to effectively use these new findings to support emotional resiliency through voluntary choice of one's posture and movements. We suggest that three theoretical principles from Laban Movement Analysis (LMA can guide the gradual change in movement components in one's daily movements to somatically support shift in affective state: (A Introduce new movement components in developmental order; (B Use LMA affinities-among-components to guide the expansion of expressive movement range and (C Sequence change among components based on Laban's Space Harmony theory to support the gradual integration of that new range. The methods postulated in this article have potential to foster resiliency and provide resources for self-efficacy by expanding our capacity to adapt emotionally to challenges through modulating our movement responses.

  5. Periodic abdominal pumping supports leg development during metamorphosis in tenebrionid beetle Zophobas atratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Toshio

    2008-05-01

    Rhythmic abdominal pumping movements in a pupa of giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus caused large hemolymph pressure pulses of approximately 20 mmHg. The abdominal pumping movements were completely blocked by transecting the ventral nerve cord (VNC) between the first and second abdominal ganglia. Transection of the VNC until 2 days after pupation caused a developmental defect of adult legs: morphogenesis of the tibial and tarsal segments was severely retarded, and the segments remained covered with a thick pupal cuticle. The developmental defect was rescued by artificially inducing rhythmic abdominal bending for 3 days after transection of VNC. Blocking of the abdominal pump did not increase the amount of water loss during the pupal period. The transplanted tibial segments lacking active tracheal ventilation could form a thick adult cuticle. The results suggest that abdominal pumping movements during the pupal period support the development of adult legs by facilitating hemolymph circulation.

  6. Single-leg landing neuromechanical data following load and land height manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Nordin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity sagittal kinematic and kinetic data are summarized alongside electrical muscle activities during single-leg landing trials completed in contrasting external load and landing height conditions. Nineteen subjects were analyzed during 9 landing trials in each of 6 experimental conditions computed as percentages of subject anthropometrics (bodyweight: BW and subject height: H; BW, BW+12.5%, BW+25%, and H12.5%, H25%. Twelve lower extremity variables (sagittal hip, knee, ankle angles and moments, vertical ground reaction force (GRFz, gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, vastus medials, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles were assessed using separate principal component analyses (PCA. Variable trends across conditions were summarized in “Neuromechanical synergies in single-leg landing reveal changes in movement control. Human Movement Science” (Nordin and Dufek, 2016 [1], revealing changes in landing biomechanics and movement control.

  7. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  8. Treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comella, Cynthia L

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common disorder diagnosed by the clinical characteristics of restlessness in the legs associated often with abnormal sensations that start at rest and are improved by activity, occurring with a diurnal pattern of worsened symptoms at night and improvement in the morning. RLS is the cause of impaired quality of life in those more severely afflicted. Treatment of RLS has undergone considerable change over the last few years. Several classes of medications have demonstrated efficacy, including the dopaminergic agents and the alpha-2-delta ligands. Levodopa was the first dopaminergic agent found to be successful. However, chronic use of levodopa is frequently associated with augmentation that is defined as an earlier occurrence of symptoms frequently associated with worsening severity and sometimes spread to other body areas. The direct dopamine agonists, including ropinirole, pramipexole, and rotigotine patch, are also effective, although side effects, including daytime sleepiness, impulse control disorders, and augmentation, may limit usefulness. The alpha-2-delta ligands, including gabapentin, gabapentin enacarbil, and pregabalin, are effective for RLS without known occurrence of augmentation or impulse control disorders, although sedation and dizziness can occur. Other agents, including the opioids and clonazepam do not have sufficient evidence to recommend them as treatment for RLS, although in an individual patient, they may provide benefit.

  9. Targinact for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS)--also known as Willis-Ekbom disease--is a neurological condition characterised by an overwhelming urge to move the legs, occurring during rest or inactivity, especially at night. Symptoms are highly variable in frequency and severity, and can affect sleep and quality of life. First-line management includes addressing precipitating or aggravating factors and providing explanation, reassurance and advice on self-help strategies. Drug therapy (e.g. a dopamine agonist) is used for patients with more severe symptoms. In December 2014, the marketing authorisation for a modified-release preparation containing oxycodone and naloxone (Targinact-Napp Pharmaceuticals) was expanded to include use in the treatment of severe to very severe RLS after failure of dopaminergic therapy.(10)Here we review the management of adults with RLS, including the place of oxycodone/naloxone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    this theoretical frame to analyse case studies of three voluntary organisations.  As a part of the analysis I describe four sets of institutional settings that can influence voluntary organisations ability to create institutional dynamic: institutionalization, moderation, self-organisation and loose-coupling....... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...

  11. Motion error compensation of multi-legged walking robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangwen; Chen, Xuedong; Wang, Xinjie; Tang, Weigang; Sun, Yi; Pan, Chunmei

    2012-07-01

    Existing errors in the structure and kinematic parameters of multi-legged walking robots, the motion trajectory of robot will diverge from the ideal sports requirements in movement. Since the existing error compensation is usually used for control compensation of manipulator arm, the error compensation of multi-legged robots has seldom been explored. In order to reduce the kinematic error of robots, a motion error compensation method based on the feedforward for multi-legged mobile robots is proposed to improve motion precision of a mobile robot. The locus error of a robot body is measured, when robot moves along a given track. Error of driven joint variables is obtained by error calculation model in terms of the locus error of robot body. Error value is used to compensate driven joint variables and modify control model of robot, which can drive the robots following control model modified. The model of the relation between robot's locus errors and kinematic variables errors is set up to achieve the kinematic error compensation. On the basis of the inverse kinematics of a multi-legged walking robot, the relation between error of the motion trajectory and driven joint variables of robots is discussed. Moreover, the equation set is obtained, which expresses relation among error of driven joint variables, structure parameters and error of robot's locus. Take MiniQuad as an example, when the robot MiniQuad moves following beeline tread, motion error compensation is studied. The actual locus errors of the robot body are measured before and after compensation in the test. According to the test, variations of the actual coordinate value of the robot centroid in x-direction and z-direction are reduced more than one time. The kinematic errors of robot body are reduced effectively by the use of the motion error compensation method based on the feedforward.

  12. Restless legs syndrome: differential diagnosis and management with pramipexole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Brindani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Brindani, Francesca Vitetta, Franco GemignaniDepartment of Neurosciences, University of Parma, ItalyAbstract: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a condition characterized by discomfort at rest and urge to move focused on the legs. RLS may occur as an idiopathic, often hereditary condition (primary RLS, or in association with medical conditions (secondary RLS including iron deficiency, uremia, and polyneuropathy. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of RLS points to the involvement of three interrelated components: dopaminergic dysfunction, impaired iron homeostasis, and genetic mechanisms. The diagnosis of RLS is made according to the consensus criteria by a National Institutes of Health panel: 1 an urge to move the legs, usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations; 2 beginning or worsening during rest; 3 relieved by movement; and 4 worse, or only occurring, in the evening or at night. The differential diagnosis of RLS aims to: 1 distinguish RLS from other disorders with RLS-like symptoms and 2 identify secondary forms, with investigation of underlying diseases. The treatment of RLS demands a clinical evaluation to rule out and cure causes of secondary RLS, including iron supplementation when deficient, and to eliminate the triggering factors. The presence of neuropathy should be especially investigated in nonhereditary, late-onset RLS, in view of a possible treatment of the underlying disease. The first line treatment for idiopathic RLS is represented by dopamine agonists, in particular nonergot-derived ropinirole and pramipexole, whereas ergot dopamine agonists (cabergoline and pergolide are no longer in first-line use given the risks of cardiac valvulopathy. Although no comparative trials have been published, a meta-analysis of pramipexole versus ropinirole suggests differences in efficacy and tolerability favoring pramipexole.Keywords: restless legs syndrome, pramipexole, dopamine, agonists, small fiber neuropathy

  13. Painless legs and moving toes syndrome associated with a sacral Tarlov cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrawashdeh, Omar

    2016-03-09

    Painless legs and moving toes syndrome is a very rare syndrome characterized by continuous and involuntary movement of the toes. The etiology of the disease is not clear though it has been linked to a wide range of neuronal insults including proximal root compression and neuropathy. A previous study has reported bilateral painful legs and moving toes syndrome in a patient with a sacral Tarlov cyst. In this report we present a case of unilateral painless legs and moving toes syndrome in a woman with a sacral Tarlov cyst. A 50-year-old Mediterranean woman presented with a 1-year history of involuntary sustained movement of her right toes. Her physical examination and laboratory findings did not show any remarkable abnormality. Her lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a sacral Tarlov cyst. Our patient was given gabapentin, 100 mg per day as a starting dose, and showed modest improvement. Our patient preferred not to continue with the treatment as her symptoms were not disabling and she was only concerned about the cosmetic appearance. This report presents a new case of a very rare syndrome called painless legs and moving toes syndrome, which is possibly a variant of painful legs and moving toes syndrome. This is considered to be the first case of unilateral painless legs and moving toes syndrome that is associated with a sacral Tarlov cyst. Although the disease etiology is still unknown and the presence of the cyst can be accidental, neurologists should be aware that Tarlov cyst is a possible cause. In addition, patients with the painless variant who are not disabled by movement of the toes may not require treatment.

  14. Sensory aspects of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette's syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed.

  15. Decoding the ERD/ERS: influence of afferent input induced by a leg assistive robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eLisi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the leg afferent input, induced by a leg assistive robot, on the decoding performance of a BMI system. Specifically, it focuses on a decoder based on the event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS of the sensorimotor area. The EEG experiment, performed with healthy subjects, is structured as a 3x2 factorial design, consisting of two factors: 'finger tapping task' and 'leg condition'. The former is divided into three levels (BMI classes, being left hand finger tapping, right hand finger tapping and no movement (Idle; while the latter is composed by two levels: leg perturbed (Pert and leg not perturbed (NoPert. Specifically, the subjects' leg was periodically perturbed by an assistive robot in 5 out of 10 sessions of the experiment and not moved in the remaining sessions. The aim of this study is to verify that the decoding performance of the finger tapping task is comparable between the two conditions NoPert and Pert. Accordingly, a classifier is trained to output the class of the finger tapping, given as input the features associated with the ERD/ERS. Individually for each subject, the decoding performance is statistically compared between the the NoPert and Pert conditions. Results show that the decoding performance is notably above chance, for all the subjects, under both conditions. Moreover, the statistical comparison do not highlight a significant difference between NoPert and Pert in any subject, which is confirmed by feature visualisation.

  16. [Diagnosis and symptom rating scale of restless legs syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs and usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movement and is exacerbated or occurs mainly in the evening or night. People suffering from RLS are estimated to represent 2-3% of the general Japanese population, which is relatively lower than the estimated prevalence in western countries. Supportive diagnostic critevia include family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep, and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. RLS phenotypes include an early onset form that is usually idiopathic with frequent familial history and a late onset form that is usually secondary to other somatic conditions that are causative factors in RLS occurrence. In all patients presenting with complaints of insomnia or discomfort in the lower limbs, diagnosis of RLS should be considered. RLS should be differentiated from akathisia, which is an urge to move the whole body in the absence of uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test (SIT) can detect PLM in patients that are asleep or awake. RLS may cause severe sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms, and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Secondary RLS may occur due to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drug use including antipsychotics and antidepressants. Small fiber neuropathy can trigger RLS or mimic its symptoms. RLS is associated with many neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy; althoughit does not predispose to these diseases. A symptom rating scale for RLS authorized by the International RLS Study Group (IRLS) would facilitate accurate diagnosis of this condition.

  17. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...... levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  18. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  19. A Case of Painless Legs and Moving Toes Syndrome in Parkinson’s Disease Responsive to Dopaminergic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumihiro Kawajiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Painless Legs and Moving Toes Syndrome (PoLMT is a rare movement disorder characterized by flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and torsion of toes without pain. It is considered a variant of Painful Legs and Moving Toes Syndrome (PLMT, which is characterized by similar movements but with pain. Although neuropathy and several central nervous system (CNS involvements have been reported to be associated with PoLMT, the actual cause and mechanism remain unclear. Here we describe the first case of PoLMT in Parkinson’s Disease (PD, parallel to parkinsonism in severity, who demonstrated a good response to dopaminergic therapy.

  20. Changes in the relationship between movement velocity and movement distance in primary focal hand dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodoehl, Janey; Corcos, Daniel M; Leurgans, Sue; Comella, Cynthia L; Weis-McNulty, Annette; MacKinnon, Colum D

    2008-07-01

    The authors examined the relationship between movement velocity and distance and the associated muscle activation patterns in 18 individuals with focal hand dystonia (FHD) compared with a control group of 18 individuals with no known neuromuscular condition. Participants performed targeted voluntary wrist and elbow flexion movements as fast as possible across 5 movement distances. Individuals with FHD were slower than controls across all distances, and this difference was accentuated for longer movements. Muscle activation patterns were triphasic in the majority of individuals with FHD, and muscle activation scaled with distance in a similar manner to controls. Cocontraction did not explain movement slowing in individuals with dystonia, but there was a trend toward underactivation of the 1st agonist burst in the dystonic group. The authors concluded that slowness is a consistent feature of voluntary movement in FHD and is present even in the absence of dystonic posturing. Underactivation of the 1st agonist burst appears to be the most likely reason to explain slowing.

  1. Experience of action depends on intention, not body movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Overgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    How do we know whether our own actions were voluntary or involuntary? Intentional theories of sense of agency suggest that we consciously perceive the intentions that accompany our actions, but reconstructive theories suggest that we perceive our actions only through the body movements and other ...

  2. Experience of action depends on intention, not body movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Overgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    How do we know whether our own actions were voluntary or involuntary? Intentional theories of sense of agency suggest that we consciously perceive the intentions that accompany our actions, but reconstructive theories suggest that we perceive our actions only through the body movements and other ...

  3. The repeated bout effect of eccentric exercise is not associated with changes in voluntary activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Skikas, Laimutis; Duchateau, Jacques

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the possible changes in muscle activation level between a first and second bout of damaging eccentric exercise performed at 2 weeks interval (i.e. repeated bout effect). To that purpose, ten physically active males took part in this study. The eccentric exercise consisted of 10 sets of 12 maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) produced by the knee extensors during movements performed at a constant speed of 160 degrees s(-1). Changes in voluntary and electrically evoked torque in concentric and/or isometric conditions were assessed at the following time points: pre-exercise, and 2 min, 1 and 24 h after each eccentric exercise. At the same time points, voluntary activation was quantified by the superimposed electrical stimulation technique. Muscle soreness and plasma CK activity were measured within 48 h after the eccentric exercise. The results showed that the decrease in eccentric peak torque was linear throughout the exercise protocol. At the end of bouts 1 and 2, torque was significantly reduced by 27.7 +/- 9.1 and 23.4 +/- 11.2, respectively, with no difference between bouts (P > 0.05). At 24 h post-exercise, a lower reduction (P eccentric exercise appears to reduce muscle damage, but does not influence the level of voluntary activation.

  4. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well define...

  5. 77 FR 72941 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... decision will be made by the selected DoD contractor for the complete `third party review' process. Comment... seeks to enhance the educational opportunities to Service members who may have difficulty in completing... transitions to second careers in teaching. Voluntary education programs. Continuing, adult, or...

  6. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  7. Social orienting: reflexive versus voluntary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julia L; Patel, Saumil; Gu, Xue; Seyedali, Nassim S; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Sereno, Anne B

    2010-09-24

    Many studies have shown that the direction of gaze of a face covertly facilitates the response to a target presented in the matching direction. In this study we seek to determine whether there exist separate reflexive and voluntary forms of such covert social orienting and how they interact with each other. We measured the effect of the predictive value of a gaze cue on manual choice reaction times. When the predictive value of the gaze cue was zero, a facilitatory cueing effect was still observed which peaked at a cue onset to target onset delay (CTD) of 150ms and largely diminished beyond a CTD of 500ms. When the gaze cue was 100% predictive of the future location of the target, at CTDs greater than 200, the predictive cue resulted in a significantly greater facilitation of response than occurred with a non-predictive cue. These results suggest that given enough time (about 200ms), the social cue is interpreted and a willful or voluntary spatially-specific social cueing effect occurs. In addition, we found that a predictive cue resulted in a significant slowing of the observer's responses up to a CTD of 200ms. These findings show that, similar to non-social spatial orienting, there appear to be two forms of social orienting including a reflexive component and voluntary component. We suggest a model of social orienting in which the voluntary social orienting system modulates tonic inhibition of the reflexive social orienting system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Merry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A prim

  9. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  10. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  11. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.

  12. Voluntary Organizations: Commitment, Leadership, and Organizational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, Terry P.

    2004-01-01

    Voluntary organizations offer a unique opportunity to interpret participant relationships, leadership influences, and organizational effectiveness unencumbered by employment relationships. Regardless of organizational structure or purpose, all organizations are affected to some degree by their leadership and their membership. Based on the…

  13. Environmental Voluntary Agreements in the Dutch Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; de Bruijn, Theo; Croci, Edoardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the use of environmental voluntary agreements, or covenants, in Dutch environmental policy. Covenants have become a widely used policy instrument in the Netherlands. This trend reinforces the strong neo-corporatist traits of Dutch society with its tendency towards

  14. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    While short-term enrolling of citizens in urban regeneration projects often has proven quite successful, permanent embedding of projects in voluntary community-based settings seems to be much more difficult to obtain. This has implications for long term sustainability of urban regeneration projec...

  15. Longitudinal Follow-Up of Mirror Movements after Stroke: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohtsuka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror movement (MM, or visible involuntary movements of a relaxed hand during voluntary fine finger movements of an activated opposite hand, can be observed in the hand that is on the unaffected side of patients with stroke. In the present study, we longitudinally examined the relationship between voluntary movement of the affected hand and MM in the unaffected hand in a single case. We report a 73-year-old woman with a right pontine infarct and left moderate hemiparesis. MM was observed as an extension movement of the unaffected right index finger during extension movement of the affected left index finger. The affected right index movement was found to increase, while MM of the unaffected left index finger was observed to decrease with time. These results indicate that the assessment of MM might be useful for studying the process of motor recovery in patients with stroke.

  16. Eligibility and Exclusion of Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Levstik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis patients are excluded in many countries as voluntary blood donors. In 1991, changes in the Canadian Red Cross policy allowed healthy hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary donors.

  17. Results of the global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Lernoud, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Results of the global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards: - Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) area worldwide and selected commodities - Cocoa: Area growth by VSS 2008-2014 - Growth of VSS compliant area worldwide 2008-2013 (selected crops)

  18. China Initiates Voluntary Certification of Public Security Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reporters learned from the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China(CNCA)that burglar-proof door became the first batch of voluntary certification product in public security products.China has formally initiated voluntary certification of public security products.

  19. Chloroplast movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.

  20. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  1. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) A A A ... español Radiografía: fémur What It Is A femur X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  3. Ropinirole treatment for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Miklos Zsolt; Fornadi, Katalin; Shapiro, Colin M

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we discuss therapy with ropinirole (known as adartrel in the United Kingdom) in patients with restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs, uncomfortable sensations in the legs and worsening of these symptoms during rest with at least temporary relief brought on by activity. Current recommendations suggest dopaminergic therapy (levodopa or dopamine receptor agonists like ropinirole) as the first-line treatment for restless legs syndrome. Based on the results of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials, we conclude that ropinirole is effective in reducing symptoms of restless legs syndrome in the general population. Ropinirole has no serious or common side effects that would limit its use significantly. Rebound and augmentation problems are relatively rarely seen with ropinirole, although properly designed comparative trials are still needed to address this question. It must be noted, however, that most published studies with ropinirole compare this drug with placebo. Very few studies have compared ropinirole with other drugs (L-dopa, gabapentin, opioids, benzodiazepines, other dopaminergic agents and selegiline hydrochloride). No cost-effectiveness trial has been published yet. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with ropinirole shows it to be effective, well-tolerated and safe and it can be used in restless legs syndrome in general.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Samantha; Sanghera, Manjit K; Klocko, David J; Stewart, R Malcolm

    2016-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs during rest, usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations in the affected extremity or extremities. RLS can manifest at any age but prevalence increases with advancing age. This article describes the symptoms of RLS, associated comorbidities, and how to diagnose and manage RLS.

  5. Update in restless legs syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Rachel E.; Gamaldo, Charlene E.; Allen, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Although restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder recognized in the medical literature since the 17th century, there have only recently been significant clinical and scientific advances in diagnosis, epidemiology and understanding the disorder, mainly due to the advent of dopaminergic treatment. Recent findings Recent discoveries have uncovered the iron–dopamine connection in RLS and the basic dopaminergic pathology related to the RLS symptoms. These have led to new understanding of the morbidity of RLS and the many conditions associated with RLS, which have also supported new approaches to treatment. These developments are each briefly described here. Summary Although there has been progress in understanding, diagnosing and treating RLS, it remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated condition severely impairing functioning of patients with moderate-to-severe disease. Much work is needed to improve on current, as well as other novel therapies. PMID:20581683

  6. Alien hand syndrome: neural correlates of movements without conscious will.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schaefer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The alien hand syndrome is a striking phenomenon characterized by purposeful and autonomous movements that are not voluntarily initiated. This study aimed to examine neural correlates of this rare neurological disorder in a patient with corticobasal degeneration and alien hand syndrome of the left hand. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain responses associated with unwanted movements in a case study. Results revealed that alien hand movements involved a network of brain activations including the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, precuneus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. Conscious and voluntary movements of the alien hand elicited a similar network of brain responses but lacked an activation of the inferior frontal gyrus. The results demonstrate that alien and unwanted movements may engage similar brain networks than voluntary movements, but also imply different functional contributions of prefrontal areas. Since the inferior frontal gyrus was uniquely activated during alien movements, the results provide further support for a specific role of this brain region in inhibitory control over involuntary motor responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss the outcome of this study as providing evidence for a distributed neural network associated with unwanted movements in alien hand syndrome, including brain regions known to be related to movement execution and planning as well as areas that have been linked to inhibition control (inferior frontal gyrus and experience of agency (precuneus.

  7. Brain Functional Connectivity is Different during VoluntaryConcentric and Eccentric Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan X Yao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies report greater activation in the cortical motor network in controlling eccentric contraction (EC than concentric contraction (CC of human skeletal muscles despite lower activation level of the muscle associated with EC. It is unknown, however, whether the strength of functional coupling between the primary motor cortex (M1 and other involved areas in the brain differs as voluntary movements are controlled by a network of regions in the primary, secondary and association cortices. Examining fMRI-based functional connectivity (FC offers an opportunity to measure strength of such coupling. To address the question, we examined functional MRI (fMRI data acquired during EC and CC (20 contractions each with similar movement distance and speed of the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle in 11 young (20-32 years and healthy individuals and estimated FC between the M1 and a number of cortical regions in the motor control network. The major findings from the behavioral and fMRI-based FC analysis were that (1 no significant differences were seen in movement distance, speed and stability between the EC and CC; (2 significantly stronger mean FC was found for CC than EC. Our finding provides novel insights for a better understanding of the control mechanisms underlying voluntary movements produced by EC and CC. The finding is potentially helpful for guiding the development of targeted sport training and/or therapeutic programs for performance enhancement and injury prevention.

  8. Intensive treatment of leg lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Godoy Jose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite of all the problems caused by lymphedema, this disease continues to affect millions of people worldwide. Thus, the identification of the most efficacious forms of treatment is necessary. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel intensive outpatient treatment for leg lymphedema. Methods: Twenty-three legs of 19 patients were evaluated in a prospective randomized study. The inclusion criteria were patients with Grade II and III lymphedema, where the difference, measured by volumetry, between the affected limb below the knee and the healthy limb was greater than 1.5 kg. Intensive treatment was carried out for 6- to 8-h sessions in the outpatient clinic. Analysis of variance was utilized for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% (P-value < 0.05 being considered significant. Results: All limbs had significant reductions in size with the final mean loss being 81.1% of the volume of edema. The greatest losses occurred in the first week (P-value < 0.001. Losses of more than 90% of the lymphedema occurred in 9 (39.13% patients; losses of more than 80% in 13 (56.52%, losses of more than 70% in 17 (73.91% and losses of more than 50% were recorded for 95.65% of the patients; only 1 patient lost less than 50% (37.9% of the edema. Conclusion: The intensive treatment of lymphedema in the outpatient clinic can produce significant reductions in the volume of edema over a short period of time and can be recommended for any grade of lymphedema, in particular the more advanced degrees.

  9. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  10. 5 CFR 919.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 919.1020 Section 919.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED...) Definitions § 919.1020 Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. (a) Voluntary exclusion means a person's...

  11. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and...

  12. 15 CFR 12.3 - Development of voluntary product standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of voluntary product... AND LABELING § 12.3 Development of voluntary product standards. (a) Invitation to participate in the development of a voluntary product standard. Whenever the Secretary publishes a final determination of...

  13. Signs of muscle thixotropy during human ballistic wrist joint movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, H W

    2005-11-01

    A study was conducted on healthy subjects to determine whether voluntary ballistic wrist flexion movements are influenced by immediately preceding conditioning of the forearm muscles. Single rapid wrist flexion movements were made in response to an auditory "Go" signal. Rectified surface EMG was recorded from wrist flexors and extensors, and joint position was measured by a goniometer. The movements were preceded (2-3 s) by four different conditioning routines: 40-s rest (Rest), 10-s voluntary alternating wrist joint flexion and extension movements (Osc), and 10 s of 25 degrees weak isometric wrist extensor (Ext) or flexor contractions (Flex). When subjects made ballistic movements after Osc compared with Rest, peak velocity was higher (P = 0.02) and movement time shorter (P = 0.06), but there was no difference (P = 0.83) in motor reaction time (time between the onset of the first agonist burst and movement onset). If the movements were preceded by Ext compared with Flex, motor reaction time was longer (P = 0.01), indicating a longer electromechanical delay. There were no indications that postconditioning differences in agonist or antagonist muscle activity could explain the results. It was also demonstrated that, after Rest, peak velocity was lower (P < 0.01) for the first than for the second of a series of repetitive ballistic movements. The observations corresponded to results from passive experiments in which the median nerve was electrically stimulated. In conclusion, history-dependent (thixotropic) changes in skeletal muscle resistance seem to have implications for voluntary ballistic wrist movements. The study also provided evidence that muscle conditioning influences the central nervous reaction time preceding ballistic contractions.

  14. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  15. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  16. Influence of trunk muscle co-contraction on spinal curvature during sitting cross-legged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Kobara, K; Ishida, H; Eguchi, A

    2010-01-01

    In Asia, many activities of daily living (ADL) are performed while sitting cross-legged on the floor. This sitting posture rotates the pelvis in a more dorsal direction and lumbar lordosis is more flattened than while sitting on a chair. Sitting cross-legged induces a greater load on the intervertebral discs and spine, especially when in a slumped position that is known to increase disc pressure even more and to aggravate chronic low back pain (CLBP). Therefore, it is very important to instruct Asian people about the correct sitting posture. In addition, it is known that co-contraction of the deep spine-stabilizing muscles enhances lumbar segmental stability and the sacroiliac joint. However, little is known about the influence of co-contraction of the trunk deep muscles on spinal curvature while sitting cross-legged on the floor. The purpose of this study was to compare EMG (electromyographic) activity of the trunk muscles while slump cross-legged sitting with that during co-contraction of the trunk muscles and to investigate how this co-contraction influences spinal curvature. Ten healthy male volunteers (21.7 +/- 2.5 years old) without CLBP participated in the study. Bipolar surface electrodes were attached to the rectus abdominis, the obliquus externus abdominis, the obliquus internus abdominis, the lower back extensor muscles (L3) and the multifidus on the right side. EMG signals were continuously recorded while slump sitting cross-legged and during co-contraction of the trunk muscles. They were amplified, band-pass filtered, digitized and stored by a data acquisition system. The average muscle activity values over the five-second sample for each sitting posture were normalized to maximal voluntary contractions (%MVC). While the subjects performed both sitting postures, the curvature of the spine was measured using a skin-surface and hand-held device, the "Spinal Mouse". More significant activities of the trunk muscles, with the exception of the rectus

  17. Locomotion training of legged robots using hybrid machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Doerschuk, Peggy I.; Zhang, Wen-Ran; Li, Andrew L.

    1995-01-01

    patent by NASA, Johnson Space Center. An alternative modular approach is also developed which uses separate controllers for each stage of the running stride. A self-organizing fuzzy-neural controller controls the height, distance and angular momentum of the stride. A CMAC-based controller controls the movement of the leg from the time the foot leaves the ground to the time of landing. Because the leg joints are controlled at each time step during flight, movement is smooth and obstacles can be avoided. Initial results indicate that this approach can yield fast, accurate results.

  18. Movement-related potentials accompanying unilateral and bilateral finger movements with different inertial loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, R; Cheyne, D; Lang, W; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1990-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of inertial loading on movement-related potentials (MRPs) recorded from the scalps of normal subjects while performing finger movements. Two experiments were performed. Experiment 1. MRPs preceding and accompanying the execution of voluntary, unilateral finger movements were investigated in 8 subjects under the 3 experimental conditions of: no inertial load, small inertial load (250 g), and large inertial load (400 g). A significant effect of the inertial load on Bereitschaftspotential (BP) amplitude was observed for the 100 msec period preceding movement onset (BP -100 to 0) at precentral electrode sites and following movement onset (N0 to 100) at both precentral and parietal electrode sites. Pairwise comparisons revealed that significant effects were due to differences between the loading and non-loading conditions and not for different amounts of loading. No significant differences were observed for BP onset or early BP amplitudes, indicating that scalp negativity immediately prior to, and during, movement onset is primarily influenced by conditions of inertial loading. Experiment 2. This experiment examined the effect of inertial loading on MRPs for bilateral, simultaneous voluntary finger movements in 10 subjects under conditions of: no inertial load, inertial load applied separately to the left and right fingers, and with identical inertial loads applied to both fingers. No significant effect of inertial load on MRP amplitude was observed. These results are contrasted with those of experiment 1 which show significant effects of inertial loading for unilateral movements and are interpreted in terms of the hypothesis that bilateral movement organization involves 'higher' aspects of motor control than those reflecting adjustment to conditions of inertial loading.

  19. Antinuclear movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Hee; Im, Jaeg Yeong

    1988-08-15

    This book is for antinuclear movement. So, this book introduces many articles on nuclear issues of Asia and the pacific area. The titles of articles are the crusades of Reagan by Werner Plaha, contending between super powers in Europe by Alva Reimer Myrdal, claims of resistance by Daniel Ellsberg, nuclear and the Korean Peninsula by Go, Seung Woo, Liberation but of belief of nuclear weapon by Lee, Young Hee and nuclear weapon in Korea by peter Haze.

  20. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  1. [Diagnosis and novel treatment approaches in restless legs syndrome: I. Pathophysiology and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Koichi; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2013-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a clinically important, common disease and should be diagnosed and treated early and adequately. At present, there have been no clinical biomarkers or methodologies that can contribute to the correct diagnosis of RLS, RLS should be diagnosed on the basis of 4 essential criteria: urge to move the legs, improvement after movement, and worsening or occurrence of symptoms in the evening and at rest. When applying the criteria, RLS mimics should be ruled out and comorbid diseases should be taken into account. The origin and pathogenesis of RLS are still under investigation; however, iron deficiency in the brain has been observed on imaging and cerebrospinal fluid analyses of patients with RLS. In contrast, the results of neuroimaging studies evaluating brain dopaminergic functions in patients with RLS have yielded inconclusive results, although involvement of the hypothalamus (A11) is thought to cause impaired dopaminergic modulation in the dorsal horn and intermediolateral nucleus, resulting in the restlessness of legs.

  2. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  3. Expansion Compression Contacts for Thermoelectric Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed alternative to previous approaches to making hot-shoe contacts to the legs of thermoelectric devices, one relies on differential thermal expansion to increase contact pressures for the purpose of reducing the electrical resistances of contacts as temperatures increase. The proposed approach is particularly applicable to thermoelectric devices containing p-type (positive-charge-carrier) legs made of a Zintl compound (specifically, Yb14MnSb11) and n-type (negative charge-carrier) legs made of SiGe. This combination of thermoelectric materials has been selected for further development, primarily on the basis of projected thermoelectric performance. However, it is problematic to integrate, into a practical thermoelectric device, legs made of these materials along with a metal or semiconductor hot shoe that is required to be in thermal and electrical contact with the legs. This is partly because of the thermal-expansion mismatch of these materials: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SiGe is 4.5 x 10(exp -6) C (exp -1), while the CTE of Yb14MnSb11 is 20 x 10(exp -6) C(exp -1). Simply joining a Yb14MnSb11 and a SiGe leg to a common hot shoe could be expected to result in significant thermal stresses in either or both legs during operation. Heretofore, such thermal stresses have been regarded as disadvantageous. In the proposed approach, stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch would be turned to advantage.

  4. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  5. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal ZORBA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; p<0.01, peak power (r=.523; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.585; p<0.01. Similarly leg mass was significantly correlated with peak power (r=.654; p<0.01 and mean power (r=.704; p<0.01. In addition, peak power was found to be significantly correlated with leg strength (r=.430; p<0.05 and mean power (r=.613; p<0.01. As a conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that leg volume and leg mass plays important role in anaerobic performance in wrestlers and isometric knee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  6. The effect of passive movement training on angiogenic factors and capillary growth in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Rufener, Nora; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The effect of a period of passive movement training on angiogenic factors and capillarization in skeletal muscle was examined. Seven young males were subjected to passive training for 90 min, four times/week in a motor-driven knee extensor device that extended one knee passively at 80...... cycles/min. The other leg was used as control. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. v. lateralis of both legs before as well as after 2 and 4 weeks of training. After the training period, passive movement and active exercise were performed with both legs and muscle interstitial fluid was sampled from...... legs. Acute passive movement increased (P muscle interstitial VEGF levels 4-6 -fold above rest and the proliferative effect, determined in vitro, of the muscle interstitial fluid ~16-fold compared to perfusate. These increases were similar for active exercise. The results demonstrate...

  7. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  8. Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Nielsen, Mette Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education Hanne Selberg1, Mette Elisabeth Nielsen1, Mette Wenzel Horsted2, Karen Bertelsen2, Marianne Linnet Rasmussen2,Rikke Lohmann Panton3, Copenhagen, Mette Kjeldal Jensen4 Background Changes in nursing education in Denmark towards an academic approach...... with more theory and less practical training have resulted in discussions regarding the lack of practical skills amongst novice nurses. A Danish study of students’ drop-out from the nursing education indicates that difficulties in combining theory and practice are one of the motivating factors behind...... the students’ decision to drop out (Jensen et al. 2008). Within the past year our faculty has conducted several projects with the aim of integrating simulation into the curriculum. Furthermore, voluntary simulation workshop has been carried out as an additional offer in the nursing education. The purpose has...

  9. The Political Importance of Voluntary Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneman, Harry

    This paper aims to develop a complex articulation of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work that clarifies its political importance as a countervailing narrative pointing beyond dominant neoliberal and consumptive articulations of a good life. To start with, it sketches a hermeneutic perspective on civic meaningfulness based on the work of Paul Ricoeur. Subsequently, it introduces the ideas of 'ethical complexity', 'epistemological complexity' and 'diapoiesis', building on insights from critical complexity thinking and relational biology. It argues that these notions can provide a bridge between hermeneutic perspectives on meaning and values, on the one hand, and questions of meaning and values on the level of scientific and technological developments and within professional organizations, on the other. Thus a broader, more complex picture emerges of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work in our times.

  10. Voluntary Management Earnings Forecasts and Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramlich, Jeffrey; Sørensen, Ole Vagn

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether Danish managers exercise discretionary accruals to reach earnings forecast targets they voluntarily specify in conjunction with initial public offerings (IPOs). Because the Danish accounting and legal environment is more permissive than the US, we use Denmark...... as a natural laboratory for learning how business would occur without strict rules, enforcement and sanctions. Danish managers often volunteer pro forma financial statements for results that are expected to occur subsequent to the IPO. We examine a sample of 58 Danish firms that issue voluntary management...... earnings forecasts in connection with IPOs that occur between 1984 and 1996. The evidence we uncover strongly suggests that pre-managed earnings are adjusted toward these targets. In contrast with Kasznik's (1999 Kasznik, R. (1999). On the association between voluntary disclosure and earnings management...

  11. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination.

  12. Transiliac Leg Lengthening in Poliomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdadi Taghi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and widespread use of a prophylactic vaccine significantly reduced the incidence of poliomyelitis. At present we more commonly encounter with poliomyelitis sequelae especially in developing countries. We evaluate the results of a modified innominate osteotomy for leg length discrepancy in poliomyelitis. Instead of triangular bone graft as in Salter’s innominate osteotomy , a trapezoidal bone graft from the ilium is inserted in the site of osteotomy after gradual distraction of the limb. 25 patients (9 males and 16 females with mean age of 25 years (17-37 years were treated by this method. All of them had poliomyelitis with limb shortening. At a mean follow-up of 7 years (3 months to 17 years an average of 3 cm (2.5-3.5 was achieved. Complication was seen in three patients including injury to the lateral cutaneouns nerve of thigh and displacement of osteotomy in two patients .except in one all of the patients satisfied with the operation. We believe this method is safe, effective and cost-benefit for treating of moderate shortening of the lower limb in poliomyelitis.

  13. Pharmacotherapy for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Marelli, Sara

    2014-06-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterized by paresthesia and an urge to move. Predominantly, symptoms occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity. RLS prevalence in the general population has been estimated to be approximately 5%. This review presents all options for the treatment of RLS. Pharmacological treatment should be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS, that is, when symptoms impair the patient's quality of life, daytime functioning, social functioning or sleep. Treatment on demand is a clinical need in some RLS patients, and medications include carbidopa/levodopa, pramipexole, ropinirole, oxycodone, methadone, codeine and tramadol. Chronic RLS should be treated with either a nonergot dopamine agonist or an α-2-δ calcium channel ligand. A dopamine agonist is a more appropriate choice in the presence of depression and overweight. As α-2-δ ligands can alleviate chronic pain and may be helpful in treating anxiety and insomnia, the presence of any of these comorbidities may favor their use. For RLS present through much of the day and night, the use of long-acting agents, such as the rotigotine patch or gabapentin enacarbil should be considered. In refractory RLS, oral prolonged release oxycodone-naloxone should be considered.

  14. [Restless legs syndrome in patients with high serum ferritin and normal iron levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Duque-Ramírez, Luis G; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    To document the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and high ferritin levels in five patients. The five patients were male, mean age: 59 years (range: 36-73 years). The patients were referred for RLS (two of them blood donors), in two cases associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Patients underwent a video-PSG recording. Serum iron and serum ferritin were determined. All patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for RLS: leg paresthesias associated with an urge to move, motor restless-ness, worsening of symptoms during the evening and night, and partial relief with activity, difficulty falling asleep, and presence of nocturnal awakenings due to RLS. Neurological examination, EEGs, EMGs and MRIs were normal. Video-PSGs recordings showed a disturbed and fragmented sleep with a reduction in total sleep time, low sleep efficiency, respiratory abnormalities with an apnea-hipopnea index > 10/h in two cases, and in all of them a periodic leg movements index > 5/h. The serum iron levels were within the normal range in all cases, whereas those in serum ferritin levels were high. To our knowledge the association of normal serum iron with high serum ferritin levels in patients diagnosed clinically and polygraphically as having RLS with periodic leg movements has not been described before. The notion of an involvement of a dopaminergic mechanism in the pathophysiology of RLS is supported by the decrease in the values of serum ferritin concentration observed in one patient during follow-up while being treated with dopaminergic agents.

  15. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  16. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-05-01

    Various factors influence the development of the voluntary 'green' power market--the market in which consumers purchase or produce power from non-polluting, renewable energy sources. These factors include climate policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, consumers' interest in purchasing green power, and utilities' interest in promoting existing programs and in offering new green options. This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for green power through 2015 that were made using historical data and three scenarios: low-growth, high-growth, and negative-policy impacts. The resulting forecast projects the total voluntary demand for renewable energy in 2015 to range from 63 million MWh annually in the low case scenario to 157 million MWh annually in the high case scenario, representing an approximately 2.5-fold difference. The negative-policy impacts scenario reflects a market size of 24 million MWh. Several key uncertainties affect the results of this forecast, including uncertainties related to growth assumptions, the impacts that policy may have on the market, the price and competitiveness of renewable generation, and the level of interest that utilities have in offering and promoting green power products.

  17. The effect of sprung (suspended) floors on leg stiffness during grand jeté landings in ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, James; Brummel, Sara; Jungblut, Kara; Edge, Carissa

    2011-09-01

    This study compared stiffness of the landing leg in ballet dancers performing grand jeté on a sprung floor to leg stiffness during the same movement on a hard floor (wood on concrete). Leg stiffness was calculated as the ratio of vertical ground reaction force (in Newtons) to compression of the lower limb (in meters). Thirteen female dancers were measured for five repetitions each at the point of maximum leg compression while landing grand jeté on both of the surfaces, such that 20 milliseconds of data were represented for each trial. The stiffness of the landing leg at the point of maximum compression was decreased by a mean difference score of 6168.0 N/m ± 11,519.5 N/m on the hard floor compared to the sprung floor. Paired t-test yielded a one-tailed probability of p = 0.038. This effect was seen in 11 of the 13 participants. The finding of increased stiffness of the landing leg in the sprung floor condition suggests that some of the force of landing the leap was absorbed by the surface, and therefore did not need to be absorbed by the landing leg itself. This in turn implies that a sprung dance floor may help to prevent dance-related injuries.

  18. THE ROLE OF LEG AND TRUNK MUSCLES PROPRIOCEPTION ON STATIC AND DYNAMIC POSTURAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED Hossein Hosseinimehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The proprioception information is a prerequisite for balance, body’s navigation system, and the movement coordinator. Due to changes between the angles of ankle, knee, and hip joints the aforementioned information are important in the coordination of the limbs and postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate therole of leg and trunk muscles proprioception on static and dynamic postural control. Thirty males students of physical education and sport sciences (age =21.23 ± 2.95 years, height = 170.4 ± 5.1 cm, and weight = 70.7 ± 5.6 kg participated in this study volunteered. Vibration (100HZ was used to disturb of proprioception. Vibrationoperated on leg muscle (gasterocnemius and trunk muscles (erector spine muscle, at L1 level. Leg stance time and Star Excursion Balance Test were used for evaluation of static and dynamic postural control respectively.Subjects performed pre and post (with operated vibration leg stance time and star excursion balance test. Paired sample test used for investigation the effect of vibration on leg and trunk muscles in static and dynamic postural control. Result of this study showed in static postural control, there is no significant difference between pre and post test (operated vibration in leg and trunk muscles (p≤0.05. In contrast there is significant difference indynamic postural control between pre and post test in leg muscles in 8 directions of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05 while there is only significant difference in trunk muscle in antrolateral and lateral of star excursion balance test (p≤0.05. During physical training such conditions like fatigue and injury can disturbproprioceptions’ information. Thus, due to the importance of this information we recommend that coaches'additionally specific trainings any sport used specific exercises to enhance the proprioception information

  19. Mechanical Impedance of the Non-loaded Lower Leg with Relaxed Muscles in the Transverse Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficanha, Evandro Maicon; Ribeiro, Guilherme Aramizo; Rastgaar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the protocols and results of the experiments for the estimation of the mechanical impedance of the humans' lower leg in the External-Internal direction in the transverse plane under non-load bearing condition and with relaxed muscles. The objectives of the estimation of the lower leg's mechanical impedance are to facilitate the design of passive and active prostheses with mechanical characteristics similar to the humans' lower leg, and to define a reference that can be compared to the values from the patients suffering from spasticity. The experiments were performed with 10 unimpaired male subjects using a lower extremity rehabilitation robot (Anklebot, Interactive Motion Technologies, Inc.) capable of applying torque perturbations to the foot. The subjects were in a seated position, and the Anklebot recorded the applied torques and the resulting angular movement of the lower leg. In this configuration, the recorded dynamics are due mainly to the rotations of the ankle's talocrural and the subtalar joints, and any contribution of the tibiofibular joints and knee joint. The dynamic mechanical impedance of the lower leg was estimated in the frequency domain with an average coherence of 0.92 within the frequency range of 0-30 Hz, showing a linear correlation between the displacement and the torques within this frequency range under the conditions of the experiment. The mean magnitude of the stiffness of the lower leg (the impedance magnitude averaged in the range of 0-1 Hz) was determined as 4.9 ± 0.74 Nm/rad. The direct estimation of the quasi-static stiffness of the lower leg results in the mean value of 5.8 ± 0.81 Nm/rad. An analysis of variance shows that the estimated values for the stiffness from the two experiments are not statistically different.

  20. ACUPUNCTURE AND MOXIBUSTION FOR TREATMENT OF 21 CASES OF RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Restless legs syndrome is a commonly-seen disease in clinic, characterized by severity at rest and disappearance after movement. And the symptoms occur mainly in the lower limbs, particularly, the leg has a special uncomfortable sense difficult to be expressed which compels the lower limbs of the patient to continuously move. The disease attacks at rest, and the symptoms are more severe at night or after taking a rest, sometime lasting only several minutes, but lasting whole night when it becomes severe. While movement of the lower limbs may obviously relieve the symptoms, and when the patient is at rest or after falling asleep the symptoms may obviously exacerbate, which is a main cause of severe insomnia.

  1. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lindemann

    Full Text Available The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628, leg push power (r = 0.550, isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442, hand grip strength (r = 0.367, fast gait speed (r = 0.291, habitual gait speed (r = 0.256, body mass index (r = 0.411 and age (r = -0.392. Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  2. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Mohr, Christian; Machann, Juergen; Blatzonis, Konstantinos; Rapp, Kilian; Becker, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years) was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628), leg push power (r = 0.550), isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442), hand grip strength (r = 0.367), fast gait speed (r = 0.291), habitual gait speed (r = 0.256), body mass index (r = 0.411) and age (r = -0.392). Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  3. Spring-like leg behaviour, musculoskeletal mechanics and control in maximum and submaximum height human hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Maarten F; Richard Casius, L J

    2011-05-27

    The purpose of this study was to understand how humans regulate their 'leg stiffness' in hopping, and to determine whether this regulation is intended to minimize energy expenditure. 'Leg stiffness' is the slope of the relationship between ground reaction force and displacement of the centre of mass (CM). Variations in leg stiffness were achieved in six subjects by having them hop at maximum and submaximum heights at a frequency of 1.7 Hz. Kinematics, ground reaction forces and electromyograms were measured. Leg stiffness decreased with hopping height, from 350 N m(-1) kg(-1) at 26 cm to 150 N m(-1) kg(-1) at 14 cm. Subjects reduced hopping height primarily by reducing the amplitude of muscle activation. Experimental results were reproduced with a model of the musculoskeletal system comprising four body segments and nine Hill-type muscles, with muscle stimulation STIM(t) as only input. Correspondence between simulated hops and experimental hops was poor when STIM(t) was optimized to minimize mechanical energy expenditure, but good when an objective function was used that penalized jerk of CM motion, suggesting that hopping subjects are not minimizing energy expenditure. Instead, we speculated, subjects are using a simple control strategy that results in smooth movements and a decrease in leg stiffness with hopping height.

  4. [Acute exacerbation of restless legs syndrome during perioperative procedures: case reports and suggested management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karroum, E G; Raux, M; Riou, B; Arnulf, I

    2010-12-01

    Restless legs syndrome, or Ekbom syndrome, is a common (yet poorly recognized) neurological condition, with sensitive and motor symptoms and a probable genetic vulnerability. The subjects experience an imperious urge to move their legs at rest, possibly associated with paresthesia and pain, which occurs mostly in the evening and night, and is transiently relieved by movements and walking. Severe cases suffer from involuntary leg jerks during quiet wake and severe insomnia. The syndrome is more frequent in middle-aged subjects, in women, and in iron deficient subjects (renal insufficiency, pregnancy, multiparous mothers). We report a series of patients with a severe restless legs syndrome, adequately treated with small doses of dopamine agonist in the evening. They experienced a perioperative, acute exacerbation of their syndrome. The inability to stay still with involuntary jerks in the operating room, the generalized pain followed by suicidal thoughts, and the agitation with akathisia in the recovery room, complicated the surgery procedures and their follow-ups. The prevention of restless legs exacerbation includes: (i) contra-indicating hydroxyzine, droperidol and any other drug blocking the central dopamine transmission before and during anaesthesia; (ii) using intravenous or subcutaneous opioids, and benzodiazepines during and after the surgery procedure; (iii) temporary increasing the dosage of dopamine agents after surgery; (iv) monitoring (and compensating if low) the iron stores after surgery. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Vestibular and proprioceptive influences on trunk movements during quiet standing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, C.G.; Kung, U.M.; Honegger, F.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Alfen, N. van; Bloem, B.R.; Allum, J.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    We characterized upper trunk and pelvis motion in normal subjects and in subjects with vestibular or proprioceptive loss, to document upper body movement modes in the pitch and roll planes during quiet stance. Six bilateral vestibular loss (VL), six bilateral lower-leg proprioceptive loss (PL) and 2

  6. 'A leg to stand on': an existential-phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bruggen, H

    1999-12-01

    The analysis of a paradigm-case (a person with an injured leg, an autobiographical history related by Dr Sacks) presented here is an illustration of how existential-phenomenological analysis can be done. The aim of existential-phenomenological research is to analyse and to describe some dimensions of being. The person with an injured leg appears 'to bescotomized'. Well then, 'being-scotomized' can be analysed and described as a particular mode of 'being', even as a particular mode of 'being-ill'. 'Being' has been studied (in the philosophical tradition of Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Sartre) as that existential movement that brings an individual, the 'self', towards the world, meanwhile 'affecting' the personal body, personal time and space, the objects in a person's life-world, the individual's life-world and, finally, coexistence. The study of 'being-ill' is the study of the particular way the self, the body, time and space, the objects, the life-world, and coexistence are affected when being-ill. 'Being-scotomized' may appear as affecting: (i) the self, isolating the subject and leading to a personal disintegration; (ii) the body to which he maintains an ambiguous relationship: being a body and having a body, and not having a part of the body any more; (iii) time and space being vanished with the vanished leg. The subject is 'at' a nowhereness and 'at' a motionless time; there is no meaningful future; (iv) the things in the person's life-world, to which it appears impossible to give the 'right' sense; (v) the life-world, revealing itself as a noland, characterized by silence and motionlessness; (vi) the others in this life-world that appears no-man's-land, uninhabitable nearly by definition. Coexistence reveals not to be possible.

  7. Restless legs syndrome: differential diagnosis and management with pramipexole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindani, Francesca; Vitetta, Francesca; Gemignani, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a condition characterized by discomfort at rest and urge to move focused on the legs. RLS may occur as an idiopathic, often hereditary condition (primary RLS), or in association with medical conditions (secondary RLS) including iron deficiency, uremia, and polyneuropathy. Current understanding of the pathophysiology of RLS points to the involvement of three interrelated components: dopaminergic dysfunction, impaired iron homeostasis, and genetic mechanisms. The diagnosis of RLS is made according to the consensus criteria by a National Institutes of Health panel: 1) an urge to move the legs, usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations; 2) beginning or worsening during rest; 3) relieved by movement; and 4) worse, or only occurring, in the evening or at night. The differential diagnosis of RLS aims to: 1) distinguish RLS from other disorders with RLS-like symptoms and 2) identify secondary forms, with investigation of underlying diseases. The treatment of RLS demands a clinical evaluation to rule out and cure causes of secondary RLS, including iron supplementation when deficient, and to eliminate the triggering factors. The presence of neuropathy should be especially investigated in nonhereditary, late-onset RLS, in view of a possible treatment of the underlying disease. The first line treatment for idiopathic RLS is represented by dopamine agonists, in particular nonergot-derived ropinirole and pramipexole, whereas ergot dopamine agonists (cabergoline and pergolide) are no longer in first-line use given the risks of cardiac valvulopathy. Although no comparative trials have been published, a meta-analysis of pramipexole versus ropinirole suggests differences in efficacy and tolerability favoring pramipexole.

  8. The relationship of leg volume and leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Zorba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determination of the relationship between leg volume, leg mass with anaerobic performance and knee strength in wrestlers. 31 wrestlers from a university students participated in this study voluntarily (X age: 21.09 ± 0.99 yrs. Circumferential measurement were used for the determination of leg volume by Frustum Method and after that, a regression formula was used. For this formulas, while the R square (R2 value was .95 and the standart error value was .056. Leg mass was determined by the Hanavan Method. Wingate Anaerobic Power Test (WAnT was used for the determination of anaerobic performance and Isometric Knee Dynamometer was used for the determination of knee strength. Results of Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis, leg volume was significantly correlated with leg mass (r=.993; pnee strength was found to be correlated with anaerobic performance.

  9. The role of anticipatory postural adjustments in interlimb coordination of coupled arm movements in the parasagittal plane: II. Postural activities and coupling coordination during cyclic flexion-extension arm movements, ISO- and ANTI-directionally coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Fausto G; Esposti, Roberto

    2013-08-01

    When coupling cyclic adduction-abduction movements of the arms in the transverse (horizontal) plane, isodirectional (ISO) coupling is less stable than antidirectional (ANTI) coupling. We proposed that such deficiency stems from the disturbing action that anticipatory postural adjustments exert on ISO coupling. To ascertain if postural adjustments differentiate ISO versus ANTI coupling coordination in other types of cyclic arm movements, we examined flexion-extension oscillations in the parasagittal plane. Oscillations of the right arm alone elicited cyclic Postural Adjustments (PAs) in the left Anterior Deltoid and Posterior Deltoid, which replicated the excitation-inhibition pattern of the prime movers right Anterior Deltoid, right Posterior Deltoid. Cyclic PAs also developed symmetrically in Erector Spinae (RES and LES) and in phase opposition in Ischiocruralis (RIC and LIC), so as to discharge to the ground both an anteroposterior force, Fy, and a moment about the vertical axis, Tz. Oscillations of both arms in ISO coupling induced symmetric PAs in both ES and IC muscles, thus generating a large Fy but no Tz. In ANTI coupling, PAs in RES and LES remained symmetric but smaller in size, while PAs in RIC and LIC were large and opposite in phase, resulting in a large Tz and small Fy. Altogether, PAs would thus favour ISO and hamper ANTI parasagittal movements because (1) in the motor pathways to the prime movers of either arm, a convergence would occur between the voluntary commands and the commands for PAs linked to the movement of the other arm, the two commands having the same sign (excitatory or inhibitory) during ISO and an opposite sign during ANTI; (2) the postural effort of trunk and leg muscles would be higher for generating Tz in ANTI than Fy in ISO. These predictions fit with the finding that coupling stability was lower in ANTI than in ISO, i.e., opposite to horizontal movements. In conclusion, in both parasagittal and horizontal arm movements, the less

  10. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of valid...... and reliable evidence-based quality indicators of venous leg ulcer care. A Scandinavian multidisciplinary, cross-sectional panel of wound healing experts developed clinical quality indicators on the basis of scientific evidence from the literature and subsequent group nominal consensus of the panel......; an independent medical doctor tested the feasibility and reliability of these clinical indicators, assessing the quality of medical technical care on 100 consecutive venous leg ulcer patients. Main outcome measures were healing, recurrence, pain, venous disease diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment...

  11. Poison ivy on the leg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a typical early appearance of a poison ivy rash, located on the leg. These early lesions ... line where the skin has brushed against the poison ivy plant. The rash is caused by skin contact ...

  12. Support Leg Loading in Punt Kicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)

  13. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features on ... guideline for management for rehabilitation of lower limb amputation. January 2008. www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/Rehab/ ...

  14. Acute effect of static stretching on power output during concentric dynamic constant external resistance leg extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taichi; Ishii, Kojiro; Yamanaka, Masanori; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect of static stretching on muscular performance during concentric isotonic (dynamic constant external resistance [DCER]) muscle actions under various loads. Concentric DCER leg extension power outputs were assessed in 12 healthy male subjects after 2 types of pretreatment. The pretreatments included (a) static stretching treatment performing 6 types of static stretching on leg extensors (4 sets of 30 seconds each with 20-second rest periods; total duration 20 minutes) and (b) nonstretching treatment by resting for 20 minutes in a sitting position. Loads during assessment of the power output were set to 5, 30, and 60% of the maximum voluntary contractile (MVC) torque with isometric leg extension in each subject. The peak power output following the static stretching treatment was significantly (p extensive static stretching significantly reduces power output with concentric DCER muscle actions under various loads. Common power activities are carried out by DCER muscle actions under various loads. Therefore, the result of the present study suggests that relatively extensive static stretching decreases power performance.

  15. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2013-12-06

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10-14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5-10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the 'fling' mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother.

  16. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  17. Passive Control of Attachment in Legged Space Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gasparetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the space environment the absence of gravity calls for constant safe attachment of any loose object, but the low-pressure conditions prohibit the use of glue-type adhesives. The attachment system of freely hunting spiders, e.g. Evarcha arcuata, employs van der Waals forces and mechanical interlocking. Furthermore, detachment is achieved passively and requires little force. Hence, the spider serves as a model for a versatile legged robot for space applications, e.g. on the outer surface of a space station. In this paper, we analyse the dry attachment systems of E. arcuata and geckos as well as the kinematics of freely hunting spiders. We generalise the results of biological studies on spider locomotion and mobility, including the major movement and the position constraints set by the dry adhesion system. From these results, we define a simplified spider model and study the overall kinematics of the legs both in flight and in contact with the surface. The kinematic model, the data on spider gait characteristics and the adhesion constraints are implemented in a kinematic simulator. The simulator results confirm the principal functionality of our concept.

  18. Scattering of a legged robot in a heterogeneous granular terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Many granular substrates are composed of particulates of varying size, from fine sand to pebbles and boulders. Ambulatory locomotion on such heterogeneous substrates is complicated in part due to fluctuations introduced by heterogeneities. To discover principles of movement in such substrates, we developed an automated system, the ``Systematic Creation of Arbitrary Terrain and Testing of Exploratory Robots'' (SCATTER), to create heterogeneous granular substrates of varying properties such as compaction, inclination, obstacle shape/size/distribution and obstacle mobility within the substrate. We investigate how the presence of a single ``boulder'' affects the locomotion of a 6-legged robot (15cm, 150g). The robot's trajectory is straight before boulder interaction, and is scattered to an angle after the interaction. Surprisingly, the interactions with the boulder can lead to both negative and positive scattering angles-an effective attraction and repulsion between the robot and the boulder. The scattering pattern depends sensitively on the leg-boulder contact position and the boulder mobility within the fine sand. However, the scattering pattern dependence upon contact position on the boulder is insensitive to boulder shape (created using 3D printing), orientation and roughness. This work is funded by DARPA Young Faculty Award and Army Research Laboratory (ARL).

  19. Two pedigrees with restless legs syndrome in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Esteves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested a substantial genetic contribution in the etiology of the primary form of restless legs syndrome (RLS and periodic leg movements (PLM. We describe the symptoms, the sleep profiles and physiological parameters of two families in which several members present RLS/PLM. The proband of family 1 is a 70-year-old woman and the proband of family 2 is a 57-year-old woman; both have exhibited the symptoms since the age of 20 years. All patients in both families were diagnosed with RLS according to the criteria of the International RLS Study Group. Polysomnographic recordings were performed to quantify and to describe PLM during sleep. Sleep parameters showed decreased sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency in the arousal index and the presence of PLM in all subjects. One of the families showed an exact profile of dominant inheritance with anticipation of age at onset. In the other family, the founders were blood relatives and there was no affected member in the third generation suggesting a recessive mode of inheritance. RLS/PLM is a prevalent sleep disorder affecting about 5 to 15% of the population and one that substantially impairs healthy sleep patterns. Efforts to understand the underlying pathophysiology will contribute to improve the sleep and life quality of these patients.

  20. Sensory symptoms in restless legs syndrome: the enigma of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, John W; Gagnon, Alison; Clair, Andrew G

    2013-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor condition characterized by an urge to move the legs, worsening of symptoms at rest and during the evening/night, and improvement of symptoms with movement. Our review explores the role and impact of sensory symptoms in RLS. The phenomenology of RLS is discussed, highlighting the difficulty patients have in describing their sensations and in differentiating between sensory and motor symptoms. Sensory symptoms have a significant impact on quality of life but remain much less well understood than motor symptoms and sleep disturbances in RLS. Although RLS symptoms usually are not described as painful, sensory manifestations in RLS do share some similarities with chronic pain sensations, and RLS frequently occurs in chronic pain and neuropathic conditions. Peripheral neuropathies may account for some of the sensory disturbances in secondary RLS, while alterations in central somatosensory processing may be a more viable explanation for the sensory disturbances in primary RLS. The effectiveness of analgesics in treating RLS supports the concept of abnormal sensory modulation in RLS and suggests an overlap between pain modulatory pathways and sensory disturbances. Future studies are needed to better understand the experiential and biologic aspects of altered sensory experiences in RLS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Restless Legs Syndrome in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Marta; Winkelman, John W; Unruh, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis; symptoms of RLS are estimated to affect up to 25% of patients on dialysis when the international RLS diagnostic criteria are applied. RLS is a neurologic disorder with a circadian rhythmicity characterized by an overwhelming urge to move the legs during rest, which can be relieved temporarily by movement. RLS has been associated with an increase in sleep disturbance, higher cardiovascular morbidity, decreased quality of life, and an increased risk of death in patients with CKD. Although the exact pathophysiology of RLS is unknown, it is thought to involve an imbalance in iron metabolism and dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. The symptoms of moderate to severe RLS can be treated with several pharmacologic agents; however, data specific to patients on dialysis with RLS are lacking. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between, and complications of, RLS and CKD both in dialysis and nondialysis patients, and discuss the treatment options for patients on dialysis with RLS. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Sano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C.

  3. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  4. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  5. Cardiovascular comorbidity in patients with restless legs syndrome: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas-Pérez NJ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Noel J Vargas-Pérez, Kanika Bagai, Arthur S Walters Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Introduction: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a sensorimotor neurological disorder associated with poor quality of life. Growing evidence links RLS and periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS with increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article reviews the association of RLS and PLMS with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods: PubMed and Medline database (1990 to July 2016 were searched for the terms “restless legs,” “restless legs syndrome,” “periodic limb movements,” “periodic limb movements in sleep” cross-referenced with “cardiovascular disease,” “heart disease,” “coronary artery disease,” “coronary heart disease,” “heart arrhythmia,” “heart failure,” “congestive heart failure,” “echocardiogram,” “echocardiographic,” “hypertension,” “high blood pressure,” “cerebrovascular disease,” “stroke,” “autonomic nervous system,” “heart rate,” “heart rate variability,” “hypoxia,” “microcirculation,” “oxidative stress,” “inflammation,” “chronic kidney disease,” “end-stage renal disease,” “renal disease,” “hemodialysis,” “multiple sclerosis,” “Parkinson,” “Parkinson’s,” “iron deficiency anemia,” and “mortality.” Other relevant articles from the reference list of the above-matched manuscripts were also reviewed. Studies that did not specify the diagnostic criteria for RLS or manuscripts in languages other than English were excluded. Articles with emphasis in RLS secondary to pregnancy were not included in this manuscript.Results: Eighty-six original articles were included in this review. Although mixed results were found regarding the association of RLS and PLMS with CVD, hypertension, stroke and mortality, an informal review of the literature does suggest that the

  6. Substantia nigra hypoechogenicity: definition and findings in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godau, Jana; Schweitzer, Katherine J; Liepelt, Inga; Gerloff, Christian; Berg, Daniela

    2007-01-15

    Pathological studies demonstrate a decreased iron content in the substantia nigra (SN) contributing to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). SN echogenicity as measured by transcranial sonography (TCS) correlates with the SN iron content. The objective of this study was to determine a critical value to define SN hypoechogenicity as a potential marker for RLS. There were 49 RLS patients (39 idiopathic, 10 secondary) and 49 age- and sex-matched controls who underwent TCS by 2 independent and blinded examiners to determine the area of SN echogenicity. We found that SN echogenicity is significantly decreased in RLS patients compared to healthy controls (P hypoechogenicity (sum area of SN echogenicity of both sides hypoechogenicity (SN sum area < 0.2 cm(2)), which is supposed to indicate a decreased SN iron content, is a marker for RLS. Further studies are needed to investigate its significance for the pathophysiology of this frequent movement disorder and possible clinical applications.

  7. Neuromuscular onset succession of high level gymnasts during dynamic leg acceleration phases on high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Laßberg, Christoph; Rapp, Walter; Mohler, Betty; Krug, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    In several athletic disciplines there is evidence that for generating the most effective acceleration of a specific body part the transfer of momentum should run in a "whip-like" consecutive succession of body parts towards the segment which shall be accelerated most effectively (e.g. the arm in throwing disciplines). This study investigated the question how this relates to the succession of neuromuscular activation to induce such "whip like" leg acceleration in sports like gymnastics with changed conditions concerning the body position and momentary rotational axis of movements (e.g. performing giant swings on high bar). The study demonstrates that during different long hang elements, performed by 12 high level gymnasts, the succession of the neuromuscular activation runs primarily from the bar (punctum fixum) towards the legs (punctum mobile). This demonstrates that the frequently used teaching instruction, first to accelerate the legs for a successful realization of such movements, according to a high level kinematic output, is contradictory to the neuromuscular input patterns, being used in high level athletes, realizing these skills with high efficiency. Based on these findings new approaches could be developed for more direct and more adequate teaching methods regarding to an earlier optimization and facilitation of fundamental movement requirements.

  8. Functional recovery following manipulation of muscles and sense organs in the stick insect leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bässler, Ulrich; Wolf, Harald; Stein, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    We studied functional recovery of leg posture and walking behaviour in the femur-tibia joint control system of stick insects. Leg extensions in resting animals and during walking are produced by different parts of a single extensor muscle. (a) Ablation of the muscle part responsible for fast movements prevented leg extension during the swing phase. Resting posture remained unaffected. Within a few post-operative days, extension movements recovered, provided that sensory feedback was available. Extension movements were now driven by the muscle part which in intact animals controls the resting posture only. (b) Selective ablation of this (slow) muscle part affected the resting posture, while walking was unaffected. The resting posture partly recovered during subsequent days. To test the range of functional recovery and underlying mechanisms, we additionally transected muscle motor innervation, or we inverted or ablated sensory feedback. We found that recovery was based on both muscular and neuronal mechanisms. The latter required appropriate sensory feedback for the process of recovery, but not for the maintenance of the recovered state. Our results thus indicate the existence of a sensory template that guides recovery. Recovery was limited to a behavioural range that occurs naturally in intact animals, though in different behavioural contexts.

  9. Force encoding in stick insect legs delineates a reference frame for motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Sasha N; Schmitz, Josef; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Büschges, Ansgar

    2012-09-01

    The regulation of forces is integral to motor control. However, it is unclear how information from sense organs that detect forces at individual muscles or joints is incorporated into a frame of reference for motor control. Campaniform sensilla are receptors that monitor forces by cuticular strains. We studied how loads and muscle forces are encoded by trochanteral campaniform sensilla in stick insects. Forces were applied to the middle leg to emulate loading and/or muscle contractions. Selective sensory ablations limited activities recorded in the main leg nerve to specific receptor groups. The trochanteral campaniform sensilla consist of four discrete groups. We found that the dorsal groups (Groups 3 and 4) encoded force increases and decreases in the plane of movement of the coxo-trochanteral joint. Group 3 receptors discharged to increases in dorsal loading and decreases in ventral load. Group 4 showed the reverse directional sensitivities. Vigorous, directional responses also occurred to contractions of the trochanteral depressor muscle and to forces applied at the muscle insertion. All sensory discharges encoded the amplitude and rate of loading or muscle force. Stimulation of the receptors produced reflex effects in the depressor motoneurons that could reverse in sign during active movements. These data, in conjunction with findings of previous studies, support a model in which the trochanteral receptors function as an array that can detect forces in all directions relative to the intrinsic plane of leg movement. The array could provide requisite information about forces and simplify the control and adaptation of posture and walking.

  10. Controle de movimentos voluntários no membro superior não plégico de portadores de paralisia cerebral hemiplégica espástica Control of voluntary movements in the non-affected upper limb of spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMF Barela

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os movimentos de flexão do ombro e do cotovelo do hemicorpo não plégico de portadores de paralisia cerebral (PC hemiplégica espástica e do hemicorpo mais utilizado de indivíduos sem comprometimento motor e/ou neurológico (normais. MÉTODOS: Seis portadores de PC (18,2 ± 3,7 anos e seis indivíduos normais (18,5 ± 3,3 anos participaram deste estudo. Marcadores ativos foram afixados nos centros articulares do ombro, cotovelo e punho para aquisição de dados cinemáticos e eletrodos de superfície foram afixados nos ventres musculares do deltóide anterior, deltóide posterior, bíceps braquial e tríceps braquial para aquisição da atividade eletromiográfica (EMG muscular. Os participantes tiveram que flexionar o ombro na tarefa de flexão do ombro e o cotovelo na tarefa de flexão do cotovelo o mais rápido possível em direção a um alvo que estava posicionado em três distâncias angulares diferentes (25º, 50º e 75º. RESULTADOS: Todos os participantes realizaram as duas tarefas motoras e os dois grupos movimentaram predominantemente o ombro para realizar a tarefa de flexão de ombro. Porém, para realizar a tarefa de flexão de cotovelo, os portadores de PC movimentaram o cotovelo e o ombro, enquanto que os indivíduos normais movimentaram predominantemente o cotovelo. CONCLUSÃO: Diferentemente dos indivíduos normais, os portadores de PC hemiplégica espástica não controlaram os movimentos mais distais da mesma forma que os movimentos proximais. Portanto, o hemicorpo não plégico não deve ser considerado normal e, mais importante, ao se propor um programa de intervenção para os portadores de PC, os dois hemicorpos devem ser considerados.OBJECTIVE: To analyze shoulder and elbow flexion movements in the non-affected side of the body in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP patients and in the side of the body used more often in normal individuals (without motor and/or neurological impairment. METHOD: Six

  11. The role of eccentric regime of leg muscle work in alpine skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine skiing is characterized by a great number of leg movements with muscle contractions in eccentric regime. The role of these movements is to absorb gravitation and inertial forces, manage skis more precisely and maintain balance. Recent studies have determined the volume, duration and intenisty of eccentric contractions as well as the basic characteristics of movement amplitudes and velocities. Based on the previous findings the experiments involving eccentric training using a bicycle ergometer confirmed a positive impact that this kind of training has on increasing maximum power, strength, endurance, coordination, injury prevention, metabolic work efficiency, more efficient work with longer muscle length and its role in miming skiers' movements. This paper is an review of the studies so far in the field of kinematics, skiing dynamics and the effect of eccentric training on the development of athletes' performances.

  12. Social movements and human rights rhetoric in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, P D; Banerjee, A

    2005-08-01

    After achieving breathtaking successes in securing state and local restrictions on smoking in public places and restricting youth access to tobacco products, the tobacco movement faces difficult decisions on its future strategic directions. The thesis of this article is that the tobacco control movement is at a point of needing to secure its recent successes and avoiding any public retrenchment. To do so requires rethinking the movement's strategic direction. We use the familiar trans-theoretical model of change to describe where the movement is currently and the threats it faces. The new tobacco control strategy should encompass a focus on voluntary non-smoking strategies, use human rights rhetoric to its advantage, and strengthen the public health voice to be more effective in political battles. In developing a new strategy, tobacco control advocates need to build a social movement based on a more forceful public health voice, along with the strategic use of human rights rhetoric, to focus on the power of voluntary non-smoking efforts. Using human rights rhetoric can help frame the movement in ways that have traditionally appealed to the American public. Perhaps more importantly, doing so can help infuse the tobacco control movement with a broader sense of purpose and mission.

  13. The Moving Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals that Explicit Sense of Agency for Tapping Movements Is Preserved in Functional Movement Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Angela; Bombieri, Federica; Zampini, Massimiliano; Schena, Federico; Dallocchio, Carlo; Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Functional movement disorders (FMD) are characterized by motor symptoms (e.g., tremor, gait disorder, and dystonia) that are not compatible with movement abnormalities related to a known organic cause. One key clinical feature of FMD is that motor symptoms are similar to voluntary movements but are subjectively experienced as involuntary by patients. This gap might be related to abnormal self-recognition of bodily action, which involves two main components: sense of agency and sense of body ownership. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate whether this function is altered in FMD, specifically focusing on the subjective feeling of agency, body ownership, and their interaction during normal voluntary movements. Patients with FMD (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 21) underwent the moving Rubber Hand Illusion (mRHI), in which passive and active movements can differentially elicit agency, ownership or both. Explicit measures of agency and ownership were obtained via a questionnaire. Patients and controls showed a similar pattern of response: when the rubber hand was in a plausible posture, active movements elicited strong agency and ownership; implausible posture of the rubber hand abolished ownership but not agency; passive movements suppressed agency but not ownership. These findings suggest that explicit sense of agency and body ownership are preserved in FMD. The latter finding is shared by a previous study in FMD using a static version of the RHI, whereas the former appears to contrast with studies demonstrating altered implicit measures of agency (e.g., sensory attenuation). Our study extends previous findings by suggesting that in FMD: (i) the sense of body ownership is retained also when interacting with the motor system; (ii) the subjective experience of agency for voluntary tapping movements, as measured by means of mRHI, is preserved.

  14. The Moving Rubber Hand Illusion Reveals that Explicit Sense of Agency for Tapping Movements Is Preserved in Functional Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marotta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional movement disorders (FMD are characterized by motor symptoms (e.g., tremor, gait disorder, and dystonia that are not compatible with movement abnormalities related to a known organic cause. One key clinical feature of FMD is that motor symptoms are similar to voluntary movements but are subjectively experienced as involuntary by patients. This gap might be related to abnormal self-recognition of bodily action, which involves two main components: sense of agency and sense of body ownership. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate whether this function is altered in FMD, specifically focusing on the subjective feeling of agency, body ownership, and their interaction during normal voluntary movements. Patients with FMD (n = 21 and healthy controls (n = 21 underwent the moving Rubber Hand Illusion (mRHI, in which passive and active movements can differentially elicit agency, ownership or both. Explicit measures of agency and ownership were obtained via a questionnaire. Patients and controls showed a similar pattern of response: when the rubber hand was in a plausible posture, active movements elicited strong agency and ownership; implausible posture of the rubber hand abolished ownership but not agency; passive movements suppressed agency but not ownership. These findings suggest that explicit sense of agency and body ownership are preserved in FMD. The latter finding is shared by a previous study in FMD using a static version of the RHI, whereas the former appears to contrast with studies demonstrating altered implicit measures of agency (e.g., sensory attenuation. Our study extends previous findings by suggesting that in FMD: (i the sense of body ownership is retained also when interacting with the motor system; (ii the subjective experience of agency for voluntary tapping movements, as measured by means of mRHI, is preserved.

  15. Reaching with the sixth sense: Vestibular contributions to voluntary motor control in the human right parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Thielscher, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support voluntary control of movements by complementing the other senses to accomplish the movement goal. Investigations into the neural correlates of vestibular contribution to voluntary action in humans are challenging and have progressed far less than research on corresponding visual and proprioceptive involvement. Here, we demonstrate for the first time with event-related TMS that the posterior part of the right medial intraparietal sulcus processes vestibular signals during a goal-directed reaching task with the dominant right hand. This finding suggests a qualitative difference between the processing of vestibular vs. visual and proprioceptive signals for controlling voluntary movements, which are pre-dominantly processed in the left posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, this study reveals a neural pathway for vestibular input that might be distinct from the processing for reflexive or cognitive functions, and opens a window into their investigation in humans.

  16. The parallel programming of voluntary and reflexive saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin; McSorley, Eugene

    2006-06-01

    A novel two-step paradigm was used to investigate the parallel programming of consecutive, stimulus-elicited ('reflexive') and endogenous ('voluntary') saccades. The mean latency of voluntary saccades, made following the first reflexive saccades in two-step conditions, was significantly reduced compared to that of voluntary saccades made in the single-step control trials. The latency of the first reflexive saccades was modulated by the requirement to make a second saccade: first saccade latency increased when a second voluntary saccade was required in the opposite direction to the first saccade, and decreased when a second saccade was required in the same direction as the first reflexive saccade. A second experiment confirmed the basic effect and also showed that a second reflexive saccade may be programmed in parallel with a first voluntary saccade. The results support the view that voluntary and reflexive saccades can be programmed in parallel on a common motor map.

  17. Voluntary energy optimisation - Taking responsibility; Verantwortungsvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baettig, I.

    2006-07-01

    This interview with Konrad Kyburz, CEO of a printing shop in Dielsdorf, Switzerland, discusses how energy consumption can be reduced on a voluntary basis. The provision free-of-charge of heat recovered from the drying ovens of the printing presses to a nearby sports facility is discussed. The realisation of an energy consumption analysis and the resulting increases in the efficiency of energy usage in the printing facility are discussed. Further improvements such as the use of variable-frequency compressor drives and heating with natural gas that helped in making energy savings of well over 15% are discussed.

  18. Voluntary participation and cooperation in a collective-good game.

    OpenAIRE

    Kene Boun My; Benoît Chalvignac

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of voluntary participation in the context of a collective-good experiment. We investigate whether the freedom to participate in the game or not increases contribution levels and enhances their evolution. The analysis of two voluntary participation treatments supports a positive effect of an attractive exit option on both contribution levels and their sustainability. We conclude that the voluntary contribution mechanism can provide sustainable cooperation levels and that th...

  19. Reversal of optic neuropathy secondary to voluntary globe luxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Aylin; Ozturk, Taylan; Soylev, Meltem F

    2009-04-01

    Luxation of the globe is rare in the general population and may be spontaneous, voluntary, or traumatic. Spontaneous or voluntary globe luxation results from shallow orbit, floppy eyelids, lax orbital ligaments, backward displacement of orbital septum, or proptotic eyes due to orbital tumors or infiltrative processes, as in Grave's ophthalmopathy. The authors report a case with unilateral voluntary globe luxation presented with unilateral progressive visual loss.

  20. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.