WorldWideScience

Sample records for voluntary fertility regulation

  1. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.

  2. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James

    2014-04-01

    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  3. [Hormone regulation of male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, J G

    1975-01-01

    An innocuous, sure, reversible means of male fertility control which does not disturb the libido is being sought. 20 healthy volunteers from ages 20 to 36 participated, using a 2nd form of protection when necessary. 10 received implants of 60 mg testosterone equally divided into 3 tubes, and began oral ingestion of 100 mg weekly, divided into daily doses, of R2323 (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-gonen 4,9,11, trien-3-one) until the sperm became ineffective. Then oral doses were given according to personal requirements from 50 to 25 mg. The 2nd series of 10 received no testosterone implants, but followed the same scheme for oral ingestion. All patients but 1 reduced their sperm count and 80% were low enough to consider the sperm inactive. For those who used the hormone treatment as the only protection against pregnancy, no pregnancy occurred. Of the 1st group, 2 had excessive weight gain, 3 felt their libido reduced, and 1 had pain in the nipples and 1 had pain in the hepatic region. Recuperation of normal sperm characteristics was slow, especially motility and vitality. The spermogram is so altered during treatment that any accidental pregnancy could result in a defective egg and serious complications. It should definitely be avoided.

  4. Regulation proposal for voluntary energy efficiency labelling of commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, Roberto; Goulart, Solange; Carlo, Joyce; Westphal, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Despite of Brazil not being between the major world energy consumers, the consumption of electricity has significantly increased in the late years. The National Energy Balance of 2005, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Energy, showed an increasing of the participation of electricity in the final energy consumption of 15.7% in 2002 to 16.2% in 2004. Initially, a brief review of the initiatives taken by Brazilian Government aiming to limit and control the energy consumption in buildings is presented. Then, the regulation proposal containing the technical requirements to classify the energy efficiency level of buildings is shown. The purpose of this voluntary regulation is to provide conditions to certify the energy efficiency level of Brazilian buildings (commercial and public). It specifies the methods for energy efficiency rating of buildings and includes requirements to attend energy conservation measures in three main issues: lighting system; air conditioning system and envelope. The regulation applies to large buildings (minimum total area of 500 m 2 or when the energy demand is greater than or equal to 2,3 kV, including: Conditioned buildings; Partially conditioned buildings and Naturally ventilated buildings. (author)

  5. Regulating a Polluting Oligopoly : Emission Tax or Voluntary Agreement ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mala David

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares, in a polluting oligopoly, an emission tax and a form of environmental policy called voluntary agreement (VA). There are here two ways of reducing pollution: output contraction and endof- pipe abatement. Given the imperfect competition, firms' reaction to the tax is sub-optimal. They reduce output excessively in order to raise the price and do not abate enough. The VA is a take-it-or-leaveit contract on abatement effort, offered to the firms with the threat of a tax. It ha...

  6. Calendar methods of fertility regulation: a rule of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, B; Scarpa, B

    1996-01-01

    "[Many] illiterate women, particularly in the third world, find [it] difficult to apply usual calendar methods for the regulation of fertility. Some of them are even unable to make simple subtractions. In this paper we are therefore trying to evaluate the applicability and the efficiency of an extremely simple rule which entails only [the ability to count] a number of days, and always the same way." (SUMMARY IN ITA) excerpt

  7. Monsoon oscillations regulate fertility of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.

    2015-02-16

    Tropical ocean ecosystems are predicted to become warmer, more saline, and less fertile in a future Earth. The Red Sea, one of the warmest and most saline environments in the world, may afford insights into the function of the tropical ocean ecosystem in a changing planet. We show that the concentration of chlorophyll and the duration of the phytoplankton growing season in the Red Sea are controlled by the strength of the winter Arabian monsoon (through horizontal advection of fertile waters from the Indian Ocean). Furthermore, and contrary to expectation, in the last decade (1998-2010) the winter Red Sea phytoplankton biomass has increased by 75% during prolonged positive phases of the Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index. A new mechanism is reported, revealing the synergy of monsoon and climate in regulating Red Sea greenness. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Monsoon oscillations regulate fertility of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Yi, Xing; Platt, Trevor; Racault, Marie-Fanny; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Pradhan, Yaswant; Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tropical ocean ecosystems are predicted to become warmer, more saline, and less fertile in a future Earth. The Red Sea, one of the warmest and most saline environments in the world, may afford insights into the function of the tropical ocean ecosystem in a changing planet. We show that the concentration of chlorophyll and the duration of the phytoplankton growing season in the Red Sea are controlled by the strength of the winter Arabian monsoon (through horizontal advection of fertile waters from the Indian Ocean). Furthermore, and contrary to expectation, in the last decade (1998-2010) the winter Red Sea phytoplankton biomass has increased by 75% during prolonged positive phases of the Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index. A new mechanism is reported, revealing the synergy of monsoon and climate in regulating Red Sea greenness. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. Prolactin and Male Fertility: The Long and Short Feedback Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gill-Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years, a pituitary-hypothalamus tissue culture system with intact neural and portal connections has been developed in our lab and used to understand the feedback mechanisms that regulate the secretions of adenohypophyseal hormones and fertility of male rats. In the last decade, several in vivo rat models have also been developed in our lab with a view to substantiate the in vitro findings, in order to delineate the role of pituitary hormones in the regulation of fertility of male rats. These studies have relied on both surgical and pharmacological interventions to modulate the secretions of gonadotropins and testosterone. The interrelationship between the circadian release of reproductive hormones has also been ascertained in normal men. Our studies suggest that testosterone regulates the secretion of prolactin through a long feedback mechanism, which appears to have been conserved from rats to humans. These studies have filled in a major lacuna pertaining to the role of prolactin in male reproductive physiology by demonstrating the interdependence between testosterone and prolactin. Systemic levels of prolactin play a deterministic role in the mechanism of chromatin condensation during spermiogenesis.

  10. Lin28a regulates germ cell pool size and fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Gen; de Soysa, T. Yvanka; Seligson, Marc T.; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Fujiwara, Yuko; Huang, Pei Yi; Hagan, John P.; Gregory, Richard I.; Moss, Eric G.; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of LIN28A is associated with human germ cell tumors and promotes primordial germ cell (PGC) development from embryonic stem cells in vitro and in chimeric mice. Knockdown of Lin28a inhibits PGC development in vitro, but how constitutional Lin28a deficiency affects the mammalian reproductive system in vivo remains unknown. Here, we generated Lin28a knockout (KO) mice and found that Lin28a deficiency compromises the size of the germ cell pool in both males and females by affecting PGC proliferation during embryogenesis. Interestingly however, in Lin28a KO males the germ cell pool partially recovers during postnatal expansion, while fertility remains impaired in both males and females mated to wild type mice. Embryonic overexpression of let-7, a microRNA negatively regulated by Lin28a, reduces the germ cell pool, corroborating the role of the Lin28a/let-7 axis in regulating the germ lineage. PMID:23378032

  11. Reducing information asymmetry in the power industry: Mandatory and voluntary information disclosure regulations of sulfur dioxide emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xufeng; Zhang Chao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the institutional framework for sulfur dioxide emission information disclosure (SDEID) in power industries. The authors argue that mandatory and voluntary SDEID are two complementary regulatory instruments for emission reduction in the power industry. An analytical framework of SDEID with six facets is suggested in this paper to demonstrate relevant legal provisions and regulatory policies of mandatory and voluntary SDEID of power industries in the US. Empirical research shows that mandatory and voluntary SDEID of the power industry have been regulated simultaneously in the US. The foundation of power companies' willingness to disclose emission information voluntarily is the combination of mandatory scientific monitoring with market regulation in the current SDEID system in the US. In comparison, the SDEID of power industries has yet to be widely implemented in developing countries. Finally, the paper provides some implications to developing countries that plan to learn institutional arrangements from developed countries. - Highlights: ► Mandatory and voluntary SDEID are two complementary regulatory instruments. ► An analytical framework is suggested to demonstrate SDEID of power industry in the US. ► Voluntary disclosure can be attributed to scientific monitoring and market regulation. ► We provide implications to developing countries learning from developed countries.

  12. Neuroendocrine control by kisspeptins: role in metabolic regulation of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2011-09-13

    The neurohormonal control of reproduction involves a hierarchical network of central and peripheral signals in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Development and function of this neuroendocrine system is the result of a lifelong delicate balance between endogenous regulators and environmental cues, including nutritional and metabolic factors. Kisspeptins are the peptide products of KISS1, which operate via the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (also known as Kiss1R). These peptides have emerged as essential upstream regulators of neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the major hypothalamic node for the stimulatory control of the HPG axis. They are potent elicitors of gonadotropin secretion in various species and physiological settings. Moreover, Kiss1 neurons in the hypothalamus participate in crucial features of reproductive maturation and function, such as brain-level sex differentiation, puberty onset and the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion and ovulation. Cotransmitters of Kiss1 neurons, such as neurokinin B, with roles in controlling the HPG axis have been identified by genetic, neuroanatomical and physiological studies. In addition, a putative role has been proposed for Kiss1 neurons in transmitting metabolic information to GnRH neurons, although the precise mechanisms are as yet unclear. In this Review, we present the major reproductive features of kisspeptins, especially their interplay with neurokinin B and potential roles in the metabolic control of puberty and fertility, and suggest new avenues for research.

  13. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  14. Fertility regulation as identity maintenance: Understanding the social aspects of birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Cicely; Renedo, Alicia; Nyaaba, Gertrude Nsorma

    2018-02-01

    We take a dialogical approach to exploring fertility regulation practices and show how they can maintain or express social identity. We identify three themes in educated Ghanaian women's accounts of how they navigate conflicting social demands on their identity when trying to regulate fertility: secrecy and silence - hiding contraception use and avoiding talking about it; tolerating uncertainty - such as using unreliable but more socially acceptable contraception; and wanting to be fertile and protecting menses. Family planning programmes that fail to tackle such social-psychological obstacles to regulating fertility will risk reproducing social spaces where women struggle to claim their reproductive rights.

  15. Voluntary feed intake in rainbow trout is regulated by diet-induced differences in oxygen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Geurden, Inge; Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Verreth, Johan; Schrama, Johan W

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that the voluntary feed intake in fish is regulated by diet-induced differences in oxygen use. Four diets were prepared with a similar digestible protein:digestible energy ratio (18 mg/kJ), but which differed in the composition of nonprotein energy source. This replacement of fat (F) by starch (S) was intended to create a diet-induced difference in oxygen use (per unit of feed): diets F30-S70, F50-S50, F65-S35, and F80-S20 with digestible fat providing 28, 49, 65, and 81% of the nonprotein digestible energy (NPDE), respectively. Each diet was fed to satiation to triplicate groups of 20 rainbow trout for 6 wk. As expected, diet-induced oxygen use decreased linearly (R(2) = 0.89; P digestible and metabolizable energy intakes of trout slightly increased with increasing NPDE as fat (i.e., decreasing starch content) (R(2) = 0.30, P = 0.08; and R(2) = 0.34, P = 0.05, respectively). Oxygen consumption of trout fed to satiation declined with increasing dietary NPDE as fat (R(2) = 0.48; P = 0.01). The inverse relation between digestible energy intake of trout and the diet-induced oxygen use (R(2) = 0.33; P = 0.05) suggests a possible role of diet-induced oxygen use in feed intake regulation as shown by the replacement of dietary fat by starch.

  16. Voluntary intake and digestibility by sheep of alfalfa ensiled at different moisture concentrations following fertilization with dairy slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as an animal-sourced fertilizer in agronomic production. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if mois...

  17. Foliar fertilizations with boron and growth regulators on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv floresta culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, S.I.; Chueire, F.B.; Teixeira, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    The experiment was realized to verify the possibility of applying Boron as foliar fertilization with growth regulators: indol acetic acid, giberellic acid, ethephon and cycocel. The other objective was to compare the foliar and soil fertilization, with Boron, on the lettuce culture. The results showed that there wasn't difference of production between the treatments. Meanwhile the application of growth regulator modified the Boron grade in the leaves. (author) [pt

  18. Does immunity regulate ejaculate quality and fertility in humans?

    OpenAIRE

    Philip A. Skau; Ivar Folstad

    2005-01-01

    The production of high-quality ejaculates may represent significant costs during male reproduction. Spermatozoa are perceived as nonself by the immune system and are exposed to immunological attacks in the male reproductive tract. Autoimmunity to spermatozoa results in the production of antisperm antibodies that reduce sperm quality and hence fertility. Thus, males are dependent on the testis being an immunoprivileged site to reduce immunological reactions against their own sperm, and immunop...

  19. Fibroblast growth factor 21 has no direct role in regulating fertility in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Singhal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Reproduction is an energetically expensive process. Insufficient calorie reserves, signaled to the brain through peripheral signals such as leptin, suppress fertility. Recently, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 was implicated as a signal from the liver to the hypothalamus that directly inhibits the hypothalamic–gonadotropin axis during fasting and starvation. However, FGF21 itself increases metabolic rate and can induce weight loss, which suggests that the effects of FGF21 on fertility may not be direct and may reflect changes in energy balance. Methods: To address this important question, we evaluated fertility in several mouse models with elevated FGF21 levels including ketogenic diet fed mice, fasted mice, mice treated with exogenous FGF21 and transgenic mice over-expressing FGF21. Results: We find that ketogenic diet fed mice remain fertile despite significant elevation in serum FGF21 levels. Absence of FGF21 does not alter transient infertility induced by fasting. Centrally infused FGF21 does not suppress fertility despite its efficacy in inducing browning of inguinal white adipose tissue. Furthermore, a high fat diet (HFD can restore fertility of female FGF21-overexpressing mice, a model of growth restriction, even in the presence of supraphysiological serum FGF21 levels. Conclusions: We conclude that FGF21 is not a direct physiological regulator of fertility in mice. The infertility observed in FGF21 overexpressing mice is likely driven by the increased energy expenditure and consequent excess calorie requirements resulting from high FGF21 levels. Keywords: FGF21, Fertility, Leptin, Hypothalamic action

  20. Effects of feeding frequency and voluntary salt intake on fluid and electrolyte regulation in athletic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, A; Dahlborn, K

    1999-05-01

    The effect of feeding frequency and voluntary sodium intake (VSI) on fluid shifts and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were studied at rest and after exercise in six athletic horses. The horses were fed twice a day (2TD) and six times a day (6TD) for 25 days for each protocol, according to a changeover design. VSI was measured by weighing each horse's salt block daily. Feeding 2TD or 6TD caused no major alterations in fluid shifts, but in the 2TD treatment there was a postprandial increase in plasma protein concentration and osmolality that lasted horses.

  1. Menstrual experiences and beliefs: a multicountry study of relationships with fertility and fertility regulating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severy, L J; Thapa, S; Askew, I; Glor, J

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge is needed about what women generally experience (behavior and beliefs about sexual, personal, social, and dietary factors) during menstruation as baseline data. Data were obtained from a WHO non nationally representative sample of 5322 parous women from 14 cultural groups between 1973 to 1980 and a subsample of 500 women with detailed daily diaries from 10 countries (Egypt, India, Indonesia, jamaica, Korea, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, UK, and Yugoslavia). This study identified and analyzed 1) critical variables through principal component analysis and varimax rotation, 2) clusters of types of women with particular menstrual experiences and particular beliefs, and 3) the relationship between demographic variables and the 2 resultant cluster and the relationship between beliefs and experiences. Factor analysis resulted in the identification of 6 factors and 13 variables which accounted for more than 65% of the variance: amount of bleeding, activity during the last menstrual period, mood during last menstrual period, discomfort during last menstrual period, predictability, and blood characteristics (smell and color). Beliefs that explained more than 53% of the estimated variance were bathing behavior during menstruation, fertility and femininity issues, interpretations and implications of menstruation, and beliefs about not washing hair or body during menstruation. Alpha estimates of reliability for the belief ranged from .33 to .73, and for behavior the range was .40 to .59. The cluster analysis of type of persons identified 3 groups of women: type I (26.4%) who experienced low blood loss the first day and had a long duration of bleeding; type II (52.3%) who had a short duration of bleeding; and type III (21.2%) who had the heaviest bleeding and longest duration of bleeding. The cluster analysis of women's belief types indicated 9 profiles. For instance, Type 2 women tended to believe that menstruation is dirty but prefer more blood loss. Belief Profiles

  2. Role of the dorsal medial habenula in the regulation of voluntary activity, motor function, hedonic state, and primary reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Wei A; Wang, Si D; Wang, Shirong; Morton, Glenn; Zariwala, Hatim A; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Turner, Eric E

    2014-08-20

    The habenular complex in the epithalamus consists of distinct regions with diverse neuronal populations. Past studies have suggested a role for the habenula in voluntary exercise motivation and reinforcement of intracranial self-stimulation but have not assigned these effects to specific habenula subnuclei. Here, we have developed a genetic model in which neurons of the dorsal medial habenula (dMHb) are developmentally eliminated, via tissue-specific deletion of the transcription factor Pou4f1 (Brn3a). Mice with dMHb lesions perform poorly in motivation-based locomotor behaviors, such as voluntary wheel running and the accelerating rotarod, but show only minor abnormalities in gait and balance and exhibit normal levels of basal locomotion. These mice also show deficits in sucrose preference, but not in the forced swim test, two measures of depression-related phenotypes in rodents. We have also used Cre recombinase-mediated expression of channelrhodopsin-2 and halorhodopsin to activate dMHb neurons or silence their output in freely moving mice, respectively. Optical activation of the dMHb in vivo supports intracranial self-stimulation, showing that dMHb activity is intrinsically reinforcing, whereas optical silencing of dMHb outputs is aversive. Together, our findings demonstrate that the dMHb is involved in exercise motivation and the regulation of hedonic state, and is part of an intrinsic reinforcement circuit. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411366-19$15.00/0.

  3. Sperm chemorepulsion, a supplementary mechanism to regulate fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidobaldi, H A; Cubilla, M; Moreno, A; Molino, M V; Bahamondes, L; Giojalas, L C

    2017-08-01

    Are human spermatozoa able of chemorepulsive behaviour? Capacitated human spermatozoa are able to be chemorepelled by synthetic Progesterone Receptor Ligands (sPRL, known as contraceptives) and zinc (a cation released by the oocyte upon fertilization). Moving cells can be oriented towards or against a molecular gradient, processes called chemoattraction and chemorepulsion, respectively, which have been described in unicellular organisms such as amoebas and bacteria, to organismic cells such macrophages and developmental cells. In the case of spermatozoa, chemoattraction may help the finding of an oocyte and has been widely studied in various invertebrate and mammalian species; however, chemorepulsion has not yet been verified in spermatozoa. This is an in vitro study involving human, rabbit and mouse spermatozoa which were used to perform 3-30 experiments per treatment. Human sperm samples were obtained by masturbation from healthy donors who gave written consent. Only those samples exhibiting normal semen parameters according to current WHO criteria were included in the study. Rabbit spermatozoa were obtained by artificial vagina whereas mice spermatozoa were obtained from epididymis. The sperm selection assay (SSA), originally designed to evaluate sperm chemoattraction towards progesterone (P), and a video-microscopy and computer motion analysis system were used to test sperm chemorepulsion. Additional kinetic parameters were also determined by video-microscopy and computer motion analysis. In some experiments, the level of induced acrosome-reacted spermatozoa was determined. Rabbit mating manipulation was achieved to perform the sperm-oocyte co-incubation assay. Sperm accumulation in the well containing 100 pg/ml of sPRL was lower than the culture medium negative control (P financial interests. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  4. Functions of TAM RTKs in regulating spermatogenesis and male fertility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongmei; Wang, Huizhen; Qi, Nan; Wu, Hui; Xiong, Weipeng; Ma, Jing; Lu, Qingxian; Han, Daishu

    2009-10-01

    Mice lacking TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are male sterile. The mechanism of TAM RTKs in regulating male fertility remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed in more detail the testicular phenotype of TAM triple mutant (TAM(-/-)) mice with an effort to understand the mechanism. We demonstrate that the three TAM RTKs cooperatively regulate male fertility, and MER appears to be more important than AXL and TYRO3. TAM(-/-) testes showed a progressive loss of germ cells from elongated spermatids to spermatogonia. Young adult TAM(-/-) mice exhibited oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia and various morphological malformations of sperm cells. As the mice aged, the germ cells were eventually depleted from the seminiferous tubules. Furthermore, we found that TAM(-/-) Sertoli cells have an impaired phagocytic activity and a large number of differentially expressed genes compared to wild-type controls. By contrast, the function of Leydig cells was not apparently affected by the mutation of TAM RTKs. Therefore, we conclude that the suboptimal function of Sertoli cells leads to the impaired spermatogenesis in TAM(-/-) mice. The results provide novel insight into the mechanism of TAM RTKs in regulating male fertility.

  5. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, Francesco; Frey, Marco; Iraldo, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. → Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. → Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. → Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. → Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  6. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Francesco, E-mail: f.rizzi@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Frey, Marco, E-mail: frey@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Iraldo, Fabio, E-mail: f.iraldo@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. {yields} Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. {yields} Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. {yields} Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. {yields} Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  7. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei-Xin; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen; Gu, Shou-Zhi; Sang, Li-Xuan; Dai, Cong; Wang, Hai-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  8. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei-Xin, E-mail: weixinliu@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Gu, Shou-Zhi [Department of Anatomy, Seirei Christopher College, Hamamatsu 433-8558 (Japan); Sang, Li-Xuan [Department of Cadre Ward II, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Dai, Cong [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Hai-Lan [Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China)

    2015-04-10

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  9. Voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Thurstan B

    1986-05-10

    Brewin comments upon James Rachels' The End of Life (Oxford University Press; 1986) and Voluntary Euthanasia (Peter Owen; 1986), a compilation edited by A.B. Downing and B. Smoker that is an expanded version of a 1969 work by Britain's Voluntary Euthanasia Society. Rachels maintains that it is illogical to distinguish between active and passive euthanasia. In Voluntary Euthanasia, 17 contributors argue the pros and cons of the issue. The Voluntary Euthanasia Society proposes that mentally competent persons be allowed by law to request euthanasia, either when taken ill or by advance directive. Brewin says he is almost but not quite convinced by the arguments for legalized voluntary euthanasia. He is concerned about the "slippery slope," the uncertainties of prognosis and quality of life judgments, the pressures to which the terminally ill or aged might be subjected, and the potentially negative impact of euthanasia on the physician patient relationship.

  10. [Mechanism of nutrient preservation and supply by soil and its regulation. IV. Fertility regulation and improvement of brown earth type vegetable garden soil and their essence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Zhou, L

    2000-08-01

    Pot experiment studies on the fertility regulation and improvement of fertile and infertile brown earth type vegetable garden soils and their functionary essence show that under conditions of taking different soil fertility improvement measures, the nutrient contents in fertile and infertile soils were not always higher than the controls, but the aggregation densities of soil microaggregates were increased, and the proportion of different microaggregates was more rational. There was no significant relationship between soil productivity and soil microaggregates proportion. It is proved that the essence of soil fertility improvement consists in the ultimate change of the preservation and supply capacities of soil nutrients, and the proportion of soil microaggregates could be an integrative index to evaluate the level of soil fertility and the efficiency of soil improvement.

  11. The Self-Regulation Effect of Fertility Status on Inbreeding Aversion: When Fertile, Disgust Increases more in Response to Descriptions of One's Own than of Others' Inbreeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Antfolk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ovulatory shift modulates emotions related to female sexuality. Because fertility status only affects the individual's own opportunity cost, the adaptive value of this shift is expected to stem from self-regulation. To test this assumption we asked women to contemplate various inbreeding descriptions: 1 they themselves having sex with male relatives; 2 their sister having sex with their common male relatives; and 3 an unrelated woman having sex with her male relatives (in 1, but not 2 and 3, negative fitness consequences are affected by the participant's fertility. We dichotomized the dependent variable disgust (ceiling vs. non-ceiling and analyzed the interaction between fertility status and description type. The ovulatory shift was stronger in descriptions where they themselves were described as engaging in inbreeding. A smaller increase was also found in reactions to others engaging in inbreeding. We explain the latter effect as due to self-reflection.

  12. KATNAL1 regulation of sertoli cell microtubule dynamics is essential for spermiogenesis and male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee B Smith

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a complex process reliant upon interactions between germ cells (GC and supporting somatic cells. Testicular Sertoli cells (SC support GCs during maturation through physical attachment, the provision of nutrients, and protection from immunological attack. This role is facilitated by an active cytoskeleton of parallel microtubule arrays that permit transport of nutrients to GCs, as well as translocation of spermatids through the seminiferous epithelium during maturation. It is well established that chemical perturbation of SC microtubule remodelling leads to premature GC exfoliation demonstrating that microtubule remodelling is an essential component of male fertility, yet the genes responsible for this process remain unknown. Using a random ENU mutagenesis approach, we have identified a novel mouse line displaying male-specific infertility, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved ATPase domain of the novel KATANIN p60-related microtubule severing protein Katanin p60 subunit A-like1 (KATNAL1. We demonstrate that Katnal1 is expressed in testicular Sertoli cells (SC from 15.5 days post-coitum (dpc and that, consistent with chemical disruption models, loss of function of KATNAL1 leads to male-specific infertility through disruption of SC microtubule dynamics and premature exfoliation of spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium. The identification of KATNAL1 as an essential regulator of male fertility provides a significant novel entry point into advancing our understanding of how SC microtubule dynamics promotes male fertility. Such information will have resonance both for future treatment of male fertility and the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives.

  13. Economic Aspects of the Regulatory Framework in the Area of Fertilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Drabik, D.

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses economic implications of the proposed EU regulation on the market of CE marked fertilizers. Depending on the design of the regulation, the costs can be substantial. The expected additional costs of introducing mandatory or voluntary maximum threshold levels for cadmium in

  14. Selective Regulation of Oocyte Meiotic Events Enhances Progress in Fertility Preservation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following early embryonic germ cell migration, oocytes are surrounded by somatic cells and remain arrested at diplotene stage until luteinizing hormone (LH surge. Strict regulation of both meiotic arrest and meiotic resumption during dormant stage are critical for future fertility. Intercellular signaling system between the somatic compartment and oocyte regulates these meiotic events and determines the follicle quality. As well as the collected number of eggs, their qualities are also important for in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. In spontaneous and IVF cycles, germinal vesicle (GV–stage oocytes, premature GV breakdown, and persistence of first meiotic arrest limit the reproductive performance. Likewise, both women with premature ovarian aging and young cancer women are undergoing chemoradiotherapy under the risk of follicle loss because of unregulated meiotic events. Understanding of oocyte meiotic events is therefore critical for the prevention of functional ovarian reserve. High levels of cyclic guanosine monophophate (cGMP, cyclic adenosine monophophate (cAMP and low phosphodiesterase (PDE 3A enzyme activity inside the oocyte are responsible for maintaining of meiotic arrest before the LH surge. cGMP is produced in the somatic compartment, and natriuretic peptide precursor C (Nppc and natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (Npr2 regulate its production. cGMP diffuses into the oocyte and reduces the PDE3A activity, which inhibits the conversion of cAMP to the 5′AMP, and cAMP levels are enhanced. In addition, oocyte itself has the ability to produce cAMP. Taken together, accumulation of cAMP inside the oocyte induces protein kinase activity, which leads to the inhibition of maturation-promoting factor and meiotic arrest also continues. By stimulating the expression of epidermal growth factor, LH inhibits the Nppc/Npr2 system, blocks cGMP synthesis, and initiates meiotic resumption. Oocytes lacking the functional of this pathway may lead to

  15. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act

  16. Do natural methods for fertility regulation increase the risks of genetic errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, A

    1981-09-01

    Genetic errors of many kinds are connected with the reproductive processes and are favored by a nunber of largely uncontrollable, endogenous, and/or exogenous factors. For a long time human beings have taken into their own hands the control of this process. The regulation of fertility is clearly a forceful request to any family, to any community, were it only to lower the level of the consequences of genetic errors. In connection with this request, and in the context of the Congress for the Family of Africa and Europe (Catholic University, January 1981), 1 question must still be raised and possibly answered. The question is: do or can the so called "natural methods" for the regulation of fertility increase the risks of genetic errors with their generally dramatic effects on families and on communities. It is important to try to give as far as possible a scientifically based answer to this question. Fr. Haring, a moral theologian, citing scientific evidence finds it shocking that the rhythm method, so strongly and recently endorsed again by Church authorities, should be classified among the means of "birth control" by way of spontaneous abortion or at least by spontaneous loss of a large number of zygotes which, due to the concrete application of the rhythm method, lack of necessary vitality for survival. He goes on to state that the scientific research provides overwhelming evidence that the rhythm method in its traditional form is responsible for a disproportionate waste of zygotes and a disproportionate frequency of spontaneous abortions and a defective childern. Professor Hilgers, a reproductive physiologist, takes on opposite view, maintaining that the hypotheses are arbitrary and the alarm false. The strongest evidence upon which Fr. Haring bases his moral principles about the use of the natural methods of fertility regulation is a paper by Guerrero and Rojos (1975). These authors examined, retrospectively, the success of 965 pregnancies which occurred in

  17. Substance p regulates puberty onset and fertility in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simavli, Serap; Thompson, Iain R; Maguire, Caroline A; Gill, John C; Carroll, Rona S; Wolfe, Andrew; Kaiser, Ursula B; Navarro, Víctor M

    2015-06-01

    Puberty is a tightly regulated process that leads to reproductive capacity. Kiss1 neurons are crucial in this process by stimulating GnRH, yet how Kiss1 neurons are regulated remains unknown. Substance P (SP), an important neuropeptide in pain perception, induces gonadotropin release in adult mice in a kisspeptin-dependent manner. Here, we assessed whether SP, through binding to its receptor NK1R (neurokinin 1 receptor), participates in the timing of puberty onset and fertility in the mouse. We observed that 1) selective NK1R agonists induce gonadotropin release in prepubertal females; 2) the expression of Tac1 (encoding SP) and Tacr1 (NK1R) in the arcuate nucleus is maximal before puberty, suggesting increased SP tone; 3) repeated exposure to NK1R agonists prepubertally advances puberty onset; and 4) female Tac1(-/-) mice display delayed puberty; moreover, 5) SP deficiency leads to subfertility in females, showing fewer corpora lutea and antral follicles and leading to decreased litter size. Thus, our findings support a role for SP in the stimulation of gonadotropins before puberty, acting via Kiss1 neurons to stimulate GnRH release, and its involvement in the attainment of full reproductive capabilities in female mice.

  18. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR): a central regulator of male fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tito T; Oliveira, Pedro F; Sousa, Mário; Cheng, C Yan; Alves, Marco G

    2017-06-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cellular metabolic phenotype and is involved in virtually all aspects of cellular function. It integrates not only nutrient and energy-sensing pathways but also actin cytoskeleton organization, in response to environmental cues including growth factors and cellular energy levels. These events are pivotal for spermatogenesis and determine the reproductive potential of males. Yet, the molecular mechanisms by which mTOR signaling acts in male reproductive system remain a matter of debate. Here, we review the current knowledge on physiological and molecular events mediated by mTOR in testis and testicular cells. In recent years, mTOR inhibition has been explored as a prime strategy to develop novel therapeutic approaches to treat cancer, cardiovascular disease, autoimmunity, and metabolic disorders. However, the physiological consequences of mTOR dysregulation and inhibition to male reproductive potential are still not fully understood. Compelling evidence suggests that mTOR is an arising regulator of male fertility and better understanding of this atypical protein kinase coordinated action in testis will provide insightful information concerning its biological significance in other tissues/organs. We also discuss why a new generation of mTOR inhibitors aiming to be used in clinical practice may also need to include an integrative view on the effects in male reproductive system.

  19. Fertile assembly for a fast neutron nuclear reactor cooled by liquid sodium, with regulation of the cooling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradal, L.; Berte, M.; Chiarelli, C.

    1985-01-01

    The assembly has a casing in which are arranged the fertile elements, the liquid sodium flowing through the casing along these elements. It includes several apertured diaphragms transverse to the rods to regulate the liquid sodium flow rate. At least one diaphragm, in its central part around its aperture, of a material soluble in liquid sodium, such as copper. The invention applies, more particularly, to fast neutron nuclear reactor having a heterogeneous core. The coolant flow can increase with time to match the increased power generated by the fertile assembly along its life [fr

  20. Cytisine modulates chronic voluntary ethanol consumption and ethanol-induced striatal up-regulation of ΔFosB in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajja, Ravi Kiran; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2013-06-01

    Chronic administration of ethanol induces persistent accumulation of ΔFosB, an important transcription factor, in the midbrain dopamine system. This process underlies the progression to addiction. Previously, we have shown that cytisine, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist, reduces various ethanol-drinking behaviors and ethanol-induced striatal dopamine function. However, the effects of cytisine on chronic ethanol drinking and ethanol-induced up-regulation of striatal ΔFosB are not known. Therefore, we examined the effects of cytisine on chronic voluntary ethanol consumption and associated striatal ΔFosB up-regulation in C57BL/6J mice using behavioral and biochemical methods. Following the chronic voluntary consumption of 15% (v/v) ethanol under a 24-h two-bottle choice intermittent access (IA; 3 sessions/week) or continuous access (CA; 24 h/d and 7 d/week) paradigm, mice received repeated intraperitoneal injections of saline or cytisine (0.5 or 3.0 mg/kg). Ethanol and water intake were monitored for 24 h post-treatment. Pretreatment with cytisine (0.5 or 1.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced ethanol consumption and preference in both paradigms at 2 h and 24 h post-treatment. The ΔFosB levels in the ventral and dorsal striatum were determined by Western blotting 18-24 h after the last point of ethanol access. In addition, cytisine (0.5 mg/kg) significantly attenuated up-regulation of ΔFosB in the ventral and dorsal striatum following chronic ethanol consumption in IA and CA paradigms. The results indicate that cytisine modulates chronic voluntary ethanol consumption and reduces ethanol-induced up-regulation of striatal ΔFosB. Further, the data suggest a critical role of nAChRs in chronic ethanol-induced neurochemical adaptations associated with ethanol addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of Ocean Iron Fertilization (OIF): a Model for Balancing Research, Environmental and Policy Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinen, M.; Lamotte, R.

    2008-12-01

    The potential of enhancing carbon sequestration by the biosphere for climate mitigation often raises questions of offsetting effects. These questions become more important as the scale of the enhancement increases. Ocean iron fertilization is accompanied by additional questions related to use of the ocean commons. The London Convention (LC) and London Protocol (LP), international treaties adopted in 1972 and 1996 respectively, were designed to prevent use of the ocean for disposal of toxic, harmful and radioactive pollutants. Recently the LC/LP has been called upon to decide whether climate mitigation activities, such as subseafloor injection of CO2 and OIF, are legal under the framework and, if so, how they should be regulated. The broad consultation with the science community by the LC/LP in developing their perspective, and the involvement of the NGO community in these deliberations, provides a model for the process that the international policy community can use to develop science-based regulatory guidelines for carbon mitigation projects involving the commons. And the substance of that emerging regulatory framework -- built on a national-level permitting process informed by internationally agreed guidelines and standards -- may also serve as a model for the oversight of other emerging technologies that take place in the global commons.

  2. Disincentives to voluntary transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Current legal, regulatory and institutional standards and practices provide several disincentives for a utility wishing to engage in voluntary wheeling transactions, and are discussed here. These disincentives largely arise from the fact that regulation, like the transmission system itself, is based on the notion of integrated utilities engaging in transactions largely for reliability reasons. Factors which fall into this category are: a pricing regime based on embedded costs, the ratemaking treatment of revenues derived from coordination and transmission services, and several provisions in legislation and FERC regulations

  3. Impaired Voluntary Control in PTSD: Probing Self-Regulation of the ACC With Real-Time fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zweerings

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is characterized by deficits in the self-regulation of cognitions and emotions. Neural networks of emotion regulation may exhibit reduced control mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, contributing to aberrant limbic responses in PTSD.Methods: Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI NF assessed self-regulation of the ACC in nine patients with PTSD after single trauma exposure and nine matched healthy controls. All participants were instructed to train ACC upregulation on three training days.Results: Both groups achieved regulation, which was associated with wide-spread brain activation encompassing the ACC. Compared to the controls, regulation amplitude and learning rate was lower in patients, correlating with symptom severity. In addition, a frontopolar activation cluster was associated with self-regulation efforts in patients.Conclusions: For the first time, we tested self-regulation of the ACC in patients with PTSD. The observed impairment supports models of ACC-mediated regulation deficits that may contribute to the psychopathology of PTSD. Controlled trials in a larger sample are needed to confirm our findings and to directly investigate whether training of central regulation mechanisms improves emotion regulation in PTSD.

  4. Insights into the Regulation of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities by Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer in Pseudostellaria heterophylla Monoculture Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkun Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere microbiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the first-year planted (FP, second-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp. Bio-organic fertilizer (MT formulated by combining antagonistic bacteria with organic matter could significantly promote the yield by regulating rhizosphere bacterial community. However, organic fertilizer (MO without antagonistic bacteria could not suppress Fusarium wilt. Multivariate statistics analysis showed a distinct separation between the healthy samples (FP and MT and the unhealthy samples (SP and MO, suggesting a strong relationship between soil microbial community and plant performance. Furthermore, we found the application of bio-organic fertilizer MT could significantly increase the bacterial community diversity and restructure microbial community with relatively fewer pathogenic F. oxysporum and more beneficial Burkholderia spp. In conclusion, the application of novel bio-organic fertilizer could effectively suppress Fusarium wilt by enriching the antagonistic bacteria and enhancing the bacterial diversity.

  5. Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

    2013-01-01

    What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare…

  6. Responses of yield and N use of spring sown crops to N fertilization, with special reference to the use of plant growth regulators

    OpenAIRE

    L. PIETOLA; R. TANNI; P. ELONEN

    2008-01-01

    The role of plant growth regulators (PGR) in nitrogen (N) fertilization of spring wheat and oats (CCC), fodder barley (etephon/mepiquat) and oilseed rape (etephone) in crop rotation was studied in 19931996 on loamy clay soil. Carry over effect of the N fertilization rates (0180 kg ha-1 ) was evaluated in 1997. N fertilization rate for the best grain/seed yield (120150 kg ha-1 ) was not affected by PGRs. The seed and N yields of oilseed rape were improved most frequently by recommended use of ...

  7. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  8. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in Northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Grinsven, H.; ten Berge, H.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD) and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the Northwest of the European Union (Ireland, UK, Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany). The main sources of data were national reports for the third reporting......D remains an important piece of legislation for protecting drinking water quality in regions with many private or small public production facilities and controlling aquatic eutrophication from agricultural sources....... of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N) to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since 1995...... for groundwater in view of delayed response of nitrate in deep aquifers. In spite of improved fertilization practices, the southeast of The Netherlands, the Flemish Region and Brittany remain to be regions of major concern in view of a combination of a high nitrogen surplus, high leaching fractions to groundwater...

  9. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK or wheat (WK kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2, and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38. A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36. RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270 and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min, r = -0.29 and -0.29, which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33. The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%. A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness, and a higher breath H2

  10. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2008-12-01

    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  11. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Grinsven, H.J.M.; ten Berge, H.F.M.; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD) and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the northwest of the European Union (Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany). The main sources of data were national reports for the third....... Issues of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N) to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since...... reports which can amount to more than 50 kgNha-1 yr-1. Differences between procedures in member states to assess nitrogen balances and water quality and a lack of cross-boundary policy evaluations are handicaps when benchmarking the effectiveness of the NiD. This provides a challenge for the European...

  12. Migration, legality, and fertility regulation: Abortion and contraception among migrants and natives in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Agadjanian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migrant-vs.-native differentials in reproductive behavior are typically examined through the prism of socioeconomic and cultural constraints that characterize the migration process and experiences. However, the literature seldom factors in migrant legal status because necessary data is rarely available. Objective: The study seeks to fill this important gap by looking at variations in induced abortion and contraceptive use not only between migrants and nonmigrants but also among migrants of different legal statuses in the Russian Federation. Methods: We use unique survey data collected in urban Russia from Central Asian working migrant women of different legal statuses - regularized vs. irregular - as well as their native counterparts. Binomial and multinomial logistic regressions are fitted to model abortion experience and current contraceptive use and method choice. Results: The results point to higher overall use of abortion among natives, but also to significant differences between migrants with regularized and irregular legal statuses. With respect to contraception, while no variation in overall use between migrants and natives or between migrants of different legal statuses is detected, instructive migrant-vs.-native differences in method choice emerge. Conclusions: The findings underscore the importance of migrants' legal status, along with their other characteristics, for a better understanding of their reproductive behavior and for more effective corresponding policies. Contribution: The study offers pioneering insights into the intersection of migration, legality, and fertility in contemporary Russia and contributes to the cross-national scholarship on migration and reproductive behavior and health.

  13. Responses of yield and N use of spring sown crops to N fertilization, with special reference to the use of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. PIETOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of plant growth regulators (PGR in nitrogen (N fertilization of spring wheat and oats (CCC, fodder barley (etephon/mepiquat and oilseed rape (etephone in crop rotation was studied in 1993–1996 on loamy clay soil. Carry over effect of the N fertilization rates (0–180 kg ha-1 was evaluated in 1997. N fertilization rate for the best grain/seed yield (120–150 kg ha-1 was not affected by PGRs. The seed and N yields of oilseed rape were improved most frequently by recommended use of PGR. The yields of oats were increased in 1995–96. Even though PGR effectively shortened the plant height of spring wheat, the grain yield increased only in 1995. N yield of wheat grains was not increased. Response of fodder barley to PGR was insignificant or even negative in 1995. The data suggest that PGRs may decrease some N leaching at high N rates by improving N uptake by grain/seeds, if the yield is improved. The carryover study showed that in soils with no N fertilization, as well as in soils of high N rates, N uptake was higher than in soils with moderate N fertilization (60–90 kg ha-1 , independent of PGRs. According to soil mineral N contents, N leaching risk is significant (15–35 kg ha-1 only after dry and warm late seasons. After a favourable season of high yields, the N rates did not significantly affect soil mineral N contents. ;

  14. Voluntary Exercise Improves Estrous Cyclicity in Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice Despite Programming Decreased Voluntary Exercise: Implications for Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Lori D; Burger, Laura L; Cuttitta, Ashley J; Michele, Daniel E; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure in mice produces a phenotype resembling lean polycystic ovary syndrome. We studied effects of voluntary exercise on metabolic and reproductive parameters in PNA vs vehicle (VEH)-treated mice. Mice (8 wk of age) were housed individually and estrous cycles monitored. At 10 weeks of age, mice were divided into groups (PNA, PNA-run, VEH, VEH-run, n = 8-9/group); those in the running groups received wheels allowing voluntary running. Unexpectedly, PNA mice ran less distance than VEH mice; ovariectomy eliminated this difference. In ovary-intact mice, there was no difference in glucose tolerance, lower limb muscle fiber types, weight, or body composition among groups after 16 weeks of running, although some mitochondrial proteins were mildly up-regulated by exercise in PNA mice. Before running, estrous cycles in PNA mice were disrupted with most days in diestrus. There was no change in cycles during weeks 1-6 of running (10-15 wk of age). In contrast, from weeks 11 to 16 of running, cycles in PNA mice improved with more days in proestrus and estrus and fewer in diestrus. PNA programs reduced voluntary exercise, perhaps mediated in part by ovarian secretions. Exercise without weight loss improved estrous cycles, which if translated could be important for fertility in and counseling of lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  15. 25 CFR 38.14 - Voluntary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.14 Voluntary services. (a... receiving credit for their work (i.e., student teaching) from an education institution, the agreement will... Regulations Governing Responsibilities and Conduct. (e) Travel and other expenses. The decision to reimburse...

  16. Biofeedback, voluntary control, and human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P

    1986-03-01

    This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.

  17. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  18. Delivery mechanisms: voluntary vs command and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Canada's Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program was debated. The generally accepted view is that the voluntary program to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000 has failed. However, the author suggested that the issues and processes are complicated and that we should not give up too soon. Time is needed to refine the market instruments that we are dealing with. Also, there are substantial economic barriers to fully meet target figures, among them the fact that municipalities, universities, social services and health care industries are chronically capital rationed and don't have the money to respond to the VCR program. Other sectors of the economy capitalized and regulated by government, have not seen much success in the VCR program either. The central argument is that while voluntary programs are probably not the answer, binding agreements or government-run schemes are even less likely to succeed

  19. 5 CFR 630.1014 - Movement between voluntary leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave bank...

  20. 31 CFR 353.64 - Payment, reinvestment, or exchange-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. 353.64 Section 353.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations..., Incompetents, Aged Persons, Absentees, et al. § 353.64 Payment, reinvestment, or exchange—voluntary guardian of... recognition as voluntary guardian for the purpose of redeeming the owner's bonds, if the total redemption...

  1. 31 CFR 315.64 - Payment, reinvestment, or exchange-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. 315.64 Section 315.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... exchange—voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. (a) Payment of bonds. When an adult owner of bonds... an application for recognition as voluntary guardian for the purpose of redeeming the owner's bonds...

  2. Regulation of Mitochondrial Genome Inheritance by Autophagy and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Implications for Health, Fitness, and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hee Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, mitochondrial replacement (MR, and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease.

  3. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  4. Voluntary Becomes Mandatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, William

    Voluntary bench-bar press guidelines have evolved over the past 15 years as a way of resolving the conflict between the right of the accused to a fair trial and the right of the press to cover such a trial. In 1980, however, a Washington state judge required reporters to sign an affidavit stating that they would follow the state's guidelines.…

  5. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is correlated closely with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L-Y; Shan, J-J; Tong, X-M; Zhu, H-Y; Yang, L-Y; Zheng, Q; Luo, Y; Shi, Q-X; Zhang, S-Y

    2014-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) has been demonstrated to be expressed in mature spermatozoa and correlated with sperm quality. Sperm CFTR expression in fertile men is higher than that in infertile men suffering from teratospermia, asthenoteratospermia, asthenospermia and oligospermia, but it is unknown whether CFTR is correlated with sperm parameters when sperm parameters are normal. In this study, 282 healthy and fertile men with normal semen parameters were classified into three age groups, group (I): age group of 20-29 years (98 cases, 27.1 ± 6.2), group (II): age group of 30-39 years (142 cases, 33.7 ± 2.6) and group (III): age group of more than or equal to 40 years (42 cases, 44.1 ± 4.6). Sperm concentration, total count and progressive motility were analysed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. Sperm morphology was analysed by modified Papanicolaou staining. Sperm CFTR expression was conducted by indirect immunofluorescence staining. There was a significant positive correlation (P sperm progressive motility (r = 0.221) and normal morphology (r = 0.202), but there were no correlations between sperm CFTR expression and semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm total count as well as male age (P > 0.05). Our findings show that CFTR expression is associated with sperm progressive motility and normal morphology in healthy and fertile men with normal sperm parameters, but not associated with the number of spermatozoa and male age. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. [Serum hormones that regulate the reproductive axis in men with testicular germ cell cancer and its impact on fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Rodríguez, José María; Chávez-Zúñiga, Irma; Bañuelos-Ávila, Leticia; Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies treat testicular germ cancer as a single disease, the behavior of the two histological types of cancer; seminoma and nonseminoma have differences in reproductive hormone secretion and impair fertility differently. To demonstrate that the serum concentration of pituitary hormones involved in fertility and spermatogenesis in the affected male is different in the two histological types. Were determined by radioimmunoassay or inmunoradiometric assay, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, total testosterone, prolactin, estradiol, human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha fetoprotein in 37 patients with germ cell cancer (15 seminoma and 22 nonseminoma) and 35 controls. We analyzed the semen of patients, and were questioned about paternity before the cancer diagnosis. Age was higher in patients with seminoma cancer, showed decreased luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone and increased estradiol and prolactin in nonseminoma compared with seminoma. In patients with nonseminoma they had 9 children, 5 were oligozoospermic, 3 azoospermic and 6 normal concentration, 8 did not provide sample, seminoma group they had eight children, only one azoospermic, nine normal concentration, and 5 did not provide sample . The hormonal behavior is different in men with nonseminoma compared with seminoma, so that the negative impact on the reproductive axis and fertility is higher in cases of non-seminoma.

  7. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive; a benchmark study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. M. van Grinsven

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the northwest of the European Union (Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany. The main sources of data were national reports for the third reporting period for the NiD (2004–2007 and results of the MITERRA-EUROPE model. Implementation of the NiD in the considered member states is fairly comparable regarding restrictions for where and when to apply fertilizer and manure, but very different regarding application limits for N fertilization. Issues of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since 1995 is a major contribution to the decrease of the soil N balance (N surplus, particularly in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. This decrease is accompanied by a modest decrease of nitrate concentrations since 2000 in fresh surface waters in most countries. This decrease is less prominent for groundwater in view of delayed response of nitrate in deep aquifers. In spite of improved fertilization practices, the southeast of the Netherlands, the Flemish Region and Brittany remain to be regions of major concern in view of a combination of a high nitrogen surplus, high leaching fractions to groundwater and tenacious exceedance of the water quality standards. On average the gross N balance in 2008 for the seven member states in EUROSTAT and in national reports was about 20 kg N ha−1 yr−1 lower than by MITERRA. The major cause is higher estimates of N removal in national reports which can amount to more than 50 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Differences between procedures in member states to

  8. Management, regulation and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilization in northwestern Europe under the Nitrates Directive; a benchmark study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, H. J. M.; ten Berge, H. F. M.; Dalgaard, T.; Fraters, B.; Durand, P.; Hart, A.; Hofman, G.; Jacobsen, B. H.; Lalor, S. T. J.; Lesschen, J. P.; Osterburg, B.; Richards, K. G.; Techen, A.-K.; Vertès, F.; Webb, J.; Willems, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    Implementation of the Nitrates Directive (NiD) and its environmental impacts were compared for member states in the northwest of the European Union (Ireland, United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Northern France and Germany). The main sources of data were national reports for the third reporting period for the NiD (2004-2007) and results of the MITERRA-EUROPE model. Implementation of the NiD in the considered member states is fairly comparable regarding restrictions for where and when to apply fertilizer and manure, but very different regarding application limits for N fertilization. Issues of concern and improvement of the implementation of the NiD are accounting for the fertilizer value of nitrogen in manure, and relating application limits for total nitrogen (N) to potential crop yield and N removal. The most significant environmental effect of the implementation of the NiD since 1995 is a major contribution to the decrease of the soil N balance (N surplus), particularly in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. This decrease is accompanied by a modest decrease of nitrate concentrations since 2000 in fresh surface waters in most countries. This decrease is less prominent for groundwater in view of delayed response of nitrate in deep aquifers. In spite of improved fertilization practices, the southeast of the Netherlands, the Flemish Region and Brittany remain to be regions of major concern in view of a combination of a high nitrogen surplus, high leaching fractions to groundwater and tenacious exceedance of the water quality standards. On average the gross N balance in 2008 for the seven member states in EUROSTAT and in national reports was about 20 kg N ha-1 yr-1 lower than by MITERRA. The major cause is higher estimates of N removal in national reports which can amount to more than 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Differences between procedures in member states to assess nitrogen balances and water quality and a lack of cross

  9. Nano Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice DAĞHAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land is decreasing day by day due to erosion, environmental pollution, unconscious irrigation and fertilization. On the other hand, it is necessary to increase agricultural production in order to meet the needs of the developing industry as well as the nutritional needs of the growing population. In the recent years, nano fertilizers have begun to be produced to obtain the highest amount and quality of production from the unit area. Previous research shows that nano fertilizers cause an increase in the use efficiency of plant nutrients, reduce soil toxicity, minimize the potential adverse effects of excessive chemical fertilizer use, and reduce fertilizer application frequency. Nano fertilizers are important in agriculture to increase crop yield and nutrient use efficiency, and to reduce excessive use ofchemical fertilizers. The most important properties of these fertilizers are that they contain one or more of macro and micronutrients, they can be applied frequently in small amounts and are environmentally friendly. However, when applied at high doses, they exhibit decreasing effects on plant growth and crop yields, similar to chemical fertilizers. In this review, the definition, importan ce, and classification of nano fertilizers, their application in plant production, advantages and disadvantages and the results obtained in this field were discussed.

  10. Fertility desires and fertility outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, M; Santow, G

    1991-05-01

    An Australian 1-in-1000 national probability sample conducted in 1986 yielded 2547 women aged 20-59 who provided detailed life histories on marital unions, childbearing, and contraception. Age specific fertility rates, desired family size, differentials in desired family size, desired fertility and achieved fertility, and sequential family building are examined. The results indicate that the desired family size at 1st marriage has declined only slightly over the past 30 years. 3 children are generally desired, and ver few desire 2. The constance of fertility desires in contrasted with the fertilitydecline to below replacement levels. Several reasons are suggested for the desired family size: the desire is for a family size within the family tradition and modified by the desire to have 1 of each sex, the desire reflects less on intentions but more on normative pressure to become a parent. Marrying is self selecting on the desire for a traditional family of at least 2 children. There is a rising age at marriage as well as a decline in marriages. Desired family size exceeds completed fertility. Period factors and personal circumstances affect fertility intentions. Future inquires should explore the multiple factors relating to fertility, rather than in comparing fertility desires and actual fertility. The data collected on age specific fertility were comparable to official estimates. The fertility decline was evidenced in all groups except teenagers. The decline was nearly 50% for those 20-24 years between the 1050's-80's, 33% for ages 25-29. Marriage patterns explain this decline in part. Between 1971-76, women aged 20-25 were married 37 months out of 60 months in 1971-76 versus 25 out of 60 months in 1981-86. Within the 25 year age group, marital fertility has declined and unmarried fertility, which is low, has risen, Women in a marital union of any kind has remained stable. Fertility within de facto unions, which is lower than within marriage, is higher than

  11. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  12. Voluntary Disclosure and Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the disclosure strategy of firms that face uncertainty regarding the investor's response to a voluntary disclosure of the firm's private information.This paper distinguishes itself from the existing disclosure literature in that firms do not use voluntary disclosures to separate

  13. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  14. Status of voluntary restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.

  15. The histone deacetylase SIRT1 controls male fertility in mice through regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary gonadotropin signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Teerds, Katja; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Wendling, Olivia; McBurney, Michael; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Davidson, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) are class-III NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) that regulate various physiological processes. Inactivation of SIRT1 in the mouse leads to male sterility, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype have not been determined. Here we show that fetal testis

  16. The Histone Deacetylase SIRT1 Controls Male Fertility in Mice Through Regulation of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Gonadotropin Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K.J.; Kolthur-Seerharam, U.; Rooij, de D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Sirtuins (SIRTs) are class-III NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) that regulate various physiological processes. Inactivation of SIRT1 in the mouse leads to male sterility, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype have not been determined. Here we show that fetal testis

  17. Voluntary agreements in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    A typically voluntary agreement is signed between the authorities and an industrial sector in order to reduce the emission of environmentally harmful substances. There are many different types of agreements. Voluntary agreements are not strictly voluntary, since in the background there is often some kind of ''threat'' about taxation or fees if the industry is unwilling to cooperate. This type of agreements has become popular in many OECD countries during the last decades. In Norway there are only a few agreements of this type. Experience with the use of voluntary agreements as well as research show that they are less cost-effective than market-based instruments such as taxes and quota systems. If there are great restrictions on the use of taxes and quota systems because of information- or measurement problems, or because these instruments are not politically acceptable, then voluntary agreements may be an interesting alternative. Thus, voluntary agreements are best used as a supplement to other instruments in some niche areas of the environmental policy. In some cases, voluntary agreements may be used between two countries or at a regional level, for example within the EU

  18. Testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) regulates sperm function and fertility in dairy bulls through potential mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species, calcium and actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, G D; Kroetsch, T; Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2017-07-01

    Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) eliminates bulls that are grossly abnormal; however, bulls classified as satisfactory potential breeders still vary in field fertility, implying submicroscopic differences in sperm characteristics. The testis-specific isoform of Na/K-ATPase (ATP1A4) is involved in regulation of sperm motility and capacitation in bulls through well-established enzyme activity and signaling functions. The objective was to determine ATP1A4 content, activity and their relationship to post-thaw sperm function and field fertility, using semen samples from low-fertility (LF) and high-fertility (HF) Holstein bulls (n = 20 each) with known FERTSOL rates (measure of field fertility, based on non-return rate). Frozen-thawed sperm from HF bulls had increased ATP1A4 content and activity compared to LF bulls. Furthermore, post-thaw sperm from HF bulls had increased tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS, F-actin content, and low intracellular calcium compared to LF bulls. Subsequent incubation of HF bull sperm with ouabain (a specific ligand of Na/K-ATPase) further augmented the post-thaw increase in tyrosine phosphorylation, ROS production, and F-actin content, whereas the increase in intracellular calcium was still low compared to LF bull sperm. ATP1A4 content and activity, ROS, F-actin and calcium were significantly correlated with fertility. In conclusion, we inferred that ATP1A4 content and activity differed among dairy bulls with satisfactory semen characteristics and that ATP1A4 may regulate sperm function through mechanisms involving ROS, F-actin and calcium in frozen-thawed sperm of HF and LF dairy bulls. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R2=0.7511) and leaves (R2=0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R2=0.8439) and root (R2=0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction.

  20. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  1. The challenges of adopting voluntary health, safety and environment measures for manufactured nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Tickner, J.

    2007-01-01

    to participate for various stakeholders, agency guidance and technical assistance, and transparency both in design, reporting and evaluation. The authors also recommend that any voluntary program become mandatory after 3 no more than three years to motivate voluntary participation.......This article explores the use of voluntary environmental programs in the United States in the past, and applies the lessons learned from these experiences to the regulation of nanomaterials. The authors found that the key elements of any voluntary environmental program should be incentives...

  2. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  3. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  4. 78 FR 48413 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Violations of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Violations of the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau... violators. Voluntary self-disclosure of EAR violations strengthens BIS's enforcement efforts by allowing BIS... detect the violations without such disclosures. BIS evaluates the seriousness of the violation and either...

  5. 75 FR 28780 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Procedure for Voluntary Self-Disclosure of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Request; Procedure for Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Violations of the Export Administration Regulations... violators. Voluntary self-disclosure of EAR violations strengthens BIS's enforcement efforts by allowing BIS... detect the violations without such disclosures. BIS evaluates the seriousness of the violation and either...

  6. 31 CFR 360.64 - Payment or reinvestment-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... guardian of an incapacitated person. 360.64 Section 360.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating..., Absentees, et al. § 360.64 Payment or reinvestment—voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. (a..., responsible for the owner's care and support may submit an application for recognition as voluntary guardian...

  7. Methodology for classification of commercial edification and of service according to the regulation for voluntary tagging of the energy efficiency level of commercial, services and public buildings - economic evaluation of the simulated and classified models; Metodologia para classificacao de edificacao comercial e de servico conforme a regulamentacao para etiquetagem voluntaria do nivel de eficiencia energetica de edificios comerciais, de servicos e publicos - avaliacao economica dos modelos simulados e classificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Norma do Nascimento; Rovere, Emilio Lebre La [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: normabaptista@ppe.ufrj.br, e-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the methodology developed for determination of energy performance and the classification in accordance with the Regulation for the Voluntary Tagging of the Efficiency Level of commercial, services and public edifications. The methodology applies to commercial and service edification, specifically for offices and schools purposes.

  8. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  9. The Emotional Response to Everyday Involuntary and Voluntary Memories in Dysphoria and Non-Dysphoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Retrieving personal memories may cause emotional reactions and thus a need for emotion regulation. Past research indicates that involuntary memories have a greater effect on mood that the voluntary counterparts. However, different dimensions of the emotional response (i.e., intensity and regulation...... regulation strategies in response to both involuntary and voluntary memories. The between-group differences were not accounted for by the individuals’ mood preceding memory retrieval or the valence of the remembered events. The results suggest an important effect of retrieval mode in the emotion regulation......) upon retrieval of both involuntary and voluntary personal memories have not been thoroughly examined. We examined individuals’ emotional intensity and regulation of everyday involuntary and voluntary memories during dysphoria and non-depression. Twenty dysphoric individuals and 23 non...

  10. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Board composition, mimetic behaviour and corporate voluntary disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshayani Arshad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of board composition and mimetic behaviour on the extent and credibility of corporate voluntary disclosure. The investigation is based on the annual reports of 155 Malaysian listed companies during the period when these companies faced new corporate governance regulation. This study provides evidence that under the influence of dominant owners on board, management voluntary disclosure decisions are driven by incentives to conform when their company is structured to meet expectations of good corporate governance. Such incentive seems to override incentives to disclose credible information to outside investors

  12. Voluntary health insurance in the European Union: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.

  13. 78 FR 48413 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Antiboycott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Antiboycott Violations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... Administration Regulations by providing a method for industry to voluntarily self-disclose Antiboycott violations...

  14. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  15. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...

  16. Voluntary Work: Between Citizenship and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Barreiro Carballal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the appearance of a series of new political subjects in democratic society at the change of the millennium, political subjects that the author considers of substantial importance in the realm of Constitutional Law. These include National Law 6/1996 concerning voluntary work, the variety of laws concerning voluntary work and finally the Organic Law, which regulates the Right to Association of March 7 2002. These are all clear examples of the recent and intense interest by the part of the administration in colonizing this until recently ignored territory. In Spain, it has been curious to note how the protagonists have changed in the debate about political participation. In the 1970s, it was seen that only parties and unions could transform society. In the 1980s, the new social movements were the only voices capable of correcting savage capitalism. Since the 1990s, only volunteers are understood to be capable of offering a bit of hope to the cloudy realm of social and political participation.

  17. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  18. The voluntary offset - approaches and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After having briefly presented the voluntary offset mechanism which aims at funding a project of reduction or capture of greenhouse gas emissions, this document describes the approach to be followed to adopt this voluntary offset, for individuals as well as for companies, communities or event organisations. It describes other important context issues (projects developed under the voluntary offset, actors of the voluntary offsetting market, market status, offset labels), and how to proceed in practice (definition of objectives and expectations, search for needed requirements, to ensure the meeting of requirements with respect to expectations). It addresses the case of voluntary offset in France (difficult implantation, possible solutions)

  19. [Assisted fertilization: meditations on the new legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, E; Manzur, A

    1997-02-01

    We review philosophical and controversial aspects of assisted fertilization. This exercise is necessary considering the discussion of a bill in the Parliament that intends to regulate these technologies in our Country. We review the definition of life beginning and the cost-benefit problem of adoption as an alternative to assisted fertilization.

  20. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  1. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  2. Voluntary agreements and community development as CSR in innovation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ramani, S.V.; Mukherjee, V.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper examines how an innovating firm decides between two forms of voluntary agreements (VA) in a context, where a non-governmental organization (NGO) rather than a regulator watches over citizens' interests. The innovation generates profit and consumer surplus as well as environmental damage. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the innovation process is considered in terms of a redistribution of profit towards community development, with or without additional abatement e...

  3. Offloading social care responsibilities: recent experiences of local voluntary organisations in a remote urban centre in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Neil; Rosenberg, Mark; Clasby, Rachael

    2007-07-01

    Services offered by voluntary organisations are an integral but often overlooked component of health and social care. Of late, there has been a renewed interest in voluntary welfare provision as a viable alternative to state and market. Recent developments in welfare provision in Canada appear to have brought greater social care roles for the voluntary sector at the same time as new and arguably more restrictive funding and accountability mechanisms are being imposed by different arms of the state. To explore these issues more closely, the present paper examines the impressions and experiences of voluntary and formal sector providers of services for senior citizens and people with disabilities in a remote urban centre (population less than 100 000) in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. Two important operational pressures provide the context of the analysis: (1) reform of provincial government funding and regulation of voluntary services; and (2) the restructuring of welfare provision, especially in the areas of health care and social services. The authors found evidence of an escalating incursion of the state into local voluntary sector affairs that needs to be understood in the context of long-standing institutional links between government and 'professional' voluntary welfare provision in British Columbia. The results point to three important directions in contemporary local voluntary provision: (1) an emerging ethos of accountability, efficiency and competition in voluntary provision; (2) increasing pressure to centralise volunteer services; and consequently, (3) the potential erosion of flexibility and personalisation that are seen to characterise the voluntary sector.

  4. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  5. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nicholas, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  6. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  7. Computational identification of fertility functions of bovine Reprimo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in fertility is possible through gene assisted selection. Cattle fertility and genes underlying it should be thoroughly studied and exploited to find solution to declining cattle fertility. Reprimo (RPRM) gene is a pleiotropic gene involved in suppression of cancer, regulation of mitotic cell cycle, cell cycle arrest and ...

  8. Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2010-07-01

    The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related to obesity. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include abnormal reproductive hormone levels, an increased release of adipose-derived hormones and adipokines associated with obesity, and other physical problems including sleep apnea and increased scrotal temperatures. Recently, genetic factors and markers for an obesity-related infertility have been discovered and may explain the difference between fertile obese and infertile obese men. Treatments are available for not only infertility related to obesity, but also as a treatment for the other comorbidities arising from obesity. Natural weight loss, as well as bariatric surgery are options for obese patients and have shown promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles. Therapeutic interventions including aromatase inhibitors, exogenous testosterone replacement therapy and maintenance and regulation of adipose-derived hormones, particularly leptin, may also be able to restore fertility in obese males. Because of the relative unawareness and lack of research in this area, controlled studies should be undertaken and more focus should be given to obesity as an etiolgy of male infertility.

  9. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  10. Voluntary work, a diversity of forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Joep de Hart

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Vrijwilligerswerk in meervoud. By international standards, the level of participation in voluntary work in the Netherlands is high, and the signs are that this will continue. On the other hand, the type of voluntary work and the groups in which it is concentrated are changing.

  11. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  12. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  13. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  14. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  15. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  16. Monetary reward speeds up voluntary saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lewis L; Chen, Y Mark; Zhou, Wu; Mustain, William D

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have shown that reward contingency is critical for sensorimotor learning, and reward expectation speeds up saccades in animals. Whether monetary reward speeds up saccades in human remains unknown. Here we addressed this issue by employing a conditional saccade task, in which human subjects performed a series of non-reflexive, visually-guided horizontal saccades. The subjects were (or were not) financially compensated for making a saccade in response to a centrally-displayed visual congruent (or incongruent) stimulus. Reward modulation of saccadic velocities was quantified independently of the amplitude-velocity coupling. We found that reward expectation significantly sped up voluntary saccades up to 30°/s, and the reward modulation was consistent across tests. These findings suggest that monetary reward speeds up saccades in human in a fashion analogous to how juice reward sped up saccades in monkeys. We further noticed that the idiosyncratic nasal-temporal velocity asymmetry was highly consistent regardless of test order, and its magnitude was not correlated with the magnitude of reward modulation. This suggests that reward modulation and the intrinsic velocity asymmetry may be governed by separate mechanisms that regulate saccade generation.

  17. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  18. Cross-cultural attitudes toward voluntary sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1985-06-01

    The degree to which voluntary sterilization (VS) is accepted as a form of fertility control throughout the world was assessed by examining the prevalence and legal status of VS in all countries for which information was available and by examining current religious and traditional attitudes toward VS. Information on VS prevalence for 73 countries indicates that in 28 countries, 10% of all eligible couples rely on VS. In a number of countries, including Korea, New Zealand, Panama, US, and Puerto Rico, 25% or more of all currently married women of reproductive age rely on VS. VS prevalence rates tend to be higher in Asian countries than in African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. In a number of countries, the average age and family size of VS acceptors is declining. Information on the legal status of VS for 124 countries indicates that 22 countries have laws which permit or encourage VS. These countries contain 13.4% of the world's population. In 54 countries, representing 60% of the world's population, there are no laws restricting VS, and VS is generally assumed to be legal. In 29 countries, representing 14% of world's population, the legal status of VS is unclear. In the remaining 29 countries, sterilization is forbidden except for medical or eugenic reasons. The degree to which these laws actually restrict VS varies from country to country. For example in Indonesia VS is illegal but widely practiced. Although some religious teachings discourage sterilization, the impact of religion on VS varies considerably from country to country. In the Catholic countries of Panama, Dominican Republic, and Philippines the prevalence of VS is high, and in the Catholic countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay the prevalence of VS is low. VS prevalence is generally low in Muslim countries, but high in the Muslim countries of Tunisia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. VS prevalence is high in the Buddhist country of Thailand but low in the Buddhist country of Burma

  19. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  20. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Support for Voluntary Euthanasia with No Logical Slippery Slope to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskal, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that acceptance of voluntary euthanasia does not generate commitment to either non-voluntary euthanasia or euthanasia on request. This is accomplished through analysis of John Keown's and David Jones's slippery slope arguments, and rejection of their view that voluntary euthanasia requires physicians to judge patients as better off dead. Instead, voluntary euthanasia merely requires physicians to judge patients as within boundaries of appropriate deference. This paper develops two ways of understanding and defending voluntary euthanasia on this model, one focused on the independent value of patients' autonomy and the other on the evidence of well-being provided by patients' requests. Both avoid the purported slippery slopes and both are independently supported by an analogy to uncontroversial elements of medical practice. Moreover, the proposed analyses of voluntary euthanasia suggest parameters for the design of euthanasia legislation, both supporting and challenging elements of existing laws in Oregon and the Netherlands.

  2. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  3. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  4. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  5. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  6. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...

  7. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)

  8. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 2001; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC(45)/RES/9)

  9. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2011-10-01

    This report documents the status and trends of 'compliance'--renewable energy certificate (REC) markets used to meet state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements--and 'voluntary' markets--those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Today, 29 states and the District of Columbia have an RPS, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, and all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents REC activities and trends in the United States. The compliance REC market analysis includes analysis of REC trading, regional REC markets, REC tracking systems, types of compliance RECs, compliance REC pricing trends, and an overview of compliance with RPS polices. The voluntary REC analysis presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing and administrative expenses, voluntary REC pricing, and the voluntary carbon offsets market. The report concludes with a discussion of upcoming guidance from the Federal Trade Commission on green marketing claims, the emergence of community solar programs, and the potential impact of Dodd-Frank regulations on the REC market.

  10. Voluntary business activities to mitigate climate change: Case studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Masayo

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary business activities, such as the voluntary action plans conducted by comprehensive business associations in Japan to reduce environmental damage, are viable policy instruments alongside regulations and economic incentives (e.g. taxes and emissions trading schemes). This paper examines three case studies in which voluntary activities have played a successful role in mitigating climate change. Based on interviews with business organisations together with a literature review and data analysis, we show why businesses are motivated to take socially responsible actions and describe the major benefits of such activities. One of the important benefits of voluntary activities is their flexibility in phasing measures. This flexibility is greatly appreciated, since industries are able to retain control of their responses to future uncertainties, which allows them to tackle climate change issues aggressively. We conclude that voluntary activities have been more environmentally effective than alternative policy measures under a proper institutional framework, which consists of effective motivation mechanisms for businesses, governmental measures to encourage their compliance, and capable industrial associations that can lessen the transaction costs both of the government and of industry. - Highlights: • Businesses are well motivated to take suitable, technologically feasible actions. • Capability of industrial associations is a key to successful voluntary activities. • Flexibility allows businesses to manage uncertainty and aim for ambitious goals

  11. 'Emotional rights', moral reasoning, and Jewish-Arab alliances in the regulation of in-vitro-fertilization in israel: theorizing the unexpected consequences of assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooldin, Sigal

    2013-04-01

    Consumption rates of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in Israel is internationally unprecedented, a phenomenon that has been the subject of growing anthropological and sociological attention. Explanations for the singular extent of ARTs use in Israel tend to pre-assume and conceptually prioritize the symbolic and political power of pro-natalist discourses, Jewish religious values, and the demographic interests of the Jewish state. This article attempts to understand the exceptional usage of IVF in Israel in terms of its emergent meanings and unexpected effects in a particular local setup. The question that this article tries to answer is: How is the 'Israeli character' of IVF emerges within and through the interactive practice of moral justifications, and how might this medical technology affect the networks within which it is enmeshed? The article is based on a case-study analysis of a public dispute that took place in 2003-2004 over the extent of public funding for fertility treatments. Ethnographic analysis of parliament discussions, media coverage, and an online forum of IVF consumers recorded three frames of justification for the uniquely generous public funding scheme of IVF in Israel: 'rational-economic', 'nationalist', and 'liberal'. The latter assumes shared 'emotional vulnerability' of all 'childless' Israelis, Jews and Arabs alike and advocates a universal language of 'emotional rights' and 'human rights'. This liberal framing of IVF, which is the most persuasive justification in the dispute, blurs dichotomous rivalries between Jews and Arabs and generates a potential for alliances between traditionally rival sectors. These are some of the unexpected and non-intuitive consequences of ARTs in Israel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Some relations among cultural traditions, nuptiality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coale, A J

    1991-01-01

    Demographic transition is a period characterized by changes in mortality and fertility that accompany modernization and economic development. Typical features of age at first marriage among populations in different stages of demographic transition are described including the changes in age at marriage, the association between marriage age changes and fertility control, and the role of cultural and traditional behavior in influencing age at marriage and initiation of fertility control. In the Western model, there was a late age of marriage for women between 23 and 28 years old, and a high proportion of women who remain single until 50 years old (10-25%). The Eastern European model was one of moderately early marriage (mean age 19-22) and a small proportion remaining single (2-5%). The third model was Asian and African with early (mean age of 18 years) and universal marriage (1% unmarried). The reduction in number married was associated with reduced fertility. The differences between the Eastern and Western models were in household composition. In premodern societies, any fertility control present was governed by custom and limited biomedical influences such as duration of breast feeding and sexual abstention following a birth. These practices were not considered deliberate fertility control. The mean age of marriage in India was 14 years until 1941 and slowly reached 18.4 years in 1981. Fertility did not begin to decline until after 1960. Examples are given of the close association between marital fertility that is voluntary controlled and mean age at marriage. The influences of culture and traditions on the association between mean age of marriage and voluntary fertility control are shown by examples from the Soviet Union. The eastern part of the Soviet Union experienced a rise in mean age of marriage and an unsustained decline in marital fertility similar to that in China. There were also similarities in nuptiality and fertility between other areas in the Soviet

  13. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 78 FR 69793 - Voluntary Remedial Actions and Guidelines for Voluntary Recall Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ...'' and ``hard copy'' as possible forms of direct voluntary recall notice. Because firms often lack... formatting of a voluntary recall notice in the form of a press release should comport with the most current... transmitted using an electronic medium and in hard copy form. Acceptable forms of, and means for...

  15. The Client's Perspective on Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Donaher, Joe; Stergiou, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus. Responses were considered with respect to the type of voluntary stuttering the participants reportedly produced and the location of use. A client perceives significantly greater affective, behavioral, and cognitive benefits from voluntary stuttering when the production is closely matched to the client's actual stutter and when it is used outside the clinical environment. To enhance client perception of associated benefits, clinicians should encourage use of voluntary stuttering that closely matches the client's own stuttering. Clinicians should also facilitate practice of voluntary stuttering outside of the therapy room. Finally, clinicians should be aware that clients, at least initially, may not perceive any benefits from the use of this strategy.

  16. 5 CFR 179.209 - Voluntary repayment agreement as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternative to salary offset. 179.209 Section 179.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.209 Voluntary repayment agreement as alternative to salary offset. (a)(1) In response to a notice of intent, an employee may propose...

  17. 75 FR 43486 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Antiboycott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Antiboycott Violations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... Administration Regulations (EAR) by providing a method for industry to voluntarily self-disclose antiboycott violations. Companies wishing to voluntarily self-disclose antiboycott may submit pertinent information, as...

  18. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  19. SEA Screening of voluntary Climate Change Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2013-01-01

    that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation...... rests upon a docu- mentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical...... and adap- tation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon...

  20. ASPECTS REGARDING CORPORATE MANDATORY AND VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights theoretical aspects regarding corporate mandatory and voluntary disclosure. Since financial and business reporting are important information sources for different stakeholders, especially for publicly traded companies, the business reporting is increasingly oriented to the need of different users. In order to make rational investment decisions, users of corporate annual and interim reports require an extensive range of information. The increasing needs of the users persuade different international bodies and researchers to investigate the improvements that can be done in business reporting. The results of those studies usually were different reporting models. Because voluntary dimension of corporate disclosure involve the manifestation of free choice of the firm and its managers, we have considered as necessary to achieve a theoretical analysis of the main costs and profits of the voluntary disclosure policy.

  1. Containment of fertilizers and pesticides at retail operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broder, M.F.

    1990-06-28

    Environmental protection has become as important to the fertilizer retailer as the products and services he offers. Emphasis on environmental protection at the dealer level is largely in response to state regulations designed to protect groundwater. The national Clean Water Act of 1987 gave states the lead in developing groundwater protection strategies. Several states have adopted new or stronger regulations and others are moving to do so. Fertilizer dealers need to keep up with these regulations and promote groundwater protection. This paper describes several containment systems for fertilizers and pesticides to help dealers decide how to modify their plants to protect groundwater.

  2. Theoretical explanations of the rapid fertility decline in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C

    1986-07-01

    A 1982 population census recorded China's fertility rate in 1982 at 2.6; recent statistics of China's State Statistics Bureau record China's 1984 birth rate at 17 per 1000 and the total fertility rate at 1.94. Wu Cangping asserts that this world-recognized rapid fertility decline is not due to any compulsory governmental restrictions on fertility, but to the people's willingness to control fertility voluntarily. He cites a number of socioeconomic factors contributing to this voluntary decline in China's birth rates: 1) change of family function; 2) decline of mortality, particularly infant mortality; 3) improvement in the educational level; 4) improvement in women's social status, especially increased employment; 5) better social security services for the elderly; 6) the preference for modern ways of production and life; and 7) the availability of information on population and birth control. He attributes these factors to the socialist system with its nationalized production, centralized planning of the national economy, and the even distribution system which prevents polarization of earning. In addition, reforms have been carried out in all aspects of social life and recent advances have been made in science and technology. All of these factors have resulted in a more rapid fertility transition in China as compared to that of developed countries in their past and that of developing countries at present.

  3. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  4. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society

  5. The bible and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-03-15

    Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God.

  6. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...... are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism....

  7. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your teens and early twenties can affect your fertility for years to come. This prevention guide was written by ... loss of testic- ulor size, see your doctor. Fertility is something that you ... approximately 40 percent of infertile couples, the male partner is ...

  8. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  9. The empirical slippery slope from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penney

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evidence for the empirical argument that there is a slippery slope between the legalization of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively-to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively.

  10. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peñasco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  11. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  12. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  13. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983. PMID:2033626

  14. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983.

  15. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-11-06

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.

  16. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  17. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  18. VOLUNTARY INTEREST ARBITRATION IN THE ETHIOPIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Birhanu is currently working as the Manager of the Legal Research and Advisory Division ... forth voluntary interest arbitration to the attention of lawyers, employees, .... being selective is a poor design since the basic rules of this law are not .... courts to review interest arbitrators decision on the merit by way of appeal.

  19. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... measures so that Contingency planning information can be shared with Participants to enable them to plan... Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) Table of Contents Abbreviations Definitions Preface I. Purpose II... of VISA Contingency Provisions A. General B. Notification of Activation C. Voluntary Capacity D...

  20. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.

  1. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A

  2. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    that voluntary community work in relation to public urban regeneration is much more than the public’s engagement in project planning processes. Contrary to temporary urban regeneration projects, VCOs are much more permanently embedded in the neighbourhood, and volunteers are motivated by both self-interest...

  3. Improving voluntary medical male circumcision standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine ...

  4. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  5. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.

  6. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  7. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  8. Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary counseling and ... Background: In Uganda, the main stay for provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and testing uptake among students in Bahir Dar University: A case control study. ... Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing ... The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for Voluntary Counseling and testing services in major health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary ... The commonest reason for not donating blood was fear to damage of health as reported in ... to arouse the interest of the general public in voluntary blood donation exercises.

  12. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  13. Facilitating and supporting HIV+ parenthood: Lessons for developing the advocate role of voluntary HIV support services workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, Tam Pheona Chipawe

    2018-06-01

    Increasingly as people living with HIV (PLWHIV) aim to become parents, they engage with HIV voluntary services for support through either fertility or adoption services. Yet, little is known about the role of HIV support services workers in facilitating access to fertility treatment or child adoption. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of HIV support workers based in HIV voluntary organisations who have a key role helping PLWHIV in navigating relevant fertility and adoption processes. This was an exploratory qualitative study which involved interviewing six HIV support workers, from across the UK. Interviews were conducted using face to face interviews, recorded and transcribed. Findings revealed that HIV services support workers provide practical support in advocating service provision, and emotional and social support along the journey. They also face challenges in their role from health care professionals including information sharing and gatekeeping. The role of HIV support workers is important in facilitating access to resources and complex systems. HIV support workers should be recognised and as they are often a trusted professional to address stigma, discrimination and barriers to services. The study contributes to research seeking to understand the emerging needs and support requirements for people living with HIV seeking fertility and adoption. Further work in this area is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SEWAGE SLUDGE AS AN INGREDIENT IN FERTILIZERS AND SOIL SUBSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, sludge management especially in medium and small sewage treatment plants is still a significant problem. According to data from the Central Statistical Office and the report on the implementation of the National Urban Wastewater Treatment Program (in polish KPOŚK land application of sewage sludge remains one of the main methods, although there has been considerable interest known: 'application for other purposes ", where the preparation of composts and fertilizers is included. The use of fertilizer produced from sewage sludge (compost, granules, organic and mineral fertilizers, is regulated by the Act on fertilizers and fertilization, and the relevant implementing rules. For example, they define the test procedure (concerning the quality of fertilizers to enable appropriate permissions to market this type of fertilizers. There is still only several technologies existing on the Polish market dedicated to production of fertilizers in advanced technologies of sewage sludge treatment. Usually the treatment plants are trying to obtain the necessary certificates for generated fertilizers (including composts, or soils substitutes. The advantages of these technologies should be no doubt: the loss of waste status, ability to store the fertilizer and unlimited transportation between areas, sanitization of the product (as a result of the use of calcium or sulfur compounds or temperature should be an alternative for drying technology. While the disadvantages are primarily the investment costs and time consuming certification procedures. However, these solutions enable to maintain the organic matter and phosphorus as well as greater control over possible pollution introduced into the soil.

  15. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  16. 75 FR 47607 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey. This is a.... Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: Will be assigned upon approval. Form Number: None...

  17. 77 FR 36566 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs...

  18. 77 FR 55487 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey... forms of information. Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs and...

  19. 75 FR 27563 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... collection requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB...

  20. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and will...

  1. 9 CFR 93.903 - Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., fertilized eggs, and gametes. 93.903 Section 93.903 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... General Provisions for Svc-Regulated Fish Species § 93.903 Import permits for live fish, fertilized eggs, and gametes. (a) Live fish, fertilized eggs, or gametes of SVC-susceptible species imported into the...

  2. Perchlorate in Fertilizers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eldridge, J. E; Tsui, D. T; Mattie, D. R; Crown, J; Scott, R; Blackman, T

    1999-01-01

    ...) methods for perchlorate analysis in lawn and garden fertilizers. Seven government, private, and commercial laboratories participated in the analysis of 34 aqueous suspensions of the test materials, using similar ion chromatography systems...

  3. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  4. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  5. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  6. Queering the fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura

    2013-06-01

    A sociologist examines contemporary engagements of queer bodies and identities with fertility biomedicine. Drawing on social science, media culture, and the author's own empirical research, three questions frame the analysis: 1. In what ways have queers on the gendered margins moved into the center and become implicated or central users of biomedicine's fertility offerings? 2. In what ways is Fertility Inc. transformed by its own incorporation of various gendered and queered bodies and identities? And 3. What are the biosocial and bioethical implications of expanded queer engagements and possibilities with Fertility Inc.? The author argues that "patient" activism through web 2.0 coupled with a largely unregulated free-market of assisted reproduction has included various queer identities as "parents-in-waiting." Such inclusions raise a set of ethical tensions regarding how to be accountable to the many people implicated in this supply and demand industry.

  7. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  8. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  9. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior ...

  10. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  11. Cost-effectiveness comparison between pituitary down-regulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist short regimen on alternate days and an antagonist protocol for assisted fertilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Luiz Guilherme Louzada; Franco, José Gonçalves; Setti, Amanda Souza; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2013-05-01

    To compare cost-effectiveness between pituitary down-regulation with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) short regimen on alternate days and GnRH antagonist (GnRHant) multidose protocol on in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. Prospective, randomized. A private center. Patients were randomized into GnRHa (n = 48) and GnRHant (n = 48) groups. GnRHa stimulation protocol: administration of triptorelin on alternate days starting on the first day of the cycle, recombinant FSH (rFSH), and recombinant hCG (rhCG) microdose. GnRHant protocol: administration of a daily dose of rFSH, cetrorelix, and rhCG microdose. ICSI outcomes and treatment costs. A significantly lower number of patients underwent embryo transfer in the GnRHa group. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly lower and miscarriage rate was significantly higher in the GnRHa group. It was observed a significant lower cost per cycle in the GnRHa group compared with the GnRHant group ($5,327.80 ± 387.30 vs. $5,900.40 ± 472.50). However, mean cost per pregnancy in the GnRHa was higher than in the GnRHant group ($19,671.80 ± 1,430.00 vs. $11,328.70 ± 907.20). Although the short controlled ovarian stimulation protocol with GnRHa on alternate days, rFSH, and rhCG microdose may lower the cost of an individual IVF cycle, it requires more cycles to achieve pregnancy. NCT01468441. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Conference considers low fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    At present, at least 51 countries--representing 44% of the world's population--are showing below-replacement fertility rates. In some of these countries, where the number of new births is not adequate to replace aging populations, this trend is problematic. In other countries, most notably China, declining fertility has conferred significant benefits. At an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Population Commission meeting held in New York in 1997, staff from China's State Statistical Bureau reported the country has a current total fertility rate of 1.8. The birth rate remains high, however, because of the large numbers of Chinese women in the 15-49 year reproductive age group (336 million in 1997). Also buffering the impact of a low fertility rate is a large labor surplus (130 million excess workers in rural China). To keep fertility below the replacement level, China plans to improve the quality of its family planning service, enhance poverty alleviation programs, and increase incentives for small families in rural areas. China's low fertility rate has provided an important impetus for economic development.

  14. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  15. Evaluation of two dairy herd reproductive performance indicators that are adjusted for voluntary waiting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löf Emma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall reproductive performance of dairy herds is monitored by various indicators. Most of them do not consider all eligible animals and do not consider different management strategies at farm level. This problem can be alleviated by measuring the proportion of pregnant cows by specific intervals after their calving date or after a fixed time period, such as the voluntary waiting period. The aim of this study was to evaluate two reproductive performance indicators that consider the voluntary waiting period at the herd. The two indicators were: percentage of pregnant cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (PV30 and percentage of inseminated cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (IV30. We wanted to assess how PV30 and IV30 perform in a simulation of herds with different reproductive management and physiology and to compare them to indicators of reproductive performance that do not consider the herd voluntary waiting period. Methods To evaluate the reproductive indicators we used the SimHerd-program, a stochastic simulation model, and 18 scenarios were simulated. The scenarios were designed by altering the reproductive management efficiency and the status of reproductive physiology of the herd. Logistic regression models, together with receiver operating characteristics (ROC, were used to examine how well the reproductive performance indicators could discriminate between herds of different levels of reproductive management efficiency or reproductive physiology. Results The logistic regression models with the ROC analysis showed that IV30 was the indicator that best discriminated between different levels of management efficiency followed by PV30, calving interval, 200-days not-in calf-rate (NotIC200, in calf rate at100-days (IC100 and a fertility index. For reproductive physiology the ROC analysis showed that the fertility index was the indicator that best discriminated

  16. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  17. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  18. Stressors and Coping among Voluntary Sports Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, AJ; Didymus, F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching has been identified as a naturally stressful occupation. Coaches must be able to competently and effectively manage stress that is inherent in competitive sport and perform under pressure. Yet, limited research exists that has explored coaches’ experiences of psychological stress. The research that does exist has mainly focused on full-time, elite coaches who represent just 3% of the coaching workforce in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Despite the voluntary coaching wo...

  19. Canada's voluntary industrial energy conservation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Jr., C. A.

    1979-07-01

    The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)

  20. Effects of acute voluntary loaded wheel running on BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minchul; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-12-31

    Voluntary loaded wheel running involves the use of a load during a voluntary running activity. A muscle-strength or power-type activity performed at a relatively high intensity and a short duration may cause fewer apparent metabolic adaptations but may still elicit muscle fiber hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute voluntary wheel running with an additional load on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. Ten-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a (1) sedentary (Control) group; (2) voluntary exercise with no load (No-load) group; or (3) voluntary exercise with an additional load (Load) group for 1-week (acute period). The expression of BDNF genes was quantified by real-time PCR. The average distance levels were not significantly different in the No-load and Load groups. However, the average work levels significantly increased in the Load group. The relative soleus weights were greater in the No-load group. Furthermore, loaded wheel running up-regulated the BDNF mRNA level compared with that in the Control group. The BDNF mRNA levels showed a positive correlation with workload levels (r=0.75), suggesting that the availability of multiple workload levels contributes to the BDNF-related benefits of loaded wheel running noted in this study. This novel approach yielded the first set of findings showing that acute voluntary loaded wheel running, which causes muscular adaptation, enhanced BDNF expression, suggesting a possible role of high-intensity short-term exercise in hippocampal BDNF activity. ©2017 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition

  1. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  2. Intenções reprodutivas e práticas de regulação da fecundidade entre universitários Reproductive intentions and fertility regulation practices among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cibelle Machado Pirotta

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as intenções reprodutivas e caracterizar as práticas de regulação da fecundidade, abarcando a contracepção e o aborto, entre um grupo de adolescentes e jovens de alta escolaridade. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram levantados a partir de um estudo amplo quali-quantitativo com estudantes de graduação com idade de até 24 anos, de uma universidade pública estadual localizada na cidade de São Paulo. A população estudada foi constituída de 952 estudantes que freqüentavam disciplinas sorteadas pelo método de sorteio aleatório; e numa segunda etapa foram realizadas 33 entrevistas em profundidade com alunos voluntários. Na primeira etapa, os alunos foram entrevistados em sala de aula, através de um questionário auto-aplicável e, na segunda etapa, foram gravadas entrevistas em profundidade, realizadas em um local previamente combinado. RESULTADOS: O padrão de família idealizado pelo grupo era pequeno, com até dois filhos. A idade considerada ideal no nascimento do primeiro filho seria próxima aos 30 anos. Os estudantes referiram uma alta proporção de uso de contraceptivos - sobretudo do condom e da pílula. Ao lado disso, observa-se uma alta proporção de gestações finalizadas pelo aborto. Como resultante desse quadro, a fecundidade é bastante baixa no grupo, ou seja, 27 estudantes referiram uma ou mais gestações. Os dados qualitativos não foram objeto de análise. CONCLUSÕES: Embora o tamanho idealizado para a família reflita uma tendência geral presente na sociedade brasileira, constata-se que o grupo adia a maternidade/paternidade em função de um projeto de vida orientado para a conclusão de um curso superior e a inserção no mercado de trabalho. Ainda assim, a contracepção e a prevenção das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis são vivenciadas precariamente.OBJECTIVE: To identify reproductive intentions and fertility regulation practices, including contraception and abortion, in a group of

  3. Comparison of digestion methods to determine heavy metals in fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a standard method to regulate heavy metal determination in Brazilian fertilizers and the subsequent use of several digestion methods have produced variations in the results, hampering interpretation. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three digestion methods for determination of metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in fertilizers. Samples of 45 fertilizers marketed in northeastern Brazil were used. A fertilizer sample with heavy metal contents certified by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST was used as control. The following fertilizers were tested: rock phosphate; organo-mineral fertilizer with rock phosphate; single superphosphate; triple superphosphate; mixed N-P-K fertilizer; and fertilizer with micronutrients. The substances were digested according to the method recommended by the Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Brazil (MAPA and by the two methods 3051A and 3052 of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. By the USEPA method 3052, higher portions of the less soluble metals such as Ni and Pb were recovered, indicating that the conventional digestion methods for fertilizers underestimate the total amount of these elements. The results of the USEPA method 3051A were very similar to those of the method currently used in Brazil (Brasil, 2006. The latter is preferable, in view of the lower cost requirement for acids, a shorter digestion period and greater reproducibility.

  4. Radioactivity in Chemical Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    The fertilizers are essential in agriculture as they supply nutrients to the farming fields. One of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to extensive use of fertilizers. The concentrations of natural radionuclides, 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U in different chemical fertilizers, which are part of the regular control of imported goods from the border crossing were analyzed using gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, relative efficiency 20 %, in order to assess the implications of the extended use of chemical fertilizers. Measurements were performed at Vinca Institute, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of different samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for gamma activity of those fertilizer samples for 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U are 4857 (23 - 12 324) Bq/kg, 87 (4-393) Bq/kg, 220 (26-1145) Bq/kg and 15 (1.6-53) Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) as well as the external absorbed gamma dose rate (D) for all samples was also calculated.(author)

  5. Review of voluntary and regulatory carbon reporting by companies around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borie, Sylvain; Decq, Juliette; Wang, Xin; Alberola, Emilie; Afriat, Marion; Gourdon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    What countries have instituted regulations requiring companies to measure their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? How could these regulations be strengthened to help meet the '2 deg. C' goal adopted by all member countries at the COP21 summit? In what ways do new French regulations on reporting of significant GHG emissions constitute a major advance in carbon reporting? To complement recent news focusing on reporting of carbon emissions in France, Carbone 4 offers its readers this review to put voluntary and regulatory carbon reporting mechanisms used by companies in a global perspective

  6. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  7. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R A; Halstead, E H

    1974-07-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  8. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.; Halstead, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  9. Performance Sustainability and Integrated Reporting: Empirical Evidence from Mandatory and Voluntary Adoption Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Loprevite

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the topic of regulation of integrated reporting for listed companies, with the aim of contributing to the debate on the usefulness of introducing a mandatory regime, both from the perspective of integrated performance sustainability of companies and from that of relevance of information for providers of financial capital. The study is based on empirical research carried out on a sample composed of companies operating in territories where the adoption of integrated reporting is voluntary (Europe and those operating in a country where adoption is mandatory (South Africa. The research shows that (a in voluntary regimes, levels of integrated performance achieved by companies are higher; (b mandatory regulation produces positive effects on integrated performance levels in the medium term; (c integrated performance indicators are value-relevant, though having different levels of relevance under the two regimes examined.

  10. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  11. Bankruptcy and Voluntary Liquidation: Evidence for New Firms in East and West Germany after Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Prantl, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Exploiting the unique economic situation after German unification, I investigate how exit decisions deviate between new firms in a transition and a comparatively stable market environment. Two competing exit mechanisms are considered: entrepreneurial self-selection via voluntary liquidation and external selection based on insolvency regulation. Distinguishing between the competing exit modes proves to be crucial in semi-parametric propor- tional hazard-rate estimations. Comparing East and Wes...

  12. Association between firm characteristics and corporate voluntary disclosure: Evidence from Turkish listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Uyar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper empirically investigates the factors that impact voluntary information disclosure level of Turkish manufacturing companies listed in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of the study is content analysis of annual reports of the corporations listed on the ISE for the year 2010. Findings: The findings provide evidence of a positive association between voluntary information disclosure level and the variables such as firm size, auditing firm size, proportion of independent directors on the board, institutional/corporate ownership, and corporate governance. However, leverage and ownership diffusion were found to have negative significant association with the extent of voluntary disclosure. The remaining variables, namely, profitability, listing age, and board size were found to be insignificant. Research limitations/implications: Since this study was conducted solely on listed manufacturing companies, the results may not be generalizable to non-listed and non-manufacturing industries. The study has some implications for firms, auditors, investors, and regulators. All these parties play an important role in improving the transparency and disclosure practices of corporations. Originality/value: We extend previous research on the determinants of voluntary information disclosure in the emerging market context.

  13. Stakeholders of Voluntary Forest Carbon Offset Projects in China: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the defining challenges facing the planet. Voluntary forest carbon offset project which has the potential to boost forest carbon storage and mitigate global warming has aroused the global concern. The objective of this paper is to model the game situation and analyze the game behaviors of stakeholders of voluntary forest carbon offset projects in China. A stakeholder model and a Power-Benefit Matrix are constructed to analyze the roles, behaviors, and conflicts of stakeholders including farmers, planting entities, communities, government, and China Green Carbon Foundation. The empirical analysis results show that although the stakeholders have diverse interests and different goals, a win-win solution is still possible through their joint participation and compromise in the voluntary forest carbon offset project. A wide governance structure laying emphasis on benefit balance, equality, and information exchanges and being regulated by all stakeholders has been constructed. It facilitates the agreement among the stakeholders with conflicting or different interests. The joint participation of stakeholders in voluntary forest carbon offset projects might change the government-dominated afforestation/reforestation into a market, where all participators including government are encouraged to cooperate with each other to improve the condition of fund shortage and low efficiency.

  14. Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-09-01

    The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.

  15. Electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Passelergue, Philippe; Dupui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) reverses the order of recruitment of motor units (MU) observed with voluntary muscular contraction (VOL) since under ES, large MU are recruited before small MU. The superimposition of ES onto VOL (superimposed technique: application of an electrical stimulus during a voluntary muscle action) can theoretically activate more motor units than VOL performed alone, which can engender an increase of the contraction force. Two superimposed techniques can be used: (i) the twitch interpolation technique (ITT), which consists of interjecting an electrical stimulus onto the muscle nerve; and (ii) the percutaneous superimposed electrical stimulation technique (PST), where the stimulation is applied to the muscle belly. These two superimposed techniques can be used to evaluate the ability to fully activate a muscle. They can thus be employed to distinguish the central or peripheral nature of fatigue after exhausting exercise. In general, whatever the technique employed, the superimposition of ES onto volitional exercise does not recruit more MU than VOL, except with eccentric actions. Nevertheless, the neuromuscular response associated with the use of the superimposed technique (ITT and PST) depends on the parameter of the superimposed current. The sex and the training level of the subjects can also modify the physiological impact of the superimposed technique. Although the motor control differs drastically between training with ES and VOL, the integration of the superimposed technique in training programmes with healthy subjects does not reveal significant benefits compared with programmes performed only with voluntary exercises. Nevertheless, in a therapeutic context, training programmes using ES superimposition compensate volume and muscle strength deficit with more efficiency than programmes using VOL or ES separately.

  16. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  17. Voluntary euthanasia: ethical concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K; Chaloner, C

    Euthanasia is a highly emotive and contentious subject, giving rise to a great deal of debate. However, despite its frequent exposure in public and professional media, there appears to be a lack of clarity about the concepts and definitions used in the euthanasia debate. This suggests that discussions on this subject are inadequately informed and ineffectual. The ethical focus of the euthanasia debate concerns the moral legitimacy of 'voluntary euthanasia'. This article provides an overview and clarification of some of the key ethical issues at the centre of that debate.

  18. Mediation –Voluntary or Mandatory Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ROSU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Part of modifications brought through 370/2009 Act to the 192/2006 Law concerning mediation and structure of mediator profession have been interpreted as establishing a preliminary mediation procedure before intimating the courts of law, in civil and commercial matters. This interpretation is in excess of operative legal provisions. Although the law in modified form stipulates the compulsoriness of judicial authorities and other jurisdictional bodies to inform the parties about the possibility and the dvantages of using mediation procedure and the obligation to guide the parties to resort at mediation, this circumstances does not affect the mediation particular voluntary nature.

  19. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  20. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  1. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Localized application of small quantities of fertilizer (micro-dosing), combined with improved planting pits for rainwater harvesting, has generated greater profits and food security for women farmers in the Sahel. • Women are 25% more likely to use combined applications, and have expanded areas of food crops (cowpea,.

  2. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on: The underlying cause of the problem The woman's age Her history of previous pregnancies How long she has had infertility issues The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose infertility is due to problems with ovulation. ...

  3. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  4. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  5. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  6. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  7. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ...

  8. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...

  9. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  10. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  11. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  12. Keberadaan Corporate Governance Dan Kondisi Financial Distressed Terhadap Voluntary Disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Riesanti Edie

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm's operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997).Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdi...

  13. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the Commission under section 9 of the CPSA. 1115.5 Section 1115.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.5 Reporting of failures to comply...

  14. Can universal access be achieved in a voluntary private health insurance market? Dutch private insurers caught between competing logics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Robert A A; Schut, Frederik T

    2018-01-01

    For almost a century, the Netherlands was marked by a large market for voluntary private health insurance alongside state-regulated social health insurance. Throughout this period, private health insurers tried to safeguard their position within an expanding welfare state. From an institutional

  15. KEBERADAAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN KONDISI FINANCIAL DISTRESSED TERHADAP VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesanti Edie Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm’s operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997.Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdisclosure. This research used a sample of manufacture fi rms listed in Indonesian stockexchange. Based on data processing using sample above, we found that corporate governance andfi nancial distress could be associated with the voluntary disclosure level.

  16. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...

  17. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  18. The fertility transition in Cuba and the Federal Republic of Korea: the impact of organised family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J; Potts, M

    1996-04-01

    South Korea and Cuba are dissimilar in religion, economy, culture and attitudes toward premarital sexual relations. In 1960, Korea instituted a national family planning programme to combat rapid population growth. Cuba explicitly rejected Malthusian policies, but made family planning universally available in 1974 in response to health needs. Both countries have undergone rapid fertility declines and today have less than replacement level fertility. Both countries have also used a similar mixture of methods, including a high prevalence of female sterilisation. Abortion has played a major role in the fertility decline of both countries, rising in the first half of the fertility transition and then falling, although remaining a significant variable in the second half. It is concluded that access to contraception, voluntary sterilisation, and safe abortion has a direct impact on fertility and has been associated with a rapid fall in family size in two very different countries.

  19. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  2. Family Law Effects on Divorce, Fertility and Child Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Mullins; Christopher Flinn; Meta Brown

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the child welfare impact of policies governing divorced parenting, such as child support orders, child custody and placement regulations, and marital dissolution standards, one must consider their influence not only on the divorce rate but also on spouses' fertility choices and child investments. We develop a model of marriage, fertility and parenting, with the main goal being the investigation of how policies toward divorce influence outcomes for husbands, wives and childr...

  3. The impact of cross-border reproductive care or 'fertility tourism' on NHS maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, A; David, A L; Shenfield, F; Jauniaux, E R

    2009-10-01

    High order multiple pregnancies have substantial morbidity and mortality. Fertility treatment is commonly responsible for their conception and is available globally with variable regulation. We investigated cross-border fertility treatment in these pregnancies in a UK fetal medicine unit, recording mode of conception, country of fertility treatment, reason for non-UK treatment and fetal reduction. Over an 11-year period, 109 women had a high order multiple pregnancy. Ninety-four women (86%) conceived with fertility treatment of whom 24 (26%) had this performed overseas. Cross-border fertility treatment poses an increasing challenge to obstetricians. National data on its occurrence is urgently needed.

  4. Relationships between nutrient-related plant traits and combinations of soil N and P fertility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuki; van Bodegom, Peter M; Witte, Jan-Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility and nutrient-related plant functional traits are in general only moderately related, hindering the progress in trait-based prediction models of vegetation patterns. Although the relationships may have been obscured by suboptimal choices in how soil fertility is expressed, there has never been a systematic investigation into the suitability of fertility measures. This study, therefore, examined the effect of different soil fertility measures on the strength of fertility-trait relationships in 134 natural plant communities. In particular, for eight plot-mean traits we examined (1) whether different elements (N or P) have contrasting or shared influences, (2) which timescale of fertility measures (e.g. mineralization rates for one or five years) has better predictive power, and (3) if integrated fertility measures explain trait variation better than individual fertility measures. Soil N and P had large mutual effects on leaf nutrient concentrations, whereas they had element-specific effects on traits related to species composition (e.g. Grime's CSR strategy). The timescale of fertility measures only had a minor impact on fertility-trait relationships. Two integrated fertility measures (one reflecting overall fertility, another relative availability of soil N and P) were related significantly to most plant traits, but were not better in explaining trait variation than individual fertility measures. Using all fertility measures together, between-site variations of plant traits were explained only moderately for some traits (e.g. 33% for leaf N concentrations) but largely for others (e.g. 66% for whole-canopy P concentration). The moderate relationships were probably due to complex regulation mechanisms of fertility on traits, rather than to a wrong choice of fertility measures. We identified both mutual (i.e. shared) and divergent (i.e. element-specific and stoichiometric) effects of soil N and P on traits, implying the importance of explicitly

  5. Fertility in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T

    2016-06-01

    Reduced maternal fertility is the consequence of depletion of follicles with maternal aging. In a 35-year-old woman, approximately 9.1% of the residual follicle pool disappears annually without entering into the growing stage, whereas, in a 45-year-old woman, this number triples. After the age of 35 years, the frequency of aneuploidies in oocytes increases sharply. Roughly 50-70% of mature oocytes from a 40-year-old woman have chromosomal abnormalities. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are lower in midlife women. Various controlled ovarian stimulation interventions have been suggested for the management of women in advanced age, most of whom are likely to be poor-responder patients. Currently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that there is insufficient evidence to recommend most of the treatments proposed to improve pregnancy rates in these poor responders. Minimal stimulation or natural cycle in vitro fertilization may be offered, without compromising the already existing pregnancy results.

  6. [Stress and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ősapay, György; Ősapay, Klára

    2015-08-30

    In Western countries, sperm quality and fertility of men significantly worsened. Female infertility does not show a better trend either. Subtle defects in the reproductive functions can not be explained by the current methods, and "unexplained infertility" is becoming a more common diagnosis. Every year 1 million couples seek expensive and time consuming fertility treatment in the world. Deeper understanding of an unhealthy lifestyle and the environmental damages may lead to personalized treatments to increase the chance of conception.The effects of various stressors on the male and female reproductive performance were scientifically substantiated by Selye and coworkers in 1976. Cognitive therapy methods can be applied against emotional stressors, supplementation by antioxidants against reactive oxygen compounds, and administration of vitamins and trace elements, especially when deficiency is found, may help before medical intervention on a rational and economical way in the fight against infertility.

  7. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-01-10

    Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word "WARNING", and MarkTen warnings were examined after being weighted using factors related to exposure between January 2012 and March 2015. Five brands (MarkTen, NJOY, MISTIC, and some Blu) carried warnings during the study period. The prevalence of warnings post 2012 that contained a description of nicotine did not significantly increase until the launch of MarkTen, which also happened several months before April 2014 when the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA) published its proposed deeming rule. In addition, none of these warnings met the criteria required by the FDA in the final rules. Voluntary warnings, particularly MarkTen warnings, significantly increased in ENDS magazine ads between 2014 and 2015. It is important to monitor how ENDS manufacturers will comply with the FDA regulation related to warnings and how this regulation will ultimately impact ENDS risk perceptions and use.

  8. The Trend of Voluntary Warnings in Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Magazine Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some manufacturers of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS voluntarily carried health warnings in their advertisements. This study examined these voluntary warnings in magazine ads and plotted their trends between 2012 and early 2015. ENDS magazine ads were obtained through Kantar media and warnings were collected from the Chicago Public Library or the Trinkets and Trash surveillance system. The prevalence of voluntary warnings, warnings with the specific capitalized word “WARNING”, and MarkTen warnings were examined after being weighted using factors related to exposure between January 2012 and March 2015. Five brands (MarkTen, NJOY, MISTIC, and some Blu carried warnings during the study period. The prevalence of warnings post 2012 that contained a description of nicotine did not significantly increase until the launch of MarkTen, which also happened several months before April 2014 when the U.S. food and drug administration (FDA published its proposed deeming rule. In addition, none of these warnings met the criteria required by the FDA in the final rules. Voluntary warnings, particularly MarkTen warnings, significantly increased in ENDS magazine ads between 2014 and 2015. It is important to monitor how ENDS manufacturers will comply with the FDA regulation related to warnings and how this regulation will ultimately impact ENDS risk perceptions and use.

  9. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  10. Soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the intensified practices and effectively diminishing land resources per capita, increasing weights of both native soil- and added fertilizer-nitrogen will be lost to agriculture and its products, and will find their way into the environment. Soil-nitrogen levels and contingent productivity can nevertheless be maintained in the face of these losses on the basis of improved soil-N management. In some local situations nitrate levels in water for drinking purposes are likely to continue rising. In some cases agriculture and clearance practices are only one of several sources. In others they are clearly mainly responsible. In developing countries these losses represent those of a relatively increasingly costly input. This is due to the fact that industrial fertilizer nitrogen production is a particularly high energy-consuming process. In the more advanced industrialized countries they represent an addition to the problems and costs of environmental quality and health protection. The programmes, information and data reviewed here suggest that these problems can be contained by improved and extended soil and water management in agriculture on the basis of existing technology. In particular there appears to be enormous scope for the better exploitation of existing legumes both as non-legume crop alternatives or as biofertilizers which also possess more desirable C:N ratios than chemical fertilizer

  11. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  12. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  13. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  14. Haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...

  15. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has not...

  16. Voluntary counseling and testing for HIV among high school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-09-24

    Sep 24, 2012 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Voluntary .... cigarettes, alcohol or going to night clubs before their majority and these activities are associated with sexual activity. ... Ngwakongnwi E, Quan H. Sex differentials in the use of centres for voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in Cameroon. Afr J AIDS ...

  17. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to <3 years of age. The voluntary vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Costly Disclosures in a Voluntary Disclosure Model with an Opponent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes voluntary disclosure equilibria when the voluntary disclosure model presented inWAGENHOFER (1990) is modified so as to include fixed disclosure costs as used in VERRECCHIA (1983). It turns out that incorporating both disclosure and proprietary costs rules out full disclosure

  19. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, ...

  20. Efficiency of voluntary closing hand and hook prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Delft Institute of Prosthetics and Orthotics has started a research program to develop an improved voluntary closing, body-powered hand prosthesis. Five commercially available voluntary closing terminal devices were mechanically tested: three hands [Hosmer APRL VC hand, Hosmer Soft VC Male hand,

  1. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  2. Voluntary chemical castration of a mental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1988-06-04

    Britain's High Court recently overruled two decisions of the Mental Health Act Commission that denied certification of a voluntary experimental drug treatment to a mental patient, holding that the standard for informed consent is determined not by the subjective judgment of the commissioners but by whether the patient knows the nature and likely effects of treatment and that its use in his case is a novel one. The background facts of the case involving a 27-year-old pedophile receiving goserelin implantations to reduce testosterone levels are presented and the issues of jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 and the commissioners' duty to act fairly and to consider the likely benefits of treatment are discussed.

  3. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...... builds upon the premise that institutional dynamic is connected to peoples ability to act according to their free will.  But only in the ideal version are they able to make a complete connection between free will and action. This is also the case for volunteers. The loose-coupled connection...

  4. The value relevance of voluntary disclosure in the annual report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banghøj, Jesper; Plenborg, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines if the level of voluntary disclosure affects the association between current returns and future earnings. Economic theory suggests that firms might find it advantageous to provide additional pieces of information (i.e., voluntary disclosure) to investors and analysts (Verrecchia...... 1983). Our results indicate that more voluntary disclosure does not improve the association between current returns and future earnings; i.e. current returns do not reflect more future earnings news. This finding raises the question whether voluntary information in the annual report contains value...... relevant information about future earnings or if investors are simply not capable of incorporating voluntary information in the firm value estimates. Key words: Disclosure, future earnings, informativeness...

  5. Beliefs in and About God and Attitudes Toward Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-06-01

    I use data from the General Social Survey to evaluate several hypotheses regarding how beliefs in and about God predict attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that certainty in the belief in God significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that belief in a caring God and in a God that is the primary source of moral rules significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that respondents' beliefs about the how close they are to God and how close they want to be with God predict negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' attitudes about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to their beliefs in and about God.

  6. Implementation of voluntary agreements for energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Low-energy efficiency and environmental pollution have long been taken as key problems of Chinese industry, although a number of command-and-control and economic instruments have been adopted in the last few decades. In this paper, policy and legislation development for voluntary agreements were summarized. The voluntary agreements pilot project in two iron and steel companies in Shandong Province as well as other cases were analyzed. In order to identify the existing problems in Chinese cases, comparison was made between China and industrialized countries in the practices of energy efficiency voluntary agreements. Based on the analysis, detained recommendations, including the use of supporting policies for voluntary agreements, were raised. It is expected that voluntary agreements could play a more important role in energy efficiency improvement of Chinese industry

  7. Priming voluntary autobiographical memories: Implications for the organisation of autobiographical memory and voluntary recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.

  8. 75 FR 34148 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency...) announces its adoption of three standards for the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification... DHS to develop and implement a Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness Accreditation and Certification...

  9. Molecular mechanisms of fertilization: the role of male factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Maria Kratz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization, the fusion of male and female gametes, is an incompletely known, multistep, complex process, in which many factors participate. Fertilization is a precisely regulated, species-specific process, but some cellular mechanisms are similar for many mammal species. The studies of mechanisms of male and female gamete production enable understanding of fertilization issues and, as a result, make the analysis of the causes of infertility possible. Male and female infertility is a progressive phenomenon. The development of laboratory medicine enables the analysis of molecular aspects of the reactions between gametes, which may result in better diagnosis of many infertility cases and indicate the direction of therapeutic management. The fertilization process is accompanied by many biochemical reactions, in which glycoproteins present in human ejaculate play a very important role. Glycan structures enable glycoproteins to participate in the interactions between cells, including those between gametes. The analysis of the glycosylation profile and degree of ejaculate glycoproteins not only contributes to deepening the knowledge about mechanisms accompanying the fertilization process, but also may be useful as an additional diagnostic marker of male infertility.The aim of the present review is to approach selected molecular mechanisms occurring in the male genital tract, related to the fertilization process, as well as to analyze their influence on male fertility.

  10. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-10-21

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, ß-interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs.

  11. LESSONS LEARNED THROUGH OPTIMIZATION OF THE VOLUNTARY CORRECTIVE ACTION PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, M. S.; Freshour, P.; McDonald, W.

    2002-01-01

    Valuable experience in environmental remediation was gained at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (Sandia) by concurrently conducting Voluntary Corrective Actions (VCAs) at three Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). Sandia combined the planning, implementation, and reporting phases of three VCAs with the goal of realizing significant savings in both cost and schedule. The lessons learned through this process have been successfully implemented within the Sandia Environmental Restoration (ER) Project and could be utilized at other locations with multiple ER sites. All lessons learned resulted from successful teaming with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB), Sandia management, a Sandia risk assessment team, and Sandia waste management personnel. Specific lessons learned included the following: (1) potential efficiencies can be exploited by reprioritization and rescheduling of activities; (2) cost and schedule reductions can be realized by combining similar work at contiguous sites into a single effort; (3) working with regulators to develop preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) and gain regulatory acceptance for VCA planning prior to project initiation results in significant time savings throughout the remediation and permit modification processes; (4) effective and thoughtful contingency planning removes uncertainties and defrays costs so that projects can be completed without interruption; (5) timely collection of waste characterization samples allows efficient disposal of waste streams, and (6) concurrent reporting of VCA activities results in significant savings in time for the authors and reviewers

  12. Ethnicity and fertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollehlon, Konia T

    2003-01-01

    Using a sample of Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, and all other women from the 1990 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines ethnic fertility differentials in Nigeria within the context of the social characteristics and cultural hypotheses. Among all women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani women to be lower than that of Other women; with no statistically significant difference in the net fertility of Ibo, Yourba, and Other women. But, among currently married women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba women to be lower than that of Other women, while the net fertility of Ibo women is higher than that of Other women. Overall, the findings of this study are more consistent with the cultural hypothesis, because statistically significant fertility differentials by ethnicity remain, even after controlling for selected socioeconomic and demographic variables.

  13. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  14. Fertility and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing social scenario together with economic growth and an increase in job opportunities has to a great extent reduced gender inequality and has resulted in more and more older women seeking help from infertility clinics. Fertility and aging have always been closely linked and the age of the female partner remains the single most important factor in predicting success with treatment. Although tests for the ovarian reserve are an important informative tool and are helpful in selecting treatment options, they are poor predictors of the outcome.

  15. Fertility trends in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K; Viegas, O; Ratnam, S S

    1988-10-01

    In 1966, the Singapore National Family Planning and Population Program established the goal of reaching replacement fertility by 1990 and zero population growth by the year 2030. To achieve this goal, the government relied on a series of incentives and disincentives to discourage births above the 3rd birth order, including tax relief for the 1st 3 children only, paid medical leave for women undergoing sterilization after the 3rd or subsequent birth, monetary stipends in some cases where the mother is sterilized after the 1st or 2nd birth, and increasing accouchement charges for increasing birth orders. Also important to demographic planning were liberalization of Singapore's abortion legislation and more aggressive promotion of contraception. As a result of these efforts, Singapore's crude birth rate has declined from 29.5/1000 population in 1965 to 16.6/1000 in 1985. Also observed have been dramatic declines in infant mortality in this same period, from 26.2/1000 live births to 9.3/1000, and in maternal mortality, from 52/100,000 live births to 10/100,000. In 1985, 42% of total births were to women in the 25-29-year age group. The numbers of 4th and later births fell by 90% between 1966 and 1985. The total fertility rate has declined from 4.6/woman in 1965 to 3.1 in 1970 to 1.6 in 1986. Below replacement level fertility was achieved in 1975, in part because of government policy but also as a result of cultural and socioeconomic factors such as increasing female labor force participation rates, a break-up of the extended family system, a rise in the age at 1st marriage, and rises in educational attainment. The drop in fertility was contributed mainly by the higher socioeconomic class, more affluent, and educated Singaporeans. Thus, in 1981, the government introduced certain pronatalist policies and incentives to encourage better educated women to produce more children, e.g., tax relief and the elimination of monetary incentives to sterilization acceptors above a

  16. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  17. Fertility differentials in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H T; Islam, S M; Khan, H M; Bari, R

    1993-01-01

    "Data from two sources in rural Bangladesh have been used in this study to examine the differentials in fertility by selected socio-economic and demographic factors. Results [indicate] that age at first marriage, education of spouses and availability of electricity in the household...have [an] inverse relationship with fertility. Higher fertility is observed for Muslim women than for non-Muslims. It has been found that fertility is the lowest to those women whose husbands are service holders and the highest for agriculture." excerpt

  18. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  19. VOLUNTARY NOISE MAPPING FOR SMART CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Poslončec-Petrić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems. i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the

  20. Voluntary Noise Mapping for Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time

  1. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  2. Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices in Vegetable Crops Production: The Case of Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. ... rate, which could leads to pollution of the environment from over dose application and from runoff in to the water bodies and leaching in to the ground water with economic loss.

  3. Fertile ground? : soil fertility management and the African smallholder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: smallholder farmers, soil fertility, experimentation, "inconvenience", realist.The focus in this thesis is to form a view of how well soil fertility research performs within the ever shifting smallholder contexts. This study examined application of agro-ecological

  4. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  5. Expectations and voluntary attrition in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as an important factor in student decisions to voluntarily withdraw. A single case study design was selected to explore the causes of voluntary attrition in nursing students within a School of Nursing and Midwifery. The study population was obtained through purposeful sampling and consisted of 15 students who had previously voluntarily withdrawn from pre-registration nursing programmes. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from study participants. The interview schedule developed for use in the study reflected the key components of the conceptual model of higher education (HE) student attrition (Tinto, 1975, 1987, 1993). All interviews were tape recorded to facilitate later transcription. The Cyclical or Interactive Model of Qualitative Research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) was used to analyse data collected from study participants. This paper describes the unrealistic range of expectations which nursing students have of nursing, the information sources and experiences which inform student expectations and how ambiguous expectations contributed to voluntarily attrition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultramar Ltd voluntary challenge action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Ultramar Limited (Ltd.) operates a refinery in St-Romuald, Quebec, where crude oil is converted to high-grade petroleum products destined for markets in both Canada and the United States. In this document, the measures implemented to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions in support of the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program have been highlighted. The reference year for this report is 1990. The emphasis was placed on energy efficiency improvements. The target set by Ultramar Ltd. is a one per cent annual energy efficiency improvement, to be averaged over the period 1995-2005. The one per cent reduction in energy efficiency per year has been attained over the past three years by Ultramar Ltd. It was accomplished mainly through reduced energy consumption and increased plant capacity associated to minimal increases in energy consumption. For the year 2000, Ultramar achieved an improvement of 12 per cent over 1990. Some of the measures implemented included: personnel awareness concerning the importance of energy efficiency, maintenance and operational improvements, and capital investment program. Currently underway or recently completed initiatives included stream leaks and traps, flare losses reduction, and crude pre-heat exchangers. The various measures were briefly described, and the company indicated it fells confident that its energy efficiency, as measured by the Solomon Index, will be at least 10 per cent over the period 1995-2005. 2 figs

  7. Should Government Facilitate Voluntary Pension Plans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma L. Nielson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Several proposals have surfaced recently that government develop and offer some sort of voluntary pension plan (VPP. This paper examines areas of public policy on pensions where changes should take place with or without the development of a VPP, including those that promote greater harmonization, portability, and labour mobility. Similarly, the challenges of inertia and annuitization are areas in which a VPP is only one of several available policy devices. In the final analysis, two key arguments provide the only compelling reasons to support the establishment of large, economically efficient funds: that their assets could be managed professionally and efficiently and that they could reduce the distraction from employers’ primary goals. Neither of these arguments, however, offers convincing evidence that VPPs should be developed by government rather than by the private sector. Ultimately, the marketplace will determine whether the additional option of a VPP is needed and whether it is offered on terms that make it more attractive than the other available alternatives.

  8. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Azevedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  9. Ocean iron fertilization in the context of the Kyoto protocol and the post-Kyoto process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Ocean iron fertilization is currently discussed as a potential measure to mitigate climate change by enhancing oceanic CO 2 uptake. Its mitigation potential is not yet well explored, and carbon offsets generated through iron fertilization activities could currently not be traded on regulated carbon markets. Still, commercial interests in ocean iron fertilization already exist, which underlines the need to investigate a possible regulatory framework for it. To this end, I first discuss important basic aspects of ocean iron fertilization, namely its scientific background, quantitative potential, side effects, and costs. In a second step, I review regulatory aspects connected to ocean iron fertilization, like its legal status and open access issues. Moreover, I analyze how the regulations for afforestation and reforestation activities within the framework of the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be applied to ocean iron fertilization. Main findings are that the quantitative potential of ocean iron fertilization is limited, that costs are higher than initially hoped, and that potential adverse side effects are severe. Moreover, the legal status of ocean iron fertilization is currently not well defined, open access might cause inefficiencies, and the CDM regulations could not be easily applied to ocean iron fertilization.

  10. THE USE OF VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE IN DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS: EVIDENCE FROM THE NIGERIA LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyerogba Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish the use of voluntary disclosure in determining the quality of financial statements among the listed companies in Nigeria. Specifically the study investigated on the effects of voluntary disclosure on investor decision and performance of listed companies in Nigeria. This study adopted anexploratory design which is described as a method of collecting information by interviewing or administering a questionnaire to a sample of individuals. The instrument of data collection for this research was a questionnaire as the study used primary data. The study targeted all the 258 listed companies in Nigeria. The study population used in this research comprised of preparers (accountants, external auditors and users of accounting information (financial analysts, stockbrokers, bankers, regulators and educators. The sample of this study was 140 whereby twenty questionnaires were distributed in every category of the respondents.Descriptive statistics such as mode, median, mean, standard deviation, etc were used to perform data analysis. These measures were calculated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 software. SPSS tool (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was used to organize and analyze data. The study findings indicated that there was increased performance and investor decision making was easy to makedue to voluntary disclosure. The results indicate that voluntary disclosurewas satisfactory in explaining investor decision making and performance of listed companies. It was possible to conclude from the study findings that voluntary disclosure was statistically significant in explaining investor’s decision and performance of listed companies in Nigeria. It was also possible to conclude that there was high level of voluntary disclosure in Nigeria listed firms which led to high performance of the firms and made it easy for investors to make decision whether to invest in the companies or

  11. Prediction of porcine male fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijse, M.L.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871728

    2012-01-01

    Life starts with fertilisation. Variation in fertility is caused by both farm and sow related parameters and boar and semen related parameters. Therefore, achieving high fertility is not obvious. Predominantly, artificial insemination (AI) is used for breeding pigs. The advantage of AI is that you

  12. Fertility treatment in obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide. This has major adverse consequences for health in general and fertility in women in particular. With the increasing number of women in reproductive age being obese, there is also an increasing need for fertility treatment. And with more pregnant women

  13. Fertility drugs and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2017-06-20

    The aetiology of ovarian cancer is multifactorial with both endogenous and exogenous risk factors playing an important role. The exact pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is still not well understood, despite the number of hypotheses published. Due to an increase in the number of women using fertility drugs, much attention has been focused on the long-term health effects of such drugs. Although fertility drugs facilitate the ovulation process, it is however associated with a significant increase in hormone concentrations, placing exposed women at increased risk of gynaecological cancer. Many clinical and epidemiological studies have examined the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Results from these studies have been contradictory, as some studies have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer while others reported no increased risk. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that women who used fertility drugs and did not conceive had a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared to women who used fertility drugs and conceived and delivered successfully. This review discusses the effect of fertility drugs on the risk of developing ovarian cancer, providing details on four possible scenarios associated with fertility treatment. In addition, the limitations of previous studies and their impact on our understanding of the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer also have been highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Roger D. Right

    1979-01-01

    This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest...

  15. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  16. Implementation of Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is an effective HIV ... Through this project, the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group will apply more than 20 ... training, and technical assistance to pilot the expansion of CVCT in local ...

  17. Implementation of Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is an effective HIV ... Through this project, the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group will apply more than ... to provide support, training, and technical assistance to pilot the expansion of ...

  18. Belief in Life After Death and Attitudes Toward Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Research has documented associations among religious affiliation, religious practice, and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia, yet very few studies have investigated how particular religious beliefs influence these attitudes. I use data from the General Social Survey (GSS; N = 19,967) to evaluate the association between the belief in life after death and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that those who believe in life after death are significantly less likely than those who do not believe in life after death or those who doubt the existence of life after death to have positive attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' views about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to individuals' particular religious beliefs.

  19. Current concerns in involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus volunta...... concern related involuntary and voluntary memories. The findings support the view that involuntary and voluntary remembering is subject to similar motivational constraints.......Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus voluntary...... (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered current concerns measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (PCI; Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of current concern related...

  20. State of the Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Annual report of sales and number of customers in voluntary green power markets, including utility green pricing programs, utility green partnerships, competitive suppliers, unbundled renewable energy certificates, community choice aggregations, power purchase agreements, and community solar.

  1. Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection Amongst Patients Booked for Surgical Operations. ... The effectiveness (yield) of lay counseling in HIV testing by resident doctors who have not ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Tsehaye Tewabe1, Bikes Destaw2, Mengesha Admassu2, Bayeh Abera3. Abstract. Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the cornerstones for successful implementation of .... mosquito bites and sharing toilets. Correct ...

  3. Voluntary codes: private governance, the public interest and innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Kernaghan

    2004-01-01

    This volume is a logical extension of the Office of Consumer Affairs' work in the area of voluntary codes that may assist all parties in developing a better understanding of the strengths, weaknesses...

  4. Turkish nursing students' attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanikkerem, Emre; Üstgörül, Sema; Karakus, Asli; Baydar, Ozge; Esmeray, Nicole; Ertem, Gül

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate Turkish nursing students' attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion.. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2015, comprising students of Ege University Nursing Faculty and Celal Bayar University School of Health, located in two different cities of Turkey. Data was collected with a three-part questionnaire, focussing on students' characteristics, the knowledge of abortion law in Turkey and attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis.. The mean score of students' attitude towards voluntary induced abortion was 39.8±7.9 which shows that nursing students moderately support abortion. Female students, students coming from upper class in society, and students who had higher family income and sexual experiences had more supportiveness attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion (pabortion.

  5. Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an analysis. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines ways in which the various sources of law can be modified in such ...

  6. [Fertility and health in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina-Fuentes, M; Echánove-Fernández, E

    1989-01-01

    Fertility, health, and family planning are not independent factors, but rather involve a series of biological and social mechanisms in close interaction with one another. The impact that a high fertility rate has on health is reflected mainly in a rise in the rates of maternal and child mortality. Similarly, fertility has a greater negative effect upon the health of groups characterized by high reproductive risk, high parity, short intergenesic intervals, and unwanted pregnancies. On the other hand, family planning -and specifically the use of contraceptive methods-helps to achieve a lowering of the fertility rate and also has a positive effect on maternal-child health. This situation can be observed in the case of Mexico, where fertility rates and tendencies, as well as maternal and child mortality, have been reduced during the past decade.

  7. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  8. Voluntary non-monetary approaches for implementing conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Dicks, Lynn V.; Herzon, Irina; Kukkala, Aija S.; Sutherland, William J.; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-01-01

    The voluntary non-monetary approach to conservation refers to actions that citizens or organizations could voluntarily implement in their area of influence without the incentive of monetary compensations. To be effectively implemented by untrained actors, actions should be clearly defined, straightforward to implement and not require specific scientific knowledge. The costs of actions should also be sufficiently affordable to be widely applied without monetary incentives. A voluntary non-mone...

  9. Comparative Research of Navy Voluntary Education at Operational Commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    into a national and international market. This is especially effects land-grant institutions who can educate the citizens within their state by...RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS by Christopher B. Veenhuis March 2017 Thesis Co-Advisors: William Hatch Chad...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  10. Voluntary "involuntary" commitment--the briar-patch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1980-01-01

    Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options further? Fertility Preservation - Where Does It Fit? Options for Fertility Preservation The following diagram gives a brief description of fertility preservation options available to children diagnosed with cancer before and ...

  12. Voluntary inhibitory motor control over involuntary tic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2018-03-06

    Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Fertilizers in cereals crops. Effect of fertilization in grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaj, Mariana

    1997-01-01

    In the last years the yields of the maize cultivation in the Pampeana production region have constantly increased, foreseeing higher increases of yield in the next years. Such increase is due, between other motives, to the use of hybrids of higher potential yield. There is a direct relation between the yield potential of a genotype and the nutrients demand, fact that constitutes one of the geneticists concerns. Maize hybrids reach its maximum expression when the plant is cultivated in good supplied soils with balanced quantities of nutrients that in several cases are reached with the practice of fertilization. The quantitative and qualitative vegetal response to the use of phosphate fertilizers depend of soils, of the environmental conditions, of fertilizer and the way of its application as well as of the maize hybrid that was used. To direct the practice of fertilization towards the reposition of the soil nutrients extracted by genotypes of high yield without producing excesses that increase costs and put in danger the environment, it is necessary to know the real coefficient used by the plants of the phosphorus available in the soils. The isotopic methodology allows to distinguish the phosphorus coming from two nutrient sources: soil and fertilizer, even in the juvenile phase of vegetal development and to evaluate the efficiency of fertilizers in plant nutrition. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the use of phosphorus coming from one of the phosphorus source available (soil, fertilizer), that should allow to increase and make more specific the knowledge's level of the different maize hybrids. This is obtained by determination of the grade of use of nutrient (of the soil) and of the nutrient of fertilizers, evaluating the qualitative and quantitative responses to fertilization

  14. Adubarroz: a brazilian experience for fertilization and liming recommendation of irrigated rice via computational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Campos Carmona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Recommendations for fertilizing irrigated rice in southern Brazil have been constantly evolving over years. In this process, the influence of factors such as the development cycle of varieties and sowing period increased. Thus, computational tools that take these and others important aspects into account can potentiate the fertilization response of rice. This study describes the computer program "ADUBARROZ". The software provides recommendations of fertilizer rates and liming requirements of irrigated rice, based on information entered by the user. The system takes various factors that regulate the crop response to fertilization into account. A final report is established with the graphical representation of input management over time.

  15. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for ...

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult ...

  17. Comparison of unenriched versus 15N-enriched fertilizer as a tracer for N fertilizer uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meints, V.W.; Shearer, G.; Kohl, D.H.; Kurtz, L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three soils with differing cropping and fertilization histories to determine whether unenriched fertilizer N can be used in the same manner as 15 N-enriched fertilizer to estimate the amount of plant N derived from fertilizer. Estimates using unenriched fertilizer N were compared with estimates using two 15 N enrichment levels. Use of unenriched fertilizer N led to underestimation of the amount of fertilizer N in the plant material in four of six cases when compared to 15 N-enriched fertilizer. Standard deviations of the estimates of fertilizer-derived N in plant material were considerably greater when unenriched fertilizer was used. (U.S.)

  18. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  19. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  20. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA

  1. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  2. Voluntary ethanol intake predicts κ-opioid receptor supersensitivity and regionally distinct dopaminergic adaptations in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A; Calipari, Erin S; Cuzon Carlson, Verginia C; Helms, Christa M; Lovinger, David M; Grant, Kathleen A; Jones, Sara R

    2015-04-15

    The dopaminergic projections from the ventral midbrain to the striatum have long been implicated in mediating motivated behaviors and addiction. Previously it was demonstrated that κ-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the striatum plays a critical role in the increased reinforcing efficacy of ethanol following ethanol vapor exposure in rodent models. Although rodents have been used extensively to determine the neurochemical consequences of chronic ethanol exposure, establishing high levels of voluntary drinking in these models has proven difficult. Conversely, nonhuman primates exhibit similar intake and pattern to humans in regard to drinking. Here we examine the effects of chronic voluntary ethanol self-administration on dopamine neurotransmission and the ability of KORs to regulate dopamine release in the dorsolateral caudate (DLC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. Using voltammetry in brain slices from cynomolgus macaques after 6 months of ad libitum ethanol drinking, we found increased KOR sensitivity in both the DLC and NAc. The magnitude of ethanol intake predicted increases in KOR sensitivity in the NAc core, but not the DLC. Additionally, ethanol drinking increased dopamine release and uptake in the NAc, but decreased both of these measures in the DLC. These data suggest that chronic daily drinking may result in regionally distinct disruptions of striatal outputs. In concert with previous reports showing increased KOR regulation of drinking behaviors induced by ethanol exposure, the strong relationship between KOR activity and voluntary ethanol intake observed here gives further support to the hypothesis that KORs may provide a promising pharmacotherapeutic target in the treatment of alcoholism. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355959-10$15.00/0.

  3. Decomposition of Fertilizer Use Intensity and Its Environmental Risk in China’s Grain Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to fully explore the fertilizer use intensity and its potential threats to the ecological environment, this paper has studied the decomposition of fertilizer use intensity and its environmental risk in China’s grain production. Based on the statistical data collected from 10 provinces during 2004–2015 in China’s grain producing areas, this paper has analyzed the effect of fertilizer use intensity from a regional perspective. The environmental risk assessment model considers some factors such as the fertilizer application safety thresholds use efficiency, multiple cropping index, and environmental impact weight. The fertilizer application safety thresholds are calculated on the target output of local food crops. The results show that: (1 during 2004–2015, the fertilizer use intensity shows an increasing trend in China’s grain producing areas, and the intensity is significantly higher than the upper limit of the international safety fertilization; (2 the cumulative contribution rate of the increase of fertilizer use intensity caused by regional fertilizer use efficiency and grain planting structure adjustment are 57.03% and 1.81% respectively; (3 in 2015, China’s grain producing areas’ environmental risk index of phosphorus and potash was low, with the values in these two provinces being quite different and indicating the characteristics of aggregation and distribution. Therefore, the Chinese government should unswervingly encourage the application of some technology that could save fertilizer and increase efficiency, establish environmental risk monitoring and control systems, and improve relevant policies and regulations.

  4. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  5. [Nutrition and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that nutritional habits may have a significant effect on both male and female fertility. Maintenance of normal body mass may be effective in the prevention of infertility resulting from ovulatory disorders. Underweight and, to a larger degree, overweight and/or obesity, are related to the enhanced risk of infertility. Insulin resistance is an important pathogenic mechanism that may impair ovulation. Adequate intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, derived mainly from vegetable fats, as well as avoidance of trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids which are present in industrially produced cakes and sweets, crisps, fast-foods, powdered soups and hard margarines, may be effective in the prevention of infertility in females. Choice of plant rather than animal sources of proteins, decrease in glycemic load of the diet, use of dietary supplements containing iron and folic acid, could also be beneficial. Avoidance of vitamin B12 deficiency and its supplementation seem to be important in the prevention of early miscarriages. Sufficient intake of antioxidants also promotes female reproductive functions. Free radical processes play an important role in the development of male factor infertility. It was shown that proper intake or supplementation with antioxidants may be effective in its prevention and treatment. Such nutrients as zinc, selenium and folic acid act beneficially on sperm quality. A well-balanced diet seems to play an important role in the prevention of infertility in both sexes.

  6. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  7. Determinants of fertility in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This examines the fertility trends in Namibia over the past 2 decades .... contraceptive use was small because of the late age at first ..... limited flexibility in terms of maternity leave conditions ... Longer periods in education have increased the.

  8. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  9. Preserving Fertility while Battling Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some oncologists neglect to discuss the possibility of treatment-related infertility with patients of reproductive age. Researchers are developing decision aids to help patients make an informed, carefully considered decision about fertility.

  10. Determinants of fertility in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be access to education, media, and providing employment opportunities in the modern economic sector. Besides .... and religion shows that muslim women have 1.7% high- er fertility ... traditional social and economic systems continue, the.

  11. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ...

  12. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  13. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury ... 2525 info@facingdisability.com SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER Your email address * This iframe contains the logic ...

  14. Is fertility falling in Zimbabwe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udjo, E O

    1996-01-01

    With an unequalled contraceptive prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa, of 43% among currently married women in Zimbabwe, the Central Statistical Office (1989) observed that fertility has declined sharply in recent years. Using data from several surveys on Zimbabwe, especially the birth histories of the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines fertility trends in Zimbabwe. The results show that the fertility decline in Zimbabwe is modest and that the decline is concentrated among high order births. Multivariate analysis did not show a statistically significant effect of contraception on fertility, partly because a high proportion of Zimbabwean women in the reproductive age group never use contraception due to prevailing pronatalist attitudes in the country.

  15. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  16. (ajst) pedological characteristics, general fertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Pedological characteristics, fertility, soil classification, benchmark soils, Morogoro. District, Tanzania ... rigorous soil mapping to show their spatial distribution. Although at the ... experience bimodal rainfall pattern characterized by two .... evaluated based on the standards set by EUROCONSULT ... crop growth.

  17. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  18. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  19. Voluntary Running Depreciates the Requirement of Ca[superscript 2+]-Stimulated cAMP Signaling in Synaptic Potentiation and Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Zhang, Ming; Ding, Qi; Sethna, Ferzin; Yan, Lily; Moon, Changjong; Yang, Miyoung; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Mental health and cognitive functions are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although having active lifestyle with physical exercise improves learning and memory, how it interacts with the specific key molecular regulators of synaptic plasticity is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of voluntary running on long-term…

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open ... Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation ...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  2. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu ... Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Patient Pocket Guides Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility ...

  3. Fertility among female hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmon, Anna; Rylander, Lars; Lillienberg, Linnea; Albin, Maria; Hagmar, Lars

    2006-02-01

    The study investigated whether working as a hairdresser has a negative impact on fertility, measured as time to pregnancy and miscarriage risk. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 5289 Swedish hairdressers (response rate 50%) and to 5299 age-matched women from the general Swedish population (response rate 54%). Information was collected on time to pregnancy or trying time for women who had tried, but failed, to conceive at the time of the study. The outcome of the pregnancy was determined and categorized as either miscarriage or stillbirth or live birth. The hairdressers were compared with the referents with respect to these two outcomes. Within the hairdresser cohort, the effects of hair treatments, as well as physical workload and stress were investigated. The hairdressers were less successful than the reference cohort in conceiving (fecundability ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.99). The effect was reduced after first-month conceptions were excluded, the indication being that the effect may be the result of birth control bias. Within the hairdresser cohort, a self-perceived stressful work situation seemed to prolong the time to pregnancy. No effects were found for the different chemical hair treatments. There was no cohort difference with respect to miscarriage risk (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.42), but miscarriage risks were increased for most of the hair treatments and for self-perceived stressful work situations. However, none of these effects were statistically significant. The present study indicates a negative impact on time to pregnancy and miscarriage risk for working as a hairdresser".

  4. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for market as natural grapes by performing all the normal cultural practices, but not using any inorganic fertilizers or agricultural chemicals including insecticides, herbicides, and growth regulators...

  5. Enrollment in mental health courts: voluntariness, knowingness, and adjudicative competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Allison D; Hoover, Steven; Summers, Alicia; Steadman, Henry J

    2010-04-01

    Mental health courts (MHCs) are rapidly expanding as a form of diversion from jails and prisons for persons with mental illness charged with crimes. Although intended to be voluntary, little is known about this aspect of the courts. We examined perceptions of voluntariness, and levels of knowingness and legal competence among 200 newly enrolled clients of MHCs at two courts. Although most clients claimed to have chosen to enroll, at the same time, most claimed not to have been told the court was voluntary or told of the requirements prior to entering. The majority knew the "basics" of the courts, but fewer knew more nuanced information. A minority also were found to have impairments in legal competence. Implications are discussed.

  6. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...... the apparently strong growth in voluntarism. Although there seems to be a large potential for involving volunteers and voluntary organisations, systematic analysis of recent years’ urban regeneration projects in Denmark shows that the sustainability of voluntary contributions is limited. While initial enrolling...

  7. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  8. Voluntary agreement for the new energy and environmental policies goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaro, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the field of public policies innovative instruments based on market mechanisms and voluntary action by economical subjects meet a growing favour. This emerges also from the proceedings of the recent National Conference on Energy and the Environment, held in Rome in November 1998. From a planning policy, directly implemented by public bodies and often characterised by a strong rigidity, we are now passing to a new policy style, based on main trends and principles and implemented, at least in a priority way, through a mechanism of pacts and agreements among a variety of actors. This article, starting from an introduction on the nature and the functioning limits of voluntary agreements and, on these bases, presents some hypothesis on the ways and the necessary conditions to develop a concrete system of voluntary agreements in the country, in order to reach the new energy and environmental policies goals [it

  9. Towards State Hegemony Over Agricultural Certification: From Voluntary Private to Mandatory State Regimes on Palm Oil in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alif Kaimuddin Sahide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous work on certification of palm oil has reported on a trend toward a change, from failed state regulation to voluntary, private governance. However, recent observations suggest a trend, moving from voluntary, private governance to mandatory state governance in palm oil certification in Indonesia, a move in which the state is reclaiming authority.In thislight, the aims of ourresearch are (1 to identify the main actorsinvolved in certification politics, (2 to explain this trend in terms of the actors' interests and whatever benefits may result for them. We developed our research questions based on bureaucratic politics and power theory. A mix of document analysis, interviews, and observations are applied for addressing the questions. The results answer our research questions, i.e., that (1 the state claims back its authority over certification from private actors and contributed to the complex meta governance of palm oil certification, the state mandatory scheme that is supported by states' bureaucracies in charge reducesthe influence of non-government or private actors. (2 Thistrend is due to a coalition ofspecific state bureaucracies and big industry interests, which grant privileges to industry that are denied to small producers. Unexpectedly, all Indonesian bureaucracies associated with this trend support mandatory state certification, which indicates that palm oil has been elevated in importance to become a matter of national, rather than mere bureaucratic interest.Making certificationmandatory through coercive regulatory poweristhe main toolwithwhich state power can challenge voluntary implementation and reclaim authority. Furthermore, the state needs the voluntary system to exist as well in order to strengthen its position. Therefore, the voluntary and the compulsory systems collaborate to attract global initiatives,which is contributing to the high complex of meta governance.

  10. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  11. Natural radionuclide distribution in phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisachenko, Eh P; Ponikarova, T M; Lisitsyna, Yu Z

    1987-01-01

    The obtained data on the natural radionuclide distribution by phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production process stages testify to phosphate fertilizer enrichment 2-4 times in relation to initial ore, depending in the raw material used. In this case uranium and thorium series element concentration value (in equilibrium with their decomposition products), proposed as a regulating one in phosphorus-containing fertilizers, is not achieved. However, the fact of lurichment as it is and the enrichment factor, stated in the course of the work, should be taken into account for evaluation of phosphorite new deposit raw material with higher concentrations of natural radionuclides. Natural radionuclide separation in the enrichment process and superphosphate production is not revealed.

  12. Final voluntary release assessment/corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-12

    The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.

  13. Costs and benefits of industrial reporting and voluntary targets for energy efficiency. A report to the Congress of the United States. Volume II: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This part sets forth the regulations for the Industrial Energy conservation Program established under Part E of Title III of the Act. It includes criteria and procedures for the identification of reporting corporations, reporting requirements, criteria and procedures for exemption from filing reports directly with DOE, voluntary industrial energy efficiency improvement targets and voluntary recovered materials utilization targets. The purpose of the program is to promote increased energy conservation by American industry and, as it relates to the use of recovered materials, to conserve valuable energy and scarce natural resources.

  14. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  15. A problem for the idea of voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N

    1999-01-01

    I question whether, in those cases where physician-assisted suicide is invoked to alleviate unbearable pain and suffering, there can be such a thing as voluntary euthanasia. The problem is that when a patient asks to die under such conditions there is good reason to think that the decision to die is compelled by the pain, and hence not freely chosen. Since the choice to die was not made freely it is inadvisable for physicians to act in accordance with it, for this may be contrary to the patient's genuine wishes. Thus, what were thought to be cases of voluntary euthanasia might actually be instances of involuntary euthanasia. PMID:10390679

  16. Voluntary vs directed siting -- or somewhere in-between?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.B.

    1994-04-01

    Waste siting gridlock in the United States and Canada has led to experimentation with voluntary and hybrid or ``mixed mode`` siting. We review nuclear and hazardous waste voluntary siting (VS) results for selected cases in the U.S, and Canada. Findings indicate that VS is not a panacea, but that current siting efforts are inadequate tests of its potential. We suggest trials of improved VS protocols and more effort on hybrid approaches in which the developer chooses the site but is required to reach agreement on conditions with local stakeholders. Mixed mode siting may be better suited to the US context and its three-tiered governmental system.

  17. Voluntary CSR vs. mandatory CSR : the sound of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sarna, Bhavesh

    2016-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) laws are an area of exploration and there is debate over preference to voluntary CSR laws or to mandatory CSR laws. The objective is to con-duct a micro-level study to explore the employee’s preferences for mandatory CSR laws or voluntary CSR laws. There is some existing literature on this topic at the macro-level and goal is to extend and contribute to the literature about this topic by studying the pref-erence at the micro-level. A qualitative study bas...

  18. Perspectives on access to in vitro fertilization in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze users' reasons for choosing in vitro fertilization treatment in public or private services and to identify their suggestions for improving fertility treatment. METHODS: A qualitative study using an interpretative approach was conducted. Fifteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment (nine women, one man and five couples at home or at their workplace in the districts of Viana do Castelo, Braga, Porto and Lisbon, Portugal, between July 2005 and February 2006. RESULTS: Users evaluated access to in vitro fertilization treatment in public and private services based mainly on their individual experiences and called for more access to less costly, faster and friendlier care with suitable facilities, appropriate time management and caring medical providers. These perceptions were also associated with views on the need for fighting stigmatization of infertility, protecting children's rights and guaranteeing sustainability of health care system. Interviewees sought to balance reduced waiting time and more attentive care with costs involved. The choice of services depended on the users' purchase power and place of residence and availability of attentive care. CONCLUSIONS: Current national policies on in vitro fertilization treatment meet user's demands of promoting access to, and quality, availability and affordability of in vitro fertilization treatment. However, their focus on legal regulation and technical-scientific aspects contrasts with the users' emphasis on reimbursement, insurance coverage and focus on emotional aspects of the treatment. The study showed these policies should ensure insurance coverage, participation of user representatives in the National Council for Assisted Reproductive Technology, promotion of infertility research and certification of fertility laboratories.

  19. The economics of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  20. Voluntariness of consent to HIV clinical research: A conceptual and empirical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Obtaining voluntary informed consent for research participation is an ethical imperative, yet there appears to be little consensus regarding what constitutes a voluntary consent decision. An instrument to assess influences on participants' consent decision and perceived voluntariness was developed and piloted in two South African HIV clinical trials. The pilot study found high levels of perceived voluntariness. The feeling of having no choice but to participate was significantly associated with lower perceived voluntariness. Overall the data suggest that it is possible to obtain voluntary and valid consent for research participants in ethically complex HIV clinical trials in a developing country context.

  1. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Armstrong, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  2. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  3. Poverty, Fertility and Child Labor: Does Demand Theory of Fertility Matter? An Exploratory Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargi Bhattacharya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is hypothesized that fertility, poverty and child labor are jointly determined variables; neither can be assumed to be an independent determinant of the other. In a simultaneous equation framework, we find that demand theory of fertility does hold good even at the lower level of income where the females are compelled to go outside home for cash in order to avoid destitute and they prefer less number of children. Therefore, in order to regulate fertility in India, one can suggest increasing female employment opportunity at the informal sector, since formal sector job is severely restricted in India. It is observed that child labor is caused by lower health status and poor human capital investment. Thus, if we increase the per capita social sector expenditure on education and healthcare, it directly augments enrollment of the children in school. Since health and education is treated as complementary to each other, a rise in social sector investment has some spillover benefits to the society.

  4. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  6. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Khabarov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP. We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  8. Fertility effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Donald E; Hacker, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are a subfertile group, and most treatments have the potential to adversely affect gonadal function. As cancer treatment becomes more effective and survival rates improve there are more cancer survivors in the reproductive age group for whom parenting is an important consideration. This article outlines the effects on fertility of cancer treatments and techniques to minimise the risk of infertility. The overall prospects for younger cancer sufferers to either retain their fertility or have genetic offspring is now better than ever before, due to advances in assisted reproductive technology, the appropriate use of fertility sparing surgery and other techniques to reduce the toxicity of therapy on the reproductive organs. These advances raise new moral and ethical concerns that must be considered before advising cancer sufferers of the options for preserving reproductive capacity.

  9. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  10. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  11. Fear Of Stigmatization As Barrier To Voluntary Hiv Counselling And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this qualitative study was to identify psychosocial correlates of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), with an emphasis on the association between fear of AIDS-related stigma and willingness to have an HIV test. Methods: The study was executed in Limpopo Province at University of ...

  12. Factors infuencing the use of voluntary counselling and testing by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the factors influencing the use of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) by university students. This was done by undertaking an exploratory and descriptive qualitative study. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs) and field notes. Thematic analysis was done. The study revealed ...

  13. Making Sense of Voluntary Participation: A Theoretical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Vernon D.; Agnitsch, Kerry A.; Zhao, Lijun; Mullick, Rehan

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of community attachment on voluntary citizen participation in rural community improvement projects. We do so by modifying the original systemic model of community attachment (Kasarda and Janowitz 1974) and combining it with tenets of rational choice and social embeddedness theories. The modified model is then…

  14. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Sargeant, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also

  15. Voluntary Cancellation of a Pesticide Product or Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    A registrant can cancel the registration of a pesticide product or cancel a use from the product’s label at any time as stated in Section 6(f) of FIFRA. Learn how to request a voluntary cancellation or use deletion.

  16. 75 FR 57477 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Creighton Center for Health Services Research and Patient Safety (CHRP) Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  17. 75 FR 75473 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... entity of Harbor Medical, Inc., of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  18. 75 FR 75471 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of..., LLC of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement... or component organizations whose mission and primary activity is to conduct activities to improve...

  19. 75 FR 57281 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Organizations: Voluntary delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS ACTION: Notice... Patient Safety Corporation of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  20. 75 FR 75472 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of.... Patient Safety Group (A Component of Helmet Fire, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  1. 75 FR 57048 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  2. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control.We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ.Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  3. Voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in fishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local beliefs and practices about voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) may influence uptake and effectiveness. Data were gathered through interviews with 40 people from four ethnically mixed fishing communities in Uganda. Some men believed that wound healing could be promoted by contact with vaginal fluids ...

  4. Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

  5. Serious gaming and voluntary laparoscopic skills training : A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E.; Dankelman, J.; Schijven, M.P.; Lange, J.F.; Wentink, M.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the

  6. Voluntary Imitation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. PMID:27014056

  7. Privatizing or socializing corporate responsibility: business participation in voluntary programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.W.; Burgoon, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores why companies choose some Corporate Responsibility initiatives over others. The focus is on competing voluntary programs to oversee and protect labor standards. These programs may differ with regard to two aspects: the governance of the program and the financial and managerial

  8. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Karla

    Full Text Available Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  9. Early Experiences Implementing Voluntary School District Mergers in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John D.; Glesner, Talia J.; Meyers, Herman W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of an initiative to encourage voluntary school district mergers in Vermont. The law was intended to increase educational opportunities for Vermont students while reducing costs. Three research activities were conducted to understand how districts and supervisory unions around the state responded to the new…

  10. Board and auditor interlocks and voluntary disclosure in annual reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly

  11. Serious gaming and voluntary laparoscopic skills training: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E. G. G.; Dankelman, J.; Schijven, M. P.; Lange, J. F.; Wentink, M.; Stassen, L. P. S.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the

  12. 7 CFR 766.354 - Voluntary conveyance of chattel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) An Agency application form; (2) A current financial statement. If the borrower is an entity, all entity members must provide current financial statements; (3) Information on present and future... subpart B of 7 CFR part 1956 before or in conjunction with the voluntary conveyance offer if the value of...

  13. Rapid, minimally invasive adult voluntary male circumcision: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a priority HIV preventive intervention. To facilitate VMMC scale-up, the World Health Organization is seeking circumcision techniques that are faster, easier, and safer than open surgical methods. Objective. To compare open surgical circumcision with suturing v.

  14. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A. Jackowich, BA

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.

  15. A cardiorespiratory classifier of voluntary and involuntary electrodermal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdic Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.

  16. 21 CFR 20.113 - Voluntary product defect reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... confidential commercial or financial information and in § 20.63 for personal privacy. (b) If the report is... would identify the person submitting the report and any data or information falling within the exemption... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary product defect reports. 20.113 Section...

  17. 15 CFR 30.74 - Voluntary self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or any other agency of the United States Government, has learned the same or substantially similar... be deemed to have made a voluntary self-disclosure under this section unless the individual making... disclosure subsequently completes the narrative account required by paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the...

  18. RESEARCH Voluntary informed consent and good clinical practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of South Africa (1996) and applicable legislation, it is apparent that voluntary informed ... Seoul, 2008);4 Ethics in Health Research: Principles, Structures and. Processes (Department of Health 2004 – 'ethical guidelines' for the purpose of this ... workers have a legal duty to obtain a patient's informed consent for any medical ...

  19. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  20. Voluntary habitual dislocation of the hip in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H; Theander, G; Danielsson, L [Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and radiologic findings in a child with habitual voluntary dislocation of the hip are reported. Observations made in this case and in 6 others on record suggest that this rare condition is a specific pediatric entity with a good prognosis.

  1. Voluntary sport clubs and the social policy agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Magda; Slender, Hans; Wiggers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Local governments, traditionally an important partner of voluntary sport clubs in the Netherlands, are increasingly influencing clubs into involvement in social projects and activities. Although it is not clear what contribution sports clubs can play in this social policy agenda, or whether this

  2. A dynamic analysis of voluntary agreement implementation in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco Garcia, Maria Maria; Sosa, A.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive historical analysis of failure and success factors during the implementation phase of environmental voluntary agreements (VAs) in Mexico. Secondary source data suggest that over the past two decades, perceptions of VAs have changed, and the purpose of this paper was

  3. Demographics as predictors of practice of HIV voluntary counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the demographic variables predicting the practice of HIV Voluntary Counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. Thus, a descriptive survey research was adopted for the study. One thousand, nine hundred and eighty eight (1988) secondary school adolescents were sampled from ...

  4. Voluntary Counselling And Testing (VCT) Among Urban Residents in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to two-thirds of all people living with HIV/AIDS. Nigeria has the third highest population of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is rapidly becoming an important component of HIV/AIDS prevention and care strategy.

  5. Force-directed design of a voluntary closing hand prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, H.; Herder, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a body-powered voluntary closing prosthetic hand. It is argued that the movement of the fingers before establishing a grip is much less relevant for good control of the object held than the distribution of forces once the object has been contacted. Based on this

  6. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  7. Voluntary imitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  8. Development and Operation of a Voluntary Audit Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jerome R.

    This report describes a voluntary audit program implemented by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The comprehensive audit program was developed to assure that all corporate programs adhere to the ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness. The standards address issues which relate to all ETS activities such as accountability, confidentiality of…

  9. Human Economy and Entrepreneurial Learning in a Voluntary Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    2014-01-01

    "Based on five months anthropological field study in a British affiliate of an American charity in London, Revsbech asks what does learning look like in a social voluntary organization for youth. Her chapter argues that volunteers develop entrepreneurial abilities by shifting flexibly between...

  10. Announcement, observation and honesty in the voluntary contributions game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denant-Boemont, L.; Masclet, D.; Noussair, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of pre-play announcements and ex-post observation of decisions on voluntary public good provision. We find that requiring announcements, in conjunction with making contribution decisions public, has a significantly positive effect on the average level of

  11. Fertility prognosis for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a fertility prognosis model for infertile couples. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: In the period November 30, 1977 to June 1, 1985, 321 consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital. Investigation of the female...... MEASURE: The Cox regression model was used to predict the time required to conceive based on informations provided by fertility investigations. RESULTS: Three of 16 prognostic variables (the period of infertility, the female infertility factor, and the P-test) possess significant prognostic information...

  12. Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons and options for Ghana. ... Voluntary counselling and HIV testing has become an integral part of HIV prevention ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. 78 FR 60020 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Surveys ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of... Treasury is soliciting comments concerning the Customer Satisfaction Survey. DATES: Written comments should..., WV 26106-1328, (304) 480- 8150. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Voluntary Customer Satisfaction...

  14. 76 FR 62 - Interpretive Standards for Systemic Compensation Discrimination and Voluntary Guidelines for Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... 1250-ZA00 Interpretive Standards for Systemic Compensation Discrimination and Voluntary Guidelines for... Order 11246 with respect to Systemic Compensation Discrimination (Standards) and Voluntary Guidelines... Compensation Discrimination [[Page 63

  15. Neural mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary recall: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicoline Marie; Gjedde, Albert; Kupers, Ron

    2008-01-25

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies on episodic memory retrieval have primarily focused on volitional memory tasks. However, some conscious memories arise involuntarily, i.e. without a strategic retrieval attempt, yet little is known about the neural network underlying involuntary episodic memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether voluntary and involuntary recall are mediated by separate cortical networks. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy subjects during voluntary and involuntary cued recall of pictures and a control condition with no episodic memory requirements. Involuntary recall was elicited by using an incidental memory task. Compared to the control condition, voluntary and involuntary recall were both associated with significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) increases in posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG; BA 23), left precuneus (BA 7), and right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35/36). In addition, rCBF in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC; BA 8/9) and left precuneus (BA 7) was significantly larger during voluntary compared to involuntary recall, while rCBF was enhanced in left dorsolateral PFC (BA 9) during involuntary recall. The findings corroborate an association of the right PFC with a strategic component of episodic memory retrieval. Moreover, they show for the first time that it is possible to activate the medial temporal lobe, the PCG, and the precuneus, regions normally associated with retrieval success, without this strategic element. The relatively higher activity in precuneus during voluntary compared to involuntary recall suggests that activity in this region co-varies not only with retrieval success but also with retrieval intentionality.

  16. The voluntary safeguards offer of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    During negotiations of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) concerns were expressed by non-nuclear-weapon States that their acceptance of Agency safeguards would put them at a disadvantage vis-a-vis the nuclear-weapon States. To allay these concerns, the United States and the United Kingdom in December 1967 made voluntary offers to accept Agency safeguards on their peaceful nuclear activities. Subsequently, France made a voluntary offer, the safeguards agreement for which was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in February 1978, with a view to encouraging acceptance of Agency safeguards by additional States. More recently, in February 1985 the Board approved the safeguards agreement for the voluntary offer of the USSR, made inter alia to encourage further acceptance of Agency safeguards. These safeguards agreements with nuclear-weapon-States have two important features in common: Namely, they result from voluntary offers to accept safeguards rather than from multilateral or bilateral undertakings, and they give the Agency the right but generally not an obligation to apply its safeguards. The agreements differ in certain respects, the most noteworthy of which is the scope of the nuclear activities covered by each offer. The agreements of the United States and United Kingdom are the broadest, covering all peaceful nuclear activities in each country. The safeguards agreement for the US voluntary offer has been in force since December 1980. Now is an appropriate time to review the experience with the agreement's implementation during its first four years, as well as its history and salient features

  17. Soil Fertility Status on Organic Paddy Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine fertility status of the soil after organic paddy experiments using kinds and doses of organic fertilizers. Experiment was conducted at greenhouse laboratory in Faculty of Agriculture Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. Experimental design used completely randomized design with 9 kinds of treatment was replicated 3 times. Experiments were the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations that are based on fulfilling nutrient requirements of 120 kg N ha-1. Result shows that the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizers and Azolla inoculum had no effect on changes of soil fertility status. Soil fertility status was not significantly correlated with cow manure (0,16ns, Azolla fertilizer (0,26ns and Azolla inoculum (0,16ns. Average of final soil fertility status included fertile category, which was similar as the initial soil fertility status. Average of final soil properties of treatment but nevertheless was relatively higher than in no treatment, indicating the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations had greater impact to soil properties. Cow manure despite increased available K2O and dry grain, but it did not significantly increase the soil fertility status from fertile to very fertile. This was presumably due to the relatively short experiment period, only one planting season had not given significant effect to soil properties. Implication of this study is the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations although did not increase the soil fertility status but could maintain soil fertility status as the initial conditions before planting.

  18. [Performance of in vitro fertilization in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, Hans; Montag, Markus; van der Ven, Katrin

    2002-07-01

    In Germany the application of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is regulated by federal legislation. Compared with the international situation the "German Embryo Protection Law" is very "restrictive" and various methods of ART are prohibited, e.g. oocyte/embryo donation, embryo cryopreservation and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Furthermore, in Germany only 1 to 3 fertilized oocytes may be cultured to embryo. All these embryos then have to be transferred into the uterus of a particular patient. Additional fertilized oocytes can only be cryopreserved in a pronuclear state. The success rate of ART has increased significantly over the past few years owing to the introduction of blastocyst cultures and the selection of 1 to 2 good quality blastocysts for embryo transfer. Furthermore, the transfer of only 1 to 2 blastocysts effectively reduces the risk of high rank multiple pregnancies. In Germany, however, the selection of only a few good quality blastocysts for transfer is prohibited by law. New laboratory techniques, e.g. pronuclear scoring and polar body biopsy screening for aneuploidy are in accordance with German law. The application of these methods provides a selection of "good quality oocytes" and seems to increase the overall success rate. Further studies are required, however. The success rate, quality and cost effectiveness of ART in Germany appears compromised when compared with many other countries. What is more, in contrast to the international situation research and development in ART in Germany has been decreasing constantly over the past few years, due to the inappropriate regulations of the German health care system and the insufficient support given to university-based centers.

  19. Which wider social roles? : An analysis of social roles ascribed to voluntary sports clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    It has long been established that voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) are ascribed a prominent social role by governments. Several scholars highlight the ascribed social values in sport policy to voluntary sports clubs and their possible implications for these voluntary organizations. Most of these

  20. 15 CFR 764.8 - Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott... ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.8 Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott violations. This section... provisions. Voluntary self-disclosures are a mitigating factor with respect to any enforcement action that...

  1. 75 FR 60773 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency... concerns in the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program (PS-Prep...-53 (the 9/11 Act) mandated DHS to establish a voluntary private sector preparedness accreditation and...

  2. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  3. Soil fertility and plant nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, R.G.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The applications of isotopic and related techniques, including autoradiography, radiation absorption, radiation scattering and activation analysis, in investigations on soil fertility and plant nutrition are discussed. The unique information that can be obtained with isotopes and radiation techniques is indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed in relation to other methods of obtaining similar information. (U.K.)

  4. Plant fertilization: maximizing reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2012-06-19

    Sperm competition does not occur in flowering plants as typically only a single pair of sperm cells is delivered for double fertilization. Two recent reports show that plants are capable of avoiding reproductive failure when defective sperm cells are released. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  7. Global fertility and population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How does caregiving for your partner often affect romantic relationships? play_arrow What are the common treatments for ... play_arrow How does a spinal cord injury affect male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and ... Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map ...

  9. Fertility decline: transition or transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, J

    1981-01-01

    This essay argues on the basis of evidence from Northern Rwanda that economic theories of fertility which fail to take into account the value of children for reproducing a community's social relations are of limited value in traditional noncapitalist or peasant societies. Regarding the transition to low fertility as an adjustment of the population to available resources ignores the fact that many families in the developing world regard their children as absolute values, not values relative to other resources, and therefore the transition to lower fertility is a dramatic change rather than an adjustment. The Kiga of Rwanda have in the last 20 years or so become differentiated into a group of richer households with excess land and a labor shortage and poorer households with excess labor and a land shortage. In the face of severe material shortages, the poorer families continue to desire and have almost as many children as the richer. Among women aged 25-35, the poorer group had on average 5.5 children while the wealthier had 3.9 on average. Kiga families are embedded in larger social units which provide social insurance against misfortune, and having many children thus reconstitutes a social value which minimizes the impact of misfortune. High fertility appears to occur in social economies where there is no reasonable motivation for reducing family size; where high value is placed on the survival of the collectivity and on the reproduction of concrete social relations, the only rational behavior is to have many children.

  10. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping

  11. Fertilization of SRC willow. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation is important. These key points can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment may ... several resources listed on the reverse that can help you locate a fertility preservation specialist to discuss ...

  13. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation center closest to you Visit the Pediatric Oncofertility Research Foundation Visit the Patient Navigator Website ... Ginsberg JP. New advances in fertility preservation for pediatric cancer patients. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;23:9- ...

  14. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility ... specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be ...

  15. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    demographic and economic determinants whereas Bongaarts model was used to determine proximate determinants fertility. ... Organization defines the age group of 10-19 and 15-24 ..... In urban areas, 24% of marital fertility was prevented.

  16. Fertilizer and briquetting and carbonisation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangachary, P T

    1984-11-14

    The fertilizer plant and the briquetting and carbonisation plant of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation's complex in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India, and the processes used in each to produce fertilizers, smokeless fuels and tar products are described.

  17. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_ ... Northwestern University © 2015 Northwestern University Contact Northwestern ... Information University Policies Oncofertility Consortium ...

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and ... Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. Cancer ...

  19. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertil Steril. 2013; 100:1224-31. Chow EJ, et al. Pregnancy after chemotherapy in male and female ... Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren AW, et al. Fertility preservation for patients with cancer: American ...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future ... Can you refer us to a fertility preservation specialist to discuss my child’s options further? Fertility Preservation - ...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health. You may feel uncomfortable discussing issues of reproduction with your child. Ask Your Doctor Discussing fertility ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic therapies: a committee opinion. ...

  2. URBANIZATION AND FERTILITY RATES IN ETHIOPIA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Survey (2010) data suggest that Ethiopia not only has one of the largest fertility rates .... Asian countries where the rural-urban fertility differentials were smaller and more ...... Sibanda, A., Z. Woubalem, D. P. Hogan, and D. P. Lindstrom. 2003.

  3. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ...

  4. Fertility preservation after chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaaij, Marleen A. E.; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma can negatively affect fertility. This review summarizes data on fertility after chemotherapy in adult patients. Alkylating chemotherapy, especially if containing procarbazine and/or cyclophosphamide, is most harmful to gonadal functioning. Alkylating regimens cause

  5. ORGANIC FERTILIZER: THE UNDERESTIMATED COMPONENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. Emphasis on increase agricultural productivity of small holder rural peasants from the perspective of soil ... a reward system for farmers and researchers who utilize inorganic fertilizers. .... Some are deregulation of seed and fertilizer.

  6. Psychological aspects of male fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Alice Toft; Madsen, Svend Aage Lykke; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment.......To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment....

  7. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JP, Kolon TF. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents With Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren ... 10. Nieman CL, et al. Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood ...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner ... there are options for preserving fertility in your child diagnosed with cancer. You may be focused on ...

  9. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel,Sarita; Tecchio,Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L.) organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles....

  10. Three Cell Fusions during Double Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunck, Stefanie; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-05-07

    Fertilization of both egg and central cell is a major distinguishing feature of flowering plants. Now, Maruyama et al. report a third cell fusion event between the persistent synergid and the fertilized central cell shortly after double fertilization in Arabidopsis. This causes rapid dilution of pollen tube attractant(s), preventing polytubey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu About SaveMyFertility Provider ... of a clinical study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility ...

  13. Europe the continent with the lowest fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Leridon, H.; Lutz, W.; Velde, E. Te; Thevenon, O.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although fertility rates are falling in many countries, Europe is the continent with the lowest total fertility rate (TFR). This review assesses trends in fertility rates, explores possible health and social factors and reviews the impact of health and social interventions designed to

  14. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  15. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  16. Bio fertilizer Application in a Fertigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Latiffah Noordin; Hoe, P.C.K.

    2011-01-01

    Bio fertilizers contain live beneficial microorganisms that provide nutrients and other benefits to crops. At present, bio fertilizers can be found in solid and liquid forms. Liquid bio fertilizer can be one of the alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Liquid bio fertilizer is produced through culturing of microorganisms that are known to have specific capabilities in helping plant growth. However, application of bio fertilizers in the form of solution is more tedious than that of solid bio fertilizers, which can be applied directly to plants, whereas the liquid form requires several stages of preparation before it can be applied to crops. In Malaysian Nuclear Agency, a study on the distribution of liquid bio fertilizers to crops through the fertigation system has been conducted. In Malaysia, this study has not been conducted in depth, since the present fertigation system is associated to delivery of solubilised mineral fertilizers. This paper discusses the application of liquid bio fertilizers through a fertigation system. Discussions cover technical aspects of bio fertilizer preparation and its application via the said system. Tomato plant was used as test crop to determine the capability and efficiency of bio fertilizer application through the fertigation system. (author)

  17. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers ... Visit the Oncofertility Consortium Web site Use the online Clinic/Center Finder to find the fertility preservation ...

  18. Causes and consequences of voluntary anorexia during the parental care period of wild male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kyle C; Abizaid, Alfonso; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-11-01

    By definition, parental care behaviors increase offspring survival, and individual fitness, at some cost to the parent. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), parental males provide sole care for the developing brood that includes an increase in activity during brood defense and decreased foraging resulting in a decline in endogenous energy reserves. No mechanisms have been proposed for cessation of voluntary foraging, though regulation of appetite hormones such as ghrelin have been documented to affect feeding behavior in other fishes. We documented baseline fluctuations in plasma ghrelin concentrations across parental care. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were lowest during the early stages of parental care before increasing as the brood developed to independence. Additionally, we performed an intervention experiment whereby plasma ghrelin levels were artificially increased through an injection of rodent ghrelin at the onset of parental care. Despite measuring a significant increase in plasma ghrelin approximately 1 week after injection, we noted no differences in plasma-borne indicators of recent foraging activity indicating that voluntary anorexia is possibly reinforced by receptor insensitivity to appetite hormones. Finally, we assessed the ultimate consequences of foraging during parental care by feeding fish to satiation and measuring post-prandial changes in swimming performance and aggression. Fish fed to satiation showed significant decreases in burst swimming ability and aggressiveness towards potential brood predators. Voluntary anorexia during smallmouth bass parental care is an adaptive behavior that avoids potentially deleterious declines in swimming performance and aggression apparently through a modulation of production and reception of appetite hormones including ghrelin.

  19. Voluntary reduction of trans-fatty acids in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Jacoby, Enrique; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2011-02-01

    As part of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization Trans-Fat-Free Americas initiative, 12 representatives from food industries in Latin America and the Caribbean signed a declaration stating their intention to voluntarily eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) from the Americas. A year later, in order to document the extent of the voluntary reduction, each declarant was asked to describe all reformulations and reductions in the TFA content of their products. After up to six requests for data, only three declarants provided such information in detail, and three others offered an overall summary of their reformulations. Additionally, three declarants reported the barriers that limit this process: availability of oil substitutes, cost, and consumers' sensory acceptance. The content of TFA and saturated fat in the food supply in the Americas should be regulated and strictly monitored in order to adequately evaluate a reduction of TFA in the region.

  20. Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic stress on natural systems, particularly the fragmentation of landscapes and the extirpation of predators from food webs, has intensified the need to regulate abundance of wildlife populations with management. Controlling population growth using fertility control has been considered for almost four decades, but nearly all research has focused on understanding effects of fertility control agents on individual animals. Questions about the efficacy of fertility control as a way to control populations remain largely unanswered. 2. Collateral consequences of contraception can produce unexpected changes in birth rates, survival, immigration and emigration that may reduce the effectiveness of regulating animal abundance. The magnitude and frequency of such effects vary with species-specific social and reproductive systems, as well as connectivity of populations. Developing models that incorporate static demographic parameters from populations not controlled by contraception may bias predictions of fertility control efficacy. 3. Many population-level studies demonstrate that changes in survival and immigration induced by fertility control can compensate for the reduction in births caused by contraception. The most successful cases of regulating populations using fertility control come from applications of contraceptives to small, closed populations of gregarious and easily accessed species. 4. Fertility control can result in artificial selection pressures on the population and may lead to long-term unintentional genetic consequences. The magnitude of such selection is dependent on individual heritability and behavioural traits, as well as environmental variation. 5. Synthesis and applications. Understanding species' life-history strategies, biology, behavioural ecology and ecological context is critical to developing realistic expectations of regulating populations using fertility control. Before time, effort and funding are invested in wildlife

  1. Fertility signaling - the proximate mechanism of worker policing in a clonal ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Anne; D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Jones, Graeme R.

    2005-01-01

    In eusocial insects, the ability to regulate reproduction relies on cues that signal the presence of fertile individuals. We investigated the variation of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) with reproductive status in Platythyrea punctata, an ant, in which all workers are capable of producing daughters...... to old reproductives, but not when it was similar to that of nonreproductives. CHCs appear to signal the fertility of individuals and induce policing behavior towards surplus reproductive workers....

  2. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2015 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The voluntary green power market refers to the sale and procurement of renewable energy for voluntary purposes by residential and commercial customers. This report reviews seven green power procurement mechanisms: utility green pricing programs, utility green tariffs, voluntary unbundled renewable energy certificates, competitive supplier green power, community choice aggregations, voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs), and community solar. This report details the status of trends of those seven green power procurement mechanisms in 2015. Three trends -- significant growth of the voluntary PPA project pipeline, innovative green power mechanisms developed by utilities, and geographic expansion of green power mechanisms -- suggest that the green power market is likely to continue to grow in coming years.

  3. Peer Reviews: a voluntary means of enhancing operating culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, R.

    1996-01-01

    In the nuclear energy industry, and also in other fields, excellent experience has been gained from the regular accumulation of expert evidence of power station operation through external organizations or teams. In 1991, the World Association of Nuclear Operations (WANO) initiated a pilot programme for voluntary 'Peer Reviews'. The success of this first exercise in gathering expert evidence led to the introduction of the 'Peer Review' programme in 1993 as one of the standard programmes of WANO. The object was to increase the safety and reliability of nuclear power stations throughout the world. WANO Peer Reviews are voluntary and are carried out at the request of a member. They are oriented towards special WANO performance objectives and criteria, which have been established by the management of WANO. (orig.) [de

  4. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  5. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  6. Fertility transition: forecast for demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M; Nicotra, M; Gloria-Bottini, E

    2008-08-01

    By the end of the 20th century most industrialized nations had undergone the so-called fertility transition, characterized by a reduction in fertility to below replacement level and a delay in age at initiation of child-bearing. An emerging concern is the severe economic and social consequences of this demographic decline. We present an overview of fertility changes in Italy in the second half of the 20th century and a mathematical model that may provide projections for the future of the demographic situation. Starting in 1950 the increment of the number of children born in Italy is initially positive; however, beginning in 1965 the trend suddenly becomes negative, and this negative trend further increased in 1975. A slight improvement is observed in 1980, followed by a stable situation beginning in 1987. Relevant socioeconomic and cultural events in Italy coincide with these variations in the fertility trend. Malnutrition, which had been endemic for centuries in some areas of central and southern Italy, disappeared rather abruptly in early 1960. The improvement in the economic situation was also associated with a decrease in illiteracy and with many sociocultural changes, with the emergence of new demands that decreased propensity for childbearing. The additional deceleration observed in 1975 corresponds to the diffusion of contraceptive procedures. The progression of sociocultural changes has led to a progressive liberation of women from the biological burden of childbearing. Two phenomena seem relevant in this context: women's emerging interest in entering the workforce and the possibility to disconnect sex from childbearing. The social function of feminism has overwhelmed the primary function of survival and diffusion of the species, giving rise to relevant and worrying demographic effects. However, the modern woman has an unconscious memory of her primary biological role, depending on both her genetic structure and cultural heritage, that should bring about a

  7. Voluntary organ donation system adapted to Chinese cultural values and social reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiefu; Millis, J Michael; Mao, Yilei; Millis, M Andrew; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-04-01

    Organ donation and transplant systems have unique characteristics based on the local culture and socioeconomic context. China's transplant and organ donation systems developed without regulatory oversight until 2006 when regulation and policy were developed and then implemented over the next several years. Most recently, the pilot project of establishing a voluntary citizen-based deceased donor program was established. The pilot program addressed the legal, financial, and cultural barriers to organ donation in China. The pilot program has evolved into a national program. Significantly, it established a uniquely Chinese donor classification system. The Chinese donor classification system recognizes donation after brain death (category I), donation after circulatory death (category II), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (category III). Through August 2014, the system has identified 2326 donors and provided 6416 organs that have been allocated though a transparent organ allocation system. The estimated number of donors in 2014 is 1147. As China's attitudes toward organ donation have matured and evolved and as China, as a nation, is taking its place on the world stage, it is recognizing that its past practice of using organs from executed prisoners is not sustainable. It is time to recognize that the efforts to regulate transplantation and provide voluntary citizen-based deceased organ donation have been successful and that China should use this system to provide organs for all transplants in every province and hospital in China. At the national organ transplant congress on October 30, 2014, the Chairman of the China's national organ donation and transplantation committee, Jeifu Huang required all hospitals to stop using organs from executed prisoners immediately and the civilian organ donation will be sole source for organ transplant in China starting January 2015. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. Does Voluntary Governance Work? : Insights from Specialty Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Macgregor, Finlay

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural businesses contribute to sustainability problems, but they are also increasingly central to the effort to develop solutions. One way of moving toward sustainability is through regulatory governance. In this thesis, I analyze a tool of regulatory governance called voluntary market-based regulatory initiatives. Specifically, I investigate two types of initiatives, certification and disclosure, involving businesses and consumers in regulatory governance. I researched these types of ...

  9. Factors explaining voluntary participation in PACE-Vaquita

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Avila

    2011-01-01

    Vaquita marina, a small species of porpoise endemic to the Northern Gulf of California in Mexico, is the world’s most endangered cetacean species. With the purpose of preserving vaquita, the Mexican government launched PACE-Vaquita in 2008. This voluntary program offers an innovative schedule of compensations: as in a payment for conservation program, PACE-Vaquita compensates for temporary reductions in fishing reductions in fishing effort; as in a program to accelerate technology adoption,PA...

  10. INTOXICACIÓN VOLUNTARIA POR ESTRICNINA VOLUNTARY POISONING BY STRYCHNINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Albero Boadas Morales

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The strychnine is a stimulating alkaloid of the central nervous system of restricted use in Venezuela for the elimination of dogs by the Coordination of Zoonosis of the Ministry of the Popular Power for the Health. In this paper a case is described of a patient with voluntary poisoning with a greater than lethal dose of strychnine. The opportune diagnosis and the satisfactory response to the treatment allowed to preserve the life of the patient and to limit the complications.

  11. The roles of incentives and voluntary cooperation for contractual compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Gächter, Simon; Kessler, Esther; Königstein, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency under contractual incompleteness often requires voluntary cooperation in situations where self-regarding incentives for contractual compliance are present as well. Here we provide a comprehensive experimental analysis based on the gift-exchange game of how explicit and implicit incentives affect cooperation. We first show that there is substantial cooperation under non-incentive compatible contracts. Incentive-compatible contracts induce best-reply effort and crowd out any voluntar...

  12. A chain-retrieval model for voluntary task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, André; Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    To account for the findings obtained in voluntary task switching, this article describes and tests the chain-retrieval model. This model postulates that voluntary task selection involves retrieval of task information from long-term memory, which is then used to guide task selection and task execution. The model assumes that the retrieved information consists of acquired sequences (or chains) of tasks, that selection may be biased towards chains containing more task repetitions and that bottom-up triggered repetitions may overrule the intended task. To test this model, four experiments are reported. In Studies 1 and 2, sequences of task choices and the corresponding transition sequences (task repetitions or switches) were analyzed with the help of dependency statistics. The free parameters of the chain-retrieval model were estimated on the observed task sequences and these estimates were used to predict autocorrelations of tasks and transitions. In Studies 3 and 4, sequences of hand choices and their transitions were analyzed similarly. In all studies, the chain-retrieval model yielded better fits and predictions than statistical models of event choice. In applications to voluntary task switching (Studies 1 and 2), all three parameters of the model were needed to account for the data. When no task switching was required (Studies 3 and 4), the chain-retrieval model could account for the data with one or two parameters clamped to a neutral value. Implications for our understanding of voluntary task selection and broader theoretical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by rice using 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Data from five field experiments using labelled nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine the relative effects of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on rice yield. Yield of grain was closely correlated with total aboveground nitrogen uptake (soil + fertilizer), less closely correlated with soil nitrogen uptake and not significantly correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake. When yield increase rather than yield was correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake, the correlation coefficient was statistically significant. (orig.)

  14. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  15. Effect of famine on fertility in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, A

    1988-07-01

    Data on household socioeconomic status collected in the 1974 census and registration data on births, deaths, and migrations for the 1974-77 period from the Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, were used to investigate the effects of the 1974-75 famine on differential fertility in a rural population of Bangladesh. Occupation of household head was used as a measure of socioeconomic status. Overall, fertility declined by 34% over the 1975-76 period and increased by 17% in 1976-77 from the 1974-75 figure. Significantly lower fertility was observed in 1975-76, irrespective of socioeconomic status, but the lower socioeconomic groups were affected more than the higher groups. Post-famine fertility was significantly higher only in the 2 middle occupation categories. The age-specific fertility rates suggest that the famine affected all age groups. The post-famine fertility was higher than that of 1974-75 in all but those aged below 20. At age 40 and over the recovery was slight. Husband-wife separation showed an increase during the famine and particularly among the lower socioeconomic groups. The males of the lower socioeconomic households migrated to other regions to obtain food for the family, thus affecting frequency of coitus. The decline in fertility may be due to several factors: deferred marriage; increase in divorces and husband-wife separations; high fetal wastage; voluntary fertility control through contraception, abstention, or induced abortion; and infecundability. An indirect measure of marriage rate indicated that fewer couples entered into marriage in 1974-75, particularly in the lower socioeconomic groups. Both the higher and lower socioeconomic groups were affected by the famine but the precise mechanisms were not the same. At this stage, it is not feasible to estimate the contribution of each factor to the fertility decline. The lower socioeconomic groups were more affected by husband

  16. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further

  17. Hub nodes inhibit the outbreak of epidemic under voluntary vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haifeng; Wang Binghong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: bhwang@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang Jie; Small, Michael [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: ensmall@polyu.edu.hk; Zhou Changsong [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-02-15

    It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.

  18. Hub nodes inhibit the outbreak of epidemic under voluntary vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haifeng; Wang Binghong; Zhang Jie; Small, Michael; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.

  19. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  20. The Determinants of Low Fertility in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, A.; Rajan, Sowmya; Morgan, S. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework focusing on factors that enhance or reduce fertility relative to desired family size (see Bongaarts 2001), we study fertility variation across time (1992–2006) and space (states) in India. Our empirical analyses use data from three waves of the Indian National Family Health Surveys. We find that this framework can account for a substantial portion of the variation in the TFR across the states and over time. Our estimates focus attention on the critical components of contemporary Indian fertility, especially desired family size, unwanted fertility, son preference, and fertility postponement. PMID:24993746

  1. The beginning of a seed: regulatory mechanisms of double fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleckmann, Andrea; Alter, Svenja; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    THE LAUNCH OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN FLOWERING PLANTS (ANGIOSPERMS) IS INITIATED BY THE PROCESS OF DOUBLE FERTILIZATION: two male gametes (sperm cells) fuse with two female gametes (egg and central cell) to form the precursor cells of the two major seed components, the embryo and endosperm, respectively. The immobile sperm cells are delivered by the pollen tube toward the ovule harboring the female gametophyte by species-specific pollen tube guidance and attraction mechanisms. After pollen tube burst inside the female gametophyte, the two sperm cells fuse with the egg and central cell initiating seed development. The fertilized central cell forms the endosperm while the fertilized egg cell, the zygote, will form the actual embryo and suspensor. The latter structure connects the embryo with the sporophytic maternal tissues of the developing seed. The underlying mechanisms of double fertilization are tightly regulated to ensure delivery of functional sperm cells and the formation of both, a functional zygote and endosperm. In this review we will discuss the current state of knowledge about the processes of directed pollen tube growth and its communication with the synergid cells resulting in pollen tube burst, the interaction of the four gametes leading to cell fusion and finally discuss mechanisms how flowering plants prevent multiple sperm cell entry (polyspermy) to maximize their reproductive success.

  2. The Cost of Raising Fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurjanska, Malgorzata; Lyngsie, Jacob

    the extent to which maternity benefits may have positive externalities for employers, such as increased employee loyalty. Relying on population wide registry data, we carry out multiple group comparisons (e.g. by comparing women who gave birth with those who adopted children, women with children that require......In recent years, Europe has entered a crisis of fertility. One policy solution that countries can, and some have moved to adopt to deal with low fertility rates, is to increase labor benefits granted to new parents, with a particular focus on extending maternity, not paternity, leave. We explore...... more or less in-home care, etc.). We test the extent to which reduced occupational mobility for women with children is a result of an increased sense of loyalty that may accompany generous maternity leave benefits. We also analyze whether employee loyalty brought on by maternity benefits are influenced...

  3. [Chemotherapy and women fertility preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Tristan; Piver, Pascal; Durand, Lise-Marie; Donadel, Lorène; Pech, Jean-Christophe; Roux, Christophe; Aubard, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Agressive chemotherapy can lead to premature ovarian failure and loss of fertility in women and children. Embryo cryopreservation is an established clinical procedure of fertility preservation but with several limitations. Others options are available. Cryopreservation ovarian cortex tissu have to be suggested in case of high gonadotoxic treatment. It doesn't require puberty and delay in initiation of chemotherapy. The first birth in France after orthotopic graft of ovarian tissu thawed have been recently described with a promising process. Oocyte cryopreservation is available for women without partner but the experience is limited. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy as ovarian protectants seem interesting. Follicular growth and maturation in vitro are still experimental. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotional Variation and Fertility Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Emotional influences on fertility behaviors are an understudied topic that may offer a clear explanation of why many couples choose to have children even when childbearing is not economically rational. With setting-specific measures of the husband-wife emotional bond appropriate for large-scale population research matched with data from a long-term panel study, we have the empirical tools to provide a test of the influence of emotional factors on contraceptive use to limit fertility. This article presents those tests. We use long-term, multilevel community and family panel data to demonstrate that the variance in levels of husband-wife emotional bond is significantly associated with their subsequent use of contraception to avert births. We discuss the wide-ranging implications of this intriguing new result.

  5. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  6. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  7. Radiation doses from phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer coverage of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words, a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  8. Natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, J.; Aurand, K.; Ruehle, H.; Schmier, H.; Wolter, R.

    1974-12-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer covering of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  9. Diagnostic imaging in fertility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, A.C.; Fleischer, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some 10%-15% of married couples are affected by a fertility disorder. The number of infertile couples seeking medical assistance has increased dramatically in the past decade. The roles of diagnostic imaging with radiography and US (conventional and transvaginal) is emphasized in the assessment of couples with fertility disorders and an unexpectedly higher incidence of fetal wastage secondary to unsuspected uterine anomalies. The most frequently utilized radiographic examination in infertile patients is hysterosalpingography (HSG). Techniques and complications of HSG are illustrated. The normal anatomy, variants, and congenital anomalies of the uterus and fallopian tubes are demonstrated, as are the numerous abnormalities such as filling defects of the uterine cavity, synechiae, effects of maternal diethylstilbestrol exposure, inflammatory tubal disease, and the more common HSG findings following uterine and tubal surgery. The role of diagnostic imaging in male infertility, including vasography and varicocele detection, are addressed. Conventional and transvaginal US in the management of gynecologic fertility disorders are examined, with an emphasis on follicular monitoring, guided follicular aspirations, endometrial evaluations, and evaluation of other disorders (such as endometriosis) associated with infertility

  10. A national industrial health service on a voluntary basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NATVIG, H

    1955-01-01

    In Norway-a country with a population of about 3.2 million-the largest occupational group is employed in manufacturing and trade, which accounted for a total of 480 000 individuals in 1946. Most industries are small, only about 100 firms having more than 500 workers. As industry developed, there arose an increasing need for organizing a special plant health service, with the aim of protecting and promoting the health of the workers.Certain regulations were worked out, and in 1945 a general agreement was made between the Norwegian Medical Association, the Norwegian Employers' Association, and the Norwegian Federation of Labour; a tripartite body was then formed, the Board of Industrial Health Service, to give information and advice to industries. This plant health service is based on voluntary mutual agreement and not on legislation.All expenses for the plant health service are met by the industry itself. In firms with no special occupational health problems, the physician works one hour per week per 100 workers; in firms with special problems, two hours. The duties of the plant physician consist in giving the employees pre-employment and periodical health examinations, and health guidance, and carrying out other preventive measures. First aid, treatment for occupational diseases not requiring absence from work, and treatment of certain minor ailments are the only forms of therapy given at the plant. Workers in need of further medical treatment are referred to general practitioners or hospitals. Absenteeism is recorded in a uniform way in all industries that have joined this industrial health service. The plant physician has to submit an annual report on his work to the Board of Industrial Health Service.This system of industrial health service has given very good results. In 1953, 653 plants were participating with about 186 000 workers. About 260 active plant physicians are to be found in Norway at present, most of them working on a part-time basis. The cost of

  11. Gamma loop contributing to maximal voluntary contractions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbarth, K E; Kunesch, E J; Nordin, M; Schmidt, R; Wallin, E U

    1986-01-01

    A local anaesthetic drug was injected around the peroneal nerve in healthy subjects in order to investigate whether the resulting loss in foot dorsiflexion power in part depended on a gamma-fibre block preventing 'internal' activation of spindle end-organs and thereby depriving the alpha-motoneurones of an excitatory spindle inflow during contraction. The motor outcome of maximal dorsiflexion efforts was assessed by measuring firing rates of individual motor units in the anterior tibial (t.a.) muscle, mean voltage e.m.g. from the pretibial muscles, dorsiflexion force and range of voluntary foot dorsiflexion movements. The tests were performed with and without peripheral conditioning stimuli, such as agonist or antagonist muscle vibration or imposed stretch of the contracting muscles. As compared to control values of t.a. motor unit firing rates in maximal isometric voluntary contractions, the firing rates were lower and more irregular during maximal dorsiflexion efforts performed during subtotal peroneal nerve blocks. During the development of paresis a gradual reduction of motor unit firing rates was observed before the units ceased responding to the voluntary commands. This change in motor unit behaviour was accompanied by a reduction of the mean voltage e.m.g. activity in the pretibial muscles. At a given stage of anaesthesia the e.m.g. responses to maximal voluntary efforts were more affected than the responses evoked by electric nerve stimuli delivered proximal to the block, indicating that impaired impulse transmission in alpha motor fibres was not the sole cause of the paresis. The inability to generate high and regular motor unit firing rates during peroneal nerve blocks was accentuated by vibration applied over the antagonistic calf muscles. By contrast, in eight out of ten experiments agonist stretch or vibration caused an enhancement of motor unit firing during the maximal force tasks. The reverse effects of agonist and antagonist vibration on the

  12. Educational differentials in cohort fertility during the fertility transition in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hyun Yoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between women's education and fertility rates, few of these studies have examined the pattern of fertility differentials over the course of the fertility transition. As a country that has experienced a rapid decline in fertility and marked improvements in women's educational attainment over the last several decades, South Korea represents an ideal case for studying this dynamic association. Objective: The aim of the article is to explain the pattern of fertility differentials by level of education and the contribution of the changes in women's educational attainment to the fertility decline during the fertility transition in South Korea. Methods: Drawing upon data from the Korean censuses conducted between 1970 and 2010, I analyze completed cohort fertility for women born between 1926 and 1970 using demographic-decomposition techniques and cohort parity progression ratios by level of education. Results: The differences in fertility by educational attainment have gradually declined over the transition, with fertility almost converging at a low level among recent birth cohorts. Fertility in South Korea had been declining in all of the social groups until the sub-replacement fertility was reached. The change in women's educational attainment then became an important factor in the further decline in fertility. The trend toward fewer children quickly spread from the most educated to the least educated women throughout the fertility transition. Conclusions: The transformation of fertility behaviors across social strata has been a key element in the Korean fertility transition. Although educational expansion, particularly the introduction of mass education, has contributed to falling fertility in South Korea, the role of education in fertility decline is more pronounced in the diffusion of innovative ideas and behaviors, which reduced fertility differentials across

  13. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC) carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. Results All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R) CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do no harm as a minimum

  14. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merger Eduard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. Results All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do

  15. Effectiveness and legitimacy of forest carbon standards in the OTC voluntary carbon market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merger, Eduard; Pistorius, Till

    2011-08-17

    In recent years, the voluntary over-the-counter (OTC) carbon market has reached a significant market volume. It is particularly interesting for forest mitigation projects which are either ineligible in compliance markets or confronted with a plethora of technical and financial hurdles and lacking market demand. As the OTC market is not regulated, voluntary standards have been created to secure the social and environmental integrity of the traded mitigation projects and thus to ensure the quality of the resulting carbon credits. Building on a theoretical efficiency-legitimacy framework, this study aims to identify and analyse the characteristics and indicators that determine the efficiency and organisational legitimacy of standards for afforestation/reforestation carbon projects. All interviewed market actors consider third-party certification and standards as a crucial component of market functionality, which provide quality assurance mechanisms that reduce information asymmetries and moral hazard between the actors regarding the quality of carbon credits, and thus reduce transaction costs. Despite this development, the recent evolution of many new and differing standards is seen as a major obstacle that renders it difficult for project developers and buyers to select an appropriate standard. According to the interviewed experts the most important legitimating factors of standards are assurance of a sufficient level of quality of carbon credits, scientifically substantiated methodological accounting and independent third-party verification, independence of standard bodies, transparency, wide market acceptance, back-up of the wider community including experts and NGOs, rigorous procedures, and the resemblance to the Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R) CDM due to its international policy endorsements. In addition, standards must provide evidence that projects contribute to a positive social and environmental development, do no harm as a minimum requirement and build a

  16. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  17. Implications of carbon cap-and-trade for US voluntary renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Lori A.; Holt, Edward; Levenstein Carroll, Ghita

    2008-01-01

    Many consumers today are purchasing renewable energy in large part for the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits that they provide. Emerging carbon regulation in the US has the potential to affect existing markets for renewable energy. Carbon cap-and-trade programs are now under development in the Northeast under the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) and in early stages of development in the West and Midwest. There is increasing discussion about carbon regulation at the national level as well. While renewable energy will likely benefit from carbon cap-and-trade programs because compliance with the cap will increase the costs of fossil fuel generation, cap-and-trade programs can also impact the ability of renewable energy generation to affect overall CO 2 emissions levels and obtain value for those emissions benefits. This paper summarizes key issues for renewable energy markets that are emerging with carbon regulation, such as the implications for emissions benefits claims and voluntary market demand and the use of renewable energy certificates (RECs) in multiple markets. It also explores policy options under consideration for designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and renewable energy markets to work together

  18. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holt, Ed [Ed Holt & Associates Inc., Harpeswell, ME (United States); Carroll, Ghita [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  19. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  20. Environmental considerations on uranium and radium from phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioroianu, T.M.; Bunus, F.; Filip, D.; Filip, Gh.

    2001-01-01

    fertilizers. In the case of phosphogypsum, there are regulations prohibiting its use in agriculture, construction industry etc., due to its 226Ra content. However, there is no such a rule in the case of fertilizers. There are several recovery plants for uranium from phosphoric acid based on solvent extraction, but as a consequence of unfavourable uranium market some of them were have been closed. However, the profitable consideration that should be taken into account in connection with the uranium recovery, should be the production of a non-radioactive fertilizer. We have developed a simple uranium recovery process in Romania based on a one cycle extraction-stripping principle. This process was successfully demonstrated in a big pilot plant of 7 m 3 /h phosphoric acid capacity. The process was extended to industrial scale and three plants were built in Romania. This process was extended to the nitric acid attack that resulted in the elimination of 226Ra. Thus in both cases, either in sulphuric acid or in nitric acid attack, the final product is a non-radioactive fertilizer. The two flowsheets of the process are given is this paper. (author)