... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... relinquishment from Child Health Patient Safety Organization, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From UAB Health System Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... relinquishment from the UAB Health System Patient Safety Organization of its status as a Patient...
Irestig, Magnus; Hallberg, Niklas; Eriksson, Henrik; Timpka, Toomas
A large part of the health promotion in today's society is performed as peer-to-peer empowerment in voluntary organisations such as sports clubs, charities, and trade unions. In order to prevent work-related illness and long-term sickness absence, the aim of this study is to explore computer network services for empowerment of employees by peer-to-peer communication. The 'technique trade-off method was used for the analysis of the system design. A Critical Incident Technique questionnaire was distributed to a representative sample of trade union shop stewards (n = 386), and focus-group seminars were arranged where a preliminary set of requirements was discussed. Seven basic requirements were identified and matched to a set of 12 design issues for computer network services, allocating a subset of design issues to each requirement. The conclusion is that the systems design displays an inexpensive and potentially feasible method for peer-to-peer computing in voluntary health-promoting organisations.
Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta
internationalization. Based on our results, we suggest that, depending on the field of action, voluntary collective action and organized collaboration are substitutes with regard to performance. Our study contributes to the literature on collective action and to research on public organizations in pluralistic......Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...... in three fields of action: the training of young scientists, internationalization, and gender diversity. The findings indicate that organized collaboration may lead to improved performance in the training of young scientists and gender diversity. Conversely, voluntary collective action enhances...
Ekeland, Terry P.
Voluntary organizations offer a unique opportunity to interpret participant relationships, leadership influences, and organizational effectiveness unencumbered by employment relationships. Regardless of organizational structure or purpose, all organizations are affected to some degree by their leadership and their membership. Based on the…
The governments of South Asian countries have become aware of the substantial role that nongovernment organizations (NGOs) or voluntary agencies can play in rural development and other nation building activities. Although private agencies cannot substitute for government programs, there is general consensus that NGOs use development funds more efficiently and innovatively than government programs. NGOs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan exemplify the influence these organizations have on development in South Asia. The Lutheran World Service in Bangladesh, a foreign origin NGO, has branched out from its original aim of providing relief and war rehabilitation to give skills training and technical assistance to the poor. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, an indigenous NGO, works for the well-being and self-reliance of the landless poor, those with very small farms, and women. NGOs in Bangladesh have been especially innovative in developing methods to encourage self-help, such as local organization and credit, which are often combined with training in practical skills, literacy, nutrition, and family planning. Present NGO activity in India is dominated by the Gandhian tradition. There is a potential conflict between the philosophy of the NGO's in terms of building on the people's felt needs from the bottom up and the tendency of government agencies to want to plan for the people. In Pakistan, the concept of development-oriented NGOs is recent and not yet strong, although the government has adopted a policy of routing funds from government and from bilateral donor agencies through NGOs in 2 areas--family planning and women's welfare. The chief limitation of NGOs is their scope, meaning that the major burden of the development process rests on government agencies.
Sharma, M; Bhatia, G
There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A review of the literature in the form of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis was the method of this study. Some of the key trends which emerged as the priority areas for progress and for strengthening voluntary organizations in the future were enhancing linkages between health and development; building upon collective force; greater utilization of participatory training; establishing egalitarian and effectual linkages for decision making at the international level; developing self-reliant community-based models; and the need for attaining holistic empowerment at individual, organizational, and community levels through "duty consciousness" as opposed to merely asking for rights.
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization: AHRQ...
"Based on five months anthropological field study in a British affiliate of an American charity in London, Revsbech asks what does learning look like in a social voluntary organization for youth. Her chapter argues that volunteers develop entrepreneurial abilities by shifting flexibly between...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Cogent Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From HSMS Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ... relinquishment from the HSMS Patient Safety Organization of its status as a Patient Safety Organization...
Natalia M. Shtereva-Nikolova; Nikolay A. Popov; Tsvetelina M. Petrova-Gotova
The aim of this article is to show the history and development of the Voluntary Health Insurance (VHI) in Bulgaria and the recent regulatory changes. During the investigated period (2003–2012) the market increases over seven times, the number of working and licensed VHI funds grew over three times. The regulatory changes in 2013 require re-licensing and higher capital, which reduced the number of the VHI companies. We analyze the changes in the market and how VHI funds succeed to meet the inc...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From The Connecticut Hospital Association Federal Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety...
Sergey V. Polatayko
Full Text Available The article analyses basic questions of voluntary work formation in higher educational establishment, its conceptual and legislative basis, defines basic directions of students agencies activities and forms of their participation in higher educational establishment activities.
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety Institute AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Oregon Patient Safety Commission AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: Oregon Patient Safety Commission: AHRQ has accepted...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Community Medical Foundation for Patient Safety AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Community Medical Foundation for Patient...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... relinquishment from Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation of its status as a Patient Safety...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary... Medical Care, of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109-41, 42 U.S.C. 299b-21--b-26, provides for...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From the Patient Safety Group AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS... relinquishment from The Patient Safety Group of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The...
... the Surgical Safety Institute of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Surgical Safety Institute AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ),...
Herberholz, Chantal; Fakihammed, Wael Ahmed
Low enrolment and high drop-out rates are common problems in voluntary health insurance schemes. Yet, most studies in this research area focus on community-based health insurance and enrolment, rather than drop-out. This study examines what causes informal sector families not to renew their voluntary National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) health insurance membership in Eastern Sudan. Primary data from about 600 informal sector households that dropped out or remained insured, collected through a household survey conducted in March 2014, were used. Logistic regressions were employed to examine what determines drop-out of the voluntary NHIF scheme. The logistic regression results are consistent with the existing literature and confirm the importance of household head, household and community characteristics. Notably, worse family health status and higher health care utilization decrease the probability of drop-out, which requires further analysis as it may indicate the problem of adverse selection and insufficient risk management. Most importantly, the results consistently show that household heads who are satisfied with health services and those who understand the main features of the voluntary NHIF scheme are less likely to drop out. Also, 30 % of drop-out households hold a social support card and reported that the social support scheme is the main reason for not renewing their voluntary NHIF health insurance membership as they qualify for sponsored NHIF health insurance membership. This study shows that satisfaction with health services and knowledge of the health insurance scheme are important factors explaining drop-out of a national health insurance programme. The results suggest that education and information campaigns should be developed further to raise understanding of the NHIF voluntary scheme. In addition, information systems and coordination between the main agencies should be strengthened to reduce administrative costs and ensure policy coherence.
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From West Virginia Center for Patient Safety AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY West Virginia Center for Patient Safety: AHRQ...
... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From the Coalition for Quality and Patient Safety of Chicagoland (CQPS PSO) AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety...
L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas)
textabstractPhilanthropic organizations have recently started to focus on how to invest their resources in a way that will really make a difference to society. Strategic philanthropy is the new concept for voluntary action for the public good to create a valuable sustainable impact! This inaugural
Full Text Available Differences in democratic traditions and socioeconomic development of various countries leave a mark on the extent of involvement in work for voluntary organizations. The author makes an attempt to check whether these differences have an effect on the determinants of such kind of involvement. Socioeconomic status, social capital, civic engagement, and political participation were considered as determinants. Multiple linear regressions based on the data of the third and sixth rounds of European Social Survey (ESS-3 and ESS-6 were used to clarify configurations of the factors’ effect. The analysis has shown that socioeconomic factors and main components of social capital proved insignificant. Instead, the behavioral components of civic engagement and political participation turned out to be the most influential and distributed among most European countries. The influence of participation in social activities on the involvement in work for voluntary or charitable organizations is rather inherent in European societies with stable democracy and developed economy.
Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian
Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Shi, Benyun; Qiu, Hongjun; Niu, Wenfang; Ren, Yizhi; Ding, Hong; Chen, Dan
Voluntary vaccination reflects how individuals weigh the risk of infection and the cost of vaccination against the spread of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as smallpox and measles. In a homogeneously mixing population, the infection risk of an individual depends largely on the proportion of vaccinated individuals due to the effects of herd immunity. While in a structured population, the infection risk can also be affected by the structure of individuals' social network. In this paper, we focus on studying individuals' self-organizing behaviors under the circumstance of voluntary vaccination in different types of social networks. Specifically, we assume that each individual together with his/her neighbors forms a local well-mixed environment, where individuals meet equally often as long as they have a common neighbor. We carry out simulations on four types of locally-mixed social networks to investigate the network effects on voluntary vaccination. Furthermore, we also evaluate individuals' vaccinating decisions through interacting with their "neighbors of neighbors". The results and findings of this paper provide a new perspective for vaccination policy-making by taking into consideration human responses in complex social networks.
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A group a Swiss physicians, who have been working for about eight years in rural health posts of the Peruvian highlands (Altiplano), engaged in training voluntary health auxiliaries, chosen by the indigenous communities. Experience has shown that, as in other countries, it is thus possible to markedly improve the health of populations which badly lack resources. The efficacy of using such auxiliaries was recognized by the Peruvian Ministry of Health, which has now set up a programme for their training and supervision. Within the concept of primary health care, based on the participation of people to the management of their health, the voluntary health auxiliary is placed in a strategic and decisive position for the success of an enterprise which is now spreading to many countries of the Third World.
Feb 2, 2011 ... reflected the current design of the Community Health Fund/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/. TIKA), the second ...... participatory wealth ranking have considerable errors .... Jehu-appiah, c., aryeetey, g., spaan, e., et al. equity aspects of ...
McLeod, Heather; Grobler, Pieter
South Africa intends implementing major reforms in the financing of healthcare. Free market reforms in private health insurance in the late 1980s have been reversed by the new democratic government since 1994 with the re-introduction of open enrolment, community rating and minimum benefits. A system of national health insurance with income cross-subsidies, risk-adjusted payments and mandatory membership has been envisaged in policy papers since 1994. Subsequent work has seen the design of a Risk Equalisation Fund intended to operate between competing private health insurance funds. The paper outlines the South African health system and describes the risk equalisation formula that has been developed. The risk factors are age, gender, maternity events, numbers with certain chronic diseases and numbers with multiple chronic diseases. The Risk Equalisation Fund has been operating in shadow mode since 2005 with data being collected but no money changing hands. The South African experience of risk equalisation is of wider interest as it demonstrates an attempt to introduce more solidarity into a small but highly competitive private insurance market. The measures taken to combat over-reporting of chronic disease should be useful for countries or funders considering adding chronic disease to their risk equalisation formulae.
Feb 2, 2011 ... INTROdUCTION increasingly ... the health insurance sector, has hampered expansion efforts in many ... revenue generated by each scheme. ... given a mandate to oversee the management of the ... Data analysis were done using stata version 11.0. ... using Pearson chi-square (for binary or categorical.
... Health Emergencies. Read more... Health services must stop leaving older people behind On the International Day of ... édition de 2017. Résumé du panorama régional Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization ...
Full Text Available Volunteering is an activity that develops in a personal, spontaneous, free, without personal benefits. This is offered by individual citizens, individually or through organizations. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the features of personality for health professionals to volunteering. Methodology: The data collection was done by completing a written questionnaire in time and place of participants’ choice. The tools used were: (a Questionnaire of socio-demographic characteristics, (b the Altruism Scale, (c the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and (d the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS (18 statistical package. Results: In this study involved 110 doctors and nurses of Sparta General Hospital (overall study sample, 64.2% of the sample were male, 57.3% were married, 37.7% were tertiary education graduates, while 99.1% had the Greek ethnicity. Results showed that the mean value of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in women was (7.8 while in men was (11.4. At this point Independent Sample t-test showed statistically significant difference to the mean value of the NPI between women and men t = 2.470 p =0.017. Regarding to volunteering, the mean values of Narcissistic Personality Inventory showed statistically significant difference between those who had participate in a voluntary effort and those you hadn’t (t-test = 2.2927 & p-value = 0.004. Independent Sample t-test showed statistically significant difference to the mean value of the NPI between the marital status groups but in significance level of 10% (t-test = 1.927 & p-value = 0.071. Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the relationship between specific personality traits with volunteering. According to the results, there appear to be some evidence that individuals, who have participated in a voluntary effort, are people with a high sense of altruism, present low score in the scale of narcissistic
Cristianne Maria Famer Rocha
Full Text Available Objective: To identify issues related to topics such as maternity, pregnancy, voluntary abortion and women’s health from the perspective of Brazilian and African immigrants living in Portugal. Methods: This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a qualitative approach, held in Portugal between May and June 2008, with 35 immigrant women (from Brazil and the Portuguese-speaking African countries - Lusophone Africa or PALOP. Information was collected through a sociodemographic questionnaire and focus group conduction. Data was analyzed according to the common procedure of content analysis. Two categories of analysis emerged: 1 Pregnancy and Maternity and 2 Voluntary Abortion. Results: The research included 15 Brazilian and 20 African, aged between 21 and 45 years. Brazilian participants refer to possess higher educational level compared to African women. In general, both women go through various difficulties regarding issues involving pregnancy, maternity and voluntary abortion, especially sociocultural differences faced by the country in which they live. Conclusion: It is necessary the adoption of a social model of positive health, focused on the individuals’ and the population needs and, as far as possible, adapted to their specificities. In this sense, it is relevant that models are developed to promote the immigrant participation in the development of actions for health promotion in this area. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p470
Alexandersen, Nina; Anell, Anders; Kaarboe, Odvar
and capped. Nevertheless, the markets for voluntary private health insurance (VPHI) have been rapidly expanding. In this paper we describe the development of the market for VPHI in the Nordic countries. We outline similarities and differences and provide discussion of the rationale for the existence......The Nordic countries represent an institutional setting with tax-based health care financing and universal access to health care services. Very few health care services are excluded from what are offered within the publically financed health care system. User fees are often non-existing or low...... of different types of VPHI. Data is collected on the population covered by VPHI, type and scope of coverage, suppliers of VPHI and their relations with health providers. It seems that the main roles of VPHI are to cover out-of-pocket payments for services that are only partly financed by the public health care...
Portillo, M.C.; Regaira, E.; Pumar-Mendez, M.J.; Mujika, A.; Vassilev, I.; Rogers, A.; Wensing, M.; Foss, C.; Knutsen, I.R.; Todorova, E.; Roukova, P.; Kennedy, A.; Serrano, M.; Lionis, C.; Angelaki, A.; Patelarou, E.; Koetsenruijter, J.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to critically review the literature on the role and work of voluntary organizations and community groups and volunteers in diabetes self-management programs. It seeks to explain how these organizations are located and could be integrated further within a broader
Armstrong, John; Paolucci, Francesco; McLeod, Heather; van de Ven, Wynand P M M
The paper summarises the conclusions for health policy from the experience of three countries who have introduced risk equalisation subsidies, in their voluntary health insurance (VHI) markets. The countries chosen are Australia, Ireland and South Africa. All of these countries have developed VHI markets and have progressed towards introducing risk equalisation. The objective of such subsidies is primarily to make VHI affordable while encouraging efficiency in health care production. The paper presents a conceptual framework to understand and compare risk equalisation subsidies in VHI markets. The paper outlines how such subsidies are organised in each of the countries and identifies problems that arise in their implementation. We conclude that the objectives of risk equalisation, in VHI markets are no different to those in countries with mandatory insurance systems. We find that the introduction of risk equalisation subsidies is complex and that countries seeking to introduce risk equalisation in VHI markets must carefully consider how such subsidies advance their overall health policy goals. Furthermore, we conclude that such subsidies must be structured correctly as otherwise incentives exist for risk selection which may threaten affordability and efficiency. Our overall conclusion is that also in voluntary health insurance markets risk equalisation has a role in meeting the related public policy objectives of risk solidarity and affordability, and without it these objectives are severely undermined.
Suzanne M. LeMenestrel
Full Text Available As many national youth-serving organizations have either celebrated their 100th anniversaries or are approaching their centennials, we take a step back to celebrate these organizations’ accomplishments, but also to examine how youth organizations have responded positively to the youth development philosophy and approach to programming. The focus of this paper is on those organizations in which participation by youth is voluntary.
Aslı Yönten Balaban
Full Text Available AbstractVolunteer activities, which can be described as activities without demanding any recompense, has an important role in strengthening the social structure. Youth participation into voluntary activities makes them active in the field of social integration while contributing their personal development. In this study, youth voluntary activities with regards to non-governmental organizations in Turkey will be discussed. It is also aimed to evaluate perception of volunteerism and the contribution of young volunteers’ activities to themselves in specific and to society in general.Keywords: Participation, Volunteerism, Educational Volunteers Foundation of Turkey (TEGVJEL Classification Codes: I29, L31
Kristeva-Feige, R; Rossi, S; Feige, B; Mergner, T; Lücking, C H; Rossini, P M
In 1965, Kornhuber and Deecke first described the bereitschaftspotential (BP), a paradigm for investigating the organization of voluntary movement in humans, using electroencephalography (EEG). This paradigm has since been used in many studies for investigating motor control in healthy humans and patients. Over the last years, the advantages of magnetoencephalography (MEG) have been applied to the BP paradigm by a number of researchers. The main advantage of magnetoencephalography over electroencephalography is that MEG has a higher localization accuracy. This is due to the fact that the different structures of the head (brain, liquor cerebrospinalis, skull and scalp) influence the magnetic fields less than the volume current flow that causes the EEG. Additionally, the MEG is reference free, so that the localization of sources with a given precision is easier for MEG than it is for EEG. The present protocol shows in detail how the bereitschaftspotential paradigm can be applied using MEG. Some additional paradigms for investigating motor plasticity, somatosensory gating, Parkinson disease, and the efference copy theory are suggested as well.
Baggott, Rob; Jones, Kathryn
This article explores the policy role of health consumer and patients' organisations (HCPOs), an important subset of the UK voluntary health sector. Based on research findings from two surveys, the article examines the activities, resources and contacts of HCPOs. It also assesses their impact on health policy and reform. There is some evidence that HCPOs can influence policy and reform. However, much depends on the alliances they build with other policy actors (including other HCPOs), their resources and leadership. HCPOs seem to have more impact on the detail of policy than on the direction of travel. In addition, there are potentially adverse consequences for HCPOs that do engage with the policy process, which may partly explain why some are wary of such involvement. For example, it is possible that HCPOs can be manipulated by government and other powerful policy actors such as health professionals and the drugs industry.
Nick J. Mulé
Full Text Available Registered charities are restricted when engaging in advocacy, whereas Canadian nonprofits face a far more difficult time when fundraising. The impact of such limitations on Canadian gender and sexually diverse1 activist organizations is one example of the implications on Canada's democratization process. Despite the efforts of the Voluntary Sector Initiative (VSI, and updated political activity policies, Canada lags behind both the U.K. and U.S. in recognizing and legitimizing advocacy as an important contribution to its democratic process. An organized challenge of the system at the political and legal level is called for to address this issue. / Les organismes de bienfaisance enregistrés font face à des contraintes lorsqu'ils défendent une cause, tandis que les organismes sans but lucratif rencontrent de nombreuses difficultés pour amasser des fonds. L'impact de ces contraintes sur les organisations militantes de genre et de sexualité diversifiés n'est qu'un exemple de répercussion sur le procédé de démocratisation du Canada. Malgré les efforts déployés par l'Initiative sur le secteur bénévole et communautaire (ISBC et malgré la mise à jour de politiques sur l'activité politique, le gouvernement du Canada a du retard par rapport à ceux du Royaume-Uni et des États-Unis en matière de reconnaissance et de légitimation de la défense de causes en tant que contribution importante à son processus démocratique. Pour aborder cette question, nous sommes amenés à remettre en question le système de façon méthodique sur les plans politique et juridique.
Bulled, Nicola L
Drawing on work examining HIV prevention initiatives in Lesotho, this paper considers the hesitation of national state actors towards the new strategy for HIV prevention - voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Lesotho offers a representative case study on global health governance, given the country's high HIV burden and heavy dependence on foreign donor nations to implement local HIV prevention initiatives. In this paper, I use the case of VMMC opposition in Lesotho to examine how the new era of 'partnerships' has shifted the architecture of contemporary global health, specifically considering how global agreements are translated or negotiated into local practice. I argue that Lesotho's domestic policy-makers, in employing national statistics to assess if VMMC is an effective approach to addressing the local epidemic, are asserting a claim of expertise. In doing so, they challenge the traditional structures of global health politics, which have largely been managed by experts and funders from and in the global North. I explore the development of global VMMC policy, what drives Lesotho's resistance to comply, and consider the impact renegotiation efforts may have on future global health architecture.
Ireland has a system of private health insurance (PHI) which acts as a voluntary alternative to the benefits provided under the Irish public health system. As part of this, community rating has long been a cornerstone of the Irish private health insurance market with the objective to make PHI affordable to everyone regardless of their risk profile. Until the mid-1990s one insurer had a legal monopoly. However, in 1996, following the Third Non-Life Insurance Directive, the market was opened up to competition and a number of regulations were introduced to support community rating. This includes the introduction of a risk equalisation system. Its aim was to prevent selection and thus protect the community rating system while still enabling a competitive health insurance market. There have been significant obstacles to the introduction of risk equalisation due to political, legal and implementation issues. The objective of this paper is to review the history, structure and likely effectiveness of risk equalisation in Ireland. The paper provides lessons for other countries with risk equalisation systems or seeking to introduce such a system. Amongst other conclusions, it outlines the difficulties in introducing risk equalisation.
Connelly, Luke B; Paolucci, Francesco; Butler, James R G; Collins, Paul
In April 2007, Australia introduced a risk equalisation (RE) scheme (de facto a claims equalisation scheme), which replaced an extant reinsurance scheme that had operated since 1976. This scheme is one of a number of policy measures that the Australian Government has instituted to support the voluntary private health insurance (PHI) market which is subject to mandatory community rating and the attendant problem of selection. The latter has been a persistent concern in the Australian PHI market since the introduction of Australia's universal, compulsory national health insurance scheme Medicare. This paper presents a brief overview of Australia's health care financing arrangements and, in particular, focuses on the history, structure and functioning of the RE scheme. It provides an exposition of the operation of the scheme and empirical evidence of the scheme's effects in its first full year of operation, 2007-08. The paper makes three contributions: first, it provides the only detailed overview of the functioning of the Australian RE scheme published to date; second, it presents the first empirical measures of the scheme's operation at the level of the 38 individual PHI funds; and third, it describes the systematic differences in the scheme's operation with respect to large and small funds. Thus, this paper provides a number of insights into the operation and outcomes of the Australian RE scheme following its first year of operation.
Hansen, Steffen Foss; Tickner, J.
This article explores the use of voluntary environmental programs in the United States in the past, and applies the lessons learned from these experiences to the regulation of nanomaterials. The authors found that the key elements of any voluntary environmental program should be incentives...
Pettigrew, LM; Mathauer, I
Background Most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) rely significantly on private health expenditure in the form of out-of-pocket payments (OOP) and voluntary health insurance (VHI). This paper assesses VHI expenditure trends in LMIC and explores possible explanations. This illuminates challenges deriving from changes in VHI expenditure as countries aim to progress equitably towards universal health coverage (UHC). Methods Health expenditure data was retrieved from the WHO Global Health E...
... Relinquishment From Ryder Trauma Center AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... accepted a notification of voluntary relinquishment from Ryder Trauma Center of its status as a PSO, and... PSOs. AHRQ has accepted a notification from Ryder Trauma Center, PSO number P0019, which is a...
This paper challenges conventional narratives on the role of international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) in the delivery of health services in Tanzania. Adopting an historical gaze which focuses on the 1960s to mid-1980s the paper argues that the 'franchise state' in the Tanzanian health system was not created by collusion between international donors and INGOs, underpinned by a set of health sector reforms that advocated the use of non-state actors; but was rather the legacy of the colonial health system bequeathed to the post-independence state. It was a system in which voluntary non-state actors (but, importantly, not INGOs) were already entrenched as key providers; and in which many of the features of the franchise state - fragmentation, structural weaknesses, lack of accountability to users - were already long established. But if INGOs did not create these features, as their critics attest, they did contribute to the maintenance and extension of these features. The short-term perspectives of NGOs, their small-scale piecemeal engagement, and the extra demands they placed upon their voluntary actor partners, left little scope for the development of sustainable, national and accountable solutions to the health needs of the country. In exploring these ideas, the paper contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the path dependency that created Tanzania's health system. The analysis also contributes to a deepening of the understanding of the make-up of the voluntary sector beyond a narrow gaze on the institution of the INGO.
Cors, W K
Organization theory (OT) is a tool that can be applied to analyze and understand health care organizations. Transaction cost theory is used to explain, in a unifying fashion, the myriad changes being undertaken by different groups of constituencies in health care. Agency theory is applied to aligning economic incentives needed to ensure Integrated Delivery System (IDS) success. By using tools such as OT, a clearer understanding of organizational changes is possible.
Kohrt, Brandon A; Yang, Minyoung; Rai, Sauharda; Bhardwaj, Anvita; Tol, Wietse A; Jordans, Mark J D
Preventing involuntary conscription and voluntary recruitment of youth into armed groups are global human rights priorities. Pathways for self-reported voluntary recruitment and the impact of voluntary recruitment on mental health have received limited attention. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for voluntarily joining armed groups, as well as the association of conscription status and mental health. In Nepal, interviews were conducted with 258 former child soldiers who participated in a communist (Maoist) revolution. Eighty percent of child soldiers joined 'voluntarily'. Girls were 2.07 times as likely to join voluntarily (95% CI, 1.03-4.16, p=0.04). Among girls, 51% reported joining voluntarily because of personal connections to people who were members of the armed group, compared to 22% of boys. Other reasons included escaping difficult life situations (36%), inability to achieve other goals in life (28%), and an appealing philosophy of the armed group (32%). Poor economic conditions were more frequently endorsed among boys (22%) than girls (10%). Voluntary conscription was associated with decreased risk for PTSD among boys but not for girls. Interventions to prevent voluntary association with armed groups could benefit from attending to difficulties in daily life, identifying non-violent paths to achieve life goals, and challenging the political philosophy of armed groups. Among boys, addressing economic risk factors may prevent recruitment, and prevention efforts for girls will need to address personal connections to armed groups, as it has important implications for preventing recruitment through new methods, such as social media.
Full Text Available In recent years there has been a noticeable "rejuvenation" of pelvic organ prolapse. Inconsistency of the pelvic floor muscles, including the omission of sexual organs, is extremely common pathology, observed almost a third of women of reproductive age. The search for effective, convenient methods of contraception for this category of patients is an important problem of modern gynecology.We proposed a method of transvaginal voluntary surgical contraception, produced in conjunction with surgical treatment of descent and prolapse of the vaginal walls. Studied the nearest and long-term results of surgery in 50 women to which, during the surgical treatment of genital prolapse at the same time was performed transvaginal occlusion of the fallopian tubes. Control groups consisted of 30 women to which in the first step before surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse have been performed minilaparotomy and voluntary surgical sterilization (VSS. Our method consists in penetrating into the abdominal cavity through the anterior vaginal vault, downgrading the fallopian tubes with a hook of Ramathibodi and tubal sterilization by Pomeroy method. Intra - and postoperative complications were not observed. In the late postoperative periods - the effectiveness of the method was 100%. Marked tendency to improve the quality of sexual life tells about the positive impact of elimination of genital prolapse with simultaneous DCA on the quality of life of women.
Carman, Angela L
Local health department directors' intent on getting their organizations ready for accreditation must embrace the blurring of leader/follower lines and create an accreditation readiness team fueled not by traditional leader or follower roles but by teamship.
McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E
Research on the role of businesses in tobacco control has focused primarily on retailers, advertising firms and the hospitality industry, all of which have tended to support tobacco industry interests and resist effective tobacco control policies. However, in several countries, businesses have a history of voluntarily adopting tobacco-related policies that may advance tobacco control objectives. These phenomena have received little research attention. Existing literature on businesses ending tobacco sales, instituting voluntary workplace smoking restrictions and establishing non-smoker only hiring policies was reviewed. A research agenda on voluntary business initiatives would enhance and complement research on mandatory tobacco control policies by identifying new advocacy opportunities; suggesting avenues for strengthening or reinforcing existing policy initiatives; laying the groundwork for new mandatory policies; helping to inform ethical debates about contentious voluntary policies; and contributing to a better understanding of how alliances between the tobacco industry and other businesses might be weakened.
Sherwood, K B; Lewis, G J
In recent years notions of self-help and voluntarism have emerged as key elements in the delivery of services in rural England. This paper explores these themes by reference to 'Rural Wheels', a voluntary medical transport scheme in rural Northamptonshire, introduced to overcome the closure of branch surgeries and to provide access to a new medical centre. By focusing upon the organisation and operations of the scheme, the paper highlights the important role it plays in the welfare of rural residents, particularly elderly women. Yet, because effectively it is run by a small core group, the paper raises questions not just about the viability of this scheme but also about the increasing commitment of central government to the voluntary sector as a means of delivering health care to rural people.
The liberalization of health care in the course of three decades of ‘reform and opening up’ has given people in rural China access to a diverse range of treatment options, but the health care system has also been marred by accusations of price hikes, fake pharmaceuticals, and medical malpractice....... This chapter offers an ethnographic description of health as an issue in a Hebei township and it focuses on a popular and a statist response to the perceived inadequacy of the rural health care system. The revival of religious practices in rural China is obviously motivated by many factors, but in the township...... in question, various forms of healing play a significant role in religious movements and the rising cost of medical services as well as a general distrust of formal medical institutions seem to be part of the reason why people choose to follow spirit mediums and religious movements that offer alternative...
Full Text Available We have proposed the method of transvaginal Voluntary Surgical Contraception, conducted in conjunction with surgical treatment of descent and prolapse of the vaginal walls. Were studied the early and late results of the surgery in 50 women to which during the surgical treatment of genital prolapse simultaneously was carries out transvaginal occlusion of the fallopian tubes. Control groups consisted of 30 women to which in the first step before surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse have been performed minilaparotomy and DCA. Our method consists in penetrating into the abdominal cavity through the front vaginal vault, to downgrade the fallopian tubes with a hook Ramatibodi and tubal sterilization method Pomeroy. Intra - and postoperative complications were not recognized. In the long-term period after surgery - the effectiveness of the method was 100%. Marked tendency to improve the quality of sexual life tells about the positive impact of removing the genital prolapse with simultaneous DCA on the quality of life of women.
Full Text Available Local health department directors’ intent on getting their organizations ready for accreditation must embrace the blurring of leader/follower lines and create an accreditation readiness team fueled not by traditional leader or follower roles but by teamship.
Reid, Michael A; Pearse, E Jim
The outgoing Director-General of the World Health Organization, Gro Harlem Brundtland, has successfully returned health issues to the international arena. The new Director-General will have to cope with reduced control over funding, debate over WHO's mandate, and the relationships between WHO and other organisations. Despite the broad role described in WHO's constitution, many groups see WHO's mandate as narrowly directed at disease eradication. The method of choice for funding health programs has become public-private partnerships. These have the advantages of bringing private money, management expertise and research knowledge to bear on health problems, but rarely consider the health system as a whole, focusing instead on specific diseases. This has the potential to distort resource allocation and priorities. The international community needs to work to strengthen WHO and maintain its broad mandate to achieve the highest possible level of health for all people.
Hatfield, Barbara; Ryan, Tony; Simpson, Victoria; Sharma, Indhu
The aims of this study were (i) to map the extent of all mental health placements in the independent sector, for adults of working age, and elderly people (excluding those with a diagnosis of dementia placed in Local Authority care homes), on a census date, across the areas in which the study was commissioned; (ii) to identify the characteristics of the population in placements; (iii) to explore some of the characteristics of the placements and the patterns of use within the private and voluntary sectors; and (iv) to identify the funding source of placements, and cost differences between the private and voluntary sector. The study took place in seven Strategic Health Authority areas, and information was sought from all Primary Care Trust and Social Services commissioners of mental health services, including regional secure commissioning teams, within those areas. A cross-sectional sample was used. Information was requested in relation to every individual meeting the inclusion criteria, placed in independent (private or voluntary) psychiatric hospitals, registered mental nursing homes and care homes on a specified study 'census date' of 28 June 2004 in six of the Strategic Health Authority areas, and 7 October 2004 in the seventh. Information was recorded on a standard questionnaire specifically designed for the study. Information was obtained on 3535 adults and 1623 elderly people in private or voluntary facilities. The largest groups of adults and elderly people had diagnoses of severe mental illnesses (42.1% and 30.5%, respectively), and placements were described as 'continuing care' or rehabilitation, with a 'niche' in specialist forensic care. Around four-fifths of units were in the private sector, which for adults was significantly more expensive than the voluntary sector. A large proportion of units (47.2% of adult placements and 59.3% of placements for elderly people) had only single placements from particular commissioning authorities, whilst others had
Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl; Drvis, Ivan; Barak, Otto
. Myocardial, pulmonary, skeletal muscle, kidney, and liver perfusion were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in 10 elite breath-hold divers at rest and during moderate GPI. Cardiac chamber volumes, stroke volume, and thus CO were determined from cardiac short-axis cine images. Organ volumes were assessed...
Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin
Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.
Background Premarital medical examination (PME) compliance rate has dropped drastically since it became voluntary in China in 2003. This study aimed to establish a prediction model to be a theoretic framework for analyzing factors affecting PME compliance in Zhejiang province, China. Methods A culturally-tailored health behavioral model combining the Health Behavioral Model (HBM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) was established to analyze the data from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey (n = 2,572) using the intercept method at the county marriage registration office in 12 counties from Zhejiang in 2010. Participants were grouped by high (n = 1,795) and low (n = 777) social desirability responding tendency (SDRT) by Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). A structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to evaluate behavioral determinants for their influences on PME compliance in both high and low SDRT groups. Results 69.8% of the participants had high SDRT and tended to overly report benefits and underreport barriers, which may affect prediction accuracy on PME participation. In the low SDRT group, the prediction model showed the most influencing factor on PME compliance was behavioral intention, with standardized structural coefficients (SSCs) being 0.75 (P social environmental factors. The verified prediction model was tested to be an effective theoretic framework for the prediction of factors affecting voluntary PME compliance. It also should be noted that internationally available behavioral theories and models need to be culturally tailored to adapt to particular populations. This study has provided new insights for establishing a theoretical model to understand health behaviors in China. PMID:24972866
He, Alex Jingwei
Struggling to correct the public-private imbalance in its health care system, the Hong Kong SAR Government seeks to introduce a government-regulated voluntary health insurance scheme, or VHIS, a distinctive financing instrument that combines the characteristics of private insurance with strong government regulation. This study examines citizens' responses to the new scheme and their willingness to subscribe. First-hand data were collected from a telephone survey that randomly sampled 1793 Hong Kong adults from September 2014 to February 2015. Univariate and multivariate methods were employed in data analysis. More than one third of the respondents explicitly stated intention of subscribing to the VHIS, a fairly high figure considering the scheme's voluntary nature. Multivariate analysis revealed moderate evidence of adverse selection, defined as individuals' opportunistic behaviors when making insurance purchasing decision based on their own assessment of risks or likelihood of making a claim. The excellent performance of Hong Kong's public medical system has had two parallel impacts. On the one hand, high-risk residents, particularly the uninsured, do not face a pressing need to switch out of the overloaded public system despite its inadequacies; this, in turn, may reduce the impact of adverse selection that may lead to detrimental effects to the insurance market. On the other hand, high satisfaction reinforces the interests of those who have both the need for better services and the ability to pay for supplementary insurance. Furthermore, the high-risk population demonstrates a moderate interest in the insurance despite the availability of government subsidies. This may offset the intended effect of the reform to some extent.
Rabarison, Kristina; Ingram, Richard C; Holsinger, Jr, James W
...) requires strong and effective leadership. Situational leadership, a contingency theory of leadership, frequently taught in the public health classroom, has utility for leading a public health agency through this process...
D.M. Dror (David); Shahed Hossain, S.A.; M. Majumdar (Manabi); Koehlmoos, T.L.P. (Tracey Lynn Pérez); John, D. (Denny); P. Panda (Pradeep)
textabstractIntroduction: This research article reports on factors influencing initial voluntary uptake of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and renewal decisions. Methods: Following PRISMA protocol, we conducted a comprehensive search of aca
D.M. Dror (David); Shahed Hossain, S.A.; M. Majumdar (Manabi); Koehlmoos, T.L.P. (Tracey Lynn Pérez); John, D. (Denny); P. Panda (Pradeep)
textabstractIntroduction: This research article reports on factors influencing initial voluntary uptake of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and renewal decisions. Methods: Following PRISMA protocol, we conducted a comprehensive search of
Donna M. Kazemi
Conclusions: Intervention programs to reduce drinking by college students need to address developmental dynamics of freshmen students, including gender, psychosocial factors, personality, and lifestyle health-promoting behaviors.
Rabarison, Kristina; Ingram, Richard C; Holsinger, James W
Successful navigation through the accreditation process developed by the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) requires strong and effective leadership. Situational leadership, a contingency theory of leadership, frequently taught in the public health classroom, has utility for leading a public health agency through this process. As a public health agency pursues accreditation, staff members progress from being uncertain and unfamiliar with the process to being knowledgeable and confident in their ability to fulfill the accreditation requirements. Situational leadership provides a framework that allows leaders to match their leadership styles to the needs of agency personnel. In this paper, the application of situational leadership to accreditation is demonstrated by tracking the process at a progressive Kentucky county public health agency that served as a PHAB beta test site.
Full Text Available AbstractSuccessful navigation through the accreditation process developed by the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB requires strong and effective leadership. Situational leadership, a contingency theory of leadership, frequently taught in the public health classroom, has utility for leading a public health agency through this process. As a public health agency pursues accreditation, staff members’ progress from being uncertain and unfamiliar with the process to being knowledgeable and confident in their ability to fulfill the accreditation requirements. Situational leadership provides a framework that allows leaders to match their leadership styles to the needs of agency personnel. The application of situational leadership to accreditation may be demonstrated by tracking the process at a progressive Kentucky county public health agency that served as a PHAB beta test site.
Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.
Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.
Nkya Hassan M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is a corner stone for successful implementation of prevention, care and support services among HIV negative and positive individuals. VCT is also perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people.. This study aimed to assess the acceptability of VCT and its actual uptake among young health care professional students at KCM College of Tumaini University and Allied health schools. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used among health care professional students aged 18–25 years who were enrolled in degrees, diplomas and certificates courses at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical College and all other Allied health schools Results A total of 309 students were recruited, among these 197 (63.8% were females. All respondents were aware of the benefits of VCT. Only 107 (34.6% of students have had VCT done previously. About 59 (19.1% of the students had negative for health care professional to attend VCT. Risk perception among the students was low (37.2% even though they were found to have higher risk behaviors that predispose them to get HIV infection. Conclusion Awareness of VCT services and willingness to test is high among students; however its uptake is low. In order to promote these services, a comprehensive training module on VCT needs to be included in their training curricula. In particular, more emphasis should focus on the benefits of VCT and to help the students to internalize the risk of HIV so that they can take preventive measures.
Juneja, Sandeep; Gupta, Aastha; Moon, Suerie; Resch, Stephen
The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) was established in 2010 to ensure timely access to low-cost generic versions of patented antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through the negotiation of voluntary licences with patent holders. While robust data on the savings generated by MPP and other major global public health initiatives is important, it is also difficult to quantify. In this study, we estimate the savings generated by licences negotiated by the MPP for ARV medicines to treat HIV/AIDS in LMICs for the period 2010-2028 and generate a cost-benefit ratio-based on people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in any new countries which gain access to an ARV due to MPP licences and the price differential between originator's tiered price and generics price, within the period where that ARV is patented. We found that the direct savings generated by the MPP are estimated to be USD 2.3 billion (net present value) by 2028, representing an estimated cost-benefit ratio of 1:43, which means for every USD 1 spent on MPP, the global public health community saves USD 43. The saving of USD 2.3 billion is equivalent to more than 24 million PLHIV receiving first-line ART in LMICs for 1 year at average prices today.
El-Jardali, Fadi; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Ataya, Nour; El-Ghali, Hana Addam; Hammoud, Rawan
Public policymaking is complex and suffers from limited uptake of research evidence, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). In-depth case studies examining health policymaking in the EMR are lacking. This retrospective policy analysis aims at generating insights about how policies are being made, identifying factors influencing policymaking and assessing to what extent evidence is used in this process by using the Lebanese Voluntary Health Insurance policy as a case study. The study examined the policymaking process through a policy tracing technique that covered a period of 12 years. The study employed a qualitative research design using a case study approach and was conducted in two phases over the course of two years. Data was collected using multiple sources including: 1) a comprehensive and chronological media review; 2) twenty-two key informant interviews with policymakers, stakeholders, and journalists; and 3) a document review of legislations, minutes of meetings, actuarial studies, and official documents. Data was analyzed and validated using thematic analysis. Findings showed that the voluntary health insurance policy was a political decision taken by the government to tackle an urgent political problem. Evidence was not used to guide policy development and implementation and policy implementers and other stakeholders were not involved in policy development. Factors influencing policymaking were political interests, sectarianism, urgency, and values of policymakers. Barriers to the use of evidence were lack of policy-relevant research evidence, political context, personal interests, and resource constraints. Findings suggest that policymakers should be made more aware of the important role of evidence in informing public policymaking and the need for building capacity to develop, implement and evaluate policies. Study findings are likely to matter in light of the changes that are unfolding in some Arab countries and the looming
Full Text Available Background: The number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases is high and is constantly increasing. Homosexual men as a transmission niche is not only significant in terms of numbers, but also in natural aspects of anal sex, tropism of HIV-1, and high-risk behavior. Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT is important for accelerating diagnosis and management plan; yet the uptake on high-risk population in Indonesia is low. A behavior-reasoning theory, Health Belief Model (HBM, attempts to explain whether or not individuals engage in certain health behavior. This study tries to assess participation rate of VCT, to portray HBM variables perception, and to depict significance of HBM variables towards VCT uptake or VCT intention. Methods: This study was conducted in October-November 2014 using cross-sectional design; 127 respondents were gathered according to Respondent Driven Snowball Sampling. This study used an internet-based questionnaire derived from Champion’s 1984 mammogram HBM questionnaire. Privacy and compensation were obtained. The Chi square test and logistic regression of HBM variables were done. Results: The VCT uptake was low (15.7%. Certain sexual experience and commitment were significant (Commitment to Men p=0.027, Oral Sex experience with men p=0.001, Anal Sex Experience with men p=0.038. Chi Square test revealed significance on Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Benefit, and Cues to Action. Conclusions: Uptake of VCT is considerably low compared with total high risk population and other similar studies. Personal Susceptibility to HIV/AIDS is recommended to be emphasized; while VCT Benefit and Cues to Action in young homosexual men communities are better encouraged.
Olden, Peter C
Managers at all levels in a health care organization must organize work to achieve the organization's mission and goals. This requires managers to decide the organization structure, which involves dividing the work among jobs and departments and then coordinating them all toward the common purpose. Organization structure, which is reflected in an organization chart, may range on a continuum from very mechanistic to very organic. Managers must decide how mechanistic versus how organic to make the entire organization and each of its departments. To do this, managers should carefully consider 5 factors for the organization and for each individual department: external environment, goals, work production, size, and culture. Some factors may push toward more mechanistic structure, whereas others may push in the opposite direction toward more organic structure. Practical advice can help managers at all levels design appropriate structure for their departments and organization.
Radunz, Sonia; Benkö, Tamás; Stern, Sabrina; Saner, Fuat H; Paul, Andreas; Kaiser, Gernot M
One of the main reasons for organ shortage is insufficient education on organ donation. Knowledgeable medical students could share the information with friends and families resulting in a positive attitude to organ donation of the general public. During six consecutive years (2009 to 2014), we conducted a voluntary, anonymous educational intervention study on organ donation among fourth year medical students in the course of the main surgery lecture at the University of Essen, Germany. Questionnaires of 383 students were analyzed. Prior to the specific lecture on organ donation, 64% of the students carried a signed organ donor card with the intention to donate. Further information regarding organ donation was required by 37% of the students. The request for further information was statistically significantly higher among students without a donor card compared to organ donor card carriers (P organ donation and improves their attitude to organ donation. Continued training on organ donation will help medical students to become disseminators for this important topic in our society.
Denver, Sigrid; Christensen, Tove
A number of studies based on stated behaviour suggest that consumption of organic food is part of a life style that involves healthy eating habits that go beyond shifting to organic varieties of the individual food products. However, so far no studies based on observed behaviour have addressed...... but less fat/confectionary and meat which is in accordance with the official Danish Dietary Recommendations. Moreover, higher organic budget shares were found among well-educated consumers in urban areas and clearly linked to a belief that organic products are healthier. No statistical relations were found...... between consumption of organic food and perceptions that organic production is more animal or environmentally friendly....
This paper reviews the theoretical literature on the demand for private health insurance and its effect on the use of health care services and applies the theoretical framework to the type of private health insurance that exists alongside a universal health care system. The predominant share of the theoretical literature on private health insurance is developed to model private health insurance in settings where this provides the primary source of coverage and the choice is between purchasing...
Orvik, Arne; Axelsson, Runo
This article is introducing a new concept of organizational health and discussing its possible implications for health organizations and health management. The concept is developed against the background of New Public Management, which has coincided with increasing workplace health problems in health organizations. It is based on research mainly in health promotion and health management. Organizational health is defined in terms of how an organization is able to deal with the tensions of diverse and competing values. This requires a dialectical perspective, integration as well as disintegration, and a tricultural approach to value tensions. The concept of organizational health is pointing towards an inverse value pyramid and a hybrid- and value-based form of management in health organizations. An application of this concept may clarify competing values and help managers to deal with the value tensions underlying workplace health problems on an organizational as well as an individual and group level. More empirical research is required, however, to link more closely the different aspects of organizational health in health organizations. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Rosen, David L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; May, Jeanine; Bowling, J Michael; DeVellis, Robert F; White, Becky L; Wohl, David A
HIV testing in prison settings has been identified as an important mechanism to detect cases among high-risk, underserved populations. Several public health organizations recommend that testing across health-care settings, including prisons, be delivered in an opt-out manner. However, implementation of opt-out testing within prisons may pose challenges in delivering testing that is informed and understood to be voluntary. In a large state prison system with a policy of voluntary opt-out HIV testing, we randomly sampled adult prisoners in each of seven intake prisons within two weeks after their opportunity to be HIV tested. We surveyed prisoners' perception of HIV testing as voluntary or mandatory and used multivariable statistical models to identify factors associated with their perception. We also linked survey responses to lab records to determine if prisoners' test status (tested or not) matched their desired and perceived test status. Thirty-eight percent (359/936) perceived testing as voluntary. The perception that testing was mandatory was positively associated with age less than 25 years (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 1.71) and preference that testing be mandatory (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.31) but negatively associated with entry into one of the intake prisons (aRR: 0.41 95% CI: 0.27, 0.63). Eighty-nine percent of prisoners wanted to be tested, 85% were tested according to their wishes, and 82% correctly understood whether or not they were tested. Most prisoners wanted to be HIV tested and were aware that they had been tested, but less than 40% understood testing to be voluntary. Prisoners' understanding of the voluntary nature of testing varied by intake prison and by a few individual-level factors. Testing procedures should ensure that opt-out testing is informed and understood to be voluntary by prisoners and other vulnerable populations.
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Full Text Available Faith-based organizations (FBOs have been active in the health sector for decades. Recently, the role of FBOs in global health has been of increased interest. However, little is known about the magnitude and trends in development assistance for health (DAH channeled through these organizations.Data were collected from the 21 most recent editions of the Report of Voluntary Agencies. These reports provide information on the revenue and expenditure of organizations. Project-level data were also collected and reviewed from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. More than 1,900 non-governmental organizations received funds from at least one of these three organizations. Background information on these organizations was examined by two independent reviewers to identify the amount of funding channeled through FBOs.In 2013, total spending by the FBOs identified in the VolAg amounted to US$1.53 billion. In 1990, FB0s spent 34.1% of total DAH provided by private voluntary organizations reported in the VolAg. In 2013, FBOs expended 31.0%. Funds provided by the Global Fund to FBOs have grown since 2002, amounting to $80.9 million in 2011, or 16.7% of the Global Fund's contributions to NGOs. In 2011, the Gates Foundation's contributions to FBOs amounted to $7.1 million, or 1.1% of the total provided to NGOs.Development assistance partners exhibit a range of preferences with respect to the amount of funds provided to FBOs. Overall, estimates show that FBOS have maintained a substantial and consistent share over time, in line with overall spending in global health on NGOs. These estimates provide the foundation for further research on the spending trends and effectiveness of FBOs in global health.
Brooks, J P; Dempsey, J
Health care managers are being required to respond to the growing concerns of the public about alcohol and drug use in the health care workplace. To this end, the following recommendations are offered. A drug testing policy should be developed with input from and support of employees and unions. "For cause" testing should be used because it results in more definitive results and better employee acceptance. Unless there are compelling reasons for random testing, "for cause" testing is the preferable method. All levels of employees and the medical staff should be subject to the drug-testing policy. Rehabilitation rather than punishment should be emphasized in dealing with employees with alcohol and drug problems.
Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.
OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features. Th
Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.
OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features.
Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Bruce, E.; Rhodes, G.; Narh-Bana, S.A.; Agyepong, I.
OBJECTIVE: Mutual Health Organizations (MHO) emerged in Ghana in the mid-1990s. The organizational structure and financial management of private and public MHO hold important lessons for the development of national health insurance in Ghana, but there is little evidence to date on their features. Th
Blouin Genest, Gabriel
Health issues now evolve in a global context. Real-time global surveillance, global disease mapping and global risk management characterize what have been termed 'global public health'. It has generated many programmes and policies, notably through the work of the World Health Organization. This globalized form of public health raises, however, some important issues left unchallenged, including its effectiveness, objectivity and legitimacy. The general objective of this article is to underline the impacts of WHO disease surveillance on the practice and theorization of global public health. By using the surveillance structure established by the World Health Organization and reinforced by the 2005 International Health Regulations as a case study, we argue that the policing of 'circulating risks' emerged as a dramatic paradox for global public health policy. This situation severely affects the rationale of health interventions as well as the lives of millions around the world, while travestying the meaning of health, disease and risks. To do so, we use health surveillance data collected by the WHO Disease Outbreak News System in order to map the impacts of global health surveillance on health policy rationale and theory.
Payne, Julianne; Razi, Sima; Emery, Kyle; Quattrone, Westleigh; Tardif-Douglin, Miriam
Health care organizations increasingly employ community health workers (CHWs) to help address growing provider shortages, improve patient outcomes, and increase access to culturally sensitive care among traditionally inaccessible or disenfranchised patient populations. Scholarly interest in CHWs has grown in recent decades, but researchers tend to focus on how CHWs affect patient outcomes rather than whether and how CHWs fit into the existing health care workforce. This paper focuses on the factors that facilitate and impede the integration of the CHWs into health care organizations, and strategies that organizations and their staff develop to overcome barriers to CHW integration. We use qualitative evaluation data from 13 awardees that received Health Care Innovation Awards from the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to enhance the quality of health care, improve health outcomes, and reduce the cost of care using programs involving CHWs. We find that organizational capacity, support for CHWs, clarity about health care roles, and clinical workflow drive CHW integration. We conclude with practical recommendations for health care organizations interested in employing CHWs.
Batra, Prerna; Sharma, Nisha; Gupta, Piyush
Organic foods are promoted as superior and safer options for today's health-conscious consumer. Manufacturers of organic food claim it to be pesticide-free and better in terms of micronutrients. Consumers have to pay heavily for these products--and they are willing to--provided they are assured of the claimed advantages. Scientific data proving the health benefits of organic foods, especially in children, are lacking. Indian Government has developed strict guidelines and certification procedures to keep a check on manufacturers in this financially attractive market. American Academy of Pediatrics, in its recently issued guidelines, did not recommend organic foods over conventional food for children. Indian Academy of Pediatrics has not opined on this issue till date. In this perspective, we present a critical review of production and marketing of organic foods, and scientific evidence pertaining to their merits and demerits, with special reference to pediatric population.
Leskinen, Salme; Häyrinen, Kristiina; Saranto, Kaija; Ensio, Anneli
It is often said that we are living in an information society and information technology (IT) is a normal part of life in many fields. But IT is not used effectively in health care. The purpose of this study was to survey what kind of Internet-based health services and related electronic services are offered to clients by the web-pages of health care organizations in Finland.
Heuser, Brian L.
Voluntary organizations exert great influence over how social norms and ethical codes are guided into action. As such, they have a significant impact on societal levels of social cohesion. Although social capital involves generalized trust becoming manifest as spontaneous sociability, social cohesion is determined by how that sociability is…
Lester, Helen; Birchwood, Max; Tait, Lynda; Shah, Sonal; England, Elizabeth; Smith, Jo
Partnership working between health and the voluntary and community sector has become an increasing political priority. This paper describes and explores the extent and patterns of partnership working between health and the voluntary and community sector in the context of Early Intervention Services for young people with a first episode of psychosis. Data were collected from 12 Early Intervention Services and through semistructured interviews with 47 voluntary and community sector leads and 42 commissioners across the West Midlands of England. Most partnerships were described as ad hoc and informal in nature although four formal partnerships between Early Intervention Services and voluntary and community sector organizations had been established. Shared agendas, the ability to refer clients onto an organization that could provide a service they could not and shared training facilitated partnership working in this context. Barriers to closer working included differences in culture such as managing risk, the time required to make and maintain relationships and recognition of the advantages of remaining a small and autonomous organization. The four more formal partnerships were also built on the organizations' experience of working together informally, in one case through a specific pilot project. The voluntary and community organizations involved were also branches of larger national organizations for whom finding sustainable funding was less of an issue. In theoretical terms, eight Early Intervention Service: voluntary and community sector partnerships were at a stage of 'pre-partnership collaboration', three at 'partnership creation and consolidation' and one at 'partnership programme delivery'. The empirical data viewed through the lens of the partnership life-cycle model could help early intervention services, and voluntary and community sector professionals better understand where they are, why they are there and the conditions needed to realise the full
van der Heijden, J.
Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently
van der Heijden, J.
Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify
Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...
Chapters: 1) Convergence or divide in the movement for sustainable and just agriculture. 2) No-till agriculture in the USA. 3) Organic fertilizers in sub-Saharan farming systems. 4) Biofuel Production Byproducts as Soil Amendments. 5) Pseudomonas and microbes for disease-suppressive soils. 6) Conservation Tillage Impact on Soil Aggregation, Organic Matter Turnover and Biodiversity. 7) Sustainable agricultural NP turnover in the 27 European countries. 8) Tomato production for human health, not...
This article takes a historical perspective on the changing position of WHO in the global health architecture over the past two decades. From the early 1990s a number of weaknesses within the structure and governance of the World Health Organization were becoming apparent, as a rapidly changing post Cold War world placed more complex demands on the international organizations generally, but significantly so in the field of global health. Towards the end of that decade and during the first half of the next, WHO revitalized and played a crucial role in setting global health priorities. However, over the past decade, the organization has to some extent been bypassed for funding, and it lost some of its authority and its ability to set a global health agenda. The reasons for this decline are complex and multifaceted. Some of the main factors include WHO's inability to reform its core structure, the growing influence of non-governmental actors, a lack of coherence in the positions, priorities and funding decisions between the health ministries and the ministries overseeing development assistance in several donor member states, and the lack of strong leadership of the organization.
Pereda Vicandi, M
Today you can ask if you can apply ethics to organizations because much of the greater overall impact decisions are not made by private individuals, are decided by organizations. Any organization is legitimate because it satisfies a need of society and this legitimacy depends if the organization does with quality. To offer a good service, quality service, organizations know they need to do well, but seem to forget that should do well not only instrumental level, must also make good on the ethical level. Public health care organizations claim to promote attitudes and actions based on ethics, level of their internal functioning and level of achievement of its goals, but increased awareness and analysis of its inner workings can question it. Such entities, for its structure and procedures, may make it difficult for ethical standards actually govern its operation, also can have negative ethical consequences at the population level. A healthcare organization must not be organized, either structurally or functionally, like any other organization that offers services. In addition, members of the organization can not simply be passive actors. It is necessary that operators and users have more pro-ethical behaviors. Operators from the professionalism and users from liability. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Eyles, Helen; Choi, Yeun-Hyang
Interpretive, front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels may encourage reformulation of packaged foods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the Health Star Rating (HSR), a new voluntary interpretive FOP labelling system, on food reformulation in New Zealand. Annual surveys of packaged food and beverage labelling and composition were undertaken in supermarkets before and after adoption of HSR i.e., 2014 to 2016. Outcomes assessed were HSR uptake by food group star ratings of products displaying a HSR label; nutritional composition of products displaying HSR compared with non-HSR products; and the composition of products displaying HSR labels in 2016 compared with their composition prior to introduction of HSR. In 2016, two years after adoption of the voluntary system, 5.3% of packaged food and beverage products surveyed (n = 807/15,357) displayed HSR labels. The highest rates of uptake were for cereals, convenience foods, packaged fruit and vegetables, sauces and spreads, and 'Other' products (predominantly breakfast beverages). Products displaying HSR labels had higher energy density but had significantly lower mean saturated fat, total sugar and sodium, and higher fibre, contents than non-HSR products (all p-values food supply should improve population diets.
Restrepo, Diana; Duque, Marle; Montoya, Laura; Hoyos, Catalina
To describe a case of legal and voluntary interruption of pregnancy due to a mental health risk in the mother. However, the foetus survived and the mother decided to care for the child. Description of the case and a non-systematic review of the relevant literature. A multiparous woman of 38 years with unknown gestational age who requests legal and voluntary interruption of pregnancy. After abortion a male child born of 1050 grams was born, intubated and admitted to intensive care. Subsequently, the mother, without the mental problems that led to abortion, gradually assumed the care of the child. To address this complex case, several aspects are analysed: first, the change of mind of a woman in her desire to be a mother. Second, the disappearance of mental symptoms in the immediate postpartum. Third, the need to review the clinical, ethical and legal foundations of the legal ruling that allows therapeutic abortion in Colombia. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Rasch, Vibeke; Yambesi, Fortunata; Massawe, Siriel
-24 years and 25% among single women aged 25-45 years. CONCLUSION: HIV testing and condoms were accepted by most women who had an unsafe abortion. The poor reproductive health of these women could be improved by good post-abortion care that includes contraceptive counselling, VCT and condom promotion.......OBJECTIVE: To assess the acceptance and outcome of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) among women who had an unsafe abortion. METHOD: 706 women were provided with post-abortion contraceptive service and offered VCT. We collected data on socioeconomic characteristics and contraceptive use...... and marital status. RESULTS: 58% of the women who had an unsafe abortion accepted HIV testing. Women who earned an income were more likely to accept testing than housewives. Women who accepted testing were more likely to accept using a condom. The HIV prevalence rate was 19% among single women aged 20...
Full Text Available The process of collective education in an organization that has the capacity to impact an organization’s operations, performance and outcomes is called organizational learning. In health care organizations, patient care is provided through one or more visible and invisible teams. These teams are composed of experts and novices from diverse backgrounds working together to provide coordinated care. The number of teams involved in providing care and the possibility of breakdowns in communication and coordinated care increases in direct proportion to sophisticated technology and treatment strategies of complex disease processes. Safe patient care is facilitated by individual professional learning; inter-professional team learning and system based organizational learning, which encompass modified context specific learning by multiple teams and team members in a health care organization. Organizational learning in health care systems is central to managing the learning requirements in complex interconnected dynamic systems where all have to know common background knowledge along with shared meta-knowledge of roles and responsibilities to execute their assigned functions, communicate and transfer the flow of pertinent information and collectively provide safe patient care. Organizational learning in health care is not a onetime intervention, but a continuing organizational phenomenon that occurs through formal and informal learning which has reciprocal association with organizational change. As such, organizational changes elicit organizational learning and organizational learning implements new knowledge and practices to create organizational changes.
Kylmä, J; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K; Lähdevirta, J
The purpose of this study was to describe the dynamics of hope in a) people fearing a diagnosis of HIV or living with HIV/AIDS and b) their significant others, from the perspective of caregivers working in voluntary organizations in Finland. Individual interviews with eight caregivers were analysed using the grounded theory method. Living with the fluctuating waves of hope, despair, and hopelessness based on factors constructing them emerged as the core category describing the dynamics of hope in a person fearing a diagnosis of HIV, becoming aware of HIV contagion, and living with HIV/AIDS. Mirroring the fluctuating waves of hope, despair, and hopelessness based on factors constructing them emerged as the core category describing the dynamics of hope in a significant other of a person fearing a diagnosis of HIV, or living with HIV/AIDS. It is important to take into consideration the dynamics of hope in taking care of people fearing a diagnosis of HIV or living with HIV/AIDS and their significant others.
Harris-Hollingsworth, Nicole Rosella
Academic Medical Centers across the United States provide health libraries on their web portals to disseminate health promotion and disease prevention information, in order to assist patients in the management of their own care. However, there is a need to obtain consumer input, consumer satisfaction, and to conduct formal evaluations. The purpose…
Anne Vested; Aleksander Giwercman; Jens Peter Bonde; Gunnar Toft
Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with ...
Griep, Yannick; Hyde, Martin; Vantilborgh, Tim; Bidee, Jemima; De Witte, Hans; Pepermans, Roland
In the present study we contrast materialistic (i.e., income and economic inequality) and psychosocial (i.e., social circumstances) pathway perspectives on whether volunteering while being unemployed mitigates the well-documented negative effects of unemployment on health, health behaviors, and well-being. We test our hypotheses using data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Study of Health (SLOSH; n = 717). This is a nationally representative, longitudinal, cohort survey. We compared groups of individuals who were (a) unemployed and volunteering during both SLOSH waves (n = 58), (b) unemployed and not volunteering during both SLOSH waves (n = 194), (c) employed and volunteering during both SLOSH waves (n = 139), and (d) employed and not volunteering during both SLOSH waves (n = 326). Conducting a path analysis in Mplus, we examined the interaction effects between labor market status (i.e., employed or unemployed) and voluntary work (i.e., volunteering or not) when predicting changes in health, health behaviors, and psychological well-being. Our results indicate that volunteering during unemployment significantly decreased the likelihood to smoke, the amount of cigarettes smoked, the likelihood of consuming alcohol, and the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. These results support a psychosocial pathway perspective. For all other indicators no such buffering interaction effect was obtained, thereby supporting a materialistic pathway perspective. Nevertheless, for some indicators, volunteering was found to be beneficial for both the unemployed and employed. Consequently, integrating both perspectives might offer a better explanation for the onset of ill-health and ill-being.
Volunteerism is centralized embodiment of hannonious society core values, and volunteer service is the carrier that participants realizeself-education and personality perfection. Carrying forward the spirit of volunteerism, popularizing the concept of voluntary service and establishing thelong-effect mechanism of voluntary service are inevitable trend to promote normalized, institutionalized and standardized development of legal voluntary service career. Through establishing new social mobilization mechanisms, it is to increase the scope of voluntary service participation, and social acceptance to volunteer service. Perfecting development management, training, evaluation, motivation and guarantee mechanism of voluntary service is to provide intrinsic motivation for volunteer service activities. realize the sustainable development of volunteer service and expand the voluntary organizations orderly participate in ways and means that public services supply.%志愿精神是和谐社会核心价值观的集中体现,志愿服务是参与者实现自我教育和人格完善的载体.弘扬志愿服务精神,普及志愿服务理念,建立起志愿服务的长效机制,是推动法律志愿服务事业常态化、制度化、规范化发展的必然趋势.通过建立新型的社会动员机制,提高志愿服务的参与面,提高社会对志愿服务的认可度,建立健全志愿服务的发展、管理、培训、评价、激励和保障机制,为志愿服务活动提供内在的动力,实现志愿服务可持续发展,拓展志愿组织有序参与公共服务供给的方式与途径.
Abamecha, Fira; Godesso, Ameyu; Girma, Eshetu
Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (VCT) forms one of the cornerstones of HIV prevention strategies. It is imperative to understand HIV testing correlates and their theoretical underpinnings in order to promote VCT uptake. The aim of this study was to predict the intention to VCT and associated factors among health professionals in Jimma zone, Ethiopia using the theory of planned behavior. An institution based cross-sectional quantitative study among a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, Ethiopia was conducted in 2012. The constructs and principles of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) were measured. Data were collected using structured questionnaire on self administered basis. A multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of independent variables/TPB constructs on the intention to use VCT using SPSS version 16.0. The components of TPB independently explained the variance in intention to VCT by 30.3%. Both components of TPB and socio-demographic characteristic in the final model explained 32.7% of variance in the intention to use VCT services. Significant proportions (33.0%) of the respondents have never been tested for HIV. The respective indirect components of the TPB predicted the direct components. The strongest predictors of intention to VCT were subjective norm (β=0.39, pintention to use VCT. Past VCT experience did not have significant statistical association with VCT use intention. Behavioral intention to use VCT was a function of attitude and perceived social pressure. Demographic related social determinants were not barriers for VCT use intention. Most health workers test their blood by themselves. Strategies to empower health professionals on social pressure resistance and programs targeted at changing negative attitude on VCT use can enhance intention of health professionals to use VCT.
Abamecha, Fira; Godesso, Ameyu; Girma, Eshetu
Background To endorse involvement in voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), it is essential to recognize factors that influence people in deciding whether to access VCT services and their underlying route factors. Theory of planned behavior (TPB) constitutes a proficient framework for predicting behaviors and intentions. Objective The aim of the study reported here was to assess the predicting ability of TPB in determining the intended use of VCT services among health professionals in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia. Methods This was an institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study of a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, southwest Ethiopia between February 5 to March 28, 2012. Data were collected using structured questionnaire self-administered by the study participants. A hierarchal multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of TPB constructs that can influence the intention to use VCT services. Results The constructs of TPB explained the variability in intention to use VCT by 27% (R2 adjusted = 0.27). The standardized regression coefficients showed that the strongest predictor of intention to use VCT was subjective norms (β = 0.32, P behavioral control was not a significant predictor of intention to use VCT among the study group (P = 0.12). Conclusion The study revealed the possibility of describing the intention to use VCT among health professionals using TPB, with perceived social pressure being the leading predictor. In light of this, health intervention programs should be designed to develop health professionals’ ability to resist norms that oppose the use of VCT and to change community-held norms against VCT use, provided they help individuals develop a positive attitude toward the services. PMID:24143111
Shafie, A A; Hassali, M A
Health care in Malaysia is funded primarily through taxation and is no longer sustainable. One funding option is voluntary community-based health insurance (VCHI), which provides insurance coverage for those who are unable to benefit immediately from either a social or private health insurance plan. This study is performed to assess the willingness of Malaysians to participate in a VCHI plan. A cross-sectional study was performed in the state of Penang between August and mid-September 2009 with 472 randomly selected respondents. The respondents were first asked to select their preferred health financing plan from three plans (out-of-pocket payment, compulsory social health insurance and VCHI). The extent of the household's willingness to pay for the described VCHI plan was later assessed using the contingent valuation method in an ex-ante bidding game approach until the maximum amount they would be willing to pay to obtain such a service was agreed upon. Fifty-four per cent of the participants were female, with a mean age of 34 years (SD = 11.9), the majority of whom had a monthly income of Int$1157-2312. The results indicated that more than 63.1% of the respondents were willing to join and contribute an average of Int$114.38 per month per household towards VCHI. This amount was influenced by ethnicity, educational level, household monthly income, the presence of chronic disease and the presence of private insurance coverage (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our study findings suggest that most Malaysians are willing to join the proposed VCHI and to pay an average of Int$114.38 per month per household for the plan.
Van Lith, Lynn M.; Mallalieu, Elizabeth C.; Waxman, Aliza; Hatzhold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V.; Kasedde, Susan; Lija, Gissenge; Hasen, Nina; Ncube, Gertrude; Samuelson, Julia L.; Bonnecwe, Collen; Seifert-Ahanda, Kim; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Tobian, Aaron A. R.
Background Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services. Methods and Findings A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males. Conclusions VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population. PMID:26938639
Michelle R Kaufman
Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC is a critical HIV prevention tool. Since 2007, sub-Saharan African countries with the highest prevalence of HIV have been mobilizing resources to make VMMC available. While implementers initially targeted adult men, demand has been highest for boys under age 18. It is important to understand how male adolescents can best be served by quality VMMC services.A systematic literature review was performed to synthesize the evidence on best practices in adolescent health service delivery specific to males in sub-Saharan Africa. PubMed, Scopus, and JSTOR databases were searched for literature published between January 1990 and March 2014. The review revealed a general absence of health services addressing the specific needs of male adolescents, resulting in knowledge gaps that could diminish the benefits of VMMC programming for this population. Articles focused specifically on VMMC contained little information on the adolescent subgroup. The review revealed barriers to and gaps in sexual and reproductive health and VMMC service provision to adolescents, including structural factors, imposed feelings of shame, endorsement of traditional gender roles, negative interactions with providers, violations of privacy, fear of pain associated with the VMMC procedure, and a desire for elements of traditional non-medical circumcision methods to be integrated into medical procedures. Factors linked to effective adolescent-focused services included the engagement of parents and the community, an adolescent-friendly service environment, and VMMC counseling messages sufficiently understood by young males.VMMC presents an opportune time for early involvement of male adolescents in HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health programming. However, more research is needed to determine how to align VMMC services with the unique needs of this population.
Park, Hyojung; Reber, Bryan H; Chon, Myoung-Gi
This study examined how major health organizations use Twitter for disseminating health information, building relationships, and encouraging actions to improve health. The sampled organizations were the American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, and American Diabetes Association. A content analysis was conducted on 1,583 tweets to examine these organizations' use of Twitter's interactive features and to understand the message functions and topics of their tweets. The numbers of retweets and favorites were also measured as engagement indicators and compared by different message functions. The results revealed that all of the organizations posted original tweets most, but they differed in the degree to which they used the retweet and reply functions. Hashtags and hyperlinks were the most frequently used interactive tools. The majority of the tweets were about organization-related topics, whereas personal health-related tweets represented a relatively small portion of the sample. Followers were most likely to like and retweet personal health action-based messages.
Under the New Policy Agenda, international development institutions have promoted non-profit organizations (NPOs) in developing countries, on a dual logic: firstly, they deliver social services more efficiently than the state; secondly, they mitigate equity concerns around privatization of basic social services by reaching out to the poor. Based…
Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar
Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research. PMID:24369135
Full Text Available Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.
Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar
Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds' potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research.
Kok, Gerjo; Gurabardhi, Zamira; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Zijlstra, Fred R. H.
Stakeholder theory may help health promoters to make changes at the organizational and policy level to promote health. A stakeholder is any individual, group, or organization that can influence an organization. The organization that is the focus for influence attempts is called the focal organization. The more salient a stakeholder is and the more…
Mária Jármai Erzsébet
Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.
Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard
are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism.......This paper draws attention to the importance of the understanding of voluntary actions in the free market construct. Failing to understand the role of voluntary actions in the free market construct will often result in discussions of capitalism versus socialism focusing on asset ownership...... and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...
Full Text Available Fira Abamecha,1 Ameyu Godesso,2 Eshetu Girma3 1Department of Nursing, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan, 2Department of Sociology, Jimma University, Jimma, 3Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: To endorse involvement in voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT, it is essential to recognize factors that influence people in deciding whether to access VCT services and their underlying route factors. Theory of planned behavior (TPB constitutes a proficient framework for predicting behaviors and intentions. Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the predicting ability of TPB in determining the intended use of VCT services among health professionals in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: This was an institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study of a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, southwest Ethiopia between February 5 to March 28, 2012. Data were collected using structured questionnaire self-administered by the study participants. A hierarchal multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of TPB constructs that can influence the intention to use VCT services. Results: The constructs of TPB explained the variability in intention to use VCT by 27% (R2 adjusted = 0.27. The standardized regression coefficients showed that the strongest predictor of intention to use VCT was subjective norms (β = 0.32, P < 0.0005 followed by attitude (β = 0.21, P < 0.002. Perceived behavioral control was not a significant predictor of intention to use VCT among the study group (P = 0.12. Conclusion: The study revealed the possibility of describing the intention to use VCT among health professionals using TPB, with perceived social pressure being the leading predictor. In light of this, health intervention programs should be designed to develop health professionals’ ability to resist norms that oppose the use of VCT and to
... Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Using Model Organisms to Study Health and Disease Tagline (Optional) ... and treating disease in humans. What is a model? The word model has many meanings, but in ...
mission or charter; can o en become too removed and lose in uence over NGO o cers and sta . Problema c if poor decision- making becomes common...4,604.87 $11,565.24 40 Social infrastructure and services $ 1,216.31 $3,252.96 37 Economic infrastructure $3,121.84 $11,793.81 26 Agriculture, forestry...bibliography/en. �“Public health leaders using social media to convey emergencies: New tools a boon.�” Social media tools such as Twi er and
Following the Scottish Stroke Services Audit published in 1999, Chest Heart and Stroke Scotland (CHSS) commissioned the Scottish Association of Health Councils to undertake a survey of patient and carers' views of Scottish stroke services. Survey results suggested stroke carers perceived that staff caring for stroke survivors often showed a lack of awareness of the specific challenges that stroke presented. The report recommended that Chest Heart and Stroke Scotland should work with professional bodies to develop awareness training for staff working in stroke care.
王颖群; 徐秉锋; 刘甜
大学生参与青年志愿活动有利于促进其个体心理及群体心理的形成与发展。同时，青年志愿活动为大学生提供了与其他志愿者及社会各界人士交流的机会，进而提升了大学生的人际交往能力及团队意识，促进其综合素质的发展，并且在志愿活动的参与过程中找到了成长的方向。可见，青年志愿活动在促进大学生心理健康教育方面具有重要的指导意义。本文简要概述了新时期大学生心理健康教育的现状，着重分析了青年志愿活动促进大学生心理健康教育的有效措施。%College students' participation in youth voluntary activities is conducive to the formation and development of individual psychology and group psychology. At the same time, the youth volunteer activities provide colege students opportunities to communicate with other volunteers and social people from al walks of life, so as to improve the colege students interpersonal skils and team work spirit, promote the development of the comprehensive quality, and in the participation of volunteer activities found the direction of growth. Obviously, the youth volunteer activity has the important instruction significance in promoting the university student psychologicaly healthy education. This paper briefly outlines the current situation of colege students' mental health education in the new period, and emphaticaly analyzes the effective measures to promote colege students' mental health education.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research in 2007 showed that World Health Organization (WHO recommendations were largely based on expert opinion, rarely used systematic evidence-based methods, and did not follow the organization's own "Guidelines for Guidelines". In response, the WHO established a "Guidelines Review Committee" (GRC to implement and oversee internationally recognized standards. We examined the impact of these changes on WHO guideline documents and explored senior staff's perceptions of the new procedures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the AGREE II guideline appraisal tool to appraise ten GRC-approved guidelines from nine WHO departments, and ten pre-GRC guidelines matched by department and topic. We interviewed 20 senior staff across 16 departments and analyzed the transcripts using the framework approach. Average AGREE II scores for GRC-approved guidelines were higher across all six AGREE domains compared with pre-GRC guidelines. The biggest changes were noted for "Rigour of Development" (up 37.6%, from 30.7% to 68.3% and "Editorial Independence" (up 52.7%, from 20.9% to 73.6%. Four main themes emerged from the interviews: (1 high standards were widely recognized as essential for WHO credibility, particularly with regard to conflicts of interest; (2 views were mixed on whether WHO needed a single quality assurance mechanism, with some departments purposefully bypassing the procedures; (3 staff expressed some uncertainties in applying the GRADE approach, with departmental staff concentrating on technicalities while the GRC remained concerned the underlying principles were not fully institutionalized; (4 the capacity to implement the new standards varied widely, with many departments looking to an overstretched GRC for technical support. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2007, WHO guideline development methods have become more systematic and transparent. However, some departments are bypassing the procedures, and as yet neither the GRC, nor the quality assurance
Baggott, Rob; Jones, Kathryn
Health consumer and patients' organizations (HCPOs) seek to influence policy. But how are they affected by developments in the policy context and political environment? The article draws on original research into HCPOs in the UK by the authors, including a major survey undertaken in 1999 and interviews with HCPOs and policymakers between 2000 and 2003 as well as a further survey in 2010. It also draws on a review of key government policies on health and the voluntary sector since 1997. Developments in the political environment and policy context have created both opportunities and threats for HCPOs as they seek to influence policy. These include policies to promote choice and competition in public services; support for a greater role for the voluntary sector and civil society in health and welfare (including the current government's 'Big Society' idea); NHS reorganization; changes to the system of patient and public involvement; and austerity measures. Devolution of powers within the UK with regard to health policy and the rising profile of the EU in health matters have also had implications for HCPOs. This analysis raises key issues for future research in the UK and elsewhere, such as how will HCPOs be able to maintain independence in an increasingly competitive environment? And how will they fare in an era of retrenchment? There are also challenges for HCPOs in relation to maintaining relationships in a new institutional setting characterized by multilevel governance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour
This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana's hea...
Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour
This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana's hea...
Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Ydersbond, Trond A; Hoppin, Jane A; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete
The market for organic food products is growing rapidly worldwide. Such foods meet certified organic standards for production, handling, processing, and marketing. Most notably, the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and genetic modification is not allowed. One major reason for the increased demand is the perception that organic food is more environmentally friendly and healthier than conventionally produced food. This review provides an update on market data and consumer preferences for organic food and summarizes the scientific evidence for compositional differences and health benefits of organic compared with conventionally produced food. Studies indicate some differences in favor of organic food, including indications of beneficial health effects. Organic foods convey lower pesticide residue exposure than do conventionally produced foods, but the impact of this on human health is not clear. Comparisons are complicated by organic food consumption being strongly correlated with several indicators of a healthy lifestyle and by conventional agriculture "best practices" often being quite close to those of organic.
Sweeney, R E; Franklin, S P
This article illustrates how management in one type of service industry, the health maintenance organization (HMO), have attempted to formalize pricing. This effort is complicated by both the intangibility of the service delivered and the relatively greater influence in service industries of non-cost price factors such as accessibility, psychology, and delays. The presentation describes a simple computerized approach that allows the marketing manager to formally estimate the effect of incremental changes in rates on the firm's projected patterns of enrollment growth and net revenues. The changes in turn reflect underlying variations in the mix of pricing influences including psychological and other factors. Enrollment projections are crucial to the firm's financial planning and staffing. In the past, most HMO enrollment and revenue projections of this kind were notoriously unreliable. The approach described here makes it possible for HMOs to fine-tune their pricing policies. It also provides a formal and easily understood mechanism by which management can evaluate and reach consensus on alternative scenarios for enrollment growth, staff recruitment and capacity expansion.
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O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene
Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...
Public health in Australia is undergoing unprecedented emphasis on meeting customers' needs, wants and expectations. Mystery shopping, common in the commercial world, has much to offer health organizations in their push towards quality. This paper describes this inexpensive technique and reports on its use in North West Health Service, a large rural health provider. The potential exists for its widescale adoption in health to better meet customer focus objectives.
The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.
Effect of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and voluntary industry health warning labels on passage of mandated cigarette warning labels from 1965 to 2012: transition probability and event history analyses.
Sanders-Jackson, Ashley N; Song, Anna V; Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A
We quantified the pattern and passage rate of cigarette package health warning labels (HWLs), including the effect of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and HWLs voluntarily implemented by tobacco companies. We used transition probability matrices to describe the pattern of HWL passage and change rate in 4 periods. We used event history analysis to estimate the effect of the FCTC on adoption and to compare that effect between countries with voluntary and mandatory HWLs. The number of HWLs passed during each period accelerated, from a transition rate among countries that changed from 2.42 per year in 1965-1977 to 6.71 in 1977-1984, 8.42 in 1984-2003, and 22.33 in 2003-2012. The FCTC significantly accelerated passage of FCTC-compliant HWLs for countries with initially mandatory policies with a hazard of 1.27 per year (95% confidence interval = 1.11, 1.45), but only marginally increased the hazard for countries that had an industry voluntary HWL of 1.68 per year (95% confidence interval = 0.95, 2.97). Passage of HWLs is accelerating, and the FCTC is associated with further acceleration. Industry voluntary HWLs slowed mandated HWLs.
Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet
The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this
Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen
for communication and action about pain prevention in the organization. 2) Organizing a fixed 3-weekly structured dialogue between each employee and her/his supervisor, with particular focus on developing specific plans to prevent and reduce pain and its consequences. This enables the workplace to generate...... knowledge about employee resources and health challenges and to act and convey this knowledge into initiatives at the workplace. DISCUSSION: Previous studies to improve health literacy have primarily targeted patients or specific deprived groups in health care or community settings. Recently the idea...... workplace health literacy is very limited but points at the importance of educating employees to be able to access, appraise and apply health information and of organizing the infrastructure and communication in the organization. This study suggests a concrete operationalization of health literacy...
Fottler, M D; Smith, H L; Muller, H J
This paper analyzes retrenchment in health care organizations in terms of prescriptions in the literature and the actual responses of health care executives to retrenchment. Case studies of five organizations indicate that the range of coping strategies is much more limited than the range of possibilities suggested in the literature. Constraints within the culture of the organization are suggested as an explanation for this disparity.
Baranes, Edmond; Bardey, David
This article examines a model of competition between two types of health insurer: Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and nonintegrated insurers. HMOs vertically integrate health care providers and pay them at a competitive price, while nonintegrated health insurers work as indemnity plans and pay the health care providers freely chosen by policyholders at a wholesale price. Such difference is referred to as an input price effect which, at first glance, favors HMOs. Moreover, we assume that policyholders place a positive value on the provider diversity supplied by their health insurance plan and that this value increases with the probability of disease. Due to the restricted choice of health care providers in HMOs a risk segmentation occurs: policyholders who choose nonintegrated health insurers are characterized by higher risk, which also tends to favor HMOs. Our equilibrium analysis reveals that the equilibrium allocation only depends on the number of HMOs in the case of exclusivity contracts between HMOs and providers. Surprisingly, our model shows that the interplay between risk segmentation and input price effects may generate ambiguous results. More precisely, we reveal that vertical integration in health insurance markets may decrease health insurers' premiums.
Organic farming systems utilize organic amendments, diverse crop rotations and cover crops to promote soil fertility and enhance soil health. These practices increase biologically available forms of soil organic matter, and increase the activities of beneficial soil microbes and invertebrates. Physi...
The transnational spread of communicable and non-communicable diseases has opened new vistas in the discourse of global health security. Emerging and re-emerging pathogens, according to exponents of globalization of public health, disrespect the geo-political boundaries of nation-states. Despite the global ramifications of health insecurity in a globalizing world, contemporary international law still operates as a classic inter-state law within an international system exclusively founded on a coalition of nation-states. This article argues that the dynamic process of globalization has created an opportunity for the World Health Organization to develop effective synergy with a multiplicity of actors in the exercise of its legal powers. WHO's legal and regulatory strategies must transform from traditional international legal approaches to disease governance to a "post-Westphalian public health governance": the use of formal and informal sources from state and non-state actors, hard law (treaties and regulations) and soft law (recommendations and travel advisories) in global health governance. This article assesses the potential promise and problems of WHO's new International Health Regulations (IHR) as a regulatory strategy for global health governance and global health security.
Hardiman, Maxwell Charles
In 2005, the International Health Regulations were adopted at the 58th World Health Assembly; in June 2007, they were entered into force for most countries. In 2012, the world is approaching a major 5-year milestone in the global commitment to ensure national capacities to identify, investigate, assess, and respond to public health events. In the past 5 years, existing programs have been boosted and some new activities relating to International Health Regulations provisions have been successfully established. The lessons and experience of the past 5 years need to be drawn upon to provide improved direction for the future.
Hedlund, Frank Huess
injury. The second is the association between the Star audit rating and rates of serious occupational injury. Although there are many uncertainties involved the paper argues that companies committed to the NOSA system experienced fewer fatal and permanently disabling injuries than the general...... manufacturing sector. The paper also examines an inverse correlation between the Star rating and the injury incidence rate. It is concluded that the Star rating is a sound although imperfect predictor of injury rates. The fact that auditing is an entirely voluntary activity likely distorts the Star rating...... to some extent. It is speculated that some (unsafe) companies may abandon or pause auditing if they experience too many injuries. There is also some evidence to suggest that companies with poor safety attitudes are able to successfully deceive auditors. The paper suggests that voluntary OHS audit systems...
Chhabra, Ria; Kolli, Santharam; Bauer, Johannes H
The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans). Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.
Full Text Available The "organic food" market is the fastest growing food sector, yet it is unclear whether organically raised food is nutritionally superior to conventionally grown food and whether consuming organic food bestows health benefits. In order to evaluate potential health benefits of organic foods, we used the well-characterized fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. Fruit flies were raised on a diets consisting of extracts of either conventionally or organically raised produce (bananas, potatoes, raisins, soy beans. Flies were then subjected to a variety of tests designed to assess overall fly health. Flies raised on diets made from organically grown produce had greater fertility and longevity. On certain food sources, greater activity and greater stress resistance was additionally observed, suggesting that organic food bestows positive effects on fly health. Our data show that Drosophila can be used as a convenient model system to experimentally test potential health effects of dietary components. Using this system, we provide evidence that organically raised food may provide animals with tangible benefits to overall health.
Guo, Kristina L
The purpose of this article is to discuss core competencies that entrepreneurial health care leaders should acquire to ensure the survival and growth of US health care organizations. Three overlapping areas of core competencies are described: (1) health care system and environment competencies, (2) organization competencies, and (3) interpersonal competencies. This study offers insight into the relationship between leaders and entrepreneurship in health care organizations and establishes the foundation for more in-depth studies on leadership competencies in health care settings. The approach for identifying core competencies and designing a competency model is useful for practitioners in leadership positions in complex health care organizations, so that through the understanding and practice of these 3 areas of core competencies, they can enhance their entrepreneurial leadership skills to become more effective health care entrepreneurial leaders. This study can also be used as a tool by health care organizations to better understand leadership performance, and competencies can be used to further the organization's strategic vision and for individual improvement purposes.
Moran, N E; Gainotti, S; Petrini, C
Increasing geographical mobility and international travel augment the ease and speed by which infectious diseases can spread across large distances. It is therefore incumbent upon each state to ensure that immunisation programmes are effective and that herd immunity is achieved. Across Europe, a range of immunisation policies exist: compulsion, the offer of financial incentives to parents or healthcare professionals, social and professional pressure, or simply the dissemination of clear information and advice. Until recently, immunisation against particular communicable diseases was compulsory in Italy. The Italian National Vaccination Plan (NVP) (2005-7) paved the way for regions to suspend the sanctions associated with compulsory vaccinations for children when certain criteria are met--for example when immunisation coverage is high and when effective monitoring/surveillance systems are in place--and thus marked a milestone in the move from compulsory to voluntary immunisation. The forthcoming NVP for 2008-10 confirms the liberal approach to vaccination in Italy as it entrusts to the regions responsibility for the achievement and maintenance of herd immunity. This paper reviews the arguments for and against compulsory and voluntary immunisation in relation to the Italian NVP (2005-7) and in the context of the diverse immunisation policies that exist across Europe. It concludes with cautious support for the NVP and an associated shift from compulsory to voluntary immunisation in Italy, and draws similarities between issues concerning regional variation in immunisation policy in Italy and national variation in immunisation policy across Europe and beyond.
CHINA’S first voluntary organ donation system is in the midst of its trial run. The program is being tested in 11 pilot regions around the country, having harvested organs from more than 100 donors in this inaugural year. Overseen by the Red Cross Society of China and the country’s Ministry of Health, the system follows cardiac death standards in organ donation
O'Hagan, Joshua; Persaud, David
Improving customer-service in health care organizations has been linked to better patient care, satisfied staff, a reduction in preventable medical errors, fewer malpractice lawsuits and improved revenue. However, it has been observed that there is sometimes a gap between the level of customer-service provided by health care organizations and their clients' expectations. This paper integrates, synthesizes and extends theory and practice from existing literature to provide health care organizations with strategies for closing this gap. Methods are also outlined for creating, implementing and evaluating an organizational plan for improving customer-service.
Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti
A resource-building group intervention was developed to enhance career management, mental health, and job retention in work organizations. The in-company training program provided employees with better preparedness to manage their own careers. The program activities were universally implemented using an organization-level, 2-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and occupational health services. The study was a within-organizations, randomly assigned field experimental study; it investigated the impacts of the intervention on immediate career management preparedness and later mental health and intentions to retire early. A total of 718 eligible individuals returned a questionnaire in 17 organizations and became voluntary participants. The respondents were randomly assigned to either an intervention (N = 369) or a comparison group (N = 349). Those in the intervention group were invited to group intervention workshops, whereas those in the comparison group received printed information about career and health-related issues. The 7-month follow-up results showed that the program significantly decreased depressive symptoms and intentions to retire early and increased mental resources among the group participants compared to the others. The mediation analyses demonstrated that the increase in career management preparedness as a proximal impact of the intervention mediated the longer term mental health effects. Those who benefited most from the intervention as regards their mental health were employees with elevated levels of depression or exhaustion and younger employees, implying additional benefits of a more targeted use of the intervention. The results demonstrated the benefits of the enhancement of individual-level career management and resilience resources as career and health promotion practice in work organizations.
Full Text Available Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.
Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter
Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long su...
Aidam, Jude; Sombié, Issiaka
The West African Health Organization (WAHO) implemented a research development program in West Africa during 2009-2013 using the Knowledge for Better Health Research Capacity Development Framework, developed by Pang et al...
Kiserud, Torvid; Piaggio, Gilda; Carroli, Guillermo
BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable d...
Mar 2, 2013 ... The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends that HIV-positive adults start antiretroviral ... Changing the CD4 initiation point from 350 .... an example of how cost has informed activism in a developing country,.
Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is ba...
Full Text Available An increasing interest in organic agriculture for food production is seen throughout the world and one key reason for this interest is the assumption that organic food consumption is beneficial to public health. The present paper focuses on the background of organic agriculture, important public health related compounds from crop food and variations in the amount of health related compounds in crops. In addition, influence of organic farming on health related compounds, on pesticide residues and heavy metals in crops, and relations between organic food and health biomarkers as well as in vitro studies are also the focus of the present paper. Nutritionally beneficial compounds of highest relevance for public health were micronutrients, especially Fe and Zn, and bioactive compounds such as carotenoids (including pro-vitamin A compounds, tocopherols (including vitamin E and phenolic compounds. Extremely large variations in the contents of these compounds were seen, depending on genotype, climate, environment, farming conditions, harvest time, and part of the crop. Highest amounts seen were related to the choice of genotype and were also increased by genetic modification of the crop. Organic cultivation did not influence the content of most of the nutritional beneficial compounds, except the phenolic compounds that were increased with the amounts of pathogens. However, higher amounts of pesticide residues and in many cases also of heavy metals were seen in the conventionally produced crops compared to the organic ones. Animal studies as well as in vitro studies showed a clear indication of a beneficial effect of organic food/extracts as compared to conventional ones. Thus, consumption of organic food seems to be positive from a public health point of view, although the reasons are unclear, and synergistic effects between various constituents within the food are likely.
Ramirez, Bernardo; West, Daniel J; Costell, Michael M
This paper aims to examine the concept of sustainability in health care organizations and the key managerial competencies and change management strategies needed to implant a culture of sustainability. Competencies and management development strategies needed to engrain this corporate culture of sustainability are analyzed in this document. This paper draws on the experience of the authors as health care executives and educators developing managerial competencies with interdisciplinary and international groups of executives in the last 25 years, using direct observation, interviews, discussions and bibliographic evidence. With a holistic framework for sustainability, health care managers can implement strategies for multidisciplinary teams to respond to the constant change, fine-tune operations and successfully manage quality of care. Managers can mentor students and provide in-service learning experiences that integrate knowledge, skills, and abilities. Further empirical research needs to be conducted on these interrelated innovative topics. Health care organizations around the world are under stakeholders' pressure to provide high quality, cost-effective, accessible and sustainable services. Professional organizations and health care providers can collaborate with university graduate health management education programs to prepare competent managers in all the dimensions of sustainability. The newly designated accountable care organizations represent an opportunity for managers to address the need for sustainability. Sustainability of health care organizations with the holistic approach discussed in this paper is an innovative and practical approach to quality improvement that merits further development.
The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.
Prætorius, Thim; C. Becker, Markus
Understanding how health care organizations can achieve care coordination internally is essential because it is difficult to achieve, but essential for high quality and efficient health care delivery. This article offers an answer by providing a synthesis of knowledge about coordination from...
Duran, Júlia; Villalbí, Joan R; Guix, Joan
Public services must satisfy a variety of agents: users of these services, the citizens who pay the taxes that finance them, politicians, and those that work in them. To obtain public services that give priority to the citizen-user, knowledge of clients, their expectations, preferences, complaints and degree of satisfaction is essential. This article presents the process of internal discussion in our agency about its clients, who differ from those of an industrial or commercial organization. A proposal for the classification of clients, as well as the process that has led to a client portfolio, are presented and steps to improve services from the perspective of the client are suggested.
Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B
Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sisó, Sílvia; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo
Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are specialized brain structures located around the third and fourth ventricles. They differ from the rest of the brain parenchyma in that they are highly vascularised areas that lack a blood-brain barrier. These neurohaemal organs are classified as "sensory", when they contain neurons that can receive chemical inputs from the bloodstream. This review focuses on the sensory CVOs to describe their unique structure, and their functional roles in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation, and in the generation of central acute immune and febrile responses. In doing so, the main neural connections to visceral regulatory centres such as the hypothalamus, the medulla oblongata and the endocrine hypothalamic-pituitary axis, as well as some of the relevant chemical substances involved, are described. The CVOs are vulnerable to circulating pathogens and can be portals for their entry in the brain. This review highlights recent investigations that show that the CVOs and related structures are involved in pathological conditions such as sepsis, stress, trypanosomiasis, autoimmune encephalitis, systemic amyloidosis and prion infections, while detailed information on their role in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis is lacking. It is concluded that studies of the CVOs and related structures may help in the early diagnosis and treatment of such disorders.
Trabalho voluntário, características demográficas, socioeconômicas e autopercepção da saúde de idosos de Porto Alegre Trabajo voluntario, características demográficas, socioeconómicas y autopercepción de la salud de ancianos en Porto Alegre (Brasil Voluntary work, demographic, social and economic features and health self-perception by elderly people from Porto Alegre (Brazil
Luccas Melo de Souza
ón positiva de la salud (pThe objective of this cross-sectional, comparative study was to describe the demographic, socioeconomic and health characteristics of elderly voluntary workers of a Non-governmental organization of Porto Alegre, and investigate the influence of voluntary work and the referred characteristics on the subjects' self-perception of health, compared to a paired group of elderly individuals who did not perform any voluntary work. Through interviews it was found that 87.4% of the elderly voluntary workers were women, with complete secondary education, had their own income and followed a religion and a healthy lifestyle. The comparison of data from both groups showed that self-perception of great health was more common among voluntary workers (30.5% compared to 6.1%, p=0.054. Multivariate analysis revealed that performing voluntary work and having fewer diseases influenced the individuals' having a positive self-perception of their health (p<0.05. Study results support the hypothesis that voluntary work may be a mechanism of health promotion among the elderly.
Cross-functional teams in health care organizations provide a comprehensive view of problems and are highly useful in designing and implementing improvements in work processes. Several potential obstacles may impede team progress, but these can be overcome. Cross-functional teams must develop norms that guide the interactions of team members. Individual team members must display behaviors that serve task accomplishment and team spirit. The promise of cross-functional teams for health care organizations is great. These promises, however, will not be fulfilled without the positive support of health care supervisors.
Mitchell, J A
This paper focuses on the basic principles of information technology (IT) organization within health sciences centers. The paper considers the placement of the leader of the IT effort within the health sciences administrative structure and the organization of the IT unit. A case study of the University of Missouri-Columbia Health Sciences Center demonstrates how a role-based organizational model for IT support can be effective for determining the boundary between centralized and decentralized organizations. The conclusions are that the IT leader needs to be positioned with other institutional leaders who are making strategic decisions, and that the internal IT structure needs to be a role-based hybrid of centralized and decentralized units. The IT leader needs to understand the mission of the organization and actively use change-management techniques.
Adsul, Prajakta; Wray, Ricardo; Gautam, Kanak; Jupka, Keri; Weaver, Nancy; Wilson, Kristin
Background Integrating health literacy into primary care institutional policy and practice is critical to effective, patient centered health care. While attributes of health literate organizations have been proposed, approaches for strengthening them in healthcare systems with limited resources have not been fully detailed. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with individuals from 11 low resourced health care organizations serving uninsured, underinsured, and government-insured patients across Missouri. The qualitative inquiry explored concepts of impetus to transform, leadership commitment, engaging staff, alignment to organization wide goals, and integration of health literacy with current practices. Findings Several health care organizations reported carrying out health literacy related activities including implementing patient portals, selecting easy to read patient materials, offering community education and outreach programs, and improving discharge and medication distribution processes. The need for change presented itself through data or anecdotal staff experience. For any change to be undertaken, administrators and medical directors had to be supportive; most often a champion facilitated these changes in the organization. Staff and providers were often resistant to change and worried they would be saddled with additional work. Lack of time and funding were the most common barriers reported for integration and sustainability. To overcome these barriers, managers supported changes by working one on one with staff, seeking external funding, utilizing existing resources, planning for stepwise implementation, including members from all staff levels and clear communication. Conclusion Even though barriers exist, resource scarce clinical settings can successfully plan, implement, and sustain organizational changes to support health literacy.
Egener, Barry E; Mason, Diana J; McDonald, Walter J; Okun, Sally; Gaines, Martha E; Fleming, David A; Rosof, Bernie M; Gullen, David; Andresen, May-Lynn
In 2002, the Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism was published to provide physicians with guidance for decision making in a rapidly changing environment. Feedback from physicians indicated that they were unable to fully live up to the principles in the 2002 charter partly because of their employing or affiliated health care organizations. A multistakeholder group has developed a Charter on Professionalism for Health Care Organizations, which may provide more guidance than charters for individual disciplines, given the current structure of health care delivery systems.This article contains the Charter on Professionalism for Health Care Organizations, as well as the process and rationale for its development. For hospitals and hospital systems to effectively care for patients, maintain a healthy workforce, and improve the health of populations, they must attend to the four domains addressed by the Charter: patient partnerships, organizational culture, community partnerships, and operations and business practices. Impacting the social determinants of health will require collaboration among health care organizations, government, and communities.Transitioning to the model hospital described by the Charter will challenge historical roles and assumptions of both its leadership and staff. While the Charter is aspirational, it also outlines specific institutional behaviors that will benefit both patients and workers. Lastly, this article considers obstacles to implementing the Charter and explores avenues to facilitate its dissemination.
Mason, Diana J.; McDonald, Walter J.; Okun, Sally; Gaines, Martha E.; Fleming, David A.; Rosof, Bernie M.; Gullen, David; Andresen, May-Lynn
In 2002, the Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism was published to provide physicians with guidance for decision making in a rapidly changing environment. Feedback from physicians indicated that they were unable to fully live up to the principles in the 2002 charter partly because of their employing or affiliated health care organizations. A multistakeholder group has developed a Charter on Professionalism for Health Care Organizations, which may provide more guidance than charters for individual disciplines, given the current structure of health care delivery systems. This article contains the Charter on Professionalism for Health Care Organizations, as well as the process and rationale for its development. For hospitals and hospital systems to effectively care for patients, maintain a healthy workforce, and improve the health of populations, they must attend to the four domains addressed by the Charter: patient partnerships, organizational culture, community partnerships, and operations and business practices. Impacting the social determinants of health will require collaboration among health care organizations, government, and communities. Transitioning to the model hospital described by the Charter will challenge historical roles and assumptions of both its leadership and staff. While the Charter is aspirational, it also outlines specific institutional behaviors that will benefit both patients and workers. Lastly, this article considers obstacles to implementing the Charter and explores avenues to facilitate its dissemination. PMID:28079726
The World Health Organization (WHO) has been a leading intergovernmental organization in the effort to prevent diseases related to food and improve global food safety and security. These efforts have been focused on the provision of independent scientific advice on foodborne risks, the developmen...... the focus on simple and efficient messaging toward preventing food risks through a better understanding of good food preparation practices in all sectors.......The World Health Organization (WHO) has been a leading intergovernmental organization in the effort to prevent diseases related to food and improve global food safety and security. These efforts have been focused on the provision of independent scientific advice on foodborne risks, the development...... of international food standards, through the work of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, and the support of Member States through direct policy advice as well as through the creation of laboratory and authority networks sharing experience and building...
Pestle, Ruth E.
This guide provides practical ideas for incorporating the concept of voluntary simplicity into home economics classes. Discussed in the first chapter are the need to study voluntary simplicity, its potential contributions to home economics, and techniques and a questionnaire for measuring student attitudes toward the concept. The remaining…
Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg
A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…
Currie, Graeme; Dingwall, Robert; Kitchener, Martin; Waring, Justin
This Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine investigates the potential for positive inter-disciplinary interaction, a 'generative dance', between organization studies (OS), and two of the journal's traditional disciplinary foundations: health policy and medical sociology. This is both necessary and timely because of the extent to which organizations have become a neglected topic within medical sociology and health policy analysis. We argue there is need for further and more sustained theoretical and conceptual synergy between OS, medical sociology and health policy, which provides, on the one-hand a cutting-edge and thought-provoking basis for the analysis of contemporary health reforms, and on the other hand, enables the development and elaboration of theory. We emphasize that sociologists and policy analysts in healthcare have been leading contributors to our understanding of organizations in modern society, that OS enhances our understanding of medical settings, and that organizations remain one of the most influential actors of our time. As a starting point to discussion, we outline the genealogy of OS and its application to healthcare settings. We then consider how medical sociology and health policy converge or diverge with the concerns of OS in the study of healthcare settings. Following this, we focus upon the material environment, specifically the position of business schools, which frames the generative dance between OS, medical sociology and health policy. This sets the context for introducing the thirteen articles that constitute the Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
David Lykken's proposal to license married parents for child rearing, and to deny the same opportunity to single and inept parents, springs from his deep concern for millions of youngsters cruelly subjected to abusive and neglectful rearing circumstances. Children from such inadequate homes grow up to have high rates of school failure, criminality, and drug addiction. The problem is clear, but Lykken's remedies of mandated marriage and parental licensure are unacceptable in U.S. society, where our reproductive rights are fortunately protected by our Constitution. As a devoted proponent of reproductive rights, I propose a legally and morally acceptable proposal to the same end. Increasing women's effective control of reproduction and moving toward entirely voluntary parenthood will accomplish the same goals without compromising our civil liberties.
Mick, Stephen S; Mark, Barbara A
We review nursing and health services research on health care organizations over the period 1950 through 2004 to reveal the contribution of nursing to this field. Notwithstanding this rich tradition and the unique perspective of nursing researchers grounded in patient care production processes, the following gaps in nursing research remain: (1) the lack of theoretical frameworks about organizational factors relating to internal work processes; (2) the need for sophisticated methodologies to guide empirical investigations; (3) the difficulty in understanding how organizations adapt models for patient care delivery in response to market forces; (4) the paucity of attention to the impact of new technologies on the organization of patient care work processes. Given nurses' deep understanding of the inner workings of health care facilities, we hope to see an increasing number of research programs that tackle these deficiencies.
Weaver, Nancy L; Wray, Ricardo J; Zellin, Stacie; Gautam, Kanak; Jupka, Keri
Health care organizations, well positioned to address health literacy, are beginning to shift their systems and policies to support health literacy efforts. Organizations can identify barriers, emphasize and leverage their strengths, and initiate activities that promote health literacy-related practices. The current project employed an open-ended approach to conduct a needs assessment of rural federally qualified health center clinics. Using customized assessment tools, the collaborators were then able to determine priorities for changing organizational structures and policies in order to support continued health literacy efforts. Six domains of organizational health literacy were measured with three methods: environmental assessments, patient interviews, and key informant interviews with staff and providers. Subsequent strategic planning was conducted by collaborators from the academic and clinic teams and resulted in a focused, context-appropriate action plan. The needs assessment revealed several gaps in organizational health literacy practices, such as low awareness of health literacy within the organization and variation in perceived values of protocols, interstaff communication, and patient communication. Facilitators included high employee morale and patient satisfaction. The resulting targeted action plan considered the organization's culture as revealed in the interviews, informing a collaborative process well suited to improving organizational structures and systems to support health literacy best practices. The customized needs assessment contributed to an ongoing collaborative process to implement organizational changes that aided in addressing health literacy needs.
Rašević Mirjana M.
important events in their reproductive history with structural traits of the total population of women of same age and parity who induce abortion, the representativeness of samples was confirmed and thus generalization of results. The results indicate that a target group is clearly distinct which would decide on sterilization as a contraceptive method. Not only do more than half of the surveyed women who induce abortion believe that voluntary sterilization as a method of contraception should be available in Serbia, but also a large number of surveyed women, almost a half, would subject themselves to voluntary sterilization after having given birth to the desired number of children and when they would be convinced that sterilization does not influence health, sex potency, nor quality of sex life. Younger women, respondents with secondary education, those who gave birth to the desired number of children, as well as those who have a good relationship with their partner, and confronted themselves with a large number of induced abortions, namely those who wish to use contraception in future, are more open to voluntary sterilization. The reasons for individual non acceptance, namely undetermined standpoint towards sterilization as a contraception method, indicate that many of the registered ambivalent or negative opinions could be changed by knowledge spreading on the characteristics of voluntary sterilization.
Velimirov, Alberta; Huber, Machteld; Lauridsen, Charlotte
Feeding experiments comparing organically and conventionally produced food are performed to assess the overall impact on the animals' health as a model for the effects experienced by the human consumers. These experiments are based on systems research and characterized by their focus on production...... methods, whole food testing and procedures in accordance with the terms of organic farming. A short review of such experiments shows that the majority of these tests revealed effects of the organically produced feed on health parameters such as reproductive performance and immune responses. Systems...... research is not just about simple cause-effect chains, but rather about the pluralism of interactions in biological networks; therefore, the interpretation of the outcome of whole food experiments is difficult. Furthermore, the test diets of organic and conventional origin can be constituted in different...
Francisco M. Cazorla
Full Text Available The practice of adding organic amendments to crop soils is undergoing resurgence as an efficient way to restore soil organic matter content and to improve soil quality. The quantity and quality of the organic matter inputs affect soil physicochemical properties and soil microbiota, influencing different parameters such as microbial biomass and diversity, community structure and microbial activities or functions. The influence of organic amendments on soil quality has also effects on crop production and plant health. The enhancement of soil suppressiveness using organic amendments has been widely described, especially for soil-borne diseases. However, there is great variability in the effectiveness of suppression depending on the nature of the amendment, the crop, the pathogen, and the environmental conditions. Although the effects of organic amendments on soil properties have been widely studied, relationships between these properties and soil suppressiveness are not still well understood. Changes in soil physicochemical parameters may modulate the efficacy of suppression. However, the parameters more frequently associated to disease suppression appear to be related to soil microbiota, such as microbial biomass and activity, the abundance of specific microbial groups and some hydrolytic activities. This review focuses on the effect of organic amendments on soil microbial populations, diversity and activities; their ability to enhance plant health through disease suppression; and which of the parameters affected by the organic amendments are potentially involved in soil suppressiveness.
Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are compounds believed to mimic hormones in animal and human bodies and which are thought therefore to be a potential threat to health. Agencies including the European Commission, the International Labour Office (ILO, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP each had some responsibility for chemicals in the wider environment over the last five decades. Despite this, the issue of how far the use of EDCs represents a threat to public health remains contested and policy remains uncertain. This article aims to examine the response of IHOs to the growing perception that EDCs can have negative health impacts by disentangling the various agendas and actors involved.
Coleman, J R; Kaminsky, F C; McGee, F
This paper describes "what if?" financial planning models developed for health care administrators and financial managers to study and evaluate the economic impact of changes in a health care organization's charge structure, operating policies, reimbursement plans, and services and resources. Models for inpatient and outpatient care systems are presented. The models are described in terms of input, output, and application. An assessment of the state of the art of financial planning and prospects for the future of what if?models are given.
Dixon, F Maureen
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This action research project with district health councils (DHCs) in Ontario, Canada, took place between 1976 and 1980. The purpose of the research was to identify the most effective forms of organization for DHCs, bodies set up to provide a local focus for planning and coordination of health services in the Province. The research method was based on social analysis, a method developed ove...
The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.
This paper aims to develop a complex articulation of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work that clarifies its political importance as a countervailing narrative pointing beyond dominant neoliberal and consumptive articulations of a good life. To start with, it sketches a hermeneutic perspective on civic meaningfulness based on the work of Paul Ricoeur. Subsequently, it introduces the ideas of 'ethical complexity', 'epistemological complexity' and 'diapoiesis', building on insights from critical complexity thinking and relational biology. It argues that these notions can provide a bridge between hermeneutic perspectives on meaning and values, on the one hand, and questions of meaning and values on the level of scientific and technological developments and within professional organizations, on the other. Thus a broader, more complex picture emerges of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work in our times.
Aboagye, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Otuo Serebour
This paper examines how organization and financing of maternal health services influence health-seeking behavior in Bosomtwe district, Ghana. It contributes in furthering the discussions on maternal health-seeking behavior and health outcomes from a health system perspective in sub-Saharan Africa. From a health system standpoint, the paper first presents the resources, organization and financing of maternal health service in Ghana, and later uses case study examples to explain how Ghana's health system has shaped maternal health-seeking behavior of women in the district. The paper employs a qualitative case study technique to build a complex and holistic picture, and report detailed views of the women in their natural setting. A purposeful sampling technique is applied to select 16 women in the district for this study. Through face-to-face interviews and group discussions with the selected women, comprehensive and in-depth information on health- seeking behavior and health outcomes are elicited for the analysis. The study highlights that characteristics embedded in decentralization and provision of free maternal health care influence health-seeking behavior. Particularly, the use of antenatal care has increased after the delivery exemption policy in Ghana. Interestingly, the study also reveals certain social structures, which influence women's attitude towards their decisions and choices of health facilities.
Bronkhorst, Babette; Tummers, Lars; Steijn, Bram; Vijverberg, Dominique
In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees' perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to answer the following two research questions: (1) how does organizational climate relate to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations and (2) which organizational climate dimension is most strongly related to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations? Four search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 21 studies were included in the review. Data were extracted from the studies to create a findings database. The contents of the studies were analyzed and categorized according to common characteristics. Perceptions of a good organizational climate were significantly associated with positive employee mental health outcomes such as lower levels of burnout, depression, and anxiety. More specifically, our findings indicate that group relationships between coworkers are very important in explaining the mental health of health care workers. There is also evidence that aspects of leadership and supervision affect mental health outcomes. Relationships between communication, or participation, and mental health outcomes were less clear. If health care organizations want to address mental health issues among their staff, our findings suggest that organizations will benefit from incorporating organizational climate factors in their health and safety policies. Stimulating a supportive atmosphere among coworkers and developing relationship-oriented leadership styles would seem to be steps in the right direction.
Stanhope, Victoria; Choy-Brown, Mimi; Barrenger, Stacey; Manuel, Jennifer; Mercado, Micaela; McKay, Mary; Marcus, Steven C
Under the Affordable Care Act, States have obtained Medicaid waivers to overhaul their behavioral health service systems to improve quality and reduce costs. Critical to implementation of broad service delivery reforms has been the preparation of organizations responsible for service delivery. This study focused on one large-scale initiative to overhaul its service system with the goal of improving service quality and reducing costs. The study examined the participation of behavioral health organizations in technical assistance efforts and the extent to which organizational factors related to their participation. This study matched two datasets to examine the organizational characteristics and training participation for 196 behavioral health organizations. Organizational characteristics were drawn from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS). Training variables were drawn from the Clinical Technical Assistance Center's master training database. Chi-square analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the proportion of organizations that participated in training, the organizational characteristics (size, population served, service quality, infrastructure) that predicted participation in training, and for those who participated, the type (clinical or business) and intensity of training (webinar, learning collaborative, in-person) they received. Overall 142 (72. 4%) of the sample participated in training. Organizations who pursued training were more likely to be large in size (p = .02), serve children in addition to adults (p organizational readiness for health care reform initiatives among behavioral health organizations.
In this article, we provide an overview of social network research in health care, with a focus on social interactions between professionals in organizations. We begin by introducing key concepts defining the social network approach, including network density, centrality, and brokerage. We then review past and current research on the antecedents of health care professionals' social networks-including demographic attributes, professional groups, and organizational arrangements-and their consequences-including satisfaction at work, leadership, behaviors, knowledge transfer, diffusion of innovation, and performance. Finally, we examine future directions for social network research in health care, focusing on micro-macro linkages and network dynamics. © The Author(s) 2014.
Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth
The term "global health" is rapidly replacing the older terminology of "international health." We describe the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in both international and global health and in the transition from one to the other. We suggest that the term "global health" emerged as part of larger political and historical processes, in which WHO found its dominant role challenged and began to reposition itself within a shifting set of power alliances. Between 1948 and 1998, WHO moved from being the unquestioned leader of international health to being an organization in crisis, facing budget shortfalls and diminished status, especially given the growing influence of new and powerful players. We argue that WHO began to refashion itself as the coordinator, strategic planner, and leader of global health initiatives as a strategy of survival in response to this transformed international political context.
Carey, Lindsay B; Robinson, Priscilla; Cohen, Jeffrey
As part of an Australian national project, quantitative data via a survey were retrospectively obtained from 327 Australian health care chaplains (staff and volunteer chaplains) to initially identify chaplaincy participation in various bioethical issues-including organ procurement. Over a third of surveyed staff chaplains (38%) and almost a fifth of volunteer chaplains (19.2%) indicted that they had, in some way, been involved in organ procurement issues with patients and/or their families. Nearly one-fifth of staff chaplains (19%) and 12% of volunteer chaplains had also assisted clinical staff concerning various organ procurement issues. One hundred of the surveyed chaplains volunteered to an interview. Qualitative data were subsequently coded from 42 of the chaplains who had been involved in organ procurement requests. These data were thematically coded using the World Health Organization 'Pastoral Intervention Codings' (WHO-PICs). The qualitative data revealed that through a variety of pastoral interventions a number of chaplains (the majority being staff chaplains) were engaged in the critical and sensitive issues of organ procurement. It is argued that while such involvement can help to ensure a holistic and ethically appropriate practice, it is suggested that chaplains could be better utilized not only in the organ procurement process but also for the training of other chaplains and clinicians.
Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo
A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue.
Gong, Yang; Richardson, James; Zhijian, Luan; Alafaireet, Patricia; Yoo, Illhoi
Voluntary medical incident reports lacking consistency and accuracy impede the ultimate use of the reports for patient safety research. To improve this, two coders examined harm score usage in a voluntary medical incident reporting system where the harm scores were selected from a predefined list by different reporters. The two coders inter-rater agreement percent was 82%. The major categories and reviewed harm score jointly demonstrate that this process is critical and necessary in preparing the voluntary reports for further content and semantics analysis.
Barrêto, Anne Jaquelyne Roque; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Pinheiro, Patrícia Geórgia de Oliveira Diniz; de Farias, Nilma Maria Porto; Rodrigues, Débora Cezar de Souza; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena
The scope of this study was to analyze the discourse of managers regarding the relationship between the organization of the health services and tuberculosis care management in a city in the metropolitan region of João Pessoa, State of Pernambuco. Using qualitative research in the analytical field of the French line of Discourse Analysis, 16 health workers who worked as members of the management teams took part in the study. The transcribed testimonials were organized using Atlas.ti version 6.0 software. After detailed reading of the empirical material, an attempt was made to identify the paraphrasic, polyssemic and metaphoric processes in the discourses, which enabled identification of the following discourse formation: Organization of the health services and the relation with TB care management: theory and practice. In the discourse of the managers the fragmentation of the actions of control of tuberculosis, the lack of articulation between the services and sectors, the compliance of the specific activities for TB, as well as the lack of strategic planning for management of care of the disease are clearly revealed. In this respect, for the organization of the health services to be effective, it is necessary that tuberculosis be considered a priority and acknowledged as a social problem in the management agenda.
Velimirov, Alberta; Huber, Machteld; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Seidel, Kathrin; Bügel, Susanne
Feeding experiments comparing organically and conventionally produced food are performed to assess the overall impact on the animals' health as a model for the effects experienced by the human consumers. These experiments are based on systems research and characterized by their focus on production methods, whole food testing and procedures in accordance with the terms of organic farming. A short review of such experiments shows that the majority of these tests revealed effects of the organically produced feed on health parameters such as reproductive performance and immune responses. Systems research is not just about simple cause-effect chains, but rather about the pluralism of interactions in biological networks; therefore, the interpretation of the outcome of whole food experiments is difficult. Furthermore, the test diets of organic and conventional origin can be constituted in different ways, compensating for or maintaining existing differences in nutrient and energy contents. The science-based results suggest positive influences from organic feeds, but there is still a need for confirmation in animals and, finally, in humans. For this purpose animal feeding trials with feed from different production systems should be conducted, with the aims to define health indicators and to establish biomarkers as a basis for future dietary intervention studies in humans.
Greenley, J R
Fragmented and often uncoordinated public services for the more severely mentally ill are often characteristic of the current U.S. mental health system. The creation of local mental health authorities has been promoted as part of a solution, as has happened in Wisconsin at the county level and is championed in the ongoing Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funded innovative service sites for severely mentally ill adults. There are indications that these innovative mental health authorities will fall short of fulfilling their promise. Basic principles from the management and organizations literature are used to identify several organization and management issues that may have been neglected. These include resource management, attention to system goals, monitoring and feedback, and the promotion of desirable interorganizational cultures.
Van Look, Paul F A; Cottingham, Jane
We discuss the history of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) development of guidelines for governments on providing safe abortion services, which WHO published as Safe Abortion: Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems in 2003 and updated in 2012. We show how the recognition of the devastating impact of unsafe abortion on women's health and survival, the impetus of the International Conference on Population and Development and its five-year follow-up, and WHO's progressive leadership at the end of the century enabled the organization to elaborate guidance on providing safe abortion services. Guideline formulation involved extensive review of published evidence, an international technical expert meeting to review the draft document, and a protracted in-house review by senior WHO management.
Hui Li PhD
Full Text Available China has exploded onto the world economy over the past few decades and is undergoing rapid transformation toward relatively more services. The health sector is an important part of this transition. This article provides a historical account of the development of health care in China since 1949. It also focuses on health insurance and macroeconomic structural adjustment to less saving and more consumption. In particular, the question of how health insurance impacts precautionary savings is considered. Multivariate analysis using data from 1990 to 2012 is employed. The household savings rate is the dependent variable in 3 models segmented for rural and urban populations. Independent variables include out-of-pocket health expenditures, health insurance payouts, housing expenditure, education expenditure, and consumption as a share of gross domestic product (GDP. Out-of-pocket health expenditures were positively correlated with household savings rates. But health insurance remains weak, and increased payouts by health insurers have not been associated with lower levels of household savings so far. Housing was positively correlated, whereas education had a negative association with savings rates. This latter finding was unexpected. Perhaps education is perceived as investment and a substitute for savings. China’s shift toward a more service-oriented economy includes growing dependence on the health sector. Better health insurance is an important part of this evolution. The organization and finance of health care is integrally linked with macroeconomic policy in an environment constrained by prevailing institutional convention. Problems of agency relationships, professional hegemony, and special interest politics feature prominently, as they do elsewhere. China also has a dual approach to medicine relying heavily on providers of traditional Chinese medicine. Both of these segments will take part in China’s evolution, adding another layer of
Considers the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment by analyzing six behavioral characteristics attributed to groups of workers suspected of indulging in the former, and the labor market mechanisms supposedly encouraging them. (Author/CT)
Pittet, D.; Allegranzi, B.; Boyce, J.; Voss, A.
The World Health Organization's Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care have been issued by WHO Patient Safety on 5 May 2009 on the occasion of the launch of the Save Lives: Clean Your Hands initiative. The Guidelines represent the contribution of more than 100 international experts and provide a
Agger, Annika; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig
Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from the appar...
Fleming, J N; Taber, D J; McElligott, J; McGillicuddy, J W; Treiber, F
Despite being in existence for >40 years, the application of telemedicine has lagged significantly in comparison to its generated interest. Detractors include the immobile design of most historic telemedicine interventions and the relative lack of smartphones among the general populace. Recently, the exponential increase in smartphone ownership and familiarity have provided the potential for the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions that can be mirrored realistically in clinical applications. Existing studies have demonstrated some potential clinical benefits of mHealth in the various phases of solid organ transplantation (SOT). Furthermore, studies in nontransplant chronic diseases may be used to guide future studies in SOT. Nevertheless, substantially more must be accomplished before mHealth becomes mainstream. Further evidence of clinical benefits and a critical need for cost-effectiveness analysis must prove its utility to patients, clinicians, hospitals, insurers, and the federal government. The SOT population is an ideal one in which to demonstrate the benefits of mHealth. In this review, the current evidence and status of mHealth in SOT is discussed, and a general path forward is presented that will allow buy-in from the health care community, insurers, and the federal government to move mHealth from research to standard care. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Özet Bu araştırma önerisinin konusunu Amerika'da kar amacı gütmeden risk grubundaki çocuklar yararına sosyal hizmet çalışmalarında bulunan “Big Brothers and Big Sisters” adlı organizasyonun rehberlik uygulamaları ile tarihsel bir aktör olarak Ahi teşkilatının sosyalleştirici uygulamaları oluşturmaktadır. Üniversiteli gençlerin veya gönüllü yetişkinlerin ilköğretim çağındaki yoksul, dezavantajlı bir çocuğa yapacakları “gönüllü ve birebir” rehberliğin nasıl organize edilebileceği yine bu araştı...
Steedman, Eric; Rabinowicz, Jane
The voluntary sector is recognized, by citizens, industry and government, as an increasingly vital contributor to healthy communities within Canadian society, called upon to provide front-line service delivery in areas of community support that were in the past often served by government and or religious charity. (The voluntary sector is large, consisting of an estimated 180,000 non-profit organizations [of which 80,000 are registered as charities] and hundreds of thousands more volunteer groups that are not incorporated [Statistics Canada, 2002].) The dynamics of the sector have changed considerably over the past decade, as government has pulled back the level of core organizational funding support and the role of the church has diminished. As community health is directly related to the organizational health of service-providing non-profits and charities, these organizations are looking increasingly towards corporate and individual donors, along with new self-financing approaches that generate revenues. They are also facing challenges in attracting and retaining skilled and motivated volunteers. As the scope of the voluntary sector and its overall influence grows, so do the organizational and financial challenges it faces. This article will address in particular the issue of funding support for healthy communities and examine a number of potential and existing best practices for sustaining community health in Canada. We will also look at the issue of volunteerism and human resource capacity challenges for organizations. This is an area in which the Canadian government has decided to focus as a result of explicit policy decisions taken in the late 1990s.
The Rev. Canon Ted Karpf
Full Text Available Relationships between faith communities and international multi-lateral organizations can be complicated. While there is potential for synergy between the two, different values often characterize the approach of each. The history of these relationships is illustrative. This review describes collaboration between the World Health Organization (WHO and faith-based organizations (FBOs in the implementation of primary health care, the role of spirituality in health, community responses to the HIV pandemic, and definitions of Quality of Life containing spiritual dimensions. However, important gaps persist in the appreciation and measurement of the contribution of faith communities to health assets on the part of governments and the WHO. FBOs can still draw from the nine points developed in the 1960s as a time-tested viable agenda for current and future operations.
Ijun Rijwan Susanto
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted 1 to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundans Cianjur 2 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community 3 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community 4 The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming 5 The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders namely 1 The leader of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic Farmer Cianjur PPOFC 2 Members of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic FarmersCianjur 3 Leader of NGO 4 Government officials of agriculture 5 Business of organic food 6 and Consumer of organic food. Generally the findings of the study revealed the following 1 PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices 2 the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community farmers did not
Howie, Erin K; McVeigh, Joanne A; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M
The purpose of this study was to identify unique organized sport trajectories from early childhood to late adolescence in an Australian pregnancy cohort, the Raine Study. Participation in organized sport was assessed at ages 5, 8, 10, 14, and 17 yr. Physical activity, body composition, and self-rated physical and mental health were assessed at the age of 20 yr. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of sport participation. To assess the internal validity of the trajectory classes, differences in health characteristics between trajectories were analyzed using generalized linear models. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: consistent sport participators (47.5%), sport dropouts (34.3%), and sport nonparticipators (18.1%). For boys, three trajectory classes were identified: consistent sport participators (55.2%), sport dropouts (36.9%), and sport joiners (8.1%). For girls, there were overall differences across trajectory classes in lean body mass (P = 0.003), lean mass index (P = 0.06), and physical health (P = 0.004). For boys, there were differences across classes in physical activity (P = 0.018), percent body fat (P = 0.002), lean body mass (P health (P = 0.06), and depression scores (P = 0.27). This study identified unique, sex-specific trajectories of organized sport participation. The differences in health outcomes between trajectory classes, such as participants with consistent sport participation having more preferable health outcomes at the age of 20 yr, support the internal validity of the trajectories. Strategies are needed to identify and encourage those in the dropout trajectory to maintain their participation and those in the nonparticipator or joiner trajectories to join sport earlier. Specifically, interventions to encourage early sport participation in girls and help nonparticipating boys to join sport during adolescence may help more children receive the benefits of sport participation.
Iveroth, Einar; Fryk, Pontus; Rapp, Birger
Information technology (IT) plays a key role in public health care management because it could improve quality, efficiency, and patient care. Researchers and practitioners repeatedly contend that a health care organization's information systems strategy should be aligned with its objectives and strategies, a notion commonly known as IT alignment. Actor-related IT alignment issues in health care institutions were explored in this study. More specifically, it explores the possibility of moving beyond the current IT alignment perspective and, in so doing, explores whether IT alignment-as currently conceptualized in the dominant body of research-is sufficient for attaining improved quality, efficiency, and patient care in health care organizations. The findings are based on a qualitative and longitudinal study of six health care organizations in the Stockholm metropolitan area. The empirical data were gathered over the 2005-2011 period from interviews, a focus group, observations, and archival material. The data suggest recurrent misalignments between IT strategy and organizational strategy and operations due to the failure to deconstruct the IT artifact and to the existence of various levels of IT maturity. A more complex picture of IT alignment in health care that goes beyond the current perspective is being offered by this study. It argues that the previously common way of handling IT as a single artifact and applying one IT strategy to the entire organizational system is obsolete. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: The article suggests that considerable benefits can be gained by assessing IT maturity and its impact on IT alignment. The article also shows that there are different kinds of IT in medical care that requires diverse decisions, investments, prioritizations, and implementation approaches.
Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen
for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... seven countries. The process begins with gathering knowledge about the current status within a given herd as background for making decisions and planning future improvements as well as evaluating already implemented improvements. Respectful communication between the owner of the herd and other farmers...... countries, in collaboration with groups of organic farmers and organisations....
Romaní-Romaní, Franco; Curisinche-Rojas, Maricela; Arteaga, Norka Rojas; Lopez, Pedro Riega; Cabezas, César
There is a gap between human resources and technical-operational education that limits the Peruvian health system's ability to implement public health interventions. The Peruvian Ministry of Health, through the National Health Institute and the Ministry of Defense, implemented a Public Health Training Program addressed to young full-time military servicemen, on the basis of the competency profile of a public health technician. The program consists of seven thematic units given in 390 hours, 200 of which correspond to classroom and field practices. Between July 2014 and December 2015, the program has been carried out in 10 venues of the three armed forces, training and certifying 405 young servicemen. The intervention provides the military service with an additional educational benefit, making it more appealing as a chance for development and opens up a line of work in the public health sector for young people in more remote areas. This experience seeks to increase public health-trained human resources to a technical-operational level. In collaboration with regional governments, graduates are expected to be welcomed and included in the public health system.
Okma, Kieke G H; Kay, Adrian; Hockenberry, Shelby; Liu, Joanne; Watkins, Susan
Apart from governments, there are many other actors active in the health policy arena, including a wide array of international organizations (IOs), public-private partnerships and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that state as their main mission to improve the health of (low-income) populations of low-income countries. Despite the steady rise in numbers and prominence of NGOs, however, there is lack of empirical knowledge about their functioning in the international policy arena, and most studies focus on the larger organizations. This has also caused a somewhat narrow focus of theoretical studies. Some scholars applied the 'principal-agent' theory to study the origins of IOs, for example, other focus on changing power relations. Most of those studies implicitly assume that IOs, public-private partnerships and large NGOs act as unified and rational actors, ignoring internal fragmentation and external pressure to change directions. We assert that the classic analytical instruments for understanding the shaping and outcome of public policy: ideas, interests and institutions apply well to the study of IOs. As we will show, changing ideas about the proper role of state and non-state actors, changing positions and activities of major stakeholders in the (international) health policy arena, and shifts in political institutions that channel the voice of diverging interests resulted in (and reflected) the changing positions of the health-oriented organizations-and also affect their future outlook. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Eric S. Engler
Full Text Available This case describes a Ministry Positioning process that will enable the management of Ascension Health to enact designs suitable for the rapidly changing healthcare industry. Ascension Health is the largest not-for-profit healthcare system in the United States with $21 billion in annual revenues and a presence in 24 states and the District of Columbia. Because the design of a large organization for a fast-moving environment is too complex and ambiguous to be fully planned in advance, the focus of the case is on the processes of learning while designing—that is, learning how to learn from designing organizations. The main lessons drawn from the Ministry Positioning process are discussed.
Silva, Juliana Lemos; Navarro, Vera Lucia
The Brazilian banking sector has undergone an intense restructuring process and taken a leading position in the incorporation of new technologies and organizational innovations. Computerization in the industry, in association with forms of work organization, has resulted in changes that reflect on the workers' health. Based on the theoretical and methodological frameworks of historical and dialectical materialism, this qualitative study investigates the work conditions of bank employees in order to identify the extent to which changes in work organization interfere with these workers' health. Data were collected through interviews held with 11 bank employees. In addition to physical sickening due to occupational diseases directly related to work intensification, the results also show an increased incidence of mental suffering and a feeling of loss of professional identity. Work-related frustration, instability and concerns related to psychological pressure resulting from the need to achieve goals predominated in the reports.
Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen
Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... seven countries. The process begins with gathering knowledge about the current status within a given herd as background for making decisions and planning future improvements as well as evaluating already implemented improvements. Respectful communication between the owner of the herd and other farmers...
Ooms, G; Marten, R; Waris, A; Hammonds, R; Mulumba, M; Friedman, E A
Establishing a reform agenda for the World Health Organization (WHO) requires understanding its role within the wider global health system and the purposes of that wider global health system. In this paper, the focus is on one particular purpose: achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The intention is to describe why achieving UHC requires something like a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) that have been proposed elsewhere,(1) why WHO is in a unique position to usher in an FCGH, and what specific reforms would help enable WHO to assume this role.
Ferguson, Stephanie L
The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the decision-making body of the World Health Organization. Delegates attending the Sixty-Eighth WHA, May 2015, covered a wide range of global challenges and agreed on several key resolutions of importance to nurse leaders. Some of the resolutions adopted relevant for nurse leaders and nursing care such as air pollution, strategies to strengthen epilepsy care, antimicrobial drug resistance, and strategies to strengthen surgical care, are highlighted. Nurse leaders should consider attending the World Health Assembly, as the topics discussed are critical for the future directions of strengthening human resources for health worldwide and, in particular, nursing and midwifery services.
This article is based on a study that aimed to shed light on the "cultures of action" of Irish health advocacy organizations, and particularly their modes of engagement with pharmaceutical corporations. Debates about what some interpret as the "corporate colonization" of health activism provide the backdrop for the analysis. The empirical dimension of the study involved a survey of 112 organizations and in-depth study of a small number of organizations that manifest diverse modes of engagement with the pharmaceutical industry. The varying modes of interaction are plotted along a continuum and characterized as corporatist, cautious cooperation, and confrontational. Evidence is presented of a strong and growing cultural tendency in Irish health advocacy organizations to frame pharmaceutical corporations as allies in their quests for better health. The analysis of four constitutive dimensions of organizations' cultures of action can reveal the legitimating logics underlying their diverging positions around pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. While the research shows that pharmaceutical corporations have largely succeeded in defining themselves as a philanthropic force and rightful players in Irish health activism, it cautions against a simplistic conclusion that this is evidence of corporate colonization.
Calciolari, Stefano; Buccoliero, Luca
Information system integration is an important dimension of a company's information system maturity and plays a relevant role in meeting information needs and accountability targets. However, no generalizable evidence exists about whether and how the main integrating technologies influence information system integration in health care organizations. This study examined how integrating technologies are adopted in public health care organizations and chief information officers' (CIOs) perceptions about their influence on information system integration. We used primary data on integrating technologies' adoption and CIOs' perception regarding information system integration in public health care organizations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between CIOs' perception about information system integration and the adopted technologies. Data from 90 health care organizations were available for analyses. Integrating technologies are relatively diffused in public health care organizations, and CIOs seem to shape information system toward integrated architectures. There is a significant positive (although modest, .3) correlation between the number of integrating technologies adopted and the CIO's satisfaction with them. However, regression analysis suggests that organizations covering a broader spectrum of these technologies are less likely to have their CIO reporting main problems concerning integration in the administrative area of the information system compared with the clinical area and where the two areas overlap. Integrating technologies are associated with less perceived problems in the information system administrative area rather than in other areas. Because CIOs play the role of information resource allocators, by influencing information system toward integrated architecture, health care organization leaders should foster cooperation between CIOs and medical staff to enhance information system
Petersen, Poul Erik
and the promotion of oral health needs to be integrated with chronic disease prevention and general health promotion as the risks to health are linked. The World Health Assembly (WHA) and the Executive Board (EB) are supreme governance bodies of WHO and for the first time in 25 years oral health was subject...... to discussion by those bodies in 2007. At the EB120 and WHA60, the Member States agreed on an action plan for oral health and integrated disease prevention, thereby confirming the approach of the Oral Health Programme. The policy forms the basis for future development or adjustment of oral health programmes...
Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J
Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves.
Charles J Greenberg
Full Text Available Background Open health data has implications for clinical care, research, public health, and health policy at regional, national, and global levels. No published attempts have been made to determine, collectively, whether WHO member states and governments have embraced the promise and effort required to officially share open health data. The observational study will provide evidence that World Health Organization (WHO member states individually and collectively have adopted open data recommended principles, providing access to open health data. Methods Using the WHO list of member states (n=194, the researchers identified the presence of open health data or initiatives. With each country, the following types of official government web pages were recorded: a Ministry of Health web page; a conspicuous link on a government web page to open health data; additional government health web sites; national government-sponsored open data repositories; unique attributes of national health data web sites; and adherence to the principles of open government data for health. A supplemental PDF file provides a representation of data used for analysis and observations. Our complete data is available at: https://goo.gl/Kwj7mb Observations and Discussion Open health data is easily discoverable in less than one-third of the WHO member states. 13 nations demonstrate the principle to provide comprehensive open data. Only 16 nations distribute primary, non-aggregated health data. 24 % of the WHO observed member states are providing some health data in a non-proprietary formats such as comma-separated values. The sixth, seventh, and eighth open government data principles for health, representing universal access, non-proprietary formats, and non-patent protection, are observed in about one-third of the WHO member states. While there are examples of organized national open health data, no more than a one-third minority of the world’s nations have portals set up to
Gimigliano, Francesca; Negrini, Stefano
February 6th-7th, 2017 might become a memorable date in the future of rehabilitation. On these two days, the World Health Organization (WHO) has summoned over 200 stakeholders in the Executive Board Room of the WHO Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. Their common aim was to a launch the "Rehabilitation 2030" call to action and to present the WHO Recommendations on rehabilitation in health systems. These initiatives are meant to draw attention to the increasing unmet need for rehabilitation in the world; to highlight the role of rehabilitation in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the United Nations; to call for coordinated and concerted global action towards strengthening rehabilitation in health systems. The aim of this paper is to report on the scientific events of these 2 days, which will most likely mark the history of rehabilitation.
Sánchez, John Paul; Sola, Orlando; Ramallo, Jorge; Sánchez, Nelson Felix; Dominguez, Kenneth; Romero-Leggott, Valerie
Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic segment of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States and are disproportionately burdened by LGBT-related health issues and limited political support from Hispanic medical organizations. Recently, the Latino Medical Student Association, the National Hispanic Medical Association, and the Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, representing over 60,000 Hispanic students and providers and 35 institutions, collaborated to support a resolution opposing discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and recognizing the obstacles encountered by LGBTQ Hispanics. The resolution provides an important framework for organizational members and leaders to address LGBT health issues and serve to support a more positive sociopolitical climate for the Hispanic LGBT community nationally and internationally.
Franco, Mário; Haase, Heiko
The purpose of this paper is to examine various aspects related to inter-organizational cooperation and how this phenomenon can be applied to healthcare institutions. To fulfil the aim, a qualitative investigation was adopted, focussing on the relationship between public hospital and a higher education institution in Portugal. The study supports health managers and higher education leaders, and other stakeholders involved inter-organizational cooperation drawing up strategies and understanding inter-organizational cooperation's impact at the regional level. One contribution is to help fill a gap regarding the empirical research surrounding cooperation between organizations, especially in the health sector, where scientific studies are scarce. It also provides new insights by applying competence-based theory to analyze different approaches to hospital cooperation, which has received scant attention in the health sector.
Lei, Mia; Acharya, Neha; Kwok Man Lee, Edith; Catherine Holcomb, Emma; Kapoor, Veronica
The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class." © Lei et al.
Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.
Full Text Available The author starts by offering a definition of voluntary organisations. He then discusses their importance and role, focusing on the issue of adult education wi thin these organisations. He also wells upon learning and change of voluntary organisation members, making use of the results of a study he conducted together with his collaborators. One of their findings has been that voluntary organisations, due to their organisational targets like painting, singing or caring for people in need, lead their members to learning, i.e. essentially content learning. Moreover, voluntary organisations offer a fair number of opportunities for social learning and change. ln spite of the fact that the respondents were mostly not aware of the outcomes of their learning and change, careful listeners conducting the interview made them understand the importance of the learning they had gone through. The author concludes by poin ting out that formal education of adults can get its inspiration in learning in voluntary organisations. On the other hand, such learning would benefit greatly from findings and methods of formal education of adults.
Shortell, S M; Hull, K E
The U.S. health care system is restructuring at a dizzying pace. In many parts of the country, managed care has moved into third-generation models emphasizing capitated payment for enrolled lives and, in the process, turning most providers and institutions into cost centers to be managed rather than generators of revenue. While the full impact of the new managed care models remains to be seen, most evidence to date suggests that it tends to reduce inpatient use, may be associated with greater use of physician services and preventive care, and appears to result in no net differences either positive or negative with regard to quality or outcomes of care in comparison with fee-for-service plans. Some patients, however, tend to be somewhat less satisfied with scheduling of appointments and the amount of time spent with providers. There is no persuasive evidence that managed care lowers the rate of growth in overall health care costs within a given market. Further, managed care performance varies considerably across the country, and the factors influencing managed care performance are not well understood. Organized delivery systems are a somewhat more recent phenomenon representing various forms of ownership and strategic alliances among hospitals, physicians, and insurers designed to provide more cost-effective care to defined populations by achieving desired levels of functional, physician-system, and clinical integration. Early evidence suggests that organized delivery systems that are more integrated have the potential to provide more accessible coordinated care across the continuum, and appear to be associated with higher levels of inpatient productivity, greater total system revenue, greater total system cash flow, and greater total system operating margin than less integrated delivery forms. Some key success factors for developing organized delivery systems have been identified. Important roles are played by organizational culture, information systems, internal
The soil has always been depository of the organic chemicals produced naturally or anthropogenically. Soil contamination is a serious human and environmental problem. A large body of evidence has shown the risks of adverse health effects with the exposure to contaminated soil due to the large quantities of organic chemicals used in agriculture and urban areas that have a legacy of environmental pollution linked to industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration and waste dumping. In agricultural areas, because of the effort to provide adequate quantities of agricultural products, farmers have been using an increasing amount of organic chemicals, but the resulting pollution has enormous potential for environmental damage. The types of organic pollutants commonly found in soils are polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, herbicides and organic fuels, especially gasoline and diesel. Another source of soil pollution is the complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals and microorganisms in the effluent from septic systems, animal wastes and other sources of biowaste. The soils of the world are a vast mixture of chemicals and although conditions are such that an individual is rarely exposed to a single compound, the great majority of people are exposed to a vast chemical mixture of organics, their metabolites, and other compounds at low concentrations Human exposure to organic pollutants in the soil is an area of toxicology that is very difficult to study due to the low concentration of the pollutants. The toxicological studies of single organic pollutants found in soils are limited and research on the metabolites and of chemical mixtures is very limited. The majority of toxicological studies are conducted at relatively high doses and for short periods of exposure. This makes the application of this data to exposure
Oversight on Family Planning Programs under Title X of the Public Health Service Act, 1984. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on Consideration of the Reauthorization of Title X of the Public Health Service Act, the Population Research and Voluntary Family Planning Programs (April 5 and May 1, 1984).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
This document provides witness testimony and prepared statements from two sessions of the congressional hearing called to consider the reauthorization of Title X of the Public Health Service Act, the Population Research and Voluntary Family Planning Programs. Testimony is provided from the federal administration, state officials, representatives…
Brown, Theodore M; Cueto, Marcos; Fee, Elizabeth
Within the context of international public health, 'global health' seems to be emerging as a recognized term of preference. This article presents a critical analysis of the meaning and importance of 'global health' and situates its growing popularity within a historical context. A specific focus of this work is the role of the World Health Organization - WHO in both 'international' and 'global' health, and as na agent of transition from one to the other. Between 1948 and 1998, the WHO went through a period of hardship as it came up against an organizational crisis, budget cuts and a diminished status, especially when confronted with the growing influence of new, power players like the World Bank. We suggest that the WHO has responded to this changing international context by inititating its own process of restructuring and repositioning as an agent for coordinating, strategically planning and leading 'global health' initiatives.
Van Heukelom, Holly; Fraser, Valli; Koh, Jiak-Chin; McQueen, Kay; Vogt, Kara; Johnson, Frances
The American Dietetic Association Nutrition Care Process (NCP) is designed to improve patient care and interdisciplinary communication through the consistent use of standardized nutrition language. Supported by Dietitians of Canada, the NCP has been gaining prominence across Canada. In spring 2009, registered dietitians at Providence Health Care, an academic, multisite health care organization in Vancouver, British Columbia, began using the NCP with a focus on nutrition diagnosis. The success of nutrition diagnosis at Providence Health Care has depended on support from the Clinical Nutrition Department leadership, commitment from the NCP champions, regularly scheduled lunch-and-learn sessions, revised nutrition assessment forms with a section for nutrition diagnosis statements, and the Pocket Guide for International Dietetics & Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) Reference Manual. Audit results from June through August 2010 showed a 92% nutrition diagnosis completion rate for acute-care and long-term care sites within Providence Health Care. Ongoing audits will be used to evaluate the accuracy and quality of nutrition diagnosis statements. This evaluation will allow Providence Health Care dietitians to move forward with nutrition intervention.
Clements, Karen M; Cohen, Bruce B; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Brooks, Daniel R; Mucci, Lorelei A; Wood, Phillip A
To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of (1) identifying Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) membership by ascertaining self-reported health plan name in a telephone survey and (2) using external information to determine whether the plan was an HMO. Respondents to the 1999-2001 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the 1999 Massachusetts Colorectal Cancer (CRC) survey were asked to name their health plan. The authors used information from external sources to classify the plan as an HMO or a non-HMO. Test-retest reliability of reported plan name was examined overall, by demographic characteristics, and by health plan name. Reliability of HMO classification was tested with the kappa statistic. More than 88 percent of respondents with commercial health insurance provided their health plan name; 84 percent reported a plan that could be assigned as either an HMO or a non-HMO. The percentage whose HMO status could be assigned differed by demographic characteristics. Among those assigned, the distribution of specific HMOs among survey respondents was similar to the distribution reported by the Massachusetts Division of Insurance. In a subsample, 78 percent reported the same health plan during a follow-up interview. Agreement was higher for men, and differed according to the plan reported at the first time point. Kappa for HMO classification from health plan name was 0.87. Self-report of health plan name is a feasible and reliable method to ascertain health insurance information in a telephone interview.
Ibsen, Bjarne; Seippel, Ørnulf
Idræt organiseret i frivillige foreninger er meget udbredt i de skandinaviske lande. I denne artikel sammenlignes idræt i foreninger i Norge og Danmark. De to lande sammenlignes på en række dimensioner: den frivillige sektor generelt og frivillig organiseret sport specifikt. Efter denne sammenlig......Idræt organiseret i frivillige foreninger er meget udbredt i de skandinaviske lande. I denne artikel sammenlignes idræt i foreninger i Norge og Danmark. De to lande sammenlignes på en række dimensioner: den frivillige sektor generelt og frivillig organiseret sport specifikt. Efter denne...
Ibsen, Bjarne; Seippel, Ørnulf
Idræt organiseret i frivillige foreninger er meget udbredt i de skandinaviske lande. I denne artikel sammenlignes idræt i foreninger i Norge og Danmark. De to lande sammenlignes på en række dimensioner: den frivillige sektor generelt og frivillig organiseret sport specifikt. Efter denne sammenlig...
Artiklen forbinder organisatorisk læring med strategisk ledelse af nonprofit, frivillige organisationer. Den forklarer hvor de to forbundne strategiske udfordringer – frivilligt engagement og organisatorisk læring kan håndteres ved at anvende indsigt fra litteraturen om udforskning og udnyttelse og...... om ambidekstrale organisationer. Artiklen præsenterer tre cases om nonprofit, frivillige organisationer for at tydeliggøre forbindelserne mellem frivilligt engagement og organisatorisk læring. De strategiske implikationer er, at nonprofit frivillige organisationer bør have et ambidekstralt forhold...
Petersen, Poul Erik
on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The treaty covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention and treatment, illicit trade, advertising, sponsorship and promotion, and product regulation. Oral health professionals and dental associations worldwide should consider......In addition to several other chronic diseases, tobacco use is a primary cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. For example, tobacco is a risk factor for oral cancer, periodontal disease, and congenital defects in children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy. The epidemic...... of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health; sadly the future appears worse because of the globalization of marketing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strengthened the work for effective control of tobacco use. At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the Member States agreed...
Villar, A.; López-Alonso, M.
This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows) traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake) and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L) 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms). The organic farms had higher (p<0.05) average number of calves per cow (3.93) and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9%) than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows). Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05) somatic cell counts (SCC) than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively). Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further. (Author)
Full Text Available This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms. The organic farms had higher (p<0.05 average number of calves per cow (3.93 and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9% than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows. Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05 somatic cell counts (SCC than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively. Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further investigation.
Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush
As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.
Makeeva, I M; Avdeenko, O E
The analysis of scientific literature on the peculiarities of the dental status of organized groups and professional associations. After reviewing the literature, it becomes clear that the studies carried out in organized groups and professional societies are very relevant today, because the prevalence of dental diseases among them remains high, fueled by a number of factors: habitat, diet, lifestyle, occupational hazards, particularly hygienic oral care. Nowadays there is no information about the features of the dental status among the clergy, whose professional activity is connected with direct close contact with people. This profession covers a large number of our population. The research of certain groups is of special interest, since a number of different factors affect dental health.
Lafortune, Louise; Farand, Lambert; Mondou, Isabelle; Sicotte, Claude; Battista, Renaldo
In light of growing demands for public accountability, the broadening scope of health technology assessment organizations (HTAOs) activities and their increasing role in decision-making underscore the importance for them to demonstrate their performance. Based on Parson's social action theory, we propose a conceptual model that includes four functions an organization needs to balance to perform well: (i) goal attainment, (ii) production, (iii) adaptation to the environment, and (iv) culture and values maintenance. From a review of the HTA literature, we identify specific dimensions pertaining to the four functions and show how they relate to performance. We compare our model with evaluations reported in the scientific and gray literature to confirm its capacity to accommodate various evaluation designs, contexts of evaluation, and organizational models and perspectives. Our findings reveal the dimensions of performance most often assessed and other important ones that, hitherto, remain unexplored. The model provides a flexible and theoretically grounded tool to assess the performance of HTAOs.
Baird, D. T.; Balen, A.; Escobar-Morreale, H. F.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Franks, S.; Glasier, A.; Homburg, R.; La Vecchia, C.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Liebaers, I.; Sunde, A.; Tapanainen, J. S.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.; Evers, J. L. H.
Disruption of ovulation occurs in different types of clinical infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided a classification of ovulation disorders. This review focuses on WHO group 2 anovulation. Searches were performed in Medline/PubMed and EMBASE. Each subject summary was presente
In celebration of the World Health Organization's 50th anniversary, this article features WHO's contribution to the world by examining its current activities in the areas of health, human rights, and development. It briefly summarizes events leading to its establishment over the period from 1851 to 1948, which marks the year when WHO assumed its role as a specialized body of the United Nations. Quoting from various articles in WHO's Constitution, it illustrates the principles that prompt its actions and that have led nations to become aware of their potential goals, thus steering them toward a brighter future. A brief overview of the last 20 years ends with the introduction of WHO's new Director General, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland.
Winkler, Till J.; Ozturk, Pinar; Brown, Carol V.
initiatives by states and regional health information organizations (HIOs). Given the high failure rates of regional U.S. HIOs in the past, our primary objective is to identify the key characteristics of HIO startups that became operational and demonstrated sustainability with non-renewable SHIECAP funding...... HIOs that became operational during the SHIECAP grant period faced similar startup challenges, the two HIOs that demonstrated sustainability pursued distinct technology and sustainability strategies to develop HIE capabilities to fit their very different regional needs: an HIE capability to improve...... the population health of an underserved urban population, and an HIE capability to enable the transition to a healthcare landscape that rewards care coordination across suburban hospitals and physician practices. Conclusions: We propose two models of technology and sustainability strategies for developing bottom...
Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick
In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform.
Wholey, D; Feldman, R; Christianson, J B; Engberg, J
We examine scale and scope economics among Group and IPA Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) over the period 1988 to 1991 using a national sample of HMOs. We allow for the multiproduct nature of HMO production by estimating the cost of producing a member month of non-Medicare and Medicare coverage, and we examine the effect of HMO market structure on costs. We find that HMOs benefit from scale economies. There are scope diseconomies associated with providing both non-Medicare and Medicare products. Group HMOs in more competitive markets have lower costs but IPA costs are not affected by competition.
Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie L
Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region are particularly vulnerable to a changing climate. Changes in extreme weather events, undernutrition and the spread of infectious diseases are projected to increase the number of deaths due to climate change by 2030, indicating the need to strengthen activities for adaptation and mitigation. With support from the WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia and others, countries have started to include climate change as a key consideration in their national public health policies. Further efforts are needed to develop evidence-based responses; garner the necessary support from partner ministries; and access funding for activities related to health and climate change. National action plans for climate change generally identify health as one of their priorities; however, limited information is available on implementation processes, including which ministries and departments would be involved; the time frame; stakeholder responsibilities; and how the projects would be financed. While progress is being made, efforts are needed to increase the capacity of health systems to manage the health risks of climate change in South-East Asia, if population health is to be protected and strengthened while addressing changing weather and climate patterns. Enhancing the resilience of health systems is key to ensuring a sustainable path to improved planetary and population health.
Langabeer, James R; Champagne, Tiffany
Unlike consumer goods industries, healthcare has been slow to implement technolo gies that support exchange of data in patients' health records. This results in avoid able medication errors, avoidable hospital readmissions, unnecessary duplicate testing, and other inefficient or wasteful practices. Community-based regional health information exchange (HIE) organizations have evolved in response to federal aims to encourage interoperability, yet little is known about their strategic approach. We use the lens of institutional and strategic management theories to empirically explore the differences in business strategies deployed in HIEs that are, to date, financially sustainable versus those that are not. We developed a 20-question survey targeted to CEOs to assess HIE business strategies. Our sample consisted of 60 community-based exchanges distributed throughout the United States, and we achieved a 58% response rate. Questions centered on competitive strategy and financial sustainability. We relied on logistic regression methods to explore relationships between variables. Our regression identified characteristics common to sustainable organizations. We defined sustainability as revenues exceeding operational costs. Seventeen of the 35 organizations (49%) defined themselves as currently sustainable. Focus and cost leadership strategies were significantly associated with sustainability. Growth strate gies, which were much more common than other strategies, were not associated with sustainability. We saw little evidence of a differentiation strategy (i.e., the basis of competition whereby the attributes of a product or service are unmatched by rivals). Most CEOs had a relatively optimistic outlook, with 60% stating they were confident of surviving over the next 5 years; however, nearly 9% of the organizations were in some phase of divestiture or exit from the market. HIEs are evolving differently based on local leadership decisions, yet their strategic approach is
The executive board of WHO (World Health Organization) recently passed a resolution calling on countries 1) to promote the role of traditional practitioners in the health care systems of developing countries and 2) to allocate more financial support for the development of traditional medical systems. The board also urged the medical profession not to undervalue the traditional medical system. WHO recognizes that modern medical care is unavailable to the majority of the world's poor residents and that traditional birth attendants deliver 2/3 of the world's babies. To fulfill the primary health needs of all the world's inhabitants it will be necessary to utilize both the Western and the traditional medical system. In some countries, such as Sri Lanka, India, and China the traditional health system is legally recognized. WHO also advocates utilizing those medicinal plants and remedies used by traditional practitioners to effectively treat their patients. Example of some of these plants are 1) Ammi visnage, a Mediterranean plant, used to treat angina pectoris; 2) Cymbopogan proximus, an Egyptian plant, used to remove urinary tract stones; 3) the root of Combretum, used in Ghana to treat guinea-worm; 4) bitter leaf, a Nigerian plant which kills mouth bacteria; and 5) Desmodium adcendens, Thonningia sanguinea, and Deinbollia pinnata used in various combinations to treat bronchial asthma.
Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz
The concept of epidemiological intelligence, as a construction of information societies, goes beyond monitoring a list of diseases and the ability to elicit rapid responses. The concept should consider the complexity of the definition of epidemiology in the identification of this object of study without being limited to a set of actions in a single government sector. The activities of epidemiological intelligence include risk assessment, strategies for prevention and protection, subsystems of information, crisis management rooms, geographical analysis, etc. This concept contributes to the understanding of policies in health, in multisectorial and geopolitical dimensions, as regards the organization of services around public health emergencies, primary healthcare, as well as disasters. The activities of epidemiological intelligence should not be restricted to scientific research, but the researchers must beware of threats to public health. Lalonde's model enabled consideration of epidemiological intelligence as a way to restructure policies and share resources by creating communities of intelligence, whose purpose is primarily to deal with public health emergencies and disasters.
Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.
Research Dialogues, 1988
Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…
N.S. Zourarakis (Nicolaos)
textabstractThis paper investigates the voluntary disclosure of Intellectual Capital (IC) of British firms and provides some evidence on an unexplored area of the literature; that of the association of Corporate Governance (CG) with IC disclosure. Inconsistent with expectations, the results show tha
Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S
In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the current role of nurses in the world and presents the position of the World Health Organization concerning nursing on the basis of the basic documents on this issue over the last 10 years. Key words: nursing, nurses, public health organization, World Health Organization, policy documents.
Rašević Mirjana M.
Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is a...
Kowalski, Christoph; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; Schmidt, Anna; Wesselmann, Simone; Wirtz, Markus A; Pfaff, Holger; Ernstmann, Nicole
While research on individual health literacy is steadily increasing, less attention has been paid to the context of care that may help to increase the patient's ability to navigate health care or to compensate for their limited health literacy. In 2012, Brach et al. introduced the concept of health literate health care organizations (HLHOs) to describe the organizational context of care. This paper presents our effort in developing and validating an HLHO instrument. Ten items were developed to represent the ten attributes of HLHO (HLHO-10) based on a literature review, an expert workshop, a focus group discussion, and qualitative interviews. The instrument was applied in a key informant survey in 51 German hospitals as part of a larger study on patient information and training needs (PIAT-study). Item properties were analyzed and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to test the instrument's unidimensionality. To investigate the instrument's predictive validity, a multilevel analysis was performed that used the HLHO-10 score to predict the adequacy of information provided to 1,224 newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients treated at the sample hospitals. Cronbach's α of the resulting scale was 0.89. CFA verified the one-factor structure after allowing for the correlation for four pairs of error terms. In the multilevel model, HLHO-10 significantly predicted the adequacy of information as perceived by patients. The instrument has satisfactory reliability and validity. It provides a useful tool to assess the degree to which health care organizations help patients to navigate, understand, and use information and services. Further validation should include participant observation in health care organizations and a sample that is not limited to breast cancer care.
Gostin, Lawrence O
The International Health Regulations (IHR), the only global regulations for infectious disease control, have not been significantly changed since they were first issued in 1951. The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently engaged in a process to modernize the IHR. This article reviews WHO's draft revised IHR and recommends new reforms to improve global health, which include (1) a robust mission, emphasizing the WHO's core public health purposes, functions, and essential services; (2) broad scope, flexibly covering diverse health threats; (3) global surveillance, developing informational networks of official and unofficial data sources; (4) national public health systems, setting performance criteria, measuring outcomes, and holding states accountable; (5) human rights protection, setting science-based standards and fair procedures; and (6) good governance, adopting the principles of fairness, objectivity, and transparency. The WHO should ensure state compliance with health norms and generous economic and technical assistance to poorer countries. An important issue for the international community is how sovereign countries can join together to make global health work for everyone, the poor and the wealthy alike.
Petersen, Poul Erik
In addition to several other chronic diseases, tobacco use is a primary cause of many oral diseases and adverse oral conditions. For example, tobacco is a risk factor for oral cancer, periodontal disease, and congenital defects in children whose mothers smoke during pregnancy. The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health; sadly the future appears worse because of the globalization of marketing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has strengthened the work for effective control of tobacco use. At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the Member States agreed on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The treaty covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention and treatment, illicit trade, advertising, sponsorship and promotion, and product regulation. Oral health professionals and dental associations worldwide should consider this platform for their future work for tobacco prevention since in several countries they play an important role in communication with patients and communities. The WHO Oral Health Programme gives priority to tobacco control in many ways through the development of national and community programmes which incorporates oral health and tobacco issues, tobacco prevention through schools, tobacco risk assessment in countries, and design of modern surveillance systems on risk factors and oral health. Systematic evaluation of coordinated efforts should be carried out at country and inter-country levels.
Britain's High Court recently overruled two decisions of the Mental Health Act Commission that denied certification of a voluntary experimental drug treatment to a mental patient, holding that the standard for informed consent is determined not by the subjective judgment of the commissioners but by whether the patient knows the nature and likely effects of treatment and that its use in his case is a novel one. The background facts of the case involving a 27-year-old pedophile receiving goserelin implantations to reduce testosterone levels are presented and the issues of jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 and the commissioners' duty to act fairly and to consider the likely benefits of treatment are discussed.
Costa, Carla; García-Lestón, Julia; Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Silva, Susana; Pingarilho, Marta; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Mattei, Francesca; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Bonassi, Stefano; Laffon, Blanca; Snawder, John; Teixeira, João Paulo
Exposure to pesticides is a major public health concern, because of the widespread distribution of these compounds and their possible long term effects. Recently, organic farming has been introduced as a consumer and environmental friendly agricultural system, although little is known about the effects on workers' health. The aim of this work was to evaluate genetic damage and immunological alterations in workers of both traditional and organic farming. Eighty-five farmers exposed to several pesticides, thirty-six organic farmers and sixty-one controls took part in the study. Biomarkers of exposure (pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and thioethers in urine and butyrylcholinesterase activity in plasma), early effect (micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, T-cell receptor mutation assay, chromosomal aberrations, comet assay and lymphocytes subpopulations) and susceptibility (genetic polymorphisms related to metabolism - EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 - and DNA repair-XRCC1 and XRCC2) were evaluated. When compared to controls and organic farmers, pesticide farmers presented a significant increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes (frequency ratio, FR=2.80) and reticulocytes (FR=1.89), chromosomal aberrations (FR=2.19), DNA damage assessed by comet assay (mean ratio, MR=1.71), and a significant decrease in the proportion of B lymphocytes (MR=0.88). Results were not consistent for organic farmers when compared to controls, with a 48% increase of micronuclei in lumphocytes frequency (p=0.016) contrasted by the significant decreases of TCR-Mf (p=0.001) and %T (p=0.001). Our data confirm the increased presence of DNA damage in farmers exposed to pesticides, and show as exposure conditions may influence observed effects. These results must be interpreted with caution due to the small size of the sample and the unbalanced distribution of individuals in the three study groups.
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary exclusion. 513.210 Section 513.210... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action § 513.210 Voluntary exclusion. Persons who accept voluntary exclusions under § 513.315 are excluded in accordance with the terms of...
It appears that the attitudes of health professionals differ towards suicide and voluntary active euthanasia. An acceptance of, if not an agreement with, voluntary active euthanasia exists, while there is a general consensus that suicide should be prevented. This paper searches for a working definition of suicide, to discover ethical reasons for the negative value that suicide assumes, and also to provide a term of reference when comparing suicide with euthanasia. On arriving at a working definition of suicide, it is compared with voluntary active euthanasia. An analysis of utilitarian and deontological considerations is provided and proves to be inconclusive with respect to the ethical principles informing the attitudes of professionals. Therefore, a search for other influences is attempted; this indicates that psychological influences inform attitudes to a greater degree than ethical principles.
Full Text Available Objective: Setting research priorities in the research management cycle is a key. It is important to set the research priorities to make optimal use of scarce resources. The aim of this research was to determine the research needs of Health Insurance Organization based on its health care centers research needs.Methods: This is a qualitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. A purposeful sample of 60 participants from 14 hospitals, seven dispensaries, five dental clinics, two rehabilitation centers, four radiology centers, six medical diagnostic laboratories, 12 pharmacies, and 20 medical offices that were contracted with the Health Insurance Organization in Iran was interviewed. The framework analysis method (a qualitative research method was used for analysis of interviews. Atlas-Ti software was used to analyze quantitative data, respectively. The topics were prioritized using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method through Expert Choice software.Results: Based on the problems extracted in our qualitative study, 12 research topics were proposed by the experts. Among these “Design of standard treatment protocols,” “Designing model of ranking the health care centers under contract,” and “Pathology of payment system” took the priority ranks of 1 to 3, earning the scores of 0.44, 0.42, and 0.37, respectively.Conclusion: Considering limited resources and unlimited needs and to prevent research resource wasting, conducting research related to health care providers in the Health Insurance Organization can help it achieve its goals.
Chandra, Ashish; Frank, Zachary D
Performance appraisal systems that are designed to objectively evaluate an employee's performance and then outline measures to be taken for improvements are essential for an organization to move ahead. These systems are often organization specific and health care organizations are no exception. However, health care managers seem to be more vocal and have often expressed dissatisfaction with the use of their company's performance appraisal system. This article is based on a case study of a health care organization's current performance appraisal techniques. This organization's current use of performance appraisals are discussed in brief, and strategies for health care organizations to improve their performance appraisal system have also been identified.
Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A
The World Health Organization now relies upon voluntary contributions tied to specific projects, underwriting 75% of operations. A resulting cacophony of non-governmental, foundation, and private sector actors have emerged overlapping and fractionating WHO programs. In this expanding world of "global health organizations," WHO's role must be redefined. We propose coordination of global health initiatives through a United Nations Global Health Panel with active participation of WHO. Given recent events, the UN is poised to take a greater leadership role in global health.
Napolitano, Dora A; Ryan, Aliya S S [Shinai, C/Islas Canarias Mza J-6 Lote 20 Los Cedros, Chorrillos, Lima (Peru)
Many small groups of indigenous peoples in the Amazon basin avoid and resist direct encounters with outsiders. As far as we know, they do so because of appalling experiences in earlier encounters with national society. When contacted today, they are extremely vulnerable to introduced diseases and exploitation. In this paper we draw on our experience in the Kugapakori Nahua Reserve for isolated peoples in SE Peru to discuss some of the current debates about whether isolated peoples should be contacted and how best to respect their right to life, health, autonomy and territory. The remote headwater regions where isolated peoples sought refuge during the last century are increasingly sought after for resource extraction. In particular, the extraction of oil and gas is increasing throughout the Peruvian Amazon. In the second part of the paper we give some examples of how oil/gas companies and the energy sector in Peru have affected the well-being of the peoples in this reserve in the 21st century. If this trend is not reversed the impacts for isolated peoples will be irreparable.
This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.
Voice-Message–Based mHealth Intervention to Reduce Postoperative Penetrative Sex in Recipients of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape, South Africa: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie; Esterhuizen, Tonya; McCaul, Michael; Petzold, Max; Diwan, Vinod
Background There is an increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in the postoperative period after receiving voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In South Africa, over 4 million men are being targeted with VMMC services but the health system is not able to offer quality counseling. More innovative strategies for communicating with and altering behavior in men and their partners in the postoperative period after VMMC are needed. Objective This paper presents a study protocol to test the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention designed to task-shift behavior change communication from health care personnel to an automated phone message system, encouraging self-care. Methods A single-blind, randomized controlled trial will be used. A total of 1188 participants will be recruited by nurses or clinicians at clinics in the study districts that have a high turnover of VMMC clients. The population will consist of men aged 18 years and older who indicate at the precounseling session that they possess a mobile phone and consent to participating in the study. Consenting participants will be randomized into either the control or intervention arm before undergoing VMMC. The control arm will receive the standard of care (pre- and postcounseling). The intervention arm will received standard of care and will be sent 38 messages over the 6-week recovery period. Patients will be followed up after 42 days. The primary outcome is self-reported sexual intercourse during the recovery period. Secondary outcomes include nonpenetrative sexual activity, STI symptoms, and perceived risk of acquiring HIV. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Results Enrollment is completed. Follow-up is ongoing. Loss to follow-up is under 10%. No interim analyses have been conducted. Conclusions The intervention has the potential of reducing risky sexual behavior after VMMC. The platform itself can be used for many other areas of health that require task
Aboal-Viñas, José Luis; Lado-Lema, María Eugenia; Amigo-Quintana, Manuel; Hervada-Vidal, Xurxo; Gómez-Amorín, Angel; Fernández-Abreu, Carlos
To design the processes map of the Galician Department of Public Health, we performed document reviews, held meetings and interviewed persons in charge of programs and departments to identify the processes carried out. The processes were classified into strategic, key and support processes. We defined 4 levels of disaggregation and management and staff were kept informed throughout the process. At level 0, we included 4 key processes that defined the organization's mission. At level 1, 5 strategic, 5 support and 10 key processes were defined. The key processes at level 2 identified the health programs' services. A processes map was obtained by consensus and was then approved by management and staff as a first step in implanting a process management system to improve the organization's performance.
One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments under plans for voluntary reduction in number of medical residents. 413.88 Section 413.88 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... voluntary reduction in number of medical residents. (a) Statutory basis. This section implements...
In Greece, organic pig farming started in 2002 and since then made significant steps forward due to the extended interesting of Greek consumer for organic products during last decade. This report aims at updating information about organic pig farming in Greece, relating production system and most health risk factors. Furthermore, in present study a animal health management program is proposed. The most common health problems that occur in the Greek organic ...
Vieira, Mariana; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Pinheiro, Regina Dal Castel
This retrospective and descriptive study with a quantitative design aimed to evaluate occupational accidents with exposure to biological material, as well as the profile of workers, based on reporting forms sent to the Regional Reference Center of Occupational Health in Florianópolis/SC. Data collection was carried out through a survey of 118 reporting forms in 2007. Data were analyzed electronically. The occurrence of accidents was predominantly among nursing technicians, women and the mean age was 34.5 years. 73% of accidents involved percutaneous exposure, 78% had blood and fluid with blood, 44.91% resulted from invasive procedures. It was concluded that strategies to prevent the occurrence of accidents with biological material should include joint activities between workers and service management and should be directed at improving work conditions and organization.
Brown, Louis Davis; Townley, Greg
Mental health consumer-run organizations (CROs) are a low-cost, evidence-based strategy for promoting recovery. To increase CRO utilization, characteristics that promote engagement need to be identified and encouraged. The study examined individual and organizational characteristics that predict three types of engagement in CROs-attendance, leadership involvement, and socially supportive involvement. Surveys were administered to 250 CRO members attending 20 CROs. Leaders of each CRO reported organizational characteristics through a separate questionnaire. Multilevel regression models examined relationships between predictors and indicators of CRO engagement. Perceived sense of community was the only characteristic that predicted attendance, leadership involvement, and socially supportive involvement (pleadership, peer counseling, and several demographic characteristics also predicted some measures of engagement. CROs that can effectively promote sense of community, organizational empowerment, shared leadership, and peer counseling may be better able to engage participants. The discussion considers several strategies to enhance these characteristics, such as collectively establishing values and practicing shared decision making.
This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practic...
Payton, F C; Ginzberg, M J
Changing business practices, customers needs, and market dynamics have driven many organizations to implement interorganizational systems (IOSs). IOSs have been successfully implemented in the banking, cotton, airline, and consumer-goods industries, and recently attention has turned to the health care industry. This article describes an exploratory study of health care IOS implementations based on the voluntary community health information network (CHIN) model.
... or subsidizing technical assistance, including research, health science data, and engineering support.... (5) Providing assistance on methods of disseminating information and education about the voluntary... conflicting State and local regulations. (8) Monitoring the number and market share of products conforming...
Taylor, David J
The FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health improved the internal and external capacity of eight national professional organizations of obstetrics and gynecology in six African and two Asian countries. The initiative was funded by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and had three key objectives: to support the eight FIGO member associations to strengthen their capacity to work effectively; to influence national policies on maternal and newborn health; and to work toward improving clinical practice in this area. Through improved capacity, and underpinned by Memoranda of Understanding with their governments, the associations influenced national policy in maternal and newborn health, impacted clinical care through the development of over forty national clinical guidelines, delivered national curricula, trained clinical and management staff, and led the development of national maternal death and near-miss review programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika
Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from the appar...... of voluntary labour and voluntary associations in publicly subsidised urban regeneration. Empirical data will be collected through in-depth case studies in selected communities in both metropolitan neighbourhoods and smaller market towns....... to community development, urban policy, etc. In addition to this, the paper presents results from a survey exploring the extent and character of volunteerism in a number of integrated urban regeneration projects. The paper proposes a systematic overview of experiences with voluntary inputs and engagement...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...
Adler-Milstein, Julia; Landefeld, John; Jha, Ashish K
Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) will likely play a key role in our nation's effort to catalyze health information exchange. Yet we know little about why some efforts succeed while others fail. We sought to identify factors associated with RHIO viability. Using data from a national survey of RHIOs that we conducted in mid-2008, we examined factors associated with becoming operational and factors associated with financial viability. We used multivariate logistic regression models to identify unique predictors. We classified RHIOs actively facilitating data exchange as operational and measured financial viability as the percent of operating costs covered by revenue from participants in data exchange (0-24%, 25-74%, 75-100%). Predictors included breadth of participants, breadth of data exchanged, whether the RHIO focused on a specific population, whether RHIO participants had a history of collaborating, and sources of revenue during the planning phase. Exchanging a narrow set of data and involving a broad group of stakeholders were independently associated with a higher likelihood of being operational. Involving hospitals and ambulatory physicians, and securing early funding from participants were associated with a higher likelihood of financial viability, while early grant funding seemed to diminish the likelihood. Finding ways to help RHIOs become operational and self-sustaining will bolster the current approach to nationwide health information exchange. Our work suggests that convening a broad coalition of stakeholders to focus on a narrow set of data is an important step in helping RHIOs become operational. Convincing stakeholders to financially commit early in the process may help RHIOs become self-sustaining.
Olga Alekseevna Zaplatina
Full Text Available At present time mankindis entering upon a new information age, and therefore the foundations of culture health organization is considered as the perspective to distribute intellectual and information resources as ecologically sustainable development and modernizing of Russian society. Great attention in this regard is given to a higher education system, the aim of which is to prepare a specialist with fundamental knowledge, professionally important qualities, environmental culture and culture of health.Though information resources in the sphere of continuous environmental and valeological education, from the point of their socio-philosophical justification, are varied and quite extensional, these trends are just beginning to penetrate in all areas of social life (including the educational environment and are not sufficiently reflected in continuing professional education, especially technical and, as it is know, technical education is preparing professionals of new type, adequate to changing conditions.In this regard, the ecologization аnd valeologization of continuous training acquires the greatest relevance in modernization of higher education. Also one of the urgent tasks is training of specialists, having high level of ecological and valeological consciousness development and ecological thinking; all these determine the functioning of the system «society-production-environment». According to these facts, it is possible to mention the necessity to solve the problems of environmental and valeological education in professional training of specialists, by means of global process modeling directly and indirectly related to this field.Since ecological and valeological education in higher schools must be based on regulatory support, as an important tool, used by the state in order to preserve the national health, as well as balances environmental management, it is necessary to note that at the state level the most important task is to promote
Hanlon, Neil; Rosenberg, Mark; Clasby, Rachael
Services offered by voluntary organisations are an integral but often overlooked component of health and social care. Of late, there has been a renewed interest in voluntary welfare provision as a viable alternative to state and market. Recent developments in welfare provision in Canada appear to have brought greater social care roles for the voluntary sector at the same time as new and arguably more restrictive funding and accountability mechanisms are being imposed by different arms of the state. To explore these issues more closely, the present paper examines the impressions and experiences of voluntary and formal sector providers of services for senior citizens and people with disabilities in a remote urban centre (population less than 100 000) in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. Two important operational pressures provide the context of the analysis: (1) reform of provincial government funding and regulation of voluntary services; and (2) the restructuring of welfare provision, especially in the areas of health care and social services. The authors found evidence of an escalating incursion of the state into local voluntary sector affairs that needs to be understood in the context of long-standing institutional links between government and 'professional' voluntary welfare provision in British Columbia. The results point to three important directions in contemporary local voluntary provision: (1) an emerging ethos of accountability, efficiency and competition in voluntary provision; (2) increasing pressure to centralise volunteer services; and consequently, (3) the potential erosion of flexibility and personalisation that are seen to characterise the voluntary sector.
D N Sinha; Singh, G.; Gupta, P. C.; M Pednekar; C W Warrn; S Asma; Lee, J.
The 2003 India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) includes provisions designed to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke. India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) on February 27, 2005. The WHO FCTC is the world′s first public health treaty that aims to promote and protect public health and reduce the devastating health and economic impact of tobacco. The Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS) w...
.... Under Part A, Chapter AC.20, ``Functions,'' Section C, ``Office of Minority Health,'' delete the first... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Office of Minority Health: Statement of Organization, Functions... Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,...
Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties
Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).
Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda
Stigmatizing views towards consumers may be held even by those working within mental health organizations. Contemporary mental health policies require organizations to work collaboratively with consumers in producing and delivering services. Using social exchange theory, which emphasises mutual exchange to maximise benefits in partnership, the current study explores the perspectives of those working within organizations that have some level of consumer leadership. Interviews were conducted with 14 participants from a range of mental health organizations. Data were transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. Findings suggest stigma is still prevalent even in organizations that have consumers in leadership positions, and consumers are often perceived as less able to work in mental health organizations than non-consumers. Several discourses challenged such a view - showing how consumers bring value to mental health organizations through their expertise in the mental health system, and their ability to provide safety and support to other consumers. Through a social exchange theory lens, the authors call for organizations to challenge stigma and promote the value that consumers can bring to maximize mutual benefits. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Rui, Jian Raymond; Chen, Yixin; Damiano, Amanda
Providing and seeking social support are important aspects of social exchange. New communication technologies, especially social network sites (SNSs), facilitate the process of support exchange. An increasing number of health organizations are using SNSs. However, how they provide and seek social support via SNSs has yet to garner academic attention. This study examined the types of social support provided and sought by health organizations on Twitter. A content analysis was conducted on 1,500 tweets sent by a random sample of 58 health organizations within 2 months. Findings indicate that providing informational and emotional support, as well as seeking instrumental support, were the main types of social support exchanged by health organizations through Twitter. This study provides a typology for studying social support exchanges by health organizations, and recommends strategies for health organizations regarding the effective use of Twitter.
Full Text Available The most effective treatment method for patients with organ failure is an organ transplant. Although numerous patients are waiting to get organ transplants, the inadequacy in the supply of organs has become a chronic health problem around the whole world. Countries have made various regulations in their health systems that increase the supply of organs and, as a result, various organ transplantation models have been established. Organ transplantation models applied in Spain, the USA, the European Union, Iran, and Turkey have been examined in this study.
Farmanova, Elina; Bonneville, Luc; Bouchard, Louise
The availability of health services in French is not only weak but also inexistent in some regions in Canada. As a result, estimated 78% of more than a million of Francophones living in a minority situation in Canada experience difficulties accessing health care in French. To promote the delivery of health services in French, publicly funded organizations are encouraged to take measures to ensure that French-language services are clearly visible, available, easily accessible, and equivalent to the quality of services offered in English. This study examines the reorganization and management strategies taken by health care organizations in Ontario that provide health services in French. Review and analysis of designation plans of a sample of health care organizations. Few health care organizations providing services in French have concrete strategies to guarantee availability, visibility, and accessibility of French-language services. Implementation of the active offer of French-language services is likely to be difficult and slow. The Ontario government must strengthen collaboration with health care organizations, Francophone communities, and other key actors participating in the designation process to help health care organizations build capacities for the effective offer of French-language services. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bjork, David Albert
Executive compensation in health care organizations, particularly tax-exempt organizations, has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. This paper identifies the implications for tax-exempt health care organizations of recent efforts to regulate executive pay, as well as some changes that the boards of nonprofit health care providers and insurers should consider to minimize the case for further scrutiny and regulation of their executive pay practices.
Vassilopoulou, Loukia; Psycharakis, Christos; Petrakis, Demetrios; Tsiaoussis, John; Tsatsakis, Aristides M
The present review aims to delve into persistent organic pollutants (POPs) , as xenobiotics, in correlation to human health. POPs exhibit a group of common characteristics, including lipophilicity, persistence to decomposition and bioaccumulation in tissues. POPs have been thoroughly studied by former researchers, as they offer a particular interest in the elucidation of metabolic, endocrine and immune perturbation caused by their synergy with intracellular mechanisms. Herein particular focus is attributed to the relationship of POPs with obesity provocation. Obesity nowadays receives epidemic dimensions, as its prevalence elevates in an exponential degree. POPs-induced obesity rotates around interfering in metabolic and endocrinal procedures and interacting with peroxisome-proliferator and retinoic receptors. Moreover, polymorphisms in CYP gene families exert a negative result, as they incapacitate detoxification of POPs. Obesity could be deemed as a multidimensional condition, as various factors interact to lead to an obesogenic result. Therefore, concomitant disorders may occur, from mild to lethal, and get intensified due to POPs exposure. POPs exact function mechanisms remain rather enigmatic, thus further investigation should be prospectively performed, for a more lucid picture of this issue, and, consequently for the establishment of alternative solutions.
Full Text Available In order to attract more promising young people to join the military and enhance combat capability, Taiwanâs Department of Defense is transforming the nationâs military service system from a draft system, which has been in effect for more than sixty years, to an all-volunteer military force system. The government hopes that the new system not only can recruit promising voluntary soldiers, but that they also continue their military service after the contract expires in order to ensure stability in recruitment sources. This study explores the intention of voluntary soldiers to continue their military service. This studyâs questionnaire encompasses five dimensions: Participation motivation, organization commitment, career planning, personality traits and departure tendency. The questionnaires were issued to 350 voluntary soldiers to explore if they intend to continue their service after their contract expires, with a total of 314 effective questionnaires that were recovered and analyzed. The results find that about half of the voluntary soldiers indicate that they do not plan on staying and continuing their service after contract expiration, which will result in understaffing in the military. In order to stabilize the prescribed number of soldiers, the existing recruiting policy and military management system should be re-adjusted.
... English, reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and computer skills that are essential to successful job... education advisor: Education Services Specialist, Education Services Officer (ESO), Voluntary...
Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.
Friedman, Eric A; Gostin, Lawrence O; Buse, Kent
Organizations, partnerships, and alliances form the building blocks of global governance. Global health organizations thus have the potential to play a formative role in determining the extent to which people are able to realize their right to health. This article examines how major global health organizations, such as WHO, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, UNAIDS, and GAVI approach human rights concerns, including equality, accountability, and inclusive participation. We argue that organizational support for the right to health must transition from ad hoc and partial to permanent and comprehensive. Drawing on the literature and our knowledge of global health organizations, we offer good practices that point to ways in which such agencies can advance the right to health, covering nine areas: 1) participation and representation in governance processes; 2) leadership and organizational ethos; 3) internal policies; 4) norm-setting and promotion; 5) organizational leadership through advocacy and communication; 6) monitoring and accountability; 7) capacity building; 8) funding policies; and 9) partnerships and engagement. In each of these areas, we offer elements of a proposed Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH), which would commit state parties to support these standards through their board membership and other interactions with these agencies. We also explain how the FCGH could incorporate these organizations into its overall financing framework, initiate a new forum where they collaborate with each other, as well as organizations in other regimes, to advance the right to health, and ensure sufficient funding for right to health capacity building. We urge major global health organizations to follow the leadership of the UN Secretary-General and UNAIDS to champion the FCGH. It is only through a rights-based approach, enshrined in a new Convention, that we can expect to achieve health for all in our lifetimes.
Molendini, L O; Zanetti, A; Buzzi, F
The Italian juridical and legislative aspects of vaccination based on a compulsory system are presented considering the medico-legal questions. The prospective of a voluntary system, as anticipated by many normatives and other official documents, is examined. The experience of some local health authorities on cases of in observance of the vaccinal obligation are detailed Finally professional risks for vaccinal operators are examined and the need of specific guidelines for parents' consent to compulsory vaccination during infancy is prospected.
The World Health Organization's (WHO's) social determinants of health discussion underscores the need for health equity and social justice. Yet sexual orientation was not addressed within the WHO Commission on the Social Determinants of Health final report Closing the Gap in a Generation. This omission of sexual orientation as a social determinant of health stands in stark contrast with a body of evidence that demonstrates that sexual minorities are disproportionately affected by health problems associated with stigma and discrimination, such as mental health disorders. I propose strategies to integrate sexual orientation into the WHO's social determinants of health dialogue. Recognizing sexual orientation as a social determinant of health is an important first step toward health equity for sexual minorities.
Melballe Jensen, Maja; Jørgensen, Henry; Halekoh, Ulrich
BACKGROUND:Organic foodis perceived as beingofbetter quality andhealthier than conventional foods although the scientific research on organic foodstuffs is highly contradictory. The aim of the present study was to investigate if intake of carrots from four different cultivation systems grown in two...... consecutive years would influence various biomarkers of health in a rat model. All rats were fed a diet with 40% carrot content. The carrots were grown under conventional (C), ‘minimalistic’ organic (O1), organic (O2), or ‘very’ organic cultivation systems (O3). A control group (CO) being fed standard rat...... as a framework for further studies of health in relation to organic foodstuff....
Burkle, Frederick M
If the Ebola tragedy of West Africa has taught us anything, it should be that the 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) Treaty, which gave unprecedented authority to the World Health Organization (WHO) to provide global public health security during public health emergencies of international concern, has fallen severely short of its original goal. After encouraging successes with the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic, the intent of the legally binding Treaty to improve the capacity of all countries to detect, assess, notify, and respond to public health threats has shamefully lapsed. Despite the granting of 2-year extensions in 2012 to countries to meet core surveillance and response requirements, less than 20% of countries have complied. Today it is not realistic to expect that these gaps will be solved or narrowed in the foreseeable future by the IHR or the WHO alone under current provisions. The unfortunate failures that culminated in an inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa are multifactorial, including funding, staffing, and poor leadership decisions, but all are reversible. A rush by the Global Health Security Agenda partners to fill critical gaps in administrative and operational areas has been crucial in the short term, but questions remain as to the real priorities of the G20 as time elapses and critical gaps in public health protections and infrastructure take precedence over the economic and security needs of the developed world. The response from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and foreign medical teams to Ebola proved indispensable to global health security, but both deserve stronger strategic capacity support and institutional status under the WHO leadership granted by the IHR Treaty. Treaties are the most successful means the world has in preventing, preparing for, and controlling epidemics in an increasingly globalized world. Other options are not sustainable. Given the gravity of ongoing
Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Trejo, Grisel; Schiemann, Elizabeth; Quandt, Sara A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A
This analysis describes the work organization and domestic work experienced by migrant Latinas, and explores the linkage between work and health. Twenty Latina workers in North Carolina with at least one child under age 12 completed in-depth interviews focused on their work organization, domestic responsibilities, work-family conflict, health, and family health. Using a systematic qualitative analysis, these women described a demanding work organization that is contingent and exploitative, with little control or support. They also described demanding domestic roles, with gendered and unequal division of household work. The resulting work-family conflict affects their mental and physical health, and has negative effects on the care and health of their families. The findings from this study highlight that work stressors from an unfavorable work organization create work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict in this population has a negative influence on workers' health and health behaviors.
Jennifer Anne Simmelink
Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the mental health knowledge and training needs of refugee-serving community based organizations in a Midwestern state. A survey was administered to 31 staff members at 27 community based organizations (CBOs to assess the ability of staff to recognize and screen for mental health symptoms that may interfere with successful resettlement. Of the 31 respondents 93.5% (n=29 see refugees with mental health issues and 48.4% (n=15 assess refugees for mental health symptoms – primarily through informal assessment. Mainstream organizations were more likely than ethnic organizations to have received training related to the mental health needs of refugees. Results indicate that while refugee led CBOs recognize mental health symptoms of refugees they may be less likely to assess mental health symptoms and refer for treatment. Policy recommendations for improving CBO services to refugees are offered.
Introduction International evidence shows that enhancement of primary health care (PHC) services for disadvantaged populations is essential to reducing health and health care inequities. However, little is known about how to enhance equity at the organizational level within the PHC sector. Drawing on research conducted at two PHC Centres in Canada whose explicit mandates are to provide services to marginalized populations, the purpose of this paper is to discuss (a) the key dimensions of equity-oriented services to guide PHC organizations, and (b) strategies for operationalizing equity-oriented PHC services, particularly for marginalized populations. Methods The PHC Centres are located in two cities within urban neighborhoods recognized as among the poorest in Canada. Using a mixed methods ethnographic design, data were collected through intensive immersion in the Centres, and included: (a) in-depth interviews with a total of 114 participants (73 patients; 41 staff), (b) over 900 hours of participant observation, and (c) an analysis of key organizational documents, which shed light on the policy and funding environments. Results Through our analysis, we identified four key dimensions of equity-oriented PHC services: inequity-responsive care; trauma- and violence-informed care; contextually-tailored care; and culturally-competent care. The operationalization of these key dimensions are identified as 10 strategies that intersect to optimize the effectiveness of PHC services, particularly through improvements in the quality of care, an improved 'fit' between people's needs and services, enhanced trust and engagement by patients, and a shift from crisis-oriented care to continuity of care. Using illustrative examples from the data, these strategies are discussed to illuminate their relevance at three inter-related levels: organizational, clinical programming, and patient-provider interactions. Conclusions These evidence- and theoretically-informed key dimensions and
Browne Annette J
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction International evidence shows that enhancement of primary health care (PHC services for disadvantaged populations is essential to reducing health and health care inequities. However, little is known about how to enhance equity at the organizational level within the PHC sector. Drawing on research conducted at two PHC Centres in Canada whose explicit mandates are to provide services to marginalized populations, the purpose of this paper is to discuss (a the key dimensions of equity-oriented services to guide PHC organizations, and (b strategies for operationalizing equity-oriented PHC services, particularly for marginalized populations. Methods The PHC Centres are located in two cities within urban neighborhoods recognized as among the poorest in Canada. Using a mixed methods ethnographic design, data were collected through intensive immersion in the Centres, and included: (a in-depth interviews with a total of 114 participants (73 patients; 41 staff, (b over 900 hours of participant observation, and (c an analysis of key organizational documents, which shed light on the policy and funding environments. Results Through our analysis, we identified four key dimensions of equity-oriented PHC services: inequity-responsive care; trauma- and violence-informed care; contextually-tailored care; and culturally-competent care. The operationalization of these key dimensions are identified as 10 strategies that intersect to optimize the effectiveness of PHC services, particularly through improvements in the quality of care, an improved 'fit' between people's needs and services, enhanced trust and engagement by patients, and a shift from crisis-oriented care to continuity of care. Using illustrative examples from the data, these strategies are discussed to illuminate their relevance at three inter-related levels: organizational, clinical programming, and patient-provider interactions. Conclusions These evidence- and theoretically
Lok, Peter; Rhodes, Jo; Westwood, Bob
This study aims to investigate the mediating role of organizational subculture between job satisfaction, organizational commitment (dependent variables) and leadership, culture (independent variables) in health care organizations. A survey on nurses from 26 wards from various types of hospital was used. A total of 251 usable returns were collected for the analysis (i.e. response rate of 63 per cent). Structural equation analysis was conducted to obtain the best fit model and to determine the direction of the causal effect between job satisfaction and commitment, and the role of subculture as a mediating variable, between commitment of its other antecedents. Comparisons with alternative models confirmed satisfaction as an antecedent of commitment and the role of subculture as a mediating variable. The results of this study contribute to the clarification of the causal relations of the antecedents of commitment, and highlight the important role of local leadership and subculture in determining employees' job satisfaction and commitment. The results of this study should not be generalized to other industries and other national cultural context. Furthermore, a longitudinal study may be necessary to determine the causal relationship of variables used in this study. The findings could provide managers with valuable insight to focus their limited resources on improving the level of organizational commitment via the mediating role of organizational culture. The research findings provide managers with a new lens to examine organizational culture using the three perspectives of: bureaucratic, supportive, and innovative. Furthermore, the results could renew interest in developing other organizational subculture models that determine the relationship between organizational subculture and commitment
... voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? 137.203 Section 137.203 Public Health PUBLIC...-Governance Tribe participate in a voluntary national uniform data collection effort with the IHS? Yes, in... participate, at its option, in national IHS data reporting activities such as Government Performance...
Ostrow, Laysha; Leaf, Philip J.
Peer-run mental health organizations are managed and staffed by people with lived experience of the mental health system. These understudied organizations are increasingly recognized as an important component of the behavioral health care and social support systems. This Open Forum describes the National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations, which was conducted in 2012 to gather information about peer-run organizations and programs, organizational operations, policy perspectives, and service systems. A total of 895 entities were identified and contacted as potential peer-run organizations. Information was obtained for 715 (80%) entities, and 380 of the 715 responding entities met the criteria for a peer-run organization. Implementation of the Affordable Care Act may entail benefits and unintended consequences for peer-run organizations. It is essential that we understand this population of organizations and continue to monitor changes associated with policies intended to provide better access to care that promotes wellness and recovery. PMID:24492900
Korom-Djakovic, Danijela; Canamucio, Anne; Lempa, Michele; Yano, Elizabeth M; Long, Judith A
This study examined how aspects of quality improvement (QI) culture changed during the introduction of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patient-centered medical home initiative and how they were influenced by existing organizational factors, including VHA facility complexity and practice location. A voluntary survey, measuring primary care providers' (PCPs') perspectives on QI culture at their primary care clinics, was administered in 2010 and 2012. Participants were 320 PCPs from hospital- and community-based primary care practices in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Ohio. PCPs in community-based outpatient clinics reported an improvement in established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation from 2010 to 2012. However, their peers in hospital-based clinics did not report any significant improvements in QI culture. In both years, compared with high-complexity facilities, medium- and low-complexity facilities had better scores on the scales assessing established processes for QI, and communication and cooperation.
... America. TTT helps relieve teacher shortages, especially in math, science, special education, and other... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 68 RIN 0790-AI50 Voluntary Education Programs AGENCY: Office of the... for the operation of voluntary education programs within DoD. Included are: Procedures for Service...
Mária Jármai, Erzsébet; Palányi, Ildikó Zsupanekné
The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary reporting. 234.7 Section 234.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY PERFORMANCE REPORTS § 234.7 Voluntary reporting. (a) In addition to the...
Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary dissolution. 546.4 Section 546.4... ASSOCIATIONS-MERGER, DISSOLUTION, REORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 546.4 Voluntary dissolution. A Federal savings association's board of directors may propose a plan for dissolution of the association. The plan...
Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia
Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...... Communication towards Children (hereafter: CODE) – with its dependence on a supportive institutional environment and acceptance of as well as dynamics between involved key stakeholders like consumers, political actors and firms – contributes to fighting the obesity pandemic.Thus, we explore within this article...... what information about the process of implementing the CODE as well as about the evolved dynamics between key stakeholders is already available. Here, the recently published report of the PolMark project sheds light on the dynamics between the key stakeholders in relation to the current Danish...
Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.
Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel
New possibilities for mHealth have arisen by means of the latest advances in mobile communications and technologies. With more than 1 billion smartphones and 100 million tablets around the world, these devices can be a valuable tool in health care management. Every aid for health care is welcome and necessary as shown by the more than 50 million estimated deaths caused by illnesses or health conditions in 2008. Some of these conditions have additional importance depending on their prevalence. To study the existing applications for mobile devices exclusively dedicated to the eight most prevalent health conditions by the latest update (2004) of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO): iron-deficiency anemia, hearing loss, migraine, low vision, asthma, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis (OA), and unipolar depressive disorders. Two reviews have been carried out. The first one is a review of mobile applications in published articles retrieved from the following systems: IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, and PubMed. The second review is carried out by searching the most important commercial app stores: Google play, iTunes, BlackBerry World, Windows Phone Apps+Games, and Nokia's Ovi store. Finally, two applications for each condition, one for each review, were selected for an in-depth analysis. Search queries up to April 2013 located 247 papers and more than 3673 apps related to the most prevalent conditions. The conditions in descending order by the number of applications found in literature are diabetes, asthma, depression, hearing loss, low vision, OA, anemia, and migraine. However when ordered by the number of commercial apps found, the list is diabetes, depression, migraine, asthma, low vision, hearing loss, OA, and anemia. Excluding OA from the former list, the four most prevalent conditions have fewer apps and research than the final four. Several results are extracted from the in-depth analysis: most of the apps
Hanusaik, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Kishchuk, Natalie; Paradis, Gilles; Cameron, Roy
There are no national data on levels of organizational capacity within the Canadian public health system to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Cross-sectional data were collected in a national survey (October 2004 to April 2005) of all 216 national, provincial and regional-level organizations engaged in chronic disease prevention through primary prevention or healthy lifestyle promotion. Levels of organizational capacity (defined as skills and resources to implement chronic disease prevention programmes), potential determinants of organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming were compared in western, central and eastern Canada and across three types of organizations (formal public health organizations, non-governmental organizations and grouped organizations). Forty percent of organizations were located in Central Canada. Approximately 50% were formal public health organizations. Levels of skill and involvement were highest for activities that addressed tobacco control and healthy eating; lowest for stress management, social determinants of health and programme evaluation. The few notable differences in skill levels by provincial grouping favoured Central Canada. Resource adequacy was rated low across the country; but was lowest in eastern Canada and among formal public health organizations. Determinants of organizational capacity (organizational supports and partnerships) were highest in central Canada and among grouped organizations. These data provide an evidence base to identify strengths and gaps in organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming in the organizations that comprise the Canadian public health system.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
This paper presents an ethically justified approach to the diagnosis and management of progressive dysfunction of health care organizational cultures. We explain the concept of professional integrity in terms of the ethical concept of the cofiduciary responsibility of physicians and health care organizations. We identify the ethical features of a healthy health care organization and the spectrum of progressive dysfunction of organizational cultures from cynical through wonderland and Kafkaesque to postmodern. Physicians should respond to cynical health care organizations by creating moral enclaves of professional integrity for the main purpose of confrontation and reform, to wonderland organizations by strengthening moral enclaves for the main purpose of resisting self-deception, to Kafkaesque organizations by strengthening moral enclaves still further for the main purpose of defending professional integrity (adopting a Machiavellian appearance of virtue as necessary), and to postmodern organizations by creating moral fortresses and, should these fail, quitting.
Luis Eduardo Hernández-Ibarra
Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to explore organ donation and transplantation in Mexico from the point of view of transplantation health professionals. Materials and methods. A qualitative study was carried out. Twenty six organ transplantation health professionals from seven states of Mexico participated. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted mainly in hospital settings. Critical discourse analysis was performed. Results. According to participants, living organ transplantation offers benefits for recipients as well as for donors. Several factors influence the field of transplantation negatively, among them the scarcity of resources that impedes the incorporation of new health personnel, as well as conflicts between transplantation teams with diverse health professionals and authorities. Conclusion. Besides increasing economic resources, transplantation health personnel should be sensitized to find solutions in order to avoid conflicts with different health professionals. Studies on organ donation and transplants also should include other social actors’ viewpoint.
Borras-Morell, Jose-Enrique; Martinez-Millana, Antonio; Karlsen, Randi
Health consumers are increasingly using the Internet to search for health information. The existence of overloaded, inaccurate, obsolete, or simply incorrect health information available on the Internet is a serious obstacle for finding relevant and good-quality data that actually helps patients. Search engines of multimedia Internet platforms are thought to help users to find relevant information according to their search. But, is the information recovered by those search engines from quality sources? Is the health information uploaded from reliable sources, such as hospitals and health organizations, easily available to patients? The availability of videos is directly related to the ranking position in YouTube search. The higher the ranking of the information is, the more accessible it is. The aim of this study is to analyze the ranking evolution of diabetes health videos on YouTube in order to discover how videos from reliable channels, such as hospitals and health organizations, are evolving in the ranking. The analysis was done by tracking the ranking of 2372 videos on a daily basis during a 30-day period using 20 diabetes-related queries. Our conclusions are that the current YouTube algorithm favors the presence of reliable videos in upper rank positions in diabetes-related searches. PMID:28243314
Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Traver, Vicente; Borras-Morell, Jose-Enrique; Martinez-Millana, Antonio; Karlsen, Randi
Health consumers are increasingly using the Internet to search for health information. The existence of overloaded, inaccurate, obsolete, or simply incorrect health information available on the Internet is a serious obstacle for finding relevant and good-quality data that actually helps patients. Search engines of multimedia Internet platforms are thought to help users to find relevant information according to their search. But, is the information recovered by those search engines from quality sources? Is the health information uploaded from reliable sources, such as hospitals and health organizations, easily available to patients? The availability of videos is directly related to the ranking position in YouTube search. The higher the ranking of the information is, the more accessible it is. The aim of this study is to analyze the ranking evolution of diabetes health videos on YouTube in order to discover how videos from reliable channels, such as hospitals and health organizations, are evolving in the ranking. The analysis was done by tracking the ranking of 2372 videos on a daily basis during a 30-day period using 20 diabetes-related queries. Our conclusions are that the current YouTube algorithm favors the presence of reliable videos in upper rank positions in diabetes-related searches.
Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Oetjen, Dawn; Rotarius, Timothy
To cope with the recent challenges within the health care industry, health care managers need to engage in the internal marketing of their various services. Internal marketing has been used as an effective management tool to increase employees' motivation, satisfaction, and productivity (J Mark Commun. 2010;16(5):325-344). Health care managers should understand that an intense focus on internal marketing factors will lead to a quality experience for employees that will ultimately have a positive effect on the patient experiences.
Rivers, P A; Glover, S H
Health care represents a promising area of research due to its uniqueness. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in strategic decision-making processes research but not the study of health care strategy research. This article reviews strategic decision-making in health care domains. Adopting Rajagopalan, Rusheed, and Datta's (1993) framework, the authors evaluate the theoretical and empirical contributions of this research. The limitations and theoretical implications of these efforts are also explored.
Prada, Marília; Garrido, Margarida V; Rodrigues, David
The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives. Participants evaluated images of both whole (e.g., lettuce) and processed organic food exemplars (e.g., pizza), and reported general evaluations of these food types. The association of these evaluations with individual difference variables - self-reported knowledge and consumption of organic food, and environmental concerns - was also examined. Results showed that organically produced whole foods were perceived as more healthful, tastier and less caloric than those produced conventionally, thus replicating the well-established halo effect of the organic claim in food evaluation. The organic advantage was more pronounced among individuals who reported being more knowledgeable about organic food, consumed it more frequently, and were more environmentally concerned. The advantage of the organic claim for processed foods was less clear. Overall, processed organic (vs. conventional) foods were perceived as tastier, more healthful (Study 1) or equally healthful (Study 2), but also as more caloric. We argue that the features of processed food may modulate the impact of the organic claim, and outline possible research directions to test this assumption. Uncovering the specific conditions in which food claims bias consumer's perceptions and behavior may have important implications for marketing, health and public-policy related fields.
The importance of responsible stewardship in managing soil is a central tenet of organic farming. Organic farmers believe that practices which stimulate biology and overall quality of soil enhance production of healthy and nutritious crops. Few involved in agriculture would argue this point. Neverth...
Amalraj R Edwin
The study reveals that there is a poor understanding of the concept of brain death and organ donation even among medical students. It was also observed that they were in-terested in knowing more about the subject of organ do-nation.
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Statement of... being amended at Chapter AC, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH), as last amended at 72... the Assistant Secretary for Health, make the following changes: A. Under Section AC.10 Organization...
Venter, Fouche Hendrik Johannes; Wolfaardt, Jaqueline Elizabeth
South Africa (SA) has limited scope for raising income taxes, and the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will necessitate growth in the health sector budget. The NHI White Paper suggests five funding scenarios to meet the expected shortfall. These scenarios are a mixture of a surcharge on taxable income, an increase in value-added tax and a payroll tax. Five alternative options, suggested by the World Health Organization, are interrogated as ways to decrease the general taxation proposed in the White Paper. The five mechanisms (corporate tax, financial transaction levy, and taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods) were chosen based on their fund-raising potential and their mandatory element. A literature review provides the information for a discussion of the potential costs of each mechanism. Within specific assumptions, potential budgetary contribution is compared with the requirement. First, raising corporate tax rates could raise enough funds, but the losses due to capital flight might be too much for the local economy to bear. Second, a levy on currency transactions is unlikely to raise the required resources, even without a probable decrease in the number of transactions. Third, the increase in the tax on tobacco and alcohol would need to be very large, even assuming that consumption patterns would remain unchanged. Lastly, a tax on unhealthy food products is a new idea and could be explored as an option - especially as the SA Treasury has announced its future implementation. Implementing only one of the mechanisms is unlikely to increase available funding sufficiently, but if they are implemented together the welfare-maximising tax rate for each mechanism may be high enough to fulfil the NHI scheme's budgetary requirement, moderating the increases in the tax burden of the SA population.
Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.
That the health of soils, plants, animals and people are linked is an ancient idea that still resonates. It is well known that soil nutrient deficiencies and toxicities can adversely impact plant and animal health. Growing evidence also supports the idea of positive links between farm management, so...
Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C
Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization.
Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J
Achieving and maintaining high herd health and welfare status and low veterinary medicine inputs are important aims in organic livestock farming. Therefore, an on-farm intervention study (CORE Organic ANIPLAN) was conducted on 128 organic dairy farms in seven European countries aiming at minimising...... generated in Stable Schools (adapted Farmer Field Schools) or using face-to-face advice but following similar principles. Most frequently chosen focus areas were metabolic disorders (66% of farms), udder health (58%), lameness (47%), and fertility (39%). General linear models for repeated measures were used...
Rousseau, Cécile; Nadeau, Lucie; Pontbriand, Annie; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique; Measham, Toby; Broadhurst, Joanna
The importance of children and youth mental health is increasingly recognized. This rapidly developing field cannot be conceptualized as an extension of adult services to a younger age group and its developmental and organizational specificities are the object of debate. Reviewing recent literature in this domain and some preliminary information about the Quebec Mental Health Plan implementation, this paper addresses some of the questions which structure this debate in Quebec.Quebec mental health plan has put at the forefront collaboration among disciplines and partnership among institutions. In spite of having produced significant improvement in the field, discontinuities in services, which interfere with an ecosystemic model of care, persist. Recent studies suggest that the organisational climate which surrounds youth mental health services has a direct impact on the quality of services and on youth health outcomes. A flexible management structure, which engages clinicians and health workers, favors empowerment, minimizes work stress and facilitates partnership, is needed to foster successful interdisciplinary and intersectorial collaboration. This collaboration is the cornerstone of youth mental health services.
one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them......Animal health and welfare is an important part of organic husbandry, both in terms of the organic principles and owing to the consumer interest. But problems in the organic egg production resulting in high mortality and feather pecking, have led to the need for management tools in order to secure...... animal health and welfare. The aim of the project is to develop management tools for the organic egg production, aimed to secure animal health and welfare in the flocks. In the first part of the project a welfare assessment system for organic egg production was developed and tested on 10 fl ocks during...
本文综述了在人和动物方面有关自愿适量运动有益于脑作用的研究,包括改善心理状态和认知功能、增强心理幸福感、降低老年痴呆症发生危险度和发挥抗抑郁及抗焦虑药的作用等.运动对脑的作用机制包含上游和下游两方面:上游途径主要涉及投射到海马的几种神经递质系统的功能增强,其中包括去甲肾上腺素、5.羟色胺、乙酰胆碱和γ-氨基丁酸;下游途径主要涉及脑源性神经营养因子的表达提高和神经元发生的增强;其中,激活β-受体介导的去甲肾上腺素能神经的传递被认为是运动导致脑源性神经营养因子表达增强的前提,上述过程在细胞内的可能信号转导机制主要涉及G-蛋白偶联受体-促分裂原活化蛋白激酶-磷脂酰肌醇(-3)激酶等细胞信号转导通路的交互及正反馈调控.%This article reviewed the beneficial effects of moderate voluntary physical exercise on brain health according to the studies on humans and animals, which includes improving psychological status and cognitive function, enhancing psycho- logical well-being, decreasing the risks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, and promoting the effects of antidepressant and anxiolytic. The possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms are involved up-active and down-active pathways. The up-active pathway is associated with enhancements of several neurotransmitters systems afferent to hippocampus, including norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), acetylcholine (ACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The down-active pathway is mainly concerned with up-regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurogenesis. It is suggested that NE activation via β-adrenergic receptors may be essential for exercise-induced BDNF up-regulation. The possible intraceUular signaling pathways of NE-mediated BDNF up-expression may be involved in GPCR-MAPK-PI-3K crosstalk and positive feedback.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Maroschek, Nicole; Hamm, Ulrich
Consumers of organic food name health motives as an important driver of their choice. Interestingly, triggering health motives in food choice is exactly the reason why nutrition and health claims have been developed for the communication of functional food. Thus, both product concepts have similar...... consumer purchase motives in common. Organic food and functional food are, however, often described as contradictory rather than complementary in amongst others the concept of health. Functional food tends to be perceived as ‘unnatural’ by consumers. So far, it has not been researched how consumers react...... to a combination of both product concepts. A realistically designed purchase simulation was conducted with 210 organic consumers in Germany. Five organic products in three different categories were offered, unobtrusively altered so that they showed a nutrition, health or risk reduction claim on two products...
Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover. Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.
Adriana Elena Belu; Elena Alexandra Ilinca
The work “Management of labor conflicts in public health organizations” treats a very importantissue, of the present, with extensive and multiple implications for public health. The work can be consideredas an interdisciplinary study justified by two arguments: first, it is essential to applied research step, theknowledge and use of enshrined informational content in management literature, especially of models andmechanisms of managerial activity on the administration of human resources, mana...
Guerra-Sáenz, Elda Karina; Narváez-Navarro, Ángel Gustavo; Hernández-López, Ana Cecilia; Saucedo, Judith Bello; Ruiz-Cantú, Griselda; Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Guevara-Martínez, María Del Carmen; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda Elsa; Pérez-Rodríguez, Edelmiro; Hernández-Guedea, Marco Antonio; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; Guevara-Charles, Asdrúbal; Perales-Quintana, Marlene Marisol; Escobedo-Villarreal, Miguel Mariano
To assess the knowledge and attitude towards organ donation within health professionals in different institutions of Nuevo Leon. A prospective, open, observational, descriptive study of parallel groups, through application of a survey formulated by the Hospital Universitario (HU) "Dr. José Eleuterio González". We applied 208 surveys in the HU (n = 100) and other institutions like IMSS, ISSTE (n = 108). From all the participants, 86% had a positive attitude towards organ donation, associated to a higher education, and information regarding organ donation received by other health professionals. Though having a positive attitude toward organ donation, 14% of health professionals don't support it due to being afraid of not receiving medical assistance, knowing their status of donators, religious reasons, and fear of organ trafficking. Our study shows that, even within the health professionals, there is a need for information regarding organ donation. A well-instructed health professional shows a higher interest in organ donation; this could have a positive impact in the attitude of the population toward organ donation, as well as in the obtainment of organs inside the medical institutions.
Olden, Peter C; Haynos, Jessika
For those who manage organizations, it has been said that success does not come from predicting the future but instead comes from creating an organization that can succeed in an unpredictable future. Managers are responsible for creating such an organization. To do that, managers can apply management-related principles and methods. This article explains selected principles of organization structure, human resources, culture, decision making, and change management and how to apply them to health care organizations. If done well, that will help such organizations succeed in an unpredictable future.
Within the next five years, most health care organizations will communicate with suppliers, other providers, payers, regulators, and patients through the Internet. The Internet will recalibrate expectations of speed and service for patients and providers, but it also will increase accountability in which digitalized information is tracked and analyzed. The rate at which health care organizations are developing Web-based solutions is neck-snapping in the United States. As individual product lines, departments, and subsidiaries grow their own e-health businesses, organizations must decide which initiatives they must fund, which are essential to survival, and which could be financial black holes.
The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.
Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.
One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time
Full Text Available One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems. i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the
The complexity of our health care environment and organizations requires a management style that moves beyond control to empowerment. Even though this complexity minimizes our ability to control events, many organizations are still preoccupied with the illusion of control. This restrains the performance of our health care organizations. Some of the contributing factors supporting this illusion are bureaucracy, scientific methodology, individualism, and our confusion of management with leadership. The concept of "community" is discussed from an organizational perspective. It is suggested that we can improve the performance of our organizations by rediscovering the values of community.
Tanenbaum, Sandra J
Until 2008 Ohio Advocates for Mental Health was a statewide mental health advocacy organization run by mental health consumers and supportive of consumer-run organizations around the state. The author's tenure on the board entailed repeated engagement with questions of identity - self-identity, peer support through personal identification, and negotiation of public identities with provider groups and the state agency. These are fundamental to defining and legitimating the claims of mentally ill people not just for health care resources but for full participation as citizens in the public sphere.
Hanslmayr, Simon; Leipold, Philipp; Pastötter, Bernhard; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz
Voluntary memory suppression can keep unwanted memories from entering consciousness, inducing later forgetting of the information. In the present study, we searched for the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating such voluntary memory suppression. Using the think/no-think paradigm, subjects received a cue whether to prepare to think of a previously studied cue-target pair or whether to not let a previously studied cue-target pair enter consciousness. Examining event-related potentials, we identified two electrophysiological processes of voluntary memory suppression: (1) an early anticipatory process operating before the memory cue for a to-be-suppressed memory was provided, and (2) a later process operating after memory cue presentation. Both ERP effects were due to a decreased right frontal and left parietal positivity. They were positively related and predicted later forgetting. The results point to the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating voluntary memory suppression.
Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.
This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships
Elswijk, G.A.F. van
The research described in this thesis addressed the neurophysiologic changes in the human corticospinal system during preparation and execution of voluntary hand movements. The experiments involved transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex combined with electromyography (EMG) and e
Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric
This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)
Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric
This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)
Full Text Available The dream of universal health care demands a much larger and wider approach, engaging not just the public but also the private sector. This paper has attempted mapping the present public-private partnership scenario in India using the WHO health system functions framework, giving an insight into the nature and extent of challenge of the present dominant model. A systematic review methodology was adopted to identify published literature on private-public partnership in India. From an initial pool of 785 articles were identified. Finally a total of 29 published articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The descriptive framework of Health system functions by WHO (2000, were used to analyze the data. All papers which were considered for the study were segregated based on the 4 prime health system functions: Financing; Management of non-financial inputs; Health service delivery and Oversight. The literature review reveals that more than half of the papers (51.72% selected for the study were focused on health service delivery functions and quite thin literature were available for other 3 functions, which includes financing, management of non-financial inputs and oversight functions as per WHO. This finding raise an important question if the genesis of most of the public-private partnerships is out of the inability of the public sector in reaching out to a particular target group by virtue of its geographical position or difficulty in working with high risk groups. Considering the limitations of the present model of engagement of private and public sectors, it demands for an alternative model of engagement where the mutual strength that exists with each one of the partners, could be harnessed and complemented. An alternate model is to engage in tri-partite partnership (TPP between the government, non-government and the corporates.
Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair
Technological change in healthcare has led to huge improvements in health services and the health status of populations. It is also pinpointed as the main driver of healthcare expenditure. Although offering remarkable benefits, changes in technology are not free and often entail significant financial, as well as physical or social risks. These need to be balanced out in the setting of government regulations, insurance contracts, and individuals' decisions to use and consume certaintechnologies. With this in mind, this book addresses the following important objectives: to provide a detailed ana
Full Text Available This study explores the transformations implemented by health authorities in a hospital over the last forty years with the purpose of institutionalizing geriatrics in the Chilean public health system. The transformations have been implemented through a process of identity conversion that had implied high levels of ambiguity due to the contradictory coexistence of the old hospital’s identity with the new geriatric practices. These ambiguities are associated with the erratic, precarious support provided by state authorities to the development of the public geriatric framework. Through the handling of images, authorities have paradoxically amplified the achievements of these transformations, thus promoting apparent complacency in internal and external audiences.
This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge.
Okun, Andrea H; Watkins, Janice P; Schulte, Paul A
There has not been a systematic study of the nature and extent to which business and professional trade associations and labor organizations obtain and communicate workplace safety and health information to their members. These organizations can serve as important intermediaries and play a central role in transferring this information to their members. A sample of 2294 business and professional trade associations and labor organizations in eight industrial sectors identified by the National Occupational Research Agenda was surveyed via telephone. A small percent of these organizations (40.9% of labor organizations, 15.6% of business associations, and 9.6% of professional associations) were shown to distribute workplace safety and health information to their members. Large differences were also observed between industrial sectors with construction having the highest total percent of organizations disseminating workplace safety and health information. There appears to be significant potential to utilize trade and labor organizations as intermediaries for transferring workplace safety and health information to their members. Government agencies have a unique opportunity to partner with these organizations and to utilize their existing communication channels to address high risk workplace safety and health concerns. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
This thesis studies pull factors of Finland and voluntary work. The aim of this study is to understand the pull factors of Finland from the perspective of young travelers. Which pull factors attract to choose Finland as their destination? In addition, which pull factors attract young travelers to participate in international voluntary work? The commissioner of this thesis is Allianssi Youth Exchange. The thesis is research-based and includes a quantitative Webropol survey and some qualit...
Leadership, mental health, and organizational efficacy in health care organizations. Psychosocial predictors of healthy organizational development based on prospective data from four different organizations.
Arnetz, Bengt; Blomkvist, Vanja
Only a few studies of psychosocial determinants of employee health and organizational development have been prospective, involving more than one organization and applying standardized assessment tools. This limits the ability of providing evidence-based guidance as how to carry out healthy organizational transformations. A total of 6,000 employees responded twice to a validated psychosocial-leadership questionnaire within a 2-year period. The assessment focused on changes over time in the three outcome measures - mental health, efficacy, and leadership, determined to be important indicators of a healthy organization. Changes within and between organization were assessed statistically using regular t tests and general linear modeling. There were major differences between organizations in psychosocial measures, both at the baseline and over time. At the organizational level, changes between study periods in management performance feedback, participatory management, and work tempo were the most consistent predictors of improvements over time in the three outcome measures. Performance feedback and participatory management might be two common predictors of healthy workplaces. Some of the psychosocial determinants of healthy organizations suggested in previous research might not be universally valid. It is suggested that future research should to a larger degree make use of multiple departments and organizations in studies of psychosocial determinants of healthy organizations. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.
Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions o
Kijlstra, A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.
Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions
Kwon, Kyung-Ah; Shipley, Rebecca J; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Ezra, Daniel G; Rose, Geoff; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E
Blinking is vital to maintain the integrity of the ocular surface and its characteristics such as blink duration and speed can vary significantly, depending on the health of the eyes. The blink is so rapid that special techniques are required to characterize it. In this study, a high-speed camera was used to record and characterize voluntary blinking. The blinking motion of 25 healthy volunteers was recorded at 600 frames per second. Master curves for the palpebral aperture and blinking speed were constructed using palpebral aperture versus time data taken from the high-speed camera recordings, which show that one blink can be divided into four phases; closing, closed, early opening and late opening. Analysis of data from the high-speed camera images was used to calculate the palpebral aperture, peak blinking speed, average blinking speed and duration of voluntary blinking and compare it with data generated by other methods previously used to evaluate voluntary blinking. The advantages of the high-speed camera method over the others are discussed, thereby supporting the high potential usefulness of the method in clinical research.
Pointer, D D
One of six different strategies must be selected for a health service offering to provide consumers with distinctive value and achieve sustainable competitive advantage in a market or market segment. Decisions must be made regarding objectives sought, market segmentation, market scope, and the customer-value proposition that will be pursued.
McCarthy, John; Harutyunyan, Hasmik; Smbatyan, Meri; Cressley, Heidi
Relatively little has been published on mental health care and counseling as they pertain to Armenia, a country of approximately three million residents that gained independence in 1991 from the former Soviet Union. Various influences, such as its history, economy, religious and family systems, and a major natural disaster in 1988, have affected…
Bertognolio, Silvio; Derdelinckx, Inge; Parker, Monica; Fitzgibbon, Joseph; Fleury, Herve; Peeters, Martin; Schuurman, Rob; Pillay, Deenan; Morris, Lynn; Tanuri, Amilcar; Gershy-Damet, Guy-Michel; Nkengasong, John; Gilks, Charles F.; Sutherland, Donald; Sandstrom, Paul
With rapidly increasing access to antiretroviral drugs globally, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) has become a significant public health issue, This requires a coordinated and collaborative response from country level to international level to assess the extent of HIVDR and the establishment of efficient
Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André
Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.
Full Text Available Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS,Ekman et al., 2002. The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1. Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser, AU4 (brow lowerer, AU12 (lip corner puller and AU24 (lip presser, each in alternation with a resting phase.Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g. M1, premotor cortex, SMA, putamen, as well as in the thalamus, insula and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU 4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the like attracts like principle (Donoghue et al., 1992 . AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.
Veltri, Stefania; Bronzetti, Giovanni; Sicoli, Graziella
This article analyzes the concept of intellectual capital (IC) in the health sector sphere by studying the case of a major nonprofit research organization in this sector, which has for some time been publishing IC reports. In the last few years, health care organizations have been the object of great attention in the implementation and transfer of managerial models and tools; however, there is still a lack of attention paid to the strategic management of IC as a fundamental resource for supporting and enhancing performance improvement dynamics. The main aim of this article is to examine the IC reporting model used by the Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), a Swedish health organization which is an outstanding benchmark in reporting its IC. We also consider the specifics of IC reporting for health organizations, the lessons learned by analyzing CMM's IC reporting, and future perspectives for research.
Ameeta S Kalokhe; Ratnaprabha R Potdar; Rob Stephenson; Kristin L Dunkle; Anuradha Paranjape; Carlos del Rio; Seema Sahay
.... To arrive at a culturally-tailored definition, we aimed to better understand how definitions provided by the World Health Organization and the 2005 India Protection of Women from Domestic Violence...
In this paper, the collaboration between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, and baby mortality and morbidity, is explicated.
Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette;
Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare....... Observation and documentation of animal housing design, cleanliness, feeding management and types of feed available to the cows, milking management, disease and pest management was done in the Kiambu and Kajiado Counties of Kenya. An analysis was performed for indicators of health and welfare with husbandry...
Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette
Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare....... Observation and documentation of animal housing design, cleanliness, feeding management and types of feed available to the cows, milking management, disease and pest management was done in the Kiambu and Kajiado Counties of Kenya. An analysis was performed for indicators of health and welfare with husbandry...
... Watches § 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC must.... Voluntary vessels equipped with VHF-DSC equipment must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz and on either 156.525... used to communicate. Voluntary vessels equipped with MF-HF DSC equipment must have the radio turned...
Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU
Full Text Available Voluntary activities have become natural concerns among an increasing number of European citizens. Romania, as a member state of the EU, has a low number of participations in voluntary activities, situation partly justified by the lack of presence of our country on the map of large scale events organization which is based to a high extent, on volunteers’ involvement. The present paper presents the results of a quantitative marketing research organized among volunteers who participated at EYOF 2013 Braşov and highlights the participation’s motivations and benefits felt by volunteers at the end of the event. The authors of the article highlight the differences reported between volunteers’ expectations and their opinions after the event, the results obtained being considered useful for planning the voluntary activities in organizing future events hosted in our country.
Maio, Marcos Chor; Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Silva Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da
The article analyzes the formulation, legitimation, and implementation of a policy with an ethnic/race approach by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The study includes the emergence of the theme within this international organization, the institutional dynamics related to it, and the proposals focused on the Black population in Latin America. These issues are discussed on the basis of interaction between PAHO and a range of intergovernmental agencies and private organizations working in the international health domain. Participation by PAHO in the ethnic/racial theme provides elements for understanding the dual role played by intergovernmental organizations in the new global scenario, as both social actors and arenas. As an important social actor in the international health field, PAHO has produced and disseminated values and guidelines related to the ethnic/racial theme. As an arena, the organization has proven open to various interests, seeking to work harmoniously with them through its internal administration.
This document was prepared to assist readers in understanding the organization of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and the organization and functions of the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program Office. Telephone numbers of the principal management staff are provided. Also included is a list of 1979 and 1980 publications reporting on work performed in the Environment, Health and Safety Research Program, as well as a list of papers submitted for publication.
Cormier, Scott; Wargo, Michael; Winslow, Walter
A health care emergency preparedness coalition (coalition) is a group of health care organizations, public safety agencies, and public health partners that join forces for the common cause of making their communities safer, healthier, and more resilient. Coalitions have been characterized as being focused on hospital systems instead of the health care of the community as a whole. We discuss 2 examples of coalition partners that use a more inclusive approach to planning, response, and recovery. The first is a large health care system spread across 23 states, and the other is a public safety agency in northeast Pennsylvania that took the lead to address the preparedness and response toward a large influx of burn patients and grew to encompass all aspects of community health care.
This article outlines the delivery of the Family Health Nurse Education Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) at the University of Stirling, Scotland, from 2001 to 2005. The program was part of the WHO European Family Health Nurse pilot project. The curriculum outlined by the WHO Curriculum Planning Group detailed the broad thrust of the Family Health Nurse Education Programme and was modified to be responsive to the context in which it was delivered, while staying faithful to general principles and precepts. The Family Health Nurse Education Programme is described in its evolving format over the two phases of the project; the remote and rural context occurred from 2001 to 2003, and the modification of the program for the urban phase of the project occurred during 2004 and 2005. The conceptual framework that was foundational to the development of the curriculum to prepare family health nurses will be described.
Jitnarin, Nattinee; Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Jahnke, Sara
The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of Veterans and Military Service Organizations (VMSOs) magazines to determine what health-related topics VMSOs target and how they inform their constituencies about health issues. Health-related topics in 288 VMSOs' magazines from 21 VMSOs published in 2011 and 2012 were coded by trained raters using a standardized manual. The top three most addressed health topics were Health Services (Health care, Insurance), Disability and Disability benefits, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Topics least frequently covered were Tobacco and Smoking cessation, Illegal drugs, Alcohol, Gulf War Syndrome, and Weight and Body composition. VMSOs are concerned about the health and well-being of their members given the considerable amount of content devoted to certain health topics such as health insurance concerns, disability, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, other health concerns that affect a considerable number of both current military personnel and veterans and cost both the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Defense millions annually, such as drug and alcohol problems, and tobacco use and smoking cessation, are infrequently covered. The results of this study improve our understanding of the health-related information that reaches the military and veteran populations through this important media outlet.
Escrivão Junior, Alvaro; Koyama, Marcos Fumio
In Brazilian health insurance sector, the fee-for-service model still remains the major payment method for health services, and predominates in the relationship between hospitals and private health insurance companies. After the creation of Health Insurance Qualification Program (HIQP), which focuses on the quality of the assistance given to consumers, the health insurance companies will be evaluated by health care performance indicators, established by this program. The present study discusses the impact of this pattern on the relationship between health insurance companies and hospitals, by analyzing data from interviews carried through with 18 health insurance managers, regarding the use - in hospital management - of performance indicators compatible to those adopted by HIQP. According to the managers perception, only three hospitals use this sort of indicators, two of them which are hospitals managed by the health insurance companies. The alignment of interests between health plans organizations and health care providers, at the HIQP proposed template, will imply changes in payment models between these market players, towards the inclusion of performance and quality of assistance given to users by providers, as components of wage determination.
Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah
We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.
Adriana Elena Belu
Full Text Available The work “Management of labor conflicts in public health organizations” treats a very importantissue, of the present, with extensive and multiple implications for public health. The work can be consideredas an interdisciplinary study justified by two arguments: first, it is essential to applied research step, theknowledge and use of enshrined informational content in management literature, especially of models andmechanisms of managerial activity on the administration of human resources, managerial style, mobilizationcapacities, communication, coordination or decision ones and, not least the mechanisms characteristic tocollective relations established between managers and employees; second, it is required for theimplementation phase of research findings, capitalization of an informational sphere of law field, specifically,labor law, because labor conflicts are based both on specific regulations of labor law and on a juridicalliterature, of great interest and of strict use for a concrete optimization of labor social relations.
Full Text Available Background: Disaster identification and alert systems can be processed in different ways. An early warning system is designed to detect impending danger and send appropriate and clear signals to at risk communities and organizations at the right time and in an unambiguous way. This study aimed to determine early warning system for disaster within health organization in Iran. Methods: This article presents the findings of a mixed-methods study of early warning systems for disaster management within the health organizations in Iran. During the years 2011 to 2012, a sample of 230 health managers was surveyed using a questionnaire and 65 semi-structured interviews were conducted with public health and therapeutic affairs managers who were responsible for disaster management. Results: A range of problems were identified. Although there is a multiagency alert system within the health organizations, other indicators of early warning system are not satisfactory. Furthermore, standard messages which are used to alert organizations are not used under the current system. Conclusion: Some activities such as memorandum of understanding among different stakeholders of disaster response and education of staff and communities could improve the response to disasters within the health organizations.
Goetzke, Beate; Nitzko, Sina; Spiller, Achim
Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. The aim of this study was to clarify to what extent the consumption of organic and functional foods are characterized by a healthier lifestyle and a higher level of well-being. Moreover, the influence of social desirability on the respondents' response behavior was of interest and was also analyzed. Well-being and health was measured in a sample of 555 German consumers at two levels: the cognitive-emotional and the behavioral level. The results show that although health is an important aspect for both functional food and organic food consumption, these two forms of consumption were influenced by different understandings of health: organic food consumption is influenced by an overall holistic healthy lifestyle including a healthy diet and sport, while functional food consumption is characterized by small "adjustments" to lifestyle to enhance health and to increase psychological well-being. An overlap between the consumption of organic and functional food was also observed. This study provides information which enables a better characterization of the consumption of functional food and organic food in terms of well-being and health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Anne Konring; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Punnett, Laura; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Jørgensen, Marie Birk
Background Despite numerous initiatives to improve the working environment for nursing aides, musculoskeletal disorders (pain) is still a considerable problem because of the prevalence, and pervasive consequences on the individual, the workplace and the society. Discrepancies between effort and effect of workplace health initiatives might be due to the fact that pain and the consequences of pain are affected by various individual, interpersonal and organizational factors in a complex interact...
Prins, Kurt W; Thenappan, Thenappan
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a debilitating disease characterized by pathologic remodeling of the resistance pulmonary arteries, ultimately leading to right ventricular (RV) failure and death. In this article we discuss the definition of PAH, the initial epidemiology based on the National Institutes of Health Registry, and the updated epidemiology gleaned from contemporary registries, pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular dysfunction and proliferation, and RV failure in PAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jacobson, Michael F
Those who provide information about scientific issues and science policy normally present themselves as being objective and "scientific." This article describes a range of health charities, professional associations, nonprofit advocacy organizations, and industry-created organizations that receive significant funding from industry. In some cases, industry appears either to influence an organization's positions or to limit an organization's freedom to speak out on matters of interest to the funders. Nonprofit organizations need to consider the potential influence on their independence if they accept funding from interested companies and trade associations.
Iajya, Victor; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Slonim, Robert
In many low- and middle-income countries blood donations per capita are substantially lower than in advanced economies. In these countries blood supply is mostly collected through directed donations from relatives and friends to individuals needing transfusions or to replace blood used in emergencies. The World Health Organization considers this method of blood supply inefficient compared to undirected voluntary donations. To examine methods to motivate undirected voluntary donations, we ran a large-scale, natural field experiment in Argentina, testing the effectiveness of information, social and financial incentives. We find that only higher-valued financial incentives generated more donations, increasing with the value of the reward. These incentives did not create adverse selection in the safety or usability of the donated blood. We discuss the implications of our findings for researchers interested in understanding motivations for pro-social behavior and for health agencies and policymakers concerned with the current and growing shortages in blood supply in low- and middle-income countries.
B.H.C. Lamers (Babet); B.M.W. Broekman (Bart); A.L. Milani (Alfredo)
textabstractPessaries have been used to treat women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) since the beginning of recorded history. This review aims to assess the effect of pessary treatment on the disease-specific, health-related quality of life in women with pelvic organ prolapse. After a Medline search
B.H.C. Lamers (Babet); B.M.W. Broekman (Bart); A.L. Milani (Alfredo)
textabstractPessaries have been used to treat women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) since the beginning of recorded history. This review aims to assess the effect of pessary treatment on the disease-specific, health-related quality of life in women with pelvic organ prolapse. After a Medline search
Havelaar, Arie H; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht
Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne
Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese
There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…
McKay, Ruth B.; And Others
This paper describes the important role of community organization in providing reinforcing factors necessary to enable students to adopt dietary behavior changes recommended in a school health education program for cardiovascular health. The subjects were 55 urban, black, sixth grade students. The pilot program was of two years duration.…
Kleiner, Sibyl; Pavalko, Eliza K.
This article assesses the health implications of emerging patterns in the organization of work time. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we examine general mental and physical health (SF-12 scores), psychological distress (CESD score), clinical levels of obesity, and the presence of medical conditions, at age 40.…
Verhoef, Peter C.; van Doorn, Jenny
Using actual purchase data of food products with different labels, we examine Dutch consumers' purchases of organic, fair-trade, and health labels. Empirically, consumers' purchase behavior of labeled products can be categorized into two dimensions: a health-related and a sustainable dimension compr
Mays, Glen P; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Bhandari, Michelyn W; Smith, Sharla A
Policy discussions about improving the U.S. health care system increasingly recognize the need to strengthen its capacities for delivering public health services. A better understanding of how public health delivery systems are organized across the United States is critical to improvement. To facilitate the development of such evidence, this article presents an empirical method of classifying and comparing public health delivery systems based on key elements of their organizational structure. This analysis uses data collected through a national longitudinal survey of local public health agencies serving communities with at least 100,000 residents. The survey measured the availability of twenty core public health activities in local communities and the types of organizations contributing to each activity. Cluster analysis differentiated local delivery systems based on the scope of activities delivered, the range of organizations contributing, and the distribution of effort within the system. Public health delivery systems varied widely in organizational structure, but the observed patterns of variation suggested that systems adhere to one of seven distinct configurations. Systems frequently migrated from one configuration to another over time, with an overall trend toward offering a broader scope of services and engaging a wider range of organizations. Public health delivery systems exhibit important structural differences that may influence their operations and outcomes. The typology developed through this analysis can facilitate comparative studies to identify which delivery system configurations perform best in which contexts.
Havelaar, Arie H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht
Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne
Winkler, Till J.; Ozturk, Pinar; Brown, Carol V.
Objectives: Similar to other Western healthcare systems, the U.S. has sought to build a national infrastructure to enable widespread electronic health information exchange (HIE). The 2009 U.S. HITECH Act׳s State HIE Cooperative Agreement Program (SHIECAP) was a short-term catalyst for bottom-up H......-up HIE capabilities for different regional populations. Future research within and beyond U.S. contexts needs to take into account these key characteristics to improve our understanding of effective policy levers and government funding mechanisms....
Siegel, C; Davis-Chambers, E; Haugland, G; Bank, R; Aponte, C; McCombs, H
The authors utilized numerous documents created by advisory groups, expert panels and multicultural focus groups to develop performance measures for assessing the cultural competency of mental health systems. Competency was measured within three levels of organizational structure: administrative, provider network, and individual caregiver. Indicators, measures and data sources for needs assessment, information exchange, services, human resources, plans and policies, and outcomes were identified. Procedures for selection and implementation of the most critical measures are suggested. The products of this project are broadly applicable to the concerns of all cultural groups.
B.A.C. Bronkhorst (Babette); L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); D. Vijverberg (Dominique)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees’ perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outco
Bronkhorst, B.A.C.; Tummers, L.G.; Steijn, A.J.; Vijverberg, D.
Background: In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees’ perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. Purposes: We conducted a
Bronkhorst, B.A.C.; Tummers, L.G.; Steijn, A.J.; Vijverberg, D.
Background: In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees’ perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. Purposes: We conducted a
Wilson Michael G
Full Text Available Abstract Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues, we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry. We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff, the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks. Given the range of terms used to
Oluyombo, R; Fawale, M B; Ojewola, R W; Busari, O A; Ogunmola, O J; Olanrewaju, T O; Akinleye, C A; Oladosu, Y O; Olamoyegun, M A; Gbadegesin, B A; Obajolowo, O O; Soje, M O; Adelaja, A; Ayodele, L M; Ayodele, O E
Organ transplantation program in developing countries is still significantly dwarfed. Health workers are undeniably important in the success of transplantation. To assess the knowledge and attitude of health workers toward organ donation in South-West Nigeria with a view to explaining reasons for these shortcomings. In a cross-sectional study conducted on 850 health care workers, self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from participants. Of 850 participants, 766 (90.1%) returned their completed questionnaires. The mean±SD age of participants was 36.7±9.2 years. Majority (93.3%) of participants had heard of organ donation; 82.5% had desirable knowledge. Only 29.5% and 39.4% would be willing to donate and counsel potential organ donors, respectively; 36.5% would consider signing organ donation cards. Only 19.4% believed that organ transplantation is often effective and 63.4% believed they were permitted by their religion to donate. Permission by religion (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.3), good knowledge (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.4 to 5.7), readiness to sign donation cards (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.8), discuss organ donation (OR 2.7; 95%CI 8.0 to 63.8), and knowing somebody who had donated (OR 2.9) independently influenced willingness to donate organ. There is disparity in knowledge of organ donation and willingness to donate among health care workers. Efforts should be intensified to give comprehensive and appropriate education to health care workers about organ donation to bridge this gap.
Di Loreto, G; Felicioli, G
The Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale (Inps) is one of the biggest Public Sector organizations in Italy; about 30.000 people work in his structures. Fifteen years ago, Inps launched a long term project with the objective to create a complex and efficient safety and health at work organization. Italian law contemplates a specific kind of physician working on safety and health at work, called "Medico competente", and 85 Inps's physicians work also as "Medico competente". This work describes how IT improved coordination and efficiency in this occupational health's management system.
Rakich, J S; Darr, K; Longest, B B
The health services paradigm with respect to quality has shifted to that of conformance to requirements (the absence of defects) and fitness for use (meeting customer expectations and needs). This article presents an integrated model of continuous quality improvement (CQI) (often referred to as total quality management) and productivity improvement for health services organizations. It incorporates input-output theory and focuses on the CQI challenge--"How can we be certain that we do the right things right the first time, every time?" The twin pillars of CQI are presented. Achievement of both will result in productivity improvement and enhancement of the health services organization's competitive position.
Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.
Scientists and policy-makers are increasingly recognizing that sustainable coastal communities depend on healthy and resilient economies, ecosystems, and people, and that the condition or "health" of the coastal ocean and humans are intimately and inextricably connected. A wealth of ecosystem services provided by ocean and coastal environments are crucial for human survival and well being. Nonetheless, the health of coastal communities, their economies, connected ecosystems and ecosystem services, and people are under increasing threats from health risks associated with environmental degradation, climate change, and unwise land use practices, all of which contribute to growing burdens of naturally-occurring and introduced pathogens, noxious algae, and chemical contaminants. The occurrence, frequency, intensity, geographic range, and number and kinds of ocean health threats are increasing, with concomitant health and economic effects and eroding public confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of coastal environments and resources. Concerns in the research and public health communities, many summarized in the seminal 1999 NRC Report, From Monsoons to Microbes and the 2004 final report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, resulted in establishment of a new "meta-discipline" known as Oceans and Human Health (OHH). OHH brings together practitioners in oceanography, marine biology, ecology, biomedical science, medicine, economics and other social sciences, epidemiology, environmental management, and public health to focus on water- and food-borne causes of human and animal illnesses associated with ocean and coastal systems and on health benefits of seafood and other marine products. It integrates information across multiple disciplines to increase knowledge of ocean health risks and benefits and communicate such information to enhance public safety. Recognizing the need for a comprehensive approach to ocean health threats and benefits, Congress passed the Oceans and
Snihurowych, Roman R; Cornelius, Felix; Amelung, Volker Eric
Despite the widespread use of branding in nearly all other major industries, most health care service delivery organizations have not fully embraced the practices and processes of branding. Facilitating the increased and appropriate use of branding among health care delivery organizations may improve service and technical quality for patients. This article introduces the concepts of branding, as well as making the case that the use of branding may improve the quality and financial performance of organizations. The concepts of branding are reviewed, with examples from the literature used to demonstrate their potential application within health care service delivery. The role of branding for individual organizations is framed by broader implications for health care markets. Branding strategies may have a number of positive effects on health care service delivery, including improved technical and service quality. This may be achieved through more transparent and efficient consumer choice, reduced costs related to improved patient retention, and improved communication and appropriateness of care. Patient satisfaction may be directly increased as a result of branding. More research into branding could result in significant quality improvements for individual organizations, while benefiting patients and the health system as a whole.
Smith, Denis; Toft, Brian
The role of organizational factors in the generation of adverse events, and the manner in which such factors can also inhibit an organization's abilities to learn, have become important agenda items within health care. The government report 'An organization with a memory' highlighted many of the problems facing health care and suggested changes that need to be made if the sector is to learn effective lessons and prevent adverse events from occurring. This paper seeks to examine some of these organizational factors in more detail and suggests issues that managers need to consider as part of their wider strategies for the prevention and management of risk. The paper sets out five core elements that are held to be importance in shaping the manner in which the potential for risk is incubated within organizations. Although the paper focuses its attention on health care, the points made have validity across the public sector and into private sector organizations.
Im Y. Jung
Full Text Available There are several applications connected to IT health devices on the self-organizing software platform (SoSp that allow patients or elderly users to be cared for remotely by their family doctors under normal circumstances or during emergencies. An evaluation of the SoSp applied through PAAR watch/self-organizing software platform router was conducted targeting a simple user interface for aging users, without the existence of extrasettings based on patient movement. On the other hand, like normal medical records, the access to, and transmission of, health information via PAAR watch/self-organizing software platform requires privacy protection. This paper proposes a security framework for health information management of the SoSp. The proposed framework was designed to ensure easy detection of identification information for typical users. In addition, it provides powerful protection of the user’s health information.
Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver
The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia.
Cox, Don; Lanyi, Bettina; Strabic, Allison
This article reports the results of an analysis of the relationship between supplemental benefits offered by Medicare+Choice (M+C) plans and their plan performance ratings. We examined two measures of plan performance: (1) plan ratings as reported in the Medicare Managed Care (MMC) Consumer Assessment of Health Care Study (CAHPS), and (2) disenrollment rates. The results of our analysis indicated that variations in plan supplemental offerings have little impact on enrollees' plan performance ratings--both overall ratings and access to care measures. Furthermore, disenrollment rates were found to be more sensitive to the availability of alternative M+C plans, either in general, or for specific benefits than to variations in benefit offerings.
Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian
China's aims are to develop an ethical and sustainable organ transplantation system for the Chinese people and to be accepted as a responsible member of the international transplantation community. In 2007, China implemented the Regulation on Human Organ Transplantation, which was the first step towards the establishment of a voluntary organ donation system. Although progress has been made, several ethical and legal issues associated with transplantation in China remain, including the use of organs from executed prisoners, organ scarcity, the illegal organ trade, and transplantation tourism. In this Health Policy article we outline the standards used to define cardiac death in China and a legal and procedural framework for an organ donation system based on voluntary donation after cardiac death that adheres to both China's social and cultural principles and international transplantation standards.
Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa
Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.
The relative amount of debt used by an organization is an important determination of the organization's likelihood of financial problems and its cost of capital. This study addresses whether or not there are any differences between proprietary and nonprofit health care organizations in terms of capital structure. Controlling for profitability, risk, growth, and size, analysis of covariance is used to determine whether or not proprietary and nonprofit health care organizations use the same amount of leverage in their capital structures. The results indicate that there is no difference in the amount of leverage between the two institutional types. Although nonprofit and proprietary organizations have unique financing mechanisms, these differences do not impact the relative amount of debt and equity in their capital structures.
Reid, Paulette; Borycki, Elizabeth M
Healthcare consumers are increasingly seeking reliable forms of health information on the Internet that can be used to support health related decision-making. Frameworks that have been developed and tested in the field of health informatics have attempted to describe the effects of the Internet upon the health care consumer and physician relationship. More recently, health care organizations are responding by providing information such as hospital wait lists or strategies for self-managing disease, and this information is being provided on organizational web-sites. The authors of this paper propose that current conceptualizations of the relationship between the Internet, physicians and patients are limited from a consumer informatics perspective and may need to be extended to include healthcare organizations.
Matos, Eliane; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; de Sousa, Gastão Wagner
This is a qualitative study developed with the interdisciplinary health care teams of two public hospitals in Brazil. One team gave palliative care to cancer patients and the other gave care to the elderly. The study contributes to thinking about work relationships in the health care sector upon analyzing the contribution of these experiences for the constitution of new forms of health care work organization. The results reveal that the interdisciplinary perspective of performance in health care makes better work relationships possible among professionals and between professionals and patients/family, as well as approximates the professionals to the needs of the patient, beyond contributing to better quality care. We conclude that interdisciplinary practice approximates new forms of work organization and, upon favoring these links, reception, and access, contributes to the greater efficiency of the Brazilian National Health Care System.
In this report the organization and performance of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program of Mexico is described. This program is managed by the Mexican Institute for Social Security, which services 10.5 million inhabitants of the rural underserved areas, with federal government resources in 18 states. This study compares the structure and functioning of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program with Local Health Systems, as they have been proposed by the Panamerican Health Organization for country members and by the Ministry of Health of Mexico, particularly in relation to the decision-making process at local level. Some assets and limitations of the IMSS-Solidaridad Program are analyzed and, finally, concrete procedures to improve coordination between the IMSS-Solidaridad Program and other health services for similar populations (populations without social security protection) in Mexico are suggested, with the purpose of using resources more adequately and succeed in the national goal to achieve equity in health.
Since human organ transplant techniques carried out, the organ donation has become the most important way and means of organ source. With the technical launched extensively, standardizing organ donation behavior makes the autonomy of organ donors get effective legal protection, and makes donors know and agree with authority get fully perform to improve the donors to participate in social donation enthusiasm, in order to solve the organ shortage in demand.%自从人体器官移植技术开展以来,器官捐赠已经成为器官来源的最重要的途径和方式.随着这项技术的广泛开展.规范了器官捐赠行为.使器官捐赠者的自主权得到有效合法保护,捐赠者的知情权和同意权得到全面履行,从而提高捐赠者参与社会捐赠的积极性,以便解决器官需求紧缺状况.
The author presents the history of the places where patients with epidemic pathologies were isolated. Since the study of medicine began, such places have been known as asclepiei, xenodochi, hospices, lazarettos, sanitary cordons, and quarantine stations and they contributed to controlling epidemics in Europe. Important not only in the context in which they were created, these structures expressed the medical culture and point of view of that age. Although very far from discovering the cause of the pathology due to their lack of scientific knowledge, the medical class sometimes knew how to effectively organize the isolation of patients. The history of such structures interweaves with the long history of Christianity and with the emerging nations of Europe and the city-states of the Italian Renaissance. Previously, in classical Greece and Imperial Rome there had also been "homes for the sick" to isolate patients. Today the world is periodically hit by epidemics. In such moments the medical profession uses its research ability and organizational capabilities but also historical memory to reduce epidemic contagion.
Stiles, R A; Mick, S S; Wise, C G
Health care is, at its core, comprised of complex sequences of transactions among patients, providers, and other stakeholders; these transactions occur in markets as well as within systems and organizations. Health care transactions serve one of two functions: the production of care (i.e., the laying on of hands) or the coordination of that care (i.e., scheduling, logistics). Because coordinating transactions is integral to care delivery, it is imperative that they are executed smoothly and efficiently. Transaction cost economics (TCE) is a conceptual framework for analyzing health care transactions and quantifying their impact on health care structures (organizational forms), processes, and outcomes.
The organization and financing of the Danish health care system was evaluated within a framework of a SWOT analysis (analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) by a panel of five members with a background in health economics. The present paper describes the methods and materials used for the evaluation: selection of panel members, structure of the evaluation task according to the health care triangle model, selection of background material consisting of documents and literature on the Danish health care system, and a 1-week study visit.
Full Text Available Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way “push” model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.
Acri, Mary C; Palinkas, Larry; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Shen, Sa; Schoonover, Diana; Reutz, Jennifer Rolls; Landsverk, John
This study examined: (1) qualitative aspects of close working relationships between family support organizations and child mental health agencies, including effective and ineffective characteristics of the relationship and aspects that they would change, and (2) the impact of the working relationship upon the family support organization. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 directors of family support organizations characterized as having a close working relationship with a child mental health agency. Three main themes emerged regarding the quality of the working relationship: (a) interactional factors, including shared trust, communication, collaboration and service coordination; (b) aspects of the inner context of the family support organization, mental health agency, or both, including alignment of goals and values and perceptions of mental health services; and (c) outer contextual factors external to the organizations, such as financial and county regulations. Responses to the perceived impact of the relationship was divided into two themes: positive impacts (e.g. gained respect, influence and visibility), and negative impacts (e.g. lack of trust). This study lays the foundation for future research to better understand the mechanisms underlying interorganizational relationships in communities among different types of providers to create a more seamless continuum of services for families of children with mental health conditions.
Stajura, Michael; Glik, Deborah; Eisenman, David; Prelip, Michael; Martel, Andrea; Sammartinova, Jitka
Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way "push" model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.
Persaud, D David
The development of sustainable health care organizations that provide high-quality accessible care is a topic of intense interest. This article provides a practical performance management framework that can be utilized to develop sustainable health care organizations. It is a cyclical 5-step process that is premised on accountability, performance management, and learning practices that are the foundation for a continuous process of measurement, disconfirmation, contextualization, implementation, and routinization This results in the enhancement of learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability (ELIAS). Important considerations such as recognizing that health care organizations are complex adaptive systems and the presence of a dynamic learning culture are necessary contextual factors that maximize the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Importantly, the ELIAS framework utilizes data that are already being collected by health care organizations for accountability, improvement, evaluation, and strategic purposes. Therefore, the benefit of the framework, when used as outlined, would be to enhance the chances of health care organizations achieving the goals of ongoing adaptation and sustainability, by design, rather than by chance.
Meier, B M; Onzivu, W
The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tara E Power
Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.
Full Text Available Organic farming (or ecological agriculture is of growing importance in the agricultural sector worldwide. In the Nordic countries, 1–10% of the arable land was in organic production in 1999. Organic farming can be seen as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems. Principles like nutrient recycling, prevention rather than treatment and the precautionary principle are included in aims and standards. Animal welfare is another hallmark of organic livestock production but despite this, several studies have indicated severe health problems e.g. in organic poultry production in Denmark. Also the quality of animal food products in relation to human health, particularly the risk of zoonotic infections, has been debated. For these reasons there is a need for improvement of production methods and animal health status. Vets play an important role in this development through work in clinical practice and in research. On-farm consultancy should be tailored to the individual farmers needs, and the practitioner should be willing to take up new ideas and when needed, to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal welfare. Better base line data on animal health and food safety in organic food systems are needed.
Eriksson, Andrea; Jansson, Bjarne; Haglund, Bo J A; Axelsson, Runo
The application of knowledge on organization and leadership is important for the promotion of health at workplace. The purpose of this article is to analyse the leadership and organization, including the organizational culture, of a Swedish industrial company in relation to the health of the employees. The leadership in this company has been oriented towards developing and actively promoting a culture and a structure of organization where the employees have a high degree of control over their work situation. According to the employees, this means extensive possibilities for personal development and responsibility, as well as good companionship, which makes them feel well at work. This is also supported by the low sickness rate of the company. The results indicate that the leadership and organization of this company may have been conducive to the health of the employees interviewed. However, the culture of personal responsibility and the structure of self-managed teams seemed to suit only those who were able to manage the demands of the company and adapt to that kind of organization. Therefore, the findings indicate that the specific context of the technology, the environment and the professional level of the employees need to be taken into consideration when analysing the relation between leadership, organization and health at work.
B.A.C. Bronkhorst (Babette); L.G. Tummers (Lars); A.J. Steijn (Bram); D. Vijverberg (Dominique)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Background: In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees’ perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental
One may wonder why multiple endeavours conducted worldwide over the last five decades to reform health systems have not achieved their expected outcomes. In light of increasing fragmentation, the current health system must be substituted by a true systems vision along with political will to create a unity of action between the five main stakeholders, namely: policy-makers, health care service managers, professionals and professional associations, academic institutions including medical schools, and civil society. Such synergy can only be established if the partners share the same commitment to core values such as quality, equity, relevance and cost-effectiveness in the health care field. Through its functions of providing education, training, research, and services, the medical school has the potential to induce reflection and stimulate action leading to a more coherent, effective, and equitable health system and policies.
this theoretical frame to analyse case studies of three voluntary organisations. As a part of the analysis I describe four sets of institutional settings that can influence voluntary organisations ability to create institutional dynamic: institutionalization, moderation, self-organisation and loose-coupling....... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...
Dutton, Gareth R; Perri, Michael G; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Goble, Mary; Van Vessem, Nancy
Individuals seeking weight loss treatment endorse unrealistic expectations regarding their goals for weight loss, although these conclusions are primarily based on research conducted in obesity specialty clinics and/or controlled clinical trials. This study examined the weight loss goals and predictors of these goals among patients participating in obesity treatment in an applied, clinical setting (i.e., managed care organization). Managed care patients enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program (N=143; mean age=46.8 years; mean BMI=36.9 kg/m(2); 89.5% female; 64.5% Caucasian) completed a self-report survey during an initial weight loss session. The survey included items assessing patients' weight loss expectations, including goals for dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weights. Participants completed questions regarding contacts with their primary care physician and physician provision of weight loss counseling and/or referrals. They also provided values for current height and weight. BMI's and weight loss associated with dream, happy, acceptable, and disappointed weight goals were 24.8 kg/m(2) (30.9% loss), 27.1 kg/m(2) (25.2% loss), 29.3 kg/m(2) (19.7% loss), and 33.0 kg/m(2) (10.4% loss), respectively. There were significant gender differences in weight loss goals, with women endorsing more unrealistic goals than men for dream and happy weights, ps<0.001. Significant predictors of all four weight loss goals included baseline BMI, gender, ethnicity, and frequency of visits with one's primary care physician, ps<0.01. Consistent with previous research, patients participating in a weight loss program implemented in a managed care setting endorsed unrealistic expectations for weight loss. However, more frequent contact with one's primary care physician was associated with more realistic goals. Future, longitudinal research is needed to document the discrepancy between these goals and actual weight loss achieved in such settings as well as to determine
Sanjeev Kumar Ambasta
Full Text Available Vermicompost of agriculture waste is an important method in which organic waste such as leaves or stalks of agricultural field is converted into useful compost by means of worms is useful to the environment. Earthworm and microbes acts together and breaks down the complex organic matter of agricultural field and resulting material is rich in nutrients and oxygen. Composting is becoming an effective way to increase organic matter of soil. In addition to increasing organic matter of soil compost also increases soil microbial population (Pera et al., 1983; Perucci, 1990, which leads to the improvement of soil quality. The entire residues after crop is harvested must go back to the soil to replenish the lost nutrient, so vermicompost is considered as excellent way to recycling nutrient in the ecosystem. Soil organic carbon enhancement through crop residues recycling by means of vermicomposting along with fertilizers and integrated nutrient management (INM are major option to improves soil health and crop productivity. The major objective to vermicomposting is that more ground water recharge and lesser depletion of water table as well as reduces soil salinity and less pollution by agrochemicals.
Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin
The paper examines the issues around mobilization of resources for the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), by analysing their macroeconomic situation, health spending, fiscal space and other determinants of health. With the exception of a few, most of these countries have made fair progress on their own Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets of maternal mortality ratio and mortality rate in children aged under 5 years. However, the achieved targets have been very modest - with the exception of Thailand and Sri Lanka - indicating the continued need for additional efforts to improve these indicators. The paper discusses the need for investment, by looking at evidence on economic growth, the availability of fiscal space, and improvements in "macroeconomic-plus" factors like poverty, female literacy, governance and efficiency of the health sector. The analysis indicates that, overall, the countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region are collectively in a position to make the transition from low public spending to moderate or even high health spending, which is required, in turn, for transition from lowcoverage-high out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) to highcoverage-low OOPS. However, explicit prioritization for health within the overall government budget for low spenders would require political will and champions who can argue the case of the health sector. Additional innovative avenues of raising resources, such as earmarked taxes or a health levy can be considered in countries with good macroeconomic fundamentals. With the exception of Thailand, this is applicable for all the countries of the region. However, countries with adverse macroeconomic-plus factors, as well as inefficient health systems, need to be alert to the possibility of overinvesting - and thereby wasting - resources for modest health gains, making the challenge of increasing health sector spending alongside competing demands for spending on other areas of
Lin, Yea-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Ysen
To assess the organizational health-promotion (HP) status and its effect on the organizational effectiveness of HP in a national cross-sectional survey of all hospitals above the local community hospital level in Taiwan's hospitals, questionnaires were sent to 474 hospitals, of which 162 (34.18%) hospitals returned them and were rendered valid. The results of the organizational HP status reveal that the standardized overall score achieved is 76.26, suggesting that there is considerable room for improvement. The results of correlation analysis partially support the proposition of this study, suggesting that the higher the organizational HP status, the better the self-evaluated overall organizational and administrative effectiveness of its HP. When hierarchical multiple regression was performed, support for ownership (private hospitals), hospital accreditation grades (academic medical centers) and overall score of the Organizational Health of Hospital Assessment Scale were significant predicators of self-evaluated overall organizational effectiveness (F = 11.097, p organizational effectiveness. The results contribute to clarify the conception of health-promoting hospital organizations and to identify a number of dimensions of health-promoting organizations related to the organizational effectiveness of HP in hospitals, which could allow hospitals to establish a healthier organization and more effective HP programs. This study also supplies the research field with important data and insights that can be used in future research.
Van den Broeck, J; Willie, D; Younger, N
In 2006 and 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) released two sets of child growth standards (World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards. Methods and development. Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2006; World Health Organization, WHO Child Growth Standards: Methods and Development. Head circumference-for-age, arm circumference-for-age, triceps skinfold-for-age and subscapular skinfold-for-age. WHO, Geneva, 2007) to replace the National Center for Health Statistics references (Hamill et al., National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health Statistics Series 11, No 165, 1977) as an international tool for growth and nutritional assessment. This paper explores the scope of implications for future anthropometric research, highlighting foreseeable effects on the choice of research questions, choice of nutritional indices, training of measurers, and issues of internal and external validity of research results. The conclusion drawn is that the introduction of the WHO child growth standards is expected to have wide implications for growth and nutrition research. The full scope of this effect will gradually become clear while researchers, similar to health care workers, make the transition to using the new standards, re-evaluate results of past approaches, and explore the uses and functional validity of the standards, including those for indices that were not previously available.
Ambegaokar, Maia; Lush, Louisiana
Advocates of health system reform are calling for, among other things, decentralized, autonomous managerial and financial control, use of contracting and incentives, and a greater reliance on market mechanisms in the delivery of health services. The family planning and sexual health (FP&SH) sector already has experience of these. In this paper, we set forth three typical means of service provision within the FP&SH sector since the mid-1900s: independent not-for-profit providers, vertical government programmes and social marketing programmes. In each case, we present the context within which the service delivery mechanism evolved, the management techniques that characterize it and the lessons learned in FP&SH that are applicable to the wider debate about improving health sector management. We conclude that the FP&SH sector can provide both positive and negative lessons in the areas of autonomous management, use of incentives to providers and acceptors, balancing of centralization against decentralization, and employing private sector marketing and distribution techniques for delivering health services. This experience has not been adequately acknowledged in the debates about how to improve the quality and quantity of health services for the poor in developing countries. Health sector reform advocates and FP&SH advocates should collaborate within countries and regions to apply these management lessons.
Full Text Available We present a method for evaluating the capacity of a network of organizations to function as Information Integration System (IIS as required in the performance of complex common objectives such as the design of inter-sectoral policies in "Health and Environment". Inspired by the information integration theory issued from the modeling of consciousness, the method poses that the information integration is limited by the partition of the set of organizations that presents major difficulties to share information. It proceeds in two steps: a the establishment of a network where vertices are organizations and links are induced by the average mutual information between organizations, information assessed on the basis of textual corpora associated with each organization; b the assessment of the ability to function as IIS, defined as the minimum of the average mutual information between components of a partition, minimum found among all partitions of the set of the organizations.
Wozney, Lori; Newton, Amanda S; Gehring, Nicole D; Bennett, Kathryn; Huguet, Anna; Hartling, Lisa; Dyson, Michele P; McGrath, Patrick
The use of technology such as computers, tablets, and smartphones to improve access to and the delivery of mental health care (eMental Health care) is growing worldwide. However, despite the rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrating the efficacy of eMental Health care, its implementation in clinical practice and health care systems remains fragmented. To date, no peer-reviewed, key-informant studies have reported on the perspectives of decision-makers concerned with whether and how to implement eMental Health care. From September to November 2015, we conducted 31 interviews with key informants responsible for leadership, policy, research, and/ or information technology in organizations influential in the adoption of technology for eMental Health care. Deductive and inductive thematic analyses of transcripts were conducted using the Behavior Change Wheel as an organizing framework. Frequency and intensity effect sizes were calculated for emerging themes to further explore patterns within the data. Key informant responses (n = 31) representing 6 developed countries and multiple organizations showed consensus on common factors impacting implementation: individual and organizational capacities (e.g., computer literacy skills [patients and providers], knowledge gaps about cyber security, limited knowledge of available services); motivational drivers of technology-based care (e.g., extending care, data analytics); and opportunities for health systems to advance eMental Health care implementation (e.g., intersectoral research, rapid testing cycles, sustainable funding). Frequency effect sizes showed strong associations between implementation and credibility, knowledge, workflow, patient empowerment, electronic medical record (EMR) integration, sustained funding and intersectoral networks. Intensity effect sizes showed the highest concentration of statements (>10% of all comments) related to funding, credibility, knowledge gaps, and patient empowerment. This study
Phillips, Andrew B; Wilson, Rosalind V; Kaushal, Rainu; Merrill, Jacqueline A
Health information exchange (HIE) is a significant component of healthcare transformation strategies at both the state and national levels. HIE is expected to improve care coordination, and advance public health, but implementation is massively complex and involves significant risk. In New York, three regional health information organizations (RHIOs) implemented an HIE use case for public health reporting by demonstrating capability to deliver accurate responses to electronic queries via a set of services called the Universal Public Health Node. We investigated process and outcomes of the implementation with a comparative case study. Qualitative analysis was structured around a decision and risk matrix. Although each RHIO had a unique operational model, two common factors influenced risk management and implementation success: leadership capable of agile decision-making and commitment to a strong organizational vision. While all three RHIOs achieved certification for the public health reporting, only one has elected to deploy a production version.
In August 1930, the editors of the original Public Health Nursing published an article derived from a speech made by Dr. Haven Emerson, then professor of public health administration at Columbia University, on the topic of the distribution and use of public health nurses. The speech was made before an audience of lay board members from hospitals and public health nursing organizations in Chicago, February 17, 1930. Emerson reported the results of a data analysis in which the numbers and credentials of public health nurses in 24 cities across the United States were reported. Excerpts from this report and Dr. Emerson's conclusions are powerful reminders that while there were issues of labor supply and distribution, the power of nurses to effect social transformation was central to the role as conceived by those administering public health services.
Skille, Eivind Å.
This article scrutinizes the relationship between state policy and voluntary sport clubs. While the latter development is to consider sport as social policy, the case of the Norwegian Sports City Program (SCP) was initiated by the state and implemented by voluntary and competitively orientated sport organizations. The research question concerns whether the logic of integration in social policy is compatible with the logic of competition in sport. With new institutionalism as the theoretical f...
D N Sinha
Full Text Available The 2003 India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA includes provisions designed to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke. India ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC on February 27, 2005. The WHO FCTC is the world′s first public health treaty that aims to promote and protect public health and reduce the devastating health and economic impact of tobacco. The Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS was developed to track tobacco use among third-year dental, medical, nursing, and pharmacy students across countries. Data from the dental (2005, medical (2006, nursing(2007, and pharmacy (2008 GHPSS conducted in India showed high prevalence of tobacco use and a general lack of training by health professionals in patient cessation counseling techniques. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare could use this information to monitor and evaluate the existing tobacco control program effort in India as well as to develop and implement new tobacco control program initiatives.
Röttger, Julia; Blümel, Miriam; Fuchs, Sabine; Busse, Reinhard
The concept of health system responsiveness is an important dimension of health system performance assessment. Further efforts have been made in recent years to improve the analysis of responsiveness measurements, yet few studies have applied the responsiveness concept to the evaluation of specific health care delivery structures. The objective of this study was to test the World Health Organization's (WHO's) responsiveness concept for an application in the evaluation of chronic disease care. In September and October 2012 we conducted four focus groups of chronically ill people (n = 38) in Germany, in which participants discussed their experiences and expectations regarding health care. The data was analyzed deductively (on the basis of the WHO responsiveness concept) and inductively using directed content analysis. Ten themes related to health system responsiveness and one theme (finances) not directly related to health system responsiveness, but of high importance to the focus group participants, could be identified. Eight of the ten responsiveness themes are consistent with the WHO concept. Additionally, two new themes were identified: trust (consultation and treatment are not led by any motive other than the patients' wellbeing) and coordination (treatment involving different providers is coordinated and different actors communicate with each other). These findings indicate the suitability of the WHO responsiveness concept for the evaluation of chronic disease care. However, some amendments, in particular an extension of the concept to include the two domains trust and coordination, are necessary for a thorough assessment of the responsiveness of chronic disease care.
Sprang, Ginny; Silman, Miriam
Behavioral health professional organizations are in the unique role of aggregating and disseminating information to their membership before, during, and after health-related disasters to promote the integration of behavioral health services into the public health disaster response plan. This article provides a set of 5 principles to direct this undertaking that are based on the current literature and previous evaluation of the online guidance provided by 6 prominent behavioral health professional organizations. These principles use a strengths-based approach to prioritize resilience; underscore the importance of context, collaboration, and coordination; recognize the unique needs of pediatric populations; and guide ongoing training and content development in the area of biopsychosocial responses to health-related disasters. Recognizing important innovations and strides made by the behavioral health organizations noted in a previous study, this article recommends additional areas in which behavioral health professional organizations can contribute to overall pandemic disaster preparedness and response efforts.
This paper proposes a basic approach to ensuring that knowledge from research studies is translated for use in health services management with a view towards building a "learning organization". (A learning organization is one in which the environment is structured in such a way as to facilitate learning as well as the sharing of knowledge among members or employees.) This paper highlights various dimensions that determine the complexity of knowledge translation, using the problem-solving cycle as the backbone for gaining a better understanding of how different types of knowledge interact in health services management. It is essential to use an integrated and interactive approach to ensure that knowledge from research is translated in a way that allows a learning organization to be built and that knowledge is not used merely to influence a single decision in isolation from the overall services and management of an organization.
Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo
The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.
Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo
ABSTRACT The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.
Friedman, Nurit L; Kokia, Ehud; Shemer, Joshua
This paper describes "Health Value Added"--an innovative model that links performance measurement to strategy in health maintenance organizations. The HVA model was developed by Maccabi Healthcare Services, Israel's second largest HMO, with the aim of focusing all its activities on providing high quality care within budgetary and regulatory constraints. HVA draws upon theory and practice from strategic management and performance measurement in order to assess an HMO's ability to improve the health of its members. The model consists of four interrelated levels--mission, goals, systems, and resources--and builds on the existence of advanced computerized information systems that make comprehensive measurements available to decision makers in real time. HVA enables management to evaluate overall organizational performance as well as the performance of semi-autonomous units. In simple terms, the sophisticated use of performance measures can help healthcare organizations obtain more health for the same money.
Hasle, Peter; Jensen, P.L.
of I I companies was to search for a solution to this problem. The health and safety managers and safety representatives played the role of "change agents" for local projects aiming to develop the health and safety organization. The study showed that 3 of the 11 companies proved to be able to implement......Research from several countries indicates that the internal health and safety organization is marginalized in most companies, and it is difficult for the professionals to secure a proper role in health and safety on the companies' present agenda. The goal of a Danish project involving a network...... such a process. Such strategies require the ability to be able to identify opportunities for change, establish a sustainable problem definition, and build coalitions. An amoeba model is suggested as a metaphor for this type of development project....
The Ghana Public Health Association organized a scientific seminar to examine the introduction of genetically modified organisms into public use and the health consequences. The seminar was driven by current public debate on the subject. The seminar identified some of the advantages of GMOs and also the health concerns. It is clear that there is the need to enhance local capacity to research the introduction and use of GMOs; to put in place appropriate regulatory mechanisms including particularly the labeling of GMO products and post-marketing surveillance for possible negative health consequences in the long term. Furthermore the appropriate state agency should put in place advocacy strategies to keep the public informed about GMOs.
Full Text Available Background: To reduce the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the popularization of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT for early determination of human immunodeficiency virus status will be of immense benefit. Aim: To evaluate the uptake of voluntary counseling and testing and sero-prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among status naïve outpatients and self-presenting VCT clients in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the period of May 2010 to April 2011 at the University of Benin teaching hospital, Benin City. Subjects who consented were included and screened for HIV. Pre and post-test counseling was done following the world health organization guidelines. Results: Out of 10,533 subjects (7783 outpatients and 2750 self-presenting VCT clients counseled for VCT, a total of 4651(44.2% subjects; (3971(51.0% outpatients and 680 (24.7% self-presenting VCT clients, consented and accepted HIV VCT. Overall HIV prevalence was 6.4%. 270 (6.8% outpatients and 29 (4.3% self-presenting VCT clients were HIV positive. HIV was significantly associated with female gender among the outpatients (P<0.001. Conclusion: VCT uptake was low; the sero-prevalence of HIV was high. The need to employ an expanded and more purpose oriented public enlightenment campaign on the usefulness of HIV VCT should be a priority for HIV control agencies in our area.
Eduardo A. F. Nilson
Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person is over twice the international recommendations, and 70–90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011–2017 and there was a significant 8–34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.
Nilson, Eduardo A F; Spaniol, Ana M; Gonçalves, Vivian S S; Moura, Iracema; Silva, Sara A; L'Abbé, Mary; Jaime, Patricia C
Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70-90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011-2017) and there was a significant 8-34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.
Full Text Available All people need food. Unsafe foods; however, may cause diseases ranging from diarrhea to cancer. Chemicals in food are a worldwide health concern. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO organized a consultation on the global burden of foodborne diseases. Work to estimate this burden began in 2007 and was carried out by the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, which included a Chemical and Toxins Disease Task Force. The results of 8 years of work were released in December 2015.
Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform.
Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform. Imagesp30-ap31-ap39-a PMID:9925169
Social media hold enormous potentials as a communication tool for health care due to its interactive nature. However, prior research mainly focused on contingency interactivity of social media, by examining messages sent from health care organizations to audiences, while little is known about functional interactivity, which refers to social media's presence of functions for facilitating communication between users and its interface. That is, how health care organizations use interactive features on social media to communicate with the public. Thus, with a general basis of the functional interactivity framework proposed by Waters et al. (Engaging stakeholders through social networking: how nonprofit organizations are using Facebook. Pub Relat Rev 2009;35:102-106), the current study investigated three aspects of functional interactivity in microblogging, and its subsequent effects. Specifically, this study analyzed 500 Chinese hospitals' profiles on Sina Weibo, the most popular microblogging platform in China. The results showed that the most common functional interactivity feature was organization disclosure, followed by information dissemination, and audience involvement. These interactive features all positively predicted the number of followers. Also, Chinese private hospitals scored significantly higher than public hospitals to use interactive features offered by social media. The findings of this study provide important implications for health care organizations to understand new communicative functions available on social media, incorporate more functions into their profiles and thus provide audiences with greater opportunity to interact with them via social media. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
In many Western countries today, not least in Sweden, there are a lot of organizations that have great problems with sickness absence. The costs connected to the high rates of sickness absence have also risen to alarming levels. Healthy co-workers and healthy organizations are obvious goals for many leaders, but this is not always so easy to establish. Work practices and leadership that are beneficial to co-worker health are thus vital to identify. Studies have shown relationships between com...
Lamarche, Paul; Maillet, Lara
Purpose Improving the performance of health care organizations is now perceived as essential in order to better address the needs of the populations and respect their ability to pay for the services. There is no consensus on what is performance. It is increasingly considered as the optimal execution of four functions that every organization must achieve in order to survive and develop: reach goals; adapt to its environment; produce goods or services and maintain values; and a satisfying organizational climate. There is also no consensus on strategies to improve this performance. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper intends to analyze the performance of primary health care organizations from the perspective of Kauffman's model. It mainly aims to understand the often contradictory, paradoxical and unexpected results that emerge from studies on this topic. Findings To do so, the first section briefly presents Kauffman's model and lays forward its principal components. The second section presents three studies on the performance of primary organizations and brings out the contradictory, paradoxical and unexpected results they obtained. The third section explains these results in the light of Kauffman's model. Originality/value Kauffman's model helps give meaning to the results of researches on performance of primary health care organizations that were qualified as paradoxical or unexpected. The performance of primary health care organizations then cannot be understood by only taking into account the characteristics of these organizations. The complexity of the environments in which they operate must simultaneously be taken into account. This paper brings original development of an integrated view of the performance of organizations, their own characteristics and those of the local environment in which they operated.
de Hoogh, Annebel H.B.; den Hartog, Deanne N.; Koopman, Paul L.; Thierry, Henk; van den Berg, Peter T.; van der Weide, J.G.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.
This multimethod study examined leaders’ motives, charismatic leader behavior, and subordinates’ work attitude for CEOs (N=73) of small and medium-sized organizations in two sectors, namely, the profit and voluntary sector. Interviews with CEOs were coded for motive imagery. Direct reports rated CEO
Plante, Catherine; Moreau, Nicolas; Jaimes, Annie; Turbide, Carole
Recruitment is known to be a challenge for intervention programs targeting youths, including sports programs. Following the popularity of the "Alter-Action" program of the Montreal-based organization "DesÉquilibres", we wanted to understand the motivations and barriers to youths' recruitment in this voluntary sports community…
Full Text Available Improving the performance of health sector human resources is a goal pursued by all developed or developing countries. However, the lack of human resources planning and lack of clear and transparent human resources policies may lead to a crisis in this area. Human resource planning should be a priority in terms of health policies. In Romania, the lack of a planning concept and the lack of a policy on human resources has led to the actual context, with a human resources crisis of public health organizations. The role that human resources play in the health care system is indisputable. Essential to achieve quality performance in health care is human resources management. To overcome the human resources crisis that public health organizations in Romania is facing , specialists in the field have made several key recommendations: development of a coherent policy formation, development and allocation of human resources in health, increasing the number of medical staff and opportunities of professional career development in the medical field. Health system reform involves changing some aspects of employment, working conditions, degree of decentralization of management, skills, salary system and staff motivation.
Good animal health and welfare is an explicit goal of organic livestock farming, and will need continuous development and adjustment on the farms. Furthermore, the very different conditions in different regions of Europe calls for models that can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. A European project with participants from seven countries have been established with the aim of developing principles for animal health and welfare planning in organi...
Background: Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popula...
Background Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popular...
Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O’Loughlin, Jennifer
In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement in core chronic disease prevention practices) and (ii) examined differences in the nature of these relationships among organizations operating in mor...
In response to the global decline in breast-feeding initiation and duration rates, the World Health Organization has produced several documents to assist governments and health professionals to reverse the trend. The WHO International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes addresses the detrimental influence of promotional methods by the infant formula industry. The recent WHO/UNICEF statement Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breast-feeding has been prepared to increase the awarenes...
... decision will be made by the selected DoD contractor for the complete `third party review' process. Comment... seeks to enhance the educational opportunities to Service members who may have difficulty in completing... transitions to second careers in teaching. Voluntary education programs. Continuing, adult, or...
Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe
Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...
Hill, Julia L; Patel, Saumil; Gu, Xue; Seyedali, Nassim S; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Sereno, Anne B
Many studies have shown that the direction of gaze of a face covertly facilitates the response to a target presented in the matching direction. In this study we seek to determine whether there exist separate reflexive and voluntary forms of such covert social orienting and how they interact with each other. We measured the effect of the predictive value of a gaze cue on manual choice reaction times. When the predictive value of the gaze cue was zero, a facilitatory cueing effect was still observed which peaked at a cue onset to target onset delay (CTD) of 150ms and largely diminished beyond a CTD of 500ms. When the gaze cue was 100% predictive of the future location of the target, at CTDs greater than 200, the predictive cue resulted in a significantly greater facilitation of response than occurred with a non-predictive cue. These results suggest that given enough time (about 200ms), the social cue is interpreted and a willful or voluntary spatially-specific social cueing effect occurs. In addition, we found that a predictive cue resulted in a significant slowing of the observer's responses up to a CTD of 200ms. These findings show that, similar to non-social spatial orienting, there appear to be two forms of social orienting including a reflexive component and voluntary component. We suggest a model of social orienting in which the voluntary social orienting system modulates tonic inhibition of the reflexive social orienting system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A prim
Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava
Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…
Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I
Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.
McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth
Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.
Bressers, Johannes T.A.; de Bruijn, Theo; Croci, Edoardo
This paper describes and analyses the use of environmental voluntary agreements, or covenants, in Dutch environmental policy. Covenants have become a widely used policy instrument in the Netherlands. This trend reinforces the strong neo-corporatist traits of Dutch society with its tendency towards
Larsen, Jacob Norvig
While short-term enrolling of citizens in urban regeneration projects often has proven quite successful, permanent embedding of projects in voluntary community-based settings seems to be much more difficult to obtain. This has implications for long term sustainability of urban regeneration projec...
da Cunha, Elisângela; de Sousa, Anete Araújo; Machado, Neila Maria Viçosa
This research involved a diagnosis of the educational actions and organic food of the Taste and Awareness Project (Projeto Sabor e Saber, PSS) in a state school in Florianopolis, Brazil. Based on a qualitative approach, a semi-structured interview, documentation analysis and focal groups were used for data collection. The participants were managers of School Meals; a school head and a group of students and teachers representing the school. The results indicated that the PSS has advanced in its objectives, combining the introduction of organic foods with educational actions involving food, health, nutrition and the environment but with no evaluations of this process; organic food is present in school meals, although there is no record of educational actions; food is a subject on the Science course; the themes of food, health and nutrition in the school environment come up without planning; the evaluation of students regarding the food is positive, but no reference was made to organic foods. It was concluded that the use of organic food, is still not an element of the pedagogical project. However, the research contributed to the teachers, on the need to develop educational actions in health, organic foods and nutrition, within the school community.
Barrington, Kyle D.
Illegal drug use and abuse by the nation's secondary school students is a continuing public health issue and this is especially true for students living in rural, low-income areas where access to intervention and treatment services is often limited. To address this issue, some school districts have implemented voluntary, randomized, student …
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis patients are excluded in many countries as voluntary blood donors. In 1991, changes in the Canadian Red Cross policy allowed healthy hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary donors.
Results of the global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards: - Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) area worldwide and selected commodities - Cocoa: Area growth by VSS 2008-2014 - Growth of VSS compliant area worldwide 2008-2013 (selected crops)
@@ Reporters learned from the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China(CNCA)that burglar-proof door became the first batch of voluntary certification product in public security products.China has formally initiated voluntary certification of public security products.
Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Kazennikov, O V; Ivanenko, Y P
Here, we compared motor evoked potentials (MEP) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and the H-reflex during voluntary and vibration-induced air-stepping movements in humans. Both the MEPs (in mm biceps femoris, rectus femoris and tibialis anterior) and H-reflex (in m soleus) were significantly smaller during vibration-induced cyclic leg movements at matched amplitudes of angular motion and muscle activity. These findings highlight differences between voluntary and non-voluntary activation of the spinal pattern generator circuitry in humans, presumably due to an extra facilitatory effect of voluntary control/triggering of stepping on spinal motoneurons and interneurons. The results support the idea of active engagement of supraspinal motor areas in developing central pattern generator-modulating therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexander Ryan Levesque
Full Text Available In 2011 a tripartite agreement between the province of British Columbia (BC, Health Canada, and First Nations leaders created the First Nations Health Authority (FNHA: a unique approach to First Nations health governance. The creation of the FNHA came after almost ten years of discussion and agreements between the three parties. The goal of the FNHA is to address health disparities between First Nations and other residents of BC, as well as increase the voice of First Nations people in the health system. The issues that led to the creation of the FNHA came onto the government's agenda due to an increased knowledge of the health crises facing BC First Nations, and a growing interest throughout Canada in increasing First Nations autonomy and input. In 2013 Health Canada transferred authority over all First Nations health programming to the FNHA, with the hope that an independent, First Nations run organization would better address the health-related needs of First Nations people. While evaluation of the FNHA is limited presently, since it only released its first five-year plan just over a year ago, a 2015 report by the Auditor General gives some insight into how the FNHA is functioning. If the FNHA can overcome a few weaknesses and threats to its stability, it has the potential to guide First Nations self-determination with respect to health care in Canada.
This paper discusses how the concept of internal marketing can be applied within a health care organization. In order to achieve a market orientation an organization must identify the needs and wants of its customers and how these may change in the future. In order to achieve this, internal marketing is a necessary step to the implementation of the organizations marketing strategy. An outline plan for the introduction of an internal marketing programme within an acute hospital trust is proposed. The plan identifies those individuals and departments who should be involved in the planning and implementation of the programme. The benefits of internal marketing to the Trust are also considered.
Meng, Y Y; Jatulis, D E; McDonald, J P; Legorreta, A P
This study was designed to determine the levels and predictors of Medicare enrollees' satisfaction with access to medical care and quality of health care in a health maintenance organization. Data collected by an instrument adapted from the Group Health Association of America's Consumer Satisfaction Survey were analyzed after being linked with administrative data. In general, Medicare enrollees reported high satisfaction with both access to and quality of health care. Most members (96%) rated skill, experience, and training of physicians and the friendliness and courtesy of the staff favorably. A lower percentage of members (77%) rated favorably the ability to contact a physician after hours. Levels of satisfaction were essentially not explained by patient characteristics such as age, sex, geographic region, medications, or utilization. Stepwise regression identified the ease of arranging appointments as the strongest predictor of satisfaction, with access to care and outcomes of medical care as the strongest predictor of overall satisfaction with quality of health care. These findings indicate that items that members rated least favorably, such as ability to contact a physician after hours, added little to the prediction of satisfaction with access to and quality of health care.
Polgar, By Michael F.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Morrissey, Joseph P.
Young people between the ages of 16 and 25 who experience mental health problems experience transitions and need help from a variety of organizations. Organizations promote continuity of care by assisting young adults with developmental, service, and systemic transitions. Providers offer specific services to help transitions and also form cooperative relationships with other community organizations. Results from a survey of 100 service providers in one community describe organizational attributes and practices which are associated with continuity of care in a regional system for young adults. Data analyses show that full-service organizations which practice cultural competence offer more specific services that foster continuity of care. Larger, full-service organizations are also more likely to have more extensive and collaborative inter-organizational networks that help young adults continue care over time within the regional system of care. PMID:24833485
Polgar, Michael F; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Morrissey, Joseph P
Young people between the ages of 16 and 25 who experience mental health problems experience transitions and need help from a variety of organizations. Organizations promote continuity of care by assisting young adults with developmental, service, and systemic transitions. Providers offer specific services to help transitions and also form cooperative relationships with other community organizations. Results from a survey of 100 service providers in one community describe organizational attributes and practices which are associated with continuity of care in a regional system for young adults. Data analyses show that full-service organizations which practice cultural competence offer more specific services that foster continuity of care. Larger, full-service organizations are also more likely to have more extensive and collaborative inter-organizational networks that help young adults continue care over time within the regional system of care.
Mohammed, Shafiu; Souares, Aurelia; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Babale, Sufiyan Muawiyyah; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dong, Hengjin
Some developing countries have incorporated managed care elements into their national health insurance schemes. In practice, hybrid health management organizations (Hmos) are insurers who, bearing some resemblance to managed care in the USA, are vertically integrated in the scheme's revenue collection and pool and purchase healthcare services within a competitive framework. To date, few studies have focused on these organizations and their level of satisfaction with the scheme's optimal-resource-use (ORU) implementation. In Nigeria, the study site, Hmos were categorized on the basis of their satisfaction with ORU activities. One hundred forty-seven Hmo staff were randomly interviewed. The types of ORU domain categories were provider payment mechanism, administrative efficiency, benefit package inclusions and active monitoring mechanism. Bivariate analysis was used to determine differences among the Hmos' satisfaction with the various ORU domains. The Hmos' satisfaction with the health insurance scheme's ORU activities was 59.2% generally, and the associated factors were identified. According to the Hmos' perspectives related to the type of ORU, the fee-for-service payment method and regular inspection performed weakly. Hmos' limited satisfaction with the scheme's ORU raises concerns regarding ineffectiveness that may hinder implementation. To offset high risks in the scheme, it appears necessary for the regulatory agency to adapt and reform strategies of provider payment and active monitoring mechanisms according to stakeholder needs. Our findings further reveal that having Hmos evaluate ORU is useful for providing evidence-based information for policy making and regulatory utilization related to implementation of the health insurance scheme.
Guerrero, Erick G; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Vega, William A; Palinkas, Lawrence
Little is known about how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will be implemented in publicly funded addiction health services (AHS) organizations. Guided by a conceptual model of implementation of new practices in health care systems, this study relied on qualitative data collected in 2013 from 30 AHS clinical supervisors in Los Angeles County, California. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach with ATLAS.ti software. Supervisors expected several potential effects of ACA implementation, including increased use of AHS services, shifts in the duration and intensity of AHS services, and workforce professionalization. However, supervisors were not prepared for actions to align their programs' strategic change plans with policy expectations. Findings point to the need for health care policy interventions to help treatment providers effectively respond to ACA principles of improving standards of care and reducing disparities.
Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko
The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.
Schiff, A B
In any event, the decision to institute a corporate compliance program is a relatively simple one. In view of the ambiguity surrounding certain fraud and abuse provisions, and the corporate "death sentence" that may result from program exclusion, a compliance program is always sound corporate policy. To be sure, if the compliance program is administered improperly, it can actually increase the likelihood of whistleblower actions and create a body of potentially hurtful documentation. But these dangers can be minimized by structuring the program to protect the self-evaluative process through relevant privileges. The risks also pale in comparison to the exposure to criminal or exclusionary sanctions when improper conduct goes undetected by an organization.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 919.1020 Section 919.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED...) Definitions § 919.1020 Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. (a) Voluntary exclusion means a person's...