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Sample records for voluntary exercise exerts

  1. Downregulation of cough by exercise and voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  2. Do placebo expectations influence perceived exertion during physical exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Hendrik; Leukel, Christian; Seelig, Harald; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a) the effects of exercise and b) the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE) measured every 5 minutes. Beforehand, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions and watched a corresponding film clip presenting "scientific evidence" that the exercise would or would not result in health benefits and that the exercise product they were wearing (compression garment) would additionally enhance exercise benefits or would only be worn for control purposes. Participants' physical self-concept was assessed via questionnaire. Results partially demonstrated that participants with more positive expectations experienced reduced perceived exertion during the exercise. Furthermore, our results indicate a moderator effect of physical self-concept: Individuals with a high physical self-concept benefited (in terms of reduced perceived exertion levels) in particular from an induction of generally positive expectations. In contrast, individuals with a low physical self-concept benefited when positive expectations were related to the exercise product they were wearing. In sum, these results suggest that placebo expectations may be a further, previously neglected class of psychological factors that influence the perception of exertion.

  3. Prior Acute Mental Exertion in Exercise and Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Júnior, Fernando Lopes E; Emanuel, Patrick; Sousa, Jordan; Silva, Matheus; Teixeira, Silmar; Pires, Flávio; Machado, Sérgio; Arias-Carrion, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Mental exertion is a psychophysiological state caused by sustained and prolonged cognitive activity. The understanding of the possible effects of acute mental exertion on physical performance, and their physiological and psychological responses are of great importance for the performance of different occupations, such as military, construction workers, athletes (professional or recreational) or simply practicing regular exercise, since these occupations often combine physical and mental tasks while performing their activities. However, the effects of implementation of a cognitive task on responses to aerobic exercise and sports are poorly understood. Our narrative review aims to provide information on the current research related to the effects of prior acute mental fatigue on physical performance and their physiological and psychological responses associated with exercise and sports. The literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo using the following terms and their combinations: "mental exertion", "mental fatigue", "mental fatigue and performance", "mental exertion and sports" "mental exertion and exercise". We concluded that prior acute mental exertion affects effectively the physiological and psychophysiological responses during the cognitive task, and performance in exercise. Additional studies involving prior acute mental exertion, exercise/sports and physical performance still need to be carried out in order to analyze the physiological, psychophysiological and neurophysiological responses subsequently to acute mental exertion in order to identify cardiovascular factors, psychological, neuropsychological associates.

  4. Skeletal muscle overexpression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase in mice coupled with voluntary exercise augments exercise endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila R. Costford

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Our studies have unveiled a fascinating interaction between elevated NAMPT activity in skeletal muscle and voluntary exercise that was manifest as a striking improvement in exercise endurance.

  5. Exercise, Physical Activity, and Exertion over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Colman; Dhaval M. Dave

    2011-01-01

    As economic recessions reduce employment and wages, associated shifts in time and income constraints would be expected to also impact individuals' health behaviors. Prior work has focused exclusively on recreational exercise, which typically represents only about 4% of total daily physical exertion. The general presumption in these studies is that, because exercise improves health, if unemployment increases exercise it must also improve health. Yet a person may be laid off from a physically d...

  6. A Transdisciplinary Model Integrating Genetic, Physiological, and Psychological Correlates of Voluntary Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Angela; Hutchison, Kent E.; Seals, Douglas R.; Allen, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity contributes to as many as 250,000 premature deaths per year (R. R. Pate et al., 1995). The authors’ objective was to test a transdisciplinary model of the ways in which genetic variants, physiological factors, and psychological factors are thought to influence exercise with 64 healthy, regular exercisers. Design In a within-subjects design, psychological and physiological responses to exercise were compared with responses to a sedentary activity. Main Outcome Measures The authors measured affective state, perceived exertion, heart rate, and temperature change in response to moderate exercise versus sedentary activity. They also quantified genotypes on a single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene. Results and Conclusions The data show a relation between increases in positive affective states and acute exercise behavior, as opposed to a sedentary control. The BDNF gene moderated the effect of exercise on mood, heart rate, and perceived exertion. Physiological factors were, in turn, related to mood response, and mood response was a significant correlate of motivation to exercise in the future and of current exercise behavior. The model has potential as a framework for the basic study of the genetic, physiological, and psychological processes involved with voluntary exercise and as a tool for the applied examination of tailored exercise interventions and their efficacy for different subsets of individuals. PMID:17209695

  7. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the assessment of exertional dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriya Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea on exertion is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. It is usually investigated by resting tests such as pulmonary function tests and echocardiogram, which may at times can be non-diagnostic. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET measures physiologic parameters during exercise which can enable accurate identification of the cause of dyspnea. Though CPET has been around for decades and provides valuable and pertinent physiologic information on the integrated cardiopulmonary responses to exercise, it remains underutilized. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensible overview of the underlying principles of exercise physiology, indications and contraindications of CPET, methodology and interpretative strategies involved and thereby increase the understanding of the insights that can be gained from the use of CPET.

  8. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between perceived exertion during exercise and subsequent recovery measurements

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    TN Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The return towards resting homeostasis in the post-exercise period has the potential to represent the internal training load of the preceding exercise bout. However, the relative potential of metabolic and autonomic recovery measurements in this role has not previously been established. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate which of 4 recovery measurements was most closely associated with Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, a measurement widely acknowledged as an integrated measurement of the homeostatic stress of an exercise bout. A heterogeneous group of trained and untrained participants (n = 36 completed a bout of exercise on the treadmill (3 km at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 1 hour of controlled recovery. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate (HR were measured throughout the exercise and recovery phases of the trial with recovery measurements used to calculate the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCMAG, the time constant of the EPOC curve (EPOCτ, 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR60s and the time constant of the HR recovery curve (HRRτ for each participant. RPE taken in the last minute of exercise was significantly associated with HRR60s (r=-0.69, EPOCτ (r=0.52 and HRRτ (r=0.43 but not with EPOCMAG. This finding suggests that, of the 4 recovery measurements under investigation, HRR60s shows modest potential to represent inter-individual variation in the homeostatic stress of a standardized exercise bout, in a group with a range of fitness levels.

  10. Voluntary exercise during chronic renal failure in rats.

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    Adams, Gregory R; Zhan, Chang-De; Haddad, Fadia; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2005-04-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) patients often experience a significant degradation in quality of life that is associated with decreased physical fitness. Previous animal studies have used forced running or swimming as modalities to investigate the interactions between exercise and CRF. These modalities generally include stress responses unrelated to the exercise itself. The purpose of the current work was to determine whether, and to what extent, rats experiencing the onset of CRF would participate in voluntary wheel running exercise. An additional objective was to examine physiological parameters related to skeletal muscle and cardiovascular adaptation in the context of CRF and exercise. Groups of rats were assigned to sham-operated or 5/6 nephrectomy groups, and further divided into running or nonrunning subgroups. Blood, heart, and muscle tissues were collected 30 d after the exercise groups were returned to running wheel-equipped cages. The results demonstrated that rats experiencing the early stages of CRF will voluntarily exercise to the same extent as sham-operated animals (e.g., sham, 7.2+/-0.8 vs CRF, 6.8+/-0.7 km.d). CRF resulted in increased systolic blood pressure that was not normalized by exercise. CRF induced a decrease in hemoglobin concentration that was prevented by exercise. Voluntary running resulted in an apparently nonpathological left ventricular hypertrophy in both the sham-operated and CRF rats. In locomotor skeletal muscles, CRF resulted in a 31% decrease in citrate synthase activity that was completely blunted by voluntary running activity. Rats experiencing the onset of CRF will run voluntarily. This exercise appears to provide some potentially palliative effects on the skeletal muscle and cardiovascular responses to CRF.

  11. Desensitization of the cough reflex by exercise and voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorini, Federico; Fontana, Giovanni A; Chellini, Elisa; Magni, Chiara; Duranti, Roberto; Widdicombe, John

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing nebulizer outputs of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), an index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in twelve healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise and during voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea (VIH) at the same ventilatory level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge to cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was recorded throughout the trials on a linear scale. The relationships between inhaled fog nebulizer outputs and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, were also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the median cough threshold was increased from a control value of 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH, the threshold increased from 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were unchanged, i.e., control, 3.83 cm; exercise, 3.12 cm; VIH, 4.08 cm. The relationship of the fog nebulizer output/UTC value was linear in control conditions and logarithmic during both exercise and VIH. The perception of the magnitude of the UTC seems to be influenced by signals or sensations arising from exercising limb and thoracic muscles and/or by higher nervous (cortical) mechanisms. The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperpnea exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  12. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation in diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-11-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) cause exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and are important differential diagnoses to exercise-induced asthma. The diagnostic method for EILOs includes provocation to induce the obstruction followed by a verification of the obstruction and the degree thereof. The objective of the present study was to examine if a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test could induce laryngeal obstructions laryngoscopically identical in subtypes and development as seen during an exercise test. EVH and exercise testing with continuous laryngoscopy were performed during a screening of two national athletic teams (n = 67). The laryngoscopic recordings were examined for usability, abnormalities and maximal supraglottic and glottic obstruction using two currently available methods (Eilomea and CLE-score). The participants were asked questions on ERRS, and whether the symptoms experienced during each provocation matched those experienced during regular training. A total of 39 completed both tests. There were no significant differences in subtypes and development thereof, the experience of symptoms, and specificity and sensitivity between the methods. Significantly more recordings obtained during the exercise test were usable for evaluation primarily due to resilient mucus on the tip of the fiber-laryngoscope in the EVH test. Only recordings of six athletes from both provocation methods were usable for evaluation using the Eilomea method (high-quality demand). Amongst these, a linear correlation was found for the glottic obstruction. EVH tests can induce EILOs. However, the present test protocol needs adjustments to secure better visualisation of the larynx during provocation.

  13. The Influence of Exercise Environment and Gender on Mood and Exertion.

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    Plante, Thomas G; Oppezzo, Marily A; Diaz, L Aislinn; Pistoresi, Selena; Santos, Michael; Fahey, Jacqueline E; Kay, Elizabeth; Britton, Briana; Khan, Suheel

    This study examined the influence of exercise environment and gender on post-exercise mood and exertion. College student participants (55 females, 49 males) were instructed to pedal a stationary bike at a moderate pace for 20 minutes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three laboratory conditions: (1) exercising in front of a mirror and posters showing ideal fit body types (i.e., celebrity male and female personal trainers), (2) exercising in front of a mirror only, or (3) a control condition in which participants exercised without a mirror or posters. The Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), measuring exercise-induced mood states, was administered both before and after exercise. Average bike speed throughout the exercise session measured exertion. Mirrors and posters of ideally fit celebrities did interact with gender on post-exercise tension in that women felt most tense after exercising in front of the mirror and posters while men were most tense after exercising in front of the mirror only. Exercise exertion was also impacted by experimental condition such that participants rode significantly faster in the mirror and posters condition. There was no significant interaction of gender and condition on exercise exertion, but women pedaled fastest in the mirror and poster condition relative to the other conditions. Results suggest that exercise exertion and tension reduction are partially a by-product of gender and exercise environment.

  14. Modeling trajectories of perceived leg exertion during maximal cycle ergometer exercise in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Marianne; Zhang, Zhen; Therneau, Terry; McGrath, Patrick; Pianosi, Paolo

    2014-01-09

    between ratings of perceived exertion and work capacity normalized across individuals. Models including a delay term, a linear component, or a power function can describe these individual trajectories of perceived leg exertion during incremental exercise to voluntary exhaustion.

  15. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch C. Chow

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation. Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  16. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. METHODS: 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity...... was 0.43 and 0.13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical exercise performed at the workplace appears more effective than home-based exercise in reducing physical exertion during daily work tasks in healthcare workers....

  17. Using heart rate variability for automated identification of exercise exertion levels.

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    Finkelstein, Joseph; Jeong, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is being used to estimate activity of autonomous nervous system by analysing heart rate variability (HRV). HRV has been recently shown to be effective means to monitor efficacy of exercise in patients with cardiovascular conditions and older adults. Whether HRV can be used to identify exercise exertion levels is unknown. There are multiple approaches to analyse HRV however it is not clear which approach is optimal in assessing cycling exercise. Previous studies demonstrated potential of analysis of short-term sequences of beat-by-beat heart rate data in a time domain for continuous monitoring of levels of physiological stress. The goal of this study was to assess the potential value of short-term HRV analysis during cycling exercise for automated identification of exercise exertion level. HRV indices were compared during rest, height of exercise exertion, and exercise recovery. Comparative analysis of HRV during cycling exercise demonstrated responsiveness of time-domain indices to different phases of an exercise program. Using discriminant analysis, canonical discriminant functions were built which correctly identified 100% of 'highest level of exertion' and 80.0% of 'rest' episodes. HRV demonstrated high potential in monitoring autonomic balance and exercise exertion during cycling exercise program.

  18. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model.

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    Pauline B van de Weert-van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Regular moderate exercise has been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects and improve immune effector functions, resulting in reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Whether regular exercise also affects bacterial infection susceptibility is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28 days, mice were intranasally infected with P. aeruginosa. Our study showed that regular exercise resulted in a higher sickness severity score and bacterial (P. aeruginosa loads in the lungs. The phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils from spleen and lungs was not affected. Although regular moderate exercise has many health benefits, healthy mice showed increased bacterial (P. aeruginosa load and symptoms, after regular voluntary exercise, with perseverance of the phagocytic capacity of monocytes and neutrophils. Whether patients, suffering from bacterial infectious diseases, should be encouraged to engage in exercise and physical activities with caution requires further research.

  19. Delayed voluntary exercise does not enhance cognitive performance after hippocampal injury: an investigation of differentially distributed exercise protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Wogensen, Elise; Gram, Marie Gajhede; Sommer, Jens Bak; Vilsen, Christina Rytter; Mogensen, Jesper; Mal?, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary exercise has previously been shown to enhance cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury (ABI). The present study evaluated effects of two differentially distributed protocols of delayed, voluntary exercise on cognitive recovery using an allocentric place learning task in an 8-arm radial maze. Fifty-four Wistar rats were subjected to either bilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix (FF) or to sham surgery. Twenty-one days postinjury, the animals started exercising in running w...

  20. High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-09-01

    To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age, 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep electroencephalographic recordings 1.5 h after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = 0.69, P exercise exertion was associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep, and decreased light sleep. Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work: cluster randomized controlled trial.

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    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-11-01

    High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5×10 minutes per week. Physical exertion was assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. Physical exertion was reduced more in WORK than HOME (pgroup differences in physical exertion at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) was -0.5 points (95% CI -0.8 to -0.2). Within-group effect size (Cohen's d) in WORK and HOME was 0.43 and 0.13, respectively. Physical exercise performed at the workplace appears more effective than home-based exercise in reducing physical exertion during daily work tasks in healthcare workers. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Adolescent voluntary exercise attenuated hippocampal innate immunity responses and depressive-like behaviors following maternal separation stress in male rats.

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    Sadeghi, Mahsa; Peeri, Maghsoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2016-09-01

    Early life stressful events have detrimental effects on the brain and behavior, which are associated with the development of depression. Immune-inflammatory responses have been reported to contribute in the pathophysiology of depression. Many studies have reported on the beneficial effects of exercise against stress. However, underlying mechanisms through which exercise exerts its effects were poorly studied. Therefore, it applied maternal separation (MS), as a valid animal model of early-life adversity, in rats from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 14 for 180min per day. At PND 28, male Wistar albino rats were subjected to 5 experimental groups; 1) controls 2) MS rats 3) MS rats treated with fluoxetine 5mg/kg to PND 60, 4) MS rats that were subjected to voluntary running wheel (RW) exercise and 5) MS rats that were subjected to mandatory treadmill (TM) exercise until adulthood. At PND 60, depressive-like behaviors were assessed by using forced swimming test (FST), splash test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Our results revealed that depressive-like behaviors following MS stress were associated with an increase in expression of toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr-4) and its main signaling protein, Myd88, in the hippocampal formation. Also, we found that voluntary (and not mandatory) physical exercise during adolescence is protected against depressant effects of early-life stress at least partly through mitigating the innate immune responses in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A candidate syntenic genetic locus is associated with voluntary exercise levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostrzewa, E.; Brandys, M. K.; van Lith, H. A.; Kas, M. J H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185967019

    2015-01-01

    Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region

  4. Altered cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular function after voluntary exercise in adult mice.

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    Cahill, Lindsay S; Bishop, Jonathan; Gazdzinski, Lisa M; Dorr, Adrienne; Stefanovic, Bojana; Sled, John G

    2017-11-01

    The beneficial effects of physical exercise on brain health are well documented, yet how exercise modulates cerebrovascular function is not well understood. This study used continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging with a hypercapnic challenge to examine changes in cerebral blood flow and vascular function after voluntary exercise in healthy, adult mice. Thirty exercise mice and twenty-one control mice were imaged prior to the start of the exercise regime (at 12 weeks of age) and after 4 weeks of voluntary exercise. After the second in vivo imaging session, we performed high-resolution ex vivo anatomical brain imaging to correlate the structural brain changes with functional measures of flow and vascular reserve. We found that exercise resulted in increases in the normocapnic and hypercapnic blood flow in the hippocampus. Moreover, the change in normocapnic blood flow between pre-exercise and post-exercise was positively correlated to the hippocampal structure volume following exercise. There was no overall effect of voluntary exercise on blood flow in the motor cortex. Surprisingly, the hypercapnic hippocampal blood flow when measured prior to the start of exercise was predictive of subsequent exercise activity. Moreover, exercise was found to normalize this pre-existing difference in hypercapnic blood flow between mice.

  5. Hemodynamic Changes After Static and Dynamic Exercises and Treadmill Stress Test; Different Patterns in Patients with Primary Benign Exertional Headache?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rostami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of primary benign exertional headache (EH is not still clearly defined. Some researchers have suggested an impaired vascular response as the etiology of this disorder. In this study we investigated whether there are any differences in blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR of the subjects in course of the static and dynamic exercises and the treadmill stress test between those with and without EH. From university students, 22 patients with EH (mean age: 19.8 ± 2.10, Female to Male: 7:15 and 20 normal subjects (mean age: 19.3 ± 1.97, Female: Male: 8:12 were recruited. All the subjects performed the static and dynamic exercises at 30 and 20 percent of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and Bruce treadmill stress test according to the standard protocols. HR and BP of all the cases at the baseline and during and immediately after each test were measured. No significant difference was found between the mean rise of HR, systolic and diastolic BP of the subjects with and without EH in static and dynamic exercises and also treadmill stress test. It seems that between those with and without EH, there is no significant difference in rise of HR and BP response to static and dynamic exercises and treadmill stress test. Further studies are required to find the pathophysiology and risk factors of EH.

  6. Exercising with reserve: exercise regulation by perceived exertion in relation to duration of exercise and knowledge of endpoint.

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    Swart, J; Lamberts, R P; Lambert, M I; Lambert, E V; Woolrich, R W; Johnston, S; Noakes, T D

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and performance during repetitive maximal effort 40 km time trials as well as after an intervention that aimed to decrease certainty about the remaining distance of the exercise bout. In addition, we examined the RPE during exercise bouts of markedly different duration. Part 1: 12 well-trained, competitive-level cyclists completed five 40 km time trials. During the final time trial all feedback was withheld until the final kilometre. In addition, to cause confusion about the remaining distance, they were asked to report their RPE at random intervals from 18 km to 38 km. Part 2: 6 well-trained, recreation-level cyclists randomly completed a 5 km, 10 km, 40 km and 100 km time trial. Part 1: Mean RPE increased during the first four trials and decreased during the final trial. The rate of RPE progression increased in linearity during the first four trials and became more conservative in the final trial. These changes were directly related to performance. Part 2: Mean RPE for longer duration trials (40 km, 100 km) were lower during the first half of trial duration but matched those of shorter trials in the final 20%. Increased familiarity of the exercise bout and certainty about its endpoint are associated with a more aggressive RPE strategy that produces a superior exercise performance. Certainty about the endpoint and the duration of exercise affect both the RPE strategy and performance.

  7. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

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    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  8. Exertional rhabdomyolysis following excessive exercise of university freshman cheer-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Sangchan, Apichat; Mootsikapun, Piroon

    2003-08-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a life threatening condition resulting from lysis of muscle cells after vigorous exercise. It can cause many complications such as renal failure. It occurs most commonly in military personnel but also in civilians who have excessive excercise after work. Two cases of freshmen who had exertional rhabdomyolysis were reported to illustrate the potential risk of cheer-training. Appropriate measures should be arranged to prevent this condition. Diagnosis and treatment should be given promptly to prevent serious complications.

  9. Menstrual cycle effects on perceived exertion and pain during exercise among sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Ann E Caldwell; Bryan, Angela D; Eaton, Melissa

    2011-03-01

    Increasing cardiovascular fitness through exercise participation among sedentary people is important for decreasing all-cause mortality. From an intervention perspective, identifying modifiable factors that maximize the successful initiation of exercise is of utmost importance. For women, cyclic hormonal variations can influence aspects of health and health behaviors, from smoking cessation efficacy to physiological responses to exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptive (HC) use on subjective response to an initial bout of moderate intensity exercise among previously sedentary women (n = 117). Women completed a treadmill exercise challenge session at 65% of their previously determined maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2) max) during the early follicular, late follicular, or luteal phase. Participants reported ratings of perceived exertion and pain using Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and CR10 scales at 10, 20, and 30 minutes during the exercise session. There was a significant menstrual phase x birth control interaction on change in RPE [F(2, 111) = 3.75, p cycle phase influence sedentary women's subjective response to exercise. These results have important implications for the timing of exercise interventions aimed at increasing exercise among sedentary women.

  10. Recovery of stress response coincides with responsiveness to voluntary exercise after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesbach, Grace S; Tio, Delia L; Nair, Shyama; Hovda, David A

    2014-04-01

    We have recently shown that there is a heightened stress response after a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) during the first 2 post-injury weeks. This corresponds to the same post-injury period when exercise does not increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autonomic dysfunction becomes evident with exercise. Here we determined stress and autonomic responses to voluntary and forced exercise at a post-injury time window when exercise has been found to elicit beneficial effects. Rats underwent a mild fluid percussion injury and were exercised at post-injury days 28-32 and 35-39. Cardiac and temperature autonomic function were evaluated. Hippocampal tissue was obtained immediately after exercise for analysis of BDNF. In contrast to the sub-acute period, corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone responses to exercise were normalized in the TBI group. Irrespective of injury, forced exercise markedly stimulated the corticotrophic axis and did not increase BDNF. BDNF levels were increased with voluntary exercise in all animals. Rats exposed to forced exercise had lower activity levels during periods of non-exercise. This effect was more pronounced in the TBI rats. Cardiac and temperature autonomic responses to delayed exercise also recuperated. Rats with TBI that underwent forced exercise, however, had higher core body temperatures during experimental manipulations, thus suggesting that exposure to a potent stressor facilitates responsiveness to environmental stimulations.

  11. Voluntary exercise ameliorates cognitive deficits in morphine dependent rats: the role of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Akhavan, Maziar M; Semnanian, Saeed; Safari, Manouchehr

    2011-10-01

    Chronic exposure to opiates impairs spatial learning and memory. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we investigated whether voluntary exercise would ameliorate the cognitive deficits that are induced by morphine dependence. If an effect of exercise was observed, we aimed to investigate the possible role of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10mg/kg, at 12h intervals) of morphine over a period of 10 days of voluntary exercise. Following these injections, a water maze task was performed twice a day for five consecutive days, followed by a probe trial 2 days later. A specific BDNF inhibitor (TrkB-IgG chimera) was used to block the hippocampal BDNF action during the 10 days of voluntary exercise. We found that voluntary exercise blocked the ability of chronic morphine to impair spatial memory retention. A blockade of the BDNF action blunted the exercise-induced improvement of spatial memory in the dependent rats. Moreover, the voluntary exercise diminished the severity of the rats' dependency on morphine. This study demonstrates that voluntary exercise ameliorates, via a TrkB-mediated mechanism, the cognitive deficits that are induced by chronic morphine. Thus, voluntary exercise might be a potential method to ameliorate some of the deleterious behavioral consequences of the abuse of morphine and other opiates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity.

  13. Ventilatory response at the onset of voluntary exercise and passive movement in endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamura, M; Ishida, K; Hashimoto, I; Yuza, N

    1997-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine whether or not the ventilatory response at the onset of voluntary exercise and passive movement in endurance runners is the same as in untrained subjects. Twelve long-distance runners belonging to the varsity athletic club and 13 untrained subjects of our university participated as subjects in this study. Maximum oxygen uptake was significantly higher in the endurance runner group [mean (SD) 70.8 (4.7) ml.kg-1.min-1] than in the untrained group [49.8 (6.3) ml.kg-1.min-1]. Cardiorespiratory responses during voluntary exercise and passive movement of alternate flexion-extension of the right and left legs for about 15 s at a frequency of about 60 rpm, were determined by means of breath-by-breath techniques. Minute inspiratory ventilation (VI), tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency (fb), cardiac output (Qc), stroke volume (SV) and heart rate (HR) increased significantly immediately at the onset of voluntary exercise and passive movement. The incremental rate for VI was greater than that for Qc. Average values and standard deviations of changes in VI were calculated as the difference between the mean of the first and second breath and the mean of five breaths preceding the exercise or movement. The rates obtained in voluntary exercise and passive movement in the endurance runner group [2.34 (0.82) and 1.72 (0.71 l.min-1), respectively] were significantly (P untrained group [4.16 (2.66) and 2.71 (1.56 l.min-1), respectively]. Also changes in VT and HR were significantly lower in the endurance group than in the untrained group with regard to both voluntary exercise and passive movement. The results suggest that the magnitude of cardiorespiratory responses at the onset of voluntary exercise and passive movement in humans is influenced by chronic endurance training for long periods.

  14. Selective Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome Detected With Exercise Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sehan; Lee, Ho Seong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-11-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome that is refractory to conservative management should be treated with surgical fasciotomy. However, owing to the limitations of intracompartmental needle manometry in reaching a definite diagnosis, the appropriate timing for fasciotomy and on which compartment remain unclear. The authors report the case of a 22-year-old male military cadet who reported pain in his left calf when running or walking for long distances. The pain was located at the lateral aspect of the calf, from the mid-calf level to the ankle. At another hospital, nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging had been performed, which showed no considerable abnormality. The authors used exercise magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose chronic exertional compartment syndrome. They performed selective fasciotomy on the compartment that showed a high signal intensity. As a military cadet, the patient was required to jog for more than an hour per day and perform strenuous muscle exercises. He reported that he did not have calf pain or discomfort during such activities 13 months postoperatively. The authors obtained a follow-up exercise magnetic resonance image. Compared with the preoperative magnetic resonance image, the follow-up exercise magnetic resonance image did not show high signal intensity at the lateral compartment. Exercise magnetic resonance imaging is useful in confirming the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and enables the performance of selective fasciotomy on the affected compartment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(6):e1099-e1102.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei-Xin, E-mail: weixinliu@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Gu, Shou-Zhi [Department of Anatomy, Seirei Christopher College, Hamamatsu 433-8558 (Japan); Sang, Li-Xuan [Department of Cadre Ward II, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Dai, Cong [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Hai-Lan [Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China)

    2015-04-10

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  16. Cardiometabolic and reproductive benefits of early dietary energy restriction and voluntary exercise in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Kupreeva, Maria; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer D; Pierce, W David; Vine, Donna F

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders in women of reproductive age characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and cardiometabolic risk. The overweight-obese PCOS phenotype appears to have exacerbated reproductive dysfunction and cardiometabolic risk. In overweight-obese adult women with PCOS, exercise and energy restricted diets have shown limited and inconsistent effects on both cardiometabolic indices and reproductive outcomes. We hypothesized that an early lifestyle intervention involving exercise and dietary energy restriction to prevent or reduce the propensity for adiposity would modulate reproductive indices and cardiometabolic risk in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model. Weanling obese PCOS-prone and Lean-Control JCR:LA-cp rodents were given a chow diet ad libitum or an energy-restricted diet combined with or without voluntary exercise (4  h/day) for 8 weeks. Dietary energy restriction and exercise lowered total body weight gain and body fat mass by 30% compared to free-fed sedentary or exercising obese PCOS-prone animals (PPCOS-prone animals compared to free-fed and exercise or sedentary groups. The energy restriction and exercise combination in obese PCOS-prone animals significantly increased plasma sex-hormone binding globulin, hypothalamic cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and Kisspeptin mRNA expression to levels of the Lean-Control group, and this was further associated with improvements in estrous cyclicity. The combination of exercise and dietary energy restriction when initiated in early life exerts beneficial effects on cardiometabolic and reproductive indices in an obese PCOS-prone rodent model, and this may be associated with normalization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Kisspeptin and CART. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Voluntary Exercise Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Muscle Wasting during Chemotherapy in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Fjelbye, Jonas; Zerahn, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass related to anti-cancer therapy is a major concern in cancer patients, being associated with important clinical endpoints including survival, treatment toxicity and patient-related outcomes. We investigated effects of voluntary exercise during cisplatin treatment on body weight...... loss by 50% (P Exercise...... training may preserve muscle mass in cancer patients receiving cisplatin treatment, potentially improving physical capacity, quality of life and overall survival....

  18. Parent-of-origin effects on voluntary exercise levels and body composition in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Scott A.; Nehrenberg, Derrick L.; Hua, Kunjie; Gordon, Ryan R.; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Despite the health-related benefits of exercise, many people do not engage in enough activity to realize the rewards, and little is known regarding the genetic or environmental components that account for this individual variation. We created and phenotyped a large G4 advanced intercross line originating from reciprocal crosses between mice with genetic propensity for increased voluntary exercise (HR line) and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. G4 females (compared to males) ran significantly more w...

  19. SALIVARY CORTISOL RESPONSES AND PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING HIGH INTENSITY AND LOW INTENSITY BOUTS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure the salivary cortisol response to different intensities of resistance exercise. In addition, we wanted to determine the reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE scale to monitor resistance exercise intensity. Subjects (8 men, 9 women completed 2 trials of acute resistance training bouts in a counterbalanced design. The high intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of six, ten-repetition sets using 75% of one repetition maximum (RM on a Smith machine squat and bench press exercise (12 sets total. The low intensity resistance exercise protocol consisted of three, ten-repetition sets at 30% of 1RM of the same exercises as the high intensity protocol. Both exercise bouts were performed with 2 minutes of rest between each exercise and sessions were repeated to test reliability of the measures. The order of the exercise bouts was randomized with least 72 hours between each session. Saliva samples were obtained immediately before, immediately after and 30 mins following each resistance exercise bout. RPE measures were obtained using Borg's CR-10 scale following each set. Also, the session RPE for the entire exercise session was obtained 30 minutes following completion of the session. There was a significant 97% increase in the level of salivary cortisol immediately following the high intensity exercise session (P<0.05. There was also a significant difference in salivary cortisol of 145% between the low intensity and high intensity exercise session immediately post-exercise (P<0.05. The low intensity exercise did not result in any significant changes in cortisol levels. There was also a significant difference between the session RPE values for the different intensity levels (high intensity 7.1 vs. low intensity 1.9 (P<0.05. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the session RPE measure was 0.95. It was concluded that the session RPE method is a valid and reliable method of

  20. Reliability and Validity of the OMNI-Vibration Exercise Scale of Perceived Exertion

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, Pedro J.; Alejandro Santos-Lozano; Fernanda Santin-Medeiros; Robertson, Robert J.; Nuria Garatachea

    2012-01-01

    This study examined reliability and concurrent validity of the newly developed OMNI-vibration exercise scale (OMNI-VIBRO) to measure Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during vibration exercise in twenty recreationally active students (12 males and 8 females). The criterion variables were muscle activity of the Vastus Medialis (VM), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Biceps Femoris (BF), and Medial Gastrocnemius (MG) muscles, as well as accelerations (12.5, 20.2, 30.9, 36.3, 60.1, and 88.4 m·s-2). RPE w...

  1. Cardioprotective Effects of Voluntary Exercise in a Rat Model: Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular exercise at moderate intensity reduces cardiovascular risks. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play a major role in cardiac remodeling, facilitating physiological adaptation to exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of voluntary physical exercise on the MMP-2 enzyme activity and to investigate the cardiac performance by measurement of angina susceptibility of the heart, the basal blood pressure, the surviving aorta ring contraction, and the cardiac infarct size after I/R-induced injury. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into control and exercising groups. After a 6-week period, the serum level of MMP-2, basal blood pressure, cardiac angina susceptibility (the ST segment depression provoked by epinephrine and 30 s later phentolamine, AVP-induced heart perfusion and aorta ring contraction, infarct size following 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion, and coronary effluent MMP-2 activity were measured. Results. Voluntary wheel-running exercise decreased both the sera (64 kDa and 72 kDa and the coronary effluent (64 kDa MMP-2 level, reduced the development of ST depression, improved the isolated heart perfusion, and decreased the ratio of infarct size. Conclusion. 6 weeks of voluntary exercise training preserved the heart against cardiac injury. This protective mechanism might be associated with the decreased activity of MMP-2.

  2. Swimming exercise attenuates psychological dependence and voluntary methamphetamine consumption in methamphet- amine withdrawn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Damghani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that regular swimming exercise reduced voluntary METH consumption in animal models of craving by reducing anxiety, OCD, and depression in the METH-withdrawn rats. Thus, physical training may be ameliorating some of the withdrawal behavioral consequences of METH.

  3. Brain activity and perceived exertion during cycling exercise: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Eduardo B; Okano, Alexandre H; De Guio, François; Schabort, Elske J; Min, Li Li; Basset, Fabien A; Stein, Dan J; Noakes, Timothy D

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the equipment and techniques available to assess brain function during dynamic exercise are limited, which has restricted our knowledge of how the brain regulates exercise. This study assessed the brain areas activated during cycling by making use of a novel cycle ergometer, constructed to measure functional MRI (fMRI) brain images during dynamic exercise. Furthermore, we compared brain activation at different levels of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) generated during the exercise. Seven healthy adults performed cycling exercise in a novel MRI compatible cycle ergometer while undergoing brain  fMRI. Participants completed a cycling block protocol comprising six trials of 2 min cycling with 16-s intervals between trials. Participants reported their RPE every minute through an audio link. The MRI cycling ergometer transferred the torque generated on the ergometer through a cardan system to a cycling ergometer positioned outside the MRI room. For data analysis, the effects of cycling as opposed to rest periods were examined after motion correction. The multiparticipant analysis revealed in particular the activation of the cerebellar vermis and precentral and postcentral gyrus when periods of cycling versus rest were compared. Single participant analysis in four participants revealed that activation of the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus occurred in cycling blocks perceived as 'hard' compared with exercise blocks that were less demanding. The present study offers a new approach to assess brain activation during dynamic cycling exercise, and suggests that specific brain areas could be involved in the sensations generating the rating of perceived exertion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Voluntary exercise delays heart failure onset in rats with pulmonary artery hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Antonio J; Fowler, Ewan D; Calaghan, Sarah C; White, Ed

    2015-08-01

    Increased physical activity is recommended for the general population and for patients with many diseases because of its health benefits but can be contraindicated if it is thought to be a risk for serious cardiovascular events. One such condition is pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). PAH and right ventricular failure was induced in rats by a single injection of monocrotaline (MCT). MCT rats with voluntary access to a running wheel ran on average 2 km/day. The time for half the animals to develop heart failure signs (median survival time) was 28 days (exercise failure group), significantly longer than sedentary animals (sedentary failure group, 23 days). The contractility of single failing myocytes in response to increasing demand (stimulation frequency) was significantly impaired compared with that in both sedentary control and exercising control myocytes. However, myocytes from exercising MCT rats, tested at 23 days (exercise + MCT group), showed responses intermediate to the control (sedentary control and exercising control) and failing (sedentary failure and exercise failure) groups. We conclude that voluntary exercise is beneficial to rats with heart failure induced by PAH, and this is evidence to support the consideration of appropriate exercise regimes for potentially vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Telemetric analysis of haemodynamic regulation during voluntary exercise training in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, D; De Bono, J P; Danson, E J; Zhang, M H; Casadei, B; Paterson, D J; Channon, K M

    2011-11-01

    Regular physical exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and improves outcome in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The dynamic changes in blood pressure and heart rate with acute exercise are independently predictive of prognosis. Quantification of the haemodynamic response to exercise training in genetically modified mouse models may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise. We describe, for the first time, the use of radiotelemetry to provide continuous blood pressure monitoring in C57BL/6J mice during a programme of voluntary wheel exercise with continuous simultaneous recording and analysis of wheel rotations and beat-by-beat haemodynamic parameters. We define distinct haemodynamic profiles at rest, during normal cage activity and during episodes of voluntary wheel running. We show that whilst cage activity is associated with significant rises both in blood pressure and in heart rate, voluntary wheel running leads to a further substantial rise in heart rate with only a small increment in blood pressure. With 5 weeks of chronic exercise training, resting heart rate progressively falls, but heart rate during episodes of wheel running initially increases. In contrast, there are minimal changes in blood pressure in response to chronic exercise training. Finally, we have quantified the acute changes in heart rate at the onset of and recovery from individual episodes of wheel running, revealing that changes in heart rate are extremely rapid and that the peak rate of change of heart rate increases with chronic exercise training. The results of this study have important implications for the use of genetically modified mouse models to investigate the beneficial haemodynamic effects of chronic exercise on blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Voluntary exercise induces neurogenesis in the hypothalamus and ependymal lining of the third ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Atsuko; Nishibori, Masahiro; Hamasaki, Shinichi; Kobori, Takuro; Liu, Keyue; Wake, Hidenori; Mori, Shuji; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    In the adult hypothalamus and ependymal lining of the third ventricle, tanycytes function as multipotential progenitor cells that enable continuous neurogenesis, suggesting that tanycytes may be able to mediate the restoration of homeostatic function after stroke. Voluntary wheel running has been shown to alter neurochemistry and neuronal function and to increase neurogenesis in rodents. In the present study, we found that voluntary exercise improved the survival rate and energy balance of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP/Kpo). We also investigated the effect of exercise on the proliferation and differentiation of hypothalamic cells using immunoreactivity for tanycytes and neural markers. The proliferation of elongated cells, which may be the tanycytes, was enhanced in exercising SHRSP compared to sedentary rats before and after stroke. In addition, the proliferation of cells was correlated with the induction of fibroblast growth factor-2 in the subependymal cells of the third ventricle and in the cerebrospinal fluid. Some of the newborn cells of exercising SHRSP showed differentiation into mature neurons after stroke. Our results suggest that voluntary exercise correlates with hypothalamic neurogenesis, leading to recovery of homeostatic functions in the adult brain after stroke.

  7. Exertional dyspnoea in COPD: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis E. O'Donnell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond. Since dyspnoea is provoked or aggravated by physical activity, its concurrent measurement during standardised laboratory exercise testing is clearly important. Combining measurement of perceptual and physiological responses during exercise can provide valuable insights into symptom severity and its pathophysiological underpinnings. This review summarises the abnormal physiological responses to exercise in COPD, as these form the basis for modern constructs of the neurobiology of exertional dyspnoea. The main objectives are: 1 to examine the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in uncovering the physiological mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD; 2 to examine the escalating negative sensory consequences of progressive respiratory impairment with disease advancement; and 3 to build a physiological rationale for individualised treatment optimisation based on CPET.

  8. Age-specific effects of voluntary exercise on memory and the older brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siette, Joyce; Westbrook, R Frederick; Cotman, Carl; Sidhu, Kuldip; Zhu, Wanlin; Sachdev, Perminder; Valenzuela, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Physical exercise in early adulthood and mid-life improves cognitive function and enhances brain plasticity, but the effects of commencing exercise in late adulthood are not well-understood. We investigated the effects of voluntary exercise in the restoration of place recognition memory in aged rats and examined hippocampal changes of synaptic density and neurogenesis. We found a highly selective age-related deficit in place recognition memory that is stable across retest sessions and correlates strongly with loss of hippocampal synapses. Additionally, 12 weeks of voluntary running at 20 months of age removed the deficit in the hippocampally dependent place recognition memory. Voluntary running restored presynaptic density in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subregions in aged rats to levels beyond those observed in younger animals, in which exercise had no functional or synaptic effects. By contrast, hippocampal neurogenesis, a possible memory-related mechanism, increased in both young and aged rats after physical exercise but was not linked with performance in the place recognition task. We used graph-based network analysis based on synaptic covariance patterns to characterize efficient intrahippocampal connectivity. This analysis revealed that voluntary running completely reverses the profound degradation of hippocampal network efficiency that accompanies sedentary aging. Furthermore, at an individual animal level, both overall hippocampal presynaptic density and subregional connectivity independently contribute to prediction of successful place recognition memory performance. Our findings emphasize the unique synaptic effects of exercise on the aged brain and their specific relevance to a hippocampally based memory system for place recognition. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise: impact on affect and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, S H; Ali, A; Biddle, S J H; Williams, C

    2007-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on affective states and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise. Seventeen male soccer players completed a prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise protocol for 90 min on two occasions, separated by at least 7 days. Participants consumed either a 6.4% CHO (0.6 g/kg body mass (BM)/h) or an artificially sweetened placebo (PLA) solution immediately before (8 mL/kg BM) and every 15 min (3 mL/kg BM) during exercise in a double-blind, counterbalanced design. Pleasure-displeasure, perceived activation, RPE and plasma glucose concentration was assessed. The results showed that compared with the CHO trial, perceived activation were lower in the placebo trial during the last 30 min of exercise and this was accompanied by lowered plasma glucose concentrations. In the CHO trial, RPE was maintained in the last 30 min of exercise but carried on increasing in the PLA trial. Therefore, CHO ingestion during prolonged high-intensity exercise appears to elicit an enhanced perceived activation profile that may impact upon task persistence and performance. This finding is in addition to the physiological and metabolic benefits of the exogenous energy supply.

  10. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI.

  11. Voluntary Exercise Training: Analysis of Mice in Uninjured, Inflammatory, and Nerve-Injured Pain States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayler D Sheahan

    Full Text Available Both clinical and animal studies suggest that exercise may be an effective way to manage inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions. However, existing animal studies commonly use forced exercise paradigms that incorporate varying degrees of stress, which itself can elicit analgesia, and thus may complicate the interpretation of the effects of exercise on pain. We investigated the analgesic potential of voluntary wheel running in the formalin model of acute inflammatory pain and the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in mice. In uninjured, adult C57BL/6J mice, 1 to 4 weeks of exercise training did not alter nociceptive thresholds, lumbar dorsal root ganglia neuronal excitability, or hindpaw intraepidermal innervation. Further, exercise training failed to attenuate formalin-induced spontaneous pain. Lastly, 2 weeks of exercise training was ineffective in reversing spared nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity or in improving muscle wasting or hindpaw denervation. These findings indicate that in contrast to rodent forced exercise paradigms, short durations of voluntary wheel running do not improve pain-like symptoms in mouse models of acute inflammation and peripheral nerve injury.

  12. Voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition depend on genetic selection history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Estrada-Smith, Daria; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Little is known about how genetic variation affects the capacity for exercise to change body composition. We examined the extent to which voluntary exercise alters body composition in several lines of selectively bred mice compared to controls. Lines studied included high runner (HR) (selected for high wheel running), M16 (selected for rapid weight gain), Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) (randomly bred as control for M16), M16i (an inbred line derived from M16), HE (selected for high percentage of body fat while holding body weight constant), LF (selected for low percentage of body fat), C57BL/6J (common inbred line), and the F1 between HR and C57BL/6J. Body weight and body fat were recorded before and after 6 days of free access to running wheels in males and females that were individually caged. Total food intake was measured during this 6-day period. All pre- and postexercise measures showed significant strain effects. While HR mice predictably exercised at higher levels, all other selection lines had decreased levels of wheel running relative to ICR. The HR x B6 F1 ran at similar levels to HR demonstrating complete dominance for voluntary exercise. Also, all strains lost body fat after exercise, but the relationships between exercise and changes in percent body were not uniform across genotypes. These results indicate that there is significant genetic variation for voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition. It is important to carefully consider genetic background and/or selection history when using mice to model effects of exercise on body composition, and perhaps, other complex traits as well.

  13. Voluntary exercise at the expense of reproductive success in Djungarian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Ines; Scherbarth, Frank; Steinlechner, Stephan

    2010-09-01

    Energy demands of gestation and lactation represent a severe challenge for small mammals. Therefore, additional energetic burdens may compromise successful breeding. In small rodents, food restriction, cold exposure (also in combination) and wheel running to obtain food have been shown to diminish reproductive outcome. Although exhibited responses such as lower incidence of pregnancy, extended lactation periods and maternal infanticide were species dependent, their common function is to adjust energetic costs to the metabolic state reflecting the trade-off between maternal investment and self-maintenance. In the present study, we sought to examine whether voluntary exercise affects reproduction in Djungarian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus), which are known for their high motivation to run in a wheel. Voluntary exercise resulted in two different effects on reproduction; in addition to increased infanticide and cannibalism, which was evident across all experiments, the results of one experiment provided evidence that free access to a running wheel may prevent successful pregnancy. It seems likely that the impact of voluntary wheel running on reproduction was associated with a reduction of internal energy resources evoked by extensive exercise. Since the hamsters were neither food-restricted nor forced to run in the present study, an energetic deficit as reason for infanticide in exercising dams would emphasise the particularly high motivation to run in a wheel.

  14. Changes in muscle activity and perceived exertion during exercises performed on a swiss ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of prime mover and abdominal muscles while performing squats, push ups, and double leg lowering with a swiss ball. Twelve healthy subjects performed the movements. There was no difference between the surface conditions for muscle activity during the squat exercise; however, individuals had lower perceived exertion for the swiss ball squat. Activity of the triceps and abdominals was highest performing push ups on the swiss ball, whereas the activity of rectus abdominus (RA) only increased during double leg lowering on the swiss ball. Perceived exertion was highest for the push up and leg-lowering exercise performed on the swiss ball. Increased RA activity during double leg lowering can be attributed to its role as a hip flexor, whereas the lack of a rotation aspect to the task prevented increased oblique muscle activity. The swiss ball appears to only increase muscle activity during exercises where the unstable surface is the primary base of support.

  15. Exercise Prescription Using the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion to Improve Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente; Domínguez, Raúl; Muñoz González, Arturo; Feliu-Ruano, Raquel; Serra-Payá, Noemí; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to compare two fitness-training methodologies, instability circuit resistance training (ICRT) versus traditional circuit resistance training (TCRT), applying an experimental model of exercise prescription controlling and modulating exercise load using the Borg rating of perceived exertion. Forty-four healthy young adults age (21.6±2.3 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: TCRT (n=14), ICRT (n=14) and a control group (n=16). Strength and cardiorespiratory tests were chosen to evaluate cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness before and after the training program. In cardiorespiratory data, a significant difference was observed for the time effect in VO 2max , peak heart rate, peak velocity, and heart rate at anaerobic threshold intensity (p<0.05) in the experimental groups. In strength variables, a significant Group x Time interaction effect was detected in 1RM, in mean propulsive power, and in peak power (p≤0.01) in the back squat exercise. In the bench press exercise, a significant time effect was detected in 1RM, in mean propulsive power, and in peak power, and a Group x Time interaction in peak power (all p<0.05). We can conclude that applying an experimental model of exercise prescription using RPE improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy young adults in both experimental groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Exertional dyspnoea in interstitial lung diseases: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bonini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs represent a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterised by alveolar and interstitial damage, pulmonary inflammation (usually associated with fibrosis, decreased lung function and impaired gas exchange, which can be attributed to either a known or an unknown aetiology. Dyspnoea is one of the most common and disabling symptoms in patients with ILD, significantly impacting quality of life. The mechanisms causing dyspnoea are complex and not yet fully understood. However, it is recognised that dyspnoea occurs when there is an imbalance between the central respiratory efferent drive and the response of the respiratory musculature. The respiratory derangement observed in ILD patients at rest is even more evident during exercise. Pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for exertional dyspnoea and reduced exercise tolerance include altered respiratory mechanics, impaired gas exchange, cardiovascular abnormalities and peripheral muscle dysfunction. This review describes the respiratory physiology of ILD, both at rest and during exercise, and aims to provide comprehensive and updated evidence on the clinical utility of the cardiopulmonary exercise test in the assessment and management of these pathological entities. In addition, the role of exercise training and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes in the ILD population is addressed.

  17. Voluntary exercise does not ameliorate spatial learning and memory deficits induced by chronic administration of nandrolone decanoate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanehkar, Fatemeh; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Haghighi, Saeed; Miladi-Gorji, Hossien; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Bavarsad, Kowsar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) nandrolone decanoate (ND) in supra-physiological doses is associated with learning and memory impairments. Given the well-known beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive functions, we examined whether voluntary exercise would improve the cognitive deficits induced by chronic administration of ND. We also investigated the effects of ND and voluntary exercise on hippocampal BDNF levels. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups: the vehicle-sedentary group, the ND-sedentary group, the vehicle-exercise group, and the ND-exercise group. The vehicle-exercise and the ND-exercise groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 15 days. The vehicle-sedentary and the ND-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same period. Vehicle or ND injections were started 14 days prior to the voluntary exercise and continued throughout the 15 days of voluntary exercise. After the 15-day period, the rats were trained and tested on a water maze spatial task using four trials per day for 5 consecutive days followed by a probe trial two days later. Exercise significantly improved performance during both the training and retention of the water maze task, and enhanced hippocampal BDNF. ND impaired spatial learning and memory, and this effect was not rescued by exercise. ND also potentiated the exercise-induced increase in hippocampal BDNF levels. These results seem to indicate that voluntary exercise is unable to improve the disruption of cognitive functions by chronic ND. Moreover, increased levels of BDNF may play a role in ND-induced impairments in learning and memory. The harmful effects of ND and other AAS on learning and memory should be taken into account when athletes decide to use AAS for performance or body image improvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Voluntary exercise prevents cisplatin-induced muscle wasting during chemotherapy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Hojman

    Full Text Available Loss of muscle mass related to anti-cancer therapy is a major concern in cancer patients, being associated with important clinical endpoints including survival, treatment toxicity and patient-related outcomes. We investigated effects of voluntary exercise during cisplatin treatment on body weight, food intake as well as muscle mass, strength and signalling. Mice were treated weekly with 4 mg/kg cisplatin or saline for 6 weeks, and randomized to voluntary wheel running or not. Cisplatin treatment induced loss of body weight (29.8%, P < 0.001, lean body mass (20.6%, P = 0.001, as well as anorexia, impaired muscle strength (22.5% decrease, P < 0.001 and decreased glucose tolerance. In addition, cisplatin impaired Akt-signalling, induced genes related to protein degradation and inflammation, and reduced muscle glycogen content. Voluntary wheel running during treatment attenuated body weight loss by 50% (P < 0.001, maintained lean body mass (P < 0.001 and muscle strength (P < 0.001, reversed anorexia and impairments in Akt and protein degradation signalling. Cisplatin-induced muscular inflammation was not prevented by voluntary wheel running, nor was glucose tolerance improved. Exercise training may preserve muscle mass in cancer patients receiving cisplatin treatment, potentially improving physical capacity, quality of life and overall survival.

  19. Effects of voluntary exercise on hippocampal long-term potentiation in morphine-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi-Gorji, H; Rashidy-Pour, A; Fathollahi, Y; Semnanian, S; Jadidi, M

    2014-01-03

    This study was designed to examine the effect of voluntary exercise on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in morphine-dependent rats. The rats were randomly distributed into the saline-sedentary (Sal/Sed), the dependent-sedentary, the saline-exercise (Sal/Exc), and the dependent-exercise (D/Exc) groups. The Sal/Exc and the D/Exc groups were allowed to freely exercise in a running wheel for 10 days. The Sal/Sed and the morphine-sedentary groups were kept sedentary for the same extent of time. Morphine (10 mg/kg) was injected bi-daily (12 h interval) during 10 days of voluntary exercise. On day 11, 2h after the morphine injection, the in vivo LTP in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was examined. The theta frequency primed bursts were delivered to the perforant path for induction of LTP. Population spike (PS) amplitude and the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) slope were measured as indices of increase in synaptic efficacy. Chronic morphine increased the mean basal EPSP, and augmented PS-LTP. Exercise significantly increased the mean baseline EPSP and PS responses, and augmented PS-LTP in both saline and morphine-treated groups. Moreover, the increase of PS-LTP in the morphine-exercise group was greater (22.5%), but not statistically significant, than that of the Sal/Exc group. These results may imply an additive effect between exercise and morphine on mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. Such an interaction between exercise and chronic morphine may influence cognitive functions in opiate addicts. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Voluntary exercise impact on cognitive impairments in sleep-deprived intact female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajizadeh, Mohammad Amin; Esmaeilpour, Khadijeh; Masoumi-Ardakani, Yaser; Bejeshk, Mohammad Abbas; Shabani, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Ranjbar, Mohammad Pour; Borzadaran, Fatemeh Mohtashami; Sheibani, Vahid

    2018-01-31

    Sleep loss is a common problem in modern societies affecting different aspects of individuals' lives. Many studies have reported that sleep deprivation (SD) leads to impairments in various types of learning and memory. Physical exercise has been suggested to attenuate the cognitive impairments induced by sleep deprivation in male rats. Our previous studies have shown that forced exercise by treadmill improved learning and memory impairments following SD. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of voluntary exercise by running wheel on cognitive, motor and anxiety-like behavior functions of female rats following 72 h SD. Intact female rats were used in the present study. The multiple platform method was applied for the induction of 72 h SD. The exercise protocol was 4 weeks of running wheel and the cognitive function was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM), passive avoidance and novel object recognition tests. Open field test and measurement of plasma corticosterone level were performed for evaluation of anxiety-like behaviors. Motor balance evaluation was surveyed by rotarod test. In this study, remarkable learning and long-term memory impairments were observed in sleep deprived rats in comparison to the other groups. Running wheel exercise ameliorated the SD-induced learning and memory impairments. Voluntary and mandatory locomotion and balance situation were not statistically significant among the different groups. Our study confirmed the negative effects of SD on cognitive function and approved protective effects of voluntary exercise on these negative effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Voluntary exercise prevents cisplatin-induced muscle wasting during chemotherapy in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Fjelbye, Jonas; Zerahn, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass related to anti-cancer therapy is a major concern in cancer patients, being associated with important clinical endpoints including survival, treatment toxicity and patient-related outcomes. We investigated effects of voluntary exercise during cisplatin treatment on body weight......% (PExercise training may...... preserve muscle mass in cancer patients receiving cisplatin treatment, potentially improving physical capacity, quality of life and overall survival....

  2. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  3. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  4. Quantitative genomics of voluntary exercise in mice: transcriptional analysis and mapping of expression QTL in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2014-08-15

    Motivation and ability both underlie voluntary exercise, each with a potentially unique genetic architecture. Muscle structure and function are one of many morphological and physiological systems acting to simultaneously determine exercise ability. We generated a large (n = 815) advanced intercross line of mice (G4) derived from a line selectively bred for increased wheel running (high runner) and the C57BL/6J inbred strain. We previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to voluntary exercise, body composition, and changes in body composition as a result of exercise. Using brain tissue in a subset of the G4 (n = 244), we have also previously reported expression QTL (eQTL) colocalizing with the QTL for the higher-level phenotypes. Here, we examined the transcriptional landscape of hind limb muscle tissue via global mRNA expression profiles. Correlations revealed an ∼1,168% increase in significant relationships between muscle transcript expression levels and the same exercise and body composition phenotypes examined previously in the brain. The exercise trait most often significantly correlated with gene expression in the brain was running duration while in the muscle it was maximum running speed. This difference may indicate that time spent engaging in exercise behavior may be more influenced by central (neurobiological) mechanisms, while intensity of exercise may be largely controlled by peripheral mechanisms. Additionally, we used subsets of cis-acting eQTL, colocalizing with QTL, to identify candidate genes based on both positional and functional evidence. We discuss three plausible candidate genes (Insig2, Prcp, Sparc) and their potential regulatory role. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  6. MRI-detectable changes in mouse brain structure induced by voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Lindsay S; Steadman, Patrick E; Jones, Carly E; Laliberté, Christine L; Dazai, Jun; Lerch, Jason P; Stefanovic, Bojana; Sled, John G

    2015-06-01

    Physical exercise, besides improving cognitive and mental health, is known to cause structural changes in the brain. Understanding the structural changes that occur with exercise as well as the neuroanatomical correlates of a predisposition for exercise is important for understanding human health. This study used high-resolution 3D MR imaging, in combination with deformation-based morphometry, to investigate the macroscopic changes in brain structure that occur in healthy adult mice following four weeks of voluntary exercise. We found that exercise induced changes in multiple brain structures that are involved in motor function and learning and memory including the hippocampus, dentate gyrus, stratum granulosum of the dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex, olivary complex, inferior cerebellar peduncle and regions of the cerebellum. In addition, a number of brain structures, including the hippocampus, striatum and pons, when measured on MRI prior to the start of exercise were highly predictive of subsequent exercise activity. Exercise tended to normalize these pre-existing differences between mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A; Battson, Micah L; Cuevas, Lauren M; Zigler, Melanie C; Sindler, Amy L; Seals, Douglas R

    2016-11-22

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12; -32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11; -5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running; -0.8±-2.1% and -8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise.

  8. Plasma and lymphocyte Hsp72 responses to exercise in athletes with prior exertional heat illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruell, Patricia A; Simar, David; Périard, Julien D; Best, Stuart; Caillaud, Corinne; Thompson, Martin W

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise in the heat on both intracellular and extracellular Hsp72 in athletes with a prior history of exertional heat illness (EHI). Two groups of runners, one consisting of athletes who had a previous history of EHI, and a control group (CON) of similar age (29.7 ± 1.2 and 29.1 ± 2 years CON vs. EHI) and fitness [maximal oxygen consumption [Formula: see text] 65.7 ± 2 and 64.5 ± 3 ml kg(-1) min(-1) CON vs. EHI] were recruited. Seven subjects in each group ran on a treadmill for 1 h at 72 % [Formula: see text] in warm conditions (30 °C, 40 % RH) reaching rectal temperatures of ~39.3 (CON) and ~39.2 °C (EHI). Blood was collected every 10 min during exercise and plasma was analysed for extracellular Hsp72. Intracellular Hsp72 levels were measured in both monocytes and lymphocytes before and immediately after the 60-min run, and then after 1 h recovery at an ambient temperature of 24 °C. Plasma Hsp72 increased from 1.18 ± 0.14 and 0.86 ± 0.08 ng/ml (CON vs. EHI) at rest to 4.56 ± 0.63 and 4.04 ± 0.45 ng/ml (CON vs. EHI, respectively) at the end of exercise (p difference between groups. Lymphocyte Hsp72 was lower in the EHI group at 60 min of exercise (p different between groups. The results of the present study suggest that the plasma Hsp72 response to exercise in athletes with a prior history of EHI remained similar to that of the CON group, while the lymphocyte Hsp72 response was reduced.

  9. Voluntary exercise improves murine dermal connective tissue status in high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Kende; Haluszka, Dóra; Kiss, Norbert; Gyöngyösi, Nóra; Bánvölgyi, András; Szipőcs, Róbert; Wikonkál, Norbert M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Its influence on the skin is less obvious, yet certain negative effects of adipose tissue inflammation on the dermis have been suggested. Excess weight is closely associated with sedentary behavior, so any increase in physical activity is considered beneficial against obesity. To investigate the effects of obesity and physical exercise on the skin, we established a mouse model in which mice were kept either on a high-fat diet or received standard chow. After the two groups achieved a significant weight difference, physical exercise was introduced to both. Animals were given the opportunity to perform voluntary exercise for 40 min daily in a hamster wheel for a period of 8 weeks. We evaluated the status of the dermis at the beginning and at the end of the exercise period by in vivo nonlinear microscopy. Obese mice kept on high-fat diet lost weight steadily after they started to exercise. In the high-fat diet group, we could detect significantly larger adipocytes and a thicker layer of subcutaneous tissue; both changes started to normalize after exercise. Nonlinear microscopy revealed an impaired collagen structure in obese mice that improved considerably after physical activity was introduced. With the ability to detect damage on collagen structure, we set out to address the question whether this process is reversible. With the use of a novel imaging method, we were able to show the reversibility of connective tissue deterioration as a benefit of physical exercise.

  10. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE OMNI-VIBRATION EXERCISE SCALE OF PERCEIVED EXERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Marín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined reliability and concurrent validity of the newly developed OMNI-vibration exercise scale (OMNI-VIBRO to measure Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE during vibration exercise in twenty recreationally active students (12 males and 8 females. The criterion variables were muscle activity of the Vastus Medialis (VM, Vastus Lateralis (VL, Biceps Femoris (BF, and Medial Gastrocnemius (MG muscles, as well as accelerations (12.5, 20.2, 30.9, 36.3, 60.1, and 88.4 m·s-2. RPE was registered during the final of each 30 s condition. Each participant attended two laboratory testing sessions. Positive linear regression coefficients (p < 0.001 were found between RPE (OMNI-VIBRO and acceleration (r = 0.976 and muscle activity of lower-body muscles (r = 0.942. Between session (test-retest, reliability of RPE (OMNI-VIBRO was good (ICC: 0.790. 95% CI: 0.699-0.854. Conclusions: findings provided concurrent validation of the OMNI-VIBRO to measure RPE for the active muscle and overall body in recreationally active students performing lower-body vibration exercise

  11. Visual color perception in green exercise: positive effects on mood and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Adam; Barton, Jo; Cossey, Rachel; Gainsford, Patrick; Griffin, Murray; Micklewright, Dominic

    2012-08-21

    Positive effects of green exercise on physical and psychological wellbeing have been found, yet little is known about the underlying cognitive mechanisms responsible for such effects. The purpose of this visual sensation study was to establish the extent to which the color green, as a primitive visual feature of many natural environments, contributes to the green exercise effect. Fourteen participants performed three moderate-intensity 5-min cycling tasks (50% peak power output) while watching video footage of a rural cycling course that simulated cycling through a real natural environment. The three randomly counter-balanced video conditions were unedited (V(GREEN)), achromatic (V(GRAY)) or red filter (V(RED)). Lower total mood disturbance and ratings of perceived exertion were found during the V(GREEN) compared to V(GRAY) and V(RED). Feelings of anger were higher after V(RED) compared to the other conditions. Feelings of tension, depression, fatigue, vigor, and confusion did not differ among conditions. This is the first study to show that the color green, as a primitive feature of visual sensation, has a contributory effect toward positive green exercise outcomes.

  12. Rating of Perceived Exertion and Physiological Responses in Water-Based Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Pinto Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to relate the overall rating of perceived exertion (RPE-overall with cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular variables during stationary running with the elbow flexion/extension performed with water-floating equipment. The sample consisted of eleven women that performed the water-based exercise at submaximal cadences. The heart rate, oxygen uptake, ventilation, and electromyographic signal (EMG from biceps brachii (%EMG BB, triceps brachii (%EMG TB, biceps femoris (%EMG BF and rectus femoris (%EMG RF muscles were measured during the exercise, and the overall RPE was measured immediately following its completion. The Pearson product-moment linear correlation was used to investigate associations between the variables analyzed in the present study. Significant relationships were observed between the RPE-overall and all the cardiorespiratory variables, with the r values ranging from 0.60 to 0.70 (p<0.05. In addition, the RPE-overall showed a significant (p<0.05 relationship with %EMG BB (r=0.55 and %EMG BF (r=0.50. These results suggest an association between the RPE-overall with all cardiorespiratory and two neuromuscular variables during the execution of a water-based aerobic exercise using water-floating equipment.

  13. Parent-of-origin effects on voluntary exercise levels and body composition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Gordon, Ryan R; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2010-01-08

    Despite the health-related benefits of exercise, many people do not engage in enough activity to realize the rewards, and little is known regarding the genetic or environmental components that account for this individual variation. We created and phenotyped a large G(4) advanced intercross line originating from reciprocal crosses between mice with genetic propensity for increased voluntary exercise (HR line) and the inbred strain C57BL/6J. G(4) females (compared to males) ran significantly more when provided access to a running wheel and were smaller with a greater percentage of body fat pre- and postwheel access. Change in body composition resulting from a 6-day exposure to wheels varied between the sexes with females generally regulating energy balance more precisely in the presence of exercise. We observed parent-of-origin effects on most voluntary wheel running and body composition traits, which accounted for 3-13% of the total phenotypic variance pooled across sexes. G(4) individuals descended from progenitor (F(0)) crosses of HRfemale symbol and C57BL/6Jmale symbol ran greater distances, spent more time running, ran at higher maximum speeds/day, and had lower percent body fat and higher percent lean mass than mice descended from reciprocal progenitor crosses (C57BL/6Jfemale symbol x HRmale symbol). For some traits, significant interactions between parent of origin and sex were observed. We discuss these results in the context of sex dependent activity and weight loss patterns, the contribution of parent-of-origin effects to predisposition for voluntary exercise, and the genetic (i.e., X-linked or mtDNA variations), epigenetic (i.e., genomic imprinting), and environmental (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care) phenomena potentially modulating these effects.

  14. Cardiovascular response to peak voluntary exercise in males with cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machač, Stanislav; Radvanský, Jiří; Kolář, Pavel; Kříž, Jiří

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic damage to the cervical spinal cord is usually associated with a disruption of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and impaired cardiovascular control both during and following exercise. The magnitude of the cardiovascular dysfunction remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to compare cardiovascular responses to peak voluntary exercise in individuals with tetraplegia and able-bodied participants. A case-control study. Twenty males with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) as the Tetra group and 27 able-bodied males as the Control group were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP) response one minute after the peak exercise, peak heart rate (HRpeak), and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) on an arm crank ergometer were measured. In the second part of the study, 17 individuals of the Control group completed the Tetra group's workload protocol with the same parameters recorded. There was no increase in BP in response to the exercise in the Tetra group. Able-bodied individuals exhibited significantly increased post-exercise systolic BP after the maximal graded exercise test (123±16%) and after completion of the Tetra group's workload protocol (114±11%) as compared to pre-exercise. The Tetra group VO2peak was 59% and the HRpeak was 73% of the Control group VO2peak and HRpeak, respectively. BP did not increase following maximal arm crank exercise in males with a cervical SCI unlike the increases observed in the Control group. Some males in the Tetra group appeared to be at risk of severe hypotension following high intensity exercise, which can limit the ability to progressive increase and maintain high intensity exercise.

  15. Central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to electrically induced and voluntary leg exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltin, B.; Strange, S.; Bangsbo, J.; Kim, C. K.; Duvoisin, M.; Hargens, A.; Gollnick, P. D.

    1990-01-01

    With long missions in space countermeasures have to be used to secure safe operations in space and a safe return to Earth. Exercises of various forms have been used, but the question has arisen whether electrically induced contractions of muscle especially sensitive to weightlessness and crucial for man's performance would aid in maintaining their optimal function. The physiological responses both to short term and prolonged dynamic exercise performed either voluntarily or induced by electrical stimulation were considered. The local and systemic circulatory responses were similar for the voluntary and electrically induced contractions. The metabolic response was slightly more pronounced with electrical stimulation. This could be a reflection of not only slow twitch (type 1) but also fast twitch (type 2) fibers being recruited when the contractions were induced electrically. Intramuscular pressure recordings indicated that the dominant fraction of the muscle group was engaged regardless of mode of activation. Some 70 percent of the short term peak voluntary exercise capacity could be attained with electrical stimulation. Thus, electrically induced contractions of specific muscle groups should indeed be considered as an efficient countermeasure.

  16. Effects of voluntary and involuntary exercise on cognitive functions, and VEGF and BDNF levels in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, N; Kiray, M; Sisman, A R; Camsari, U M; Gencoglu, C; Baykara, B; Cetinkaya, C; Aksu, I

    2015-01-01

    Regular treadmill running during adolescence improves learning and memory in rats. During adolescence, the baseline level of stress is thought to be greater than during other periods of life. We investigated the effects of voluntary and involuntary exercise on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and spatial learning, memory and anxiety in adolescent male and female rats. The voluntary exercise group was given free access to a running wheel for 6 weeks. The involuntary exercise group was forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min at 8 m/min 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Improved learning was demonstrated in both exercise groups compared to controls. Neuron density in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and prefrontal cortex were increased. Hippocampal VEGF and BDNF levels were increased in both exercise groups compared to controls. In females, anxiety and corticosterone levels were decreased; BDNF and VEGF levels were higher in the voluntary exercise group than in the involuntary exercise group. The adolescent hippocampus is affected favorably by regular exercise. Although no difference was found in anxiety levels as a result of involuntary exercise in males, females showed increased anxiety levels, and decreased VEGF and BDNF levels in the prefrontal cortex after involuntary exercise.

  17. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster-randomised (w......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster...

  18. Metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to voluntary wheel running exercise in hypertensive heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, R L; Kullman, E L; Waters, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rat mimics the human progression of hypertension from hypertrophy to heart failure. However, it is unknown whether SHHF animals can exercise at sufficient levels to observe beneficial biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle. Thirty-seven female...... and expression, and glycogen utilization. The SHHFex rats ran a greater distance and duration as compared to the WFex rats (PSkeletal muscle citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme activity was not altered in the SHHFex group...... robust amounts of aerobic activity, voluntary wheel running exercise was not sufficiently intense to improve the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult SHHF animals, indicating an inability to compensate for declining heart function by improving peripheral oxidative adaptations in the skeletal...

  19. Eucapnic Voluntary Hyperventilation to Detect Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Stephen E; Hayes, Don; Parsons, Jonathan P; Wisely, Clayton E; Kopp, Ben; McCoy, Karen S; Mastronarde, John G

    2015-10-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has not been well studied in cystic fibrosis (CF), and eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) testing has not been used as an objective assessment of EIB in CF to date. A prospective cohort pilot study was completed where standard EVH testing was completed by 10 CF patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥70% of predicted. All patients also completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with pre- and post-CPET spirometry as a comparative method of detecting EIB. No adverse events occurred with EVH testing. A total of 20% (2/10) patients were diagnosed with EIB by means of EVH. Both patients had clinical symptoms consistent with EIB. No patient had a CPET-based exercise challenge consistent with EIB. EVH testing was safe and effective in the objective assessment for EIB in patients with CF who had well-preserved lung function. It may be a more sensitive method of detecting EIB then exercise challenge.

  20. Voluntary exercise decreases ethanol preference and consumption in C57BL/6 adolescent mice: sex differences and hippocampal BDNF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, X; Cox, R J; Funk, E; Foster, R A; Ehringer, M A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of high vulnerability for alcohol use and abuse. Early alcohol use has been shown to increase the risk for alcohol-related problems later in life; therefore effective preventive treatments targeted toward adolescents would be very valuable. Many epidemiological and longitudinal studies in humans have revealed the beneficial effects of exercise for prevention and treatment of alcohol addiction. Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that access to a running wheel leads to decreased voluntary alcohol consumption in adult mice, hamsters, and rats. However, age and sex may also influence the effects of exercise on alcohol use. Herein, we studied male and female C57BL/6 adolescent mice using a 24-hour two-bottle choice paradigm to evaluate 21 days of concurrent voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption and preference. Given previously known effects of exercise in increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and its role in regulating the reward system, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were measured at the end of the behavioral experiment. Our results demonstrate sex differences in the efficacy of voluntary exercise and its effects on decreasing alcohol consumption and preference. We also report increased BDNF expression after 21 days of voluntary exercise in both male and female mice. Interestingly, the distance traveled played an important role in alcohol consumption and preference in female mice but not in male mice. Overall, this study demonstrates sex differences in the effects of voluntary exercise on alcohol consumption in adolescent mice and points out the importance of distance traveled as a limiting factor to the beneficial effects of wheel running in female mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Voluntary Physical Exercise Improves Subsequent Motor and Cognitive Impairments in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Hsueh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is typically characterized by impairment of motor function. Gait disturbances similar to those observed in patients with PD can be observed in animals after injection of neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA to induce unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion. Exercise has been shown to be a promising non-pharmacological approach to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative disease. Methods: In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of voluntary running wheel exercise on gait phenotypes, depression, cognitive, rotational behaviors as well as histology in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. Results: We observed that, when compared with the non-exercise controls, five-week voluntary exercise alleviated and postponed the 6-OHDA-induced gait deficits, including a significantly improved walking speed, step/stride length, base of support and print length. In addition, we found that the non-motor functions, such as novel object recognition and forced swim test, were also ameliorated by voluntary exercise. However, the rotational behavior of the exercise group did not show significant differences when compared with the non-exercise group. Conclusions: We first analyzed the detailed spatiotemporal changes of gait pattern to investigate the potential benefits after long-term exercise in the rat model of PD, which could be useful for future objective assessment of locomotor function in PD or other neurological animal models. Furthermore, these results suggest that short-term voluntary exercise is sufficient to alleviate cognition deficits and depressive behavior in 6-OHDA lesioned rats and long-term treatment reduces the progression of motor symptoms and elevates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, bone marrow tyrosine kinase in chromosome X (BMX protein expression level without affecting dopaminergic (DA neuron loss in this PD rat model.

  2. Voluntary exercise promotes beneficial anti-aging mechanisms in SAMP8 female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayod, Sergi; Guzmán-Brambila, Carolina; Sanchez-Roige, Sandra; Lalanza, Jaume F; Kaliman, Perla; Ortuño-Sahagun, Daniel; Escorihuela, Rosa M; Pallàs, Mercè

    2015-02-01

    Regular physical exercise mediates health and longevity promotion involving Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-regulated pathways. The anti-aging activity of SIRT1 is achieved, at least in part, by means of fine-tuning the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway by preventing the transition of an originally pro-survival program into a pro-aging mechanism. Additionally, SIRT1 promotes mitochondrial function and reduces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), the master controller of mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, by using senescence-accelerated mice prone 8 (SAMP8) as a model for aging, we determined the effect of wheel-running as a paradigm for long-term voluntary exercise on SIRT1-AMPK pathway and mitochondrial functionality measured by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex content in the hippocampus and cortex. We found differential activation of SIRT1 in both tissues and hippocampal-specific activation of AMPK. These findings correlated well with significant changes in OXPHOS in the hippocampal, but not in the cerebral cortex, area. Collectively, the results revealed greater benefits of the exercise in the wheel-running intervention in a murine model of senescence, which was directly related with mitochondrial function and which was mediated through the modulation of SIRT1 and AMPK pathways.

  3. Maintenance on a ketogenic diet: voluntary exercise, adiposity and neuroendocrine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, K P; Taylor, R J

    2009-08-01

    Adherence to low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets (KDs) has been associated with greater weight loss in the short-term than low-fat, calorie-restricted diets. However, consumption of KDs may result in decreased voluntary exercise and thus render long-term weight loss and maintenance of weight loss difficult. Rats were maintained on either a non-ketogenic chow (CH) diet or a low-carbohydrate, KD for 6 weeks. Half of each dietary group was sedentary, whereas the other half was given access to a running wheel. Running wheel activity (total distance and meters per minute), plasma leptin and insulin, adiposity, and hypothalamic mRNA for neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were measured to assess activity-related effects in animals maintained on KD. With access to a running wheel, rats on KD engaged in similar levels of voluntary activity as CH rats and both dietary groups decreased caloric intake. Caloric intake increased over time such that it was significantly greater than sedentary controls after 1 month of access to the wheels, however body weight remained decreased. Sedentary rats maintained on KD had increased adiposity and plasma leptin levels and decreased hypothalamic POMC mRNA, as compared to sedentary CH rats. KD rats with access to a running wheel had similar levels of adiposity and plasma leptin levels as CH rats with access to running wheels, but significantly increased POMC mRNA in the arcuate. We demonstrate that maintenance on KD does not inhibit voluntary activity in a running wheel. Furthermore, prevention of KD-related increased adiposity and plasma leptin, as measured in sedentary KD rats, significantly increases levels of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC mRNA.

  4. Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction: Comparison between cardiopulmonary exercise test and methacholine challenging test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ghanei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction is a condition in which the physical activity causes constriction of airways in patients with airway hyper- responsiveness. In this study, we tried to study and evaluate any relationship between the findings of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and the response to methacholine challenge test (MCT in patients with dyspnea after activity. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with complaints of dyspnea following activity referred to "Lung Clinic" of Baqiyatallah Hospital but not suffering from asthma were entered into the study. The subjects were excluded from the study if: Suffering from any other pulmonary diseases, smoking more than 1 cigarette a week in the last year, having a history of smoking more than 10 packets of cigarettes/year, having respiratory infection in the past 4 weeks, having abnormal chest X-ray or electrocardiogram, and cannot discontinue the use of medicines interfering with bronchial provocation. Baseline spirometry was performed for all the patients, and the values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, and FEV/FVC were recorded. The MCT and then the CPET were performed on all patients. Results: The mean VO 2 (volume oxygen in patients with positive methacholine test (20.45 mL/kg/min was significantly lower than patients with negative MCT (28.69 mL/kg/min (P = 0.000. Respiratory rates per minute (RR and minute ventilation in the group with positive MCT (38.85 and 1.636 L were significantly lower than the group with negative methacholine test (46.78 and 2.114 L (P < 0.05. Also, the O 2 pulse rate in the group with negative methacholine test (116.27 mL/beat was significantly higher than the group with positive methacholine test (84.26 mL/beat (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Pulmonary response to exercise in patients with positive methacholine test is insufficient. The dead space ventilation in these patients has increased. Also, dynamic

  5. EFFECT OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON DIFFERENTIATED AND UNDIFFERENTIATED RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING CYCLE AND TREADMILL EXERCISE IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND TRAINED WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda R. Bolgar; Baker, Carol E.; GOSS, FREDRIC L.; Elizabeth Nagle; Robertson, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1) and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT) on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall...

  6. Effect of long-term voluntary exercise wheel running on susceptibility to bacterial pulmonary infections in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Weert-van Leeuwen, Pauline B; de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Fentz, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    of this study was to investigate whether regular voluntary exercise wheel running prior to a pulmonary infection with bacteria (P. aeruginosa) affects lung bacteriology, sickness severity and phagocyte immune function in mice. Balb/c mice were randomly placed in a cage with or without a running wheel. After 28...

  7. Endogenous Cannabinoid Signaling Is Required for Voluntary Exercise-induced Enhancement of Progenitor Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew N.; Titterness, Andrea K.; Morrish, Anna C.; Carrier, Erica J.; Lee, Tiffany T.-Y.; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Christie, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary exercise and endogenous cannabinoid activity have independently been shown to regulate hippocampal plasticity. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the endocannabinoid system is regulated by voluntary exercise and if these changes contribute to exercise-induced enhancement of cell proliferation. In Experiment 1, eight days of free access to a running wheel increased the agonist binding site density of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor; CB1 receptor-mediated GTPγS binding; and the tissue content of the endocannabinoid anandamide in the hippocampus but not in the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 mg/kg) was administered daily to animals given free access to a running wheel for 8 days, after which cell proliferation in the hippocampus was examined through immunohistochemical analysis of the cell cycle protein Ki-67. Voluntary exercise increased proliferation of progenitor cells, as evidenced by the increase in the number of Ki-67 positive cells in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. However, this effect was abrogated by concurrent treatment with AM251, indicating that the increase in endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus is required for the exercise-induced increase in cell proliferation. These data demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus is sensitive to environmental change and suggest that it is a mediator of experience-induced plasticity. PMID:19489006

  8. Voluntary water intake during and following moderate exercise in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Stephen A; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2014-02-01

    Exercising in cold environments results in water losses, yet examination of resultant voluntary water intake has focused on warm conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess voluntary water intake during and following exercise in a cold compared with a warm environment. Ten healthy males (22 ± 2 years, 67.8 ± 7.0 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, VO₂peak 60.5 ± 8.9 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed two trials (7-8 days). In each trial subjects sat for 30 min before cycling at 70% VO₂peak (162 ± 27W) for 60 min in 25.0 ± 0.1 °C, 50.8 ± 1.5% relative humidity (RH; warm) or 0.4 ± 1.0 °C, 68.8 ± 7.5% RH (cold). Subjects then sat for 120 min at 22.2 ± 1.2 °C, 50.5 ± 8.0% RH. Ad libitum drinking was allowed during the exercise and recovery periods. Urine volume, body mass, serum osmolality, and sensations of thirst were measured at baseline, postexercise and after 60 and 120 min of the recovery period. Sweat loss was greater in the warm trial (0.96 ± 0.18 l v 0.48 ± 0.15 l; p cold) v 1.03 ± 0.26% (warm)). More water was consumed throughout the duration of the warm trial (0.81 ± 0.42 l v 0.50 ± 0.49 l; p = .001). Cumulative urine output was greater in the cold trial (0.81 ± 0.46 v 0.54 ± 0.31 l; p = .036). Postexercise serum osmolality was higher compared with baseline in the cold (292 ± 2 v 287 ± 3 mOsm.kg⁻¹, p .05). Ad libitum water intake adjusted so that similar body mass losses occurred in both trials. In the cold there appeared to a blunted thirst response.

  9. The effect of home-based inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea and pulmonary function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarsad, Maryam Bakhshandeh; Shariati, Abdolali; Eidani, Esmaeil; Latifi, Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth cause of mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD experience periods of dyspnea, fatigue, and disability, which impact on their life. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea, and pulmonary lung function. A randomized, controlled trial was performed. Thirty patients (27 males, 3 females) with mild to very severe COPD were randomly assigned to a training group (group T) or to a control group (group C). Patients in group T received training for 8 weeks (15 min/day for 6 days/week) with flow-volumetric inspiratory exerciser named (Respivol). Each patient was assessed before and after 8 weeks of training for the following clinical parameters: exercise capacity by 6-min walking test (6MWT), exertional dyspnea by Borg scale, and pulmonary lung function by spirometry. Patients used training together with medical treatment. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results showed statistically significant increase in 6MWT at the end of the training from 445.6 ± 22.99 to 491.06 ± 17.67 meters? (P training group but not in the control group. The values for exercise capacity and dyspnea improved after 8 weeks in group T in comparison with group C (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). No changes were observed in any measure of pulmonary function in both groups. Short-term inspiratory muscle training has beneficial effects on exercise capacity and exertional dyspnea in COPD patients.

  10. Voluntary exercise adapts the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Rosa María; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Ramírez-Martínez, Candy; García-Vázquez, Arlene; Romero, Fidelia; Cisneros, Miguel; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Charli, Jean-Louis; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis modulates energy homeostasis. Its activity decreases in conditions of negative energy balance but the effects of chronic exercise on the axis are controversial and unknown at hypothalamic level. Wistar male rats were exposed for up to 14 days to voluntary wheel running (WR), or pair-feeding (PF; 18% food restriction), or to repeated restraint (RR), a mild stressor. WR and RR diminished food intake; body weight gain decreased in the 3 experimental groups, but WAT mass and serum leptin more intensely in the WR group. WR, but not RR, produced a delayed inhibition of central markers of HPT axis activity. At day 14, in WR rats paraventricular nucleus-pro-TRH mRNA and serum TSH levels decreased, anterior pituitary TRH-receptor 1 mRNA levels increased, but serum thyroid hormone levels were unaltered, which is consistent with decreased secretion of TRH and clearance of thyroid hormones. A similar pattern was observed if WR animals were euthanized during their activity phase. In contrast, in PF animals the profound drop of HPT axis activity included decreased serum T3 levels and hepatic deiodinase 1 activity; these changes were correlated with an intense increase in serum corticosterone levels. WR effects on HPT axis were not associated with changes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis, but correlated positively with serum leptin levels. These data demonstrate that voluntary WR adapts the status of the HPT axis, through pathways that are distinct from those observed during food restriction or repeated stress.

  11. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids respond acutely to voluntary exercise, are altered in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running, and differ between the sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Zoe; Argueta, Donovan; Garland, Theodore; DiPatrizio, Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines. On average, mice from HR lines voluntarily run on wheels three times more than C mice on a daily basis. We tested the general hypothesis that circulating levels of endocannabinoids (i.e., 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG] and anandamide [AEA]) differ between HR and C mice in a sex-specific manner. Fifty male and 50 female mice were allowed access to wheels for six days, while another 50 males and 50 females were kept without access to wheels (half HR, half C for all groups). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture during the time of peak running on the sixth night of wheel access or no wheel access, and later analyzed for 2-AG and AEA content by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. We observed a significant three-way interaction among sex, linetype, and wheel access for 2-AG concentrations, with females generally having lower levels than males and wheel access lowering 2-AG levels in some but not all subgroups. The number of wheel revolutions in the minutes or hours immediately prior to sampling did not quantitatively predict plasma 2-AG levels within groups. We also observed a trend for a linetype-by-wheel access interaction for AEA levels, with wheel access lowering plasma concentrations of AEA in HR mice, while raising them in C mice. In addition, females tended to have higher AEA

  12. Exercise during and after neoadjuvant rectal cancer treatment (the EXERT trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morielli, Andria R; Usmani, Nawaid; Boulé, Normand G; Severin, Diane; Tankel, Keith; Nijjar, Tirath; Joseph, Kurian; Fairchild, Alysa; Courneya, Kerry S

    2018-01-12

    Standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer includes 5-6 weeks of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) followed by total mesorectal excision 6-8 weeks later. NACRT improves local disease control and surgical outcomes but also causes side effects including fatigue, diarrhea, hand-foot syndrome, and physical deconditioning that may impede quality of life (QoL), treatment completion, treatment response, and long-term prognosis. Interventions to improve treatment outcomes and manage side effects that are safe, tolerable and low-cost are highly desirable. Exercise has been shown to improve some of these outcomes in other cancer patient groups but no study to date has examined the potential benefits (and harms) of exercise training during and after NACRT for rectal cancer. The Exercise During and After Neoadjuvant Rectal Cancer Treatment (EXERT) trial is a single-center, prospective, two-armed, phase II randomized controlled trial designed to test the preliminary efficacy of exercise training in this clinical setting and to further evaluate its feasibility and safety. Participants will be 60 rectal cancer patients scheduled to receive long-course NACRT followed by total mesorectal excision. Participants will be randomly assigned to exercise training or usual care. Participants in the exercise training group will be asked to complete three supervised, high-intensity interval training sessions/week during NACRT and ≥ 150 min/week of unsupervised, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity, continuous exercise training after NACRT prior to surgery. Participants in the usual care group will be asked not to increase their exercise from baseline. Assessments will be completed pre NACRT, post NACRT, and pre surgery. The primary endpoint will be cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) at the post-NACRT time point assessed by a graded exercise test. Secondary endpoints will include functional fitness assessed by the Senior's Fitness Test, QoL assessed by the European

  13. Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Imposed and Self-Selected Loads in Recreationally Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Joshua A; Garver, Matthew J; Dinyer, Taylor K; Fairman, Ciaran M; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    Cotter, JA, Garver, MJ, Dinyer, TK, Fairman, CM, and Focht, BC. Ratings of perceived exertion during acute resistance exercise performed at imposed and self-selected loads in recreationally trained women. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2313-2318, 2017-Resistance exercise (RE) is commonly used to elicit skeletal muscle adaptation. Relative intensity of a training load links closely with the outcomes of regular RE. This study examined the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute bouts of RE using imposed (40% and 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and self-selected (SS) loads in recreationally trained women. Twenty physically active women (23.15 ± 2.92 years), who reported regular RE training of at least 3 weekly sessions for the past year, volunteered to participate. During the initial visit, participants completed 1RM testing on 4 exercises in the following order: leg extension, chest press, leg curl, and lat pull-down. On subsequent visits, the same exercises were completed at the SS or imposed loads. The RPE was assessed after the completion of each set of exercises during the 3 RE conditions using the Borg-15 category scale. Self-selected loads corresponded to an average of approximately 57%1RM (±7.62). Overall, RPE increased with load (40%1RM = 11.26 [±1.95]; SS 57%1RM = 13.94 [±1.58]; and, 70%1RM = 15.52 [±2.05]). Reflecting the linear pattern found between load and perceived effort, the present data provide evidence that RPE levels less than 15 likely equate to loads which are not consistent with contemporary American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for enhancing musculoskeletal health which includes strength and hypertrophy. Women desiring increases in strength and lean mass likely need to train at an exertion level at or surpassing a rating of 15 on the Borg-15 category. This article examined the modification of training load on perceived exertion, but other variables, such as the number of repetitions completed, may also be

  14. Differential Cortical Neurotrophin and Cytogenetic Adaptation after Voluntary Exercise in Normal and Amnestic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joseph M.; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary exercise (VEx) has profound effects on neural and behavioral plasticity, including recovery of CNS trauma and disease. However, the unique regional cortical adaption to VEx has not been elucidated. In a series of experiments, we first examined whether VEx would restore and retain neurotrophin levels in several cortical regions (frontal cortex [FC], retrosplenial cortex [RSC], occipital cortex [OC]) in an animal model (pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency [PTD]) of the amnestic disorder Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. In addition, we assessed the time-dependent effect of VEx to rescue performance on a spontaneous alternation task. Following 2-weeks of VEx or stationary housing conditions (Stat), rats were behaviorally tested and brains were harvested either the day after VEx (24-h) or after an additional two-week period (2-wk). In both control pair-fed (PF) rats and PTD rats, all neurotrophin levels (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], nerve growth factor [NGF], and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) increased at the 24-h period after VEx in the FC and RSC, but not OC. Two-weeks following VEx, BDNF remained elevated in both FC and RSC, whereas NGF remained elevated in only the FC. Interestingly, VEx only recovered cognitive performance in amnestic rats when there was an additional 2-wk adaptation period after VEx. Given this unique temporal profile, Experiment 2 examined the cortical cytogenetic responses in all three cortical regions following a 2-wk adaptation period after VEx. In healthy (PF) rats, VEx increased the survival of progenitor cells in both the FC and RSC, but only increased oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the FC. Furthermore, VEx had a selective effect of only recovering oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the FC in PTD rats. These data reveal the therapeutic potential of exercise to restore cortical plasticity in the amnestic brain, and that the FC is one of the most responsive cortical regions to VEx. PMID:24215977

  15. Effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation on the relationship between core temperature and heat loss responses in exercising humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Honda, Yasushi; Komura, Ken; Tsuji, Bun; Sugihara, Akira; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2014-12-01

    Two thermolytic thermoregulatory responses, cutaneous vasodilation and sweating, begin when core temperature reaches a critical threshold, after which response magnitudes increase linearly with increasing core temperature; thus the slope indicates response sensitivity. We evaluated the influence of hypocapnia induced by voluntary hyperventilation on the core temperature threshold and sensitivity of thermoregulatory responses. Ten healthy males performed 15 min of cycling at 117 W (29.5°C, 50% RH) under three breathing conditions: 1) spontaneous ventilation, 2) voluntary normocapnic hyperventilation, and 3) voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation. In the hypocapnic hyperventilation trial, end-tidal CO2 pressure was reduced throughout the exercise, whereas it was maintained around the normocapnic level in the other two trials. Cutaneous vascular conductances at the forearm and forehead were evaluated as laser-Doppler signal/mean arterial blood pressure, and the forearm sweat rate was measured using the ventilated capsule method. Esophageal temperature threshold was higher for the increase in cutaneous vascular conductance in the hypocapnic than normocapnic hyperventilation trial at the forearm (36.88 ± 0.36 vs. 36.68 ± 0.34°C, P hyperventilation trial at the forearm (302 ± 177 vs. 420 ± 178% baseline/°C, P hyperventilation trials. These findings indicate that in exercising humans, hypocapnia induced by voluntary hyperventilation does not influence sweating, but it attenuates the cutaneous vasodilatory response by increasing its threshold and reducing its sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  17. Effect of unilateral and bilateral resistance exercise on maximal voluntary strength, total volume of load lifted, and perceptual and metabolic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo C Costa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of unilateral and bilateral resistance exercise (RE on maximal voluntary strength, total volume of load lifted (TVLL, rating of perceived exertion (RPE and blood lactate concentration of resistance-trained males. Twelve healthy men were assessed for the leg extension one-repetition maximum (1RM strength using bilateral and unilateral contractions. Following this assessment, an RE session (3 sets of repetitions to failure was conducted with bilateral and unilateral (both limbs contractions using a load of 50% 1RM. The TVLL was calculated by the product of the number of repetitions and the load lifted per repetition. RPE and blood lactate were measured before, during and after each set. Session RPE was measured 30 minutes after RE sessions. There was a significant difference in the bilateral (120.0±11.9 and unilateral (135.0±20.2 kg 1RM strength (p<0.05. The TVLL was similar between both RE sessions. Although the repetitions decreased with each successive set, the total number of repetitions completed in the bilateral protocol (48 was superior to the unilateral (40 protocol (p<0.05. In both bouts, RPE increased with each subsequent set whilst blood lactate increased after set 1 and thereafter remained stable (p<0.05. The RPE and lactate responses were not significantly different between both sessions. In conclusion, a bilateral deficit in leg extension strength was confirmed, but the TVLL was similar between both RE sessions when exercising to voluntary fatigue. This outcome could be attributed to the number of repetitions completed in the unilateral RE bout. The equal TVLL would also explain the similar perceptual and metabolic responses across each RE session.

  18. Effects of 12 months aerobic exercise intervention on work ability, need for recovery, productivity and rating of exertion among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    -randomised (work location; sex; age; length of service) to aerobic exercise [N = 57, 44.9 years, 75.4% female, body mass index (BMI) 26.2], receiving 2 weekly aerobic exercise sessions during 12 months, or a reference group (N = 59, 45.7 years, 76.3% female, BMI 27.1), receiving health-promoting lectures. Self......PURPOSE: This study assessed the effects of a worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners on: work ability, need for recovery, productivity, and rating of exertion. METHODS: In a monocentric randomised controlled trial in Denmark, 116, of 250 invited, cleaners were cluster....... Aerobic exercise adherence was 51% during the first 4 months. At 4 month follow-up no effects were found. At 12 month follow-up, work ability significantly increased by 0.59 on a 0-10 scale (95% CI 0.05-1.13) and need for recovery significantly decreased by - 11.0 on a 0-100 scale (95% CI - 19.8 to - 2...

  19. The effects of voluntary running exercise coincidence with social isolation after early weaning on monoaminergic axonal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, J; Ishikawa, A

    2013-01-29

    The axonal development of serotonin (5-HT)-, noradrenaline (NA)-, or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing monoaminergic neurons is affected by rearing conditions during the juvenile period. Impaired monoaminergic axonal development is implicated in the pathophysiology of emotional and cognitive dysfunction. On the other hand, exercise may have beneficial effects on emotional and learning performance in adults. We have examined whether voluntary running exercise during social isolation after early weaning (early weaning/social isolation; EI) from postnatal day (PD) 14-28 could prevent the impaired monoaminergic axonal development associated with EI. Compared with control animals reared with their dam and siblings until PD28, the EI animals showed lower density of 5-HT and NA axons in the dorsal-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala and of NA- and TH-containing axons in the ventral-mPFC. These adverse effects of EI were not observed in rats taking part in voluntary running (EI+R) when these animals were compared to controls. The 5-HT axon density in the ventral-mPFC was significantly higher in the EI+R rats than that in the EI rats, although both these values were significantly lower than those in the control rats. The density of monoaminergic axons in the dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus was not affected by either EI or EI+R. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of voluntary running may be because of the modulation of monoaminergic axonal morphology. Our findings will hopefully provide the basis for future research into the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise during the juvenile period on brain development and emotional and cognitive performance. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heavy reliance on carbohydrate across a wide range of exercise intensities during voluntary arm ergometry in persons with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Kevin A; Burns, Patricia; Kressler, Jochen; Nash, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    To describe and compare substrate oxidation and partitioning during voluntary arm ergometry in individuals with paraplegia and non-disabled individuals over a wide range of exercise intensities. Cross-sectional study. Clinical research facility. Ten apparently healthy, sedentary men with paraplegia and seven healthy, non-disabled subjects. Rest and continuous progressive voluntary arm ergometry between 30 and 80% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak). Total energy expenditure and whole body rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. A maximal whole body fat oxidation (WBFO) rate of 0.13 ± 0.07 g/minute was reached at 41 ± 9% VO2peak for subjects with paraplegia, although carbohydrate became the predominant fuel source during exercise exceeding an intensity of 30-40% VO2peak. Both the maximal WBFO rate (0.06 ± 0.04 g/minute) and the intensity at which it occurred (13 ± 3% VO2peak) were significantly lower for the non-disabled subjects than those with paraplegia. Sedentary individuals with paraplegia are more capable of oxidizing fat during voluntary arm ergometry than non-disabled individuals perhaps due to local adaptations of upper body skeletal muscle used for daily locomotion. However, carbohydrate is the predominant fuel source oxidized across a wide range of intensities during voluntary arm ergometry in those with paraplegia, while WBFO is limited and maximally achieved at low exercise intensities compared to that achieved by able-bodied individuals during leg ergometry. These findings may partially explain the diminished rates of fat loss imposed by acute bouts of physical activity in those with paraplegia.

  1. EFFECT OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON DIFFERENTIATED AND UNDIFFERENTIATED RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING CYCLE AND TREADMILL EXERCISE IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND TRAINED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda R. Bolgar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1 and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1. Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest, as well as oxygen uptake (VO2 and heart rate were recorded each minute. Individual regression analyses were used to identify RPE-Overall,-Legs, and -Chest at 40, 60, 80% VO2max/peak. Separate two factor (site (3 x intensity (3 ANOVAs with repeated measures on site and intensity were computed for each training status. Furthermore, RPE responses were also examined with a one factor (site (3 within subject ANOVA with repeated measure on site at the ventilatory breakpoint. For both the recreationally active and trained groups no significant differences were observed for RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest during treadmill exercise. However, for cycling exercise results indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater at all exercise intensities than RPE-Overall and RPE-Chest for trained subjects while for recreationally active subjects RPE-Legs was only significantly higher at the highest exercise intensity. Responses at the ventilatory breakpoint during cycle exercise indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater than RPE-Chest and RPE-Overall for trained subjects but not for recreationally active subjects. Signal dominance was not observed at an intensity equivalent to the ventilatory breakpoint during treadmill exercise in either of the groups. In recreationally active and trained females signal dominance was demonstrated only during cycling exercise, but not during treadmill exercise. Signal integration could not be demonstrated during

  2. Voluntary exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced oxidative stress in brain microvasculature and disruption of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toborek, Michal; Seelbach, Melissa J; Rashid, Cetewayo S; András, Ibolya E; Chen, Lei; Park, Minseon; Esser, Karyn A

    2013-06-24

    There is no effective therapeutic intervention developed targeting cerebrovascular toxicity of drugs of abuse, including methamphetamine (METH). We hypothesize that exercise protects against METH-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by enhancing the antioxidant capacity of cerebral microvessels and modulating caveolae-associated signaling. Mice were subjected to voluntary wheel running for 5 weeks resembling the voluntary pattern of human exercise, followed by injection with METH (10 mg/kg). The frequency, duration, and intensity of each running session were monitored for each mouse via a direct data link to a computer and the running data are analyzed by Clock lab™ Analysis software. Controls included mice sedentary that did not have access to running wheels and/or injections with saline. METH induced oxidative stress in brain microvessels, resulting in up regulation of caveolae-associated NAD(P)H oxidase subunits, and phosphorylation of mitochondrial protein 66Shc. Treatment with METH disrupted also the expression and colocalization of tight junction proteins. Importantly, exercise markedly attenuated these effects and protected against METH-induced disruption of the BBB integrity. The obtained results indicate that exercise is an important modifiable behavioral factor that can protect against METH-induced cerebrovascular toxicity. These findings may provide new strategies in preventing the toxicity of drug of abuse.

  3. Effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction to a Pilates exercise program: an assessor-masked randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Luiza; de Jarmy Di Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin; Rodrigues, Claudinei Alves; Stüpp, Liliana; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC) to a Pilates exercise program in sedentary nulliparous women. Fifty-seven healthy nulliparous and physically inactive women were randomized to a Pilates exercise program (PEP) with or without PFMC. Forty-eight women concluded this study (24 participants for each group). Each woman was evaluated before and after the PEP, by a physiotherapist and an urogynecologist (UG). Neither of the professionals was revealed to them. This physiotherapist measured their pelvic floor muscle strength by using both a perineometer (Peritron) and vaginal palpation (Oxford Scale). The UG, who performed 3D perineal ultrasound examinations, collected their data and evaluated the results for pubovisceral muscle thickness and the levator hiatus area (LA). Both professionals were blinded to the group allocation. The protocol for both groups consisted of 24 bi-weekly 1-h individual sessions of Pilates exercises, developed by another physiotherapist who specializes in PFM rehabilitation and the Pilates technique. The PEP+ PFMC group showed significantly greater strength improvements than the PEP group when comparing the Oxford scale, vaginal pressure and pubovisceral muscle thickness during contraction measurements at baseline and post-treatment. Our findings suggest that adding a voluntary PFMC to a Pilates exercise program is more effective than Pilates alone in improving PFM strength in sedentary nulliparous women.

  4. Voluntary drinking behaviour, fluid balance and psychological affect when ingesting water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan; Stokes, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of drink composition on voluntary intake, hydration status, selected physiological responses and affective states during simulated gymnasium-based exercise. In a randomised counterbalanced design, 12 physically active adults performed three 20-min intervals of cardiovascular exercise at 75% heart rate maximum, one 20-min period of resistance exercise and 20 min of recovery with ad libitum access to water (W), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) or with no access to fluids (NF). Fluid intake was greater with CES than W (1706±157 vs. 1171±152 mL; P<0.01) and more adequate hydration was achieved in CES trials (NF vs. W vs. CES: -1668±73 vs. -700±99 vs. -273±78 g; P<0.01). Plasma glucose concentrations were highest with CES (CES vs. NF vs. W: 4.26±0.12 vs. 4.06±0.08 vs. 3.97±0.10 mmol/L; P<0.05). Pleasure ratings were better maintained with ad libitum intake of CES (CES vs. NF vs. W: 2.72±0.23 vs. 1.09±0.20 vs. 1.74±0.33; P<0.01). Under conditions of voluntary drinking, CES resulted in more adequate hydration and a better maintenance of affective states than W or NF during gymnasium-based exercise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Voluntary Exercise Can Ameliorate Insulin Resistance by Reducing iNOS-Mediated S-Nitrosylation of Akt in the Liver in Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Hideko; Kaneki, Masao; Goto, Sataro; Shimokado, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Naito, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary exercise can ameliorate insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism, however, remains to be elucidated. We previously demonstrated that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the liver plays an important role in hepatic insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. In this study, we tried to verify our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance by reducing the expression of iNOS and subsequent S-nitrosylation of key molecules of glucose metabolism in the liver. Twenty-one Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 18 non-diabetic control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or exercise group subjected to voluntary wheel running for 20 weeks. The voluntary exercise significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR in the OLETF rats. In addition, the exercise decreased the amount of iNOS mRNA in the liver in the OLETF rats. Moreover, exercise reduced the levels of S-nitrosylated Akt in the liver, which were increased in the OLETF rats, to those observed in the LETO rats. These findings support our hypothesis that voluntary exercise improves insulin resistance, at least partly, by suppressing the iNOS expression and subsequent S-nitrosylation of Akt, a key molecule of the signal transduction pathways in glucose metabolism in the liver. PMID:26172834

  6. Ratings of Perceived Exertion of ACSM Exercise Guidelines in Individuals Varying in Aerobic Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Christopher; Berg, Kris; Noble, John; Thomas, James

    2006-01-01

    The physiological responses of high (HF) and low fit (LF) individuals at given perceived exercise intensities were compared to ranges provided by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Participants were 7 LF and 8 HF men between the ages of 22 and 26 years. All participants performed a maximum oxygen uptake and lactate threshold test and…

  7. Severe exercise and exercise training exert opposite effects on human neutrophil apoptosis via altering the redox status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Da Syu

    Full Text Available Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, a process crucial for immune regulation, is mainly controlled by alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondria integrity. Exercise has been proposed to be a physiological way to modulate immunity; while acute severe exercise (ASE usually impedes immunity, chronic moderate exercise (CME improves it. This study aimed to investigate whether and how ASE and CME oppositely regulate human neutrophil apoptosis. Thirteen sedentary young males underwent an initial ASE and were subsequently divided into exercise and control groups. The exercise group (n = 8 underwent 2 months of CME followed by 2 months of detraining. Additional ASE paradigms were performed at the end of each month. Neutrophils were isolated from blood specimens drawn at rest and immediately after each ASE for assaying neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis (annexin-V binding on the outer surface along with redox-related parameters and mitochondria-related parameters. Our results showed that i the initial ASE immediately increased the oxidative stress (cytosolic ROS and glutathione oxidation, and sequentially accelerated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the surface binding of annexin-V, and the generation of mitochondrial ROS; ii CME upregulated glutathione level, retarded spontaneous apoptosis and delayed mitochondria deterioration; iii most effects of CME were unchanged after detraining; and iv CME blocked ASE effects and this capability remained intact even after detraining. Furthermore, the ASE effects on neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis were mimicked by adding exogenous H(2O(2, but not by suppressing mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, while ASE induced an oxidative state and resulted in acceleration of human neutrophil apoptosis, CME delayed neutrophil apoptosis by maintaining a reduced state for long periods of time even after detraining.

  8. Voluntary suppression of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation mitigates the reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Ikebe, Yusuke; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-04-15

    Hyperthermia during prolonged exercise leads to hyperventilation, which can reduce arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 ) and, in turn, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and thermoregulatory response. We investigated 1) whether humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise and 2) the effects of voluntary breathing control on PaCO2 , CBF, sweating, and skin blood flow. Twelve male subjects performed two exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C, 50% relative humidity) for up to 60 min. Throughout the exercise, subjects breathed normally (normal-breathing trial) or they tried to control their minute ventilation (respiratory frequency was timed with a metronome, and target tidal volumes were displayed on a monitor) to the level reached after 5 min of exercise (controlled-breathing trial). Plotting ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses against esophageal temperature (Tes) showed that minute ventilation increased linearly with rising Tes during normal breathing, whereas controlled breathing attenuated the increased ventilation (increase in minute ventilation from the onset of controlled breathing: 7.4 vs. 1.6 l/min at +1.1°C Tes; P hyperventilation during prolonged exercise, and this suppression mitigates changes in PaCO2 and CBF. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p bone mass at a site composed of primarily trabecular bone. However, lean mass is one of the most influential predictors of bone mass and bone geometry at weight-bearing sites, such as the hip. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Voluntary Exercise Promotes Glymphatic Clearance of Amyloid Beta and Reduces the Activation of Astrocytes and Microglia in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-fei He

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Age is characterized by chronic inflammation, leading to synaptic dysfunction and dementia because the clearance of protein waste is reduced. The clearance of proteins depends partly on the permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB or on the exchange of water and soluble contents between the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and the interstitial fluid (ISF. A wealth of evidence indicates that physical exercise improves memory and cognition in neurodegenerative diseases during aging, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but the influence of physical training on glymphatic clearance, BBB permeability and neuroinflammation remains unclear. In this study, glymphatic clearance and BBB permeability were evaluated in aged mice using in vivo two-photon imaging. The mice performed voluntary wheel running exercise and their water-maze cognition was assessed; the expression of the astrocytic water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4, astrocyte and microglial activation, and the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ were evaluated with immunofluorescence or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; synaptic function was investigated with Thy1–green fluorescent protein (GFP transgenic mice and immunofluorescent staining. Voluntary wheel running significantly improved water-maze cognition in the aged mice, accelerated the efficiency of glymphatic clearance, but which did not affect BBB permeability. The numbers of activated astrocytes and microglia decreased, AQP4 expression increased, and the distribution of astrocytic AQP4 was rearranged. Aβ accumulation decreased, whereas dendrites, dendritic spines and postsynaptic density protein (PSD95 increased. Our study suggests that voluntary wheel running accelerated glymphatic clearance but not BBB permeation, improved astrocytic AQP4 expression and polarization, attenuated the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neuroinflammation, and ultimately protected mice against synaptic dysfunction and a decline in spatial cognition

  11. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  12. Effect of oral administration of dantrolene sodium on serum creatine kinase activity after exercise in horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica C; Valberg, Stephanie J; Godden, Sandra M; Finno, Carrie J; Murphy, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effect of oral administration of dantrolene sodium on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity after exercise in horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER). 2 healthy horses and 5 Thoroughbreds with RER. 3 horses received 2 doses of dantrolene (4, 6, or 8 mg/kg, p.o., with and without withdrawal of food) 2 days apart; 90 minutes after dosing, plasma dantrolene concentration was measured spectrofluorometrically. On the basis of these results, 5 Thoroughbreds with RER from which food was withheld received dantrolene (4 mg/kg) or an inert treatment (water [20 mL]) orally 90 minutes before treadmill exercise (30 minutes, 5 d/wk) during two 3-week periods. Serum CK activity was determined 4 hours after exercise. Plasma dantrolene concentration was measured before and 90 minutes after dosing on the first and last days of dantrolene treatment and before dosing on the first day of the inert treatment period, 90 minutes after dosing, mean +/- SEM plasma dantrolene concentration was 0.62 +/- 0.13 and 0 microg/mL in the dantrolene and inert treatment groups, respectively. Serum CK activity was lower in dantrolene-treated horses (264 +/- 13 U/L), compared with activity in water-treated horses (1,088 +/- 264 U/L). Two horses displayed marked muscle stiffness on the inert treatment. In 5 horses with RER from which food had been withheld, 4 mg of dantrolene/kg administered orally provided measurable, though variable, plasma concentrations and significantly decreased serum CK activity after exercise in 4 of those horses.

  13. Exercise training effects on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits

  14. Regional gray matter volume increases following 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise: a longitudinal VBM study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Akira; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Hiroi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    The effects of physical exercise on brain morphology in rodents have been well documented in histological studies. However, to further understand when and where morphological changes occur in the whole brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the effects of 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise on regional gray matter volume (rGMV) using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in rats. Eighteen pairs of adult male naïve Wistar rats were randomized to the exercise or control condition (one rat for each condition from each pair). Each rat was scanned in a 7.0-T MRI scanner at three time points: before exercise, after 7days of exercise, and after 7days of follow-up. The T2-weighted MRI images were segmented using the rat brain tissue priors that were recently published by our laboratory, and the intra- and inter-subject template creation steps were followed. Longitudinal VBM analysis revealed significant increases in rGMV in the motor, somatosensory, association, and visual cortices in the exercise group. Among these brain regions, rGMV changes in the motor cortex were positively correlated with the total distance that was run during the 7days of exercise. In addition, the effects of 7days of exercise on rGMV persisted after 7days of follow-up. These results support the utility of a longitudinal VBM study in rats and provide new insights into experience-dependent structural brain plasticity in naïve adult animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Experimental Study in Generative Music for Exercising to Ease Perceived Exertion by use of Heart Beat Rate as a Control Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur

    This paper investigates whether generative music, adapted to a user's heart beat rate, can be used to ease the perceived exertion. A generative system was implemented and tested on 13 test participants in a controlled environment on a training bike. The test participants performed a cycling workout...... of three minutes in two conditions in a self-chosen pace, with and without music. Their pulse were used as the physiological exertion. The perceived exertion was rated by the test participants according to Borg’s 6-20 exertion scale. Five out of 13 participants showed indications supporting the notion......, while 2 out of 13 indicated the opposite. 6 out of 13 participants neither showed indications supporting nor opposing the theory. The results could be useful for exercises, where the change of heart pulse is gradual, but further work is needed in cadance-based exercises....

  16. Self-rating level of perceived exertion for guiding exercise intensity during a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme and the influence of heart rate reducing medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lars; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Taylor, Rod S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether self-rating level of perceived exertion can adequately guide exercise intensity during a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme. DESIGN: Linear regression analysis using rehabilitation data from two randomised controlled trials. METHODS: Patients undergoing ra......-led and self-regulated model using rating of perceived exertion can help guide exercise intensity in everyday clinical practice among patients with heart disease, irrespective if they are taking heart rate-reducing medication.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether self-rating level of perceived exertion can adequately guide exercise intensity during a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme. DESIGN: Linear regression analysis using rehabilitation data from two randomised controlled trials. METHODS: Patients undergoing...

  17. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  18. Voluntary exercise contributed to an amelioration of abnormal feeding behavior, locomotor activity and ghrelin production concomitantly with a weight reduction in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifune, Hiroharu; Tajiri, Yuji; Nishi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shimpei; Tokubuchi, Ichiro; Mitsuzono, Ryouichi; Yamada, Kentaro; Kojima, Masayasu

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, effects of voluntary exercise in an obese animal model were investigated in relation to the rhythm of daily activity and ghrelin production. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or a chow diet (CD) from four to 16 weeks old. They were further subdivided into either an exercise group (HFD-Ex, CD-Ex) with a running wheel for three days of every other week or sedentary group (HFD-Se, CD-Se). At 16 weeks old, marked increases in body weight and visceral fat were observed in the HFD-Se group, together with disrupted rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity. The induction of voluntary exercise brought about an effective reduction of weight and fat, and ameliorated abnormal rhythms of activity and feeding in the HFD-Ex rats. Wheel counts as voluntary exercise was greater in HFD-Ex rats than those in CD-Ex rats. The HFD-obese had exhibited a deterioration of ghrelin production, which was restored by the induction of voluntary exercise. These findings demonstrated that abnormal rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity in HFD-obese rats were restored by infrequent voluntary exercise with a concomitant amelioration of the ghrelin production and weight reduction. Because ghrelin is related to food anticipatory activity, it is plausible that ghrelin participates in the circadian rhythm of daily activity including eating behavior. A beneficial effect of voluntary exercise has now been confirmed in terms of the amelioration of the daily rhythms in eating behavior and physical activity in an animal model of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does rating of perceived exertion result in target exercise intensity during interval training in cardiac rehabilitation? A study of the Borg scale versus a heart rate monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamot, Inger-Lise; Forbord, Siv Hege; Karlsen, Trine; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2014-09-01

    To assess whether rating of perceived exertion using the Borg 6-20 scale is a valid method for achieving target exercise intensity during high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation. A single-group cross-over design. Ten participants (56 (6.5) years) who were enrolled in a high-intensity interval training cardiac rehabilitation program were recruited. A target exercise intensity of Borg 17 (very hard) was used for exercise intensity guidance in the initial four exercise sessions that took place before a cardiopulmonary exercise test, as in usual care rehabilitation. The heart rate was recorded and blinded to the participants. After performing the test, the participants were then instructed using heart rate monitors openly for exercise guidance in four subsequent exercise sessions, at an intensity corresponding to 85-95% of peak heart rate. The mean exercise intensity during high-intensity bouts was 82% (6%) of peak heart rate for the rating of perceived exertion and 85% (6%) using heart rate monitors (p=0.005). Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis with a mean bias showed a bias of 2.97 (-2.08, 8.02) percentage points for the two methods. Exercise intensity was highly repeatable with intra-class correlations of 0.95 (95% CI 0.86-0.99, phigh-intensity interval training bouts in cardiac rehabilitation. Heart rate monitoring should be used for accurate intensity guidance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the perceived subjective exertion and total load lifted response in resistance exercises performed on stable and unstable platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cunha Aranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the perceived subjective exertion (PSE and total load lifted in resistance exercises performed on stable platforms (SP and unstable platforms (UP. Participants were 20 men (24.6 ± 3.4 years, 179 ± 0.1 cm, 80.6 ± 9.1 kg and 11.8 ± 3.4% fat. Each subject performed a 15 maximum repetition test in half squat exercises (soil and balance discs, pronated barbell row (soil and bosu and biceps curl (soil and balance discs in both conditions. PSE was measured using the OMNI-RES scale and the load lifted value (kg. To verify the normality of data, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used. Possible differences related to loads and PSE on the platforms were performed by the paired t test. Significance level of p <0.05 was adopted. No significant differences between PSE values on SP and UP were respectively observed in the half squat (8.2 and 8.5 / p = 0.8, pronated barbell row (8.4 and 8.4 / p = 0.7 and biceps curl (8.6 and 8.7 / p = 1.0. Higher load values on SP and UP were respectively found in half squat (83.9kg and 70.3kg / p <0.001 and pronated barbell row exercises (53.2kg and 48.6kg / p = 0.01 on SP. However, biceps curl showed dissimilar behavior (48.2kg and 47.4kg / p = 0.5. It was concluded that UP does not promote differences in PSE responses even working with smaller load or similar load.

  1. The Interaction of Voluntary Running Exercise and Food Restriction Induces Low Bone Strength and Low Bone Mineral Density in Young Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Kakutani, Yuya; Higano, Michito; Hattori, Satoshi; Ogata, Hitomi; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2015-07-01

    There is a concern that the combination of exercise with food intake reduction has a risk of reducing bone strength and bone mass in young female athletes. We examined the influence of the interaction of voluntary running exercise and food restriction on bone in young female rats. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: the sedentary and ad libitum feeding group (SED), voluntary running exercise and ad libitum feeding group (EX), sedentary and 30 % food restriction group (SED-FR), and voluntary running exercise and 30 % food restriction group (EX-FR). The experiment lasted 12 weeks. Statistical analysis was carried out by two-way analysis of variance with exercise and restriction as the between-subjects factors. As a result, there were significant interactions of running and restriction on energy availability, breaking force, breaking energy, and bone mineral density (BMD). Breaking force and energy in the EX group were significantly higher than in the SED group; breaking force and energy were significantly lower in the EX-FR group than in the EX group, and breaking force in the EX-FR group was significantly lower than that in the SED-FR group. BMD in the EX-FR group was significantly lower than in the EX and SED-FR groups. These results suggest that food restriction induced low bone strength in young female rats engaging in voluntary running exercise. Also, through the interaction of exercise and food restriction, voluntary running exercise combined food restriction, unlike ad libitum feeding conditions, induced low bone strength, and low BMD in young female rats.

  2. A study on urinary protein excretion as an index of physical exertion Part 2: Changes in the excretion of urinary protein during and after Kendo exercise

    OpenAIRE

    泉,武寛

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, the author selected Kendo among many sports because of the lack of information on the health administration of the Kendo athlete, in spite of the increase in this sport. The present study is specifically concerned with the changes in the excretion of urinary protein as an index of physical exertion during and after Kendo exercise. (1) The longer the duration of exercise was, the more urinary protein that was excreted. The increase was logarithmic against the duration. (2...

  3. Arm vs. Combined Leg and Arm Exercise: Blood Pressure Responses and Ratings of Perceived Exertion at the Same Indirectly Determined Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Di Blasio; Andrea Sablone; Paola Civino; Emanuele D'Angelo; Sabina Gallina; Patrizio Ripari

    2009-01-01

    Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR). Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank erg...

  4. Preconception endurance training with voluntary exercise during pregnancy positively influences on remodeling markers in female offspring bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeini, Abbas Ali; Shafiei Neek, Leila; Choobineh, Siroos; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Satarifard, Sadegh; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of preconception endurance training with or without voluntary exercise during pregnancy on indices of bone formation and resorption in female offspring bone. Twenty-four C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into four groups: trained in preconception period and exercised during pregnancy (TE); trained in preconception periods but unexercised during pregnancy (TC); untrained in preconception periods but exercised during pregnancy (CE); untrained and unexercised (CC). Trained dams were subjected to a protocol of moderate exercise training over a period of 4 weeks before pregnancy. Analyses were performed on the adult female offspring that did not have access to running wheels in any portion of their lives. The OPG, Runx2, COLI, ALP, and OPN mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in offspring born to dams that was trained in preconception period. However, there was no significant difference in OPG, COLI, Runx2, and ALP expression in TE and TC offspring (p > 0.05). RANKL and osteocalcin expression were significantly down-regulated in TE offspring group (p < 0.001). Improved physical fitness in preconception period results in significant changes in bone gene expressions of female offspring, in particular towards osteogenic responses with improved RANKL/OPG ratio.

  5. Does an Exercise Intervention Improving Aerobic Capacity Among Construction Workers Also Improve Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Ability, Productivity, Perceived Physical Exertion, and Sick Leave? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Bultmann, Ute; Sjogaard, Gisela; Sogaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. Methods: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized into an

  6. The Role of Exercise Self-Efficacy, Perceived Exertion, Event-Related Stress, and Demographic Factors in Predicting Physical Activity among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannagan, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The focus of this study was to examine the relationship among precursors to physical activity, including exercise self-efficacy, perceived exertion, stress, and demographic factors, among college students. Design: This study employed an associational design. Setting: The study population was college freshmen in southeast Louisiana who…

  7. Does an exercise intervention improving aerobic capacity among construction workers also improve musculoskeletal pain, work ability, productivity, perceived physical exertion, and sick leave? : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gram, B.; Holtermann, A.; Bultmann, U.; Sjogaard, G.; Sogaard, K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. METHODS: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized into an

  8. Estrogen and voluntary exercise interact to attenuate stress-induced corticosterone release but not anxiety-like behaviors in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexis B; Gupton, Rebecca; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2016-09-15

    The beneficial effects of physical exercise to reduce anxiety and depression and to alleviate stress are increasingly supported in research studies. The role of ovarian hormones in interactions between exercise and anxiety/stress has important implications for women's health, given that women are at increased risk of developing anxiety-related disorders, particularly during and after the menopausal transition. In these experiments, we tested the hypothesis that estrogen enhances the positive impact of exercise on stress responses by investigating the combined effects of exercise and estrogen on anxiety-like behaviors and stress hormone levels in female rats after an acute stressor. Ovariectomized female rats with or without estrogen were given access to running wheels for one or three days of voluntary running immediately after or two days prior to being subjected to restraint stress. We found that voluntary running was not effective at reducing anxiety-like behaviors, whether or not rats were subjected to restraint stress. In contrast, stress-induced elevations of stress hormone levels were attenuated by exercise experience in estrogen-treated rats, but were increased in rats without estrogen. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may be more effective at reducing stress hormone levels if estrogen is present. Additionally, exercise experience, or the distance run, may be important in reducing stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of the Preconception Endurance Exercise Training and Voluntary Exercise Activity during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice on Lipid Profile of the Adult Offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gaeini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of preconception endurance exercise training with voluntary exercise activity during pregnancy in mother mice on lipid profile in adult offsprings. Materials and Methods: Twenty four C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into four subgroups: trained in preconception period and exercised during pregnancy (TE(20.3±1.02g; trained in preconception periods but unexercised during pregnancy (TC(21.58±0.4g; untrained in preconception periods but exercised during pregnancy (CE(21.02±0.23g; untrained and unexercised (CC(19.23±0.45g. Trained mice were subjected to a protocol of moderate endurance exercise training over a period of 4 weeks for 5 days before pregnancy. The fasting blood samples were collected from adult mice(8 weeks old and serum levels of glucose and lipid profile were measured. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: The Glucose test results in offspring showed that there was a significant interaction between group and sex and group main effect (p<0.001 Glucose levels of male offspring were significantly lower in TC and TE groups. Results on LDL also showed that the sex main effect was significant (p<0.001, and LDL levels of male born to TE and TC dams lower than in female offspring. Conclusion: Improving the mother's physical fitness by providing regular endurance training in the preconception period and maintaining it by exercise activty throughout pregnancy may have potential for eliciting positive changes in lipid profile of offspring, specially males.

  10. Voluntary Exercise Adapts the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Male Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uribe, Rosa María; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Ramírez-Martínez, Candy; García-Vázquez, Arlene; Romero, Fidelia; Cisneros, Miguel; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Charli, Jean-Louis; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis modulates energy homeostasis. Its activity decreases in conditions of negative energy balance but the effects of chronic exercise on the axis are controversial and unknown at hypothalamic level...

  11. Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Nijstad, Niels; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the

  12. Voluntary exercise influences behavioral development in rats exposed to alcohol during the neonatal brain growth spurt

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jennifer D.; Sather, Tamie Miura; Whinery, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    Children exposed to alcohol prenatally may suffer from severe brain damage, expressed as a variety of behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and learning deficits. There is a critical need to identify effective treatments for fetal alcohol effects. Physical exercise enhances cognitive ability and increases neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. Thus, the present study examined whether physical exercise might reduce the severity of alcohol-induce...

  13. Voluntary Exercise Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Phenylketonuria Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Bruinenberg, Vibeke; Anjema, Karen; van Vliet, Danique; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; van Spronsen, Francjan J; van der Zee, Eddy A

    2016-01-01

    High phenylalanine levels in phenylketonuria (PKU) have been associated with brain oxidative stress and amino acid imbalance. Exercise has been shown to improve brain function in hyperphenylalaninemia and neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to verify the effects of exercise on coordination and balance, plasma and brain amino acid levels, and brain oxidative stress markers in PKU mice. Twenty wild-type (WT) and 20 PAH(enu2) (PKU) C57BL/6 mice were placed in cages with (exercise, Exe) or without (sedentary, Sed) running wheels during 53 days. At day 43, a balance beam test was performed. Plasma and brain were collected for analyses of amino acid levels and the oxidative stress parameters superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, sulfhydryl and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents, total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR). SedPKU showed poor coordination (p < 0.001) and balance (p < 0.001), higher plasma and brain phenylalanine (p < 0.001), and increased brain oxidative stress (p < 0.05) in comparison to SedWT. ExePKU animals ran less than ExeWT (p = 0.018). Although no improvement was seen in motor coordination and balance, exercise in PKU restored SOD, sulfhydryl content, and TRAP levels to controls. TAR levels were increased in ExePKU in comparison to SedPKU (p = 0.012). Exercise decreased plasma and brain glucogenic amino acids in ExePKU, but did not change plasma and brain phenylalanine in both WT and PKU. Exercise prevents oxidative stress in the brain of PKU mice without modifying phenylalanine levels. Hence, exercise positively affects the brain, demonstrating its value as an intervention to improve brain quality in PKU.

  14. Voluntary exercise influences behavioral development in rats exposed to alcohol during the neonatal brain growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Sather, Tamie Miura; Whinery, Lynn A

    2008-12-01

    Children exposed to alcohol prenatally may suffer from severe brain damage, expressed as a variety of behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and learning deficits. There is a critical need to identify effective treatments for fetal alcohol effects. Physical exercise enhances cognitive ability and increases neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory. Thus, the present study examined whether physical exercise might reduce the severity of alcohol-induced behavioral alterations. Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol during the third trimester equivalent (postnatal days [PDs] 4-9). Intubated sham control and nontreated controls were included. From PD 21 to PD 51, half of the subjects were given access to running wheels. On PD 52, subjects were tested on the Morris water maze, and on PD 60, open field activity levels were measured. Morris maze performance was significantly impaired among ethanol-exposed subjects; exercise significantly improved performance of all groups. Similarly, ethanol-exposed subjects were overactive in the open field, an effect attenuated with exercise. In sum, these data suggest that exercise may increase neuronal plasticity not only in controls, but also in subjects exposed to alcohol during development.

  15. Comparison of exogenous adenosine and voluntary exercise on human skeletal muscle perfusion and perfusion heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka H.A.; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine is a widely used pharmacological agent to induce a 'high flow' control condition to study the mechanisms of exercise hyperemia, but it is not known how well adenosine infusion depicts exercise-induced hyperemia especially in terms of blood flow distribution at the capillary level in human...... muscle. Additionally, it remains to be determined what proportion of adenosine-induced flow elevation is specifically directed to muscle only. In the present study we measured thigh muscle capillary nutritive blood flow in nine healthy young men using positron emission tomography at rest and during...... femoral artery infusion of adenosine (1 mg * min(-1) * litre thigh volume(-1)), which has previously been shown to induce maximal whole thigh blood flow of ~8 L/min. This response was compared to the blood flow induced by moderate-high intensity one-leg dynamic knee extension exercise. Adenosine increased...

  16. Effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, cognitive deficits and alterations in apoptosis-associated proteins in morphine-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Ghodrati-Jaldbakhan, Shahrbanoo; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Akhavan, Maziar M; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Chronic exposure to morphine results in cognitive deficits and alterations of apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death in the hippocampus, a brain region critically involved in learning and memory. Physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on brain health. In the current work, we examined the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on spontaneous withdrawal signs, the associated cognitive defects, and changes of apoptotic proteins in morphine-dependent rats. Morphine dependence was induced through bi-daily administrations of morphine (10mg/kg) for 10 days. Then, the rats were trained under two different exercise protocols: mild treadmill exercise or voluntary wheel exercise for 10 days. After exercise training, their spatial learning and memory and aversive memory were examined by a water maze and by an inhibitory avoidance task, respectively. The expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the hippocampus were determined by immunoblotting. We found that chronic exposure to morphine impaired spatial and aversive memory and remarkably suppressed the expression of Bcl-2, but Bax expression remained constant. Both voluntary and treadmill exercise alleviated memory impairment, increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein, and only the later suppressed the expression of Bax protein in morphine-dependent animals. Moreover, both exercise protocols diminished the occurrence of spontaneous morphine withdrawal signs. Our findings showed that exercise reduces the spontaneous morphine-withdrawal signs, blocks the associated impairment of cognitive performance, and overcomes morphine-induced alterations in apoptotic proteins in favor of cell death. Thus, exercise may be a useful therapeutic strategy for cognitive and behavioral deficits in addict individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of voluntary, involuntary, and forced exercises on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and motor function recovery: a rat brain ischemia model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Ke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke rehabilitation with different exercise paradigms has been investigated, but which one is more effective in facilitating motor recovery and up-regulating brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF after brain ischemia would be interesting to clinicians and patients. Voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and involuntary muscle movement caused by functional electrical stimulation (FES have been individually demonstrated effective as stroke rehabilitation intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three common interventions on brain BDNF changes and motor recovery levels using a rat ischemic stroke model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and seventeen Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into four groups: Control (Con, Voluntary exercise of wheel running (V-Ex, Forced exercise of treadmill running (F-Ex, and Involuntary exercise of FES (I-Ex with implanted electrodes placed in two hind limb muscles on the affected side to mimic gait-like walking pattern during stimulation. Ischemic stroke was induced in all rats with the middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model and fifty-seven rats had motor deficits after stroke. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, rats were arranged to their intervention programs. De Ryck's behavioral test was conducted daily during the 7-day intervention as an evaluation tool of motor recovery. Serum corticosterone concentration and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were measured after the rats were sacrificed. V-Ex had significantly better motor recovery in the behavioral test. V-Ex also had significantly higher hippocampal BDNF concentration than F-Ex and Con. F-Ex had significantly higher serum corticosterone level than other groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Voluntary exercise is the most effective intervention in upregulating the hippocampal BDNF level, and facilitating motor recovery. Rats that exercised voluntarily also showed less

  18. Voluntary running exercise protects against sepsis-induced early inflammatory and pro-coagulant responses in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyml, Karel; Swarbreck, Scott; Pape, Cynthia; Secor, Dan; Koropatnick, James; Feng, Qingping; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Gill, Sean E

    2017-08-08

    Despite many animal studies and clinical trials, mortality in sepsis remains high. This may be due to the fact that most experimental studies of sepsis employ young animals, whereas the majority of septic patients are elderly (60 - 70 years). The objective of the present study was to examine the sepsis-induced inflammatory and pro-coagulant responses in aged mice. Since running exercise protects against a variety of diseases, we also examined the effect of voluntary running on septic responses in aged mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were housed in our institute from 2-3 to 22 months (an age mimicking that of the elderly). Mice were prevented from becoming obese by food restriction (given 70-90% of ad libitum consumption amount). Between 20 and 22 months, a subgroup of mice ran voluntarily on wheels, alternating 1-3 days of running with 1-2 days of rest. At 22 months, mice were intraperitoneally injected with sterile saline (control) or 3.75 g/kg fecal slurry (septic). At 7 h post injection, we examined (1) neutrophil influx in the lung and liver by measuring myeloperoxidase and/or neutrophil elastase in the tissue homogenates by spectrophotometry, (2) interleukin 6 (IL6) and KC in the lung lavage by ELISA, (3) pulmonary surfactant function by measuring percentage of large aggregates, (4) capillary plugging (pro-coagulant response) in skeletal muscle by intravital microscopy, (5) endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein in skeletal muscle (eNOS-derived NO is putative inhibitor of capillary plugging) by immunoblotting, and (6) systemic blood platelet counts by hemocytometry. Sepsis caused high levels of pulmonary myeloperoxidase, elastase, IL6, KC, liver myeloperoxidase, and capillary plugging. Sepsis also caused low levels of surfactant function and platelet counts. Running exercise increased eNOS protein and attenuated the septic responses. Voluntary running protects against exacerbated sepsis-induced inflammatory and pro-coagulant responses in aged mice

  19. Moderate voluntary exercise attenuates the metabolic syndrome in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats showing central dopaminergic dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obici, Silvana; Magrisso, I Jack; Ghazarian, Armen S; Shirazian, Alireza; Miller, Jonas R; Loyd, Christine M; Begg, Denovan P; Krawczewski Carhuatanta, Kimberly A; Haas, Michael K; Davis, Jon F; Woods, Stephen C; Sandoval, Darleen A; Seeley, Randy J; Goodyear, Laurie J; Pothos, Emmanuel N; Mul, Joram D

    2015-10-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) are highly expressed by dopamine-secreting neurons of the mesolimbic tract, but their functional role has not been fully resolved. Voluntary wheel running (VWR) induces adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system and has a myriad of long-term beneficial effects on health. In the present experiments we asked whether MC4R function regulates the effects of VWR, and whether VWR ameliorates MC4R-associated symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. Electrically evoked dopamine release was measured in slice preparations from sedentary wild-type and MC4R-deficient Mc4r (K314X) (HOM) rats. VWR was assessed in wild-type and HOM rats, and in MC4R-deficient loxTB (Mc4r) mice, wild-type mice body weight-matched to loxTB (Mc4r) mice, and wild-type mice with intracerebroventricular administration of the MC4R antagonist SHU9119. Mesolimbic dopamine system function (gene/protein expression) and metabolic parameters were examined in wheel-running and sedentary wild-type and HOM rats. Sedentary obese HOM rats had increased electrically evoked dopamine release in several ventral tegmental area (VTA) projection sites compared to wild-type controls. MC4R loss-of-function decreased VWR, and this was partially independent of body weight. HOM wheel-runners had attenuated markers of intracellular D1-type dopamine receptor signaling despite increased dopamine flux in the VTA. VWR increased and decreased ΔFosB levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of wild-type and HOM runners, respectively. VWR improved metabolic parameters in wild-type wheel-runners. Finally, moderate voluntary exercise corrected many aspects of the metabolic syndrome in HOM runners. Central dopamine dysregulation during VWR reinforces the link between MC4R function and molecular and behavioral responding to rewards. The data also suggest that exercise can be a successful lifestyle intervention in MC4R-haploinsufficient individuals despite reduced positive reinforcement during exercise training.

  20. Moderate voluntary exercise attenuates the metabolic syndrome in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats showing central dopaminergic dysregulation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obici, Silvana; Magrisso, I. Jack; Ghazarian, Armen S.; Shirazian, Alireza; Miller, Jonas R.; Loyd, Christine M.; Begg, Denovan P.; Krawczewski Carhuatanta, Kimberly A.; Haas, Michael K.; Davis, Jon F.; Woods, Stephen C.; Sandoval, Darleen A.; Seeley, Randy J.; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Pothos, Emmanuel N.; Mul, Joram D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) are highly expressed by dopamine-secreting neurons of the mesolimbic tract, but their functional role has not been fully resolved. Voluntary wheel running (VWR) induces adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system and has a myriad of long-term beneficial effects on health. In the present experiments we asked whether MC4R function regulates the effects of VWR, and whether VWR ameliorates MC4R-associated symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. Methods Electrically evoked dopamine release was measured in slice preparations from sedentary wild-type and MC4R-deficient Mc4rK314X (HOM) rats. VWR was assessed in wild-type and HOM rats, and in MC4R-deficient loxTBMc4r mice, wild-type mice body weight-matched to loxTBMc4r mice, and wild-type mice with intracerebroventricular administration of the MC4R antagonist SHU9119. Mesolimbic dopamine system function (gene/protein expression) and metabolic parameters were examined in wheel-running and sedentary wild-type and HOM rats. Results Sedentary obese HOM rats had increased electrically evoked dopamine release in several ventral tegmental area (VTA) projection sites compared to wild-type controls. MC4R loss-of-function decreased VWR, and this was partially independent of body weight. HOM wheel-runners had attenuated markers of intracellular D1-type dopamine receptor signaling despite increased dopamine flux in the VTA. VWR increased and decreased ΔFosB levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of wild-type and HOM runners, respectively. VWR improved metabolic parameters in wild-type wheel-runners. Finally, moderate voluntary exercise corrected many aspects of the metabolic syndrome in HOM runners. Conclusions Central dopamine dysregulation during VWR reinforces the link between MC4R function and molecular and behavioral responding to rewards. The data also suggest that exercise can be a successful lifestyle intervention in MC4R-haploinsufficient individuals despite reduced positive

  1. Exercise-associated hyponatremic encephalopathy and exertional heatstroke in a soldier: High rates of fluid intake during exercise caused rather than prevented a fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Noakes, Timothy D; Duvenage, Cornelia S J

    2015-02-01

    Athletes are often advised to drink in order to "fully replace bodyweight losses" in order to prevent exertional heatstroke (EHS) during exercise in the heat. There is little evidence that "dehydration" in the range experienced by athletes adversely affects thermoregulation or is the exclusive cause of EHS. In contrast it is established that excess fluid intake can cause exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) sometimes associated with encephalopathy (EAHE). As part of a series of experiments to determine optimal fluid replacement during exercise in the heat, we studied a group of exceptionally well-conditioned and heat-adapted members of the South African National Defence Force. A 20 year old male started a time restricted 50 km route-march in a dry bulb temperature that reached 37.5°C (WBGT of 33.6°C, relative humidity of 85%). Pre-march plasma osmolality, serum [Na(+)] and total body water measures indicated euhydration. Fluid was available ad libitum and isotonic sports drinks at 5 km intervals. Fluid intake and core body temperature (Tc) were recorded throughout while he was tracked by a global positioning system measuring distance travelled, position and speed. Comparing the total fluid intake of the soldier (12930 mL) to the rest of the participants (mean intake of 9 038 mL) up to 40 km, it is evident that his intake was 3892 mL (approximately 300 mL h(-1)) more than the mean for group. At approximately 17h14 the soldier was found lying by himself at the side of the route, 2.24 km from the finish point. He passed away the next day in a medical care facility. This tragic event provides the valuable opportunity to present data on the pacing, temperature regulation and fluid consumption of an exceptional athlete during the development of a fatal case of combined EAHE and EHS. Pacing, fluid intake, Tc and environmental condition data are presented for 5 km intervals throughout the march. We propose a novel hypothesis on the possible contribution of EAHE to the

  2. Forced and voluntary exercise counteract insulin resistance in rats : The role of coping style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha J.; Barf, R. Paulien; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    There are large individual differences in the success rates of exercise intervention programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity-related disorders. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that differences in coping style may impact the success rates of these intervention

  3. Exercise training biomarkers: influence of short-term diet modification on the blood lactate to rating of perceived exertion (La:RPE) ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, J W; Lane, A R; Behr, M B; Ondrak, K S; Hackney, Anthony C

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the effect of dietary consumption of carbohydrates (CHO) on the blood lactate to rating of perceived exertion (La:RPE) ratio during an intense micro-cycle of exercise training. This ratio is a proposed biomarker of exercise training stress and potential indicator for under- or overtraining in athletes. Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned into two groups; high CHO (H-CHO; 60% of daily caloric intake) and low CHO (L-CHO; 30% of daily caloric intake). Diets were controlled the day before and for the three days of the micro-cycle. The micro-cycle consisted of three successive days of 60 minutes of intense cycling (∼70% of VO2peak). Blood samples were obtained immediately before and after exercise (post) on each day of exercise training (D1, D2, D3) and were analyzed for blood lactate. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scores were taken at the end of each exercise session and combined with the post exercise lactate value to form the La:RPE ratio. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference between the La:RPE ratio for the H-CHO and L-CHO groups at D3 even though the exercise intensity was not significantly different between the groups. Specifically, the ratio was significantly (p exercise training biomarker to determine whether an athlete is truly under-training or overtraining. Athletes or coaches that use the La:RPE ratio as a training biomarker, but do not monitor dietary CHO intake need to interpreted their findings carefully.

  4. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...... and treatment of cancer in humans....

  5. Does an Exercise Intervention Improving Aerobic Capacity Among Construction Workers Also Improve Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Ability, Productivity, Perceived Physical Exertion, and Sick Leave?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Bültmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    into an exercise group training 3 × 20 minutes per week and a control group. Questionnaires and text messages were completed before and after the 12-week intervention. RESULTS:: No significant changes were found in musculoskeletal pain, work ability, productivity, perceived physical exertion, and sick leave......OBJECTIVE:: To investigate whether an exercise intervention shown to increase aerobic capacity, would also lead to less musculoskeletal pain; improved work ability, productivity, and perceived physical exertion; and less sick leave. METHODS:: Sixty-seven construction workers were randomized...... with the intervention. Questionnaires and text messages provided similar results of pain and work ability. CONCLUSIONS:: Although the intervention improved aerobic capacity, it was not successful in improving musculoskeletal pain and other work-related factors. A detectable improvement presumably requires a more...

  6. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute effectiveness of a "fat-loss" product on substrate utilization, perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Seijo, Marcos; Larumbe, Eneko; Naclerio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Achieving fat-loss outcomes by ingesting multi-ingredient mixtures may be further enhanced during exercise. This study tested the acute thermogenic effectiveness of a commercially available multi-ingredient product (Shred-Matrix®), containing Green Tea Extract, Yerba Maté, Guarana Seed Extract, Anhydrous caffeine, Saw palmetto, Fo-Ti, Eleuthero root, Cayenne Pepper, and Yohimbine HCI, on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise. Following institutional ethical approval, twelve healthy recreationally active participants, five females and seven males, were randomized to perform two separate experimental ergometry cycling trials, and to ingest 1.5 g (3 × capsules) of either a multi-ingredient supplement (SHRED) or placebo (PL). Participants rested for 3 h, before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to their individually-determined intensity based on their maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was determined at rest, 3 h before exercise (Pre1), immediately before exercise (Pre2) and during exercise (Post), using expired gasses and indirect calorimetry. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 3 min during the 30-min exercise. Additionally both mood state and perception of hunger were assessed at Pre1, Pre2 and Post exercise. A repeated measures ANOVA design and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze potential differences between times and treatment conditions. FAO increased in SHRED from Pre1 to Pre2 [0.56 ± 0.26 to 0.96 ± 0.37, (p = 0.003, d =1.34)] but not in PL [0.67 ± 0.25 to 0.74 ± 0.19, (p = 0.334) d = 0.49], with no differences were found between conditions (p = 0.12, d = 0.49). However, Cohen's d = 0.77 revealed moderate effect size in favor of SHRED from Pre to Post exercise. RPE values were lower in SHRED compared to Pl (phunger were not different between conditions, with no interaction effects

  8. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  9. Central command increases muscular oxygenation of the non-exercising arm at the early period of voluntary one-armed cranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kei; Matsukawa, Kanji; Asahara, Ryota; Liang, Nan; Endo, Kana; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Michioka, Kensuke; Sasaki, Yu; Hamada, Hironobu; Yamashita, Kaori; Watanabe, Tae; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine whether central command increases oxygenation in non-contracting arm muscles during contralateral one-armed cranking and whether the oxygenation response caused by central command differs among skeletal muscles of the non-exercising upper limb. In 13 male subjects, the relative changes in oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) of the non-contracting arm muscles [the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR)] were measured during voluntary one-armed cranking (intensity, 35-40% of maximal voluntary effort) and mental imagery of the one-armed exercise for 1 min. Voluntary one-armed cranking increased (P arm muscles consisted of the rapid atropine-sensitive and delayed propranolol-sensitive components. Mental imagery of the exercise increased the Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles. Motor-driven passive one-armed cranking had little influence on the Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles. It is likely that central command plays a role in the initial increase in oxygenation in the non-contracting arm muscles via sympathetic cholinergic vasodilatation at the early period of one-armed cranking. The centrally induced increase in oxygenation may not be different among the distal arm muscles but may augment in the deltoid muscle. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  10. Reduced metabolic disease risk profile by voluntary wheel running accompanying juvenile Western diet in rats bred for high and low voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Braselton, Joshua F; Roberts, Christian K; Booth, Frank W

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disease risk is influenced by genetics and modifiable factors, such as physical activity and diet. Beginning at 6 weeks of age, rats selectively bred for high (HVR) versus low voluntary running distance (LVR) behaviors were housed in a complex design with or without voluntary running wheels being fed either a standard or Western (WD, 42% kcal from fat and added sucrose) diet for 8 weeks. Upon intervention completion, percent body fat, leptin, insulin, and mediobasal hypothalamic mRNAs related to appetite control were assessed. Wheel access led to differences in body weight, food intake, and serum leptin and insulin. Intriguingly, percent body fat, leptin, and insulin did not differ between HVR and LVR lines in response to the two levels of voluntary running, regardless of diet, after the 8 wk. experiment despite HVR eating more calories than LVR regardless of diet and voluntarily running 5-7 times further in wheels than LVR. In response to WD, we observed increases in Cart and Lepr mediobasal hypothalamic mRNA in HVR, but no differences in LVR. Npy mRNA was intrinsically greater in LVR than HVR, while wheel access led to greater Pomc and Cart mRNA in LVR versus HVR. These data suggest that despite greater consumption of WD, HVR animals respond similarly to WD as LVR as a result, in part, of their increased wheel running behavior. Furthermore, high physical activity in HVR may offset the deleterious effects of a WD on adiposity despite greater energy intake in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipid Emulsion Added to a Liquid High-Carbohydrate Diet and Voluntary Running Exercise Reduce Lipogenesis and Ameliorate Early-Stage Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuan-Hsun; Hao, Lei; Smith, Philip B; Rogers, Connie J; Patterson, Andrew D; Ross, A Catharine

    2017-05-01

    Background: The use of parenteral nutrition formulas is often associated with the development of hepatic steatosis. We have shown previously that the addition of a lipid emulsion (LE) rich in n-6 (ω-6) fatty acids (FAs) ameliorated triglyceride (TG) accumulation in the livers of nonobese mice fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 5 wk. However, it remains unclear how rapidly this condition develops and whether it can be prevented by LE with or without a running wheel for voluntary exercise (Exe).Objective: We investigated in an 8-d study whether mice develop steatosis and whether the administration of LE with or without Exe reduces the concentration of total FAs and prevents an increase in the expression of genes in the liver associated with lipogenesis.Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice aged 5 wk were randomized into 5 groups: standard feed pellet (SFP); a liquid HCD (77% of total energy from carbohydrates and 0.5% from fat); HCD + Exe; HCD + 13.5% LE (67% carbohydrates and 13.5% fat); or HCD + 13.5% LE + Exe. Hepatic TG concentration, lipogenic genes, and total FAs were measured on day 8.Results: Oil Red O staining and TG quantification showed hepatic TG accumulation on day 8; the addition of 13.5% LE either with or without Exe suppressed the TG accumulation compared with HCD (P < 0.005). With the use of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, the expression concentrations of lipogenic genes [ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase 1, FA synthase (Fasn), and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1)] in the HCD + 13.5% LE group were 26-60% of HCD (P < 0.01) and 11-38% of HCD in the HCD + 13.5% LE + Exe group (P < 0.001), with interactions for Fasn and Scd1 (P < 0.05). With the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the HCD + 13.5% LE group had lower monounsaturated fatty acids (38.7% of HCD) but higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (164% of HCD) (P < 0.001).Conclusions: In short-term studies designed to resemble the

  12. ARM VS. COMBINED LEG AND ARM EXERCISE: BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONSES AND RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE SAME INDIRECTLY DETERMINED HEART RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Blasio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR. Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank ergometer and a cross trainer were compared. RM-ANOVA showed both a higher RPE (p < 0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP (p < 0.001 response to the arm exercise that were shown significantly correlated (r = 0.883; p = 0.008. Linear regression analysis (p = 0.001 confirmed the ability to predict the time course of DBP by knowing the RPE on the arm crank ergometer. Even if people use the recommended relative intensity, the HR method is not always safe for health without pre-participation screening because exercise characteristics can negatively influence physiological responses. The HR method could be substituted by the RPE method.

  13. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower extremities: improved screening using a novel dual birdcage coil and in-scanner exercise protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Daniel V; Amrami, Kimberly K; Dahm, Diane L; Smith, Jay; Laskowski, Edward R; Stuart, Michael J; Felmlee, Joel P

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate an MRI screening protocol for chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the lower legs using an in-scanner exercise protocol and novel dual birdcage coil design for improved imaging. Coil and phantom studies: a custom-made dual birdcage coil designed for this protocol was evaluated for uniformity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with a conventional phased-array receive-only torso coil and the body coil. Phantom and normal subject studies were performed to confirm coil performance. In-vivo studies: eight unaffected subjects and 42 patients with lower extremity symptoms suggestive of CECS were imaged with the dual birdcage coil and an in-scanner exercise protocol which included imaging at rest, during isometric resisted dorsi flexion, at rest (recovery), during isometric resisted plantar flexion and, again, at rest. Of 42 patients, 14 had confirmed CECS and 28 had lower extremity anomalies attributable to other causes. Ratios of relative T2-weighted signal intensities were calculated for exercise and recovery images compared to baseline after processing of images, including re-registration for motion, smoothing and segmentation to remove bone and pulsation artifacts from blood vessels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a threshold for the ratio of relative T2-weighted signal intensity of 1.54 to have a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 90% and accuracy of 96% for CECS. Patients with CECS had their peak ratio of signal intensity compared with baseline during the first recovery period after isometric dorsi flexion, whereas unaffected subjects and patients with other causes of exercise-induced lower extremity pain reached their peak values during exercise (Ppressure measurements in patients with suspected CECS.

  14. Analysis of the effects of growth hormone, voluntary exercise, and food restriction on diaphyseal bone in female F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, M J; Orhii, P B; Mejia, W; McCarter, R J; Mosekilde, L; Thomsen, J S; Kalu, D N

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of growth hormone, exercise, and weight loss due to food restriction on tibial diaphyseal bone and on tibial muscle mass. Thirteen-month-old female F344 rats were divided into six groups: group 1, baseline controls (B); group 2, age-matched controls (C); group 3, GH treated (GH); group 4, voluntary wheel running exercise (EX); group 5, GH + EX; and group 6, food restricted (FR). The dose of GH was 2.5 mg recombinant human (rh) GH/kg body weight/day, 5 days per week, given in two divided doses of 1.25 mg at 9-10 A.M. and 4-5 P.M. Food-restricted rats were fed 60% of the mean food intake of the age-matched controls. All animals except the baseline controls were killed after 4.5 months. The baseline controls were killed at the beginning of the study. Growth hormone increased the body weight and tibial muscle mass of the rats markedly, while EX caused only a slight decrease in body weight and partially inhibited the increase caused by GH in the GH + EX group. Food restriction greatly decreased body weight below that of age-matched controls, but neither FR nor EX had a significant effect on the mass of the muscles around the tibia. Growth hormone and EX independently increased tibial diaphyseal cortical bone area (p rats, cortical bone area and cortical mineral content increased above the baseline level (p rats (p < 0.01, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Three-point bending test of right tibial diaphysis resulted in maximum force (Fmax) values that reflected the group differences in indices of tibial diaphyseal bone mass, except that GH + EX did not produce additive effect on Fmax. The latter showed good correlation with left tibial diaphyseal SSI (r = 0.857, p < 0.0001), and both indices of bone strength correlated well with tibial muscle mass (r = 0.771, Fmax; r = 0.700, SSI; p < 0.0001). GH increased serum IGF-I (p < 0.0001), and the increase was partially reduced by EX. Serum osteocalcin was increased by GH with or without EX

  15. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower extremities: improved screening using a novel dual birdcage coil and in-scanner exercise protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litwiller, Daniel V. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, MR Research Laboratory, Rochester, MN (United States); Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Division of Body MRI, Rochester, MN (United States); Dahm, Diane L.; Stuart, Michael J. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Smith, Jay; Laskowski, Edward R. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rochester, MN (United States); Felmlee, Joel P. [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, MR Research Laboratory, Rochester, MN (United States); Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Division of Body MRI, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate an MRI screening protocol for chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the lower legs using an in-scanner exercise protocol and novel dual birdcage coil design for improved imaging. Coil and phantom studies: a custom-made dual birdcage coil designed for this protocol was evaluated for uniformity and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared with a conventional phased-array receive-only torso coil and the body coil. Phantom and normal subject studies were performed to confirm coil performance. In-vivo studies: eight unaffected subjects and 42 patients with lower extremity symptoms suggestive of CECS were imaged with the dual birdcage coil and an in-scanner exercise protocol which included imaging at rest, during isometric resisted dorsi flexion, at rest (recovery), during isometric resisted plantar flexion and, again, at rest. Of 42 patients, 14 had confirmed CECS and 28 had lower extremity anomalies attributable to other causes. Ratios of relative T2-weighted signal intensities were calculated for exercise and recovery images compared to baseline after processing of images, including re-registration for motion, smoothing and segmentation to remove bone and pulsation artifacts from blood vessels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a threshold for the ratio of relative T2-weighted signal intensity of 1.54 to have a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 90% and accuracy of 96% for CECS. Patients with CECS had their peak ratio of signal intensity compared with baseline during the first recovery period after isometric dorsi flexion, whereas unaffected subjects and patients with other causes of exercise-induced lower extremity pain reached their peak values during exercise (P < 0.001). We have developed the first in-scanner MRI exercise protocol for the assessment of patients with suspected CECS. The technique shows high accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis in this small cohort of

  16. Beneficial Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Experimental Colitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: The Role of Irisin, Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Bilski, Jan; Wojcik, Dagmara; Brzozowski, Bartosz; Surmiak, Marcin; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Chmura, Anna; Magierowski, Marcin; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Mach, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2017-04-20

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i.e., voluntary wheel running) on the disease activity index (DAI), colonic blood flow (CBF), plasma irisin and adiponectin levels and real-time PCR expression of proinflammatory markers in mesenteric fat in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to those on a standard chow diet (SD). Macroscopic and microscopic colitis in sedentary SD mice was accompanied by a significant fall in CBF, some increase in colonic tissue weight and a significant increase in the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and IL-13 (p colitis, substantially increased CBF and attenuated the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels while raising the plasma irisin and the plasma and WAT concentrations of adiponectin in HFD mice (p colitis is exacerbated in HFD mice, possibly due to a fall in colonic microcirculation and an increase in the plasma and mesenteric fat content of proinflammatory biomarkers; and (2) voluntary physical activity can attenuate the severity of colonic damage in mice fed a HFD through the release of protective irisin and restoration of plasma adiponectin.

  17. The Effects of Supplementation with a Vitamin and Mineral Complex with Guaraná Prior to Fasted Exercise on Affect, Exertion, Cognitive Performance, and Substrate Metabolism: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Rachel C; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Kennedy, David O; Wishart, Karl; Maggini, Silvia; Fuchs, Caspar J; Stevenson, Emma J

    2015-07-27

    Exercise undertaken in a fasted state can lead to higher post-exercise mental fatigue. The administration of a vitamin and mineral complex with guaraná (MVM + G) has been shown to attenuate mental fatigue and improve performance during cognitively demanding tasks. This placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, balanced cross-over study examined the effect of MVM + G consumed prior to morning exercise on cognitive performance, affect, exertion, and substrate metabolism. Forty active males (age 21.4 ± 3.0 year; body mass index (BMI) 24.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2; maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) 57.6 ± 7.3 mL/min/kg) completed two main trials, consuming either MVM + G or placebo prior to a 30-min run at 60% V̇O2max. Supplementation prior to exercise led to a small but significant reduction in Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during exercise compared to the placebo. The MVM + G combination also led to significantly increased accuracy of numeric working memory and increased speed of picture recognition, compared to the placebo. There were no significant effects of supplementation on any other cognitive or mood measures or on substrate metabolism during exercise. These findings demonstrate that consuming a vitamin and mineral complex containing guaraná, prior to exercise, can positively impact subsequent memory performance and reduce perceived exertion during a moderate-intensity run in active males.

  18. The Effects of Supplementation with a Vitamin and Mineral Complex with Guaraná Prior to Fasted Exercise on Affect, Exertion, Cognitive Performance, and Substrate Metabolism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Veasey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise undertaken in a fasted state can lead to higher post-exercise mental fatigue. The administration of a vitamin and mineral complex with guaraná (MVM + G has been shown to attenuate mental fatigue and improve performance during cognitively demanding tasks. This placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, balanced cross-over study examined the effect of MVM + G consumed prior to morning exercise on cognitive performance, affect, exertion, and substrate metabolism. Forty active males (age 21.4 ± 3.0 year; body mass index (BMI 24.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2; maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max 57.6 ± 7.3 mL/min/kg completed two main trials, consuming either MVM + G or placebo prior to a 30-min run at 60% V̇O2max. Supplementation prior to exercise led to a small but significant reduction in Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE during exercise compared to the placebo. The MVM + G combination also led to significantly increased accuracy of numeric working memory and increased speed of picture recognition, compared to the placebo. There were no significant effects of supplementation on any other cognitive or mood measures or on substrate metabolism during exercise. These findings demonstrate that consuming a vitamin and mineral complex containing guaraná, prior to exercise, can positively impact subsequent memory performance and reduce perceived exertion during a moderate-intensity run in active males.

  19. Moderate voluntary exercise attenuates the metabolic syndrome in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats showing central dopaminergic dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Obici

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Central dopamine dysregulation during VWR reinforces the link between MC4R function and molecular and behavioral responding to rewards. The data also suggest that exercise can be a successful lifestyle intervention in MC4R-haploinsufficient individuals despite reduced positive reinforcement during exercise training.

  20. Effects of voluntary physical exercise, citicoline, and combined treatment on object recognition memory, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacotte-Simancas, Alejandra; Costa-Miserachs, David; Coll-Andreu, Margalida; Torras-Garcia, Meritxell; Borlongan, Cesar V; Portell-Cortés, Isabel

    2015-05-15

    The biochemical and cellular events that lead to secondary neural damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to long-term disabilities, including memory deficits. There is a need to search for single and/or combined treatments aimed at reducing these TBI-related disfunctions. The effects of citicoline and of voluntary physical exercise in a running wheel (3 weeks), alone or in combination, on TBI-related short-term (3 h) and long-term (24 h) object recognition memory (ORM) deficits and on neurogenesis and neuroprotection were examined using a rodent model of TBI (controlled cortical impact injury). Citicoline improved memory deficits at the two times tested, while physical exercise only in the long-term test. Physical exercise had a clear neuroprotective effect as indicated by reduced interhemispheric differences in hippocampal formation and lateral ventricle volumes and in density of mature neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus and the perirhinal cortex. Physical exercise also increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Some degree of neuroprotection of citicoline was suggested by reduced interhemispheric differences in the volume of the hippocampal formation. Contrary to what was expected, the effects of citicoline and physical exercise did not sum up. Further, a negative interference between both treatments was found in several behavioral and histological variables. The promising profiles of both treatments as therapeutic tools in TBI when applied singly underscore the need to perform further works looking for other combined treatment regimens that increase the benefit of each treatment alone.

  1. Within-lifetime trade-offs but evolutionary freedom for hormonal and immunological traits: evidence from mice bred for high voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Cynthia J; Schutz, Heidi; Meek, Thomas H; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; de Wolski, Karen S; Malisch, Jessica L; Hayes, Jack P; Garland, Theodore

    2012-05-15

    Chronic increases in circulating corticosterone (CORT) generally suppress immune function, but it is not known whether evolved increases necessarily have similar adverse effects. Moreover, the evolution of immune function might be constrained by the sharing of signaling molecules, such as CORT, across numerous physiological systems. Laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus Linnaeus) from four replicate lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (HR lines) generally had baseline circulating CORT approximately twofold higher than in four non-selected control (C) lines. To test whether elevated baseline CORT suppresses the inflammatory response in HR mice, we injected females with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All mice injected with LPS exhibited classic signs of an inflammatory response, including sickness behavior, loss of body mass, reduced locomotor activity (i.e. voluntary wheel running), enlarged spleens and livers, elevated hematocrit and elevated inflammatory cytokines. However, as compared with C mice, the inflammatory response was not suppressed in HR mice. Our results, and those of a previous study, suggest that selective breeding for high voluntary exercise has not altered immune function. They also suggest that the effects of evolved differences in baseline CORT levels may differ greatly from effects of environmental factors (often viewed as 'stressors') that alter baseline CORT during an individual's lifetime. In particular, evolved increases in circulating levels of 'stress hormones' are not necessarily associated with detrimental suppression of the inflammatory response, presumably as a result of correlated evolution of other physiological systems (counter-measures). Our results have important implications for the interpretation of elevated stress hormones and of immune indicators in natural populations.

  2. Is the Cardiovascular Response Equivalent Between a Supervised Center-Based Setting and a Self-care Home-Based Setting When Rating of Perceived Exertion Is Used to Guide Aerobic Exercise Intensity During a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lars H.; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Berg, Selina K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate if exercise intensity guided by rating of perceived exertion (RPE) results in an equivalent cardiovascular response when applied in either a center-based or a home-based setting. DESIGN: Data from patients with heart disease (post-valve surgery...

  3. Is there a relationship between the total volume of load lifted in bench press exercise and the rating of perceived exertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodo, L; Moreira, A; Zavanela, P M; Newton, M J; McGuigan, M R; Aoki, M S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the total volume of load lifted (TVLL) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) measures during different resistance training (RT) schemes using the bench press exercise. The present study was divided into two experiments. In the first experiment, 18 healthy men performed three different RT schemes: a strength oriented scheme (SS), a muscular endurance oriented scheme (ES) and a hypertrophy oriented scheme (HS). TVLL was calculated for each scheme. Mean-RPE and session-RPE were assessed. In the second experiment, 23 men performed two resistance exercise bouts at different intensities (50%-1RM and 75%-1RM) with matched TVLL. Mean-RPE and session-RPE were also assessed. SS and HS showed higher TVLL and greater RPE scores as compared to ES (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between SS and HS. It was verified significant positive correlations between TVLL and session-RPE (SS r=0.63, HS r=0.64, ES r=0.56; P<0.05), and between mean-RPE and TVLL (SS r=0.55, HS r=0.52, ES r=0.47; P<0.05) for all schemes. No differences were observed for mean-RPE, session-RPE and TVLL between the 50%-1RM and 75%-1RM. Significant positive relationships between TVLL and session-RPE (50%-1RM r=0.61, 75%-1RM r=0.66; p<0.05) and between TVLL and mean-RPE (50%-1RM r=0.51, 75%-1RM r=0.49; P<0.05) were observed. The results of this study have shown that the TVLL in RT influences RPE measures. These findings corroborates the existence of a relationship between total work performed (external training load) and perception of effort (internal training load).

  4. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis along the Dorsoventral Axis Contributes Differentially to Environmental Enrichment Combined with Voluntary Exercise in Alleviating Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Xu, Ling-Chi; Ma, Long-Yu; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cui, Shuang; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Wan, You; Yi, Ming

    2017-04-12

    Cognitive behavioral therapy, such as environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx), is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain. However, the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of EE-VEx remain unclear. In mice with intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, our results revealed that EE-VEx alleviated perceptual, affective, and cognitive dimensions of chronic inflammatory pain. These effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain were contingent on the occurrence of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus in a functionally dissociated manner along the dorsoventral axis: neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participated in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas neurogenesis in the dorsal dentate gyrus was involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects. Chronic inflammatory pain was accompanied by decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the dentate gyrus, which were reversed by EE-VEx. Overexpression of BDNF in the dentate gyrus mimicked the effects of EE-VEx. Our results demonstrate distinct contribution of adult hippocampal neurogenesis along the dorsoventral axis to EE-VEx's beneficial effects on different dimensions of chronic pain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Environmental enrichment combined with voluntary exercise (EE-VEx) is under active investigation as an adjunct to pharmaceutical treatment for chronic pain, but its effectiveness and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In a mouse model of inflammatory pain, the present study demonstrates that the beneficial effects of EE-VEx on chronic pain depend on adult neurogenesis with a dorsoventral dissociation along the hippocampal axis. Adult neurogenesis in the ventral dentate gyrus participates in alleviating perceptual and affective components of chronic pain by EE-VEx, whereas that in the dorsal pole is involved in EE-VEx's cognitive-enhancing effects in chronic pain

  5. Comparative effect of order based resistance exercises on number of repetitions, rating of perceived exertion and muscle damage biomarkers in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arazi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that both of the resistance exercise orders were equally effective in muscle damage parameters (CK, lactate, RPE and the average of the total number of exercise repetitions, although when the exercise session progressed, the number of repetitions performed to volitional failure decreased in last exercise in one single order, and the exercise order can influence performance.

  6. Effects of voluntary exercise on blood pressure, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and renal function in two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldman BM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brian M Waldman,1,2 Robert A Augustyniak,1–3 Haiping Chen,1,2 Noreen F Rossi1,2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Carolinas, Spartanburg, SC, 4Department of Internal Medicine, John D Dingell Veterans Administration Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Spontaneous dynamic exercise promotes sympathoinhibition and decreases arterial pressure in two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C hypertensive rats. Renal sympathetic nerves stimulate renin secretion and increase renal tubular sodium reabsorption. We hypothesized that daily voluntary wheel running exercise by 2K-1C rats will decrease mean arterial pressure (MAP, plasma angiotensin II (Ang II, and aldosterone as well as normalize urinary sodium and potassium excretion independent of changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Five-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats underwent sham clipping (Sham or right renal artery clipping (2K-1C. Rats were randomized to standard caging (SED or cages with running wheels (EX. After 12 weeks, rats were assigned to either collection of aortic blood for measurement of Ang II and aldosterone or assessment of inulin clearances and excretory function. Running distances were comparable in both EX groups. MAP was lower in 2K-1C EX vs 2K-1C SED rats (P<0.05. Plasma Ang II and aldosterone were significantly higher in 2K-1C SED rats and decreased in 2K-1C EX rats to levels similar to Sham SED or Sham EX rats. Clipped kidney weights were significantly lower in both 2K-1C groups, but GFR and urine flow rates were no different from right and left kidneys among the four groups. Total and fractional sodium excretion rates from the unclipped kidney of 2K-1C SED rats were higher vs either Sham group (P<0.05. Values in 2K-1C EX rats were similar to the Sham groups. Potassium excretion paralleled sodium excretion. These

  7. Long-term voluntary exercise prevents post-weaning social isolation-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudan, Nilsel; Belviranlı, Muaz

    2017-09-30

    This study aimed to determine the effect of exercise on locomotion, anxiety-related behavior, learning, and memory in socially isolated post-weaning rats, as well as the correlation between exercise and the concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the control group; the social isolation group; the social isolation plus exercise (SIE) group. Social isolation conditions, with or without exercise were maintained for 90d, and then multiple behavioral tests, including the open-field test, elevated plus maze test, and Morris water maze (MWM) test were administered. Following behavioral assessment, hippocampal tissue samples were obtained for measurement of BDNF and NGF. There wasn't a significant difference in locomotor activity between the groups (P>0.05). Anxiety scores were higher in the socially isolated group (Psocially isolated rats (Psocial isolation-induced reduction in hippocampal BDNF and NGF content (Psocially isolated post-weaning rats. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plastic changes in the astrocyte GLUT1 glucose transporter and beta-tubulin microtubule protein following voluntary exercise in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Angela; Messier, Claude

    2013-03-01

    Glucose, the predominant energy substrate of the central and peripheral nervous system, is delivered to neurons via a family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT). The majority of glucose is transported to the brain via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) located on epithelial cells of capillaries and on the astrocytes that wrap around them. Changes in neuronal activity are linked to increases in glucose demand and local cerebral glucose utilization. Current research has indicated a corresponding change in GLUT1 expression in response to increased metabolic demand in operant tasks. The purpose of this study was to examine, in the mouse brain, the effects of neuronal activation induced by voluntary running on the plastic expression of vascular GLUT1 and neuronal plasticity as measured by the microtubule protein beta-tubulin III (Tuj). The results showed that access to a running wheel for 48h induced plastic changes in the expression of GLUT1, Tuj and GLUT1-associated estimate of astrocyte vascular endfeet in motor regions. The results tend to support the plastic association between mechanisms of energy supply and plastic reorganization of neurons following a new training experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social Cohesion and Voluntary Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    Voluntary organizations exert great influence over how social norms and ethical codes are guided into action. As such, they have a significant impact on societal levels of social cohesion. Although social capital involves generalized trust becoming manifest as spontaneous sociability, social cohesion is determined by how that sociability is…

  11. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...

  12. Postnatal exposure to voluntary exercise but not the antioxidant catechin protects the vasculature after a switch to an atherogenic environment in middle-age mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Francois; Nguyen, Albert; Bolduc, Virginie; Lambert, Jean; Yu, Carol; Duquette, Natacha; Thorin, Eric

    2013-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the lasting functional imprinting of exercise (EX) and catechin (CAT) on the vascular function of middle-age mice switched to a proatherogenic environment. C57BL/6J mice (n = 10-15 in each group) fed a regular diet (RD) were exposed from the age of 1 to 9 months either to EX (voluntary running; 2.7 ± 0.2 km/day), to the polyphenol CAT (30 mg/kg/day in drinking water), or to physical inactivity (PI). At 9 months of age, EX and CAT were stopped and mice either remained on the RD or were fed a Western diet (WD) for an additional 3 months. At 12 months of age, mice from all groups fed a WD had similar body mass, systolic blood pressure, and plasma total cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and isoprostane. Compared to the RD, the WD induced an indomethacin-sensitive aortic endothelium-dependent and independent dysfunction in PI mice (p  CAT > PI mice to stress. In conclusion, our data suggest that a postnatal exposure to EX, but not to CAT, imprints an adaptive defense capacity in the vasculature against a deleterious change in lifestyle.

  13. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) ingestion on substrate utilisation, mood state, RPE, and exercise affect. Ten males (mean age ± S.D. = 26 ± 6 years) completed two 30-minute cycling trials at an intensity of 70% of V˙O2max⁡ following ingestion of either 3 mg·kg−1 body mass of R. rosea or placebo using a double-blind, crossover design. During exercise, heart rate and RPE were recorded. Participants completed measures of mood state and exercise affect before and after exercise. Expired air samples were taken during exercise to determine substrate utilisation. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that RPE was significantly lower at 30 minutes into exercise versus placebo (P = 0.003). Perceptions of arousal (P = 0.05) and pleasure were significantly higher after exercise with R. rosea compared to placebo (P = 0.003). Mood state scores for vigor were also higher in R. rosea condition compared to placebo (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in energy expenditure, carbohydrate, or fat oxidation between conditions (P > 0.05). Ingestion of R. rosea favourably influenced RPE and exercise affect without changes in energy expenditure or substrate utilization during 30-minute submaximal cycling performance. PMID:26464892

  14. The Effect of Acute Rhodiola rosea Ingestion on Exercise Heart Rate, Substrate Utilisation, Mood State, and Perceptions of Exertion, Arousal, and Pleasure/Displeasure in Active Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea ingestion on substrate utilisation, mood state, RPE, and exercise affect. Ten males (mean age ± S.D. = 26 ± 6 years completed two 30-minute cycling trials at an intensity of 70% of V˙O2max⁡ following ingestion of either 3 mg·kg−1 body mass of R. rosea or placebo using a double-blind, crossover design. During exercise, heart rate and RPE were recorded. Participants completed measures of mood state and exercise affect before and after exercise. Expired air samples were taken during exercise to determine substrate utilisation. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that RPE was significantly lower at 30 minutes into exercise versus placebo (P=0.003. Perceptions of arousal (P=0.05 and pleasure were significantly higher after exercise with R. rosea compared to placebo (P=0.003. Mood state scores for vigor were also higher in R. rosea condition compared to placebo (P=0.008. There were no significant differences in energy expenditure, carbohydrate, or fat oxidation between conditions (P>0.05. Ingestion of R. rosea favourably influenced RPE and exercise affect without changes in energy expenditure or substrate utilization during 30-minute submaximal cycling performance.

  15. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Protection of total body water content and absence of hyperthermia despite 2% body mass loss ('voluntary dehydration') in soldiers drinking ad libitum during prolonged exercise in cool environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D; van Vuuren, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    The extent to which humans need to replace fluid losses during exercise remains contentious despite years of focused research. The primary objective was to evaluate ad libitum drinking on hydration status to determine whether body mass loss can be used as an accurate surrogate for changes in total body water (TBW) during exercise. Data were collected during a 14.6-km route march (wet bulb globe temperature of 14.1°C ). 18 subjects with an average age of 26 ± 2.5 (SD) years participated. Their mean ad libitum total fluid intake was 2.1 ± 1.4 litres during the exercise. Predicted sweat rate was 1.289 ± 0.530 l/h. There were no significant changes (p>0.05) in TBW, urine specific gravity or urine osmolality despite an average body mass loss (ploss during exercise includes losses other than water or there is an endogenous body water source that is released during exercise not requiring replacement during exercise, or both. Ad libitum water replacement between 65% and 70% of sweat losses maintained safe levels of hydration during the experiment. The finding that TBW was protected by ad libitum drinking despite approximately 2% body mass loss suggests that the concept of 'voluntary dehydration' may require revision.

  17. Effects of a High Fat Diet and Voluntary Wheel Running Exercise on Cidea and Cidec Expression in Liver and Adipose Tissue of Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Reynolds

    Full Text Available Cidea and Cidec play an important role in regulating triglyceride storage in liver and adipose tissue. It is not known if the Cidea and Cidec genes respond to a high fat diet (HFD or exercise training, two interventions that alter lipid storage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a HFD and voluntary wheel running (WR on Cidea and Cidec mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue and liver of mice. A HFD promoted a significant increase in Cidea and Cidec mRNA levels in adipose tissue and liver. The increase in Cidea and Cidec mRNAs in adipose tissue and liver in response to a HFD was prevented by WR. Similar to the changes in Cidea mRNA, Cidea protein levels in adipose tissue significantly increased in response to a HFD, a process that was, again, prevented by WR. However, in adipose tissue the changes in Cidec mRNA did not correspond to the changes in Cidec protein levels, as a HFD decreased Cidec protein abundance. Interestingly, in adipose tissue Cidea protein expression was significantly related to body weight (R=.725, epididymal adipose tissue (EWAT mass (R=.475 and insulin resistance (R=.706, whereas Cidec protein expression was inversely related to body weight (R=-.787, EWAT mass (R=-.706, and insulin resistance (R=-.679. Similar to adipose tissue, Cidea protein expression in liver was significantly related to body weight (R=.660, EWAT mass (R=.468, and insulin resistance (R=.599; however, unlike adipose tissue, Cidec protein levels in liver were not related to body weight or EWAT mass and only moderately associated with insulin resistance (R=-.422, P=0.051. Overall, our findings indicate that Cidea is highly associated with adiposity and insulin resistance, whereas Cidec is related to insulin sensitivity. The present study suggests that Cide proteins might play an important functional role in the development of obesity, hepatic steatosis, as well as the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

  18. Acute exertion elicits a H2O2-dependent vasodilator mechanism in the microvasculature of exercise-trained but not sedentary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Matthew J; Dharmashankar, Kodlipet; Bian, Jing-Tan; Das, Emon; Vidovich, Mladen; Gutterman, David D; Phillips, Shane A

    2015-01-01

    Brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation in exercise-trained (ET) individuals is maintained after a single bout of heavy resistance exercise compared with sedentary individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether vasodilation is also maintained in the microcirculation of ET individuals. A total of 51 sedentary and ET individuals underwent gluteal subcutaneous fat biopsy before and after performing a single bout of leg press exercise. Adipose arterioles were cannulated in an organ bath, and vasodilation to acetylcholine was assessed±the endothelial nitric oxide inhibitorl-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, or the hydrogen peroxide scavenger polyethylene glycol catalase. Separate vessels (isolated from the same groups) were exposed to an intraluminal pressure of 150 mm Hg for 30 minutes to mimic the pressor response, which occurs with isometric exercise. Vasodilation to acetylcholine was reduced in microvessels from sedentary subjects after either a single weight lifting session or exposure to increased intraluminal pressure, whereas microvessels from ET individuals maintained acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation. Before weight lifting, vasodilation of microvessels from ET individuals was reduced in the presence of l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester and indomethacin. After weight lifting or exposure to increased intraluminal pressure, polyethylene glycol catalase significantly reduced vasodilation, whereas l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester and indomethacin had no effect. These results indicate that (1) endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the microvasculature is maintained after heavy resistance exercise in ET individuals but not in sedentary subjects and that (2) high pressure alone or during weight lifting may induce a mechanistic switch in the microvasculature to favor hydrogen peroxide as the vasoactive mediator of dilation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercising. Count out loud as you do the exercises. View Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Home Techniques to ... Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  20. Cytochrome P-450 2C9 exerts a vasoconstrictor influence on coronary resistance vessels in swine at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhichao; Hemradj, Veemal; de Beer, Vincent J; Gao, Fen; Hoekstra, Maaike; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2012-04-15

    A significant endothelium-dependent vasodilation persists after inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in the coronary vasculature, which has been linked to the activation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenases expressed in endothelial cells and subsequent generation of vasodilator epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Here, we investigated the contribution of CYP 2C9 metabolites to regulation of porcine coronary vasomotor tone in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-six swine were chronically instrumented. Inhibition of CYP 2C9 with sulfaphenazole (5 mg/kg iv) alone had no effect on bradykinin-induced endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in vivo but slightly attenuated bradykinin-induced vasodilation in the presence of combined NOS/COX blockade with N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (20 mg/kg iv) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg iv). Sulfaphenazole had minimal effects on coronary resistance vessel tone at rest or during exercise. Surprisingly, in the presence of combined NOS/COX blockade, a significant coronary vasodilator response to sulfaphenzole became apparent, both at rest and during exercise. Subsequently, we investigated in isolated porcine coronary small arteries (∼250 μm) the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the paradoxical vasoconstrictor influence of CYP 2C9 activity. The vasodilation by bradykinin in vitro in the presence of NOS/COX blockade was markedly potentiated by sulfaphenazole under control conditions but not in the presence of the ROS scavenger N-(2-mercaptoproprionyl)-glycine. In conclusion, CYP 2C9 can produce both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator metabolites. Production of these metabolites is enhanced by combined NOS/COX blockade and is critically dependent on the experimental conditions. Thus production of vasoconstrictors slightly outweighed the production of vasodilators at rest and during exercise. Pharmacological stimulation with bradykinin resulted in vasodilator CYP 2C9 metabolite production when administered in

  1. Cardiorespiratory demand of acute voluntary cycling with functional electrical stimulation in individuals with multiple sclerosis with severe mobility impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Motl, Robert W; Pilutti, Lara A

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is one strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few modalities are accessible for those with severe mobility impairment. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycling is an adapted exercise modality with the potential for improving CRF in people with severe MS. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiorespiratory response of acute voluntary cycling with FES in people with MS with severe mobility impairment, and to compare this response to passive leg cycling. Eleven participants with MS that required assistance for ambulation completed a single bout of voluntary cycling with FES or passive leg cycling. Oxygen consumption, heart rate (HR), work rate (WR), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded throughout the session. For the FES group, mean exercising oxygen consumption was 8.7 ± 1.8 mL/(kg·min) -1 , or 63.5% of peak oxygen consumption. Mean HR was 102 ± 9.7 bpm, approximately 76.4% of peak HR. Mean WR was 27.0 ± 9.2 W, or 57.3% of peak WR, and median RPE was 13.5 (interquartile range = 5.5). Active cycling with FES was significantly (p cycling based on oxygen consumption, HR, WR, and RPE during exercise. In conclusion, voluntary cycling with FES elicited an acute response that corresponded with moderate-to vigorous-intensity activity, suggesting that active cycling with FES can elicit a sufficient stimulus for improving CRF.

  2. Post-prandial carbohydrate ingestion during 1-h of moderate-intensity, intermittent cycling does not improve mood, perceived exertion, or subsequent power output in recreationally-active exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neal Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the effects of ingesting water (W, a flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE or a flavored non-caloric electrolyte (NCE beverage on mood, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, and sprint power during cycling in recreational exercisers. Methods Men (n = 23 and women (n = 13 consumed a 24–h standardized diet and reported 2–4 h post-prandial for all test sessions. After a familiarization session, participants completed 50 min of stationary cycling in a warm environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.0°C at ~ 60-65% of heart rate reserve (146 ± 4 bpm interspersed with 5 rest periods of 2 min each. During exercise, participants consumed W, CE, or NCE, served in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Beverage volume was served in 3 aliquots equaling each individual’s sweat losses (mean 847 ± 368 mL during the familiarization session. Profiles of Mood States questionnaires (POMS were administered and blood glucose levels were determined pre- and post- sub-maximal cycling. Following sub-maximal exercise, participants completed 3 30–s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT with 2.5 min rest between tests to assess performance. Results Blood glucose was higher (p AnT for CE (6.1 ± 1.7 mmol/L compared to W (4.9 ± 1.5 mmol/L and NCE (4.6 ± 1.2 mmol/L. Nonetheless, there were no differences among treatments in peak (642 ± 153, 635 ± 143, 650 ± 141 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p  =  0.44 or mean (455 ± 100, 458 ± 95, 454 ± 95 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.62 power for the first WAnT or mean (414 ± 92, 425 ± 85, 423 ± 82 watts, respectively; p = 0.13 power output averaged across all 3 WAnT. Likewise, RPE during submaximal exercise, session RPE, and fatigue and vigor assessed by POMS did not differ among beverage treatments (p > 0.05. Conclusions Carbohydrate ingestion consumed by recreational

  3. Effects of life-long caloric restriction and voluntary exercise on age-related changes in levels of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes and angiotensin II receptors in the rat adrenal medulla and hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdös, Benedek; Broxson, Christopher S; Landa, Tessa; Scarpace, Philip J; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Zhang, Yi; Tümer, Nihal

    2007-08-01

    We examined if life-long mild caloric restriction (CR) alone or with voluntary exercise prevents the age-related changes in catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme levels in the adrenal medulla and hypothalamus. Ten-week-old Fisher-344 rats were assigned to: sedentary; sedentary+8% CR; or 8% CR+wheel running. Rats were euthanized at 6 or 24 months of age. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression was 4.4-fold higher in the adrenal medullae and 60% lower in the hypothalamus of old sedentary rats compared to young (pwheel running decreased AT(1) levels by 50% (pwheel running increased its level by 42% (pfood intake can avert age-related changes in catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme levels in the adrenal medulla and hypothalamus, possibly through affecting angiotensin II signaling.

  4. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  5. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  6. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can lead to weakness of muscles, decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs to fit the capabilities and limitations ...

  7. Effect of voluntary hyperventilation with supplemental CO2 on pulmonary O2 uptake and leg blood flow kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lisa M K; Heigenhauser, George J F; Paterson, Donald H; Kowalchuk, John M

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary O2 uptake (V(O₂p)) and leg blood flow (LBF) kinetics were examined at the onset of moderate-intensity exercise, during hyperventilation with and without associated hypocapnic alkalosis. Seven male subjects (25 ± 6 years old; mean ± SD) performed alternate-leg knee-extension exercise from baseline to moderate-intensity exercise (80% of estimated lactate threshold) and completed four to six repetitions for each of the following three conditions: (i) control [CON; end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (P(ET, CO₂)) ~40 mmHg], i.e. normal breathing with normal inspired CO2 (0.03%); (ii) hypocapnia (HYPO; P(ET, CO₂) ~20 mmHg), i.e. sustained hyperventilation with normal inspired CO2 (0.03%); and (iii) normocapnia (NORMO; P(ET, CO₂) ~40 mmHg), i.e. sustained hyperventilation with elevated inspired CO2 (~5%). The V(O₂p) was measured breath by breath using mass spectrometry and a volume turbine. Femoral artery mean blood velocity was measured by Doppler ultrasound, and LBF was calculated from femoral artery diameter and mean blood velocity. Phase 2 V(O₂p) kinetics (τV(O₂p)) was different (P hyperventilation manoeuvre itself (i.e. independent of induced hypocapnic alkalosis) may contribute to the slower V(O₂p) kinetics observed during HYPO.

  8. Daily Controlled Consumption of an Electrokinetically Modified Water Alters the Fatigue Response as a Result of Strenuous Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Borsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to assess the effects of consuming electrokinetically modified water (EMW on fatigue attenuation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE following resistance exercise. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm trial was used in this investigation. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a placebo-control group. Participants consumed the EMW or placebo water daily for eighteen days prior to completing a fatigue protocol for the elbow flexors. The fatigue protocol consisted of a single bout of resistance exercise for the biceps brachii. Participants were tested for isometric strength before exercise and immediately following exercise. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was used as the criterion measure for strength. To calculate the fatigue index, the postexercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction value was divided by the preexercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction value multiplied by 100. Also, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were assessed using the Borg scale. Fatigue indices and RPE were significantly lower for the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05. Consuming EMW for eighteen days prior to high intensity resistance exercise can significantly enhance muscle contractile function by reducing muscle fatigue and RPE.

  9. Insuficiência hepática fulminante por intermação induzida por exercício Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF by exercise-induced exertional heatstroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Beatriz Parolin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermação induzida por exercício é uma condição potencialmente fatal causada pela elevação extrema da temperatura corporal central. Envolvimento hepático leve a moderado afeta todos os pacientes e manifesta-se pela elevação das enzimas hepáticas. A ocorrência de falência hepática no curso da intermação por exercício é rara e tem prognóstico reservado. Relata-se um caso de insuficiência hepática fulminante em um homem de 36 anos após correr 8km em corrida de rua (corrida rústica na cidade de Manaus (AM. O paciente desenvolveu insuficiência renal aguda, rabdomiólise e achados compatíveis com insuficiência hepática fulminante (elevação importante das aminotransferases, coagulopatia, letargia e episódios de confusão. As funções hepáticas e renais apresentaram melhora gradual e espontânea sem necessidade de diálise. Três meses após o paciente encontrava-se bem, com enzimas hepáticas normais e com retorno gradual à prática de esportes. Embora rara, a falência hepática aguda deve ser incluída nas complicações da intermação induzida por exercício, a qual pode ter resolução espontânea com medidas conservadoras.Exercise-induced exertional heatstroke (EHS is a potentially fatal disorder caused by extreme elevation of the core body temperature. Mild to moderate liver involvement affects nearly all patients and it is manifested by increase of the serum liver enzymes. Liver failure occurring as a component of exertional heatstroke is rare and carries a poor prognosis. A case of acute liver failure in a healthy 36 year-old man after participation in an 8-km race in Manaus, located near the Amazon Tropical Forest in Brazil, is reported here. The patient presented renal failure, severe rhabdomyolysis and findings of fulminant hepatic failure (very high aminotransferases levels, elevated international normalized ratio (INR, lethargy and episodes of confusion. Hepatic and renal functions improved spontaneously

  10. DHA dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aiguo; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), similar to exercise, improve cognitive function, promote neuroplasticity, and protect against neurological lesion. In this study, we investigated a possible synergistic action between DHA dietary supplementation and voluntary exercise on modulating synaptic plasticity and cognition. Rats received DHA dietary supplementation (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that the DHA-enriched diet significantly increased spatial learning ability, and these effects were enhanced by exercise. The DHA-enriched diet increased levels of pro-BDNF and mature BDNF, whereas the additional application of exercise boosted the levels of both. Furthermore, the levels of the activated forms of CREB and synapsin I were incremented by the DHA-enriched diet with greater elevation by the concurrent application of exercise. While the DHA diet reduced hippocampal oxidized protein levels, a combination of a DHA diet and exercise resulted in a greater reduction rate. The levels of activated forms of hippocampal Akt and CaMKII were increased by the DHA-enriched diet, and with even greater elevation by a combination of diet and exercise. Akt and CaMKII signaling are crucial step by which BDNF exerts its action on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These results indicate that the DHA diet enhance the effects of exercise on cognition and BDNF-related synaptic plasticity, a capacity that may be used to promote mental health and reduce risk of neurological disorders. PMID:18620024

  11. Effects of voluntary exercise on the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups born from morphine- dependent mothers during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydari, Sakineh; Safari, Manouchehr; Zarbakhsh, Sam; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein

    2016-11-10

    This study was designed to investigate whether free access to a running wheel during pregnancy in morphine-dependent mothers would influence the viability, proliferation and BDNF levels of bone marrow stromal cells in rat pups. Pregnant rats were made dependent by chronic administration of morphine in drinking water simultaneously with free access to a running wheel. Male pups are weaned at 21days of birth and their bones marrows were aspirated from the femurs and tibias and also the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) cultured. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability and proliferation rate. The level of BDNF was measured in the supernant of BMSCs culture by ELISA. The sedentary morphine-dependent mothers' pups showed a significant increase in the percentage cell viability and proliferation rate and also a significant decrease in the BDNF protein levels in BMSCs. The rat pups borne from exercising the control and morphine-dependent mothers exhibited an increase in the percentage viability, proliferation rate and BDNF levels of the BMSCs. This study showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy in morphine-dependent and non-dependent mothers, with increasing of BDNF levels increased the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Also, chronic administration of morphine during pregnancy was able to increase the proliferation and viability of BMSCs in the rat pups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exertional desaturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panos, Ralph J; Eschenbacher, William

    2009-12-01

    Although the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services oxygen prescription guidelines utilize a threshold arterial oxygen tension patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is no uniform definition of exertional hypoxemia or standardized exercise protocol to elicit decreases in oxygen levels in individuals with COPD. The causes for exertional desaturation in patients with COPD are multifactorial with ventilation-perfusion mismatching, diffusion-type limitation, shunting and reduced oxygen content of mixed venous blood all contributing to some degree. Neither resting oxygen saturation nor pulmonary function studies can reliably predict which patients with COPD will develop exertional desaturation. However, preserved pulmonary function, especially diffusing capacity, reliably predicts which patients with COPD will sustain oxygenation during exercise. Although exertional desaturation in patients with COPD appears to portend a poor prognosis, there is no evidence that maintenance of normoxemia during exercise improves the survival of these patients. Studies of the effect of supplemental oxygen on exercise performance in individuals with COPD who desaturate with exertion have yielded conflicting results. The use of short-term or "burst" oxygen either prior to or after exertion may not have significant clinical benefit. Differences in the definition of desaturation, mode of exercise, and characteristics of the patient population make it difficult to compare studies of exertional desaturation and its treatment and to determine their applicability to clinical practice.

  13. Cardiovascular Fitness and the Psychophysics of Perceived Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihevic, Patricia M.

    1983-01-01

    The perceptual responses of individuals at different levels of physical fitness to absolute exercise intensities were compared. Perceived exertion, as measured by the Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, did not discriminate between subjects who were physically fit and those who were not, despite differences in physiological strain. (Author/PP)

  14. The influence of angiotensin converting enzyme and bradykinin receptor B2 gene variants on voluntary fluid intake and fluid balance in healthy men during moderate-intensity exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Adora M W; Moss, Andrew D; James, Lewis John; Gilmore, William; Ashworth, Jason J; Evans, Gethin H

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and bradykinin receptor B2 (B2R) genetic variation may affect thirst because of effects on angiotensin II production and bradykinin activity, respectively. To examine this, 45 healthy Caucasian men completed 60 min of cycle exercise at 62% ± 5% peak oxygen uptake in a room heated to 30.5 ± 0.3 °C with ad libitum fluid intake. Blood samples were collected pre-, mid-, and immediately post-cycle. Fluid intake, body mass loss (BML), sweat loss (determined via changes in body mass and fluid intake), and thirst sensation were recorded. All participants were genotyped for the ACE insert fragment (I) and the B2R insert sequence (P). Participants were homozygous for the wild-type allele (WW or MM), heterozygous (WI or MP) or homozygous for the insert (II or PP). No differences between genotype groups were found in mean (±SD) voluntary fluid intake (WW: 613 ± 388, WI: 753 ± 385, II: 862 ± 421 mL, p = 0.31; MM: 599 ± 322, MP: 745 ± 374, PP: 870 ± 459 mL, p = 0.20), percentage BML or any other fluid balance variables for both the ACE and B2R genes, respectively. Mean thirst perception in the B2R PP group, however, was higher (p fluid intake and fluid balance in healthy men performing 60 min of moderate-intensity exercise in the heat are not predominantly influenced by ACE or B2R genetic variation.

  15. Effects of erythropoietin administration on cerebral metabolism and exercise capacity in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Foged, Eva M; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    exercise capacity independent of erythropoiesis. To test this hypothesis, 15 healthy young males (18-34 yo., 74 +/- 7 kg) received either 3 days of high dose (30,000 IU day(-1), N=7) double-blinded placebo controlled or 3 months of low dose (5,000 IU week(-1), N=8) counter-balanced open but controlled...... activation by transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced twitch force were evaluated. Although EPO in a high dose increased cerebrospinal fluid EPO concentration ~20-fold and affected ventilation and cerebral glucose and lactate metabolism (P... on cognition, voluntary activation or exercise capacity but ratings of perceived exertion increased (P

  16. Exercise and physical therapy in early management of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Frech, Fernando; Sanahuja, Juan Juni; Rodriguez, Amelia Mendoza

    2011-11-01

    Experimental research has produced evidence in recent years underlying the beneficial effects that exercise can have in preventing and deceleration of the development of Parkinson disease. These beneficial effects are exerted through various mechanisms such as neuroprotection, neurotransmission, plasticity, neurogenesis, homeostasis, and neurotrophic factors. Studies on clinical application at an early stage are still scarce, although some results are encouraging. There are still many questions to determine the most suitable type of exercise (forced/voluntary), the time of its implementation, the duration, and the combination of strategies. Nonconventional therapies can play an important role in addition to exercise, and are so numerous that they could be adapted to the circumstances of patients, although there is no evidence to date that they could have a neuroprotective effect.

  17. Reduced arterial diameter during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H L; Mitchell, J H; Friedman, D B

    1995-01-01

    exertion was approximately 15 units after both types of exercise. The dorsalis pedis arterial diameter was 1.50 +/- 0.20 mm (mean and SE) and the radial AD 2.45 +/- 0.12 mm. During both types of contractions the luminal diameters decreased approximately 3.5% within the first 30 s (P ...In eight subjects luminal diameter of the resting limb radial and dorsalis pedis arteries was determined by high-resolution ultrasound (20 MHz). This measurement was followed during rest and during 2 min of static handgrip or of one-leg knee extension at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction...... of another limb. Static exercise increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, which were largest during one-leg knee extension. After exercise heart rate and mean arterial pressure returned to the resting level. No changes were recorded in arterial carbon dioxide tension, and the rate of perceived...

  18. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system....... The voluntary system emerged as one of many European “Ghent systems,” essentially government subsidized trade union plans, but has since lost many key features of such plans. We assess system performance using a 10% sample of the Danish population drawn from administrative data. Coverage rates for the voluntary...

  19. Influência da ordem dos exercícios sobre o número de repetições e percepção subjetiva do esforço em mulheres jovens e idosas Influence of exercise order on the number of repetitions and perceived exertion in young and older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Souza Lima da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre a influência da ordem de execução dos exercícios no desempenho da força em idosos são escassos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a influência da ordem de execução dos exercícios sobre o número de repetições e percepção de esforço de oito idosas (69 ± 7 anos e 12 jovens (22 ± 2 anos praticantes de treinamento resistido. As voluntárias executaram sessões com três séries até a exaustão com cargas estabelecidas em 10 repetições máximas (RM, em sequências invertidas de exercícios: sequência A - supino horizontal (SH, desenvolvimento em pé (DP e rosca tríceps no pulley baixo (TP; sequência B - TP, DP e SH. A ANOVA de duas entradas com medidas repetidas revelou que o número de repetições no grupo de jovens foi sempre menor no último exercício, independentemente da sequência ou grupamento muscular envolvido (p There are few studies about the effects of exercise order on strength training performance in elderly subjects. This study compared the influence of exercise order in resistive training on the number of repetitions and perceived exertion of 8 older (69±7 years and 12 young women (22±2 years. The subjects performed three sets until exhaustion with loads established at 10 maximum repetitions (10 RM with inverted sequences of the following exercises: Sequence A - bench press (BP, military press (MP, pulley triceps extension (TP; Sequence B - TP, MP, and BP. The two-way ANOVA for repeated measurements showed that the number of repetitions in the young group was always smaller for the last exercise, regardless of the sequence or muscle group involved (p <0.05. The number of repetitions was not different in Sequence A for the older group, but declined significantly in Sequence B (p < 0.05. Perceived exertion was similar in both sequences for the young group, but in the older group it was significantly higher in Sequence B (p <0 .05. In conclusion, exercise order was indifferent for the

  20. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J ...

  1. Neurochemical and behavioral indices of exercise reward are independent of exercise controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Jonathan J.; Fedynska, Sofiya; Ghasem, Parsa R; Wieman, Tyler; Clark, Peter J.; Gray, Nathan; Loetz, Esteban; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    Brain reward circuits are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related disorders, but the contribution of exercise reward to stress resistance is unknown. Exercise-induced stress resistance is independent of exercise controllability; both voluntary and forced wheel running protect rats against anxiety- and depression-like behavioral consequences of stress. Voluntary exercise is a natural reward, but whether rats find forced wheel running...

  2. Prescription of aerobic exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, L A; Hall, P; Webb, K A; Goodman, L; Monga, M; McGrath, M J

    1989-11-01

    Available evidence supports the existence of both risks and benefits of aerobic conditioning during human pregnancy. During intensive exertion, maternal skeletal muscle and the fetus may compete for blood flow, oxygen delivery and essential fuel substrates. Hence, the most important hypothetical risks include acute fetal hypoxia, hyperthermia and malnutrition. If exercise is repeated on a chronic basis, teratogenic effects, fetal growth retardation or altered fetal development may result if maternal/fetal adaptive reserve is exceeded. A dose-response relationship for such effects has been demonstrated in laboratory animals, but specific findings may have limited applicability to voluntary exercise in pregnant women. Although further investigation is needed, the majority of published studies suggest that fitness-type conditioning does not jeopardise fetal well-being in healthy well-nourished women. Benefits of such exercise appear to include increases in maximal aerobic power (VO2max, L/min) and enhanced cardiopulmonary reserve. It has also been proposed that exercise prevents accumulation of excess body fat, promotes psychological well-being, helps to prevent gestational diabetes and low back pain and may facilitate labour. However, these benefits remain to be confirmed by objective scientific study. Due primarily to a lack of scientific data, existing medical guidelines for exercise during pregnancy are conservative and follow a common sense approach. Good agreement exists on the need for preparticipation medical screening and continuing surveillance to verify the existence of maternal/fetal adaptive reserve. Women are advised to select safe, non-ballistic exercise modalities and to avoid thermal or hyperbaric environmental stress during exercise. Exercise in the supine position is also prudent to avoid, particularly in late gestation. The usefulness of heart rate in prescribing and monitoring exercise intensity has been questioned, with use of conventional

  3. 自愿适量运动对脑的有益作用及其生物学机制%Beneficial effects of moderate voluntary physical exercise and its biological mechanisms on brain health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马强

    2008-01-01

    本文综述了在人和动物方面有关自愿适量运动有益于脑作用的研究,包括改善心理状态和认知功能、增强心理幸福感、降低老年痴呆症发生危险度和发挥抗抑郁及抗焦虑药的作用等.运动对脑的作用机制包含上游和下游两方面:上游途径主要涉及投射到海马的几种神经递质系统的功能增强,其中包括去甲肾上腺素、5.羟色胺、乙酰胆碱和γ-氨基丁酸;下游途径主要涉及脑源性神经营养因子的表达提高和神经元发生的增强;其中,激活β-受体介导的去甲肾上腺素能神经的传递被认为是运动导致脑源性神经营养因子表达增强的前提,上述过程在细胞内的可能信号转导机制主要涉及G-蛋白偶联受体-促分裂原活化蛋白激酶-磷脂酰肌醇(-3)激酶等细胞信号转导通路的交互及正反馈调控.%This article reviewed the beneficial effects of moderate voluntary physical exercise on brain health according to the studies on humans and animals, which includes improving psychological status and cognitive function, enhancing psycho- logical well-being, decreasing the risks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, and promoting the effects of antidepressant and anxiolytic. The possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms are involved up-active and down-active pathways. The up-active pathway is associated with enhancements of several neurotransmitters systems afferent to hippocampus, including norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), acetylcholine (ACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The down-active pathway is mainly concerned with up-regulation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurogenesis. It is suggested that NE activation via β-adrenergic receptors may be essential for exercise-induced BDNF up-regulation. The possible intraceUular signaling pathways of NE-mediated BDNF up-expression may be involved in GPCR-MAPK-PI-3K crosstalk and positive feedback.

  4. Enhanced voluntary wheel running in GPRC6A receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Pehmøller, Christian; Klein, Anders B

    2013-01-01

    to voluntary wheel running and forced treadmill exercise. Moreover, we assessed energy expenditure in the basal state, and evaluated the effects of wheel running on food intake, body composition, and a range of exercise-induced central and peripheral biomarkers. We found that adaptation to voluntary wheel...... running is affected by GPRC6A, as ablation of the receptor significantly enhances wheel running in KO relative to WT mice. Both genotypes responded to voluntary exercise by increasing food intake and improving body composition to a similar degree. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the GPRC6A...

  5. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  6. Two cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis precipitated by personal trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Brian L; Clarkson, Priscilla M

    2003-09-01

    Numerous cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis have been reported in the literature, and these cases mostly involve individuals who were inexperienced exercisers, uneducated in fitness and health principles, dehydrated or heat stressed, taking drugs, or military recruits in basic training. The purpose of this article is to review two cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis in healthy, experienced exercisers. The cases reviewed are for a 22-yr-old female college student and a 37-yr-old male physician who presented with rhabdomyolysis secondary to exercise in a local health club that was part of a national chain. In these two cases individuals, both well educated and experienced in fitness, were encouraged by fitness instructors in a local health club to overexertion during their exercise routine leading to rhabdomyolysis.

  7. Perceived Exertion under Conditions of Sustained Work and Sleep Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-25

    the various tasks they would be performing during testing (see Ryman et al, 1984, for details). Day 2 involved further practice with the questionaires ...34history" and methods. Medicine and Science in Sports , 5, 90-93. Gamberale, F. 1972, Perceived exertion, heart rate, oxygen uptake and blood lactate in...G.M. 1981, Exercise after sleep deprivation, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 13, 220-223. McNair, D.M., Lorr, M., and Droppleman, L.F

  8. Voluntary control of cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P C L; Cotterill-Jones, C; Eccles, R

    2002-01-01

    Cough is normally referred to a reflex mediated by control centres in the respiratory areas of the brainstem. However, there is much experimental information that indicates that human cough is under voluntary control and that higher centres such as the cerebral cortex have an important role in both initiating and inhibiting cough. Studies on acute cough associated with common cold, and capsaicin induced cough have demonstrated that human cough can be voluntarily inhibited and often abolished. Further evidence for some role of consciousness in the control of cough comes from studies that show that cough is inhibited or abolished during sleep and with light anaesthesia. This paper discusses the historical development of the brainstem 'cough centre' and discusses the experimental evidence on the voluntary control of cough in man. A cough model demonstrating the voluntary and reflex control of cough in man is proposed. A hypothesis is proposed that cough associated with common cold is a mixture of both reflex and voluntary cough. Copyright 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Spinal Cord Stimulation Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement Past Issues / Summer ... a lifelong sentence of permanent paralysis." Read More "Spinal Cord Stimulation" Articles Paralyzed Patients Regain Voluntary Movement / Progress in ...

  10. Voluntary Management Earnings Forecasts and Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramlich, Jeffrey; Sørensen, Ole Vagn

    2004-01-01

    as a natural laboratory for learning how business would occur without strict rules, enforcement and sanctions. Danish managers often volunteer pro forma financial statements for results that are expected to occur subsequent to the IPO. We examine a sample of 58 Danish firms that issue voluntary management......This paper seeks to determine whether Danish managers exercise discretionary accruals to reach earnings forecast targets they voluntarily specify in conjunction with initial public offerings (IPOs). Because the Danish accounting and legal environment is more permissive than the US, we use Denmark...... earnings forecasts in connection with IPOs that occur between 1984 and 1996. The evidence we uncover strongly suggests that pre-managed earnings are adjusted toward these targets. In contrast with Kasznik's (1999 Kasznik, R. (1999). On the association between voluntary disclosure and earnings management...

  11. Changes in lipids and glucose concentration after voluntary wheel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effects of voluntary exercise and magnesium fortification on lipid and glucose concentrations in growing rats were examined. Thirty-six 5-week old male wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; CR, SR, EG and ESG (N=9) respectively. 500ppm of elemental magnesium as MgCl2 was provided in the drinking ...

  12. Electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Passelergue, Philippe; Dupui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) reverses the order of recruitment of motor units (MU) observed with voluntary muscular contraction (VOL) since under ES, large MU are recruited before small MU. The superimposition of ES onto VOL (superimposed technique: application of an electrical stimulus during a voluntary muscle action) can theoretically activate more motor units than VOL performed alone, which can engender an increase of the contraction force. Two superimposed techniques can be used: (i) the twitch interpolation technique (ITT), which consists of interjecting an electrical stimulus onto the muscle nerve; and (ii) the percutaneous superimposed electrical stimulation technique (PST), where the stimulation is applied to the muscle belly. These two superimposed techniques can be used to evaluate the ability to fully activate a muscle. They can thus be employed to distinguish the central or peripheral nature of fatigue after exhausting exercise. In general, whatever the technique employed, the superimposition of ES onto volitional exercise does not recruit more MU than VOL, except with eccentric actions. Nevertheless, the neuromuscular response associated with the use of the superimposed technique (ITT and PST) depends on the parameter of the superimposed current. The sex and the training level of the subjects can also modify the physiological impact of the superimposed technique. Although the motor control differs drastically between training with ES and VOL, the integration of the superimposed technique in training programmes with healthy subjects does not reveal significant benefits compared with programmes performed only with voluntary exercises. Nevertheless, in a therapeutic context, training programmes using ES superimposition compensate volume and muscle strength deficit with more efficiency than programmes using VOL or ES separately.

  13. Managing a Voluntary Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dk. Hjh. Siti Fatimah - Pg. Hj. Petra

    2014-01-01

    This paper reveals the experience of a young member of a non-profitable organisation in managing a team of professionals in Brunei Darussalam. In a team, the experience of managing has not been as scary as expected; positions taken, however, must be firm and effective. Being a leader of the contingency approach type, actions and responses are based on circumstances. Marketing and managing changes need to be pursued as a new leader of a voluntary organization. Careful considerations and risks ...

  14. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  15. Effect of Peer Influence on Exercise Behavior and Enjoyment in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Andrew J; Petersen, Jennifer L; Barkley, Jacob E

    2016-02-01

    Fitness professionals and popular media sources often recommend exercising with a partner to increase exercise motivation, adherence, intensity, and/or duration. Although competition with peers has been shown to enhance maximal athletic performance, experimental research examining the impact of peer influence on submaximal exercise behavior in adults is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the presence of familiar and unfamiliar peers, vs. running alone, on recreational runners' voluntary running duration, distance, intensity, liking (i.e., enjoyment), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs). Recreational runners (n = 12 males, n = 12 females) completed 3 experimental trials, each under a different social condition, in a randomized order. Each trial consisted of self-paced running for a duration voluntarily determined by the participant. The 3 social conditions were running alone, with a sex- and fitness-matched familiar peer, or with a sex- and fitness-matched unfamiliar peer. A wrist-worn global positioning system was used to record running duration, distance, and average speed. Liking and RPE were assessed at the end of each trial. Mixed model regression analysis showed no significant effects of social condition (p ≥ 0.40) for any of the dependent variables. The presence of a familiar or unfamiliar peer did not alter recreational runners' running behavior, liking, or perceived exertion during submaximal exercise. However, exercising with others may have other benefits (e.g., reduced attrition) not examined herein.

  16. Effects of Compression Garment Pressure on Recovery from Strenuous Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jessica; Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken; Gaze, David; Legg, Hayley; Lineham, Jack; Pedlar, Charles

    2017-01-04

    Compression garments are frequently used to facilitate recovery from strenuous exercise. Purpose To identify the effects of two different grades of compression garment on recovery indices following strenuous exercise. Methods Forty five recreationally active participants (n=26 males and n=19 females) completed an eccentric exercise protocol consisting of 100 drop jumps. Following the exercise protocol participants were matched for body mass and randomly but equally assigned to either a high (HI) compression pressure group, a low (LOW) compression pressure group, or a sham ultrasound group (SHAM). Participants in the high (HI) and low (LOW) compression groups wore the garments for 72 h post-exercise; participants in the SHAM group received a single treatment of 10 minutes sham ultrasound. Measures of perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), counter movement jump height (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP) and myoglobin (Mb) were assessed before the exercise protocol and again at 1, 24, 48 and 72 h post exercise. Data were analysed using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results Recovery of MVC and CMJ was significantly improved with the HI compression garment (p < 0.05). A significant time by treatment interaction was also observed for jump height at 24 h post exercise (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for parameters of soreness and plasma CK, CRP and Mb. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that the pressures exerted by a compression garment affect recovery following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), with a higher pressure improving recovery of muscle function.

  17. Mechanisms of exertional fatigue in muscle glycogenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Haller, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Exertional fatigue early in exercise is a clinical hallmark of muscle glycogenoses, which is often coupled with painful muscle contractures and episodes of myoglobinuria. A fundamental biochemical problem in these conditions is the impaired generation of ATP to fuel muscle contractions, which...... relates directly to the metabolic defect, but also to substrate-limited energy deficiency, as exemplified by the "second wind" phenomenon in McArdle disease. A number of secondary events may also play a role in inducing premature fatigue in glycogenoses, including (1) absent or blunted muscle acidosis...... and aerobic energy for muscle contraction; and the pathological fatigue that occurs when glycogenolysis and/or glycolysis is blocked imply an important role for theses metabolic pathways in normal muscle fatigue....

  18. Voluntary Wheel Running Does not Affect Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Young Adult and Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen A.; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes prolonged depressive-like behavior in aged mice that is dependent on indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activation. Regular moderate intensity exercise training has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects that might reduce depressive-like behavior in aged mice. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running would attenuate LPS-induced depressive-like behavior and brain IDO gene expression in 4-month-old and 22-month-old C57BL/6J mice. Mice were housed with a running wheel (Voluntary Wheel Running, VWR) or no wheel (Standard) for 30 days (young adult mice) or 70 days (aged mice), after which they were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (young adult mice: 0.83 mg/kg; aged mice: 0.33 mg/kg). Young adult VWR mice ran on average 6.9 km/day, while aged VWR mice ran on average 3.4 km/day. Both young adult and aged VWR mice increased their forced exercise tolerance compared to their respective Standard control groups. VWR had no effect on LPS-induced anorexia, weight-loss, increased immobility in the tail suspension test, and decreased sucrose preference in either young adult or aged mice. Four (young adult mice) and twenty-four (aged mice) hours after injection of LPS transcripts for TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IDO were upregulated in the whole brain independently of VWR. These results indicate that prolonged physical exercise has no effect on the neuroinflammatory response to LPS and its behavioral consequences. PMID:24281669

  19. Mental fatigue does not affect maximal anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kristy; Thompson, Kevin G; Keegan, Richard; Ball, Nick; Rattray, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Mental fatigue can negatively impact on submaximal endurance exercise and has been attributed to changes in perceived exertion rather than changes in physiological variables. The impact of mental fatigue on maximal anaerobic performance is, however, unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to induce a state of mental fatigue to examine the effects on performance, physiological and perceptual variables from subsequent tests of power, strength and anaerobic capacity. Twelve participants took part in the single-blind, randomised, crossover design study. Mental fatigue was induced by 90 min of the computer-based Continuous Performance Task AX version. Control treatment consisted of 90 min of watching emotionally neutral documentaries. Participants consequently completed countermovement jump, isometric leg extension and a 3-min all-out cycling tests. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance and paired t tests revealed no difference in any performance or physiological variable. Rating of perceived exertion tended to be greater when mentally fatigued (mental fatigue = 19 ± 1 vs control = 18 ± 1, p = 0.096, [Formula: see text] = .232) and intrinsic motivation reduced (mental fatigue = 11 ± 4 vs control = 13 ± 6, p = 0.063, d = 0.597) in the mental fatigue condition. Near identical responses in performance and physiological parameters between mental fatigue and control conditions suggest that peripheral mechanisms primarily regulate maximal anaerobic exercise. Whereas mental fatigue can negatively impact submaximal endurance exercise, it appears that explosive power, voluntary maximal strength and anaerobic work capacity are unaffected.

  20. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a Healthy Young Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sonia V; Duarte, Manuel A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented with symptoms of exercise-induced compartment syndrome and was later referred for bilateral fasciotomy surgery. A 21-year-old patient presented for chiropractic care with the inability to run due to foot paresthesia and weakness. An exertion test and compartment pressure test diagnosed exercise-induced compartment syndrome. Exertion test and compartment pressure test were used to identify and diagnose exercise-induced compartment syndrome. The patient was diagnosed with exercise-induced compartment syndrome. He was treated conservatively and referred for additional testing. The orthopedic surgeon requested that 12 weeks of conservative care be provided prior to testing; treatment consisted of chiropractic care and rehabilitation exercises. Following the 12 weeks of treatment, the patient did not significantly respond to conservative care. A compartment pressure test confirmed the initial diagnosis of exercise-induced compartment syndrome. The patient underwent a unilateral fasciotomy surgery and recovered fully. Following the surgery, the patient returned to the chiropractic clinic with the same presentation in the contralateral leg. The same protocol of management resulted in the same outcome. Two years after surgical intervention, the patient continues to maintain an active lifestyle, able to run 2 to 3 miles per day without any exacerbations or symptomatology. Clinical awareness, a detailed history, and thorough examination with reproduction of symptomatology are necessary to form a proper diagnosis and treatment plan for these patients. Therefore, multidisciplinary medical communication would prove to be the most beneficial approach for the patient.

  1. Effect of extremely weak pulsed magnetic field type Bemer 3000 on ratings of perceived exertion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D Gazurek; K Spodaryk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether is an influence of the exposition on different inductions of magnetic fields on rating of perceived exertion during 10 min long standardised physical cycloergometer exercise...

  2. Mechanisms, measurement and management of exertional dyspnoea in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Weatherald

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous condition, with dyspnoea during exercise affecting individuals to a variable degree. This narrative review explores the mechanisms and measurement of exertional dyspnoea in asthma and summarises the available evidence for the efficacy of various interventions on exertional dyspnoea. Studies on the mechanisms of dyspnoea in asthma have largely utilised direct bronchoprovocation challenges, rather than exercise, which may invoke different physiological mechanisms. Thus, the description of dyspnoea during methacholine challenge can differ from what is experienced during daily activities, including exercise. Dyspnoea perception during exercise is influenced by many interacting variables, such as asthma severity and phenotype, bronchoconstriction, dynamic hyperinflation, respiratory drive and psychological factors. In addition to the intensity of dyspnoea, the qualitative description of dyspnoea may give important clues as to the underlying mechanism and may be an important endpoint for future interventional studies. There is currently little evidence demonstrating whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions specifically improve exertional dyspnoea, which is an important area for future research.

  3. [Voluntary euthanasia in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordijn, B

    2001-11-16

    On 10 April last, the Dutch Senat accepted a new bill concerning voluntary active euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. This bill legally embodies a ground for exemption from punishment for physicians who conducted voluntary active euthanasia or physician assisted suicide and who complied with certain requirements. Hence, the old policy of tolerance has been transformed into a legal system of acceptance of certain forms of voluntary active euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. This contribution describes these legal changes as the final stage of a process of integration of voluntary active euthanasia and physician assisted suicide in Dutch society. In this way, it endeavours to contribute to a constructive debate.

  4. Free Voluntary Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless to say, the contribution of reading skill to first and second language acquisition is enormous. From one‟s speaking and writing we can more or less conclude how much s/he has read. We can list the characteristics of good readers as follows: rich vocabulary knowledge advanced reading comprehension, accurate grammar usage, broad general knowledge, correct spelling and punctuation, writing ability, and so on. If reading is so powerful, why cannot we promote reading books in our society, particularly among young people? The fact that we are imposed to read books which we think are necessary or compulsory rather than the ones which we would like to read voluntarily, is the main reason why many of us are not able to develop a life-time reading habit. Since compulsory books, such as teacher-selected books are outside one‟s interest; they are destined to be forgotten sometime, or they suffer form shallow reading, or they are mostly returned to their place on the shelf after browsing the initial pages. However, if people of all ages, especially children would read self-selected books they enjoy, they would be surprised to notice the great change inside them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to revitalize free voluntary reading by referring to Krashen‟s well-known hypotheses. Also, it aims to revive the reader‟s belief in free voluntary reading with theoretical and practical examples

  5. Measuring Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion in Healthy Adults and with Respiratory Disease: New Pictorial Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Pianosi, Paolo T; Zhang, Zhen; Hernandez, Paul; Huebner, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnea or perceived exertion during exercise is most commonly measured using Borg or visual analog scales, created for use in adults. In contrast, pictorial scales have been promoted for children due to skepticism concerning applicability of the said scales in pediatrics. We sought to validate our newly created, pictorial Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales in adult populations and compare ratings with the Borg scale. Methods Dyspnea and perceived exertion ratings obta...

  6. Perceived exertion : influence of age and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groslambert, Alain; Mahon, Anthony D

    2006-01-01

    Because little is known about the effects of aging on perceived exertion, the aim of this article is to review the key findings from the published literature concerning rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in relation to the developmental level of a subject. The use of RPE in the exercise setting has included both an estimation paradigm, which is the quantification of the effort sense at a given level of exercise, and a production paradigm, which involves producing a given physiological effort based on an RPE value. The results of the review show that the cognitive developmental level of children aged 0-3 years does not allow them to rate their perceived exertion during a handgrip task. From 4 to 7 years of age, there is a critical period where children are able to progressively rate at first their peripheral sensory cues during handgrip tests, and then their cardiorespiratory cues during outdoor running in an accurate manner. Between 8 and 12 years of age, children are able to estimate and produce 2-4 cycling intensities guided by their effort sense and distinguish sensory cues from different parts of their body. However, most of the studies report that the exercise mode and the rating scale used could influence their perceptual responsiveness. During adolescence, it seems that the RPE-heart rate (HR) relationship is less pronounced than in adults. Similar to observations made in younger children, RPE values are influenced by the exercise mode, test protocol and rating scale. Limited research has examined the ability of adolescents to produce a given exercise intensity based on perceived exertion. Little else is known about RPE in this age group. In healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals, age-related differences in perceptual responsiveness may not be present as long as variations in cardiorespiratory fitness are taken into account. For this reason, RPE could be associated with HR as a useful tool for monitoring and prescribing exercise. In physically

  7. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  8. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  9. Toward voluntary parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S

    2000-06-01

    David Lykken's proposal to license married parents for child rearing, and to deny the same opportunity to single and inept parents, springs from his deep concern for millions of youngsters cruelly subjected to abusive and neglectful rearing circumstances. Children from such inadequate homes grow up to have high rates of school failure, criminality, and drug addiction. The problem is clear, but Lykken's remedies of mandated marriage and parental licensure are unacceptable in U.S. society, where our reproductive rights are fortunately protected by our Constitution. As a devoted proponent of reproductive rights, I propose a legally and morally acceptable proposal to the same end. Increasing women's effective control of reproduction and moving toward entirely voluntary parenthood will accomplish the same goals without compromising our civil liberties.

  10. Effects of non-motorized voluntary running on experimental and spontaneous metastasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity is any form of movement using skeletal muscles. Human population and laboratory studies show that physical exercise may play a favorable role in primary cancer prevention.The present study investigated the effects of voluntary exercise on the development and growth of secondary ca...

  11. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutan...

  12. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooue Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Methods Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB and without (EX vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein was calculated using both variables. Results Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P P vein in the resting limb at EX decreased during exercise from baseline (P vein at EX + VIB did not change during exercise. CSAvein during exercise at EX was smaller than that at EX + VIB (P vein did not change during the protocol under either condition. The decreases in circulatory response and RPEs during EX + VIB, despite identical muscle tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Conclusion Diminished central command induced by tendon

  13. Exertional dyspnea in mitochondrial myopathy: clinical features and physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Katja; Taivassalo, Tanja; Wyrick, Phil; Wood, Helen; Babb, Tony G; Haller, Ronald G

    2011-10-01

    Exertional dyspnea limits exercise in some mitochondrial myopathy (MM) patients, but the clinical features of this syndrome are poorly defined, and its underlying mechanism is unknown. We evaluated ventilation and arterial blood gases during cycle exercise and recovery in five MM patients with exertional dyspnea and genetically defined mitochondrial defects, and in four control subjects (C). Patient ventilation was normal at rest. During exercise, MM patients had low Vo(2peak) (28 ± 9% of predicted) and exaggerated systemic O(2) delivery relative to O(2) utilization (i.e., a hyperkinetic circulation). High perceived breathing effort in patients was associated with exaggerated ventilation relative to metabolic rate with high VE/VO(2peak), (MM = 104 ± 18; C = 42 ± 8, P ≤ 0.001), and Ve/VCO(2peak)(,) (MM = 54 ± 9; C = 34 ± 7, P ≤ 0.01); a steeper slope of increase in ΔVE/ΔVCO(2) (MM = 50.0 ± 6.9; C = 32.2 ± 6.6, P ≤ 0.01); and elevated peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER), (MM = 1.95 ± 0.31, C = 1.25 ± 0.03, P ≤ 0.01). Arterial lactate was higher in MM patients, and evidence for ventilatory compensation to metabolic acidosis included lower Pa(CO(2)) and standard bicarbonate. However, during 5 min of recovery, despite a further fall in arterial pH and lactate elevation, ventilation in MM rapidly normalized. These data indicate that exertional dyspnea in MM is attributable to mitochondrial defects that severely impair muscle oxidative phosphorylation and result in a hyperkinetic circulation in exercise. Exaggerated exercise ventilation is indicated by markedly elevated VE/VO(2), VE/VCO(2), and RER. While lactic acidosis likely contributes to exercise hyperventilation, the fact that ventilation normalizes during recovery from exercise despite increasing metabolic acidosis strongly indicates that additional, exercise-specific mechanisms are responsible for this distinctive pattern of exercise ventilation.

  14. Fatigue induced by physical and mental exertion increases perception of effort and impairs subsequent endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance.

  15. Effects of fitness and self-confidence on time perception during exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Human physical and psychological features influence perceptions of the environment during activity. If during exercise an individual over-estimates time, they may interpret this as spending longer than necessary under a potentially aversive state of exertion. This may in turn decrease one’s sense of exercise success and tendency to persevere with exercise. We tested if experimentally manipulating sense of exercise self-efficacy would affect time perception during standardised physical exertion. Method: Exercise Self-Efficacy (ESE of 18 -73 year olds (N=51 was measured before and after an exercise challenge of moderate intensity. Height, weight and body fat composition were measured before participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups. After a 4-minute treadmill fitness test, participants were presented with either bogus feedback about their performance (positive or negative or no feedback (control. Before and during exercise, participants estimated a prescribed 2-minute time interval. Ratings of perceived exertion were also measured periodically. Results: Feedback on performance had no significant effect on time perception, even when controlling for individual exertion level. Reported ESE was also unaffected by whether someone received positive, negative or no feedback. Age was again found to be significantly correlated with VO2max, r(51 = .62, p < .001, but in contrast to prior findings, estimates of general fitness such as VO2max, BMI and waist circumference were unrelated to changes in time perception due to exertion. Conclusions: These findings failed to support prior findings and anecdotal evidence suggesting that exertion might alter one’s perception of time. We also failed to find any support for effects on ESE when participants were given explicit performance feedback. Finally, participants’ physical characteristics appear to be unrelated to time perception whilst exercising at moderate intensity.

  16. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Suvi; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Wikgren, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness) induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command) eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  17. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Karla

    Full Text Available Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  18. Perceived exertion and anaerobic threshold during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, L A; Kolka, M A; Wilkerson, J E

    1982-01-01

    Six adult females with normal menstrual cycles (28-31 d in length) volunteered to exercise on a bicycle ergometer on five different days of their menstrual cycles (days 2, 8, 14, 20, and 26; day 1 = onset of menstruation). Each day the subjects exercised at a maximum work load (184.4 W) and at four submaximal exercise intensities (45.0, 83.1, 121.4 and 154.4 W). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained during minute 4 of each 5-min submaximal exercise bout and at exhaustion each day. Overall, RPE was linearly correlated with heart rate (r = 0.87) when all exercise intensities and cycle days were considered. There was no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) change in RPE at any exercise intensity related to cycle day. Factors (expired ventilatory volume, respiratory frequency, tidal volume, end-tidal CO2 tension, and heart rate) that may have affected RPE, maximal aerobic power, and anaerobic threshold (AT) were also statistically unchanged because of cycle day. Anaerobic threshold averaged 68.7% of the VO2max, or 1.592 l . min for all cycle days, as determined by the total expiratory volume/oxygen uptake "break point" method of Wasserman and co-workers (18). These data support the utilization of female subjects with normal menstrual cycles in psychophysiological studies without regard to menstrual cycle phase.

  19. Differentiated Ratings of Perceived Exertion during Physical Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    influence of load, duration, and task. Ergonomics 20:.147- rheumatoid arthritis I. Scand. J. Rheumatol. 4:80-86, 1975. 158. 1977. 19. FRANxENHAEuSER. M...regional signals. Percept. Mot. Skills 49:683-689, 1979. 28. KINSMAN. R.A. and P.C. WEISER Subjective symptomatology during 46. ROBERTSON. R.J., R.L

  20. Untangling the influences of voluntary running, environmental complexity, social housing and stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J L

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel "Alternating EE" paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this "Alternating EE" paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity.

  1. Untangling the Influences of Voluntary Running, Environmental Complexity, Social Housing and Stress on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel “Alternating EE” paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this “Alternating EE” paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity. PMID:24465980

  2. Fatigue-related firing of distal muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of proximal muscles of the same limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2014-02-15

    With fatiguing exercise, firing of group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and force of the exercised muscles. These afferents can also act across agonist/antagonist pairs, reducing voluntary activation and force in nonfatigued muscles. We hypothesized that maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents after a fatiguing adductor pollicis (AP) contraction would decrease voluntary activation and force of AP and ipsilateral elbow flexors. In two experiments (n = 10) we examined voluntary activation of AP and elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by ulnar nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex, respectively. Inflation of a sphygmomanometer cuff after a 2-min AP maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) blocked circulation of the hand for 2 min and maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min AP MVC, maximal AP voluntary activation was lower with than without ischemia (56.2 ± 17.7% vs. 76.3 ± 14.6%; mean ± SD; P muscle afferents from the hand decreased voluntary drive and force of AP. Moreover, this effect decreased voluntary drive and torque of proximal unfatigued muscles, the elbow flexors. Fatigue-sensitive group III/IV muscle nociceptors act to limit voluntary drive not only to fatigued muscles but also to unfatigued muscles within the same limb.

  3. In-task and post-task affective response to exercise: translating exercise intentions into behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela

    2010-02-01

    To test whether affective response to an acute bout of exercise can predict regular voluntary exercise, and specifically whether a positive affective response helps translate intentions into behaviour. A prospective correlational design. Participants (N=127) recruited from the community reported intentions to engage in voluntary exercise and frequency of participation in voluntary exercise both at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. Self-reported positive affect, negative affect, tranquillity, and fatigue were assessed during a bout of moderate intensity exercise. Within subject slopes for increases in positive affect and decreases in fatigue during exercise, and increased tranquillity and decreased fatigue post-exercise were associated with more frequent participation in exercise at follow-up. Changes in negative affect did not predict exercise at follow-up; however, this was likely due to floor effects leading to lack of baseline variability in negative affect. Importantly, a positive affective response to exercise moderated the intention-behaviour relationship, such that those who responded to exercise more favourably exhibited stronger relationships between intentions and future exercise behaviour Conclusions: We conclude that exercise-related increases in positive affect and tranquillity and decreases in feelings of fatigue can aid in the successful translation of exercise intentions into behaviour.

  4. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  5. Differential effects of metaboreceptor and chemoreceptor activation on sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex control following exercise in hypoxia in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujic, Marko; Laude, Dominique; Houssière, Anne; Beloka, Sofia; Argacha, Jean-François; Adamopoulos, Dionysios; Xhaët, Olivier; Elghozi, Jean-Luc; van de Borne, Philippe

    2007-11-15

    Muscle metaboreceptors and peripheral chemoreceptors exert differential effects on the cardiorespiratory and autonomic responses following hypoxic exercise. Whether these effects are accompanied by specific changes in sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex control is not known. Sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex functions were assessed by intravenous nitroprusside and phenylephrine boluses in 15 young male subjects. Recordings were performed in random order, under locally circulatory arrested conditions, during: (1) rest and normoxia (no metaboreflex and no chemoreflex activation); (2) normoxic post-handgrip exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary contraction (metaboreflex activation without chemoreflex activation); (3) hypoxia without handgrip (10% O2 in N2, chemoreflex activation without metaboreflex activation); and (4) post-handgrip exercise in hypoxia (chemoreflex and metaboreflex activation). When compared with normoxic rest (-42 +/- 7% muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) mmHg(-1)), sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity did not change during normoxic post-exercise ischaemia (PEI; -53 +/- 9% MSNA mmHg(-1), P = 0.5) and increased during resting hypoxia (-68 +/- 5% MSNA mmHg(-1), P chemoreceptors exert differential effects on sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex function. Metaboreceptor activation is the major determinant of sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity, when these receptors are stimulated in the presence of hypoxia.

  6. Absence of Exertional Hyperthermia in a 17 Year Old with Severe Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Serina J.; Lee, Jong O.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective An important safety concern when exercising burned patients is the potential for an excessive increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia = body core temperature > 39°C) during exercise. Methods We examined the thermoregulatory response to exercise in the heat (31°C, relative humidity 40%) in a 17 year old with a 99% total body surface area burn. A 30 minute exercise test was performed at an intensity of 75% of his peak aerobic capacity. Intestinal temperature was assessed via telemetry with an ingestible capsule. Intestinal temperature was measured pre-exercise, during, and post-exercise. Results The patient completed 12 minutes of the 30 minute exercise test. Starting core temperature was 36.98 °C and increased 0.69 °C during exercise. After excercise, intestinal temperature continued to increase, but no hyperthermia was noted. Conclusion It has been reported that burned children can safely exercise at room temperature, however, the response in the heat is unknown. This patient did not develop exertional hyperthermia, which we propose is due to his low fitness level and heat intolerance. However, the potential for hyperthermia would be increased if he were forced to maintain a high relative workload in the heat. We propose that severely burned individuals should be able to safely participate in physical activities. However, the decision to stop exercising should be accepted to avoid development of exertional hyperthermia. PMID:19506510

  7. Percepção subjetiva do esforço, resposta afetiva e hipotensão pós-exercício em sessão de Tai Chi Chuan Rating of perceived exertion, affective response and post-exercise hypotension in Tai Chi Chuan session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hsin Nery Chao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a percepção subjetiva do esforço (PSE, resposta afetiva (RA e pressão arterial pós-exercício em sessão aguda de Tai Chi Chuan (TCC. Vinte e quatro mulheres (47-79 anos; 9 normotensas e 15 hipertensas foram submetidas a uma sessão de TCC e uma sessão controle (delineamento cruzado. A PSE foi avaliada pela escala de Borg (CR10, a RA pela escala de valência afetiva (+5/-5 e a pressão arterial (PA pelo método oscilométrico (5, 10, 25, 20, 25 e 30 min pós-sessão. Redução significante da PA sistólica foi identificada aos 20 e 25 min após a sessão de TCC somente nas hipertensas. Os valores de RA e PSE foram +2,8 ± 1,9 e 3,5 ± 1,2, respectivamente. Os resultados sugerem que uma sessão de TCC de intensidade moderada foi prazerosa para as voluntárias (hipertensas e normotensas, embora tenha induzido discreto efeito hipotensor agudo na PA sistólica somente das hipertensas.The aim of the study was to analyze the rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affective response (AR, and blood pressure (BP post-exercise in acute Tai Chi Chuan (TCC session. Twenty-four women (47-79 years; 9 normotensive and 15 hypertensive performed one TCC and one control session (cross-over design. The RPE was assessed using the Borg's scale (CR10, the AR was assessed by the Feeling Scale (+5/-5 and the BP by the oscillometric method (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30min post-TCC session. A significant systolic BP reduction was observed in the 20 and 25min post-TCC session only in the hypertensive women. The AR and RPE values were +2.8 ± 1.9 e 3.5 ± 1.2, respectively. The results suggest that a moderate TCC exercise bout was pleasurable for the volunteers (normotensive and hypertensive, although it has induced a slight acute hypotensive effect on the systolic BP only in the hypertensive women.

  8. [Angina-like chest pain and exertional esophageal ph monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romand, F; Vincent, E; Potier, V; Claudel, N; Galoo, E; Desbaumes, J

    1999-03-01

    Spontaneous chest pain attacks are uncommon during 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring in patients suffering from angina-like chest pain suspected to be acid-related. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of exertional esophageal pH monitoring and to prove that exercise testing induces chest pain and gastro-esophageal reflux and therefore improves symptomatic correlation study. Forty three patients suffering from angina-like chest pain underwent treadmill exercise testing during a 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Symptom analysis was made using the symptom-association probability described by Weusten. During the 24-hour pH monitoring, 10 patients (23%) had a pathologic esophageal acid exposure, 20 (46%) experienced chest pain and 3 (7%) had a symptom association probability > 95%. During the exercise testing on a treadmill, 19 patients (44%) had gastro-esophageal reflux, and 14 (32%) experienced chest pain, coinciding with a gastro-esophageal reflux in 8 (19%). After exercise testing, the symptom-association probability analysis was significantly changed in 9 patients (21%), > 95% in 6 patients (14%). Exercise testing on a treadmill induces chest pain episodes during a 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and therefore improves symptomatic correlation study in patients suffering from angina-like chest pain.

  9. Exercises to activate the deeper abdominal wall muscles: the Lewit: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiuk, Boyd W N; Andersen, Jordan T; McGill, Stuart M

    2014-03-01

    The abdominal wall is a prime target for therapeutic exercises aimed to prevent and rehabilitate low back pain and to enhance performance training. This study examined the "Lewit," a corrective exercise prescribed for several purposes, which is performed lying supine in a crook-lying position and involves forceful breathing. Muscle activation and lumbar posture were compared with bracing the abdominal wall (stiffening) with robust effort and "hollowing" (attempting to draw in the wall toward the naval) with robust effort. Eight healthy male volunteers with 6 channels of electromyography were collected by means of surface electrode pairs of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique (IO) together with lumbar motion. The Lewit exercise caused higher muscle activity in the deeper abdominal wall muscles, in particular the IO and by default the transverse abdominis were activated at 54% maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) on average and 84% MVC peak with no change in spine posture to maintain the elastic equilibrium of the lumbar spine. The Lewit is a deep oblique muscle activation exercise, and the activation levels are of a sufficient magnitude for training muscle engrams. This information will assist strength and conditioning coaches with program design decisions where this corrective abdominal exercise may be considered for clients who elevate the ribcage during strength exertions, or for clients targeting the deep obliques.

  10. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Pramod B; Lebrun, Drake G; Roth, Cameron A; Kelly, John D

    2015-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports.

  11. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  12. A miniswine model of acute exertional heat exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, B J; Szlyk-Modrow, P C; Durkot, M J; Krestel, B A; Sils, I V; Tartarini, K A; Alkhyyat, A M

    1996-06-01

    We examined the thermoregulatory and hemodynamic responses of 12 miniswine (31 +/- 3.9 kg) during 25-30 min of treadmill exercise (5.4 km.h-1, 5% grade) under cool (10 degrees C), moderate (20 degrees C) and warm (30 degrees C) ambient temperature (Ta) conditions. Within 15-20 min of exercise at Ta = 30 degrees C, the miniswine demonstrated significant hyperventilation, hypersalivation, and unsteady gait. Exercise-heat endurance time (T) at Ta = 30 degrees C decreased by 35% and 40% in comparison to T at Ta = 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively. This resulted from a significant rise in heat strain (S)-defined as the rate of change in rectal temperature. Averaged throughout exercise, S increased from 0.04 +/- 0.01 degree C.min-1 and 0.05 +/- 0.02 degree C.min-1 at Ta = 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively, to 0.10 +/- 0.03 degree C.min-1 at Ta = 30 degrees C. Due to the comparatively large storage capacity of the porcine spleen relative to humans, splenectomized miniswine were used. This permitted calculation of percentage changes in plasma volume (% delta PVc) from hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (HGB) without the confounding effects of splenic red cells released into the circulation during exercise. Independent of Ta, pre-exercise PVc decreased 3%-5% (p post-exercise. We conclude that the poor thermoregulatory ability of miniswine manifested in insignificant sweating and restricted evaporative cooling, may make them an appropriate model for acute exertional heat exhaustion in humans working in hot, humid conditions and/or wearing impermeable protective clothing. Further, evaluation of plasma volume changes from HCT and HGB in a miniswine model should consider the merit of a splenectomized design.

  13. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  14. Chronic pain and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismanchi, Mojtaba

    2008-01-01

    Emotional status and its brain bases change in a chronic pain patient and this change affects his/her decision making ability. Moreover, it is accepted that a mentally disturbed individual is not competent to make critical decisions. According to these bases, this article demonstrates that such patients are not entitled to request voluntary euthanasia.

  15. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Maritime Administration Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA). SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration (MARAD... sustainment of U.S. military forces. This is to be accomplished through cooperation among the maritime...

  16. Measurement and Relation between Received and Exerted Violence against Partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moral de la Rubia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A female victimization model is often assumed in the study of couple violence, even in general population. In Mexico, a questionnaire of couple violence has been developed. This instrument evaluates suffered and exerted violence. The aims of this paper were to contrast the factor structure of this questionnaire, calculate its internal consistency, describe its distributions, compare means of violence between both sexes and between persons who live or not with their partners, and study the relationship between received and exerted violence. A non-experimental research with a trans-sectional design was performed. The questionnaire was applied to a non probability sample of 223 women and 177 men with heterosexual couples from general population. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used for data analysis. The factor structure of received violence scale was one-dimensional, and the one of exerted violence scale was two-dimensional. Both sexes reported to exert violence with the same frequency, but men complained to receive violence with more frequency than women. Persons who live with their partners reported to receive more violence and to exert more non-psychological violence than persons who do not live with their partners. The correlations between received and exercised violence were moderate. A recursive model of violent reaction showed a fit to data from good to adequate, and had good properties of invariance between both sexes, and between persons who live or not with their partners. It is concluded that the questionnaire has good properties of factor structure and internal consistency, and data refute a model of female victimization.

  17. Blood pressure response to physical exertion in adolescents: influence of overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Luciana; Rodrigues, Anabel Nunes; Perez, Anselmo José; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2008-07-01

    The acute blood pressure response to physical exertion has been used as an indicator of the risk of developing hypertension. The factors associated with this response need to be clarified for timely intervention in preventing hypertensive disease. To describe the response of cardiovascular variables to acute physical exertion in overweight adolescents using cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (56 boys and 48 girls), divided into two groups: the obese/overweight group (OOG) and the eutrophic group (EG). The following variables were measured: anthropometric (weight, height, and BMI), body composition (skin fold thickness), as well as hemodynamic variables such as systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and heart rate (HR), at rest and at maximal physical exertion during the cardiopulmonary test. In the male group, the greatest values of systolic arterial pressure at rest were recorded in the OOG as compared to the EG (113 +/- 13 vs 106 +/- 8 mmHg; p = 0.009), pre-exertion SAP (120 +/- 14 vs 109 +/- 10 mmHg; p = 0.003), and SAP during maximal exertion conditions (156 +/- 20 vs 146 +/- 14 mmHg; p = 0.03). In the female group, only pre-exertion SAP was higher in the overweight group as compared to the eutrophic girls (114 +/- 11 vs 106 +/- 10 mmHg; p = 0.009). The response of arterial blood pressure during physical exercise was most exacerbated in obese adolescents as compared to eutrophic teens, suggesting greater reactivity to physical exertion.

  18. WATER TEMPERATURE, VOLUNTARY DRINKING AND FLUID BALANCE IN DEHYDRATED TAEKWONDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khamnei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject's plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status.

  19. Cross-education of muscle strength is greater with stimulated than voluntary contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, T; Scott, K; Lambert, J; Hamilton, G; Tracy, J

    1999-04-01

    Cross-education enhances the performance of muscles not directly involved in the chronic conditioning of the muscles in a remote limb. Substantial cross-education occurs after training with eccentric contractions or with contractions evoked by electromyostimulation (EMS). Since during EMS and eccentric contractions, skin and muscle afferents are activated that have excitatory effects on contralateral homologous muscles, it was hypothesized that exercise training with stimulated vs. voluntary eccentric contractions would lead to greater cross-education. Thirty-two women were randomly assigned to a voluntary (Vol), an EMS, or remote EMS (rEMS) exercise group and performed 840 voluntary or stimulated eccentric contractions over 6 weeks. All subjects, including nonexercising controls (Con), were tested pre- and posttraining for maximal voluntary and stimulated isometric and eccentric quadriceps strength. Ipsilateral voluntary and stimulated forces increased in all groups. Changes in EMG activity paralleled those in voluntary force in each limb. No changes occurred in grip strength. The great contra- and ipsilateral strength gains after EMS training were most likely related to an additive effect of EMS and muscle lengthening.

  20. Aging and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, D A; Cunningham, L N; Curfman, G D

    1986-05-01

    Diverse physiologic changes occur in the oxygen transport system during the aging process. Physical performance and VO2max decline with age, but the changes may be attenuated by exercise training. Increased ventilation is required during exercise in order to compensate for reduced efficiency of gas exchange. Cardiovascular alterations include prolonged duration of myocardial contraction, a slightly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction during exercise, decreased heart rate during both submaximal and maximal exercise, and attenuation of myocardial response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Cardiac output during exercise can be maintained in the elderly owing to a greater dependence on ventricular filling. Appropriate exercise training leads to enhanced efficiency of the lungs, heart, and skeletal muscles. These physiologic benefits contribute to an increase in functional capacity and an enhanced sense of well-being. Exercise testing is recommended for individuals who have cardiorespiratory symptoms and for those at risk for the development of coronary artery disease. Reasonable goals for an aerobic training program are continuous activity for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity of exertion at least 3 days per week. The intensity of exercise should be based on a prescribed training heart rate. The exercise prescription should be individualized and should incorporate one or more activities for optimal enjoyment and compliance. Opportunities and facilities for indoor exercise are important during inclement weather. Regular physical exercise is important at any age!

  1. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    OpenAIRE

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is a...

  2. Capability and recruitment patterns of trunk during isometric uniaxial and biaxial upright exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Ali; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Nordin, Margareta

    2008-06-01

    Work-related risk factors of low back disorders have been identified to be external moments, awkward postures, and asymmetrical dynamic lifting amongst others. The distinct role of asymmetry of load versus posture is hard to discern from the literature. Hence, the aim of this study is to measure isometric trunk exertions at upright standing posture at different exertion level and degree of asymmetry to further delineate the effects of exertion level and asymmetry on neuromuscular capability response. Fifteen healthy volunteers randomly performed trunk exertions at three levels (30%, 60%, and 100% of maximum voluntary exertion and five different angles (0 degrees , 45 degrees , 90 degrees , 135 degrees , and 180 degrees ) of normalized resultant moments. During each trial, the normalized EMG activity of 10 selected trunk muscles was quantified. The EMG activity of the 10 trunk muscles was significantly (Presultant moment, and their interactions. The controllability of the torque generation was reduced in biaxial exertions. The capability to generate and control the required trunk moments is significantly lowered during biaxial trunk exertions, while all muscles present higher EMG activity. These results suggest that the trunk muscles will be taxed higher while performing biaxial exertion tasks, increasing muscle fatigue possibly leading to a higher probability of low back injury. The prediction of biaxial trunk performance based on uniaxial data will result in an overestimation of capability and controllability of the trunk during physically demanding tasks. This study provides a better understanding of the potential mechanisms of injury during asymmetrical and biaxial trunk exertion during work-related tasks.

  3. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooue, Anna; Sato, Kohei; Hirasawa, Ai; Sadamoto, Tomoko

    2012-11-07

    The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB) and without (EX) vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein) and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein) was calculated using both variables. Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Diminished central command induced by tendon vibration may attenuate the superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during sustained static arm exercise.

  4. Working the Continuum between Therapy and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Because of the relative weightlessness factor, water exercise is an excellent low-impact aerobic activity for people with physical difficulties. Participants should inform their physicians of intentions to begin aquatic exercise, and physicians should advise participants that water exercise is exertive. Program instructors must be prepared to…

  5. Exertional rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following the Army Physical Fitness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, D P; Guzzi, L M

    1989-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure may occur following strenuous exercise and may be more common in less physically conditioned persons. A case of moderately severe acute renal failure after the exercise involved in a routine Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is described. This level of exertion, which is universally applied to Army personnel, should be recognized as a potential etiology of rhabdomyolysis. Prospective studies may help define the exact risk to renal function provided by the APFT.

  6. Use of ratings of perceived exertion in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eston, Roger

    2012-06-01

    The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a recognized marker of intensity and of homeostatic disturbance during exercise. It is typically monitored during exercise tests to complement other measures of intensity. The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the remarkable value of RPE as a psychophysiological integrator in adults. It can be used in such diverse fashions as to predict exercise capacity, assess changes in training status, and explain changes in pace and pacing strategy. In addition to using RPE to self-regulate exercise, a novel application of the intensity:RPE relationship is to clamp RPE at various levels to produce self-paced bouts of exercise, which can be used to assess maximal functional capacity. Research also shows that the rate of increase in RPE during self-paced competitive events of varying distance, or constant-load tasks where the participant exercises until volitional exhaustion, is proportional to the duration that remains. These findings suggest that the brain regulates RPE and performance in an anticipatory manner based on awareness of metabolic reserves at the start of an event and certainty of the anticipated end point. Changes in pace may be explained by a continuous internal negotiation of momentary RPE compared with a preplanned "ideal rate of RPE progression" template, which takes into account the portion of distance covered and the anticipated end point. These observations have led to the development of new techniques to analyze the complex relationship of RPE and pacing. The use of techniques to assess frontal-cortex activity will lead to further advances in understanding.

  7. Water temperature, voluntary drinking and fluid balance in dehydrated taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamnei, Saeed; Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject's plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C) for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C) does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status. Key pointsFor athletes dehydrated in hot environments, maximum voluntary drinking and best hydration state occurs with 16°C water.Provision of fluid needs and thermal needs could be balanced using 16°C water.Drinking 16°C water (nearly the temperature of cool tap water) could be recommended for exercise in the heat.

  8. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  9. Bioethics for clinicians: 4. Voluntariness.

    OpenAIRE

    Etchells, E; Sharpe, G.; Dykeman, M J; Meslin, E M; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    In the context of consent, "voluntariness" refers to a patient's right to make health care choices free of any undue influence. However, a patient's freedom to make choices can be compromised by internal factors such as pain and by external factors such as force, coercion and manipulation. In exceptional circumstances--for example, involuntary admission to hospital--patients may be denied their freedom of choice; in such circumstances the least restrictive means possible of managing the patie...

  10. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We...... of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas...

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Fasciotomy for Anterior Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balius, Ramon; Bong, David A; Ardèvol, Jordi; Pedret, Carles; Codina, David; Dalmau, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is characterized by exertional pain and elevated intracompartmental pressures affecting the leg in physically active young people. In patients who have failed conservative measures, fasciotomy is the treatment of choice. This study presents a new method for performing fasciotomy using high-resolution ultrasound (US) guidance and reports on the clinical outcomes in a group of these patients. Over a 3-year period, 7 consecutive patients with a total of 9 involved legs presented clinically with anterior compartment chronic exertional compartment syndrome, which was confirmed by intracompartmental pressure measurements before and after exercise. After a US examination, fasciotomy under US guidance was performed. Preoperative and postoperative pain and activity levels were assessed as well as number of days needed to "return to play." All patients had a decrease in pain, and all except 1 returned to presymptomatic exercise levels with a median return to play of 35 days. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Respiratory frequency is strongly associated with perceived exertion during time trials of different duration

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolò, Andrea; Marcora, Samuele Maria; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide further insight into the link between respiratory frequency (fR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), the present study investigated the effect of exercise duration on perceptual and physiological responses during self-paced exercise. Nine well-trained competitive male cyclists (23 ± 3 years) performed a preliminary incremental ramp test and three randomised self-paced time trials (TTs) differing in exercise duration (10, 20 and 30 min). Both RPE and fR increased al...

  13. Reflections on the Design of Exertion Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Florian Floyd; Altimira, David; Khot, Rohit Ashot

    2015-02-01

    The design of exertion games (i.e., digital games that require physical effort from players) is a difficult intertwined challenge of combining digital games and physical effort. To aid designers in facing this challenge, we describe our experiences of designing exertion games. We outline personal reflections on our design processes and articulate analyses of players' experiences. These reflections and analyses serve to highlight the unique opportunities of combining digital games and physical effort. The insights we seek aim to enhance the understanding of exertion game design, contributing to the advancement of the field, and ultimately resulting in better games and associated player experiences.

  14. Effects of Talking on Exercise Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, B. Don; Myers, Barbee C.

    1984-01-01

    Two studies on college students determined the physical effects of responding to questions while taking a walking/running treadmill test. Effects on heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and time to voluntary exhaustion were observed. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  15. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue –17 ± 15%, control –15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue –6 ± 9%, control –6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue –30 ± 14%, control –32 ± 10%, p fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception of effort. PMID:25762914

  16. No safe harbor: the principle of complicity and the practice of voluntary stopping of eating and drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A

    2004-02-01

    In recent years, a number of writers have proposed voluntary stopping of eating and drinking as an alternative to physician-assisted suicide. This paper calls attention to and discusses some of the ethical complications that surround the practice of voluntary stopping of eating and drinking. The paper argues that voluntary stopping of eating and drinking raises very difficult ethical questions. These questions center on the moral responsibility of clinicians who care for the terminally ill as well as the nature and limits of the authority they exercise over them.

  17. Neurotrophic factors in Parkinson's disease are regulated by exercise: Evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Paula Grazielle Chaves; Domingues, Daniel Desidério; de Carvalho, Litia Alves; Allodi, Silvana; Correa, Clynton Lourenço

    2016-04-15

    We carried out a qualitative review of the literature on the influence of forced or voluntary exercise in Parkinson's Disease (PD)-induced animals, to better understand neural mechanisms and the role of neurotrophic factors (NFs) involved in the improvement of motor behavior. A few studies indicated that forced or voluntary exercise may promote neuroprotection, through upregulation of NF expression, against toxicity of drugs that simulate PD. Forced training, such as treadmill exercise and forced-limb use, adopted in most studies, in addition to voluntary exercise on a running wheel are suitable methods for NFs upregulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design Strategies for Balancing Exertion Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    , it is unclear how balancing mechanisms should be applied in exertion games, where physical and digital elements are fused. In this paper, we present an exertion game and three approaches for balancing it; a physical, an explicit-digital and an implicit-digital balancing approach. A user study that compares......In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however...... these three approaches is used to investigate the qualities and challenges within each approach and explore how the player experience is affected by them. Based on these findings, we suggest four design strategies for balancing exertion games, so that players will stay engaged in the game and contain...

  19. Prediction of voluntary activation, strength and endurance of elbow flexors in postpolio patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gabrielle M; Middleton, J; Katrak, P H; Lord, S R; Gandevia, S C

    2004-08-01

    To examine the long-term effects of polio, maximal voluntary strength and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles of 177 patients from a postpolio clinic were investigated using twitch interpolation. Muscle endurance was studied in 142 patients during 45 min of submaximal exercise, and predictors of impaired muscle performance were investigated. Twenty-nine of 177 patients (16.4%) had impaired voluntary drive to their elbow flexor muscles, but only 16 (9.0%) had markedly reduced elbow flexor strength, despite 74 (41.8%) reporting they were initially affected in their tested limb and 172 (97.2%) patients reporting new generalized symptoms. Seven patients had impaired muscle endurance in the tests of strength and voluntary drive. During the submaximal exercise, 16 patients (11.3%) had impaired peripheral muscle endurance with normal voluntary activation. These results confirm a low incidence of impaired upper-limb muscle performance in postpolio patients, despite many patients having subjective symptoms consistent with postpolio syndrome. There was an increased relative risk for impaired muscle function in those patients with a subjective decrease in strength in the tested limb, a recent decline in activities of daily living in their tested limb, and who used orthotic devices in their tested limb. Monitoring of function in prior-polio patients with impaired muscle performance may be useful, particularly when combined with investigation of other potential contributory factors to the functional impairment.

  20. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A.Using Williams and Folland's model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1 vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1.At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01 and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01 than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02.Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

  1. Effects of acute voluntary loaded wheel running on BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minchul; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-12-31

    Voluntary loaded wheel running involves the use of a load during a voluntary running activity. A muscle-strength or power-type activity performed at a relatively high intensity and a short duration may cause fewer apparent metabolic adaptations but may still elicit muscle fiber hypertrophy. This study aimed to determine the effects of acute voluntary wheel running with an additional load on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. Ten-week old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a (1) sedentary (Control) group; (2) voluntary exercise with no load (No-load) group; or (3) voluntary exercise with an additional load (Load) group for 1-week (acute period). The expression of BDNF genes was quantified by real-time PCR. The average distance levels were not significantly different in the No-load and Load groups. However, the average work levels significantly increased in the Load group. The relative soleus weights were greater in the No-load group. Furthermore, loaded wheel running up-regulated the BDNF mRNA level compared with that in the Control group. The BDNF mRNA levels showed a positive correlation with workload levels (r=0.75), suggesting that the availability of multiple workload levels contributes to the BDNF-related benefits of loaded wheel running noted in this study. This novel approach yielded the first set of findings showing that acute voluntary loaded wheel running, which causes muscular adaptation, enhanced BDNF expression, suggesting a possible role of high-intensity short-term exercise in hippocampal BDNF activity.

  2. Exercise and time-dependent benefits to learning and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Castello, Nicholas; Cotman, Carl W.

    2010-01-01

    While it is well established that exercise can improve cognitive performance, it is unclear how long these benefits endure after exercise has ended. Accordingly, the effects of voluntary exercise on cognitive function and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels, a major player in the mechanisms governing the dynamics of memory formation and storage, were assessed immediately after a 3-week running period, or after a 1-week or 2-week delay following the exercise period. All exe...

  3. Long-term voluntary wheel running is rewarding and produces plasticity in the mesolimbic reward pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Benjamin N; Foley, Teresa E; Le, Tony V; Strong, Paul V; Loughridge, Alice B; Day, Heidi E W; Fleshner, Monika

    2011-03-01

    The mesolimbic reward pathway is implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders and is a potential target of plasticity underlying the stress resistance produced by repeated voluntary exercise. It is unknown, however, whether rats find long-term access to running wheels rewarding, or if repeated voluntary exercise reward produces plastic changes in mesolimbic reward neurocircuitry. In the current studies, young adult, male Fischer 344 rats allowed voluntary access to running wheels for 6 weeks, but not 2 weeks, found wheel running rewarding, as measured by conditioned place preference (CPP). Consistent with prior reports and the behavioral data, 6 weeks of wheel running increased ΔFosB/FosB immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens (Acb). In addition, semi quantitative in situ hybridization revealed that 6 weeks of wheel running, compared to sedentary housing, increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), increased delta opioid receptor (DOR) mRNA levels in the Acb shell, and reduced levels of dopamine receptor (DR)-D2 mRNA in the Acb core. Results indicate that repeated voluntary exercise is rewarding and alters gene transcription in mesolimbic reward neurocircuitry. The duration-dependent effects of wheel running on CPP suggest that as the weeks of wheel running progress, the rewarding effects of a night of voluntary wheel running might linger longer into the inactive cycle thus providing stronger support for CPP. The observed plasticity could contribute to the mechanisms by which exercise reduces the incidence and severity of substance abuse disorders, changes the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, and facilitates successful coping with stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long term voluntary wheel running is rewarding and produces plasticity in the mesolimbic reward pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Foley, Teresa E.; Le, Tony V.; Strong, Paul V.; Loughridge, Alice B.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Fleshner, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The mesolimbic reward pathway is implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders and is a potential target of plasticity underlying the stress resistance produced by repeated voluntary exercise. It is unknown, however, whether rats find long-term access to running wheels rewarding, or if repeated voluntary exercise reward produces plastic changes in mesolimbic reward neurocircuitry. In the current studies, young adult, male Fischer 344 rats allowed voluntary access to running wheels for 6 weeks, but not 2 weeks, found wheel running rewarding, as measured by conditioned place preference (CPP). Consistent with prior reports and the behavioral data, 6 weeks of wheel running increased ΔFosB/FosB immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens (Acb). In addition, semi quantitative in situ hybridization revealed that 6 weeks of wheel running, compared to sedentary housing, increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), increased delta opioid receptor (DOR) mRNA levels in the Acb shell, and reduced levels of dopamine receptor (DR)-D2 mRNA in the Acb core. Results indicate that repeated voluntary exercise is rewarding and alters gene transcription in mesolimbic reward neurocircuitry. The duration-dependent effects of wheel running on CPP suggest that as the weeks of wheel running progress, the rewarding effects of a night of voluntary wheel running might linger longer into the inactive cycle thus providing stronger support for CPP. The observed plasticity could contribute to the mechanisms by which exercise reduces the incidence and severity of substance abuse disorders, changes the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, and facilitates successful coping with stress. PMID:21070820

  5. Níveis distintos de Hsp72 no miocárdio de ratas em resposta aos exercícios voluntário e forçado Niveles distintos de Hsp72 en el miocardio de ratas en respuesta a los ejercicios voluntario y forzado Different levels of Hsp72 in female rat myocardium in response to voluntary exercise and forced exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphano Freitas Soares Melo

    2009-11-01

    los grupos ECV, ECF y C (4,54 ± 0,79 mg/g vs. 4,94 ± 0,89 mg/g vs. 4,34 ± 0,87 mg/g, respectivamente. Las ratas entrenadas con carrera presentaron niveles de Hsp72 mayores (pBACKGROUND: Physical exercise induces hemodynamic stress. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if voluntary running and forced running induced different levels of stress protein (Hsp72 in the myocardium of female Wistar rats. METHODS: Female rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: forced treadmill running group (FR; n= 6, voluntary running group (VR; n=6 and control group (C; n=6. VR group animals had free access to running wheels, and those from FR group underwent a running program on a treadmill (18 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/wk for 8 weeks. Left ventricle (LV and right ventricle (RV fragments were collected at sacrifice, and the relative immunoblot contents of stress protein (Hsp72 were determined. RESULTS: VR animals ran on average 4.87 km/wk, and FR rats ran 4.88 km/wk. Animals from VR and FR groups had less body weight gain (p0.05 among VR, FR and C groups (4.54 ± 0.79 mg/g vs 4.94 ± 0.89 mg/g vs 4.34 ± 0.87 mg/g, respectively. FR group animals had levels of Hsp72 (p<0.05 higher than those from VR, both in LV (287.45 ± 35.86 % vs 135.59 ± 5.10 %, respectively and RV (241.31 ± 25.83 % vs 137.91 ± 45.20 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: Voluntary running and forced running induced different levels of Hsp72 in the myocardium of female Wistar rats.

  6. Human investigations into the exercise pressor reflex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels H; Amann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    . The importance of the exercise pressor reflex for tight cardiovascular regulation during dynamic exercise is supported by studies using pharmacological blockade of lower limb muscle afferent nerves. These experiments show attenuation of the increase in BP and cardiac output when exercise is performed......During exercise, neural input from skeletal muscles reflexly maintains or elevates blood pressure (BP) despite a maybe fivefold increase in vascular conductance. This exercise pressor reflex is illustrated by similar heart rate (HR) and BP responses to electrically induced and voluntary exercise...... of an increase in BP during exercise with paralysed legs manifests, although electrical stimulation of muscles enhances lactate release and reduces muscle glycogen. Thus, the exercise pressor reflex enhances sympathetic activity and maintains perfusion pressure by restraining abdominal blood flow, while brain...

  7. Firing of antagonist small-diameter muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and torque of elbow flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2013-07-15

    During muscle fatigue, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents can decrease voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle. However, these afferents may have a more widespread effect on other muscles in the exercising limb. We examined if the firing of fatigue-sensitive afferents from elbow extensor muscles in the same arm reduces torque production and voluntary activation of elbow flexors. In nine subjects we examined voluntary activation of elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex during brief (2-3 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Inflation of a blood pressure cuff following a 2-min sustained MVC blocked blood flow to the fatigued muscle and maintained firing of small-diameter afferents. After a fatiguing elbow flexion contraction, maximal flexion torque was lower (26.0 ± 4.4% versus 67.9 ± 5.2% of initial maximal torque; means ± s.d.; P torque was also reduced (82.2 ± 4.9% versus 91.4 ± 2.3% of initial maximal torque; P = 0.007), superimposed twitches were larger (2.7 ± 0.7% versus 1.3 ± 0.2% ongoing MVC; P = 0.02) and voluntary activation lower (81.6 ± 8.2% versus 95.5 ± 6.9%; P = 0.04) with than without ischaemia. After a fatiguing contraction, voluntary drive to the fatigued muscles is reduced with continued input from small-diameter muscle afferents. Furthermore, fatigue of the elbow extensor muscles decreases voluntary drive to unfatigued elbow flexors of the same arm. Therefore, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents from one muscle can affect voluntary activation and hence torque generation of another muscle in the same limb.

  8. Exertion Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Are Two Distinct Constructs in People Post-Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Benjamin Y.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Post-stroke fatigue is a common and neglected issue despite the fact that it impacts daily functions, quality of life, and has been linked with a higher mortality rate because of its association with a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to identify the contributing factors of exertion fatigue and chronic fatigue in people post-stroke. Methods Twenty-one post-stroke people (12 males, 9 females; 59.5±10.3 years of age; time after stroke 4.1±3.5 years) participated in the study. The response variables included exertion fatigue and chronic fatigue. Participants underwent a standardized fatigue-inducing exercise on a recumbent stepper. Exertion fatigue level was assessed at rest and immediately after exercise using the Visual Analog Fatigue Scale. Chronic fatigue was measured by the Fatigue Severity Scale. The explanatory variables included aerobic fitness, motor control, and depressive symptoms measured by peak oxygen uptake, Fugl-Meyer motor score, and the Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Results Using forward stepwise regression, we found that peak oxygen uptake was an independent predictor of exertion fatigue (P=0.006), whereas depression was an independent predictor of chronic fatigue (P=0.002). Conclusion Exertion fatigue and chronic fatigue are 2 distinct fatigue constructs, as identified by 2 different contributing factors. PMID:20947841

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety ...

  10. Physiological responses and perceived exertion during cycling with superimposed electromyostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Schaerk, Jonas; Achtzehn, Silvia; Kleinöder, Heinz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate and to quantify the effects of local electromyostimulation (EMS) during cycling on the cardiorespiratory system, muscle metabolism, and perceived exertion compared with cycling with no EMS. Ten healthy men (age: 24.6 ± 3.2 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 54.1 ± 6.0 ml·min·kg) performed 3 incremental cycle ergometer step tests, 1 without and 2 with EMS (30 and 85 Hz) until volitional exhaustion. Lactate values and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly higher at intensities ≥75% peak power output (PPO) when EMS was applied. Bicarbonate concentration, base excess (BE), and Pco2 were significantly lower when EMS was applied compared with the control at intensities ≥75% PPO. Saliva cortisol levels increased because of the exercise but were unaffected by EMS. Furthermore, EMS showed greater effects on CK levels 24 hours postexercise than normal cycling did. Rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher at 100% PPO with EMS. No statistical differences were found for heart rate, pH, and Po2 between the tested cycling modes. The main findings of this study are greater metabolic changes (lactate, respiratory exchange ratio, BE, (Equation is included in full-text article.), Pco2) during cycling with EMS compared with normal cycling independent of frequency, mainly visible at higher work rates. Because metabolic alterations are important for the induction of cellular signaling cascades and adaptations, these results lead to the hypothesis that applied EMS stimulations during cycling exercise might be an enhancing stimulus for skeletal muscle metabolism and related adaptations. Thus, superimposed EMS application during cycling could be beneficial to aerobic performance enhancements in athletes and in patients who cannot perform high workloads. However, the higher demand on skeletal muscles involved must be considered.

  11. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Bresnahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms.

  12. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  13. 12 CFR 546.4 - Voluntary dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary dissolution. 546.4 Section 546.4... ASSOCIATIONS-MERGER, DISSOLUTION, REORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 546.4 Voluntary dissolution. A Federal savings association's board of directors may propose a plan for dissolution of the association. The plan...

  14. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hediction, voluntary intake, roughages, model). (Sleutelwoorde: ... fibre kinetics. By dividing voluntary feed intake into the fraction that is fermented in the rumen and the fraction which flows from the rumen, the basic model provides a logical way in ... Casein was infused per rumen to supply ammonia and amino acids to ...

  15. 78 FR 6208 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 68 RIN 0790-AI50 Voluntary Education Programs AGENCY: Office of the... the Federal Register titled Voluntary Education Programs. Subsequent to the publication of that rule...

  16. Bioethics for clinicians: 4. Voluntariness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, E; Sharpe, G; Dykeman, M J; Meslin, E M; Singer, P A

    1996-10-15

    In the context of consent, "voluntariness" refers to a patient's right to make health care choices free of any undue influence. However, a patient's freedom to make choices can be compromised by internal factors such as pain and by external factors such as force, coercion and manipulation. In exceptional circumstances--for example, involuntary admission to hospital--patients may be denied their freedom of choice; in such circumstances the least restrictive means possible of managing the patient should always be preferred. Clinicians can minimize the impact of controlling factors on patients' decisions by promoting awareness of available choices, inviting questions and ensuring that decisions are based on an adequate, unbiased disclosure of the relevant information.

  17. Bioethics for clinicians: 4. Voluntariness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, E; Sharpe, G; Dykeman, M J; Meslin, E M; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    In the context of consent, "voluntariness" refers to a patient's right to make health care choices free of any undue influence. However, a patient's freedom to make choices can be compromised by internal factors such as pain and by external factors such as force, coercion and manipulation. In exceptional circumstances--for example, involuntary admission to hospital--patients may be denied their freedom of choice; in such circumstances the least restrictive means possible of managing the patient should always be preferred. Clinicians can minimize the impact of controlling factors on patients' decisions by promoting awareness of available choices, inviting questions and ensuring that decisions are based on an adequate, unbiased disclosure of the relevant information. PMID:8873637

  18. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  19. Assessment of Subjective Perceived Exertion at the Anaerobic Threshold with the Borg CR-10 Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Zamunér, Antonio R.; Moreno, Marlene A.; Camargo, Taís M.; Graetz, Juliana P.; Rebelo, Ana C. S.; Tamburús, Nayara Y.; Ester da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT) with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R). Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years) were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG) and sedentary group (SG) and were...

  20. Exertional Heat Stroke and American Football: What the Team Physician Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jillian E; Belval, Luke N; Casa, Douglas J; O'Connor, Francis G

    Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses.

  1. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p high intrinsic capacity for aerobic exercise and better health have higher body temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs.

  2. Exercise and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation, and regular exercise may provide a strong stimulus for improving both. In this review, we first discuss the link between inflammation and metabolism. Next, we give an update on the clinical...... metabolic effects of exercise in T2DM patients with special focus on which parameters to consider for optimizing metabolic improvements. We then discuss the mechanisms whereby exercise exerts its anti-inflammatory and related metabolic effects. Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved...... in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α appears to be a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance. Mechanistic studies in humans suggest that moderate acute elevations in IL-6, as provoked by exercise, exert direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF...

  3. Exercise training does not improve cardiac function in compensated or decompensated left ventricular hypertrophy induced by aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deel, Elza D; de Boer, Martine; Kuster, Diederik W; Boontje, Nicky M; Holemans, Patricia; Sipido, Karin R; van der Velden, Jolanda; Duncker, Dirk J

    2011-06-01

    There is ample evidence that regular exercise exerts beneficial effects on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, remodeling and dysfunction produced by ischemic heart disease or systemic hypertension. In contrast, the effects of exercise on pathological LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by LV outflow obstruction have not been studied to date. Consequently, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running in mice (which mitigates post-infarct LV dysfunction) on LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by mild (mTAC) and severe (sTAC) transverse aortic constriction. mTAC produced ~40% LV hypertrophy and increased myocardial expression of hypertrophy marker genes but did not affect LV function, SERCA2a protein levels, apoptosis or capillary density. Exercise had no effect on global LV hypertrophy and function in mTAC but increased interstitial collagen, and ANP expression. sTAC produced ~80% LV hypertrophy and further increased ANP expression and interstitial fibrosis and, in contrast with mTAC, also produced LV dilation, systolic as well as diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, apoptosis and capillary rarefaction and decreased SERCA2a and ryanodine receptor (RyR) protein levels. LV diastolic dysfunction was likely aggravated by elevated passive isometric force and Ca(2+)-sensitivity of myofilaments. Exercise training failed to mitigate the sTAC-induced LV hypertrophy and capillary rarefaction or the decreases in SERCA2a and RyR. Exercise attenuated the sTAC-induced increase in passive isometric force but did not affect myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and tended to aggravate interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, exercise had no effect on LV function in compensated and decompensated cardiac hypertrophy produced by LV outflow obstruction, suggesting that the effect of exercise on pathologic LV hypertrophy and dysfunction depends critically on the underlying cause. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of carbohydrate intake and muscle glycogen content on self-paced intermittent-sprint exercise despite no knowledge of carbohydrate manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skein, Melissa; Duffield, Rob; Kelly, Bradley T; Marino, Frank E

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion and muscle glycogen content, without the influence of knowledge of CHO consumption, on intermittent-sprint performance. Ten males completed two conditions on two consecutive days. Day 1 involved 2 × 40 min of leg cycling separated by 15 min of arm cycling, followed by an overnight diet consuming either a high [HCHO; 7 g/kg body weight (bw)] or low (LCHO; 2 g/kg bw) CHO diet. Participants were blinded to the knowledge CHO was being examined or manipulated. Day 2 included a 60-min intermittent-sprint exercise (ISE) protocol that included 15-m maximal sprints every minute and self-paced efforts of varying intensities. Pre and post-ISE muscle biopsies were obtained on Day 2. Pre- and post-exercise maximal voluntary torque (MVT), voluntary activation (VA) and twitch contractile properties were assessed during 15 maximal isometric contractions. Blood glucose and lactate, heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded. Pre-ISE muscle glycogen was greater in HCHO compared with LCHO (597 ± 115 vs. 318 ± 72 mmol kg dry weight; P = 0.001). Total distance and hard running distance were 4.9 and 8.1% greater in HCHO, respectively (P = 0.02-0.04). Peak MVT, VA, HR and RPE were not different between conditions (P > 0.05). Blood glucose was higher pre-ISE for LCHO but lower post-ISE compared with HCHO (P exercise intensities during the ISE protocol despite no knowledge of dietary manipulation. Due to the blinded study design, exercise intensities seem manipulated due to peripheral perturbations associated with CHO content rather than a conscious manipulation of exercise intensities.

  5. Exertional and CrossFit-Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michelle; Sundaram, Sneha; Schafhalter-Zoppoth, Ingeborg

    2017-07-14

    Few publications of exercise-induced rhabomyolysis currently exist in the medical literature besides case reports. However, this condition can be severe, resulting in hospitalization and IV fluid administration to prevent serious sequelae. This report describes a case of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis caused by a CrossFit workout. A 31-year-old female presented with 2 days of bilateral upper extremity pain and soreness, which began 2 days after she completed a CrossFit workout. Workup revealed an elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) of 18 441 U/L, consistent with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, and elevated liver function tests and elevated D-dimer, although her renal function was normal. She was hospitalized for 2 days and treated with IV fluids. This case report demonstrates that CrossFit exercises can lead to rhabdomyolysis, highlighting a condition that may be underdiagnosed and underreported.

  6. Saccadic suppression during voluntary versus reactive saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmler, Svenja; Lappe, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Saccades are fast eye movements that reorient gaze. They can be performed voluntarily-for example, when viewing a scene-but they can also be triggered in reaction to suddenly appearing targets. The generation of these voluntary and reactive saccades have been shown to involve partially different cortical pathways. However, saccades of either type confront the visual system with a major challenge from massive image motion on the retina. Despite the fact that the whole scene is swept across the retina, a saccade usually does not elicit a percept of motion. This saccadic omission has been linked to a transient decrease of visual sensitivity during the eye movement, a phenomenon called saccadic suppression. A passive origin of saccadic suppression based on temporal masking has been proposed as well as an active central process that inhibits visual processing during the saccade. The latter one would need to include an extraretinal signal, which is generated already during saccade preparation. Since saccade generation differs for voluntary and reactive saccades, timing and nature of this extraretinal signal as well as its impact on visual sensitivity might also differ. We measured detection thresholds for luminance stimuli that were flashed during voluntary and reactive saccades and during fixation. Detection thresholds were higher during voluntary than during reactive saccades such that suppression appeared stronger during voluntary saccades. Stronger suppression in voluntary saccades could arise from a stronger extraretinal signal that activates suppression or could indicate that a suppression underlying process itself partially differs between voluntary and reactive saccades.

  7. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  8. Effects of caffeine on session ratings of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, L G; Green, J M; O'Neal, E K; McIntosh, J R; Hornsby, J; Coates, T E

    2013-03-01

    This study examined effects of caffeine on session ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) following 30 min constant-load cycling. Individuals (n = 15) of varying aerobic fitness completed a [Formula: see text] max trial and two 30 min cycling bouts (double-blind, counterbalanced) following ingestion of 6 mL/kg of caffeine or matched placebo. RPE overall, legs and breathing were estimated every 5 min and session RPE was estimated 30 min post-exercise using the OMNI pictorial scale. Session RPE for caffeine and placebo trails were compared using paired t test. Between-trial comparisons of HR, RPE overall, RPE legs and RPE breathing were analyzed using an independent 2 (trial) × 6 (time point) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each dependent variable. Caffeine resulted in a significantly lower session RPE (p < 0.05) for caffeine (6.1 ± 2.2) versus placebo (6.8 ± 2.1). Acute perceptual responses were significantly lower for caffeine for RPE overall (15, 20, 25, and 30 min), RPE breathing (15, 20, 25, and 30 min) and RPE legs (20 and 30 min). Survey responses post-exercise revealed greater feelings of nervousness, tremors, restlessness and stomach distress following caffeine versus placebo. Blunted acute RPE and survey responses suggest participants responded to caffeine ingestion. Caffeine decreased acute RPE during exercise which could partially account for lower session RPE responses. However, decreased session RPE could also reveal a latent analgesic affect of caffeine extending into recovery. Extending the understanding of session RPE could benefit coaches in avoiding overtraining when adjusting training programs.

  9. Environmental and Physiological Factors Associated With Stamina in Dogs Exercising in High Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Robbins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This IACUC approved study was performed to evaluate the environmental, physiological, and hematological components that contribute to stamina following successive bouts of exercise that included searching (5-min, agility (5-min, and ball retrieve (<10-min. Regularly exercised dogs (N = 12 were evaluated on five separate occasions. The population consisted of eight males and four females ranging in age from 8 to 23 months, which included six Labrador retrievers, three German shepherds, and one each English springer spaniel, German wirehaired pointer, and Dutch shepherd. The exercise period was up to 30 min with 5 min of intermittent rest between the exercise bouts or until a designated trainer determined that the dog appeared fatigued (e.g., curled tongue while panting, seeking shade, or voluntary reluctance to retrieve. At the end of the exercise period, pulse rate (PR, core temperature, blood lactate, and venous blood gas were collected. The median outdoor temperature was 28.9°C (84°F (IQR; 27.2–30°C/81–86°F and median humidity was 47% (IQR; 40–57%. Median duration of exercise was 27 min (IQR; 25–29. No dog showed signs of heat stress that required medical intervention. The components used to measure stamina in this study were total activity, post-exercise core body temperature (CBT, and increase in CBT. When controlling for breed, total activity, as measured by omnidirectional accelerometer device, could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: pre-exercise activity (p = 0.008, post-exercise activity (p < 0.001, outdoor temperature (p = 0.005, reduction in base excess in extracellular fluid compartment (BEecf (p = 0.044, and decrease in TCO2 (p = 0.005. When controlling for breed and sex, increase in CBT could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: study day (p = 0.005, increase in PR (p < 0.001, increase in lactate (p = 0

  10. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  11. Fluid consumption, exercise, and cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP Backes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory evidence supports the notion that dehydration degrades exercise performance and impairs certain cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a voluntary versus a dictated drinking condition on exercise and cognitive performance. The study used a double-blind and paired design. Twenty male and female college students (10 women, 10 men participated in an exercise protocol consisting of 1 hr of treadmill running followed by a high intensity portion continuing until voluntary exhaustion. The dictated drinking condition consisted of 900 ml of water equally distributed in 4 pre-prepared opaque bottles. At 15 min intervals the subject was instructed to drink the entire contents until the end of the 1 hr treadmill protocol. The voluntary drinking condition consisted of 225 ml of water within arm’s reach of the subjects while on the treadmill. Exercise performance was significantly better (longer duration and faster speed in the voluntary condition compared with the dictated condition. Cognitive test outcomes were not significantly different between drinking conditions. A difference in fluid absorption is a potential source of exercise impairment seen in the dictated fluid condition. The higher fluid consumption rate presumably would cause greater gastric and esophageal distention resulting in the diversion of blood flow from working muscles to the gastrointestinal system. In situations where dehydration is likely, drinking to recommended guidelines may protect individuals from dehydration and its negative effects. However, when dehydration is not likely, allowing an individual to follow voluntary drinking behavior is preferable for exercise performance.

  12. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia: Pain tolerance, preference and tolerance for exercise intensity, and physiological correlates following dynamic circuit resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Brandon A; Kraemer, Robert R; Chabreck, Chelsea N; Reynolds, Matthew L; McCaleb, Kayla M; Shaheen, Georgia L; Hollander, Daniel B

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated significant decreases in pain perception in healthy individuals following both aerobic and upper body resistance exercise, but research on circuit training has been limited. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a strenuous bout of dynamic circuit resistance exercise on pain threshold and pain tolerance in conjunction with changes in blood lactate levels, heart rate (HR), and perceived exertion. A sample of 24 college-age students participated in 2 sessions: (1) a maximal strength testing session and (2) a circuit training bout of exercise that consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions with a 1:1 work to rest ratio at 60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) predicted from a three-repetition maximum (3-RM) for 9 exercises. Participants exhibited increases in pain tolerance, blood lactate levels, HR and perceived exertion following resistance exercise. Preference for exercise intensity was positively correlated with lactate post exercise and tolerance for exercise intensity was positively correlated with pain tolerance and lactate post exercise. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate increases in pain tolerance following a dynamic circuit resistance exercise protocol and disposition for exercise intensity may influence lactate and pain responses to circuit resistance exercise.

  13. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  14. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a 21-Year-Old Healthy Woman: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Brianna D; Yeo, Noelle M; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Miramonti, Amelia A; Cramer, Joel T

    2017-05-01

    McKay, BD, Yeo, NM, Jenkins, NDM, Miramonti, AA, and Cramer, JT. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a 21-year-old healthy woman: a case report. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1403-1410, 2017-The optimal resistance training program to elicit muscle hypertrophy has been recently debated and researched. Although 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70-80% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) are widely recommended, recent studies have shown that low-load (∼30% 1RM) high-repetition (3 sets of 30-40 repetitions) resistance training can elicit similar muscular hypertrophy. Incidentally, this type of resistance training has gained popularity. In the process of testing this hypothesis in a research study in our laboratory, a subject was diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis after completing a resistance training session that involved 3 sets to failure at 30% 1RM. Reviewed were the events leading up to and throughout the diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a healthy recreationally-trained 21-year-old woman who was enrolled in a study that compared the acute effects of high-load low-repetition vs. low-load high-repetition resistance training. The subject completed a total of 143 repetitions of the bilateral dumbbell biceps curl exercise. Three days after exercise, she reported excessive muscle soreness and swelling and sought medical attention. She was briefly hospitalized and then discharged with instructions to take acetaminophen for soreness, drink plenty of water, rest, and monitor her creatine kinase (CK) concentrations. Changes in the subject's CK concentrations, ultrasound-determined muscle thickness, and echo intensity monitored over a 14-day period are reported. This case illustrates the potential risk of developing exertional rhabdomyolysis after a low-load high-repetition resistance training session in healthy, young, recreationally-trained women. The fact that exertional rhabdomyolysis is a possible outcome may warrant caution when prescribing this type of resistance

  15. Hemodynamic responses to single sessions of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov Fieril, Karolina; Glantz, Anna; Fagevik Olsen, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Previous research on maternal hemodynamic responses to a single exercise session during pregnancy is sparse, especially considering immediate responses to resistance exercise. The aim of the study was to examine blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and Rating of Perceived Exertion in healthy pregnant women during single sessions of continuous submaximal exercise in pregnancy week 21. A cross-over design was used. Twenty healthy pregnant women from four prenatal clinics in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included. On day 1, the women did 30 min of aerobic exercise and on day 3 they did 30 min of resistance exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and Rating of Perceived Exertion were measured after 15 and 30 min of exercise. After 15 and 30 min of exercise, there was a significant increase in systolic blood pressure and heart rate (p exercise (p = 0.01) than resistance exercise (p = 0.03). Resistance exercise was perceived as more intense than aerobic exercise after 15 min (p = 0.02) and 30 min (p = 0.001) of exercise. Five minutes after completing the exercise, blood pressure quickly reverted to normal although heart rate was still increased (p = 0.001). There was no correlation between heart rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion (rs  = 0.05-0.43). Maternal hemodynamic responses were essentially the same, regardless of whether the exercise was submaximal aerobic or resistance exercise, although resistance exercise was perceived as more intense. Aerobic and resistance exercise corresponding to "somewhat hard" seems to have no adverse effect with regard to maternal hemodynamic responses in healthy pregnancy. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Feasibility to apply eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation in young elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Eycken, S; Schelpe, A; Marijsse, G; Dilissen, E; Troosters, T; Vanbelle, V; Aertgeerts, S; Dupont, L J; Peers, K; Bullens, D M; Seys, S F

    2016-02-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is more common in athletes compared to the general population. The eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation test is used to detect EIB in adult athletes. It is however unclear whether this technique is also applicable to young athletes. Young athletes (basketball (n = 13), football (n = 19), swimming (n = 12)) were recruited at the start of their elite sports career (12-14 years). Eight age-matched controls were also recruited. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation test was performed according to ATS guidelines in all subjects. A second (after 1 year, n = 32) and third (after 2 years, n = 39) measurement was performed in a subgroup of athletes and controls. At time of first evaluation, 3/13 basketball players, 4/19 football players, 5/11 swimmers and 1/8 controls met criteria for EIB (fall in FEV1≥10% after EVH). A ventilation rate of >85% of the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) is recommended by current guidelines (for adults) but was only achieved by a low number of individuals (first occasion: 27%, third occasion: 45%) However, MVV in young athletes corresponds to 30 times FEV1, which is equivalent to 85% of MVV in adults. A threshold of 70% of MVV (21 times FEV1) is feasible in the majority of young athletes. EIB is present in a substantial number of individuals at the age of 12-14 years, especially in swimmers. This underscores the importance of screening for EIB at this age. EVH is feasible in young elite athletes, however target ventilation needs to be adjusted accordingly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exertional leg pain: teasing out arterial entrapments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thomas T; Kapur, Rahul; Harwood, Marc I

    2007-12-01

    Vascular causes of exertional lower extremity pain are relatively rare, but may be the answer in athletes refractory to treatment for the more common overuse syndromes of the lower extremities. It is important to differentiate these vascular causes from chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), and stress fractures in order to develop appropriate treatment plans, avoid complications, and return athletes to play expeditiously. Important vascular etiologies to be considered are popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), endofibrotic disease, popliteal artery aneurysm, cystic adventitial disease, and peripheral arterial dissections. The diagnostic workup involves angiography or noninvasive vascular studies such as Doppler ultrasound or magnetic resonance angiography in both the neutral and provocative positions. Treatment of these vascular abnormalities typically involves surgical correction of the vascular anomaly.

  18. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: a case series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J S; Wheeler, P C; Boyd, K T; Barnes, M R; Allen, M J

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is rare in the published literature. We report the outcome of a series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy over a 14 year period. All patients underwent dynamic intra-compartmental pressure testing using a slit catheter technique before surgery. Raised intra-compartmental pressures on exercise, typical symptoms and the absence of other diagnoses were criteria for offering surgical intervention. The superficial flexor, deep flexor and e...

  19. Ventilatory responses to imagined exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, J; Denot-Ledunois, S; Vardon, G; Perruchet, P

    1996-11-01

    We studied whether the ventilatory responses to imagined exercise are influenced by automatic processes. Twentynine athletes produced mental images of a sport event with successive focus on the environment, the preparation, and the exercise. Mean breathing frequency increased from 15 to 22 breaths/min. Five participants reported having voluntarily controlled breathing, two of them during preparation. Twenty participants reported that their breathing pattern changed during the experiment: 11 participants were unable to correctly report on the direction of changes in frequency, and 13 incorrectly reported changes in amplitude. This finding suggests that these changes were not voluntary in most participants and may therefore reveal automatic forebrain influences on exercise hyperpnea. However, these changes may also reflect nonspecific processes (e.g., arousal) different from those occurring during actual exercise.

  20. Effect of slow rhythmic voluntary breathing pattern on isometric handgrip among health care students

    OpenAIRE

    Rajajeyakumar M, Janitha A, Madanmohan, Balachander J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hand grip strength is a widely used test in experimental and epidemiologicalstudies. The measure of hand grip strength is influenced by several factors, including age; gender; different angle of the shoulder, elbow, forearm, and wrist; and posture.So we planned to study theeffect of slow voluntary breathing exercise (Savitri Pranayam) onthe various strengths of isometric hand grip (IHG) amongyoung health care students.Methods: The present study was conducted on 60 volunteers 17-...

  1. Effect of motivational music on lactate levels during recovery from intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Michal; Bodner, Ehud; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Meckel, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    The effects of music played during an exercise task on athletic performance have been previously studied. Yet, these results are not applicable for competitive athletes, who can use music only during warm-up or recovery from exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of motivational music (music that stimulates or inspires physical activity) during recovery from intense exercise, on activity pattern, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration. Twenty young, active men (mean age 26.2 ± 2.1 years) performed a 6-minute run at peak oxygen consumption speed (predetermined from the VO(2) max test). The mean heart rate (HR), RPE, number of steps (determined by step counter), and blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 minutes during the recovery from the exercise, with and without motivational music (2 separate sessions, at random order). There was no difference in the mean HR during the recovery with and without music. Listening to motivational music during the recovery was associated with increased voluntary activity of the participants, determined by increased number of steps (499.4 ± 220.1 vs. 413.2 ± 150.6 steps, with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The increased number of steps during the recovery was accompanied by a significantly greater decrease in blood lactate concentration percentage (28.1 ± 12.2 vs. 22.8 ± 10.9%, with and without music, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). This was associated with a greater decrease in RPE (77.7 ± 14.4 vs. 73.1 ± 14.7% with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Our results suggest that listening to motivational music during nonstructured recovery from intense exercise leads to increased activity, faster lactate clearance, and reduced RPE and therefore may be used by athletes in their effort to enhance recovery.

  2. Recommendations for aerobic endurance training based on subjective ratings of perceived exertion in healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Cordes, Mareike; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Aarno; Faude, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated physiological responses during 2-km walking at a certain intensity of a previously performed maximal exercise test where moderate perceived exertion was reported. Twenty seniors were examined by an incremental walking treadmill test to obtain maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). A submaximal 2-km walking test was applied 1 wk later. The corresponding moderate perceived exertion (4 on the CR-10 scale) during the VO2max test was applied to the 2-km treadmill test. Moderate exertion (mean rating of perceived exertion [RPE]: 4 ± 1) led to 76% ± 8% of VO2max and 79% ± 6% of maximal heart rate. RPE values drifted with a significant time effect (p = .001, η(p) = .58) during the 2-km test from 3 ± 0.7 to 4.6 ± 0.8. Total energy expenditure (EE) was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal/kg. No gender differences in ventilatory, heart-rate, or EE data occurred. Brisk walking at moderate RPE of 3-5 would lead to a beneficial physiological response during endurance training and a weekly EE of nearly 1,200 kcal when exercising 5 times/wk for 30 min.

  3. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  4. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  5. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  6. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  7. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions......This paper draws attention to the importance of the understanding of voluntary actions in the free market construct. Failing to understand the role of voluntary actions in the free market construct will often result in discussions of capitalism versus socialism focusing on asset ownership...... are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism....

  8. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    as well as the resilience of targeted urban neighbourhoods. The aim in the paper is to explore the different ways voluntary community organisations interact with public sector urban regeneration activities. The paper includes data from a survey and case studies of urban regeneration programmes in three......While short-term enrolling of citizens in urban regeneration projects often has proven quite successful, permanent embedding of projects in voluntary community-based settings seems to be much more difficult to obtain. This has implications for long term sustainability of urban regeneration projects...... Danish municipalities. In the paper is proposed a conceptual framework for understanding the logic and types of voluntary organisations and the nature of the collaboration between voluntary organisations and public sector counterparts within the domain of urban regeneration. The study showed...

  9. Neurochemical and behavioral indices of exercise reward are independent of exercise controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jonathan J; Fedynska, Sofiya; Ghasem, Parsa R; Wieman, Tyler; Clark, Peter J; Gray, Nathan; Loetz, Esteban; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2016-01-01

    Brain reward circuits are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related disorders, but the contribution of exercise reward to stress resistance is unknown. Exercise-induced stress resistance is independent of exercise controllability; both voluntary and forced wheel running protect rats against anxiety- and depression-like behavioral consequences of stress. Voluntary exercise is a natural reward, but whether rats find forced wheel running rewarding is unknown. Moreover, the contribution of dopamine (DA) and striatal reward circuits to exercise reward is not well characterized. Adult, male rats were assigned to locked wheels, voluntary running (VR), or forced running (FR) groups. FR rats were forced to run in a pattern resembling rats' natural wheel running behavior. Both VR and FR increased the reward-related plasticity marker ΔFosB in the dorsal striatum (DS) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), and increased activity of DA neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area (VTA), as revealed by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and pCREB. Both VR and FR rats developed conditioned place preference (CPP) to the side of a CPP chamber paired with exercise. Re-exposure to the exercise-paired side of the CPP chamber elicited conditioned increases in cfos mRNA in direct pathway (dynorphin-positive) neurons in the DS and NAc in both VR and FR rats, and in TH-positive neurons in the lateral VTA of VR rats only. Results suggest that the rewarding effects of exercise are independent of exercise controllability and provide insight into the DA and striatal circuitries involved in exercise reward and exercise-induced stress resistance. PMID:26833814

  10. Estimation of Oxygen Cost of Internal Power during Cycling Exercise with Changing Pedal Rate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tokui, Masato; Hirakoba, Kohji

    2008-01-01

    ...) exerted in exercising muscle itself would be larger than for an external power output (Pext) calculated from external load and pedal rate during cycling exercise under various conditions of Pint and Pext in a large range of pedal rates...

  11. Dalhousie Dyspnea and perceived exertion scales: psychophysical properties in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, Paolo T; Huebner, Marianne; Zhang, Zhen; McGrath, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Children and adolescents vary widely in their perception of, or capacity to rate, sensations during exercise using the Borg scale. We sought to measure sensory-perceptual responses obtained using Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales in 79 pediatric subjects during maximal exercise challenge and to determine the psychophysical function relationship(s). Concurrent validity was assessed by canonical plots of mean ratings on either scale, which showed showing very good correlations for perceived leg exertion vs work, and dyspnea vs ventilation. Both scales yielded similar results with respect to goodness of fit regardless of whether data was fitted to a power or quadratic function provided a delay term was included. The quadratic model fixed the exponent of the power law at 2 but, unlike a power model, allowed characterization of individual responses that increased and then plateaued. Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales offer an alternative to Borg scale during exercise in pediatric populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Effects of voluntary wheel running on health indexes in rats with SRBC-induced inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Y; Machida, K; Suzuki, K; Tsukamoto, K

    1994-02-01

    The effects of voluntary running exercise on health indexes in rats were studied before and after Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC)-induced inflammation. Male Fischer rats (SPF) 8 weeks of age were housed in individual sedentary cages (sedentary group) or in individual wheel-running cages (exercise group) for 4 months. Then all rats were injected with 20% SRBC (0.5 ml/100g body weight) i.p. Voluntary running activity averaged 1408m/day, reached a peak (2913m/day) at the 25th day and waned over time, reaching a plateau at the 60th day (about 1000m/day). In spite of a significant increase in food intake (117%), exercising rats gained significantly less weight (93%) than sedentary rats at all times in experimental period. The exercise group also showed a significant decrease in the value of serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (T. CHO) (TG p rats, and at 4 days after i.p. SRBC, the difference became statistically significant (Ht p rats had normal or slightly higher levels of GOT and GPT. On the other hand, exercised rats had lower GOT and GPT. Significant differences were found between the groups (GOT, GPT p < 0.0001).

  13. Respostas de freqüência cardíaca, consumo de oxigênio e sensação subjetiva ao esforço em um exercício de hidroginástica executado por mulheres em diferentes situações com e sem o equipamento aquafins Heart rate, oxygen consumption and rating of perceived exertion responses in a water aerobic exercise performed by women at different situations with and without the aquafins apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Santana Pinto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available As aulas de hidroginástica estão cada vez mais diversificadas com o uso de materiais apropriados ao meio aquático. Entretanto, poucos estudos verificaram a influência da utilização de tais materiais nas respostas cardiorrespiratórias. O objetivo foi analisar as respostas de freqüência cardíaca, consumo de oxigênio e sensação subjetiva ao esforço em mulheres durante a execução de um exercício de hidroginástica em diferentes situações com e sem o equipamento resistivo Aquafins®. Onze mulheres realizaram o exercício deslize frontal com a flexão e extensão horizontal de ombros em quatro situações: sem equipamento resistivo (S-FINS, com Aquafins nos membros inferiores (FINS-MIs, com Aquafins nos membros superiores (FINS-MSs e com Aquafins nos membros superiores e inferiores (FINS-MIs/MSs. Em todas as situações foi verificado a FC, o VO2 e a SSE. Utilizou-se ANOVA para medidas repetidas, com post-hoc de Bonferroni (p Aquatic exercise sessions are becoming increasingly diversified due to the use of apparatus appropriate to aquatic environment. However, few studies analyzed the influence of the use of such apparatus in the cardiorespiratory responses. The purpose was to analyze the heart rate, oxygen consumption and the rating of perceived exertion of effort in women during an aquatic exercise performed in different situations with and without resistive equipment, AquafinsTM. Eleven women performed the cross country skiing exercise with horizontal shoulder flexion and extension in four situations: without resistive equipment (NO-FINS, with Aquafins on the lower limbs (FINS-LLs, with Aquafins on the upper limbs (FINS-ULs and with Aquafins on the lower and upper limbs (FINS-LLs/ULs. In each situation HR, VO2 and SSE were verified. For data analysis, ANOVA for repeated measures were used, with the Bonferroni post-hoc test (p < 0.05. When compared to the other situations, HR was significantly higher with the FINS-LLs/ULs (159

  14. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19–21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25–75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  15. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19-21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25-75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function.

  16. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M; Davis, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Differential influences of prism adaptation on reflexive and voluntary covert attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striemer, Christopher; Sablatnig, Jeffery; Danckert, James

    2006-05-01

    Recent research has demonstrated some beneficial effects in patients with neglect using rightward shifting prismatic lenses. Despite a great deal of research exploring this effect, we know very little about the cognitive mechanisms underlying prism adaptation in neglect. We examined the possibility that prism adaptation influences visual attention by having healthy participants complete either a reflexive or a voluntary covert visual attention cuing paradigm before and after adaptation to leftward, rightward, or sham (no shift) prisms. The results for reflexive orienting demonstrated that a subset of participants with large cuing effects before prism adaptation were faster to reorient attention away from an invalid cue on the side of space opposite the prismatic shift post adaptation. For voluntary orienting, left prisms increased the efficiency of voluntary attention in both left and right visual space in participants with a small cuing effect before prism adaptation. In contrast, right prisms decreased the efficiency of voluntary attention in both left and right space for participants with a large cuing effect before prism adaptation. No significant effects were observed in the sham prism groups. These results suggest that prism adaptation may exert a variety of influences on attentional orienting mechanisms.

  18. Environmental and Physiological Factors Associated With Stamina in Dogs Exercising in High Ambient Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Patrick J.; Ramos, Meghan T.; Zanghi, Brian M.; Otto, Cynthia M.

    2017-01-01

    This IACUC approved study was performed to evaluate the environmental, physiological, and hematological components that contribute to stamina following successive bouts of exercise that included searching (5-min), agility (5-min), and ball retrieve (dogs (N = 12) were evaluated on five separate occasions. The population consisted of eight males and four females ranging in age from 8 to 23 months, which included six Labrador retrievers, three German shepherds, and one each English springer spaniel, German wirehaired pointer, and Dutch shepherd. The exercise period was up to 30 min with 5 min of intermittent rest between the exercise bouts or until a designated trainer determined that the dog appeared fatigued (e.g., curled tongue while panting, seeking shade, or voluntary reluctance to retrieve). At the end of the exercise period, pulse rate (PR), core temperature, blood lactate, and venous blood gas were collected. The median outdoor temperature was 28.9°C (84°F) (IQR; 27.2–30°C/81–86°F) and median humidity was 47% (IQR; 40–57%). Median duration of exercise was 27 min (IQR; 25–29). No dog showed signs of heat stress that required medical intervention. The components used to measure stamina in this study were total activity, post-exercise core body temperature (CBT), and increase in CBT. When controlling for breed, total activity, as measured by omnidirectional accelerometer device, could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: pre-exercise activity (p = 0.008), post-exercise activity (p < 0.001), outdoor temperature (p = 0.005), reduction in base excess in extracellular fluid compartment (BEecf) (p = 0.044), and decrease in TCO2 (p = 0.005). When controlling for breed and sex, increase in CBT could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: study day (p = 0.005), increase in PR (p < 0.001), increase in lactate (p = 0.001), reduction in BEecf (p = 0

  19. Management of chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common symptoms were isolated muscle pain in the anterolateral compartments in all patients, paraesthesia in 15% and swelling in 10%. Post-exercise mean compartment pressure was 61 mmHg (normal <30 mmHg). Modified open fasciotomies were performed by lateral and medial incisions in lower limbs and by a ...

  20. CNS fatigue provoked by prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Exercise-induced hyperthermia is associated with central fatigue as indicated by an impaired ability to sustain maximal motor activation during prolonged voluntary efforts. Therefore, exercise in hot environments challenges not only to the cardiorespiratory and locomotive systems but also...... to aggravate central fatigue and degrade exercise performance. Hyperthermia mediated central fatigue may include other cerebral perturbations such as reduced perfusion of the brain, accumulation of ammonia or depletion of neuronal energy stores, but further research is needed to elucidate their possible...

  1. Support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia: what roles do conditions of suffering and the identity of the terminally ill play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Robert; Chantagul, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the level of support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia under three conditions of suffering (pain; debilitated nature of the body; burden on the family) experienced by oneself, a significant other, and a person in general. The sample consisted of 1,897 Thai adults (719 males, 1,178 females) who voluntarily filled in the study's questionnaire. Initial multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant group (oneself, significant other, person in general) differences in level of support for voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia and under the three conditions of suffering. Multigroup path analysis conducted on the posited euthanasia model showed that the three conditions of suffering exerted differential direct and indirect influences on the support of voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia as a function of the identity of the person for whom euthanasia was being considered. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  4. Exercise Physiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Occupational Outlook Handbook > Healthcare > Exercise Physiologists PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Exercise Physiologists Do About this section Exercise physiologists analyze ...

  5. Validity of the CALER and OMNI-bike ratings of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Jacob E; Roemmich, James N

    2008-04-01

    To test the validity of the Cart and Load Effort Rating (CALER) and OMNI bike RPE scales. Children (16 boys aged 9.5 +/- 0.7 and 16 girls aged 9.4 +/- 0.8) performed a progressive exercise test on a cycle ergometer to exhaustion. Random effects models and correlation analysis were used to determine the association of the undifferentiated perceived exertion from the CALER and OMNI bike scales with heart rate and V O2 for concurrent validity and the association of the CALER scale with the validated OMNI bike scale for construct validity. Tests of proportions were performed to compare the proportion of maximal RPE scale (CALER, OMNI bike) with the proportion of maximal heart rate achieved during the final stage of the exercise test. Concurrent validity of the CALER and OMNI bike scales was established, as increases in scores of both scales were associated with (P bike scale (r = 0.93). The proportion of maximal CALER (75 +/- 20%) and OMNI bike (74 +/- 19%) scales were less (P bike RPE scales was established for a progressively increasing exercise paradigm. However, the proportion of maximal perceived exertion scores from both scales was lower than the proportion of predicted maximal heart rate achieved during the final stage of the exercise test.

  6. Exercise and cancer: from "healthy" to "therapeutic"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idorn, Manja; Thor Straten, Per

    2017-05-01

    Exercise improves functional capacity and patient-reported outcomes across a range of cancer diagnoses. The mechanisms behind this protection have been largely unknown, but exercise-mediated changes in body composition, sex hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and immune cell function have been suggested to play a role. We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors, and a more than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Given the common mechanisms of immune cell mobilization in mouse and man during exercise, we hypothesize that this link between exercise and the immune system can be exploited in cancer therapy in particular in combination with immunotherapy. Thus, we believe that exercise may not just be "healthy" but may in fact be therapeutic.

  7. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Fatigue-related firing of muscle nociceptors reduces voluntary activation of ipsilateral but not contralateral lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan C; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2015-02-15

    During fatiguing upper limb exercise, maintained firing of group III/IV muscle afferents can limit voluntary drive to muscles within the same limb. It is not known if this effect occurs in the lower limb. We investigated the effects of group III/IV muscle afferent firing from fatigued ipsilateral and contralateral extensor muscles and ipsilateral flexor muscles of the knee on voluntary activation of the knee extensors. In three experiments, we examined voluntary activation of the knee extensors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. Subjects attended on 2 days for each experiment. On one day a sphygmomanometer cuff occluded blood flow of the fatigued muscles to maintain firing of group III/IV muscle afferents. After a 2-min extensor contraction (experiment 1; n = 9), mean voluntary activation was lower with than without maintained ischemia (47 ± 19% vs. 87 ± 8%, respectively; P fatiguing exercise, activity in group III/IV muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle and nonfatigued antagonist muscles in the same leg. However, group III/IV muscle afferents from the fatigued left leg had no effect on the unfatigued right leg. This suggests that any "crossover" of central fatigue in the lower limbs is not mediated by group III/IV muscle afferents. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ... © 2017 North American Spine Society | ...

  10. Traction Forces exerted by crawling cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Aliseda, Alberto; Meili, Rudolph; Firtel, Richard; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2006-11-01

    We measure the forces exerted by Dictyostelium discoideum cells crawling over a deformable substrate from the displacements of fluorescent beads embedded in it. A particle tracking technique similar to PIV is used to obtain the displacements. From them, forces are computed by solving the elasto-static equation in a finite thickness slab. We will show that the finite thickness of the substrate and the distance of the beads to its surface affect substantially the results, although previous traction cytometry techniques neglected them. The measured forces are correlated to the different stages of the crawling cycle for various cell strains. It has been observed that a large fraction of the forces measured on the substrate are originated by the cell's internal tension through all the stages of motion, including the protrusion of pseudopods. This result suggests that the viscous drag exerted by the fluid in which the cells are immersed is very small compared to the forces applied by the cytoskeleton on the substrate.

  11. EXERTIONAL RHABDOMYOLYSIS OF THE BILATERAL ADDUCTOR MAGNUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a person (63 year-old man, who has been using statins for 18 years, with rhabdomyolysis of the bilateral adductor muscles associated with strenuous and prolonged eccentric exercises (hiking in a hot environment. Clinical examination showed predominantly on the right side muscle swelling and palpational pain of the bilateral adductor muscle groups and bilateral tibial edema. His serum creatine kinase (CK level was 12218 IU/L. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR images showed a high signal intensity in the bilateral adductor muscles of the hip. The patient did not develop complications and returned to his previous performance level in 30 days following adequate hydration and resting of the affected muscles. Strenuous eccentric exercise should be avoided during the course of statin use and clinicians should be aware of present observations when considering the significance of acute CK elevations in patients on statin treatment

  12. Exercise intervention may prevent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S-B; Tang, W-G; Tang, W-J; Kao, X-L; Zhang, C-G; Wong, X-T

    2012-07-01

    Physical activity is an effective component of depression management. However, the mechanisms by which exercise affects behavioral disorders remain unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate mechanisms by which voluntary exercise ameliorates depression. Plasma cortisol levels and hippocampal monoamine neurotransmitters were measured. Chronic mild stress (CMS) was used to induce depression in a rat model. The rats were allowed to swim for 10 weeks as part of their exercise treatment. Depressive behavior was analyzed using an open-field test and a sucrose consumption test before and after exercise. Serum cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters in the hippocampus were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The CMS rats showed behavioral improvement after exercise. Compared with the control, serum cortisol levels were significantly increased by CMS. The serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine levels in the hippocampi were significantly increased by exercise. These findings indicate that exercise reverses and prevents the decrease in serotonin and noradrenaline, and restores dopamine in the CMS model. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The effect of acute exercise on pistol shooting performance of police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa J; Tandy, Richard D; Wulf, Gabriele; Young, John C

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that rifle shooting performance while standing is compromised when fatigued. Apprehension of suspects by police officers may involve foot pursuit and firing a weapon from a standing position. The purpose of the current study was to investigate pistol shooting performance in police officers under similar conditions of physical fatigue. Participants (mean age: 30.1 years; 4.4 years of experience as police officer) completed two shooting trials separated by an acute bout of exercise on a cycle ergometer to voluntary exhaustion. Each trial consisted of three rounds of five rapid-fire shots at a target, each round separated by a 15-s rest. Participants' backs were turned to the target between rounds. Despite physical exertion, with an average heart rate of 164 bpm, shooting accuracy (mean distance of the closest 4 shots from the center of the target) and precision (diameter of the tightest 4-shot grouping) remained unchanged on postexercise trials relative to preexercise trials. This suggests that automatic shooting reactions override the adverse consequences of fatiguing exercise on shooting performance.

  14. The cyclical lower extremity exercise for Parkinson's trial (CYCLE): methodology for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Rasanow, Matthew; Penko, Amanda L; Beall, Erik B; Alberts, Jay L

    2015-04-24

    Motor and non-motor impairments affect quality of life in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Our preliminary research indicates that forced exercise cycling, a mode of exercise in which a participant's voluntary rate of exercise is augmented on a stationary cycle, results in global improvements in the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The objective of the Cyclical Lower Extremity Exercise (CYCLE) trial for Parkinson's disease is to determine the effects of forced exercise cycling on motor and non-motor performance when compared to voluntary rate cycling and a non-exercise control group. Additionally, we plan to identify any associated changes in neural activity determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 100 individuals with mild to moderate idiopathic Parkinson's disease will participate in a single-center, parallel-group, rater-blind study. Participants will be randomized 2:2:1 into a forced exercise, voluntary exercise, or no-exercise control group, respectively. Both exercise groups will cycle 3 times per week for 8 weeks at identical aerobic intensities for 40 minutes, but participants in the forced exercise group will cycle 30% faster than their voluntary rate by means of an augmented motorized bicycle. Neuroimaging, clinical, and biomechanical assessments of motor and non-motor performance will be made at baseline both 'on' and 'off' medication, after four weeks of exercise (midpoint), end of treatment, 4 weeks after end of treatment, and 8 weeks after end of treatment. CYCLE trial will play a critical role in determining the effectiveness of two different types of aerobic exercise, forced and voluntary, on motor and non-motor performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Additionally, the coupling of clinical, biomechanical, and neuroimaging outcomes has the potential to provide insight into mechanisms underlying change in function as a result of exercise. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT01636297.

  15. Cross-sectional assessment of exertional dyspnea in otherwise healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahut, Bruno; Fuchs-Climent, Deborah; Plantier, Laurent; Karila, Chantal; Refabert, Luc; Chevalier-Bidaud, Brigitte; Beydon, Nicole; Peiffer, Claudine; Delclaux, Christophe

    2014-08-01

    Exertional dyspnea during sport at school in children with asthma or in otherwise healthy children is commonly attributed to exercise-induced asthma (EIA), but when a short-acting beta agonist (SABA) trial fails to improve symptoms the physician is often at a loose end. The aims were to prospectively assess the causes of exertional dyspnea in children/adolescents with or without asthma using a cardiopulmonary exercise test while receiving a SABA and to assess the effects of standardized breathing/reassurance therapy. Seventy-nine patients (12.2 ± 2.3 years, 41 girls, 49 with previously diagnosed asthma) with dyspnea unresponsive to SABA were prospectively included. Exercise test outcomes depicted normal or subnormal performance with normal ventilatory demand and capacity in 53/79 children (67%) defining a physiological response. The remaining 26 children had altered capacity (resistant EIA [n = 17, 9 with previous asthma diagnosis], vocal cord dysfunction [n = 2]) and/or increased demand (alveolar hyperventilation [n = 3], poor conditioning [n = 7]). Forty-two children who had similar characteristics than the remaining 37 children underwent the two sessions of standardized reassurance therapy. They all demonstrated an improvement that was rated "large." The degree of improvement correlated with % predicted peak V'O2 (r = -0.37, P = 0.015) and peak oxygen pulse (r = -0.45, P = 0.003), whatever the underlying dyspnea cause. It suggested a higher benefit in those with poorer conditioning condition. The most frequent finding in children/adolescents with mild exertional dyspnea unresponsive to preventive SABA is a physiological response to exercise, and standardized reassurance afforded early clinical improvement, irrespective of the dyspnea cause. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  17. SEA Screening of voluntary Climate Change Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2013-01-01

    that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation...... and adap- tation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon...... rests upon a docu- mentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical...

  18. Long-Term Oral Feeding of Lutein-Fortified Milk Increases Voluntary Running Distance in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hagio, Masahito; Inoue, Ryo; Mitani, Tomohiro; Yajima, Masako; Hara, Hiroshi; Yajima, Takaji

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lutein-fortified milk administration on running exercise, a voluntary wheel-running model was performed in rats. Four-week-old F344 rats were administered test milk (10 mL/kg) daily following a 4-h fasting period, and their running distances were measured each day for a 9-week period. Total weekly running distance significantly increased from the sixth week until the end of the test period in lutein-supplemented rats (lutein-fortified milk administered) compared with control rats (vehicle administered). This increase was not apparent in rats administered lutein alone. In the lutein-fortified-milk exercise group compared with the sedentary control group, carnitine palitroyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), total AMP-activated protein kinase (tAMPK), and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) contents were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle, with a concomitant decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the blood and liver. Furthermore, the lutein level in blood of lutein-administered rats significantly decreased with exercise. These results suggest that lutein-fortified milk may enhance the effect of exercise by effective utilization of lipids when combined with voluntary running. PMID:24699440

  19. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  20. Muscular Contraction Mode Differently Affects Autonomic Control During Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eWeippert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. Aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN and isometric contractions (ISO at a similar, low heart rate (HR level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively, rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a nonlinear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  1. Special Training of Inspiratory Muscles in Fitness Activities and Exercise Capacity in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchenko Viktor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine if an 8-week-long endurance fitness training with elastic belts would increase the strength-endurance of the inspiratory muscles and lung function characteristics, and to assess whether these changes were consistent with an increase in aerobic power and exercise capacity in healthy young women. Methods. Twenty-two females aged 20-25 years were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The experimental group preformed 8-week-long exercises on stationary bikes with an elastic belt on the lower part of the chest. The control group underwent the same workout, without elastic belts. Vital capacity, forced vital capacity, maximal voluntary ventilation, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure, sustained maximal inspiratory pressure, physical activity status, and perceived exertion scores were measured. In the incremental exercise test, work capacity and maximal oxygen uptake were assessed. Tidal volume, minute ventilation (VE, oxygen uptake (VO2, VE/VO2, heart rate (HR, and VO2/HR were continuously monitored. The cycle performance at the power of the ventilatory threshold was evaluated on the following day. Results. The fitness training with elastic belts significantly improved the strength and strength-endurance of the inspiratory muscles, the functional cardio-respiratory capabilities, and aerobic work output. In the control group, the studied parameters were not significantly increased. Conclusions. Applying elastic belts to fitness endurance exercises improves the strength and strength-endurance of inspiratory muscles, cardio-respiratory capabilities, and aerobic power, which additionally raises aerobic work output in fitness training of young women.

  2. Psychological and Physiological Biomarkers of Neuromuscular Fatigue after Two Bouts of Sprint Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Skurvydas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our study was to determinate whether a repeated bout (RB (vs. first bout [FB] of sprint interval cycling exercise (SIE is sufficient to mitigate SIE-induced psychological and physiological biomarker kinetics within 48 h after the exercise. Ten physically active men (age, 22.6 ± 5.2 years; VO2max, 44.3 ± 5.7 ml/kg/min performed the FB of SIE (12 repeats of 5 s each on one day and the RB 2 weeks later. The following parameters were measured: motor performance (voluntary, electrically induced and isokinetic skeletal muscle contraction torque, and central activation ratio [CAR]; stress markers [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cortisol, norepinephrine, and epinephrine]; inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α; metabolic markers (glucose and lactate; muscle and rectal temperature; cycling power output; and psychological perceptions. The average cycling power output and neuromuscular fatigue after exercise did not differ between the FB and RB. There were significant decreases in cortisol and BDNF concentration at 12 h (P < 0.05 and 24 h (P < 0.001 after the FB, respectively. The decrease in cortisol concentration observed 12 h after exercise was significantly greater after the RB (P < 0.05 than after the FB. The immune-metabolic response to the RB (vs. FB SIE was suppressed and accompanied by lower psychological exertion. Most of the changes in psychological and physiological biomarkers in the FB and RB were closely related to the response kinetics of changes in BDNF concentration.

  3. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...... million person-hours, and the attributable proportion was 5.7 percent. The risk was modified by physical fitness, with an increased risk being seen among sedentary subjects as in earlier studies, but the data also suggested a U-shaped association. In addition, the trigger effect was modified......, and a standard case-referent analysis) were applied to overcome the threat of misclassification of control exposure information. A case-crossover analysis in a random sample of healthy subjects resulted in a relative risk close to unity, as expected....

  4. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  5. Exercise Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  6. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...... institutional environments. It also informs higher education research and policy on the effectiveness of new organizational designs based on centralized and specialized support structures at universities....... in three fields of action: the training of young scientists, internationalization, and gender diversity. The findings indicate that organized collaboration may lead to improved performance in the training of young scientists and gender diversity. Conversely, voluntary collective action enhances...

  7. Test-Retest Reliability of Rating of Perceived Exertion and Agreement With 1-Repetition Maximum in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; DePaul, Samantha M; Terhorst, Lauren; Irrgang, James J; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background It has been suggested that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) may be a useful alternative to 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to determine proper resistance exercise dosage. However, the test-retest reliability of RPE for resistance exercise has not been determined. Additionally, prior research regarding the relationship between 1RM and RPE is conflicting. Objectives The purpose of this study was to (1) determine test-retest reliability of RPE related to resistance exercise and (2) assess agreement between percentages of 1RM and RPE during quadriceps resistance exercise. Methods A sample of participants with and without knee pathology completed a series of knee extension exercises and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale, then repeated the procedure 1 to 2 weeks later for test-retest reliability. To determine agreement between RPE and 1RM, participants completed knee extension exercises at various percentages of their 1RM (10% to 130% of predicted 1RM) and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale. Percent agreement was calculated between the 1RM and RPE at each resistance interval. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated excellent test-retest reliability of RPE for quadriceps resistance exercises (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.895; 95% confidence interval: 0.866, 0.918). Overall percent agreement between RPE and 1RM was 60%, but agreement was poor within the ranges that would typically be used for training (50% 1RM for muscle endurance, 70% 1RM and greater for strength). Conclusion Test-retest reliability of perceived exertion during quadriceps resistance exercise was excellent. However, agreement between the RPE and 1RM was poor, especially in common training zones for knee extensor strengthening. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):768-774. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6498.

  8. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Kersten, Anna W.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.

    A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players'

  9. Exertional Tolerance Assessments after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Bailes, Anna; Constand, Sara; Sroka, Mary Claire; Nissen, Katharine; Kurowski, Brad; Hugentobler, Jason

    2017-12-22

    The objective of this study was to review the literature to identify and summarize strategies for evaluating responses to physical exertion after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) for clinical and research purposes. PubMed and EBSCOHost through December 31, 2016. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on the following criteria: 1) inclusion of participants with mTBI/concussion, 2) use of a measurement of physiological or psychosomatic response to exertion, 3) a repeatable description of the exertion protocol was provided, 4) a sample of at least 10 participants with a mean age between 8-65 years, and 5) the article was in English. The search process yielded 2,685 articles, of which 14 studies met the eligibility requirements. A quality assessment using a checklist was conducted for each study by two independent study team members and verified by a third team member. Data were extracted by a one team member and verified by a second team member. A qualitative synthesis of the studies revealed that most protocols employed a treadmill or cycle ergometer as the exercise modality. Protocol methods varied across studies including differences in initial intensity determination, progression parameters, and exertion duration. Common outcome measures were self-reported symptoms, heart rate, and blood pressure. The strongest evidence indicates that exertional assessments can provide important insight about mTBI recovery and should be administered using symptoms as a guide. Additional studies are needed to verify an optimal modes and protocols for post-mTBI exertional assessments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The empirical slippery slope from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penney

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evidence for the empirical argument that there is a slippery slope between the legalization of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively-to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively.

  11. Decline in voluntary activation contributes to reduced maximal performance of fatigued human lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva, K N; Sumners, D P; Bowtell, J L

    2012-12-01

    In upper limb muscles, altered corticospinal excitability and reduction in neural drive are observed in parallel with peripheral fatigue during prolonged and/or repeated contractions. However, the fatigue-induced adaptations of central and peripheral elements and their relative contribution to lower limb muscle performance are yet to be fully explored. In the present study, corticospinal excitability and peripheral contractility of ankle flexor muscles were quantified before, during and after repeated brief unilateral maximal dorsiflexions to fatigue in eleven healthy volunteers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex area related to lower limb muscles was performed, and the evoked twitch and EMG responses in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) were measured. The motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in fatigued TA during post-exercise maximal dorsiflexions were smaller (-20 ± 6 %, p = 0.026) and remained depressed for at least 5 min. Post-exercise MEPs in fatigued SOL and silent periods in TA and SOL were not different compared to pre-exercise. These changes were accompanied by lower voluntary torque (-8 ± 3 %, p = 0.013), estimated resting twitch (-36 ± 5 %, p = 0.003) and voluntary activation (-17 ± 9 %, p = 0.021) versus pre-exercise. During last versus first maximal contraction in the fatiguing protocol lower voluntary torque (-40 ± 4 %, p = 0.003), higher MEP amplitudes (>+49 %, p +24 %, p muscles. Decreased corticospinal excitability contributes significantly to the reduced maximal performance of fatigued lower limb muscles. During prolonged intermittent maximal dorsiflexions the performance of ankle muscles declines despite enhanced corticospinal excitability presumably due to deficient descending drive and/or spinal motoneuron responsiveness to the cortical drive.

  12. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors of ages between 16 and 65 years. Both first time ...

  13. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.

  14. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983. PMID:2033626

  15. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  16. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  17. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  18. Patterns of Voluntary Counselling and Testing among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is critically important for individuals to learn about their HIV status and make informed decisions about their future. The study aimed at determining the patterns of voluntary counselling and testing among undergraduate university students in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was conducted in May 2010 among students recruited ...

  19. Attitudes of patients towards voluntary human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitudes of patients towards voluntary human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing in two Nigerian tertiary hospitals. ... Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download ...

  20. 22 CFR 127.12 - Voluntary disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES... sole discretion to consider whether “voluntary disclosure,” in context with other relevant information... shipment, doing business with a party denied U.S. export privileges, etc.); (ii) The exact circumstances...

  1. Voluntary Flammability Regulations for Residential Upholstered Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Lisa K.; Moore, Mary Ann; Fox, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This article provides merchandising, housing, and design professionals, as well as educators, with a clear understanding of the program objectives and development of the Upholstered Furniture Action Council (UFAC), an industry-driven voluntary product safety association. The central mission of UFAC is to conduct research on cigarette-ignition…

  2. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A

  3. 78 FR 51678 - Voluntary Education Programs; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE 32 CFR Part 68 RIN 0790-AJ06 Voluntary Education Programs; Correction AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary of... Education Programs. Subsequent to the publication of the proposed rule in the Federal Register, DoD...

  4. Voluntary Organizations: Commitment, Leadership, and Organizational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, Terry P.

    2004-01-01

    Voluntary organizations offer a unique opportunity to interpret participant relationships, leadership influences, and organizational effectiveness unencumbered by employment relationships. Regardless of organizational structure or purpose, all organizations are affected to some degree by their leadership and their membership. Based on the…

  5. Influence of ambient music on perceived exertion during a pulmonary rehabilitation session: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychler, Gregory; Mottart, Florian; Boland, Maelle; Wasterlain, Emmanuelle; Pieters, Thierry; Caty, Gilles; Liistro, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a key element in the treatment of COPD. Music has been shown to have a positive effect on parameters related to a decrease in exercise tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of listening to ambient music on perceived exertion during a pulmonary rehabilitation session for COPD subjects. COPD subjects randomly performed a session of pulmonary rehabilitation with or without ambient music. Perceived exertion (Borg scales), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety Subscale), dyspnea (visual analog scale), and cardiorespiratory parameters were compared at the end of both sessions. Forty-one subjects were analyzed. The characteristics of the COPD subjects were as follows: age, 70.5 ± 8.4 y; body mass index, 22.7 ± 3.9 kg/m(2); and FEV1, 38.6 ± 12.5 % predicted. Perceived exertion was not modified by ambient music, but anxiety was improved (P = .02). Dyspnea, fatigue and cardiorespiratory parameters were not influenced by music during a typical session of the pulmonary rehabilitation program. This study demonstrates that perceived exertion during one pulmonary rehabilitation session was not influenced by ambient music. However, a positive effect on anxiety was observed. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01833260.). Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Intimate Partner Violence is Associated with Voluntary Sterilization in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Laura Ann; Doran, Kelly A; Gerber, Megan R

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) may interfere with women's use of preferred forms of contraception, resulting in unwanted pregnancies forcing women to seek permanent sterilization. A history of child sexual abuse (CSA) presages the risk for IPV in adulthood setting the stage for adverse reproductive outcomes. To determine whether CSA and IPV are associated with women's voluntary sterilization when adjusting for demographics and reproductive health history. This cross-sectional study is based on in-person interviews of women (N = 278) drawn from outpatients surveyed in more than 10 different clinics (N = 2465). Women's history of gender-based violence and bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) were assessed. About half of the women had a past history of IPV and 29% disclosed CSA. CSA predicted later entry into an abusive relationship (odds ratio [OR] = 6.7). Sterilization was reported by 19.6%. Parity (3+ children), having had an abortion, and receipt of welfare were associated with sterilization in univariate tests. Among those women receiving a BTL, 74% had violent partners. Adjusted multivariate logistic regressions, adjusted for demographics and reproductive history, indicated that having had an abusive partner increased the odds of sterilization; parity was also highly associated. CSA exerted only an indirect influence on sterilization via entry into violent relationships. IPV raises the likelihood that women will choose sterilization. Despite the importance of women's access to permanent contraception, priority should be given to screening for gender-based violence and promoting interventions.

  7. Exercise heat stress and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mündel, Toby

    2008-01-01

    Apart from few studies, the majority of the research conducted on the effects of heat stress on energy metabolism during exercise has only been done so in the past two decades. Whilst increasing exercise duration under conditions of heat stress favours the oxidation of carbohydrate (CHO) and appears to increase the rate of muscle glycogenolysis, total CHO oxidation is often less and levels of muscle glycogen remain much higher at the point of fatigue when compared with the same exercise without heat stress. Furthermore, supplementing CHO during exercise in the heat appears to exert an ergogenic effect that is not related to 'peripheral' but rather 'central' factors. However, there may be a role for the excess ammonia (NH3) produced in the exercising muscle during heat stress, as cerebral uptake and subsequent metabolism of NH3 may have detrimental effects on cerebral function. Recent exciting results point toward an increased cerebral CHO uptake relative to that of O2, termed the cerebral metabolic ratio (CMR) during exercise with heat stress, although a causative link between this and reduced exercise performance has yet to be identified. Therefore, it appears that despite a shift towards greater CHO utilisation in both skeletal muscular and cerebral metabolism, these responses have ultimately not proved limiting to exercise with heat stress.

  8. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of epinephrine and contractions on muscle metabolism was studied in the isolated perfused rat hindquarter. Subtetanic contractions (180/min) through 20 min elicited glycogenolysis and increased phosphorylase a activity. In the soleus, a slow-twitch red muscle, these effects were...... and not significant in the fast-twitch white fibers of the gastrocnemius muscle. However, during less frequent contractions (30/min) epinephrine increased glycogenolysis and phosphorylase a activity in fast-twitch muscle. The data suggest that epinephrine and muscle contractions exert a dual control of muscle...... glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  9. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  10. Effect of stimulation intensity on assessment of voluntary activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, D.M.; de Ruiter, C.J.; de Haan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The interpolated twitch technique is often used to assess voluntary activation (VA) of skeletal muscles. We investigated VA and the voluntary torque-superimposed torque relationship using either supramaximal nerve stimulation or better tolerated submaximal muscle stimulation, which is

  11. Effect of stimulation intensity on assessment of voluntary activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen; C.J. de Ruiter; A.J. de Haan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The interpolated twitch technique is often used to assess voluntary activation (VA) of skeletal muscles. We investigated VA and the voluntary torque-superimposed torque relationship using either supramaximal nerve stimulation or better tolerated submaximal muscle stimulation, which is

  12. Borg scale is valid for ratings of perceived exertion for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penko, Amanda L; Barkley, Jacob E; Koop, Mandy Miller; Alberts, Jay L

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that has traditionally been treated with anti-parkinsonian medication. There is increasing evidence that exercise is beneficial to those with PD, therefore, it is necessary to validate a measure of exertion that can be implemented across exercise settings that may not have the capability to actively monitor heart rate. The aim of this project was to determine the validity of the Borg RPE scale in individuals with PD undergoing a maximal progressive cycling exercise test. Thirty-eight males and females (58.5 ± 8.1 yrs) with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic PD, Hoehn and Yahr stage II-III, completed a maximal exercise test. Heart rate was monitored continuously, with RPE being recorded during the last minute of each stage of the test. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between RPE and continuous heart rate monitoring. A significant, positive correlation was present between RPE and heart rate and RPE and workload, r = 0.61 and r = 0.77 respectively. A separate mixed effects model regression analyses indicated that RPE was a significant predictor of heart rate (p 0.05). Significant, positive correlation between RPE and HR indicates that the Borg category ratio scale may be used in individuals with Parkinson's disease in which formal exercise testing may not be available.

  13. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: a case series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J S; Wheeler, P C; Boyd, K T; Barnes, M R; Allen, M J

    2011-06-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is rare in the published literature. We report the outcome of a series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy over a 14 year period. All patients underwent dynamic intra-compartmental pressure testing using a slit catheter technique before surgery. Raised intra-compartmental pressures on exercise, typical symptoms and the absence of other diagnoses were criteria for offering surgical intervention. The superficial flexor, deep flexor and extensor compartments were released. Median follow-up was 9.5 years (range 7 months to 12 years). Median patient-reported percentage improvement after surgery was 88% (range 0%-100%). Median time to return to full activity was 9 weeks. Eleven out of 12 patients were satisfied, very satisfied or extremely satisfied with the outcome of surgery. Fasciotomy can be an effective treatment for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm.

  14. Neurochemical and behavioural indices of exercise reward are independent of exercise controllability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Jonathan J; Fedynska, Sofiya; Ghasem, Parsa R; Wieman, Tyler; Clark, Peter J; Gray, Nathan; Loetz, Esteban; Campeau, Serge; Fleshner, Monika; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2016-05-01

    Brain reward circuits are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders. Exercise reduces the incidence of stress-related disorders, but the contribution of exercise reward to stress resistance is unknown. Exercise-induced stress resistance is independent of exercise controllability; both voluntary running (VR) and forced running (FR) protect rats against the anxiety-like and depression-like behavioural consequences of stress. Voluntary exercise is a natural reward, but whether rats find FR rewarding is unknown. Moreover, the contribution of dopamine (DA) and striatal reward circuits to exercise reward is not well characterized. Adult, male rats were assigned to locked wheels, VR, or FR groups. FR rats were forced to run in a pattern resembling the natural wheel running behavior of rats. Both VR and FR increased the reward-related plasticity marker ΔFosB in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens, and increased the activity of DA neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area, as revealed by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and pCREB. Both VR and FR rats developed conditioned place preference (CPP) to the side of a CPP chamber paired with exercise. Re-exposure to the exercise-paired side of the CPP chamber elicited conditioned increases in cfos mRNA in direct-pathway (dynorphin-positive) neurons in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens in both VR and FR rats, and in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the lateral ventral tegmental area of VR rats only. The results suggest that the rewarding effects of exercise are independent of exercise controllability and provide insight into the DA and striatal circuitries involved in exercise reward and exercise-induced stress resistance. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cytotoxic effects exerted by Tritrichomonas foetus pseudocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Nascimento, Ligia Ferreira; Benchimol, Marlene

    2012-07-01

    The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus displays a pear-shaped form and a pseudocyst stage. However, little is known about the biology of the pseudocyst. The aim of this work was to assess whether pseudocysts exert cytotoxic effects during their interaction with MDCK cells (an epithelial kidney canine cell line) and compare their behavior to that of the pear-shaped parasites. Pseudocysts and pear-shaped parasites from both cultured and freshly isolated T. foetus were used. Electron microscopy revealed that the epithelial cells exhibited more signs of injury, such as depletion of microvilli, retraction from neighboring cells and swollen mitochondria with loss of electron density in the matrix, when the pseudocysts were used in interaction experiments. In addition, during the co-incubation with MDCK cells, pseudocysts exhibited a more intense amoeboid transformation than that found in pear-shaped parasites. The MTT viability assay demonstrated that the pseudocysts were more cytotoxic when in contact with host cells as compared to the flagellated pear-shaped parasites. The JC-1 viability assay revealed that pseudocysts induced a higher loss of mitochondrial membrane potential compared to pear-shaped parasites. Pseudocysts undergoing a budding process were observed after 2.5h of co-incubation with MDCK cells. Our results suggest that the T. foetus pseudocyst might be a more aggressive form. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological mechanisms of sex differences in exertional dyspnoea: role of neural respiratory motor drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Levangie, Marc C; Andersen, Ross E; Taivassalo, Tanja; Jensen, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does the combination of a higher neural respiratory drive and greater dynamic mechanical ventilatory constraints during exercise in healthy women versus men form the mechanistic basis of sex differences in activity-related dyspnoea? What is the main finding and its importance? Sex differences in activity-related dyspnoea in health primarily reflected the awareness of a higher neural respiratory drive needed to achieve any given ventilation during exercise in the setting of relatively greater dynamic mechanical ventilatory constraints in women. These findings may have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms of sex differences in exertional dyspnoea in variants of health (e.g. the elderly) and in patients with cardiorespiratory disease. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of sex differences in exertional dyspnoea. We compared detailed measures of neural respiratory motor drive [diaphragmatic EMG (EMGdi) expressed as a percentage of maximal EMGdi (EMGdi%max)], breathing pattern, operating lung volumes, dynamic respiratory mechanics [tidal oesophageal (P(oes,tida)l%peak) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (P(di,tidal)%peak) expressed as a percentage of their respective peak values] and sensory intensity and unpleasantness ratings of dyspnoea during symptom-limited incremental cycle exercise in healthy young women (n = 25) and men (n = 25). The tidal volume to forced vital capacity ratio (V(T)%FVC), breathing frequency, EMGdi%max, P(oes,tidal)%peak, P(di,tidal)%peak and sensory intensity and unpleasantness ratings of dyspnoea were higher, while dynamic inspiratory capacity and inspiratory reserve volume were lower at a standardized absolute ventilation of 55 l min(-1) during submaximal exercise in women versus men (all P sex had no demonstrable effect on the inter-relationships between exercise-induced increases in V(T)%FVC, EMGdi%max and sensory intensity and unpleasantness

  17. Neuromuscular Fatigue during Prolonged Exercise in Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeau, Marc; Rupp, Thomas; Temesi, John; Perrey, Stéphane; Wuyam, Bernard; Millet, Guillaume Y; Verges, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    Prolonged cycling exercise performance in normoxia is limited because of both peripheral and central neuromuscular impairments. It has been reported that cerebral perturbations are greater during short-duration exercise in hypoxia compared with normoxia. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that central deficits are accentuated in hypoxia compared with normoxia during prolonged (three bouts of 80 min separated by 25 min) whole-body exercise at the same relative intensity. Ten subjects performed two sessions consisting of three 80-min cycling bouts at 45% of their relative maximal aerobic power in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.12). Before exercise and after each bout, maximal voluntary force, voluntary activation assessed with nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, corticospinal excitability (motor evoked potential), intracortical inhibition (cortical silent period), and electrical (M-wave) and contractile (twitch and doublet peak forces) properties of the knee extensors were measured. Prefrontal and motor cortical oxygenation was also recorded during each cycling bout in both conditions. A significant but similar force reduction (≈-22%) was observed at the end of exercise in normoxia and hypoxia. The modifications of voluntary activation assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation and nerve stimulation, motor evoked potential, cortical silent period, and M-wave were also similar in both conditions. However, cerebral oxygenation was reduced in hypoxia compared with normoxia. These findings show that when performed at the same relative low intensity, prolonged exercise does not induce greater supraspinal fatigue in hypoxia compared with normoxia. Despite lower absolute exercise intensities in hypoxia, reduced brain O2 availability might contribute to similar amounts of central fatigue compared with normoxia.

  18. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  19. The effect of exercise on carbohydrate preference in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R J; Zelinski, E L; Fehr, L; McDonald, R J

    2014-02-01

    Exercise has a myriad of health benefits, including positive effects against heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. Cognitive performance improves following chronic exercise, both in animal models and humans. Studies have examined the effect of exercise on feeding, demonstrating a preference towards increased food consumption. Further, sex differences exist such that females tend to prefer carbohydrates over other macronutrients following exercise. However, no clear effect of exercise on macronutrient or carbohydrate selection has been described in animal or human studies. This research project sought to determine the effect of voluntary exercise on carbohydrate selection in female rats. Preference for a complex (starch) versus a simple (dextrose) carbohydrate was assessed using a discriminative preference to context paradigm in non-exercising and voluntarily exercising female rats. In addition, fasting blood glucose and performance in the Morris water task was examined in order to verify the effects of exercise on performance in this task. Female rats given access to running wheels preferred a context previously associated with starch, whereas females with no running wheel access preferred a context previously associated with dextrose. No changes in blood glucose were observed. However, cognitive differences in the Morris water task were observed such that voluntary exercise allowed rats to find a new location of a hidden platform following 4 days of training to an old platform location. These results suggest that voluntary exercise may decrease preservative behaviors in a spatial navigation task through the facilitation of plasticity mechanisms. This study is the first of its kind to demonstrate the influence of exercise on taste preference for complex and simple carbohydrates with this context conditioning paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and will...

  1. 77 FR 55487 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey. This is a proposed...: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs and Border Protection (CBP) plans to...

  2. 75 FR 27563 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer... Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of... following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: Will be assigned upon...

  3. 77 FR 36566 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer... Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of...: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs and Border Protection (CBP) plans to...

  4. 75 FR 47607 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey. This is a new collection of... other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB...

  5. 75 FR 72751 - Voluntary Mergers of Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1278 RIN 2590-AA37 Voluntary Mergers of Federal Home Loan Banks AGENCY: Federal... approval of voluntary Bank mergers. DATES: Written comments must be received on or before January 25, 2011....C. 1427. \\4\\ See 12 U.S.C. 1424; 12 CFR part 1263. B. HERA Provisions Addressing Voluntary Mergers...

  6. 76 FR 72823 - Voluntary Mergers of Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... RIN 2590-AA37 Voluntary Mergers of Federal Home Loan Banks AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency... for the consideration and approval of voluntary Bank mergers. DATES: The final rule is effective on... Voluntary Mergers Section 1209 of HERA added new paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) to section 26 of the Bank Act...

  7. Coconut Water Does Not Improve Markers of Hydration During Sub-maximal Exercise and Performance in a Subsequent Time Trial Compared with Water Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J; Hensby, Andy; Shaw, Matthew P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during submaximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 ± 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 ± 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 ± 28.2W) completed 60-min of submaximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomized manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial. Body mass and urine osmolality were recorded preexercise and then after 30-min, 60-min, and post time trial. Blood glucose, lactate, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion (RPE; 6-20) and ratings of thirst, sweetness, nausea, fullness and stomach upset (1 =very low/none, 5= very high) were recorded during each drink period. CW did not significantly improve time trial performance compared with PW (971.4 ± 50.5 and 966.6 ± 44.8 s respectively; p = .698) and there was also no significant differences between trials for any of the physiological variables measured. However there were subjective differences between the beverages for taste, resulting in a significantly reduced volume of voluntary intake in the CW trial (115 ± 95.41 ml and 208.7 ± 86.22 ml; p < .001).

  8. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of a high-caloric diet and physical exercise on brain metabolite levels: a combined proton MRS and histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K; Sack, Markus; Lenz, Jenny N; Jakovcevski, Mira; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Deussing, Jan; Steinle, Jörg; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Pfister, Frederik; Stalla, Günter K; Ende, Gabriele; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Fuss, Johannes; Gass, Peter

    2015-03-31

    Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that one mechanism in this context is the promotion of neuroinflammation. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating the effects of physical exercise in a cafeteria-diet mouse model on CNS metabolites by means of in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)HMRS). In addition postmortem histologic and real-time (RT)-PCR analyses for inflammatory markers were performed. Cafeteria diet induced obesity and hyperglycemia, which was only partially moderated by exercise. It also induced several changes in CNS metabolites such as reduced hippocampal glutamate (Glu), choline-containing compounds (tCho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)+N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamic acid (NAAG) (tNAA) levels, whereas opposite effects were seen for running. No association of these effects with markers of central inflammation could be observed. These findings suggest that while voluntary wheel running alone is insufficient to prevent the unfavorable peripheral sequelae of the diet, it counteracted many changes in brain metabolites. The observed effects seem to be independent of neuroinflammation.

  10. Physiological and Perceived Exertion Responses during International Karate Kumite Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabben, Montassar; Sioud, Rim; Haddad, Monoem; Franchini, Emerson; Chaouachi, Anis; Coquart, Jeremy; Chaabane, Helmi; Chamari, Karim; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Investigate the physiological responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elite karate athletes and examine the relationship between a subjective method (Session-RPE) and two objective heart-rate (HR)-based methods to quantify training-load (TL) during international karate competition. Methods Eleven karatekas took part in this study, but only data from seven athletes who completed three matches in an international tournament were used (four men and three women). The duration of combat was 3 min for men and 2 min for women, with 33.6±7.6 min for the first interval period (match 1–2) and 14.5±3.1 min for the second interval period (match 2–3). HR was continuously recorded during each combat. Blood lactate [La-] and (RPE) were measured just before the first match and immediately after each match. Results Means total fights time, HR, %HRmax, [La-], and session-RPE were 4.7±1.6 min, 182±9 bpm, 91±3%, 9.02±2.12 mmol.L-1 and 4.2±1.2, respectively. No significant differences in %HRmax, [La-], and RPE were noticed across combats. Significant correlations were observed between RPE and both resting HR (r=0.60; P=0.004) and mean HR (r=0.64; P=0.02), session-RPE and Banister training-impulse (TRIMP) (r=0.84; Pkarate competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses and high [La-]. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate the zone between 90 and 100% HRmax. Karate coaches could use the RPE-method to follow competitor's competition loads and consider it in their technical and tactical training. PMID:24800001

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  12. Simulation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Pat

    1976-01-01

    Describes five simulation exercises: a problem for a student teacher, an industrial relations game, a series of student problems; an international relations crisis, and a sociological exercise on public and private opinions. (LS)

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as ... doctor or physical therapist to prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. If any of the following ... balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are ... a Success Story to Share? | Contact Us SPINE CARE PROVIDERS GO HERE © 2017 North American Spine Society | ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ...

  19. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  20. Maternal exercise before and during pregnancy does not impact offspring exercise or body composition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Wallace, Jennifer N; Wells, Sarah E; Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Pomp, Daniel

    2015-08-03

    The genome, the environment, and their interactions simultaneously regulate complex traits such as body composition and voluntary exercise levels. One such environmental influence is the maternal milieu (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care). Variability in the maternal environment may directly impact the mother, and simultaneously has the potential to influence the physiology and/or behavior of offspring in utero, post birth, and into adulthood. Here, we utilized a murine model to examine the effects of the maternal environment in regard to voluntary exercise (absence of wheel running, wheel running prior to gestation, and wheel running prior to and throughout gestation) on offspring weight and body composition (% fat tissue and % lean tissue) throughout development (~3 to ~9 weeks of age). Additionally, we examined the effects of ~6 weeks of maternal exercise (prior to and during gestation) on offspring exercise levels at ~9 weeks of age. We observed no substantial effects of maternal exercise on subsequent male or female offspring body composition throughout development, or on the propensity of offspring to engage in voluntary wheel running. At the level of the individual, correlational analyses revealed some statistically significant relationships between maternal and offspring exercise levels, likely reflecting previously known heritability estimates for such traits. The current results conflict with previous findings in human and mouse models demonstrating that maternal exercise has the potential to alter offspring phenotypes. We discuss our negative findings in the context of the timing of the maternal exercise and the level of biological organization of the examined phenotypes within the offspring.

  1. Headaches and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, P

    2000-09-01

    Exercise-related headache is one of the most common medical problems affecting the modern-day athlete. Despite the high prevalence of headache in community populations, the epidemiology of sports-related headache is unclear. In certain collision sports, up to 50% of athletes report regular headaches as a consequence of their athletic participation. The classification of the different types of sport-related headache by the International Headache Society (IHS) and in previously published articles does not adequately encompass the clinical problem faced by team physicians. Confusion exists where terms such as 'effort headache' and 'exertional headache' may be used to describe similar entities. In this review, the specific headache entities discussed include benign exertional headache, effort headache, acute post-traumatic headache and cervicogenic headache. For the sports physician, an understanding of the variety of specific headache syndromes that occur with particular sports is necessary for everyday clinical practice. This article reviews the common exercise-related headache syndromes and attempts to provide a framework for their overall management. Team physicians also need to be cognisant that many of the standard preparations used to treat headaches may be banned drugs under International Olympic Committee (IOC) rules.

  2. Voluntary drinking versus imposed drinking in the methodology of investigations about the drinking-induced thermoregulatory sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that dehydrated humans or animals in a warm environment begin to sweat within seconds to minutes after drinking. This phenomenon is one of the drinking-induced thermoregulatory responses; being investigated from different aspects. Our objective is to show the difference of voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the methodology of these experiments. Six healthy subjects 23.7 ± 0.6 yr old and 80.7 ± 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling) in a hot and humid chamber (38-40°C, 20-28% relative humidity). We incorporated two protocols: after dehydration, subjects were allowed to drink water with 1) imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/kg and 2) voluntary volumes; on four separate days. The sweating rate was measured on the forehead area before and after drinking. Sweating increased markedly just a few minutes after the onset of drinking. The mean sweat rates of the imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/Kg were 0.33 ± 0.15, 0.31 ± 0.17, 0.47 ± 0.21 respectively and for the voluntary volume it was 0.54 ± 0.19. The mean intake in the voluntary trial was 6.58 ± 1.14 ml/Kg, more than the imposed volume of 5 ml/Kg. The trend of the rate of the sweating response in the imposed trials was distinct from the response in the voluntary trial. There exists a difference between voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the sweating response that follows rehydration. So it is suggested to use the methods of voluntary drinking in the investigations of this phenomenon, to reveal the natural events that happen in the actual circumstances.

  3. Exercise and lifestyle predictors of resting heart rate in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nealen, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is well-understood to provide significant health benefits, through physiological adaptations induced by the repeated exertion stress exercise imposes on our systems. Chief among these are cardiovascular adaptations to exercise, including adjustments of cardiac parameters such as stroke volume, heart rate, and maximal cardiac output. It is commonly assumed that aerobic forms of exercise provide greater cardiovascular benefits than do non-aerobic forms of exercise. To test thi...

  4. Voluntary Running Depreciates the Requirement of Ca[superscript 2+]-Stimulated cAMP Signaling in Synaptic Potentiation and Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Zhang, Ming; Ding, Qi; Sethna, Ferzin; Yan, Lily; Moon, Changjong; Yang, Miyoung; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    Mental health and cognitive functions are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although having active lifestyle with physical exercise improves learning and memory, how it interacts with the specific key molecular regulators of synaptic plasticity is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of voluntary running on long-term…

  5. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  6. The Political Importance of Voluntary Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneman, Harry

    This paper aims to develop a complex articulation of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work that clarifies its political importance as a countervailing narrative pointing beyond dominant neoliberal and consumptive articulations of a good life. To start with, it sketches a hermeneutic perspective on civic meaningfulness based on the work of Paul Ricoeur. Subsequently, it introduces the ideas of 'ethical complexity', 'epistemological complexity' and 'diapoiesis', building on insights from critical complexity thinking and relational biology. It argues that these notions can provide a bridge between hermeneutic perspectives on meaning and values, on the one hand, and questions of meaning and values on the level of scientific and technological developments and within professional organizations, on the other. Thus a broader, more complex picture emerges of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work in our times.

  7. Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Nielsen, Mette Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    the students’ decision to drop out (Jensen et al. 2008). Within the past year our faculty has conducted several projects with the aim of integrating simulation into the curriculum. Furthermore, voluntary simulation workshop has been carried out as an additional offer in the nursing education. The purpose has...... were conducted with participation of 118 students in total from different levels of the nursing education. The workshops focused on both hands-on skills, communicative and teamwork skills and attention was continuously put on combining theory and practice. A questionnaire using a 10 point scale (1......Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education Hanne Selberg1, Mette Elisabeth Nielsen1, Mette Wenzel Horsted2, Karen Bertelsen2, Marianne Linnet Rasmussen2,Rikke Lohmann Panton3, Copenhagen, Mette Kjeldal Jensen4 Background Changes in nursing education in Denmark towards an academic approach...

  8. Is Borg's perceived exertion scale a useful indicator of muscular and cardiovascular load in blue-collar workers with lifting tasks? A cross-sectional workplace study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Persson, R.

    2014-01-01

    and calculated as the average percentage of the heart rate reserve capacity (((heart rate during work - resting heart rate) / (maximum heart rate - resting heart rate)) * 100) during the day. Results Using linear regression, significant but weak associations (beta perceived exertion......Purpose To investigate associations between perceived exertion and objectively assessed muscular and cardiovascular load during a full working day among workers with manual lifting tasks. Methods A total of 159 men and 41 women from 14 workplaces with manual lifting tasks participated. Participants...... reported perceived exertion (BORG-CR10) at midday and after work. Surface electromyography of the thigh, lower back and neck muscles were normalized to isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) to express relative muscle load during the day. Cardiovascular load was measured with electrocardiography...

  9. Neuromuscular fatigue induced by whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Saugy, Jonas; Cardinale, Marco; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Place, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and the origin of neuromuscular fatigue induced by half-squat static whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, and to compare it to a non-WBV condition. Nine healthy volunteers completed two fatiguing protocols (WBV and non-WBV, randomly presented) consisting of five 1-min bouts of static half-squat exercise with a load corresponding to 50 % of their individual body mass. Neuromuscular fatigue of knee and ankle muscles was investigated before and immediately after each fatiguing protocol. The main outcomes were maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, voluntary activation, and doublet peak torque. Knee extensor MVC torque decreased significantly (P fatiguing protocols. Doublet peak torque decreased significantly and to a similar extent following WBV and non-WBV exercise, for both knee extensors (-25 %; P fatigue and did not change its causative factors compared to non-WBV half-squat resistive exercise in recreationally active subjects.

  10. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  11. Certification as a Rationale for Voluntary Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    I model the participation of firms in a voluntary agreement as a costly certification process whereby a firm informs the Regulator of its pollution intensity. Without this knowledge, the Regulator imposes the same tax on all firms in a heterogeneous industry, unduly hurting the clean ones with the lowest intensity. Certification allows clean firms to get a tax rebate. It also entails an informational externality as the dispersion of types decreases within the pool of non-participating firms, ...

  12. Pre-acculturation among voluntary migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Yijälä, Anu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation research focused on the pre-migration stage of the migration process and, specifically, the action period, which starts from making a decision to move abroad and lasts until the actual move. The research further developed the concept of pre-acculturation, that is, the active process that voluntary migrants in particular go through during the preparatory stage of migration process. As studies on pre-acculturation are still rather scarce, the theoretical background of the rese...

  13. Heredity of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Eiberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms on exertion, such as shortness of breath and wheezing, are commonly associated with asthma, but might also arise from the larynx [1–3]. In recent years, the emergence of exercise laryngoscopy [4] has led to a better understanding of laryngeal movement during exercise, and ins...

  14. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The value relevance of voluntary disclosure in the annual report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banghøj, Jesper; Plenborg, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines if the level of voluntary disclosure affects the association between current returns and future earnings. Economic theory suggests that firms might find it advantageous to provide additional pieces of information (i.e., voluntary disclosure) to investors and analysts (Verrecch...... relevant information about future earnings or if investors are simply not capable of incorporating voluntary information in the firm value estimates. Key words: Disclosure, future earnings, informativeness......This paper examines if the level of voluntary disclosure affects the association between current returns and future earnings. Economic theory suggests that firms might find it advantageous to provide additional pieces of information (i.e., voluntary disclosure) to investors and analysts (Verrecchia...... 1983). Our results indicate that more voluntary disclosure does not improve the association between current returns and future earnings; i.e. current returns do not reflect more future earnings news. This finding raises the question whether voluntary information in the annual report contains value...

  16. Infection, inflammation and exercise in cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Regular exercise is positively associated with health. It has also been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects. In healthy subjects, a single exercise session results in immune cell activation, which is characterized by production of immune modulatory peptides (e.g. IL-6, IL-8), a leukocytosis and enhanced immune cell functions. Upon cessation of exercise, immune activation is followed by a tolerizing phase, characterized by a reduced responsiveness of immune cells. Regular exercise of moderate intensity and duration has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects and is associated with a reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Specific exercise programs may therefore be used to modify the course of chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients with CF suffer from severe and chronic pulmonary infections and inflammation, leading to obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disease, exercise intolerance and muscle cachexia. Inflammation is characterized by a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Patients are encouraged to engage in exercise programs to maintain physical fitness, quality of life, pulmonary function and health. In this review, we present an overview of available literature describing the association between regular exercise, inflammation and infection susceptibility and discuss the implications of these observations for prevention and treatment of inflammation and infection susceptibility in patients with CF. PMID:23497303

  17. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-05-01

    Various factors influence the development of the voluntary 'green' power market--the market in which consumers purchase or produce power from non-polluting, renewable energy sources. These factors include climate policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, consumers' interest in purchasing green power, and utilities' interest in promoting existing programs and in offering new green options. This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for green power through 2015 that were made using historical data and three scenarios: low-growth, high-growth, and negative-policy impacts. The resulting forecast projects the total voluntary demand for renewable energy in 2015 to range from 63 million MWh annually in the low case scenario to 157 million MWh annually in the high case scenario, representing an approximately 2.5-fold difference. The negative-policy impacts scenario reflects a market size of 24 million MWh. Several key uncertainties affect the results of this forecast, including uncertainties related to growth assumptions, the impacts that policy may have on the market, the price and competitiveness of renewable generation, and the level of interest that utilities have in offering and promoting green power products.

  18. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTIVE PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD WITH THE BORG CR-10 SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Zamunér

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R. Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG and sedentary group (SG and were submitted to a CT-R on a cycloergometer with 20 to 25 W/min increments. Shortly before the end of each one-minute period, the subjects were asked to rate dyspnea (RPE-D and leg fatigue (RPE-L on the Borg CR-10 scale. After the AT was determined with the graphic visual method, the score that the volunteers gave on the Borg CR10 scale was verified. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. The mean ratings of RPE-L and RPE-D at the AT level were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05. Significant correlations were found between VO2, heart rate (HR, power output and RPE for both groups. The muscular and respiratory RPE, according to the Borg CR-10 scale, were correlated with the AT, suggesting that scores close to 5, which correspond to a "strong" perception, may be used as parameters for quantifying aerobic exercise intensity for active and sedentary individuals. The similar perception of exercise intensity, which corresponded to the AT of different individuals, makes it possible to prescribe exercise at an intensity equivalent to the AT by means of the RPE.

  20. Effects of eccentric exercise on trapezius electromyography during computer work with active and passive pauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    ) and active (30% maximum voluntary contraction of shoulder elevation) pauses given every 40s over 2 days, before, immediately and 24h after eccentric exercise. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four parts of the trapezius during computer work. FINDINGS: EMG amplitude during computer work decreased...... immediately after exercise (Prest time was observed during...... active pause (Prest...

  1. Therapeutic effect of hybrid training of voluntary and electrical muscle contractions in middle-aged obese women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sechang Oh,1,4 Tsuyoshi Maruyama,2 Kiyoshi Eguchi,2 Takashi Shida,1 Emi Arai,1 Tomonori Isobe,1 Yoshikazu Okamoto,3 Junichi Shoda1 1Division of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Division of Rehabilitation, 3Division of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 4Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan Background: Exercise training is an effective therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Hybrid training (HYB of voluntary and electrical muscle contractions was developed to prevent disuse atrophy during space flight. HYB can be applied to obtain a strength training effect accompanying articular movement. In this pilot study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of HYB in NAFLD.Methods: A total of 15 middle-aged obese women with NAFLD who had no improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase levels and/or liver fat deposition after 12 weeks of lifestyle counseling participated in an HYB program. HYB of the quadriceps and hamstrings was conducted for 20 minutes twice a week for 24 weeks.Results: NAFLD patients showed attenuated intramyocellular lipid levels in the quadriceps after the HYB intervention (-15.5%. Levels of leptin (-17.4%, tumor necrosis factor-α (-23.2%, and interleukin-6 (-30.5% were also decreased after the intervention. HYB led to a significant body weight reduction (-4.7%, which in turn was associated with a significant decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase (-35.8%, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (-21.6%, ferritin (-16.0%, oxidative stress (-17.8% levels, and insulin resistance values (-2.7%.Conclusion: In NAFLD, HYB exerts an antiobesity effect and attenuates liver dysfunction and insulin resistance in association with an increase in muscle strength and a decrease in ectopic muscle fat. Therefore, HYB has great potential as a new type of exercise therapy for liver disease in patients with NAFLD

  2. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  3. Exercise training in adverse cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Dirk J; van Deel, Elza D; de Waard, Monique C; de Boer, Martine; Merkus, Daphne; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac remodeling in response to a myocardial infarction or chronic pressure-overload is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. In contrast, cardiac remodeling produced by regular physical exercise is associated with a decreased risk for heart failure. There is evidence that exercise training has a beneficial effect on disease progression and survival in patients with cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, but concern has also been expressed that exercise training may aggravate pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Here we present studies from our laboratory into the effects of exercise training on pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice. The results indicate that even in the presence of a large infarct, exercise training exerts beneficial effects on the heart. These effects were mimicked in part by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) overexpression and abrogated by eNOS deficiency, demonstrating the importance of nitric oxide signaling in mediating the cardiac effects of exercise. Exercise prior to a myocardial infarction was also cardioprotective. In contrast, exercise tended to aggravate pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in the setting of pressure-overload produced by an aortic stenosis. These observations emphasize the critical importance of the underlying pathological stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, in determining the effects of exercise training. Future studies are needed to define the influence of exercise type, intensity and duration in different models and severities of pathological cardiac remodeling. Together such studies will aid in optimizing the therapy of exercise training in the setting of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Intramuscular compartment pressure measurement in chronic exertional compartment syndrome: new and improved diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, David; Roberts, Andrew J; Hulse, David

    2015-02-01

    Patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) have pain during exercise that subsides with rest. Diagnosis is usually confirmed by intramuscular compartment pressure (IMCP) measurement. Controversy exists regarding the accuracy of existing diagnostic criteria. (1) To compare dynamic IMCP measurement and anthropometric factors between patients with CECS and asymptomatic controls and (2) to establish the diagnostic utility of dynamic IMCP measurement. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. A total of 40 men aged 21 to 40 years were included in the study: 20 with symptoms of CECS of the anterior compartment and 20 asymptomatic controls. Diagnoses other than CECS were excluded with rigorous inclusion criteria and magnetic resonance imaging. The IMCP was measured continuously before, during, and after participants exercised on a treadmill, wearing identical footwear and carrying a 15-kg load. Pain experienced by study subjects increased incrementally as the study progressed (P compartment IMCP is elevated immediately upon standing at rest in subjects with CECS. In patients with symptoms consistent with CECS, diagnostic utility of IMCP measurement is improved when measured continuously during exercise. A cutoff of 105 mm Hg in phase 2 provides better diagnostic accuracy than do the Pedowitz criteria of 30 mm Hg and 20 mm Hg at 1 and 5 minutes after exercise, respectively. © 2014 The Author(s).

  5. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, J?ssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12?weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60?75?years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n?=?15) or power training group (PT; n?=?15). Participants trained twice a week for 12?weeks using six exercises...

  6. Comparison of kettlebell swings and treadmill running at equivalent rating of perceived exertion values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, Caleb R; Soto, David T; Koch, Alexander J; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic demand of a kettlebell (KB) swing routine with treadmill (TM) running at equivalent rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Thirteen subjects (11 male, 2 female, age = 21.4 ± 2.1 years, weight = 73.0 ± 9.2 kg) completed a 10-minute KB swing routine consisting of 35-second swing intervals followed by 25-second rest intervals. Men used a 16-kg KB, and women used an 8-kg KB. After 48 hours of rest, the subjects completed a 10-minute TM run at equivalent RPEs as measured during the swing workout. Metabolic data were monitored each minute during each exercise using an automated cart, with the final 7 minutes used for analysis. The RPE and heart rate (HR) recorded at minutes 5, 7, 9, and 10 increased by 2-3 and 7-9%, respectively, for each exercise, producing a significantly increasing pattern but no significant difference between exercises. Average HR and RPE were not significantly different between KB and TM and averaged 90 and 89%, respectively, of age-predicted HRmax. Oxygen consumption, METS, pulmonary ventilation, and calorie expenditure were significantly higher for TM (25-39%) than for KB. Respiratory exchange ratio (TM = 0.94 ± 0.04, KB = 0.95 ± 0.05) and respiratory rate (TM = 38 ± 7, KB = 36 ± 4 b·min) were not significantly different between the exercises at any time point. During TM and KB exercises matched for RPE, the subjects are likely to have higher oxygen consumption, work at a higher MET level, and burn more kilocalories per minute during TM running than during KB swings. However, according to the American College of Sports Medicine standards, this KB drill could provide sufficient exercise stress to produce gains in aerobic capacity.

  7. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Garetto, L P; Goodman, M N

    1984-01-01

    Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase in the pr......Studies in the rat suggest that after voluntary exercise there are two phases of glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle (preceding study). In phase I glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis are enhanced both in the presence and absence of insulin, whereas in phase II only the increase...... in the presence of insulin is found. To determine whether these alterations and in particular those mediated by insulin are due to local or systemic factors, one hindlimb of an anesthetized rat was electrically stimulated, and both hindlimbs were perfused immediately thereafter. Glucose and glycogen metabolism...... in the stimulated leg closely mimicked that observed previously after voluntary exercise on a treadmill. With no insulin added to the perfusate, glucose incorporation into glycogen was markedly enhanced in muscles that were glycogen depleted as were the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and 3-O-methylglucose. Likewise...

  8. Exercise Physiology. Basic Stuff Series I. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Milan; And Others

    The fundamentals of exercise physiology (the study of the physiological effects of bodily exertion) form the basis for this booklet designed for teachers of physical education. The scientific principles underlying the building of muscular strength and flexibility are described and illustrated. Topics covered include: (1) muscular strength,…

  9. Brain temperature and exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Events arising within the central nervous system seem to play a major factor in the aetiology of hyperthermia-induced fatigue. Thus, various studies with superimposed electrical nerve stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation have shown that both passive and exercise-induced hyperthermia...... will impair voluntary motor activation during sustained maximal contractions. In humans the brain temperature increases in parallel with that of the body core making it very difficult to evaluate the independent effect of the cerebral temperature. Experiments with separate manipulation of the brain...... temperature in exercising goats indicate that excessive brain hyperthermia will directly affect motor performance. However, several homeostatic changes arise in parallel with hyperthermia including factors that may influence both peripheral and central fatigue and it is likely that these changes interact...

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] Obesity is a global health problem and is associated with a multitude of complications. This study was designed to determine changes in cardiopulmonary functions after aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty obese subjects, whose ages ranged between 18 and 25 years, were divided into 2 equal groups: group A received aerobic exercise training in addition to dietary measures, and group B received anaerobic exercise training for 3 months in addition to dietary measures. Measurements of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen consumption, and body mass index were obtained for both groups before and after the exercise program. [Results] The mean body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal oxygen consumption decreased significantly, whereas the mean maximum voluntary ventilation increased significantly after treatment in group A. The mean maximum voluntary ventilation also increased significantly after treatment in group B. There were significant differences between the mean levels of the investigated parameters in groups A and B after treatment. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise reduces weight and improves cardiopulmonary fitness in obese subjects better than anaerobic exercise.

  11. Force Exertion Capacity Measurements in Haptic Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munih, Marko; Bardorfer, Ales; Ceru, Bojan; Bajd, Tadej; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    An objective test for evaluating functional status of the upper limbs (ULs) in patients with muscular distrophy (MD) is presented. The method allows for quantitative assessment of the UL functional state with an emphasis on force exertion capacity. The experimental measurement setup and the methodology for the assessment of maximal exertable force…

  12. [Cardiovascular protection and mechanisms of actions of aerobic exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zuo-Xu; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effect on cardiovascular system, but the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that aerobic exercise ameliorates insulin resistance, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction which play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of the cardioprotective role of aerobic exercise, especially the latest progress in this field.

  13. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. © FASEB.

  14. Witnesses in action: the effect of physical exertion on recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lorraine; Lewinski, William; Dixon, Justin; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona

    2012-04-01

    Understanding memory performance under different operational conditions is critical in many occupational settings. To examine the effect of physical exertion on memory for a witnessed event, we placed two groups of law-enforcement officers in a live, occupationally relevant scenario. One group had previously completed a high-intensity physical-assault exercise, and the other had not. Participants who completed the assault exercise showed impaired recall and recognition performance compared with the control group. Specifically, they provided significantly less accurate information concerning critical and incidental target individuals encountered during the scenario, recalled less briefing information, and provided fewer briefing updates than control participants did. Exertion was also associated with reduced accuracy in identifying the critical target from a lineup. These results support arousal-based competition accounts proposing differential allocation of resources under physiological arousal. These novel findings relating to eyewitness memory performance have important implications for victims, ordinary citizens who become witnesses, and witnesses in policing, military, and related operational contexts.

  15. Single minimal incision fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Loppini, Mattia; Spiezia, Filippo; D'Addona, Alessio; Maffulli, Gayle D

    2016-05-24

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) involves a painful increase in compartment pressure caused by exercise and relieved by rest, common in athletes. The most common site for CECS in the lower limbs is the anterior leg compartment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of a single minimal incision fasciotomy in athletes and their capability to return to high level sport activity. The study reports mid-term results in a series of 18 consecutive athletes with chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg who had undergone minimally invasive fasciotomy. Between 2000 and 2007, we prospectively enrolled 18 consecutive athletes (12 males and six females, median age 27 years) with unilateral or bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome undergoing unilateral or bilateral minimally invasive fasciotomy. Clinical outcomes were assessed with Short-Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) and European Quality of Life-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) scale. The ability to participate in sport before and after surgery and the time to return to training (RTT) and to sport (RTS) were recorded. The median follow-up after surgery was 36 months. Both questionnaires showed a statistically significant improvement (P compartment syndrome of the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg with good results in the mid-term.

  16. [Endoscopic aponeurotomy for chronic exertional compartmental syndrome of the forearm: report of 41 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, D; Clement, R; Roure, P

    2003-08-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is probably underdiagnosed as a cause of forearm pain in the sportsman. Its pathological basis is a critical elevation of extracellular pressure. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by measurements of intracompartmental pressures. We described a reliable original method of endoscopically assisted superficial fasciotomy for treating chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm. The goal of the study is the physiological and clinical validation of this technique. Retrospective cohort study after the anatomical assessment of the feasibility of our endoscopically assisted fasciotomy. Review of 41 forearm decompressions in 25 patients (23 sportsmen and 2 musicians). Follow-up of 6 months to 9 years. Eighty-eight percent reported an excellent or good outcome with significant reduction of pain during exercise. Three patients noted the return of their compartment syndrome and this was confirmed by new measurements of intramuscular pressure. Two of them underwent fasciectomy with excision of a hypertrophic scar of the superficial aponevrosis to good effect. Two hematomas and 2 lateral epicondylitis with no adverse effect on the final result. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy is a reliable technique for reducing pain in chronic compartment exertional syndromes. It allows the large majority of patients to return to sports. It is our first choice indication in young sportsmen for syndromes of the forearm (anterior and/or posterior compartment). The limit of the technique is the current knowledge of collagenic tissues pathology as a cause of recurrence with hypertrophic aponevrotic scars.

  17. Can emotive imagery aid in tolerating exertion efficiently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, D; Tenenbaum, G

    1998-12-01

    The study examined the role of relaxation and aggressive types of imagery and the effect of goal orientations, self efficacy, self control, and determination on exertion tolerance. the participants underwent an exertive task in which they were required to squeeze a dynamometer, at 50% of their maximal hand-grip capacity, for as long as they could. Perceived exertion was measured every 15 sec during the task. The time that elapsed between rating exertion as "strong", and dropping the handbar under 10% of the designated 50% criterion, was considered as the "zone of exertion tolerance". forty-eight female university students were randomly assigned into 3 groups. two imagery techniques, one under relaxing and one under aggressive conditions were taught and then applied. In the control condition, discussions were conducted. traits such as goal orientation (task and ego), physical self-efficacy and self-control were measured prior to performing the task, while rate of perceived exertion task-specific determination (i.e., task-related confidence, commitment, exertion tolerance, and effort investment) were measured before, during and after the task. The results showed an average of 31% and 28% increase in exertion tolerance in participants who used aggressive and relaxation imagery techniques respectively, compared to 4% reduction in the controls. RM ANOVA indicated equality between the two imagery groups but both were significantly different from the control group. Physical self-efficacy, self-control, and task-specific determination were found nonsignificant, but their important roles in coping with aversive stimuli are highlighted. It was evident that the "coping" mechanism rather than the "distraction" mechanism accounted for the larger sustain in the "zone of exertion tolerance". Imagery can be used efficiently in exertion tolerance but more studies are needed on athletes.

  18. Effect of experimental modulation of mood on perception of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod; Morris, Norman R; Adams, Lewis

    2016-01-15

    In many diseases across a range of pathologies (e.g., cardiopulmonary, neuromuscular, and cancer), chronic dyspnea, particularly on exertion, is a major debilitating symptom often associated with clinical anxiety/depression. This study aims to explore the interaction between mood state and exertional dyspnea in a healthy population. Following familiarization, 20 healthy subjects (27-54 years old) performed six 5-min treadmill tests on three separate days. On each day subjects viewed randomly assigned images designed to induce positive, negative, or neutral mood states (International Affective Picture System). For each condition, at minute intervals, subjects rated dyspnea (sensory and affective domains) in the first test and mood (valence and arousal domains) in the second test. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2 , liters/min), carbon dioxide production (V̇CO2, liters/min), ventilation (V̇E, liters/min), respiratory frequency (f(R), beats/min), and heart rate (HR, bpm), were measured throughout the exercise. V̇O2, V̇CO2, V̇E, HR, and f(R) were not statistically significantly different among the three mood states (P > 0.05). Mood valence was significantly higher with parallel viewing of positive (last 2-min mean ± SE = 6.9 ± 0.2) compared with negative pictures (2.4 ± 0.2; P negative (sensory: 5.6 ± 0.3; affective: 3.3 ± 0.5) compared with positive mood (sensory: 4.4 ± 0.4, P positive mood alleviates both the sensory and affective domains of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects. Thus the treatment of anxiety/depression in dyspenic populations could be a worthwhile therapeutic strategy in increasing symptom-limited exercise tolerance, thereby contributing to improved quality of life. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.

  20. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections ...

  3. Voluntary euthanasia: ethical concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K; Chaloner, C

    Euthanasia is a highly emotive and contentious subject, giving rise to a great deal of debate. However, despite its frequent exposure in public and professional media, there appears to be a lack of clarity about the concepts and definitions used in the euthanasia debate. This suggests that discussions on this subject are inadequately informed and ineffectual. The ethical focus of the euthanasia debate concerns the moral legitimacy of 'voluntary euthanasia'. This article provides an overview and clarification of some of the key ethical issues at the centre of that debate.

  4. Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahida Vilsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ≤10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, χ2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood

  5. The validity of submaximal ratings of perceived exertion to predict one repetition maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eston, Roger; Evans, Harrison James Llewelyn

    2009-01-01

    The One Repetition Maximum (1-RM) test is commonly used to assess strength. However, direct assessments of 1-RM are time consuming and unsafe for novice lifters. Whilst various equations exist to predict 1-RM, there is limited research on the validity of these equations. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of using sub-maximal ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) to predict 1-RM in young adults, using the Borg 6-20 RPE Scale. Twenty healthy participants (ten male (Mean ± SD, 20.8 ± 0.6 y, 75.7 ± 9.3 kg, 1.8 ± 0.07 m) and ten female (20.3 ± 0.7 y, 68.4 ± 10.0 kg, 1.68 ± 0.03 m)) completed two trials involving resistance exercises for both the upper and lower body. In the first trial the 1-RM for the bilateral biceps curl (BC) and the bilateral knee extension (KE) were determined for each participant. In the second trial, participants performed blinded repetitions which were equivalent to 20, 40 and 60 % of 1-RM for both exercises. The RPE was recorded immediately after two repetitions had been completed at each intensity. The order of intensity of the repetitions was randomly assigned with participants wearing blindfolds to exclude the possibility of pre-determined judgments about load and RPE. Individual RPE recorded at each intensity was subjected to linear regression analysis and the line of best fit was extrapolated to RPE 20 to predict 1-RM in both exercises. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the 1-RM predicted from RPE 20 and measured 1-RM for both exercises for the men and women. Measured and predicted values for men were 46.0 ± 4.6 and 45.2 ± 6. 1 kg for biceps curl, and 46.3 ± 3.8 and 43.0 ± 7.1 kg for knee extension, respectively. Measured and predicted values for women were 18.6 ± 5.7 and 19.3 ± 5.6 kg for biceps curl, and 25.5 ± 9.6 and 27.2 ± 12.6 kg for knee extension, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between actual and predicted 1-RM for the BC and KE were 0.97 and 0

  6. Sport and exercise-induced migraines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Craig

    2006-02-01

    Sport and exercise-induced migraines are difficult to distinguish from benign exertional headaches and other headache syndromes. Exertion can be the sole cause, or may be among multiple triggers for an individual's headache. Because approximately 10% of these headaches have an organic origin, a careful history and physical examination is necessary. The hallmark of treatment for exercise-induced migraines tends to be proper warm-up before exercise, minimization of environmental risks, proper sleep hygiene, and good nutrition and hydration; however, in many cases, the pharmacologic solutions that are applied to other types of headaches may also be necessary. Because there is a lack of large trial studies on the athletic headache population, more research on the topic is needed in the future to help clarify the mechanisms, classification, and treatments of these headaches.

  7. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, Elise; Rytter, Hana Malá; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    fulfilled the criteria.The studies were examined relative to cognitive effects associated with three themes: exercise type (forced or voluntary), timing of exercise (early or late), and dose-related factors (intensity, duration, etc.).The studies indicate that exercise in many cases can promote cognitive...... recovery after brain injury. However, the optimal parameters to ensure cognitive rehabilitation efficacy still elude us, due to considerable methodological variations between studies....

  8. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  9. Advantages and disadvantages of voluntary disclosure of companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalewska, Weronika

    2015-01-01

    My final degree paper will investigate the theoretical and practical aspects about voluntary disclosure. First of all, I will compare mandatory and voluntary disclosures. Giving more focus to voluntary part I will analyse its effects and consequences on company's performance, market position etc. Moreover, this document aims to study motives and limitations that managers face if they want to share more information than the government is requiring. It will also analyse different types of discl...

  10. Surgical management of exertional anterior compartment syndrome of the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T; Mohammed, F; Mencia, M; Maharaj, D; Hoford, R

    2013-07-01

    To describe the characteristic presentation of exertional leg pain in athletes and to discuss the diagnostic options and surgical management of exertional anterior compartment syndrome of the leg in this group of patients. Data from a series of athletes presenting with exertional leg pain were analysed and categorized according to aetiology. Sixty-six athletes presenting with exertional leg pain in 102 limbs were analysed. Sixteen patients in a first group of 20 patients with a provisional diagnosis of exertional anterior compartment syndrome of the leg underwent a closed fasciotomy with complete resolution of symptoms. A second group of 42 patients were diagnosed as medial tibial stress syndrome and a third group of four patients had confirmed stress fracture of the tibia. Exertional leg pain is a common presenting complaint of athletes to sports physicians and physiotherapists. Careful analysis can lead to an accurate diagnosis and commencement of effective treatment. Exertional anterior compartment syndrome can be successfully treated utilizing a closed fasciotomy with a rapid return to sport.

  11. Evaluation of the controlled grip force exertion tasks associated with age, gender, handedness and target force level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeong-Hee; Kim, Dae-Min; Lee, Sung-Yong; Lee, Jun-Hyub; Kong, Yong-Ku

    2017-05-23

    Force control of the hand is an essential factor for operating tools and moving objects. Therefore, a method for quantifying hand functionality more accurately and objectively is very important. The present study included 60 healthy participants (30 elderly and 30 young adults) to evaluate the effects of age, gender and target force levels on tracking performance. Tracking performance was quantified by measuring the difference between target force levels and exerted force. Females exerted 59.6% of the maximum grip strength of males and the elderly group exerted 70.5% of maximum grip strength compared with the young group. The elderly group showed 3.1 times larger tracking error than the young group. There was a significant difference in females between the young and elderly groups, indicating age-related decline in hand function is more pronounced in females. The difference in grip force control ability between the elderly and young groups was significant at the low target force level (5% maximum voluntary contraction). The results of this study could be used for hand function evaluation guidelines. In addition, this study could be used as a tool for physiotherapy to improve hand function and prevent its decline in elderly people.

  12. Exercise-Dependent Regulation of NK Cells in Cancer Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; Hojman, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the most responsive immune cells to exercise, displaying an acute mobilization to the circulation during physical exertion. Recently, exercise-dependent mobilization of NK cells was found to play a central role in exercise-mediated protection against cancer. Here, we...... a mechanistic explanation for the protective effect of exercise on cancer, and we propose that exercise represents a potential strategy as adjuvant therapy in cancer, by improving NK cell recruitment and infiltration in solid tumors....... review the link between exercise and NK cell function, focusing on circulating exercise factors and additional effects, including vascularization, hypoxia, and body temperature in mediating the effects on NK cell functionality. Exercise-dependent mobilization and activation of NK cells provides...

  13. Exercise-Dependent Regulation of NK Cells in Cancer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idorn, Manja; Hojman, Pernille

    2016-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the most responsive immune cells to exercise, displaying an acute mobilization to the circulation during physical exertion. Recently, exercise-dependent mobilization of NK cells was found to play a central role in exercise-mediated protection against cancer. Here, we review the link between exercise and NK cell function, focusing on circulating exercise factors and additional effects, including vascularization, hypoxia, and body temperature in mediating the effects on NK cell functionality. Exercise-dependent mobilization and activation of NK cells provides a mechanistic explanation for the protective effect of exercise on cancer, and we propose that exercise represents a potential strategy as adjuvant therapy in cancer, by improving NK cell recruitment and infiltration in solid tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is Exercise Really Medicine? An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    An evolutionary perspective helps evaluate the extent to which exercise is medicine and to explain the exercise paradox: why people tend to avoid exercise despite its benefits. Many lines of evidence indicate that humans evolved to be adapted for regular, moderate amounts of endurance physical activity into late age. However, because energy from food was limited, humans also were selected to avoid unnecessary exertion, and most anatomical and physiological systems evolved to require stimuli from physical activity to adjust capacity to demand. Consequently, selection never operated to cope with the long-term effects of chronic inactivity. However, because all adaptations involve trade-offs, there is no evolutionary-determined dose or type of physical activity that will optimize health. Furthermore, because humans evolved to be active for play or necessity, efforts to promote exercise will require altering environments in ways that nudge or even compel people to be active and to make exercise fun.

  15. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine as a refined analgesic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Hau, Jann

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a widely used analgesic for laboratory rodents. Administration of the drug in an attractive food item for voluntary ingestion is a desirable way to administer the drug noninvasively. The method refi nes the standard analgesic procedure and has the potential to improve the welfare...... of laboratory mice and rats. However, many aspects of the voluntary ingestion method still need to be investigated. This paper examines the concept of voluntary ingestion of analgesia and reports new findings about voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine in mice....

  16. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  17. Evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games with voluntary participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Hauert, Christoph

    2002-12-01

    Voluntary participation in public good games has recently been demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to avoid deadlocks in states of mutual defection and to promote persistent cooperative behavior. Apart from cooperators and defectors a third strategical type is considered: the risk averse loners who are unwilling to participate in the social enterprise and rather rely on small but fixed earnings. This results in a rock-scissors-paper type of cyclic dominance of the three strategies. In the prisoner’s dilemma, the effects of voluntary participation crucially depend on the underlying population structure. While leading to homogeneous states of all loners in well-mixed populations, we demonstrate that cyclic dominance produces self-organizing patterns on square lattices but leads to different types of oscillatory behavior on random regular graphs: the temptation to defect determines whether damped, periodic, or increasing oscillations occur. These Monte Carlo simulations are complemented by predictions from pair approximation reproducing the results for random regular graphs particularly well.

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. If any of the following ... balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow ... training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are ...

  1. Recovery of central and peripheral neuromuscular fatigue after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T J; Taylor, J L; Gandevia, S C

    2017-05-01

    Sustained physical exercise leads to a reduced capacity to produce voluntary force that typically outlasts the exercise bout. This "fatigue" can be due both to impaired muscle function, termed "peripheral fatigue," and a reduction in the capacity of the central nervous system to activate muscles, termed "central fatigue." In this review we consider the factors that determine the recovery of voluntary force generating capacity after various types of exercise. After brief, high-intensity exercise there is typically a rapid restitution of force that is due to recovery of central fatigue (typically within 2 min) and aspects of peripheral fatigue associated with excitation-contraction coupling and reperfusion of muscles (typically within 3-5 min). Complete recovery of muscle function may be incomplete for some hours, however, due to prolonged impairment in intracellular Ca(2+) release or sensitivity. After low-intensity exercise of long duration, voluntary force typically shows rapid, partial, recovery within the first few minutes, due largely to recovery of the central, neural component. However, the ability to voluntarily activate muscles may not recover completely within 30 min after exercise. Recovery of peripheral fatigue contributes comparatively little to the fast initial force restitution and is typically incomplete for at least 20-30 min. Work remains to identify what factors underlie the prolonged central fatigue that usually accompanies long-duration single joint and locomotor exercise and to document how the time course of neuromuscular recovery is affected by exercise intensity and duration in locomotor exercise. Such information could be useful to enhance rehabilitation and sports performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers of Non-Exercising Female University Students in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Parker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06 in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199 = 6.18, p < 0.001], and their perceived benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to ‘disengage’ from or overcome any perceived ‘unpleasantness’ of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers, and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived

  3. [Exercise-induced coronary thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, A; Milouchi, S; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, M

    2017-12-01

    Heavy exertion as a trigger of cardiac events has been known since antiquity as it was already described in 492 BC in the famous Athens Marathon. Myocardial infarction occurring after physical exertion accounts for about 4% of myocardial infarctions. It is more common in men and younger patients. It usually occurs during intense efforts and especially in inactive people with multiple risk factors. It would be more severe with more frequent Q waves of necrosis on the victims' electrocardiograms, with greater troponin release and a more raised GRACE score. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is at the center of its pathophysiology, this event is responsible of a thrombus formation occluding the coronary artery. The hemodynamic stress imposed on the often-atheromatous coronary arteries during exercise, favor the plaque rupture and the occurrence of myocardial infarctions. To these hemodynamic constraints, are added biochemical and rheological modifications, which favor the formation of an intra-coronary thrombus. The occurrence of acute coronary events during heavy exertion in patients who are often untrained must not make us forget about the benefit of regular exercise on both the life quality and morbimortality levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The effectiveness of session rating of perceived exertion to monitor resistance training load in acute burns patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Gittings, Paul M; Wood, Fiona M; Edgar, Dale W

    2017-02-01

    Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a method frequently utilised in exercise and sports science to quantify training load of an entire aerobic exercise session. It has also been demonstrated that session-RPE is a valid and reliable method to quantify training load during resistance exercise, in healthy and athletic populations. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of session-RPE as a method to quantify exercise intensity during resistance training in patients with acute burns. Twenty burns patients (mean age=31.65 (±10.09) years), with a mean TBSA of 16.4% (range=6-40%) were recruited for this study. Patients were randomly allocated to the resistance training (n=10) or control group (n=10). All patients completed a four week resistance training programme. Training load (session-RPE×session duration), resistance training session-volume and pre-exercise pain were recorded for each exercise session. The influence of; age, gender, %TBSA, exercise group (resistance training vs. control), pre-exercise pain, resistance training history and session-volume on training load were analysed using a multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Session-volume did not influence training load in the final regression model, however training load was significantly greater in the resistance training group, compared with the control group (ptraining load, where increasing pain was associated with a higher session-RPE (p=0.004). Further research is indicated to determine the exact relationship between pain, resistance training history, exercise intensity and session-RPE and training load before it can be used as a method to monitor and prescribe resistance training load in acute burns patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise Increases Insulin Content and Basal Secretion in Pancreatic Islets in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hung Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise appears to improve glycemic control for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, the mechanism responsible for this improvement is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise has a direct effect on the insulin-producing islets. Eight-week-old mice were divided into four groups: sedentary diabetic, exercised diabetic, sedentary control, and exercised control. The exercised groups participated in voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. When compared to the control groups, the islet density, islet diameter, and β-cell proportion per islet were significantly lower in both sedentary and exercised diabetic groups and these alterations were not improved with exercise. The total insulin content and insulin secretion were significantly lower in sedentary diabetics compared to controls. Exercise significantly improved insulin content and insulin secretion in islets in basal conditions. Thus, some improvements in exercise-induced glycemic control in T1D mice may be due to enhancement of insulin content and secretion in islets.

  6. 20 CFR 220.132 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determine the physical exertion requirements of work in the national economy, jobs are classified as... determinations the Board uses the following definitions: (a) Sedentary work. Sedentary work involves lifting no...

  7. Criterion-related validity of perceived exertion scales in healthy children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Iván; Zambrano, Lysien; Manterola, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Physiological parameters used to measure exercise intensity are oxygen uptake and heart rate. However, perceived exertion (PE) is a scale that has also been frequently applied. The objective of this study is to establish the criterion-related validity of PE scales in children during an incremental exercise test. Seven electronic databases were used. Studies aimed at assessing criterion-related validity of PE scales in healthy children during an incremental exercise test were included. Correlation coefficients were transformed into z-values and assessed in a meta-analysis by means of a fixed effects model if I2 was below 50% or a random effects model, if it was above 50%. wenty-five articles that studied 1418 children (boys: 49.2%) met the inclusion criteria. Children's average age was 10.5 years old. Exercise modalities included bike, running and stepping exercises. The weighted correlation coefficient was 0.835 (95% confidence interval: 0.762-0.887) and 0.874 (95% confidence interval: 0.794-0.924) for heart rate and oxygen uptake as reference criteria. The production paradigm and scales that had not been adapted to children showed the lowest measurement performance (p valid in healthy children during an incremental exercise test. Child-specific rating scales showed a better performance than those that had not been adapted to this population. Further studies with better methodological quality should be conducted in order to confirm these results. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  8. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P M; de Bruijn, Johan A; Winkes, Michiel B; Dielemans, Jeanne P; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2015-11-01

    Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended.

  9. Heart rate and blood lactate correlates of perceived exertion during small-sided soccer games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Aaron J; Rampinini, Ermanno; Marcora, Samuele M; Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M

    2009-01-01

    The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) could be a practical measure of global exercise intensity in team sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between heart rate (%HR(peak)) and blood lactate ([BLa(-)]) measures of exercise intensity with each player's RPE during soccer-specific aerobic exercises. Mean individual %HR(peak), [BLa(-)] and RPE (Borg's CR 10-scale) were recorded from 20 amateur soccer players from 67 soccer-specific small-sided games training sessions over an entire competitive season. The small-sided games were performed in three 4min bouts separated with 3min recovery on various sized pitches and involved 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-players on each side. A stepwise linear multiple regression was used to determine a predictive equation to estimate global RPE for small-sided games from [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak). Partial correlation coefficients were also calculated to assess the relationship between RPE, [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 43.1% of the adjusted variance in RPE could be explained by HR alone. The addition of [BLa(-)] data to the prediction equation allowed for 57.8% of the adjusted variance in RPE to be predicted (Y=-9.49-0.152 %HR(peak)+1.82 [BLa(-)], pintensity in soccer.

  10. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, T; Hardikar, S.; Demoucron, M.; Niessen, M.; Demey, M.; O. Giot; Li, Y.; Haynes, J; Villringer, A; Leman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from i...

  11. Effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation on the metabolic response during Wingate anaerobic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Tsuchiya, Sho-Ichiro; Tsuji, Bun; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Sasaki, Yosuke; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated whether hypocapnia achieved through voluntary hyperventilation diminishes the increases in oxygen uptake elicited by short-term (e.g., ~30 s) all-out exercise without affecting exercise performance. Nine subjects performed 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT) in control and hypocapnia trials on separate days in a counterbalanced manner. During the 20-min rest prior to the 30-s WAnT, the subjects in the hypocapnia trial performed voluntary hyperventilation (minute ventilation = 31 L min(-1)), while the subjects in the control trial continued breathing spontaneously (minute ventilation = 14 L min(-1)). The hyperventilation in the hypocapnia trial reduced end-tidal CO2 pressure from 34.8 ± 2.5 mmHg at baseline rest to 19.3 ± 1.0 mmHg immediately before the 30-s WAnT. In the control trial, end-tidal CO2 pressure at baseline rest (35.9 ± 2.5 mmHg) did not differ from that measured immediately before the 30-s WAnT (35.9 ± 3.3 mmHg). Oxygen uptake during the 30-s WAnT was lower in the hypocapnia than the control trial (1.55 ± 0.52 vs. 1.95 ± 0.44 L min(-1)), while the postexercise peak blood lactate concentration was higher in the hypocapnia than control trial (10.4 ± 1.9 vs. 9.6 ± 1.9 mmol L(-1)). In contrast, there was no difference in the 5-s peak (842 ± 111 vs. 850 ± 107 W) or mean (626 ± 74 vs. 639 ± 80 W) power achieved during the 30-s WAnT between the control and hypocapnia trials. These results suggest that during short-period all-out exercise (e.g., 30-s WAnT), hypocapnia induced by voluntary hyperventilation reduces the aerobic metabolic rate without affecting exercise performance. This implies a compensatory elevation in the anaerobic metabolic rate.

  12. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  13. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  14. Endocrinology and Pediatric Exercise Science-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon

    2017-02-01

    The Pediatric Exercise Science Year That Was section aims to highlight the most important (to the author's opinion) manuscripts that were published in 2016 in the field of endocrinology and pediatric exercise science. This year's selection includes studies showing that 1) Induction of T4 to T3 conversion by type 2 deiodinase following aerobic exercise in skeletal muscles was associated with concomitant increase in peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and therefore plays an important mechanistic role in the muscle adaptation to exercise training. 2) Hypothyroidism in fetal and early postnatal life was associated with impaired spatial learning and memory and with reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in male and female rat pups. Forced (treadmill) and voluntary (wheel) exercise alleviated all these biochemical and neuro-cognitive deficits. 3) The relationship between different exercise intensities and carbohydrate requirements to maintain euglycemia at basal insulin levels among adolescent and young adults with Type 1 diabetes are nonlinear but rather inverted- U with no exogenous glucose required to maintain stable glucose level at high-intensity exercise (80%). The implication of these studies to the pediatric population, their importance and the new research avenues that were opened by these studies is emphasized.

  15. Rotator Cuff Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Injury Rehabilitation Rotator Cuff Exercises Rotator Cuff Exercises Share Print Rotator Cuff ... Best Rotator Cuff ExercisesNational Institutes of Health: MedlinePlus, ... and WellnessTags: Exercise Prescription, prevention, Shoulder Problems, ...

  16. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  17. Intense Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes: Exploring the Role of Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chassin, Ludovic Jean; Wilinska, Malgorzata E.; Hovorka, Roman

    2007-01-01

    Development of the external artificial pancreas (AP) is anticipated to be incremental, starting with simple and progressing to more complex applications incorporating exercise periods of various duration and intensity. Most studies investigating the effect of exercise on glucose excursions in subjects with type 1 diabetes either explored moderate exercise, which exerts different effects compared to intense exercise, or did not adopt continuous glucose monitoring combined with frequent plasma ...

  18. Crew Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalik, Kerrie K.

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes s