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Sample records for voluntary encoding strategies

  1. The cerebellum linearly encodes whisker position during voluntary movement.

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    Chen, Susu; Augustine, George J; Chadderton, Paul

    2016-01-19

    Active whisking is an important model sensorimotor behavior, but the function of the cerebellum in the rodent whisker system is unknown. We have made patch clamp recordings from Purkinje cells in vivo to identify whether cerebellar output encodes kinematic features of whisking including the phase and set point. We show that Purkinje cell spiking activity changes strongly during whisking bouts. On average, the changes in simple spike rate coincide with or slightly precede movement, indicating that the synaptic drive responsible for these changes is predominantly of efferent (motor) rather than re-afferent (sensory) origin. Remarkably, on-going changes in simple spike rate provide an accurate linear read-out of whisker set point. Thus, despite receiving several hundred thousand discrete synaptic inputs across a non-linear dendritic tree, Purkinje cells integrate parallel fiber input to generate precise information about whisking kinematics through linear changes in firing rate.

  2. Voluntary vaccination strategy and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Cressman, Ross

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the spread and control of sexually transmitted diseases when a game-theory based vaccination strategy is involved. An individual's decision on vaccination uptake may follow a cost-benefit analysis since the individual obtains immunity against the disease from the vaccination and, at the same time, may have some perceived side effects. Evolutionary game theory is integrated into the epidemic model to reveal the relationship between individuals' voluntary decisions on vaccination uptake and the spread and control of such diseases. We show that decreasing the perceived cost of taking vaccine or increasing the payoff from social obligation is beneficial to controlling the disease. It is also shown how the "degree of rationality" of males and females affects the disease spread through the net payoff of the game. In particular, individual awareness of the consequences of the disease on the infectives also contributes to slowing down the disease spread. By analyzing an asymmetric version of our evolutionary game, it is shown that the disease is better controlled when individuals are more sensitive to fitness differences when net payoff is positive than when it is negative.

  3. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine as a refined analgesic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Hau, Jann

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a widely used analgesic for laboratory rodents. Administration of the drug in an attractive food item for voluntary ingestion is a desirable way to administer the drug noninvasively. The method refi nes the standard analgesic procedure and has the potential to improve the welfare...

  4. The interaction of postural and voluntary strategies for stability in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lima-Pardini, Andrea C.; Papegaaij, Selma; Cohen, Rajal G.; Teixeira, Luis A.; Smith, Beth A.; Horak, Fay B.

    2012-01-01

    de Lima-Pardini AC, Papegaaij S, Cohen RG, Teixeira LA, Smith BA, Horak FB. The interaction of postural and voluntary strategies for stability in Parkinson's disease. J Neurophysiol 108: 1244-1252, 2012. First published June 6, 2012; doi:10.1152/jn.00118.2012.-This study assessed the effects of stab

  5. Voluntary strategy suppresses the positive impact of preferential selection in prisoner’s dilemma

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    Sun, Lei; Lin, Pei-jie; Chen, Ya-shan

    2014-11-01

    Impact of aspiration is ubiquitous in social and biological disciplines. In this work, we try to explore the impact of such a trait on voluntary prisoners’ dilemma game via a selection parameter w. w=0 returns the traditional version of random selection. For positive w, the opponent of high payoff will be selected; while negative w means that the partner of low payoff will be chosen. We find that for positive w, cooperation will be greatly promoted in the interval of small b, at variance cooperation is inhibited with large b. For negative w, cooperation is fully restrained, irrespective of b value. It is found that the positive impact of preferential selection is suppressed by the voluntary strategy in prisoner’s dilemma. These observations can be supported by the spatial patterns. Our work may shed light on the emergence and persistence of cooperation with voluntary participation in social dilemma.

  6. Prefrontal activity and impaired memory encoding strategies in schizophrenia.

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    Guimond, Synthia; Hawco, Colin; Lepage, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients have significant memory difficulties that have far-reaching implications in their daily life. These impairments are partly attributed to an inability to self-initiate effective memory encoding strategies, but its core neurobiological correlates remain unknown. The current study addresses this critical gap in our knowledge of episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients (n = 35) and healthy controls (n = 23) underwent a Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) during an fMRI scan. Brain activity was examined for conditions where participants were a) prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, or b) not prompted but required to self-initiate such strategies. When prompted to use semantic encoding strategies, schizophrenia patients exhibited similar recognition performance and brain activity as healthy controls. However, when required to self-initiate these strategies, patients had significant reduced recognition performance and brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as in the left temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. When patients were divided based on performance on the SEMT, the subgroup with more severe deficits in self-initiation also showed greater reduction in left dorsolateral prefrontal activity. These results suggest that impaired self-initiation of elaborative encoding strategies is a driving feature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. We also identified the neural correlates of impaired self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies, in which a failure to activate the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a key role. These findings provide important new targets in the development of novel treatments aiming to improve memory and ultimately patients' outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Task-selective memory effects for successfully implemented encoding strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Leshikar

    Full Text Available Previous behavioral evidence suggests that instructed strategy use benefits associative memory formation in paired associate tasks. Two such effective encoding strategies--visual imagery and sentence generation--facilitate memory through the production of different types of mediators (e.g., mental images and sentences. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that regions of the brain support memory reflecting the mental operations engaged at the time of study. That work, however, has not taken into account self-reported encoding task success (i.e., whether participants successfully generated a mediator. It is unknown, therefore, whether task-selective memory effects specific to each strategy might be found when encoding strategies are successfully implemented. In this experiment, participants studied pairs of abstract nouns under either visual imagery or sentence generation encoding instructions. At the time of study, participants reported their success at generating a mediator. Outside of the scanner, participants further reported the quality of the generated mediator (e.g., images, sentences for each word pair. We observed task-selective memory effects for visual imagery in the left middle occipital gyrus, the left precuneus, and the lingual gyrus. No such task-selective effects were observed for sentence generation. Intriguingly, activity at the time of study in the left precuneus was modulated by the self-reported quality (vividness of the generated mental images with greater activity for trials given higher ratings of quality. These data suggest that regions of the brain support memory in accord with the encoding operations engaged at the time of study.

  8. Intergenerational transmission of occupational status: The role of voluntary association membership as an emerging compensatory strategy of reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, J.M.A. van; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Wolbers, M.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we raised the question as to what extent members from higher status groups effectuated social resources, more specifically voluntary association membership, as a possible new compensatory strategy to guarantee a successful intergenerational transmission of their occupational status.

  9. Unchecked strategy diversification and collapse in continuous voluntary public good games

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Unemi, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation or defection and participation or withdrawal are well-known options of behavior in game-like activities in free societies, yet the co-evolutionary dynamics of these behavioral traits in the individual level are not well understood. Here we investigate the continuous voluntary public good game, in which individuals have two types of continuous-valued options: a probability of joining the public good game and a level of cooperative investment in the game. Our numerical results reveal hitherto unreported phenomena: (i) The evolutionary dynamics are initially characterized by oscillations in individual cooperation and participation levels, in contrast to the population-level oscillations that have previously been reported. (ii) Eventually, the population's average cooperation and participation levels converge to and stabilize at a center. (iii) Then, a most peculiar phenomenon unfolds: The strategies present in the population diversify and give rise to a "cloud" of tinkering individuals who each tries...

  10. Age-related deficits in voluntary control over saccadic eye movements: consideration of electrical brain stimulation as a therapeutic strategy.

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    Chen, Po Ling; Machado, Liana

    2016-05-01

    Sudden changes in our visual environment trigger reflexive eye movements, so automatically they often go unnoticed. Consequently, voluntary control over reflexive eye movements entails considerable effort. In relation to frontal-lobe deterioration, adult aging adversely impacts voluntary saccadic eye movement control in particular, which compromises effective performance of daily activities. Here, we review the nature of age-related changes in saccadic control, focusing primarily on the antisaccade task because of its assessment of 2 key age-sensitive control functions: reflexive saccade inhibition and voluntary saccade generation. With an ultimate view toward facilitating development of therapeutic strategies, we systematically review the neuroanatomy underpinning voluntary control over saccadic eye movements and natural mechanisms that kick in to compensate for age-related declines. We then explore the potential of noninvasive electrical brain stimulation to counteract aging deficits. Based on evidence that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation can confer a range of benefits specifically relevant to aging brains, we put forward this neuromodulation technique as a therapeutic strategy for improving voluntary saccadic eye movement control in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissociative effects of true and false recall as a function of different encoding strategies.

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    Goodwin, Kerri A

    2007-01-01

    Goodwin, Meissner, and Ericsson (2001) proposed a path model in which elaborative encoding predicted the likelihood of verbalisation of critical, nonpresented words at encoding, which in turn predicted the likelihood of false recall. The present study tested this model of false recall experimentally with a manipulation of encoding strategy and the implementation of the process-tracing technique of protocol analysis. Findings indicated that elaborative encoding led to more verbalisations of critical items during encoding than rote rehearsal of list items, but false recall rates were reduced under elaboration conditions (Experiment 2). Interestingly, false recall was more likely to occur when items were verbalised during encoding than not verbalised (Experiment 1), and participants tended to reinstate their encoding strategies during recall, particularly after elaborative encoding (Experiment 1). Theoretical implications for the interplay of encoding and retrieval processes of false recall are discussed.

  12. Cognitive and Neural Effects of Semantic Encoding Strategy Training in Older Adults

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    Anderson, B. A.; Barch, D. M.; Jacoby, L. L.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that older adults are less likely than young adults to use effective learning strategies during intentional encoding. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether training older adults to use semantic encoding strategies can increase their self-initiated use of these strategies and improve their recognition memory. The effects of training on older adults' brain activity during intentional encoding were also examined. Training increased older adults' self-initiated semantic encoding strategy use and eliminated pretraining age differences in recognition memory following intentional encoding. Training also increased older adults' brain activity in the medial superior frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and left caudate during intentional encoding. In addition, older adults' training-related changes in recognition memory were strongly correlated with training-related changes in brain activity in prefrontal and left lateral temporal regions associated with semantic processing and self-initiated verbal encoding strategy use in young adults. These neuroimaging results demonstrate that semantic encoding strategy training can alter older adults' brain activity patterns during intentional encoding and suggest that young and older adults may use the same network of brain regions to support self-initiated use of verbal encoding strategies. PMID:21709173

  13. RETRENCHMENT STRATEGY IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF VOLUNTARY SEPARATION SCHEME (VSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramayah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of business leadership in this millennium is to manage continued improvement in a competitive position. In order to stay competitive, companies are trying to become more "mean and lean". To achieve this, many major corporations have adopted the "downsizing and rightsizing" strategy. Voluntary Separation Scheme (VSS has been a global phenomenon since the 1980's and is common particularly in larger companies. In this study, the reaction to the VSS program involving the employees of a government agency embracing privatisation was studied, specifically the influence of the basic needs and referent power on the choice of acceptance and non-acceptance of VSS. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the success or failure of the VSS from the workers perspective in particular, whether their decision met their needs. The results showed that basic needs had an influence on the acceptance and the non-acceptance of VSS, namely health needs, security needs and self-esteem needs. All the referent powers (subjective norms had an influence, but surprisingly close friends had the strongest influence. Differences were also found between the expectations and the perception of the workers who accepted or rejected the VSS. From the workers' perspective, it appeared that the VSS carried out in this organization was not a success.

  14. Using farmers' attitude and social pressures to design voluntary Bluetongue vaccination strategies.

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    Sok, J; Hogeveen, H; Elbers, A R W; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the context and drivers of farmers' decision-making is critical to designing successful voluntary disease control interventions. This study uses a questionnaire based on the Reasoned Action Approach framework to assess the determinants of farmers' intention to participate in a hypothetical reactive vaccination scheme against Bluetongue. Results suggest that farmers' attitude and social pressures best explained intention. A mix of policy instruments can be used in a complementary way to motivate voluntary vaccination based on the finding that participation is influenced by both internal and external motivation. Next to informational and incentive-based instruments, social pressures, which stem from different type of perceived norms, can spur farmers' vaccination behaviour and serve as catalysts in voluntary vaccination schemes.

  15. Natural biased coin encoded in the genome determines cell strategy.

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    Dorri, Faezeh; Mahini, Hamid; Sharifi-Zarchi, Ali; Totonchi, Mehdi; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Pezeshk, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Decision making at a cellular level determines different fates for isogenic cells. However, it is not yet clear how rational decisions are encoded in the genome, how they are transmitted to their offspring, and whether they evolve and become optimized throughout generations. In this paper, we use a game theoretic approach to explain how rational decisions are made in the presence of cooperators and competitors. Our results suggest the existence of an internal switch that operates as a biased coin. The biased coin is, in fact, a biochemical bistable network of interacting genes that can flip to one of its stable states in response to different environmental stimuli. We present a framework to describe how the positions of attractors in such a gene regulatory network correspond to the behavior of a rational player in a competing environment. We evaluate our model by considering lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in E. coli.

  16. Natural biased coin encoded in the genome determines cell strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Dorri

    Full Text Available Decision making at a cellular level determines different fates for isogenic cells. However, it is not yet clear how rational decisions are encoded in the genome, how they are transmitted to their offspring, and whether they evolve and become optimized throughout generations. In this paper, we use a game theoretic approach to explain how rational decisions are made in the presence of cooperators and competitors. Our results suggest the existence of an internal switch that operates as a biased coin. The biased coin is, in fact, a biochemical bistable network of interacting genes that can flip to one of its stable states in response to different environmental stimuli. We present a framework to describe how the positions of attractors in such a gene regulatory network correspond to the behavior of a rational player in a competing environment. We evaluate our model by considering lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in E. coli.

  17. Adaptive and qualitative changes in encoding strategy with experience: evidence from the test-expectancy paradigm.

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    Finley, Jason R; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2012-05-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners' abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study-test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study-test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants' metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests.

  18. The Strategy of Voluntary Certification in Italian Olive Oil Industry: Who and Why?

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    Riganelli, Chiara; Marchini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of asymmetric information is central in the agri-food sector, in which often there is not full information transparency about product quality. This condition is particularly complex considering the high-end products. In particular, there are specific attributes (credence attributes) that are not assessable by consumers. For these reasons, a clear information about certification can give to consumers the possibility to make a rational choice. A company can choose voluntarily to participate in certification programs that can be viewed also as a simplification of some organization issues. Often the incentives to participate in voluntary programs arise from the need to have a positive economic performance of the firm. On the one hand, the firm may have benefits from the technical assistance of the certification, which allows it to reduce costs of controlling particular sensible steps of the process. On the other hand, the firm may provide a new certification label, in order to ensure a greater transparency of its processes. The research aims to understand the characteristics of firms oriented to use voluntary certifications as a tool to reduce information asymmetries between producers and final consumers. In particular, we want to consider two contexts of analysis: a structural one, considering some specific internal aspects and investment choices of the firms (typology, size, extraction system, storage system, material investments, immaterial investments); a second one that takes into account some decisions related to market relationships (sale to consumers, sale to HoReCa, sale to wholesalers, sale to purchasing groups, sale to GDO, export activity). The study concerns small and medium olive oil company of Southern Italy. We apply two logit models in order to show the determinants in the choice to introduce a voluntary certification. The results show significant values in both the two dimensions considered. Among the first one, there are significances

  19. Cognitive training of self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies in schizophrenia: A pilot study.

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    Guimond, Synthia; Lepage, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Available cognitive remediation interventions have a significant but relatively small to moderate impact on episodic memory in schizophrenia. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a brief novel episodic memory training targeting the self-initiation of semantic encoding strategies. To select patients with such deficits, 28 participants with schizophrenia performed our Semantic Encoding Memory Task (SEMT) that provides a measure of self-initiated semantic encoding strategies. This task identified a deficit in 13 participants who were then offered two 60-minute training sessions one week apart. After the training, patients performed an alternate version of the SEMT. The CVLT-II (a standardised measure of semantic encoding strategies) and the BVMT-R (a control spatial memory task) were used to quantify memory pre- and post-training. After the training, participants were significantly better at self-initiating semantic encoding strategies in the SEMT (p = .004) and in the CVLT-II (p = .002). No significant differences were found in the BVMT-R. The current study demonstrates that a brief and specific training in memory strategies can help patients to improve a deficient memory process in schizophrenia. Future studies will need to test this intervention further using a randomised controlled trial, and to explore its functional impact.

  20. The Effects of Metacognition and Concrete Encoding Strategies on Depth of Understanding in Educational Psychology

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    Schellenberg, Suzanne; Negishi, Meiko; Eggen, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study compared the academic achievement, as measured by final examination scores, of an experimental group of undergraduate educational psychology students who were provided with concrete mechanisms designed to promote metacognition and the use of specific encoding strategies to the achievement of a control group of similar students who were…

  1. What-Where-When Memory and Encoding Strategies in Healthy Aging

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    Cheke, Lucy G.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults exhibit disproportionate impairments in memory for item-associations. These impairments may stem from an inability to self-initiate deep encoding strategies. The present study investigates this using the "treasure-hunt task"; a what-where-when style episodic memory test that requires individuals to "hide" items…

  2. [Introducing marketing strategies and techniques into the field of voluntary blood donation, to meet the rise in blood demand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, S; Bégué, L

    2011-04-01

    Social marketing uses marketing principles and techniques to induce a target audience to voluntary accept, reject, change or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole. Thus, individual or societal gain is the primary goal of social marketing. This kind of marketing is frequently used in the United States or in Canada in several fields such as healthcare, social work, or the environment. In 2008, we introduced these strategies and techniques in the field of blood donation in France. This article describes what has been achieved in the last three years and outlines the main steps in the social marketing planning process: analyzing the social marketing environment, defining target audiences and objectives, building and implementing strategies and action plans, evaluating and monitoring. On the way to self-sufficiency, while respecting donors, social marketing is additional to the work done by the blood collection staffs, communication teams, and volunteers. Social marketing is a complementary tool to the work done by the blood collection staff, communication teams and blood donation organizations and can help to meet the challenge of self-sufficiency while still allowing for the privacy and rights of donors.

  3. Diverse Ecological Strategies Are Encoded by Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacteriocin-Like Peptides.

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    Miller, Eric L; Abrudan, Monica I; Roberts, Ian S; Rozen, Daniel E

    2016-04-13

    The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is commonly carried asymptomatically in the human nasopharynx. Due to high rates of cocolonization with other pneumococcus strains, intraspecific competitive interactions partly determine the carriage duration of strains and thereby their potential to cause disease. These interactions may be mediated by bacteriocins, such as the type IIb bacteriocins encoded by the blp (bacteriocin-like peptide) locus. To understand blp diversity and evolution, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of 4,418 pneumococcal genomes, including 168 newly sequenced genomes. We describe immense variation at all levels of genomic organization: Gene presence/absence, gene order, and allelic diversity. If we make the extreme and naive hypothesis that assumes all genes in this operon can assort randomly, this variation could lead to 10(15) distinct bacteriocin-related phenotypes, each potentially representing a unique ecological strategy; however, we provide several explanations for why this extreme is not realized. Although rarefaction analysis indicates that the number of unique strategies is not saturated, even after sampling thousands of genomes, we show that the variation is neither unbounded nor random. We delimit three bacteriocin groups, which contain group-specific bacteriocins, immunity genes, and blp operon gene order, and argue that this organization places a constraint on realized ecological strategies. We additionally show that ecological strategy diversity is significantly constrained by pneumococcal phylogeny and clonal structure. By examining patterns of association between alleles within the blp operon, we show that bacteriocin genes, which were believed to function in pairs, can be found with a broad diversity of partner alleles and immunity genes; this overall lack of allelic fidelity likely contributes to the fluid structure of this operon. Our results clarify the diversity of antagonistic ecological strategies in the

  4. A Hierarchical Joint Optimized Bit—allocation Strategy for HDTV Encoder with Parallel Coding Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONGHongkai; YUSongyu; YEWei

    2003-01-01

    Because real-time compression and high-speed digital processing circuitry are crucial for digital high definition television (HDTV) coding, parallel processing has become a feasible scheme in most applications as yet. This paper presents a novel bit-allocation strategy for an HDTV encoder system with parallel architecture, in which the original HDTV-picture is divided into six hor-izontal sub-pictures. It is shown that the MPEG-2 Test Model 5 (TMS) rate control scheme would not only give rise to non-consistent sub-pictures visual quality in a com-posite HDTV frame, but also make the coding quality de-grade abruptly and the buffer underfiow at scene changes.How to allocate bit-rates among sub-pictures becomes a great challenge in literatures. The proposed strategy is dedicated to a hierarchical joint optimized bit-allocation with sub-pictures' average complexity and average bits measure, and moreover, capable of alleviating serious pic-ture quality inconsistence at scene changes. The optimized bit-allocation and its complementary rate adaptive proce-dures are formulated and described. In the paper, the pro-posed strategy is compared with the independent coding,in which each sub-picture sequence is assigned the same proportion of the channel bandwidth. Experimental re-suits demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme not only alleviates the boundary effect but also promises the sub-pictures quality consistency.

  5. Function-Based Metagenomic Library Screening and Heterologous Expression Strategy for Genes Encoding Phosphatase Activity.

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    Villamizar, Genis A Castillo; Nacke, Heiko; Daniel, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    The release of phosphate from inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds can be mediated enzymatically. Phosphate-releasing enzymes, comprising acid and alkaline phosphatases, are recognized as useful biocatalysts in applications such as plant and animal nutrition, bioremediation and diagnostic analysis. Metagenomic approaches provide access to novel phosphatase-encoding genes. Here, we describe a function-based screening approach for rapid identification of genes conferring phosphatase activity from small-insert and large-insert metagenomic libraries derived from various environments. This approach bears the potential for discovery of entirely novel phosphatase families or subfamilies and members of known enzyme classes hydrolyzing phosphomonoester bonds such as phytases. In addition, we provide a strategy for efficient heterologous phosphatase gene expression.

  6. Voluntary Slavery

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    Danny Frederick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.

  7. Voluntary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The permissibility of actions depends upon facts about the flourishing and separateness of persons. Persons differ from other creatures in having the task of discovering for themselves, by conjecture and refutation, what sort of life will fulfil them. Compulsory slavery impermissibly prevents some persons from pursuing this task. However, many people may conjecture that they are natural slaves. Some of these conjectures may turn out to be correct. In consequence, voluntary slavery, in which one person welcomes the duty to fulfil all the commands of another, is permissible. Life-long voluntary slavery contracts are impermissible because of human fallibility; but fixed-term slavery contracts should be legally enforceable. Each person has the temporarily alienable moral right to direct her own life.

  8. The strategies and effectiveness of conservation ngos in the global voluntary standards: The case of the roundtable on sustainable palm-oil

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    Denis Ruysschaert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation non-governmental organisations (NGOs and firms have been promoting global voluntary standards, such as the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO, to produce environmentally responsible goods in tropical countries. This research seeks to understand the strategies and the effectiveness of conservation NGOs with respect to the RSPO. Our research documents that the conservation NGOs, when engaging with the RSPO, may be divided into four categories based on the type of resources mobilised and the conservation goals: 1 'Collaborative NGOs' seek to change the system from within by providing scientific research-based information, by holding strategic positions and by creating rules; 2 'Opponent' remains outside the RSPO while using it as a platform for public campaigns; 3 'Opportunistic' focuses on conserving geographical areas by adopting either collaborative or opponent strategies to reach their goals; and 4 'Sceptic' supports communities to secure local land rights. These NGOs have implemented strategies that strengthened RSPO's institution. However, the institutionalisation of the RSPO prevents the NGOs from reaching their goals for three reasons: 1 individual NGOs cannot change strategy; 2 NGOs using different engagement strategies are unable to collaborate; and 3 the sceptic NGOs are structurally excluded from the RSPO, though local land rights are a fundamental matter of concern for biodiversity conservation. NGOs would be more effective in reaching their goals either by focussing on their initial conservation objectives or by strategically collaborating with each other outside the structures of the RSPO.

  9. Progressive and Error-Resilient Transmission Strategies for VLC Encoded Signals over Noisy Channels

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    Guillemot Christine

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of robust and progressive transmission of signals (e.g., images, video encoded with variable length codes (VLCs over error-prone channels. This paper first describes bitstream construction methods offering good properties in terms of error resilience and progressivity. In contrast with related algorithms described in the literature, all proposed methods have a linear complexity as the sequence length increases. The applicability of soft-input soft-output (SISO and turbo decoding principles to resulting bitstream structures is investigated. In addition to error resilience, the amenability of the bitstream construction methods to progressive decoding is considered. The problem of code design for achieving good performance in terms of error resilience and progressive decoding with these transmission strategies is then addressed. The VLC code has to be such that the symbol energy is mainly concentrated on the first bits of the symbol representation (i.e., on the first transitions of the corresponding codetree. Simulation results reveal high performance in terms of symbol error rate (SER and mean-square reconstruction error (MSE. These error-resilience and progressivity properties are obtained without any penalty in compression efficiency. Codes with such properties are of strong interest for the binarization of -ary sources in state-of-the-art image, and video coding systems making use of, for example, the EBCOT or CABAC algorithms. A prior statistical analysis of the signal allows the construction of the appropriate binarization code.

  10. Food reformulation and the (neo)-liberal state: new strategies for strengthening voluntary salt reduction programs in the UK and USA.

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    Reeve, B; Magnusson, R

    2015-04-01

    Globally, excess salt intake is a significant cause of preventable heart disease and stroke, given the established links between high salt intake, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease. This paper describes and evaluates the voluntary approaches to salt reduction that operate in the United Kingdom and the United States, and proposes a new strategy for improving their performance. Drawing on developments in the theory and practice of public health governance, as well as theoretical ideas theoretical ideas from the field of regulatory studies, this paper proposes a responsive regulatory model for managing food reformulation initiatives, including salt reduction programs. This model provides a transparent framework for guiding industry behavior, making full use of industry's willingness to participate in efforts to create healthier products, but using 'legislative scaffolding' to escalate from self-regulation towards co-regulation if industry fails to play its part in achieving national goals and targets.

  11. Reprint of: Food reformulation and the (neo)-liberal state: new strategies for strengthening voluntary salt reduction programs in the UK and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, B; Magnusson, R

    2015-08-01

    Globally, excess salt intake is a significant cause of preventable heart disease and stroke, given the established links between high salt intake, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease. This paper describes and evaluates the voluntary approaches to salt reduction that operate in the United Kingdom and the United States, and proposes a new strategy for improving their performance. Drawing on developments in the theory and practice of public health governance, as well as theoretical ideas from the field of regulatory studies, this paper proposes a responsive regulatory model for managing food reformulation initiatives, including salt reduction programs. This model provides a transparent framework for guiding industry behavior, making full use of industry's willingness to participate in efforts to create healthier products, but using 'legislative scaffolding' to escalate from self-regulation towards co-regulation if industry fails to play its part in achieving national goals and targets.

  12. Voluntary medical male circumcision: strategies for meeting the human resource needs of scale-up in southern and eastern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Curran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 60%; modeling suggests that scaling up VMMC to 80% of men 15- to 49-years-old within five years would avert over 3.3 million new HIV infections in 14 high priority countries/regions in southern and eastern Africa by 2025 and would require 20.33 million circumcisions. However, the shortage of health professionals in these countries must be addressed to reach these proposed coverage levels. To identify human resource approaches that are being used to improve VMMC volume and efficiency, we looked at previous literature and conducted a program review. We identified surgical efficiencies, non-surgical efficiencies, task shifting, task sharing, temporary redeployment of public sector staff during VMMC campaign periods, expansion of the health workforce through recruitment of unemployed, recently retired, newly graduating, or on-leave health care workers, and the use of volunteer medical staff from other countries as approaches that address human resource constraints. Case studies from Kenya, Tanzania, and Swaziland illustrate several innovative responses to human resource challenges. Although the shortage of skilled personnel remains a major challenge to the rapid scale-up of VMMC in the 14 African priority countries/regions, health programs throughout the region may be able to replicate or adapt these approaches to scale up VMMC for public health impact.

  13. Voluntary medical male circumcision: strategies for meeting the human resource needs of scale-up in southern and eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kelly; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Mirelman, Andrew; Dickson, Kim; Adamu, Tigistu; Cherutich, Peter; Mahler, Hally; Fimbo, Bennett; Mavuso, Thembisile Khumalo; Albertini, Jennifer; Fitzgerald, Laura; Bock, Naomi; Reed, Jason; Castor, Delivette; Stanton, David

    2011-11-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 60%; modeling suggests that scaling up VMMC to 80% of men 15- to 49-years-old within five years would avert over 3.3 million new HIV infections in 14 high priority countries/regions in southern and eastern Africa by 2025 and would require 20.33 million circumcisions. However, the shortage of health professionals in these countries must be addressed to reach these proposed coverage levels. To identify human resource approaches that are being used to improve VMMC volume and efficiency, we looked at previous literature and conducted a program review. We identified surgical efficiencies, non-surgical efficiencies, task shifting, task sharing, temporary redeployment of public sector staff during VMMC campaign periods, expansion of the health workforce through recruitment of unemployed, recently retired, newly graduating, or on-leave health care workers, and the use of volunteer medical staff from other countries as approaches that address human resource constraints. Case studies from Kenya, Tanzania, and Swaziland illustrate several innovative responses to human resource challenges. Although the shortage of skilled personnel remains a major challenge to the rapid scale-up of VMMC in the 14 African priority countries/regions, health programs throughout the region may be able to replicate or adapt these approaches to scale up VMMC for public health impact.

  14. Uptake of voluntary counselling and testing among young people participating in an HIV prevention trial: comparison of opt-out and opt-in strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Baisley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT is an integral component of HIV prevention and treatment programmes. However, testing coverage in sub-Saharan Africa is still low, particularly among young people. As treatment becomes more widely available, strategies to expand VCT coverage are critically important. We compare VCT uptake using two delivery strategies (opt-in and opt-out within the MEMA kwa Vijana trial in 20 communities in northwest Tanzania. METHODS: We analysed data from 12,590 young persons (median (IQR age 22 years (20-23 to assess the effect of delivery strategy on VCT uptake. Ten communities used an opt-in approach and 10 used opt-out, balanced across intervention and control. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with uptake within each strategy. RESULTS: VCT uptake was significantly higher with the opt-out approach (90.9% vs 60.5%, prevalence ratio = 1.51, CI = 1.41-1.62. Among females, uptake in the opt-out approach was associated with decreased knowledge of HIV acquisition, sex with a casual partner, and being HSV-2 seronegative; among males, uptake was associated with lower education and increasing lifetime partners. In contrast, uptake using the opt-in approach varied by ethnic group, religion and marital status, and increased with increasing knowledge of STI acquisition (males or pregnancy prevention (females. CONCLUSION: VCT uptake among young people was extremely high when offered an opt-out strategy. Sociodemographic and knowledge factors affected uptake in different ways depending on delivery strategy. Increased knowledge may increase young persons' self-efficacy, which may have a different impact on testing uptake, depending on the approach used.

  15. Universal strategies for the DNA-encoding of libraries of small molecules using the chemical ligation of oligonucleotide tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovchick, Alexander; Clark, Matthew A; Keefe, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    The affinity-mediated selection of large libraries of DNA-encoded small molecules is increasingly being used to initiate drug discovery programs. We present universal methods for the encoding of such libraries using the chemical ligation of oligonucleotides. These methods may be used to record the chemical history of individual library members during combinatorial synthesis processes. We demonstrate three different chemical ligation methods as examples of information recording processes (writing) for such libraries and two different cDNA-generation methods as examples of information retrieval processes (reading) from such libraries. The example writing methods include uncatalyzed and Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloadditions and a novel photochemical thymidine-psoralen cycloaddition. The first reading method "relay primer-dependent bypass" utilizes a relay primer that hybridizes across a chemical ligation junction embedded in a fixed-sequence and is extended at its 3'-terminus prior to ligation to adjacent oligonucleotides. The second reading method "repeat-dependent bypass" utilizes chemical ligation junctions that are flanked by repeated sequences. The upstream repeat is copied prior to a rearrangement event during which the 3'-terminus of the cDNA hybridizes to the downstream repeat and polymerization continues. In principle these reading methods may be used with any ligation chemistry and offer universal strategies for the encoding (writing) and interpretation (reading) of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

  16. Genetic control of encoding strategy in a food-sensing neural circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Giovanni; Patel, Dhaval S; Entchev, Eugeni V; Zhan, Mei; Lu, Hang; Ch'ng, QueeLim

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine circuits encode environmental information via changes in gene expression and other biochemical activities to regulate physiological responses. Previously, we showed that daf-7 TGFβ and tph-1 tryptophan hydroxylase expression in specific neurons encode food abundance to modulate lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans, and uncovered cross- and self-regulation among these genes (Entchev et al., 2015). Here, we now extend these findings by showing that these interactions between daf-7 and tph-1 regulate redundancy and synergy among neurons in food encoding through coordinated control of circuit-level signal and noise properties. Our analysis further shows that daf-7 and tph-1 contribute to most of the food-responsiveness in the modulation of lifespan. We applied a computational model to capture the general coding features of this system. This model agrees with our previous genetic analysis and highlights the consequences of redundancy and synergy during information transmission, suggesting a rationale for the regulation of these information processing features. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24040.001 PMID:28166866

  17. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  18. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently specify

  19. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  20. Speech encoding strategies for multielectrode cochlear implants: a digital signal processor approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillier, N; Bögli, H; Spillmann, T

    1993-01-01

    The following processing strategies have been implemented on an experimental laboratory system of a cochlear implant digital speech processor (CIDSP) for the Nucleus 22-channel cochlear prosthesis. The first approach (PES, Pitch Excited Sampler) is based on the maximum peak channel vocoder concept whereby the time-varying spectral energy of a number of frequency bands is transformed into electrical stimulation parameters for up to 22 electrodes. The pulse rate at any electrode is controlled by the voice pitch of the input speech signal. The second approach (CIS, Continuous Interleaved Sampler) uses a stimulation pulse rate which is independent of the input signal. The algorithm continuously scans all specified frequency bands (typically between four and 22) and samples their energy levels. As only one electrode can be stimulated at any instance of time, the maximally achievable rate of stimulation is limited by the required stimulus pulse widths (determined individually for each subject) and some additional constraints and parameters. A number of variations of the CIS approach have, therefore, been implemented which either maximize the number of quasi-simultaneous stimulation channels or the pulse rate on a reduced number of electrodes. Evaluation experiments with five experienced cochlear implant users showed significantly better performance in consonant identification tests with the new processing strategies than with the subjects' own wearable speech processors; improvements in vowel identification tasks were rarely observed. Modifications of the basic PES- and CIS strategies resulted in large variations of identification scores. Information transmission analysis of confusion matrices revealed a rather complex pattern across conditions and speech features. Optimization and fine-tuning of processing parameters for these coding strategies will require more data both from speech identification and discrimination evaluations and from psychophysical experiments.

  1. Diverse Lifestyles and Strategies of Plant Pathogenesis Encoded in the Genomes of Eighteen Dothideomycetes Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Robin A.; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Schoch, Conrad L.; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Condon, Bradford J.; Copeland, Alex C.; Dhillon, Braham; Glaser, Fabian; Hesse, Cedar N.; Kosti, Idit; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda; Hamelin, Richard C.; Kema, Gert H. J.; Lawrence, Christopher; Scott, James A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Wit, Pierre J. G. M. de; Zhong, Shaobin; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2012-02-29

    The class Dothideomycetes is one of the largest groups of fungi with a high level of ecological diversity including many plant pathogens infecting a broad range of hosts. Here, we compare genome features of 18 members of this class, including 6 necrotrophs, 9 (hemi)biotrophs and 3 saprotrophs, to analyze genome structure, evolution, and the diverse strategies of pathogenesis. The Dothideomycetes most likely evolved from a common ancestor more than 280 million years ago. The 18 genome sequences differ dramatically in size due to variation in repetitive content, but show much less variation in number of (core) genes. Gene order appears to have been rearranged mostly within chromosomal boundaries by multiple inversions, in extant genomes frequently demarcated by adjacent simple repeats. Several Dothideomycetes contain one or more gene-poor, transposable element (TE)-rich putatively dispensable chromosomes of unknown function. The 18 Dothideomycetes offer an extensive catalogue of genes involved in cellulose degradation, proteolysis, secondary metabolism, and cysteine-rich small secreted proteins. Ancestors of the two major orders of plant pathogens in the Dothideomycetes, the Capnodiales and Pleosporales, may have had different modes of pathogenesis, with the former having fewer of these genes than the latter. Many of these genes are enriched in proximity to transposable elements, suggesting faster evolution because of the effects of repeat induced point (RIP) mutations. A syntenic block of genes, including oxidoreductases, is conserved in most Dothideomycetes and upregulated during infection in L. maculans, suggesting a possible function in response to oxidative stress.

  2. Diverse lifestyles and strategies of plant pathogenesis encoded in the genomes of eighteen Dothideomycetes fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin A Ohm

    Full Text Available The class Dothideomycetes is one of the largest groups of fungi with a high level of ecological diversity including many plant pathogens infecting a broad range of hosts. Here, we compare genome features of 18 members of this class, including 6 necrotrophs, 9 (hemibiotrophs and 3 saprotrophs, to analyze genome structure, evolution, and the diverse strategies of pathogenesis. The Dothideomycetes most likely evolved from a common ancestor more than 280 million years ago. The 18 genome sequences differ dramatically in size due to variation in repetitive content, but show much less variation in number of (core genes. Gene order appears to have been rearranged mostly within chromosomal boundaries by multiple inversions, in extant genomes frequently demarcated by adjacent simple repeats. Several Dothideomycetes contain one or more gene-poor, transposable element (TE-rich putatively dispensable chromosomes of unknown function. The 18 Dothideomycetes offer an extensive catalogue of genes involved in cellulose degradation, proteolysis, secondary metabolism, and cysteine-rich small secreted proteins. Ancestors of the two major orders of plant pathogens in the Dothideomycetes, the Capnodiales and Pleosporales, may have had different modes of pathogenesis, with the former having fewer of these genes than the latter. Many of these genes are enriched in proximity to transposable elements, suggesting faster evolution because of the effects of repeat induced point (RIP mutations. A syntenic block of genes, including oxidoreductases, is conserved in most Dothideomycetes and upregulated during infection in L. maculans, suggesting a possible function in response to oxidative stress.

  3. The path to memory is guided by strategy: distinct networks are engaged in associative encoding under visual and verbal strategy and influence memory performance in healthy and impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Jena B; Brewer, James B

    2012-06-01

    Given the diversity of stimuli encountered in daily life, a variety of strategies must be used for learning new information. Relating and encoding visual and verbal stimuli into memory has been probed using various tasks and stimulus types. Engagement of specific subsequent memory and cortical processing regions depends on the stimulus modality of studied material; however, it remains unclear whether different encoding strategies similarly influence regional activity when stimulus type is held constant. In this study, participants encoded object pairs using a visual or verbal associative strategy during fMRI, and subsequent memory was assessed for pairs encoded under each strategy. Each strategy elicited distinct regional processing and subsequent memory effects: middle/superior frontal, lateral parietal, and lateral occipital for visually associated pairs and inferior frontal, medial frontal, and medial occipital for verbally associated pairs. This regional selectivity mimics the effects of stimulus modality, suggesting that cortical involvement in associative encoding is driven by strategy and not simply by stimulus type. The clinical relevance of these findings, probed in a patient with a recent aphasic stroke, suggest that training with strategies utilizing unaffected cortical regions might improve memory ability in patients with brain damage.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA1 and ZEBRA: targets for therapeutic strategies against EBV-carrying cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalogianni, Chrysoula; Pyndiah, Slovénie; Apcher, Sébastien; Mazars, Anne; Manoury, Bénédicte; Ammari, Nisrine; Nylander, Karin; Voisset, Cécile; Blondel, Marc; Fåhraeus, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The EBV-encoded EBNA1 was first discovered 40 years ago, approximately 10 years after the presence of EBV had been demonstrated in Burkitt's lymphoma cells. It took another 10 years before the functions of EBNA1 in maintaining the viral genome were revealed, and it has since been shown to be an essential viral factor expressed in all EBV-carrying cells. Apart from serving to maintain the viral episome and to control viral replication and gene expression, EBNA1 also harbours a cis-acting mechanism that allows virus-carrying host cells to evade the immune system. This relates to a particular glycine-alanine repeat (GAr) within EBNA1 that has the capacity to suppress antigen presentation to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway. We discuss the role of the GAr sequence at the level of mRNA translation initiation, rather than at the protein level, as at least part of the mechanism to avoid MHC presentation. Interfering with this mechanism has become the focus of the development of immune-based therapies against EBV-carrying cancers, and some lead compounds that affect translation of GAr-carrying mRNAs have been identified. In addition, we describe the EBV-encoded ZEBRA factor and the switch from the latent to the lytic cycle as an alternative virus-specific target for treating EBV-carrying cancers. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of how EBNA1 and ZEBRA interfere with cellular pathways not only opens new therapeutic approaches but continues to reveal new cell-biological insights on the interplay between host and virus. This review is a tale of discoveries relating to how EBNA1 and ZEBRA have emerged as targets for specific cancer therapies against EBV-carrying diseases, and serves as an illustration of how mRNA translation can play roles in future immune-based strategies to target viral disease.

  5. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism.......This paper draws attention to the importance of the understanding of voluntary actions in the free market construct. Failing to understand the role of voluntary actions in the free market construct will often result in discussions of capitalism versus socialism focusing on asset ownership...... and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...

  6. An Efficient Synthetic Strategy for the Preparation of Nucleic Acid-Encoded Peptide and Protein Libraries for In Vitro Evolution Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lohse

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe an improved synthetic strategy for the preparation of nucleic acid encoded peptide and protein libraries. A solid-phase format was used to prepare and purify a novel type of mRNA-template for in vitro mRNA-protein fusion synthesis. The present protocol simplifies and accelerates the preparation of fusion libraries and should prove most useful for in vitro protein evolution procedures which involve repetitive cycles of fusion library preparation and selection.

  7. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  8. 宜昌市公民无偿献血动机分析及应对策略%Motivations and Strategies of Voluntary Unpaid Blood Donation among Yichang Citizens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查宜昌市公民无偿献血动机,分析其影响因素,制定针对性的应对策略。方法:在宜昌市城区及所属县市区7个固定采血点采取偶遇抽样法,对无偿献血者及同时间段内经过献血点且年龄符合献血要求的未献血者进行现场问卷调查。结果:利他主义、获得荣誉、享受用血优待是促进人们参加无偿献血的主要原因;抽不出时间、怕痛和担心献血影响身体、亲友的阻止等因素是阻碍人们献血的主要原因。结论:针对公民献血动机多元化的特点,建立科学的无偿献血招募体系,巩固积极动机的激励作用,消除和减弱消极动机,制定出科学合理的应对策略,以满足日益增长的临床用血需求。%Objective: Exploring the influencing factors through an investigation on Yichang citizens'motivations of voluntary unpaid blood donation, then we establish the targeted coping strategy.Methods: At seven different blood -donating stations in urban areas and counties of Yichang, we occasionally selected voluntary blood donors and the passing pedestrians which were suitable for blood donation and did not donate during the same time period to do the investigation by questionnaires.Result:The survey shows that the main reasons why people would do blood donation are altruism, gain honor and the preferential treatment in blood, and the main reasons which prevent people from donating blood would be: lack of time, fear of pain, worry about health influenced by blood donation and the stop from relatives and friends.Conclusion:According to the diversification of the citizens'blood donation motivations, we must build a scientific recruitment system of voluntary unpaid blood donation to consolidate the incentive effect of positive motivation and eliminate the negative motivation , and also work out a scientific and reasonable strategy to satisfy the increasing demand of clinical blood use.

  9. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  10. Progress Evaluation for the Restaurant Industry Assessed by a Voluntary Marketing-Mix and Choice-Architecture Framework That Offers Strategies to Nudge American Customers toward Healthy Food Environments, 2006-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Vivica; Englund, Tessa; Misyak, Sarah; Serrano, Elena

    2017-07-12

    Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006-January 2017) to examine restaurant strategies used to promote healthful options in the United States (U.S.). Evidence selection (n = 84) was guided by the LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence to inform decisions) and verified by data and investigator triangulation. A marketing-mix and choice-architecture framework was used to examine eight voluntary strategies (i.e., place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, priming or prompting and proximity) to evaluate progress (i.e., no, limited, some or extensive) toward 12 performance metrics based on available published evidence. The U.S. restaurant sector has made limited progress to use pricing, profile (reformulation), healthy default picks (choices), promotion (responsible marketing) and priming and prompting (information and labeling); and some progress to reduce portions. No evidence was available to assess progress for place (ambience) and proximity (positioning) to promote healthy choices during the 10-year review period. Chain and non-chain restaurants can apply comprehensive marketing-mix and nudge strategies to promote healthy food environments for customers.

  11. Progress Evaluation for the Restaurant Industry Assessed by a Voluntary Marketing-Mix and Choice-Architecture Framework That Offers Strategies to Nudge American Customers toward Healthy Food Environments, 2006–2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyak, Sarah; Serrano, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006–January 2017) to examine restaurant strategies used to promote healthful options in the United States (U.S.). Evidence selection (n = 84) was guided by the LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence to inform decisions) and verified by data and investigator triangulation. A marketing-mix and choice-architecture framework was used to examine eight voluntary strategies (i.e., place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, priming or prompting and proximity) to evaluate progress (i.e., no, limited, some or extensive) toward 12 performance metrics based on available published evidence. The U.S. restaurant sector has made limited progress to use pricing, profile (reformulation), healthy default picks (choices), promotion (responsible marketing) and priming and prompting (information and labeling); and some progress to reduce portions. No evidence was available to assess progress for place (ambience) and proximity (positioning) to promote healthy choices during the 10-year review period. Chain and non-chain restaurants can apply comprehensive marketing-mix and nudge strategies to promote healthy food environments for customers. PMID:28704965

  12. Progress Evaluation for the Restaurant Industry Assessed by a Voluntary Marketing-Mix and Choice-Architecture Framework That Offers Strategies to Nudge American Customers toward Healthy Food Environments, 2006–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivica Kraak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006–January 2017 to examine restaurant strategies used to promote healthful options in the United States (U.S.. Evidence selection (n = 84 was guided by the LEAD principles (i.e., locate, evaluate, and assemble evidence to inform decisions and verified by data and investigator triangulation. A marketing-mix and choice-architecture framework was used to examine eight voluntary strategies (i.e., place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, priming or prompting and proximity to evaluate progress (i.e., no, limited, some or extensive toward 12 performance metrics based on available published evidence. The U.S. restaurant sector has made limited progress to use pricing, profile (reformulation, healthy default picks (choices, promotion (responsible marketing and priming and prompting (information and labeling; and some progress to reduce portions. No evidence was available to assess progress for place (ambience and proximity (positioning to promote healthy choices during the 10-year review period. Chain and non-chain restaurants can apply comprehensive marketing-mix and nudge strategies to promote healthy food environments for customers.

  13. 机采血小板志愿无偿献血人群结构分析及招募策略应对%Population structure analysis and recruitment strategy for voluntary apheresis platelet donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范小伊; 杨婷婷; 曾芬; 邹海玉; 叶有玩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To plan recruitment strategy suitable for local region,keep the voluntary blood donors stable and ensure the safety of blood supply, by analyzing voluntary apheresis platelet donors population structure form central blood station of Longgang district Shenzhen city from 2011 to 2013. Methods On the basic of information from voluntary blood donors registration, population structure was analyzed for 3 368 voluntary apheresis platelet donors from the station. Results The voluntary apheresis platelet donors population structure from our station in this period remained stability. By gender statistics, the male donors was 3 069 times(91.12%), while the female donors was 299 times(8.87%). The male female ratio was 10.2∶1, most of the donors were male. According to age, 18 to 25 was 259 times(7.69%), 26 to 45 was 2 513 times(74.61%), 46 to 55 was 596 times(17.69%). It concluded that the age of voluntary apheresis platelet donors were mainly distributed in 26 to 45. According to degree of education, the most more was senior high school which occupied 1 134 times and 33.66%, while the secend most was junior high school which owned 873 times and 25.92%. By profession, worker which occupyed 569 times and 16.89% was the secend most, clerk was 534 times and 15.85%, the other was the most which owned 2 156 times and 64.01%. Conclusion The voluntary apheresis platelet donors population from our station was mainly distributed in male, senior high school and junior high school in education, 26 to 45 in age. It needed a powerful targeted publicity to females, high education people, and civil servants who rarely donated blood, and different recruitment strategy and service process must be made to different population.%目的:通过分析深圳市龙岗区中心血站2011—2013年机采血小板志愿无偿献血人群结构情况,制定适合本地区的招募策略,更好地保留献血者,保障供血安全。方法根据《无偿献血登记表献血者基本

  14. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian major carps by a modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Venugopal; S Mathavan; T J Pandian

    2002-06-01

    A modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy has been developed for cloning highly conserved cDNA sequences. Using this modified method, the growth hormone (GH) encoding cDNA sequences of Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla have been cloned, characterized and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. These sequences show 96–98% homology to each other and are about 85% homologous to that of common carp. Besides, an attempt has been made for the first time to describe a 3-D model of the fish GH protein.

  15. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian major carps by a modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, T; Mathavan, S; Pandian, T J

    2002-06-01

    A modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy has been developed for cloning highly conserved cDNA sequences. Using this modified method, the growth hormone (GH) encoding cDNA sequences of Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla have been cloned, characterized and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. These sequences show 96-98% homology to each other and are about 85% homologous to that of common carp. Besides, an attempt has been made for the first time to describe a 3-D model of the fish GH protein.

  16. Ecological Research of the Voluntary Disclosure about Listed Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing-Jing; Yan, Guang-Le

    In the paper, the research subject is the ecological relationship between the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises(SMEs) and the Large-scale Enterprises(Les). From the perspective of ecology, setting up the competitive model basic on the Logistic model, and carrying out further analysis about the voluntary information disclosure of listed company, then getting the strategic choice about the voluntary information disclosure and the ecological explanation of false information, and the dynamic mechanism and strategy of the voluntary information disclosure of listed company.

  17. SXT/R391 Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) Encode a Novel 'Trap-Door' Strategy for Mobile Element Escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael P; Armshaw, Patricia; Pembroke, J Tony

    2016-01-01

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are a class of bacterial mobile elements that have the ability to mediate their own integration, excision, and transfer from one host genome to another by a mechanism of site-specific recombination, self-circularisation, and conjugative transfer. Members of the SXT/R391 ICE family of enterobacterial mobile genetic elements display an unusual UV-inducible sensitization function which results in stress induced killing of bacterial cells harboring the ICE. This sensitization has been shown to be associated with a stress induced overexpression of a mobile element encoded conjugative transfer gene, orf43, a traV homolog. This results in cell lysis and release of a circular form of the ICE. Induction of this novel system may allow transfer of an ICE, enhancing its survival potential under conditions not conducive to conjugative transfer.

  18. A strategy for genetic modification of the spike-encoding segment of human reovirus T3D for reovirus targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wollenberg, D J M; van den Hengel, S K; Dautzenberg, I J C; Cramer, S J; Kranenburg, O; Hoeben, R C

    2008-12-01

    Human Orthoreovirus Type 3 Dearing is not pathogenic to humans and has been evaluated clinically as an oncolytic agent. Its transduction efficiency and the tumor cell selectivity may be enhanced by incorporating ligands for alternative receptors. However, the genetic modification of reoviruses has been difficult, and genetic targeting of reoviruses has not been reported so far. Here we describe a technique for generating genetically targeted reoviruses. The propagation of wild-type reoviruses on cells expressing a modified sigma 1-encoding segment embedded in a conventional RNA polymerase II transcript leads to substitution of the wild-type genome segment by the modified version. This technique was used for generating reoviruses that are genetically targeted to an artificial receptor expressed on U118MG cells. These cells lack the junction adhesion molecule-1 and therefore resist infection by wild-type reoviruses. The targeted reoviruses were engineered to carry the ligand for this receptor at the C terminus of the sigma 1 spike protein. This demonstrates that the C terminus of the sigma 1 protein is a suitable locale for the insertion of oligopeptide ligands and that targeting of reoviruses is feasible. The genetically targeted viruses can be propagated using the modified U118MG cells as helper cells. This technique may be applicable for the improvement of human reoviruses as oncolytic agents.

  19. 江苏省无偿献血者巨细胞病毒抗体情况调查和对策%Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Antibodies in Voluntary Blood Donors of Jiangsu Province and Its Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈虎诚; 耿鹏; 傅雷; 李仕伟; 杜同信

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveThe seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies was determined, for the purpose of providing evidence for CMV screening before transfusion.Methods The CMV-IgM and IgG antibodies in voluntary blood donors, family blood donors, and patients after kidney transplantation were detected by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The positive percentages of CMV antibodies were compared among these groups.Results Anti-CMV IgM and IgG seroprevalence in the voluntary blood donors was 12.14% and 97.51%, respectively. Anti-CMV IgM and IgG seroprevalence in the family blood donors was 13.51% and 95.97%, respectively. Anti-CMV IgM and IgG seroprevalence in the patients after kidney transplantation was 35.95% and 99.17%, respectively. There was no significant difference in anti-CMV IgG among the three groups. The percentage of anti-CMV IgM antibody in patients after kidney transplantation was higher than those in voluntary and family blood donors. There was no signiifcant difference between two blood donor groups.Conclusion The blood donors in the study region had high seroprevalence of anti-CMV IgM. The blood component screening strategies are required for blood transfusion patients, who are immunodeifciency, such as kidney transplantation recipients.%目的:检测献血者中巨细胞病毒(CMV)抗体情况,为输血前CMV检测提供依据。方法采用酶联免疫吸附法对无偿献血者和互助献血者进行CMV-IgG和CMV-IgM抗体检测,同时检测肾移植患者,并进行比较。结果无偿献血者中CMV-IgM阳性率12.14%,CMV-IgG阳性率97.51%。互助献血者中CMV-IgM阳性率13.51%,CMV-IgG阳性率95.97%;肾移植患者中CMV-IgM阳性率35.95%,CMV-IgG阳性率99.17%。无偿献血者、互助献血者和肾移植患者之间CMV-IgG阳性率差异没有统计学意义。肾移植患者的CMV-IgM阳性率高于无偿献血者和互助献血者。两组献血者之间的CMV-IgM阳性率差异没有统计学意义。结论献

  20. Voluntary Simplicity: A Lifestyle Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This guide provides practical ideas for incorporating the concept of voluntary simplicity into home economics classes. Discussed in the first chapter are the need to study voluntary simplicity, its potential contributions to home economics, and techniques and a questionnaire for measuring student attitudes toward the concept. The remaining…

  1. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  2. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  3. Toward voluntary parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S

    2000-06-01

    David Lykken's proposal to license married parents for child rearing, and to deny the same opportunity to single and inept parents, springs from his deep concern for millions of youngsters cruelly subjected to abusive and neglectful rearing circumstances. Children from such inadequate homes grow up to have high rates of school failure, criminality, and drug addiction. The problem is clear, but Lykken's remedies of mandated marriage and parental licensure are unacceptable in U.S. society, where our reproductive rights are fortunately protected by our Constitution. As a devoted proponent of reproductive rights, I propose a legally and morally acceptable proposal to the same end. Increasing women's effective control of reproduction and moving toward entirely voluntary parenthood will accomplish the same goals without compromising our civil liberties.

  4. Towards a Long-Term Strategy for Voluntary-Based Internal Radiation Contamination Monitoring: A Population-Level Analysis of Monitoring Prevalence and Factors Associated with Monitoring Participation Behavior in Fukushima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Ozaki, Akihiko; Murakami, Michio; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-09

    Following Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed voluntary-based monitoring behavior in Minamisoma City-located 10-40 km from the Fukushima nuclear plant-to inform future monitoring strategies. The monitoring in Minamisoma included occasional free of charge internal-radiation-exposure measurements. Out of around 70,000 individuals residing in the city before the incident, a total of 45,788 residents (female: 52.1%) aged ≥21 were evaluated. The monitoring prevalence in 2011-2012 was only 30.2%, and this decreased to 17.9% in 2013-2014. Regression analyses were performed to estimate factors associated with the monitoring prevalence and participation behavior. The results show that, in comparison with the age cohort of 21-30 years, the cohort of 71-80 and ≥81 years demonstrated significantly lower monitoring prevalence; female residents had higher monitoring prevalence than male residents; those who were living in evacuation zones at the time of the incident had higher monitoring prevalence than those who lived outside any of the evacuation zones; for those living outside Fukushima and neighboring Prefectures post-incident monitoring prevalence decreased significantly in 2013-2014. Our findings inform the discussion on the concepts of radiation risk perception and accessibility to monitoring and societal decision-making regarding the maintenance of the monitoring program with low monitoring prevalence. We also stress the possibility that the monitoring can work both to check that internal contamination levels are within acceptable limits, and as a risk communication tool, alleviating individuals' concern and anxiety over radiation contamination.

  5. Analyzing voluntary medical incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yang; Richardson, James; Zhijian, Luan; Alafaireet, Patricia; Yoo, Illhoi

    2008-11-06

    Voluntary medical incident reports lacking consistency and accuracy impede the ultimate use of the reports for patient safety research. To improve this, two coders examined harm score usage in a voluntary medical incident reporting system where the harm scores were selected from a predefined list by different reporters. The two coders inter-rater agreement percent was 82%. The major categories and reviewed harm score jointly demonstrate that this process is critical and necessary in preparing the voluntary reports for further content and semantics analysis.

  6. The Notion of Voluntary Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Guy

    1981-01-01

    Considers the distinction between voluntary and involuntary unemployment by analyzing six behavioral characteristics attributed to groups of workers suspected of indulging in the former, and the labor market mechanisms supposedly encouraging them. (Author/CT)

  7. A robust multi-shot scan strategy for high-resolution diffusion weighted MRI enabled by multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan-Kuei; Guidon, Arnaud; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Song, Allen W

    2013-05-15

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) data have been mostly acquired with single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI) to minimize motion induced artifacts. The spatial resolution, however, is inherently limited in single-shot EPI, even when the parallel imaging (usually at an acceleration factor of 2) is incorporated. Multi-shot acquisition strategies could potentially achieve higher spatial resolution and fidelity, but they are generally susceptible to motion-induced phase errors among excitations that are exacerbated by diffusion sensitizing gradients, rendering the reconstructed images unusable. It has been shown that shot-to-shot phase variations may be corrected using navigator echoes, but at the cost of imaging throughput. To address these challenges, a novel and robust multi-shot DWI technique, termed multiplexed sensitivity-encoding (MUSE), is developed here to reliably and inherently correct nonlinear shot-to-shot phase variations without the use of navigator echoes. The performance of the MUSE technique is confirmed experimentally in healthy adult volunteers on 3Tesla MRI systems. This newly developed technique should prove highly valuable for mapping brain structures and connectivities at high spatial resolution for neuroscience studies.

  8. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko S.

    2008-01-01

    The Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program supports the emergence and growth of choice initiatives across the country, by assisting states and local school districts in developing innovative strategies to expand public school choice options for students. This report contains the final assessment of the first five years of the VPSC Program…

  9. Study of the Voluntary Public School Choice Program. Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Ahonen, Pirkko; Kim, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Voluntary Public School Choice (VPSC) Program is to assist states and local school districts in the development of innovative strategies to expand options for students, and to encourage transfers of students from low-performing to higher-performing schools. This report presents interim findings from the National Evaluation of…

  10. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  11. Voluntary organisation and adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Elsdon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The author starts by offering a definition of voluntary organisations. He then discusses their importance and role, focusing on the issue of adult education wi­ thin these organisations. He also wells upon learning and change of voluntary organisation members, making use of the results of a study he conducted together with his collaborators. One of their fin­dings has been that voluntary organisati­ons, due to their organisational targets li­ke painting, singing or caring for people in need, lead their members to learning, i.e. essentially content learning. Moreo­ver, voluntary organisations offer a fair number of opportunities for social lear­ning and change. ln spite of the fact that the respondents were mostly not aware of the outcomes of their learning and change, careful listeners conducting the interview made them understand the im­portance of the learning they had gone through. The author concludes by poin­ ting out that formal education of adults can get its inspiration in learning in voluntary organisations. On the other hand, such learning would benefit greatly from findings and methods of formal education of adults.

  12. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  13. Social Cohesion and Voluntary Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    Voluntary organizations exert great influence over how social norms and ethical codes are guided into action. As such, they have a significant impact on societal levels of social cohesion. Although social capital involves generalized trust becoming manifest as spontaneous sociability, social cohesion is determined by how that sociability is…

  14. Voluntary Incentive Early Retirement Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Dialogues, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Arrangements in educational institutions for voluntary early retirement programs are discussed. Retirement at any age can be a profound and stressful lifetime change; and it can also represent a welcome transition into newly satisfying and rewarding opportunities. The focus is on: mandatory retirement (exceptions and the new meaning of "early");…

  15. Voluntary disclosure: Evidence from UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Zourarakis (Nicolaos)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the voluntary disclosure of Intellectual Capital (IC) of British firms and provides some evidence on an unexplored area of the literature; that of the association of Corporate Governance (CG) with IC disclosure. Inconsistent with expectations, the results show tha

  16. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    OpenAIRE

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is a...

  17. 22 CFR 513.210 - Voluntary exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary exclusion. 513.210 Section 513.210... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action § 513.210 Voluntary exclusion. Persons who accept voluntary exclusions under § 513.315 are excluded in accordance with the terms of...

  18. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  19. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 583: predispute, voluntary, binding arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    : Arbitration is a form of dispute resolution that is an alternative to 'taking a case to court.' Weighing the potential advantages and disadvantages, predispute arbitration may represent a valid alternative dispute resolution strategy for physicians and patients. When correctly prepared, contractual agreements between patients and physicians for predispute, voluntary, binding arbitration can satisfy both individual and societal needs and, at the same time, meet relevant ethical principles.

  20. 78 FR 49382 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... English, reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and computer skills that are essential to successful job... education advisor: Education Services Specialist, Education Services Officer (ESO), Voluntary...

  1. Dynamics of Voluntary Cough Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naire, Shailesh

    2008-11-01

    Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.

  2. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with voluntary participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chen; Liu, Jinzhuo; Shen, Chen; Jin, Jiahua; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor. We find that this mechanism maintains persistent cooperative behavior, even further promotes the evolution of cooperation under certain conditions.

  3. 75 FR 47504 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... America. TTT helps relieve teacher shortages, especially in math, science, special education, and other... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 68 RIN 0790-AI50 Voluntary Education Programs AGENCY: Office of the... for the operation of voluntary education programs within DoD. Included are: Procedures for Service...

  4. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mária Jármai, Erzsébet; Palányi, Ildikó Zsupanekné

    2015-01-01

    The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR…

  5. 14 CFR 234.7 - Voluntary reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary reporting. 234.7 Section 234.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY PERFORMANCE REPORTS § 234.7 Voluntary reporting. (a) In addition to the...

  6. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  7. 12 CFR 546.4 - Voluntary dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary dissolution. 546.4 Section 546.4... ASSOCIATIONS-MERGER, DISSOLUTION, REORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 546.4 Voluntary dissolution. A Federal savings association's board of directors may propose a plan for dissolution of the association. The plan...

  8. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...... Communication towards Children (hereafter: CODE) – with its dependence on a supportive institutional environment and acceptance of as well as dynamics between involved key stakeholders like consumers, political actors and firms – contributes to fighting the obesity pandemic.Thus, we explore within this article...... what information about the process of implementing the CODE as well as about the evolved dynamics between key stakeholders is already available. Here, the recently published report of the PolMark project sheds light on the dynamics between the key stakeholders in relation to the current Danish...

  9. SXT/R391 Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) Encode a Novel ‘Trap-Door’ Strategy for Mobile Element Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael P.; Armshaw, Patricia; Pembroke, J. Tony

    2016-01-01

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are a class of bacterial mobile elements that have the ability to mediate their own integration, excision, and transfer from one host genome to another by a mechanism of site-specific recombination, self-circularisation, and conjugative transfer. Members of the SXT/R391 ICE family of enterobacterial mobile genetic elements display an unusual UV-inducible sensitization function which results in stress induced killing of bacterial cells harboring the ICE. This sensitization has been shown to be associated with a stress induced overexpression of a mobile element encoded conjugative transfer gene, orf43, a traV homolog. This results in cell lysis and release of a circular form of the ICE. Induction of this novel system may allow transfer of an ICE, enhancing its survival potential under conditions not conducive to conjugative transfer. PMID:27303400

  10. Self-encoding resin beads of combinatorial library screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Du; Zhao, Yuandi; Cheng, Tongsheng; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2003-07-01

    The latest self-encoding resin bead is a novel technology for solid phase synthesis combinatorial library screening. A new encode-positional deconvolution strategy which was based on that technology been illustrated compared with positional scanning and iterative strategies. The self-encoding resin beads technology provides an efficient method for improving the high-throughput screening of combinatorial library.

  11. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled.

  12. Working Memory Capacity and Recall from Long-Term Memory: Examining the Influences of Encoding Strategies, Study Time Allocation, Search Efficiency, and Monitoring Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    The relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and recall from long-term memory (LTM) was examined in the current study. Participants performed multiple measures of delayed free recall varying in presentation duration and self-reported their strategy usage after each task. Participants also performed multiple measures of WMC. The results…

  13. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  14. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  15. Anticipatory signatures of voluntary memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanslmayr, Simon; Leipold, Philipp; Pastötter, Bernhard; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz

    2009-03-04

    Voluntary memory suppression can keep unwanted memories from entering consciousness, inducing later forgetting of the information. In the present study, we searched for the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating such voluntary memory suppression. Using the think/no-think paradigm, subjects received a cue whether to prepare to think of a previously studied cue-target pair or whether to not let a previously studied cue-target pair enter consciousness. Examining event-related potentials, we identified two electrophysiological processes of voluntary memory suppression: (1) an early anticipatory process operating before the memory cue for a to-be-suppressed memory was provided, and (2) a later process operating after memory cue presentation. Both ERP effects were due to a decreased right frontal and left parietal positivity. They were positively related and predicted later forgetting. The results point to the existence of anticipatory processes, mediating voluntary memory suppression.

  16. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  17. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  18. Corticospinal excitability in human voluntary movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elswijk, G.A.F. van

    2008-01-01

    The research described in this thesis addressed the neurophysiologic changes in the human corticospinal system during preparation and execution of voluntary hand movements. The experiments involved transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex combined with electromyography (EMG) and e

  19. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  20. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  1. Computational Intelligence and Its Encoding Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Man-dan

    2004-01-01

    The origin and characteristics of computational intelligence, and several typical computational intelligence algorithms such as genetic algorithm and DNA computing are described, and the influence of evolution strategies and convergence properties on the encoding mechanism is discussed. A novel genetic algorithm based on degressive carry number encoding is then proposed. This algorithm uses degressive carry number encoding in the evolutionary process instead of commonly used fixed carry number. Finally a novel encoding mechanism and a new algorithm are proposed, which combine modern computational intelligence with the traditional Chinese methodology.

  2. Computational Intelligence and Its Encoding Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUMan-dan

    2004-01-01

    The origin and characteristics of computational intelligence, and several typical computational intelligence algorithms such as genetic algorithm and DNA computing are described, and the influence of evolution strategies and convergence properties on the encoding mechanism is discussed. A novel genetic algorithm based on degressive carry number encoding is then proposed. This algorithm uses degressive carry number encoding in the evolutionary process instead of commonly used fixed carry number. Finally a novel encoding mechanism and a new algorithm are proposed, which combine modem computational intelligence with the traditional Chinese methodology.

  3. Pull factors of Finland and voluntary work

    OpenAIRE

    Jurvakainen, Janika

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies pull factors of Finland and voluntary work. The aim of this study is to understand the pull factors of Finland from the perspective of young travelers. Which pull factors attract to choose Finland as their destination? In addition, which pull factors attract young travelers to participate in international voluntary work? The commissioner of this thesis is Allianssi Youth Exchange. The thesis is research-based and includes a quantitative Webropol survey and some qualit...

  4. 47 CFR 80.310 - Watch required by voluntary vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Watches § 80.310 Watch required by voluntary vessels. Voluntary vessels not equipped with DSC must.... Voluntary vessels equipped with VHF-DSC equipment must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz and on either 156.525... used to communicate. Voluntary vessels equipped with MF-HF DSC equipment must have the radio turned...

  5. Estratégias para fidelização de doadores de sangue voluntários e habituais Estrategias para obtener fidelidad de donadores de sangre voluntarios y habituales Strategies to increase recruitment of voluntary and habitual blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Giacomini

    2010-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONES: es indispensable desarrollar una comunicación para reducir miedos y motivar a las personas así como desarrollar una filosofía de atención apoyada en la humanización de las relaciones para obtener la fidelidad de los donadores voluntarios.OBJECTIVES: To understand the meaning of being a blood donor, to describe fears of blood donors regarding blood donation and organization of blood banks, and identify strategies to increase recruitment of voluntary and habitual blood donors. METHODS: This was a qualitative exploratory study. Participants consisted of 15 voluntary blood donors from a local blood bank. Data were collected through taped interviews from January 2007 to March 2007. RESULTS: Blood donation is a solidarity and life saving act. Motivation to donate blood reflected the donor's personal and human decision. There is a need to inform and educate the population regarding blood donation. Attitude of health care professionals can influence the behaviors of blood donors. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to develop communication strategies to reduce fear and to motivate donation of blood. In addition, there is a need to develop a philosophy of care based on humanization to increase recruitment of voluntary and habitual blood donors.

  6. Voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jared; Barbot, Antoine; Carrasco, Marisa

    2010-08-01

    Voluntary covert attention selects relevant sensory information for prioritized processing. The behavioral and neural consequences of such selection have been extensively documented, but its phenomenology has received little empirical investigation. Involuntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency (Gobell & Carrasco, 2005), but involuntary attention can differ from voluntary attention in its effects on performance in tasks mediated by spatial resolution (Yeshurun, Montagna, & Carrasco, 2008). Therefore, we ask whether voluntary attention affects the subjective appearance of spatial frequency--a fundamental dimension of visual perception underlying spatial resolution. We used a demanding rapid serial visual presentation task to direct voluntary attention and measured perceived spatial frequency at the attended and unattended locations. Attention increased the perceived spatial frequency of suprathreshold stimuli and also improved performance on a concurrent orientation discrimination task. In the control experiment, we ruled out response bias as an alternative account by using a lengthened interstimulus interval, which allows observers to disengage attention from the cued location. In contrast to the main experiment, the observers showed neither increased perceived spatial frequency nor improved orientation discrimination at the attended location. Thus, this study establishes that voluntary attention increases perceived spatial frequency. This phenomenological consequence links behavioral and neurophysiological studies on the effects of attention.

  7. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    internationalization. Based on our results, we suggest that, depending on the field of action, voluntary collective action and organized collaboration are substitutes with regard to performance. Our study contributes to the literature on collective action and to research on public organizations in pluralistic......Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...... in three fields of action: the training of young scientists, internationalization, and gender diversity. The findings indicate that organized collaboration may lead to improved performance in the training of young scientists and gender diversity. Conversely, voluntary collective action enhances...

  8. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  9. Voluntary exercise increases cholesterol efflux but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers Folkert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise beneficially impacts on the plasma lipoprotein profile as well as on the incidence of cardiovascular events and is therefore recommended in primary and secondary prevention strategies against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise in mice impacts on cholesterol efflux and in vivo reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. After two weeks of voluntary wheel running (average 10.1 ± 1.4 km/day plasma triglycerides were lower (p

  10. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  11. Win-stay-lose-learn promotes cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma game with voluntary participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chen; Liu, Jinzhuo; Shen, Chen; Jin, Jiahua; Shi, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Voluntary participation, demonstrated to be a simple yet effective mechanism to promote persistent cooperative behavior, has been extensively studied. It has also been verified that the aspiration-based win-stay-lose-learn strategy updating rule promotes the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by this well-known fact, we combine the Win-Stay-Lose-Learn updating rule with voluntary participation: Players maintain their strategies when they are satisfied, or players attempt to imitate the strategy of one randomly chosen neighbor. We find that this mechanism maintains persistent cooperative behavior, even further promotes the evolution of cooperation under certain conditions. PMID:28182707

  12. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    this theoretical frame to analyse case studies of three voluntary organisations.  As a part of the analysis I describe four sets of institutional settings that can influence voluntary organisations ability to create institutional dynamic: institutionalization, moderation, self-organisation and loose-coupling....... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...

  13. Role of word-of-mouth for programs of voluntary vaccination: A game-theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T; Breban, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    We propose a model describing the synergetic feedback between word-of-mouth (WoM) and epidemic dynamics controlled by voluntary vaccination. The key feature consists in combining a game-theoretic model for the spread of WoM and a compartmental model describing VSIR disease dynamics in the presence of a program of voluntary vaccination. We evaluate and compare two scenarios for determinants of behavior, depending on what WoM disseminates: (1) vaccine advertising, which may occur whether or not an epidemic is ongoing and (2) epidemic status, notably disease prevalence. Understanding the synergy between the two strategies could be particularly important for designing voluntary vaccination campaigns. We find that, in the initial phase of an epidemic, vaccination uptake is determined more by vaccine advertising than the epidemic status. As the epidemic progresses, epidemic status becomes increasingly important for vaccination uptake, considerably accelerating vaccination uptake toward a stable vaccination coverage.

  14. Multi-class EEG classification of voluntary hand movement directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Neethu; Guan, Cuntai; Vinod, A. P.; Keng Ang, Kai; Tee, Keng Peng

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Studies have shown that low frequency components of brain recordings provide information on voluntary hand movement directions. However, non-invasive techniques face more challenges compared to invasive techniques. Approach. This study presents a novel signal processing technique to extract features from non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings for classifying voluntary hand movement directions. The proposed technique comprises the regularized wavelet-common spatial pattern algorithm to extract the features, mutual information-based feature selection, and multi-class classification using the Fisher linear discriminant. EEG data from seven healthy human subjects were collected while they performed voluntary right hand center-out movement in four orthogonal directions. In this study, the movement direction dependent signal-to-noise ratio is used as a parameter to denote the effectiveness of each temporal frequency bin in the classification of movement directions. Main results. Significant (p movement direction dependent modulation in the EEG data was identified largely towards the end of movement at low frequencies (≤6 Hz) from the midline parietal and contralateral motor areas. Experimental results on single trial classification of the EEG data collected yielded an average accuracy of (80.24 ± 9.41)% in discriminating the four different directions using the proposed technique on features extracted from low frequency components. Significance. The proposed feature extraction strategy provides very high multi-class classification accuracies, and the results are proven to be more statistically significant than existing methods. The results obtained suggest the possibility of multi-directional movement classification from single-trial EEG recordings using the proposed technique in low frequency components.

  15. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  16. Voluntary stand-up physical activity enhances endurance exercise capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Seo, Kyo Won; McGregor, Robin A; Yeo, Ji Young; Ko, Tae Hee; Bolorerdene, Saranhuu; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Involuntary physical activity induced by the avoidance of electrical shock leads to improved endurance exercise capacity in animals. However, it remains unknown whether voluntary stand-up physical activity (SPA) without forced simulating factors improves endurance exercise capacity in animals. We examined the eff ects of SPA on body weight, cardiac function, and endurance exercise capacity for 12 weeks. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 8 weeks, n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or a voluntary SPA group. The rats were induced to perform voluntary SPA (lifting a load equal to their body weight), while the food height (18.0 cm) in cages was increased progressively by 3.5 every 4 weeks until it reached 28.5 cm for 12 weeks. The SPA group showed a lower body weight compared to the CON group, but voluntary SPA did not affect the skeletal muscle and heart weights, food intake, and echocardiography results. Although the SPA group showed higher grip strength, running time, and distance compared to the CON group, the level of irisin, corticosterone, genetic expression of mitochondrial biogenesis, and nuclei numbers were not affected. These findings show that voluntary SPA without any forced stimuli in rats can eff ectively reduce body weight and enhance endurance exercise capacity, suggesting that it may be an important alternative strategy to enhance endurance exercise capacity. PMID:27162483

  17. Novel encoding methods for DNA-templated chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zheng, Wenlu; Liu, Ying; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Among various types of DNA-encoded chemical libraries, DNA-templated library takes advantage of the sequence-specificity of DNA hybridization, enabling not only highly effective DNA-templated chemical reactions, but also high fidelity in library encoding. This brief review summarizes recent advances that have been made on the encoding strategies for DNA-templated libraries, and it also highlights their respective advantages and limitations for the preparation of DNA-encoded libraries.

  18. 77 FR 72941 - Voluntary Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... decision will be made by the selected DoD contractor for the complete `third party review' process. Comment... seeks to enhance the educational opportunities to Service members who may have difficulty in completing... transitions to second careers in teaching. Voluntary education programs. Continuing, adult, or...

  19. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  20. Social orienting: reflexive versus voluntary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julia L; Patel, Saumil; Gu, Xue; Seyedali, Nassim S; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Sereno, Anne B

    2010-09-24

    Many studies have shown that the direction of gaze of a face covertly facilitates the response to a target presented in the matching direction. In this study we seek to determine whether there exist separate reflexive and voluntary forms of such covert social orienting and how they interact with each other. We measured the effect of the predictive value of a gaze cue on manual choice reaction times. When the predictive value of the gaze cue was zero, a facilitatory cueing effect was still observed which peaked at a cue onset to target onset delay (CTD) of 150ms and largely diminished beyond a CTD of 500ms. When the gaze cue was 100% predictive of the future location of the target, at CTDs greater than 200, the predictive cue resulted in a significantly greater facilitation of response than occurred with a non-predictive cue. These results suggest that given enough time (about 200ms), the social cue is interpreted and a willful or voluntary spatially-specific social cueing effect occurs. In addition, we found that a predictive cue resulted in a significant slowing of the observer's responses up to a CTD of 200ms. These findings show that, similar to non-social spatial orienting, there appear to be two forms of social orienting including a reflexive component and voluntary component. We suggest a model of social orienting in which the voluntary social orienting system modulates tonic inhibition of the reflexive social orienting system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Merry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A prim

  2. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  3. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  4. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.

  5. Voluntary Organizations: Commitment, Leadership, and Organizational Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, Terry P.

    2004-01-01

    Voluntary organizations offer a unique opportunity to interpret participant relationships, leadership influences, and organizational effectiveness unencumbered by employment relationships. Regardless of organizational structure or purpose, all organizations are affected to some degree by their leadership and their membership. Based on the…

  6. Environmental Voluntary Agreements in the Dutch Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; de Bruijn, Theo; Croci, Edoardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the use of environmental voluntary agreements, or covenants, in Dutch environmental policy. Covenants have become a widely used policy instrument in the Netherlands. This trend reinforces the strong neo-corporatist traits of Dutch society with its tendency towards

  7. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    While short-term enrolling of citizens in urban regeneration projects often has proven quite successful, permanent embedding of projects in voluntary community-based settings seems to be much more difficult to obtain. This has implications for long term sustainability of urban regeneration projec...

  8. Aspectos éticos e estratégias para a participação voluntária da criança em pesquisa Aspectos éticos y estrategias para la participación voluntaria de niños en la investigación Ethical issues and strategies for the voluntary participation of children in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Helena de Siqueira Sigaud

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A literatura de saúde tem abordado os aspectos éticos da investigação com seres humanos há décadas, mas ainda há desafios a serem reconhecidos e superados, tais como os referentes à pesquisa com crianças. Este artigo apresenta e discute aspectos éticos da pesquisa com crianças. Descreve estratégias de abordagem conformes às necessidades infantis, segundo seu processo de desenvolvimento e características individuais, para garantir a participação voluntária da criança na pesquisa.La literatura de salud ha tratado de los aspectos éticos de la investigación con seres humanos hace décadas, pero aun hay retos que deben ser reconocidos y superados, tales como los referentes a la investigación con la población infantil. Este artículo presenta y discute aspectos éticos de la investigación con niños y niñas. Describe estrategias de abordaje adecuadas a las necesidades infantiles, según su proceso de desarrollo y características individuales, para garantizar la participación voluntaria de niños y niñas en investigaciones.Ethical issues about research with human beings have been addressed in health literature since decades. In spite of this, it is necessary to enhance actions to face many challenges, like the ones related to investigation of childhood. This paper presents and discusses ethical issues in research with children. It describes some strategies to perform with children, considering their developmental process and individual characteristics, in order to guarantee their voluntary participation in research.

  9. Eligibility and Exclusion of Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Levstik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hereditary hemochromatosis patients are excluded in many countries as voluntary blood donors. In 1991, changes in the Canadian Red Cross policy allowed healthy hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary donors.

  10. Results of the global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Lernoud, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Results of the global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards: - Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) area worldwide and selected commodities - Cocoa: Area growth by VSS 2008-2014 - Growth of VSS compliant area worldwide 2008-2013 (selected crops)

  11. China Initiates Voluntary Certification of Public Security Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Reporters learned from the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China(CNCA)that burglar-proof door became the first batch of voluntary certification product in public security products.China has formally initiated voluntary certification of public security products.

  12. Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation during voluntary and non-voluntary stepping movements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Kazennikov, O V; Ivanenko, Y P

    2014-09-05

    Here, we compared motor evoked potentials (MEP) in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and the H-reflex during voluntary and vibration-induced air-stepping movements in humans. Both the MEPs (in mm biceps femoris, rectus femoris and tibialis anterior) and H-reflex (in m soleus) were significantly smaller during vibration-induced cyclic leg movements at matched amplitudes of angular motion and muscle activity. These findings highlight differences between voluntary and non-voluntary activation of the spinal pattern generator circuitry in humans, presumably due to an extra facilitatory effect of voluntary control/triggering of stepping on spinal motoneurons and interneurons. The results support the idea of active engagement of supraspinal motor areas in developing central pattern generator-modulating therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Voluntary Running Triggers VGF-Mediated Oligodendrogenesis to Prolong the Lifespan of Snf2h-Null Ataxic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Alvarez-Saavedra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has been argued to enhance cognitive function and slow progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although exercise promotes neurogenesis, oligodendrogenesis and adaptive myelination are also significant contributors to brain repair and brain health. Nonetheless, the molecular details underlying these effects remain poorly understood. Conditional ablation of the Snf2h gene impairs cerebellar development producing mice with poor motor function, progressive ataxia, and death between postnatal days 25–45. Here, we show that voluntary running induced an endogenous brain repair mechanism that resulted in a striking increase in hindbrain myelination and the long-term survival of Snf2h cKO mice. Further experiments identified the VGF growth factor as a major driver underlying this effect. VGF neuropeptides promote oligodendrogenesis in vitro, whereas Snf2h cKO mice treated with full-length VGF-encoding adenoviruses removed the requirement of exercise for survival. Together, these results suggest that VGF delivery could represent a therapeutic strategy for cerebellar ataxia and other pathologies of the CNS.

  14. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  15. 5 CFR 919.1020 - Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. 919.1020 Section 919.1020 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED...) Definitions § 919.1020 Voluntary exclusion or voluntarily excluded. (a) Voluntary exclusion means a person's...

  16. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and...

  17. 15 CFR 12.3 - Development of voluntary product standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of voluntary product... AND LABELING § 12.3 Development of voluntary product standards. (a) Invitation to participate in the development of a voluntary product standard. Whenever the Secretary publishes a final determination of...

  18. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  19. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  20. Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Nielsen, Mette Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary simulation workshops in nursing education Hanne Selberg1, Mette Elisabeth Nielsen1, Mette Wenzel Horsted2, Karen Bertelsen2, Marianne Linnet Rasmussen2,Rikke Lohmann Panton3, Copenhagen, Mette Kjeldal Jensen4 Background Changes in nursing education in Denmark towards an academic approach...... with more theory and less practical training have resulted in discussions regarding the lack of practical skills amongst novice nurses. A Danish study of students’ drop-out from the nursing education indicates that difficulties in combining theory and practice are one of the motivating factors behind...... the students’ decision to drop out (Jensen et al. 2008). Within the past year our faculty has conducted several projects with the aim of integrating simulation into the curriculum. Furthermore, voluntary simulation workshop has been carried out as an additional offer in the nursing education. The purpose has...

  1. The Political Importance of Voluntary Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneman, Harry

    This paper aims to develop a complex articulation of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work that clarifies its political importance as a countervailing narrative pointing beyond dominant neoliberal and consumptive articulations of a good life. To start with, it sketches a hermeneutic perspective on civic meaningfulness based on the work of Paul Ricoeur. Subsequently, it introduces the ideas of 'ethical complexity', 'epistemological complexity' and 'diapoiesis', building on insights from critical complexity thinking and relational biology. It argues that these notions can provide a bridge between hermeneutic perspectives on meaning and values, on the one hand, and questions of meaning and values on the level of scientific and technological developments and within professional organizations, on the other. Thus a broader, more complex picture emerges of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work in our times.

  2. Voluntary Management Earnings Forecasts and Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramlich, Jeffrey; Sørensen, Ole Vagn

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether Danish managers exercise discretionary accruals to reach earnings forecast targets they voluntarily specify in conjunction with initial public offerings (IPOs). Because the Danish accounting and legal environment is more permissive than the US, we use Denmark...... as a natural laboratory for learning how business would occur without strict rules, enforcement and sanctions. Danish managers often volunteer pro forma financial statements for results that are expected to occur subsequent to the IPO. We examine a sample of 58 Danish firms that issue voluntary management...... earnings forecasts in connection with IPOs that occur between 1984 and 1996. The evidence we uncover strongly suggests that pre-managed earnings are adjusted toward these targets. In contrast with Kasznik's (1999 Kasznik, R. (1999). On the association between voluntary disclosure and earnings management...

  3. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination.

  4. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  5. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-05-01

    Various factors influence the development of the voluntary 'green' power market--the market in which consumers purchase or produce power from non-polluting, renewable energy sources. These factors include climate policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, consumers' interest in purchasing green power, and utilities' interest in promoting existing programs and in offering new green options. This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for green power through 2015 that were made using historical data and three scenarios: low-growth, high-growth, and negative-policy impacts. The resulting forecast projects the total voluntary demand for renewable energy in 2015 to range from 63 million MWh annually in the low case scenario to 157 million MWh annually in the high case scenario, representing an approximately 2.5-fold difference. The negative-policy impacts scenario reflects a market size of 24 million MWh. Several key uncertainties affect the results of this forecast, including uncertainties related to growth assumptions, the impacts that policy may have on the market, the price and competitiveness of renewable generation, and the level of interest that utilities have in offering and promoting green power products.

  6. Self-encoding Functional Resin Applying for Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Lei; CHEN Tong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    A novel solid phase organic synthesis resin was synthesized for combinatorial high-throughput screening,which based on FTIR spectra self-encoding functional resin technology. A new deconvolution strategy termed position encoding deconvolution had illustrated and was compared with some popular combinatorial deconvolution strategies in efficiency and information content. The mimic high throughput screening of hexapeptide library successfully proved the applying of the self-encoding functional resin technology and the position encoding deconvolution strategy.

  7. Altering spinal cord excitability enables voluntary movements after chronic complete paralysis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Claudia A; Edgerton, V Reggie; Gerasimenko, Yury P; Harkema, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    Previously, we reported that one individual who had a motor complete, but sensory incomplete spinal cord injury regained voluntary movement after 7 months of epidural stimulation and stand training. We presumed that the residual sensory pathways were critical in this recovery. However, we now report in three more individuals voluntary movement occurred with epidural stimulation immediately after implant even in two who were diagnosed with a motor and sensory complete lesion. We demonstrate that neuromodulating the spinal circuitry with epidural stimulation, enables completely paralysed individuals to process conceptual, auditory and visual input to regain relatively fine voluntary control of paralysed muscles. We show that neuromodulation of the sub-threshold motor state of excitability of the lumbosacral spinal networks was the key to recovery of intentional movement in four of four individuals diagnosed as having complete paralysis of the legs. We have uncovered a fundamentally new intervention strategy that can dramatically affect recovery of voluntary movement in individuals with complete paralysis even years after injury.

  8. The Golden Ratio Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Daubechies, I; Wang, Y; Yilmaz, Ö

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel Nyquist-rate analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion algorithm which achieves exponential accuracy in the bit-rate despite using imperfect components. The proposed algorithm is based on a robust implementation of a beta-encoder where the value of the base beta is equal to golden mean. It was previously shown that beta-encoders can be implemented in such a way that their exponential accuracy is robust against threshold offsets in the quantizer element. This paper extends this result by allowing for imperfect analog multipliers with imprecise gain values as well. A formal computational model for algorithmic encoders and a general test bed for evaluating their robustness is also proposed.

  9. The parallel programming of voluntary and reflexive saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin; McSorley, Eugene

    2006-06-01

    A novel two-step paradigm was used to investigate the parallel programming of consecutive, stimulus-elicited ('reflexive') and endogenous ('voluntary') saccades. The mean latency of voluntary saccades, made following the first reflexive saccades in two-step conditions, was significantly reduced compared to that of voluntary saccades made in the single-step control trials. The latency of the first reflexive saccades was modulated by the requirement to make a second saccade: first saccade latency increased when a second voluntary saccade was required in the opposite direction to the first saccade, and decreased when a second saccade was required in the same direction as the first reflexive saccade. A second experiment confirmed the basic effect and also showed that a second reflexive saccade may be programmed in parallel with a first voluntary saccade. The results support the view that voluntary and reflexive saccades can be programmed in parallel on a common motor map.

  10. Voluntary energy optimisation - Taking responsibility; Verantwortungsvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baettig, I.

    2006-07-01

    This interview with Konrad Kyburz, CEO of a printing shop in Dielsdorf, Switzerland, discusses how energy consumption can be reduced on a voluntary basis. The provision free-of-charge of heat recovered from the drying ovens of the printing presses to a nearby sports facility is discussed. The realisation of an energy consumption analysis and the resulting increases in the efficiency of energy usage in the printing facility are discussed. Further improvements such as the use of variable-frequency compressor drives and heating with natural gas that helped in making energy savings of well over 15% are discussed.

  11. Voluntary participation and cooperation in a collective-good game.

    OpenAIRE

    Kene Boun My; Benoît Chalvignac

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of voluntary participation in the context of a collective-good experiment. We investigate whether the freedom to participate in the game or not increases contribution levels and enhances their evolution. The analysis of two voluntary participation treatments supports a positive effect of an attractive exit option on both contribution levels and their sustainability. We conclude that the voluntary contribution mechanism can provide sustainable cooperation levels and that th...

  12. Reversal of optic neuropathy secondary to voluntary globe luxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Aylin; Ozturk, Taylan; Soylev, Meltem F

    2009-04-01

    Luxation of the globe is rare in the general population and may be spontaneous, voluntary, or traumatic. Spontaneous or voluntary globe luxation results from shallow orbit, floppy eyelids, lax orbital ligaments, backward displacement of orbital septum, or proptotic eyes due to orbital tumors or infiltrative processes, as in Grave's ophthalmopathy. The authors report a case with unilateral voluntary globe luxation presented with unilateral progressive visual loss.

  13. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  14. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  15. DNA sequences encoding erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F.K.

    1987-10-27

    A purified and isolated DNA sequence is described consisting essentially of a DNA sequence encoding a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence sufficiently duplicative of that of erythropoietin to allow possession of the biological property of causing bone marrow cells to increase production of reticulocytes and red blood cells, and to increase hemoglobin synthesis or iron uptake.

  16. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  17. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  18. Does retrieval intentionality really matter? Similarities and differences between involuntary memories and directly and generatively retrieved voluntary memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2016-08-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary retrieval as a consequence of conscious intention (i.e., wanting to remember). Another distinction can be made between direct and generative retrieval, which reflects the effort involved (i.e., trying to remember). However, it is unclear how intention and effort interacts. For example, involuntary memories and directly retrieved memories have been used interchangeably in the literature to refer to the same phenomenon of effortless, non-strategic retrieval. More recent theoretical advances suggest that they are separate types of retrieval, one unintentional (involuntary), another intentional and effortless (direct voluntary retrieval), and a third intentional and effortful (generative voluntary retrieval). Whether this also entails differing phenomenological characteristics, such as vividness, rehearsal, or emotional valence, has not been previously investigated. In the current study, participants reported memories in an experimental paradigm designed to elicit voluntary and involuntary memories and rated them on a number of characteristics. If intention affects the retrieval process, then we should expect differences between the characteristics of involuntary and directly retrieved memories. The results imply that retrieval intention seems to differentiate how a memory appears in a person's mind. Furthermore, we argue that these differences in part could result from differences in encoding and consolidation.

  19. 5 CFR 831.405 - Interest on voluntary contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....405 Section 831.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... contributions stop earning interest on the earliest of— (1) The date when OPM authorizes payment to the... voluntary contributions to purchase additional annuity, voluntary contributions stop earning interest on...

  20. Efficiency of voluntary closing hand and hook prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Delft Institute of Prosthetics and Orthotics has started a research program to develop an improved voluntary closing, body-powered hand prosthesis. Five commercially available voluntary closing terminal devices were mechanically tested: three hands [Hosmer APRL VC hand, Hosmer Soft VC Male hand,

  1. Voluntary and involuntary adaptation of gait in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Rutgers, AWF; Van Weerden, TW

    1998-01-01

    Voluntary and involuntary adaptation of gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) were studied in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, effects of changes in voluntary control were studied by asking PD patients and age-matched healthy subjects to adapt their walking pattern to visual cues result

  2. Re-Examining the Relationship between Age and Voluntary Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    In their quantitative review of the literature, Healy, Lehman, and McDaniel [Healy, M. C., Lehman, M., & McDaniel, M. A. (1995). Age and voluntary turnover: A quantitative review. "Personnel Psychology, 48", 335-345] concluded that age is only weakly related to voluntary turnover (average r = -0.08). However, with the significant changes in…

  3. Conditioning Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus Gilli) for Voluntary Diving Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-31

    heartrate (EKG) to validate "voluntary" nature of dive EXAMINE ACTIVE DIVING CONDITIONS (open Ocean Mewwmenr) dive profiles using TDR respiration... heartrate electrodes Open Ocean Experiments ’wear instrument package (TDR) perform voluntary dive up to 200 meters readily present tail flukes for

  4. Students' vocational choices and voluntary action: A 12-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Haski-Leventhal (Debbie); R.A. Cnaan (Ram); F. Handy (Femida); J.L. Brudney (Jeffrey); K. Holmes (Kirsten); L. Hustinx (Lesley); C. Kang (Chulhee); M. Kassam (Meenaz); L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas); B. Ranade (Bhagyashree); N. Yamauchi (Naoto); A.B. Yeung (Anne Birgitta); S. Zrinscak (Sinisa)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research on student involvement suggested that business and engineering students manifest lowest rates of voluntary action. Similarly, it was thought that social science students are the most involved in voluntary action, with students of natural sciences and humanities in the m

  5. Integrating Voluntary Simplicity of Lifestyle into Home Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, Ruth E.

    This curriculum guide presents guidelines for teaching concepts of Voluntary Simplicity in home economics in Florida. (Voluntary Simplicity is a lifestyle in which individuals choose to live more simply, considering the limited nature of the world's resources.) It is designed for use as a separate unit within different subject matter areas or as…

  6. 5 CFR 831.406 - Withdrawal of voluntary contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... precedence set forth in section 8342(c) of title 5, United States Code, is entitled to payment of the balance... contributions. (a) Before receiving additional annuity payments based on the voluntary contributions, a person who has made voluntary contributions may withdraw the balance while still an employee or Member,...

  7. 78 FR 54444 - Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United... Aid (ACVFA). Date: Wednesday, September 18, 2013. Time: 2:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Location: Horizon Room..., Executive Director, Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for...

  8. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  9. Voluntary chemical castration of a mental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1988-06-01

    Britain's High Court recently overruled two decisions of the Mental Health Act Commission that denied certification of a voluntary experimental drug treatment to a mental patient, holding that the standard for informed consent is determined not by the subjective judgment of the commissioners but by whether the patient knows the nature and likely effects of treatment and that its use in his case is a novel one. The background facts of the case involving a 27-year-old pedophile receiving goserelin implantations to reduce testosterone levels are presented and the issues of jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 and the commissioners' duty to act fairly and to consider the likely benefits of treatment are discussed.

  10. Lateral asymmetry of voluntary attention orienting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Castro-Barros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that automatic attention favors the right side of space and, in the present study, we investigated whether voluntary attention also favors this side. Six reaction time experiments were conducted. In each experiment, 12 new 18-25-year-old male right-handed individuals were tested. In Experiments 1, 2, 3 (a, b and 4 (a, b, tasks with increasing attentional demands were used. In Experiments 1, 2, 3a, and 4a, attention was oriented to one or both sides by means of a central spatially informative visual cue. A left or right side visual target appeared 100, 300, or 500 ms later. Attentional effects were observed in the four experiments. In Experiments 2, 3a and 4a, these effects were greater when the cue indicated the right side than when it indicated the left side (respectively: 16 ± 10 and 44 ± 6 ms, P = 0.015, for stimulus onset asynchrony of 500 ms in Experiment 2; 38 ± 10 and 70 ± 7 ms, P = 0.011, for Experiment 3a, and 23 ± 11 and 61 ± 10 ms, P = 0.009, for Experiment 4a. In Experiments 3b and 4b, the central cue pointed to both sides and was said to be non-relevant for task performance. In these experiments right and left reaction times did not differ. The most conservative interpretation of the present findings is that voluntary attention orienting favors the right side of space, particularly when a difficult task has to be performed.

  11. Priming voluntary autobiographical memories: Implications for the organisation of autobiographical memory and voluntary recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.

  12. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tearney, G.J.; Webb, R.H.; Bouma, B.E. [Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, BAR 703, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    An endoscope-compatible, submicrometer-resolution scanning confocal microscopy imaging system is presented. This approach, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), uses a quasi-monochromatic light source and a transmission diffraction grating to detect the reflectivity simultaneously at multiple points along a transverse line within the sample. Since this method does not require fast spatial scanning within the probe, the equipment can be miniaturized and incorporated into a catheter or endoscope. Confocal images of an electron microscope grid were acquired with SECM to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}

  13. Enhancing voluntary imitation through attention and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Judith; Poliakoff, Ellen; Marshall, Hannah; Trueman, Sophie; Gowen, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Action observation activates brain areas involved in performing the same action and has been shown to increase motor learning, with potential implications for neurorehabilitation. Recent work indicates that the effects of action observation on movement can be increased by motor imagery or by directing attention to observed actions. In voluntary imitation, activation of the motor system during action observation is already increased. We therefore explored whether imitation could be further enhanced by imagery or attention. Healthy participants observed and then immediately imitated videos of human hand movement sequences, while movement kinematics were recorded. Two blocks of trials were completed, and after the first block participants were instructed to imagine performing the observed movement (Imagery group, N = 18) or attend closely to the characteristics of the movement (Attention group, N = 15), or received no further instructions (Control group, N = 17). Kinematics of the imitated movements were modulated by instructions, with both Imagery and Attention groups being closer in duration, peak velocity and amplitude to the observed model compared with controls. These findings show that both attention and motor imagery can increase the accuracy of imitation and have implications for motor learning and rehabilitation. Future work is required to understand the mechanisms by which these two strategies influence imitation accuracy.

  14. Land Use and Land Cover - MO 2008 Brownfields Voluntary Cleanup Program Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Brownfields/Voluntary Cleanup Program (BVCP) provides property buyers, sellers, developers, bankers, development agencies, local government and other voluntary...

  15. Cardiovascular responses to voluntary and nonvoluntary static exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, D B; Peel, C; Mitchell, J H

    1992-11-01

    We have measured the cardiovascular responses during voluntary and nonvoluntary (electrically induced) one-leg static exercise in humans. Eight normal subjects were studied at rest and during 5 min of static leg extension at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction performed voluntarily and nonvoluntarily in random order. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac output (CO) were determined, and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) and stroke volume (SV) were calculated. HR increased from approximately 65 +/- 3 beats/min at rest to 80 +/- 4 and 78 +/- 6 beats/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. CO increased from 5.1 +/- 0.7 to 6.0 +/- 0.8 and 6.2 +/- 0.8 l/min (P voluntary and nonvoluntary contractions, respectively. PVR and SV did not change significantly during voluntary or nonvoluntary contractions. Thus the cardiovascular responses were not different between voluntary and electrically induced contractions. These results suggest that the increases in CO, HR, SV, MAP, and PVR during 5 min of static contractions can be elicited without any contribution from a central neural mechanism (central command). However, central command could still have an important role during voluntary static exercise.

  16. Voluntary Noise Mapping for Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time

  17. VOLUNTARY NOISE MAPPING FOR SMART CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Poslončec-Petrić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems. i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the

  18. The spinal reflex cannot be perceptually separated from voluntary movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arko; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Both voluntary and involuntary movements activate sensors in the muscles, skin, tendon and joints. As limb movement can result from a mixture of spinal reflexes and voluntary motor commands, the cortical centres underlying conscious proprioception might either aggregate or separate the sensory inputs generated by voluntary movements from those generated by involuntary movements such as spinal reflexes. We addressed whether healthy volunteers could perceive the contribution of a spinal reflex during movements that combined both reflexive and voluntary contributions. Volunteers reported the reflexive contribution in leg movements that were partly driven by the knee-jerk reflex induced by a patellar tendon tap and partly by voluntary motor control. In one condition, participants were instructed to kick back in response to a tendon tap. The results were compared to reflexes in a resting baseline condition without voluntary movement. In a further condition, participants were instructed to kick forwards after a tap. Volunteers reported the perceived reflex contribution by repositioning the leg to the perceived maximum displacement to which the reflex moved the leg after each tendon tap. In the resting baseline condition, the reflex was accurately perceived. We found a near-unity slope of linear regressions of perceived on actual reflexive displacement. Both the slope value and the quality of regression fit in individual volunteers were significantly reduced when volunteers were instructed to generate voluntary backward kicks as soon as they detected the tap. In the kick forward condition, kinematic analysis showed continuity of reflex and voluntary movements, but the reflex contribution could be estimated from electromyography (EMG) recording on each trial. Again, participants' judgements of reflexes showed a poor relation to reflex EMG, in contrast to the baseline condition. In sum, we show that reflexes can be accurately perceived from afferent information. However

  19. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  20. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lokey, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  1. Voluntary counseling and willingness to screen among Nigerian long distance truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Aniebue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT is an important preventive strategy in the control of HIV/AIDS and Long distance truck drivers (LDTD have been identified as an important group in the transmission of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to assess knowledge and perception of Nigerian long distance truck drivers on HIV/AIDS, voluntary counseling and testing and their willingness to undergo HIV screening. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ninety seven LDTD in Enugu, Nigeria were surveyed using pre tested structured questionnaires. Results: Awareness of HIV/AIDS was high (94.9% amongst the drivers and the media was their commonest source of information. Similarly the awareness of VCT was high (94.4%. One hundred and eight (54.8% respondents were willing to undergo HIV screening test if offered freely and 86 (43.7% others have previously been screened. Educational status was a significant determinant of willingness to undergo HIV screening p<0.05. The reasons for screening were mainly doctors′ recommendation (19.3% and voluntary self screening (18.8%. The commonest reasons for not wanting to undergo screening were the feeling of not being at risk (27.9%, fear of a positive result (10.2% and cost of screening test (9.6%. Conclusion: There is a critical need to improve HIV screening participation amongst Long distance drivers in Nigeria.

  2. Neural activation during submaximal contractions seems more reflective of neuromuscular ageing than maximal voluntary activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eScaglioni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that differences in neural activation strategy during submaximal but not maximal plantarflexions exist between young and older men. Eleven young men (YM, 26±4 yr and 13 OM (76±3 yr volunteered for the investigation. Maximal voluntary torque (MVT was 38.2%, lower (P<0.001 in OM than in YM, while voluntary activation was equivalent (~97%. The relationship between the interpolated twitch-torque and the voluntary torque (IT-VT relationship was composite (curvilinear+exponential for both age-groups. However, the OM showed accentuated concavity, as attested by the occurrence of the deviation from linearity at a lower contraction intensity (OM: 54.9 vs. YM: 71.9% MVT. In conclusion, ageing does not affect the capacity to fully activate the plantar flexors during maximal performances, but it alters the activation pattern for submaximal levels of effort. The greater age-related concavity of the IT-VT relationship suggests that, during submaximal contractions, OM need to reach a level of activation higher than YM to develop an equivalent relative torque.

  3. Data-driven encoding for quantitative genetic trait prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Wang, Zhanyong; Parida, Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Given a set of biallelic molecular markers, such as SNPs, with genotype values on a collection of plant, animal or human samples, the goal of quantitative genetic trait prediction is to predict the quantitative trait values by simultaneously modeling all marker effects. Quantitative genetic trait prediction is usually represented as linear regression models which require quantitative encodings for the genotypes: the three distinct genotype values, corresponding to one heterozygous and two homozygous alleles, are usually coded as integers, and manipulated algebraically in the model. Further, epistasis between multiple markers is modeled as multiplication between the markers: it is unclear that the regression model continues to be effective under this. In this work we investigate the effects of encodings to the quantitative genetic trait prediction problem. We first showed that different encodings lead to different prediction accuracies, in many test cases. We then proposed a data-driven encoding strategy, where we encode the genotypes according to their distribution in the phenotypes and we allow each marker to have different encodings. We show in our experiments that this encoding strategy is able to improve the performance of the genetic trait prediction method and it is more helpful for the oligogenic traits, whose values rely on a relatively small set of markers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that discusses the effects of encodings to the genetic trait prediction problem.

  4. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Azevedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  5. Expectations and voluntary attrition in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as an important factor in student decisions to voluntarily withdraw. A single case study design was selected to explore the causes of voluntary attrition in nursing students within a School of Nursing and Midwifery. The study population was obtained through purposeful sampling and consisted of 15 students who had previously voluntarily withdrawn from pre-registration nursing programmes. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from study participants. The interview schedule developed for use in the study reflected the key components of the conceptual model of higher education (HE) student attrition (Tinto, 1975, 1987, 1993). All interviews were tape recorded to facilitate later transcription. The Cyclical or Interactive Model of Qualitative Research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) was used to analyse data collected from study participants. This paper describes the unrealistic range of expectations which nursing students have of nursing, the information sources and experiences which inform student expectations and how ambiguous expectations contributed to voluntarily attrition.

  6. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  7. The knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation among voluntary blood donors in chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Uma; R, Arun; P, Arumugam

    2013-06-01

    An integrated strategy for blood safety is required for the provision of safe and adequate blood. Recruiting a sufficient number of safe blood donors is an emerging challenge. The shortage of blood in India is due to an increase in the demand, with fewer voluntary blood donors. A study on the knowledge, attitude and the practice of donors may prove to be useful in the successful implementation of the blood donation programme. Our aim was to find the level of the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among voluntary blood donors. A structured questionnaire was given to 530 voluntary blood donors to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to blood donations. The statistical analyses were done by using the SPSS software. The associations between the demographic factors were analysed by using the Chi square test. Among the 530 donors, 436 (93%) were males and 36 (7%) were female donors. 273 (51.2%) donors knew about the interval of the donation and 421 (79.4%) donors knew about the age limit for the donation. 305 (57%) donors felt that creating an opportunity for the donation was an important factor for motivating the blood donation and 292 (55%) donors felt that the fear of pain was the main reason for the hesitation of the donors in coming forward to donate blood. A majority of the donors were willing to be regular donors. The donors showed positive effects like a sense of satisfaction after the donation. Creating an opportunity for blood donation by conducting many blood donation camps may increase the voluntary blood donations.

  8. Voluntary work organization in higher educational establishment: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Polatayko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses basic questions of voluntary work formation in higher educational establishment, its conceptual and legislative basis, defines basic directions of students agencies activities and forms of their participation in higher educational establishment activities.

  9. Respiratory inductance plethysmography is suitable for voluntary hyperventilation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Pascale; Besleaga, Tudor; Eberhard, André; Vovc, Victor; Baconnier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the goodness of fit of a signal issued of the respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) derivative to the airflow signal during rest, voluntary hyperventilation, and recovery. RIP derivative signal was filtered with an adjusted filter based on each subject airflow signal (pneumotachography). For each subject and for each condition (rest, voluntary hyperventilation, and recovery) comparisons were performed between the airflow signal and the RIP derivative signal filtered with an adjusted filter obtained either on rest signal or on the studied part of the signals (voluntary hyperventilation or recovery). Results show that the goodness of fit was : (1) higher than 90% at almost all comparisons (122 on 132), (2) not improved by applying an adjusted filter obtained on the studied part of the signals. These results suggest that RIP could be used for studying breathing during voluntary hyperventilation and recovery using adjusted filters obtained from comparison to airflow signal at rest.

  10. 78 FR 71476 - Authority for Voluntary Withholding on Other Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...)(3) authorizes the Secretary to provide regulations for withholding from (A) remuneration for... AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Temporary regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains temporary regulations under the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to voluntary withholding...

  11. Improving Voluntary Environmental Management Programs: Facilitating Learning and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.; Wood, Danielle M.

    2011-05-01

    Environmental planners and managers face unique challenges understanding and documenting the effectiveness of programs that rely on voluntary actions by private landowners. Programs, such as those aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution or improving habitat, intend to reach those goals by persuading landowners to adopt behaviors and management practices consistent with environmental restoration and protection. Our purpose with this paper is to identify barriers for improving voluntary environmental management programs and ways to overcome them. We first draw upon insights regarding data, learning, and adaptation from the adaptive management and performance management literatures, describing three key issues: overcoming information constraints, structural limitations, and organizational culture. Although these lessons are applicable to a variety of voluntary environmental management programs, we then present the issues in the context of on-going research for nonpoint source water quality pollution. We end the discussion by highlighting important elements for advancing voluntary program efforts.

  12. Assessing voluntary muscle activation with the twitch interpolation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Anthony; Zhou, Shi

    2004-01-01

    The twitch interpolation technique is commonly employed to assess the completeness of skeletal muscle activation during voluntary contractions. Early applications of twitch interpolation suggested that healthy human subjects could fully activate most of the skeletal muscles to which the technique had been applied. More recently, however, highly sensitive twitch interpolation has revealed that even healthy adults routinely fail to fully activate a number of skeletal muscles despite apparently maximal effort. Unfortunately, some disagreement exists as to how the results of twitch interpolation should be employed to quantify voluntary activation. The negative linear relationship between evoked twitch force and voluntary force that has been observed by some researchers implies that voluntary activation can be quantified by scaling a single interpolated twitch to a control twitch evoked in relaxed muscle. Observations of non-linear evoked-voluntary force relationships have lead to the suggestion that the single interpolated twitch ratio can not accurately estimate voluntary activation. Instead, it has been proposed that muscle activation is better determined by extrapolating the relationship between evoked and voluntary force to provide an estimate of true maximum force. However, criticism of the single interpolated twitch ratio typically fails to take into account the reasons for the non-linearity of the evoked-voluntary force relationship. When these reasons are examined, it appears that most are even more challenging to the validity of extrapolation than they are to the linear equation. Furthermore, several factors that contribute to the observed non-linearity can be minimised or even eliminated with appropriate experimental technique. The detection of small activation deficits requires high resolution measurement of force and careful consideration of numerous experimental details such as the site of stimulation, stimulation intensity and the number of interpolated

  13. The Emotional Response to Everyday Involuntary and Voluntary Memories in Dysphoria and Non-Dysphoria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Watson, Lynn; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Retrieving personal memories may cause emotional reactions and thus a need for emotion regulation. Past research indicates that involuntary memories have a greater effect on mood that the voluntary counterparts. However, different dimensions of the emotional response (i.e., intensity and regulation......-depressed individuals completed a structured memory diary where the intensity of fear, sadness, happiness, and anger, as well as the employment of emotion regulation strategies (brooding, memory suppression, emotional suppression, and reflection) was recorded upon the retrieval of everyday autobiographical memories...

  14. Voluntary ingestion of nut paste for administration of buprenorphine in rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Sundbom, Renée

    2012-01-01

    An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve the postoperative recovery and welfare of laboratory rats and mice. It is desirable that the method for administering the drug is non-invasive and stress-free. We have previously validated a method for administering buprenorphine in a nut paste...... for voluntary ingestion. This method has many advantages over parenteral administration. To use the method in a successful way, however, it is important to prepare and administer the mix correctly. The present paper describes in detail how to implement the method, by means of habituation, presentation, adequate...

  15. Voluntary ingestion of nut paste for administration of buprenorphine in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Sundbom, Renée; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann

    2012-10-01

    An adequate analgesic strategy is important to improve the postoperative recovery and welfare of laboratory rats and mice. It is desirable that the method for administering the drug is non-invasive and stress-free. We have previously validated a method for administering buprenorphine in a nut paste for voluntary ingestion. This method has many advantages over parenteral administration. To use the method in a successful way, however, it is important to prepare and administer the mix correctly. The present paper describes in detail how to implement the method, by means of habituation, presentation, adequate concentrations and amounts of buprenorphine/nut paste, and dosage of buprenorphine to rats and mice.

  16. Voluntary reaction time and long-latency reflex modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgaard, Christopher J; Franks, Ian M; Maslovat, Dana; Chin, Laurence; Chua, Romeo

    2015-12-01

    Stretching a muscle of the upper limb elicits short (M1) and long-latency (M2) reflexes. When the participant is instructed to actively compensate for a perturbation, M1 is usually unaffected and M2 increases in size and is followed by the voluntary response. It remains unclear if the observed increase in M2 is due to instruction-dependent gain modulation of the contributing reflex mechanism(s) or results from voluntary response superposition. The difficulty in delineating between these alternatives is due to the overlap between the voluntary response and the end of M2. The present study manipulated response accuracy and complexity to delay onset of the voluntary response and observed the corresponding influence on electromyographic activity during the M2 period. In all active conditions, M2 was larger compared with a passive condition where participants did not respond to the perturbation; moreover, these changes in M2 began early in the appearance of the response (∼ 50 ms), too early to be accounted for by voluntary overlap. Voluntary response latency influenced the latter portion of M2, with the largest activity seen when accuracy of limb position was not specified. However, when participants aimed for targets of different sizes or performed movements of various complexities, reaction time differences did not influence M2 period activity, suggesting voluntary activity was sufficiently delayed. Collectively, our results show that while a perturbation applied to the upper limbs can trigger a voluntary response at short latency (reflex gain modulation remains an important contributor to EMG changes during the M2 period. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Voluntary "involuntary" commitment--the briar-patch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1980-01-01

    Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.

  18. Voluntary euthanasia under control? Further empirical evidence from The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochemsen, H; Keown, J

    1999-01-01

    Nineteen ninety-six saw the publication of a major Dutch survey into euthanasia in the Netherlands. This paper outlines the main statistical findings of this survey and considers whether it shows that voluntary euthanasia is under effective control in the Netherlands. The paper concludes that although there has been some improvement in compliance with procedural requirements, the practice of voluntary euthanasia remains beyond effective control. PMID:10070633

  19. Students' vocational choices and voluntary action: A 12-nation study

    OpenAIRE

    Haski-Leventhal, Debbie; Cnaan, Ram; Handy, Femida; Brudney, Jeffrey; Holmes, Kirsten; Hustinx, Lesley; Kang, ChulHee; Kassam, Meenaz; Meijs, Lucas; Ranade, Bhagyashree; Yamauchi, Naoto; Yeung, Anne Birgitta; Zrinscak, Sinisa

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research on student involvement suggested that business and engineering students manifest lowest rates of voluntary action. Similarly, it was thought that social science students are the most involved in voluntary action, with students of natural sciences and humanities in the middle. However, there were very few studies that empirically compared these assertions. Furthermore, these assertions were not investigated from cross-cultural perspectives. Based on a study of stu...

  20. The We and the I: The Logic of Voluntary Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Ekaterina; Zimmermann, Jean-Benoît

    2015-01-01

    This paper sheds new light on the economic logic of voluntary associations and the relationship between individual contribution and collective action. The aims are twofold. Firstly, we seek to explain how "team reasoning" (Bacharach et al. 2006) can deeply change the functioning of voluntary associations (which are considered to produce a public good) when some or all of the individual members group together to make collective decisions about their involvement or contribution, rather than dec...

  1. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  2. Interaction of poststroke voluntary effort and functional neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Nathaniel; Knutson, Jayme; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) may be able to augment functional arm and hand movement after stroke. Poststroke neuroprostheses that incorporate voluntary effort and FES to produce the desired movement must consider how forces generated by voluntary effort and FES combine, even in the same muscle, in order to provide an appropriate level of stimulation to elicit the desired assistive force. The goal of this study was to determine whether the force produced by voluntary effort and FES add together independently of effort or whether the increment in force depends on the level of voluntary effort. Isometric force matching tasks were performed under different combinations of voluntary effort and FES. Participants reached a steady level of force, and while attempting to maintain a constant effort level, FES was applied to augment the force. Results indicate that the increment in force produced by FES decreases as the level of initial voluntary effort increases. Potential mechanisms causing the change in force output are proposed, but the relative contribution of each mechanism is unknown.

  3. Does retrieval intentionality really matter? Similarities and differences between involuntary memories and directly and generatively retrieved voluntary memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2016-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary retrieval as a consequence of conscious intention (i.e., wanting to remember). Another distinction can be made between direct and generative retrieval, which reflects the effort involved (i.e., trying to remember...... differences between the characteristics of involuntary and directly retrieved memories. The results imply that retrieval intention seems to differentiate how a memory appears in a person’s mind. Furthermore, we argue that these differences in part could result from differences in encoding and consolidation....

  4. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Berning

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open. In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device. We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02 than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  5. Hedonic value of intentional action provides reinforcement for voluntary generation but not voluntary inhibition of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Jim; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Intentional inhibition refers to stopping oneself from performing an action at the last moment, a vital component of self-control. It has been suggested that intentional inhibition is associated with negative hedonic value, perhaps due to the frustration of cancelling an intended action. Here we investigate hedonic implications of the free choice to act or inhibit. Participants gave aesthetic ratings of arbitrary visual stimuli that immediately followed voluntary decisions to act or to inhibit action. We found that participants for whom decisions to act produced a strong positive hedonic value for the immediately following visual stimulus made more choices to act than those with weaker hedonic value for action. This finding is consistent with reinforcement learning of action decisions. However, participants who experienced inhibition as generating more positive hedonic value did not choose to inhibit more than other participants. Thus, voluntary inhibition of action did not act as reinforcement for future inhibitory behaviour. Our finding that inhibition of action lacks motivational capacity may explain why self-control is both difficult and limited.

  6. Comparison of body-powered voluntary opening and voluntary closing prehensor for activities of daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Kelsey; Cohick, Sarah; Johnson, Reva; Miller, Laura Ann; Sensinger, Jonathon W

    2014-01-01

    Persons with an upper-limb amputation who use a body-powered prosthesis typically control the prehensor through contralateral shoulder movement, which is transmitted through a Bowden cable. Increased cable tension either opens or closes the prehensor; when tension is released, some passive element, such as a spring, returns the prehensor to the default state (closed or open). In this study, we used the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure to examine functional differences between these two types of prehensors in 29 nondisabled subjects (who used a body-powered bypass prosthesis) and 2 persons with unilateral transradial amputations (who used a conventional body-powered device). We also administered a survey to determine whether subjects preferred one prehensor or the other for specific tasks, with a long-term goal of assessing whether a prehensor that could switch between both modes would be advantageous. We found that using the voluntary closing prehensor was 1.3 s faster (p = 0.02) than using the voluntary opening prehensor, across tasks, and that there was consensus among subjects on which types of tasks they preferred to do with each prehensor type. Twenty-five subjects wanted a device that could switch between the two modes in order to perform particular tasks.

  7. A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell growth and differentiation: characterization of a novel gut-specific N-myristoylated annexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wice, B M; Gordon, J I

    1992-01-01

    The human intestinal epithelium is rapidly and perpetually renewed as the descendants of multipotent stem cells located in crypts undergo proliferation, differentiation, and eventual exfoliation during a very well organized migration along the crypt to villus axis. The mechanisms that establish and maintain this balance between proliferation and differentiation are largely unknown. We have utilized HT-29 cells, derived from a human colon adenocarcinoma, as a model system for identifying gene products that may regulate these processes. Proliferating HT-29 cells cultured in the absence of glucose (e.g., using inosine as the carbon source) have some of the characteristics of undifferentiated but committed crypt epithelial cells while postconfluent cells cultured in the absence of glucose resemble terminally differentiated enterocytes or goblet cells. A cDNA library, constructed from exponentially growing HT-29 cells maintained in inosine-containing media, was sequentially screened with a series of probes depleted of sequences encoding housekeeping functions and enriched for intestine-specific sequences that are expressed in proliferating committed, but not differentiated, epithelial cells. Of 100,000 recombinant phage surveyed, one was found whose cDNA was derived from an apparently gut-specific mRNA. It encodes a 316 residue, 35,463-D protein that is a new member of the annexin/lipocortin family. Other family members have been implicated in regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. RNA blot and in situ hybridization studies indicate that the gene encoding this new annexin exhibits region-specific expression along both axes of the human gut: (a) highest levels of mRNA are present in the jejunum with marked and progressive reductions occurring distally; (b) its mRNA appears in crypt-associated epithelial cells and increases in concentration as they exit the crypt. Villus-associated epithelial cells continue to transcribe this gene during their

  8. Voluntary control of human jaw stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M; Houle, Guillaume; Ostry, David J

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies of human arm movement have suggested that the control of stiffness may be important both for maintaining stability and for achieving differences in movement accuracy. In the present study, we have examined the voluntary control of postural stiffness in 3D in the human jaw. The goal is to address the possible role of stiffness control in both stabilizing the jaw and in achieving the differential precision requirements of speech sounds. We previously showed that patterns of kinematic variability in speech are systematically related to the stiffness of the jaw. If the nervous system uses stiffness control as a means to regulate kinematic variation in speech, it should also be possible to show that subjects can voluntarily modify jaw stiffness. Using a robotic device, a series of force pulses was applied to the jaw to elicit changes in stiffness to resist displacement. Three orthogonal directions and three magnitudes of forces were tested. In all conditions, subjects increased the magnitude of jaw stiffness to resist the effects of the applied forces. Apart from the horizontal direction, greater increases in stiffness were observed when larger forces were applied. Moreover, subjects differentially increased jaw stiffness along a vertical axis to counteract disturbances in this direction. The observed changes in the magnitude of stiffness in different directions suggest an ability to control the pattern of stiffness of the jaw. The results are interpreted as evidence that jaw stiffness can be adjusted voluntarily, and thus may play a role in stabilizing the jaw and in controlling movement variation in the orofacial system.

  9. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  10. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKrippl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS,Ekman et al., 2002. The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1. Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser, AU4 (brow lowerer, AU12 (lip corner puller and AU24 (lip presser, each in alternation with a resting phase.Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g. M1, premotor cortex, SMA, putamen, as well as in the thalamus, insula and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU 4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the like attracts like principle (Donoghue et al., 1992 . AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  11. Cortical potentials associated with voluntary mandibular movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Kaji, R; Hamano, T; Kohara, N; Kimura, J; Shibasaki, H; Iizuka, T

    2000-07-01

    Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) are negative potentials over the scalp, which gradually increase prior to voluntary movements, and might be applied to elucidate the cortical efferent function of the mandibular movements. We compared the MRCPs accompanying various mandibular movements to study the motor control mechanism underlying these movements. Electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded from 11 electrodes placed over the scalp (F3, Fz, F4, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, P3, Pz, and P4), according to the International 10-20 System, and electromyograms (EMGs) were obtained from surface electrodes over the masseter muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. Ten healthy subjects were requested to make brisk and self-paced mandibular movements in 4 different directions (mouth-opening and -closing, and left and right lateral movements). We obtained MRCPs by averaging the EEG, using the visually determined EMG onset as a trigger signal. In all the movements, a slowly increasing, bilaterally widespread negativity starting 1.5 to 2.0 sec before the EMG onset (Bereitschaftspotential, or BP proper) was observed, with the maximum over the vertex region. The negative slope (NS') occurred about 300 to 700 msec before the EMG onset. The cortical maps of BP/NS' (BP and NS' combined), immediately prior to the mouth-opening and closing, showed a symmetrical distribution, whereas that for the lateral movements showed a tendency of predominance over the hemisphere ipsilateral to the direction of the movement. BP/NS' amplitudes at the onset of movement differed significantly or tended to do so between open, close, and lateral movements, suggesting that MRCP recordings may thus provide a means to explore the role of the cerebral cortex in the control of mandibular movements.

  12. Voluntary organizations in development in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    The governments of South Asian countries have become aware of the substantial role that nongovernment organizations (NGOs) or voluntary agencies can play in rural development and other nation building activities. Although private agencies cannot substitute for government programs, there is general consensus that NGOs use development funds more efficiently and innovatively than government programs. NGOs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan exemplify the influence these organizations have on development in South Asia. The Lutheran World Service in Bangladesh, a foreign origin NGO, has branched out from its original aim of providing relief and war rehabilitation to give skills training and technical assistance to the poor. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee, an indigenous NGO, works for the well-being and self-reliance of the landless poor, those with very small farms, and women. NGOs in Bangladesh have been especially innovative in developing methods to encourage self-help, such as local organization and credit, which are often combined with training in practical skills, literacy, nutrition, and family planning. Present NGO activity in India is dominated by the Gandhian tradition. There is a potential conflict between the philosophy of the NGO's in terms of building on the people's felt needs from the bottom up and the tendency of government agencies to want to plan for the people. In Pakistan, the concept of development-oriented NGOs is recent and not yet strong, although the government has adopted a policy of routing funds from government and from bilateral donor agencies through NGOs in 2 areas--family planning and women's welfare. The chief limitation of NGOs is their scope, meaning that the major burden of the development process rests on government agencies.

  13. Ability and willingness to pay for voluntary medical male circumcision: a cross-sectional survey in Kisumu County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandei, Stephen; Nangami, Mabel; Egesa, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision is one of the most effective measures in preventing male acquisition of HIV during heterosexual intercourse. In Kenya, the voluntary medical male circumcision programme was launched in the year 2008 as part of a comprehensive national HIV prevention strategy. With the global challenge of funding HIV intervention programs, the sustainability of the programme beyond the donor periods need to be assessed. The purpose of this study was to determine the household ability and willingness to pay for voluntary medical male circumcision as an alternative method of funding the programme. The findings show that 62.2% of the households were "able" to pay for medical circumcision. However, 60.4% of them were not "willing" to pay for the service regardless of the cost. The findings indicate that ability to pay is not a significant predictor of willingness to pay for voluntary medical male circumcision within Kisumu County. Knowledge on the role of medical circumcision is a more important factor in determining willingness to pay for the service.

  14. Voluntary Nonmonetary Conservation Approaches on Private Land: A Review of Constraints, Risks, and Benefits for Raptor Nest Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation on private land of the developed world faces several challenges. The costs of land are often high, and the attitudes of landowners towards conservation are variable. Scientists and practitioners need to scan for and adopt cost-effective solutions that allow for the long-term sustainability of conservation measures on private land. In this study, we focus on one of such possible solutions: Working with landowners to implement voluntary nonmonetary conservation. We restrict our focus to protection of raptor nests, but the ideas can be applied to other taxa as well. Through a literature review, we show that a voluntary nonmonetary approach for protecting raptor nests has been so far largely neglected and/or rarely reported in the scientific literature. However, results of a questionnaire sent to BirdLife partners across Europe indicate that this approach is more widely used than it appears from the literature. We show that voluntary nonmonetary approaches may represent useful tools to protect raptor nests on private land. We provide a workflow for implementation of such an approach in raptor nest protection, highlighting benefits, potential risks, and constraints in the application of the strategy. We suggest that a voluntary nonmonetary approach may have great potential for cost-effective conservation, but the risks it may entail should be carefully assessed in each case. There is an urgent need to consider and evaluate novel approaches, such as the one described here, which may constitute missed opportunities for cost-effective conservation.

  15. Color Strategies for Image Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, color encoding strategies for different image database applications are discussed. The color image workflow is examined in detail, and master and derivative file encoding strategies are outlined in relation to capture, maintenance, and deployment of image files. For the most common image database purposes, recommendations are given as to which type of color encoding is most suitable. Advantages and disadvantages of sensor, input-referred, output-referred, and output device spec...

  16. Opt-out HIV testing in prison: informed and voluntary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; May, Jeanine; Bowling, J Michael; DeVellis, Robert F; White, Becky L; Wohl, David A

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing in prison settings has been identified as an important mechanism to detect cases among high-risk, underserved populations. Several public health organizations recommend that testing across health-care settings, including prisons, be delivered in an opt-out manner. However, implementation of opt-out testing within prisons may pose challenges in delivering testing that is informed and understood to be voluntary. In a large state prison system with a policy of voluntary opt-out HIV testing, we randomly sampled adult prisoners in each of seven intake prisons within two weeks after their opportunity to be HIV tested. We surveyed prisoners' perception of HIV testing as voluntary or mandatory and used multivariable statistical models to identify factors associated with their perception. We also linked survey responses to lab records to determine if prisoners' test status (tested or not) matched their desired and perceived test status. Thirty-eight percent (359/936) perceived testing as voluntary. The perception that testing was mandatory was positively associated with age less than 25 years (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 1.71) and preference that testing be mandatory (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.31) but negatively associated with entry into one of the intake prisons (aRR: 0.41 95% CI: 0.27, 0.63). Eighty-nine percent of prisoners wanted to be tested, 85% were tested according to their wishes, and 82% correctly understood whether or not they were tested. Most prisoners wanted to be HIV tested and were aware that they had been tested, but less than 40% understood testing to be voluntary. Prisoners' understanding of the voluntary nature of testing varied by intake prison and by a few individual-level factors. Testing procedures should ensure that opt-out testing is informed and understood to be voluntary by prisoners and other vulnerable populations.

  17. Evaluation of two dairy herd reproductive performance indicators that are adjusted for voluntary waiting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löf Emma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall reproductive performance of dairy herds is monitored by various indicators. Most of them do not consider all eligible animals and do not consider different management strategies at farm level. This problem can be alleviated by measuring the proportion of pregnant cows by specific intervals after their calving date or after a fixed time period, such as the voluntary waiting period. The aim of this study was to evaluate two reproductive performance indicators that consider the voluntary waiting period at the herd. The two indicators were: percentage of pregnant cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (PV30 and percentage of inseminated cows in the herd after the voluntary waiting period plus 30 days (IV30. We wanted to assess how PV30 and IV30 perform in a simulation of herds with different reproductive management and physiology and to compare them to indicators of reproductive performance that do not consider the herd voluntary waiting period. Methods To evaluate the reproductive indicators we used the SimHerd-program, a stochastic simulation model, and 18 scenarios were simulated. The scenarios were designed by altering the reproductive management efficiency and the status of reproductive physiology of the herd. Logistic regression models, together with receiver operating characteristics (ROC, were used to examine how well the reproductive performance indicators could discriminate between herds of different levels of reproductive management efficiency or reproductive physiology. Results The logistic regression models with the ROC analysis showed that IV30 was the indicator that best discriminated between different levels of management efficiency followed by PV30, calving interval, 200-days not-in calf-rate (NotIC200, in calf rate at100-days (IC100 and a fertility index. For reproductive physiology the ROC analysis showed that the fertility index was the indicator that best discriminated

  18. Control Strategies for Accurate Force Generation and Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaka, Chiaki; Fujiwara, Motoko

    2016-10-01

    Characteristics and motor strategies for force generation and force relaxation were examined using graded tasks during isometric force control. Ten female college students (M age = 20.2 yr., SD = 1.1) were instructed to accurately control the force of isometric elbow flexion using their right arm to match a target force level as quickly as possible. They performed: (1) a generation task, wherein they increased their force from 0% maximum voluntary force to 20% maximum voluntary force (0%-20%), 40% maximum voluntary force (0%-40%), or 60% maximum voluntary force (0%-60%) and (2) and a relaxation task, in which they decreased their force from 60% maximum voluntary force to 40% maximum voluntary force (60%-40%), 20% maximum voluntary force (60%-20%), or to 0% maximum voluntary force (60%-0%). Produced force parameters of point of accuracy (force level, error), quickness (reaction time, adjustment time, rate of force development), and strategy (force wave, rate of force development) were analyzed. Errors of force relaxation were all greater, and reaction times shorter, than those of force generation. Adjustment time depended on the magnitude of force and peak rates of force development and force relaxation differed. Controlled relaxation of force is more difficult with low magnitude of force control.

  19. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  20. Overpunishing is not necessary to fix cooperation in voluntary public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercole, Fabio; De Carli, Marco; Della Rossa, Fabio; Papadopoulos, Alessandro V

    2013-06-07

    The fixation of cooperation among unrelated individuals is one of the fundamental problems in biology and social sciences. It is investigated by means of public goods games, the generalization of the prisoner's dilemma to more than two players. In compulsory public goods games, defect is the dominant strategy, while voluntary participation overcomes the social dilemma by allowing a cyclic coexistence of cooperators, defectors, and non-participants. Experimental and theoretical research has shown how the combination of voluntary participation and altruistic punishment-punishing antisocial behaviors at a personal cost-provides a solution to the problem, as long as antisocial punishment-the punishing of cooperators-is not allowed. Altruistic punishment can invade at low participation and pave the way to the fixation of cooperation. Specifically, defectors are overpunished, in the sense that their payoff is reduced by a sanction proportional to the number of punishers in the game. Here we show that qualitatively equivalent results can be achieved with a milder punishing mechanism, where defectors only risk a fixed penalty per round-as in many real situations-and the cost of punishment is shared among the punishers. The payoffs for the four strategies-cooperate, defect, abstain, and cooperate-&-punish-are derived and the corresponding replicator dynamics analyzed in full detail.

  1. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  2. Theory of multisource crosstalk reduction by phase-encoded statics

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2011-03-01

    Formulas are derived that relate the strength of the crosstalk noise in supergather migration images to the variance of time, amplitude and polarity shifts in encoding functions. A supergather migration image is computed by migrating an encoded supergather, where the supergather is formed by stacking a large number of encoded shot gathers. Analysis reveals that for temporal source static shifts in each shot gather, the crosstalk noise is exponentially reduced with increasing variance of the static shift and the square of source frequency. This is not too surprising because larger time shifts lead to less correlation between traces in different shot gathers, and so should tend to reduce the crosstalk noise. Analysis also reveals that combining both polarity and time statics is a superior encoding strategy compared to using either polarity statics or time statics alone. Signal-to-noise (SNR) estimates show that for a standard migration image and for an image computed by migrating a phase-encoded supergather; here, G is the number of traces in a shot gather, I is the number of stacking iterations in the supergather and S is the number of encoded/blended shot gathers that comprise the supergather. If the supergather can be uniformly divided up into Q unique sub-supergathers, then the resulting SNR of the final image is, which means that we can enhance image quality but at the expense of Q times more cost. The importance of these formulas is that they provide a precise understanding between different phase encoding strategies and image quality. Finally, we show that iterative migration of phase-encoded supergathers is a special case of passive seismic interferometry. We suggest that the crosstalk noise formulas can be helpful in designing optimal strategies for passive seismic interferometry and efficient extraction of Green\\'s functions from simulated supergathers. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.

  3. PNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambaldo, Claudio; Barluenga, Sofia; Winssinger, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-encoded chemical libraries along with DNA-encoded libraries have provided a powerful new paradigm for library synthesis and ligand discovery. PNA-encoding stands out for its compatibility with standard solid phase synthesis and the technology has been used to prepare libraries of peptides, heterocycles and glycoconjugates. Different screening formats have now been reported including selection-based and microarray-based methods that have yielded specific ligands against diverse target classes including membrane receptors, lectins and challenging targets such as Hsp70.

  4. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  5. Neurons controlling voluntary vocalization in the macaque ventral premotor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Coudé

    Full Text Available The voluntary control of phonation is a crucial achievement in the evolution of speech. In humans, ventral premotor cortex (PMv and Broca's area are known to be involved in voluntary phonation. In contrast, no neurophysiological data are available about the role of the oro-facial sector of nonhuman primates PMv in this function. In order to address this issue, we recorded PMv neurons from two monkeys trained to emit coo-calls. Results showed that a population of motor neurons specifically fire during vocalization. About two thirds of them discharged before sound onset, while the remaining were time-locked with it. The response of vocalization-selective neurons was present only during conditioned (voluntary but not spontaneous (emotional sound emission. These data suggest that the control of vocal production exerted by PMv neurons constitutes a newly emerging property in the monkey lineage, shedding light on the evolution of phonation-based communication from a nonhuman primate species.

  6. Suicide and voluntary active euthanasia: why the difference in attitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, I

    1995-06-01

    It appears that the attitudes of health professionals differ towards suicide and voluntary active euthanasia. An acceptance of, if not an agreement with, voluntary active euthanasia exists, while there is a general consensus that suicide should be prevented. This paper searches for a working definition of suicide, to discover ethical reasons for the negative value that suicide assumes, and also to provide a term of reference when comparing suicide with euthanasia. On arriving at a working definition of suicide, it is compared with voluntary active euthanasia. An analysis of utilitarian and deontological considerations is provided and proves to be inconclusive with respect to the ethical principles informing the attitudes of professionals. Therefore, a search for other influences is attempted; this indicates that psychological influences inform attitudes to a greater degree than ethical principles.

  7. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;

    2013-01-01

    implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  8. Final voluntary release assessment/corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-12

    The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.

  9. Compressed Encoding for Rank Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gad, Eyal En; Jiang,; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2011-01-01

    Rank modulation has been recently proposed as a scheme for storing information in flash memories. While rank modulation has advantages in improving write speed and endurance, the current encoding approach is based on the "push to the top" operation that is not efficient in the general case. We propose a new encoding procedure where a cell level is raised to be higher than the minimal necessary subset - instead of all - of the other cell levels. This new procedure leads to a significantly more compressed (lower charge levels) encoding. We derive an upper bound for a family of codes that utilize the proposed encoding procedure, and consider code constructions that achieve that bound for several special cases.

  10. Cell encoding recombinant human erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A.K.; Withy, R.M.; Zabrecky, J.R.; Masiello, N.C.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes a C127 cell transformed with a recombinant DNA vector. It comprises: a DNA sequence encoding human erythropoietin, the transformed cell being capable of producing N-linked and O-linked glycosylated human erythropoietin.

  11. Self-Organising Stochastic Encoders

    CERN Document Server

    Luttrell, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The processing of mega-dimensional data, such as images, scales linearly with image size only if fixed size processing windows are used. It would be very useful to be able to automate the process of sizing and interconnecting the processing windows. A stochastic encoder that is an extension of the standard Linde-Buzo-Gray vector quantiser, called a stochastic vector quantiser (SVQ), includes this required behaviour amongst its emergent properties, because it automatically splits the input space into statistically independent subspaces, which it then separately encodes. Various optimal SVQs have been obtained, both analytically and numerically. Analytic solutions which demonstrate how the input space is split into independent subspaces may be obtained when an SVQ is used to encode data that lives on a 2-torus (e.g. the superposition of a pair of uncorrelated sinusoids). Many numerical solutions have also been obtained, using both SVQs and chains of linked SVQs: (1) images of multiple independent targets (encod...

  12. Voluntary vs directed siting -- or somewhere in-between?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.B.

    1994-04-01

    Waste siting gridlock in the United States and Canada has led to experimentation with voluntary and hybrid or ``mixed mode`` siting. We review nuclear and hazardous waste voluntary siting (VS) results for selected cases in the U.S, and Canada. Findings indicate that VS is not a panacea, but that current siting efforts are inadequate tests of its potential. We suggest trials of improved VS protocols and more effort on hybrid approaches in which the developer chooses the site but is required to reach agreement on conditions with local stakeholders. Mixed mode siting may be better suited to the US context and its three-tiered governmental system.

  13. The voluntary control of facial action units in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Mélanie; Beaupré, Martin

    2010-04-01

    We investigated adults' voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young adults succeeded in activating 18 of the 20 target actions units, although they often coactivated other action units. Voluntary control was clearly better for some action units than for others, with a pattern of differences between action units consistent with previous work in children and adolescents. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  15. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Armstrong, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  16. Speech and Pause Characteristics Associated with Voluntary Rate Reduction in Parkinson’s disease and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how speakers with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) accomplish voluntary reductions in speech rate. A group of talkers with no history of neurological disease was included for comparison. This study was motivated by the idea that knowledge of how speakers with dysarthria voluntarily accomplish a reduced speech rate would contribute toward a descriptive model of speaking rate change in dysarthria. Such a model has the potential to assist in identifying rate control strategies to receive focus in clinical treatment programs and also would advance understanding of global speech timing in dysarthria. All speakers read a passage in Habitual and Slow conditions. Speech rate, articulation rate, pause duration, and pause frequency were measured. All speaker groups adjusted articulation time as well as pause time to reduce overall speech rate. Group differences in how voluntary rate reduction was accomplished were primarily one of quantity or degree. Overall, a slower-than-normal rate was associated with a reduced articulation rate, shorter speech runs that included fewer syllables, and longer more frequent pauses. Taken together, these results suggest that existing skills or strategies used by patients should be emphasized in dysarthria training programs focusing on rate reduction. Results further suggest that a model of voluntary speech rate reduction based on neurologically normal speech shows promise as being applicable for mild to moderate dysarthria. PMID:21767851

  17. The Dynamics of Voluntary Force Production in Afferented Muscle Influence Involuntary Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Laine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary control of force is always marked by some degree of error and unsteadiness. Both neural and mechanical factors contribute to these fluctuations, but how they interact to produce them is poorly understood. In this study, we identify and characterize a previously undescribed neuromechanical interaction where the dynamics of voluntary force production suffice to generate involuntary tremor. Specifically, participants were asked to produce isometric force with the index finger and use visual feedback to track a sinusoidal target spanning 5 to 9 % of each individual’s maximal voluntary force level. Force fluctuations and EMG activity over the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS muscle were recorded and their frequency content was analyzed as a function target phase. Force variability in either the 1 to 5 or 6 to 15 Hz frequency ranges tended to be largest at the peaks and valleys of the target sinusoid. In those same periods, FDS EMG activity was synchronized with force fluctuations. We then constructed a physiologically-realistic computer simulation in which a muscle-tendon complex was set inside of a feedback-driven control loop. Surprisingly, the model sufficed to produce phase-dependent modulation of tremor similar to that observed in humans. Further, the gain of afferent feedback from muscle spindles was critical for appropriately amplifying and shaping this tremor. We suggest that the experimentally-induced tremor may represent the response of a viscoelastic muscle-tendon system to dynamic drive, and therefore does not fall into known categories of tremor generation, such as tremorogenic descending drive, stretch-reflex loop oscillations, motor unit behavior, or mechanical resonance. Our findings motivate future efforts to understand tremor from a perspective that considers neuromechanical coupling within the context of closed-loop control. The strategy of combining experimental recordings with physiologically-sound simulations will

  18. Value orientations, expectations and voluntary contributions in public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerman, T.J.S.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Sonnemans, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods is presented. Independent information is obtained on individual value orientation and expectations about the behavior of other subjects using incentive compatible mechanisms. The effects of increasing payoffs for

  19. Value Orientations, Expectations and Voluntary Contributions in Public Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.; Schram, A.; Offermans, T.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods is presented. Independent information is obtained on individual value orientation and expectations about the behavior of other subjects using incentive compatible mechanisms. The effects of increasing payoffs for

  20. 77 FR 55487 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security, and sent via electronic mail to... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30-Day...

  1. ANALYSIS OF INTENTION TO CONTINUE SERVICES AMONG RECRUITED VOLUNTARY SOLDIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to attract more promising young people to join the military and enhance combat capability, Taiwan’s Department of Defense is transforming the nation’s military service system from a draft system, which has been in effect for more than sixty years, to an all-volunteer military force system. The government hopes that the new system not only can recruit promising voluntary soldiers, but that they also continue their military service after the contract expires in order to ensure stability in recruitment sources. This study explores the intention of voluntary soldiers to continue their military service. This study’s questionnaire encompasses five dimensions: Participation motivation, organization commitment, career planning, personality traits and departure tendency. The questionnaires were issued to 350 voluntary soldiers to explore if they intend to continue their service after their contract expires, with a total of 314 effective questionnaires that were recovered and analyzed. The results find that about half of the voluntary soldiers indicate that they do not plan on staying and continuing their service after contract expiration, which will result in understaffing in the military. In order to stabilize the prescribed number of soldiers, the existing recruiting policy and military management system should be re-adjusted.

  2. Privatizing or socializing corporate responsibility: business participation in voluntary programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.W.; Burgoon, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores why companies choose some Corporate Responsibility initiatives over others. The focus is on competing voluntary programs to oversee and protect labor standards. These programs may differ with regard to two aspects: the governance of the program and the financial and managerial

  3. 77 FR 50584 - Voluntary Licensing of Amateur Rocket Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... are summarized below. Total Benefits and Costs The FAA does not require licensing of amateur rocket... of this rule. To the extent the licensing requirements provide a societal benefit, those benefits... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 400 RIN 2120-AJ84 Voluntary Licensing of Amateur...

  4. Board and auditor interlocks and voluntary disclosure in annual reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly lis

  5. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  6. Human Economy and Entrepreneurial Learning in a Voluntary Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    2014-01-01

    "Based on five months anthropological field study in a British affiliate of an American charity in London, Revsbech asks what does learning look like in a social voluntary organization for youth. Her chapter argues that volunteers develop entrepreneurial abilities by shifting flexibly between...

  7. Voluntary imitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  8. 77 FR 53963 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... amended to note that each voluntary agreement expires five (5) years after the date it becomes effective... Concept The mission of VISA is to provide commercial sealift and intermodal shipping services and systems... commitments or volunteered capacity are insufficient to meet contingency requirements, and adequate shipping...

  9. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A. Jackowich, BA

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.

  10. Force-directed design of a voluntary closing hand prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, H.; Herder, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a body-powered voluntary closing prosthetic hand. It is argued that the movement of the fingers before establishing a grip is much less relevant for good control of the object held than the distribution of forces once the object has been contacted. Based on this not

  11. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from the appar...... of voluntary labour and voluntary associations in publicly subsidised urban regeneration. Empirical data will be collected through in-depth case studies in selected communities in both metropolitan neighbourhoods and smaller market towns....... to community development, urban policy, etc. In addition to this, the paper presents results from a survey exploring the extent and character of volunteerism in a number of integrated urban regeneration projects. The paper proposes a systematic overview of experiences with voluntary inputs and engagement...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...

  12. From participation to consumption? : Consumerism in voluntary sport clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years dark clouds seem to have gathered over the institution of the voluntary sport club. General societal developments such as individualisation and commercialisation have given rise to concerns regarding the transfer of such attitudes to sport clubs. Many people who are involved in and a

  13. 78 FR 71542 - Authority for Voluntary Withholding on Other Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...)(3) authorizes the Secretary to provide regulations for withholding from (A) remuneration for... proposed rulemaking by cross reference to temporary regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations under the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to voluntary withholding agreements. In the Rules...

  14. The Limitations of Voluntary Repatriation and Resettlement of Refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieck, M.; Chetail, V.; Bauloz, C.

    2014-01-01

    UNHCR is charged with the pursuit of durable solutions for the problem of refugees. Those solutions are voluntary repatriation and assimilation within new national communities which means either local integration in the country of refuge - tangentially touched upon in this paper - or resettlement in

  15. Privatizing or socializing corporate responsibility: business participation in voluntary programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W. Fransen; B. Burgoon

    2013-01-01

    This article explores why companies choose some Corporate Responsibility initiatives over others. The focus is on competing voluntary programs to oversee and protect labor standards. These programs may differ with regard to two aspects: the governance of the program and the financial and managerial

  16. What roles are there for government in voluntary environmental programs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to understand to a greater extent why and how governments are involved in voluntary environmental programmes (VEPs). A better understanding of the role(s) of government in VEPs is of relevance because the current VEP literature considers such involvement one of the key conditions

  17. A cardiorespiratory classifier of voluntary and involuntary electrodermal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdic Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.

  18. The decision making control instrument to assess voluntary consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Ittenbach, Richard F; Harris, Diana; Reynolds, William W; Beauchamp, Tom L; Luce, Mary Frances; Nelson, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    The decision to participate in a research intervention or to undergo medical treatment should be both informed and voluntary. The aim of the present study was to develop an instrument to measure the perceived voluntariness of parents making decisions for their seriously ill children. A total of 219 parents completed questionnaires within 10 days of making such a decision at a large, urban tertiary care hospital for children. Parents were presented with an experimental form of the Decision Making Control Instrument (DMCI), a measure of the perception of voluntariness. Data obtained from the 28-item form were analyzed using a combination of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques. The 28 items were reduced to 9 items representing 3 oblique dimensions: Self-Control, Absence of Control, and Others' Control. The hypothesis that the 3-factor covariance structure of our model was consistent with that of the data was supported. Internal consistency for the scale as a whole was high (0.83); internal consistency for the subscales ranged from 0.68 to 0.87. DMCI scores were associated with measures of affect, trust, and decision self-efficacy, supporting the construct validity of the new instrument. The DMCI is an important new tool that can be used to inform our understanding of the voluntariness of treatment and research decisions in medical settings.

  19. 77 FR 67269 - Voluntary Licensing of Amateur Rocket Operations; Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... it received. DATES: The direct final rule published on August 22, 2012, at 77 FR 50584 is withdrawn... withdraws Amendment No. 400-4 published at 77 FR 50584 on August 22, 2012. Issued in Washington, DC, on... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 400 RIN 2120-AK16 Voluntary Licensing of Amateur...

  20. Environmental Concern and Involvement of Individuals in Selected Voluntary Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Michael A.; Ostergren, David.

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined environmental concern and involvement of individuals in two voluntary associations, the International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA) and National Off-Highway Vehicle Conservation Council, Inc. (NOHVCC). Environmental concerns were assessed using the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP). When compared, results from 10 of 12…

  1. 28 CFR 549.41 - Voluntary admission and psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... medication. 549.41 Section 549.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.41 Voluntary admission and psychotropic medication. (a) A sentenced inmate may be...

  2. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from the appar...

  3. Selection and inhibition mechanisms for human voluntary action decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Hughes, Laura E; Rowe, James B

    2012-10-15

    One can choose between action alternatives that have no apparent difference in their outcomes. Such voluntary action decisions are associated with widespread frontal-parietal activation, and a tendency to inhibit the repetition of a previous action. However, the mechanism of initiating voluntary actions and the functions of different brain regions during this process remains largely unknown. Here, we combine computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the selection and inhibition mechanisms that mediate trial-to-trial voluntary action decisions. We fitted an optimized accumulator model to behavioral responses in a finger-tapping task in which participants were instructed to make chosen actions or specified actions. Model parameters derived from each individual were then applied to estimate the expected accumulated metabolic activity (EAA) engaged in every single trial. The EAA was associated with blood oxygenation level-dependent responses in a decision work that was maximal in the supplementary motor area and the caudal anterior cingulate cortex, consistent with a competitive accumulation-to-threshold mechanism for action decision by these regions. Furthermore, specific inhibition of the previous action's accumulator was related to the suppression of response repetition. This action-specific inhibition correlated with the activity of the right inferior frontal gyrus, when the option to repeat existed. Our findings suggest that human voluntary action decisions are mediated by complementary processes of intentional selection and inhibition.

  4. 31 CFR 800.402 - Contents of voluntary notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contents of voluntary notice. 800.402 Section 800.402 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE...; and (D) Employer identification number or other domestic tax or corporate identification number. (d...

  5. Validating the Psychological Climate Scale in Voluntary Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Wendy; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Auerbach, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Organizational climate has emerged as an important factor in understanding and addressing the complexities of providing services in child welfare. This research examines the psychometric properties of each of the dimensions of Parker and colleagues' Psychological Climate Survey in a sample of voluntary child welfare workers. Methods:…

  6. Voluntary activation of trapezius measured with twitch interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of measuring voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle with twitch interpolation. Subjects (n=8) lifted the right shoulder or both shoulders against fixed force transducers. Stimulation of the accessory nerve in the neck was used to evoke maximal twitche...

  7. Decoding of the spike timing of primary afferents during voluntary arm movements in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eUmeda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of encoding forelimb kinematics in the activity of peripheral afferents is essential for determining the optimal parameters of afferent stimulation to transmit proprioceptive signals in neuroprosthetics. To investigate whether the spike timing of dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons could be estimated from the forelimb kinematics of behaving monkeys, we implanted two multi-electrode arrays chronically in the DRGs at the level of the cervical segments in two monkeys. Neuronal activity during voluntary reach-to-grasp movements were recorded simultaneously with the trajectories of hand/arm movements, which were tracked in three-dimensional space using a motion capture system. Sixteen and 13 neurons, including muscle spindles, skin receptors, and tendon organ afferents, were recorded in the two monkeys, respectively. We were able to reconstruct forelimb joint kinematics from the temporal firing pattern of a subset of DRG neurons using sparse linear regression (SLiR analysis, suggesting that DRG neuronal ensembles encoded information about joint kinematics. Furthermore, we estimated the spike timing of the DRG neuronal ensembles from joint kinematics using an integrate-and-fire model (IF incorporating the SLiR algorithm. The temporal change of firing frequency of a subpopulation of neurons was reconstructed precisely from forelimb kinematics using the SLiR. The spike timing of the DRG neurons was calculated using an IF model, in which a spike occurs if the cumulative sum of the firing frequency value exceeded a constant threshold. The estimated firing pattern of the DRG neuronal ensembles encoded forelimb joint angles and velocities as precisely as the originally recorded neuronal activity. These results suggest that the simple model can be used to generate an accurate estimate of the spike timing of DRG neuronal ensembles from forelimb joint kinematics, and is useful for designing a proprioceptive decoder in a brain machine

  8. Decoding of the spike timing of primary afferents during voluntary arm movements in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Hidenori; Sato, Masa-Aki; Kawato, Mitsuo; Isa, Tadashi; Nishimura, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of encoding forelimb kinematics in the activity of peripheral afferents is essential for developing a somatosensory neuroprosthesis. To investigate whether the spike timing of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons could be estimated from the forelimb kinematics of behaving monkeys, we implanted two multi-electrode arrays chronically in the DRGs at the level of the cervical segments in two monkeys. Neuronal activity during voluntary reach-to-grasp movements were recorded simultaneously with the trajectories of hand/arm movements, which were tracked in three-dimensional space using a motion capture system. Sixteen and 13 neurons, including muscle spindles, skin receptors, and tendon organ afferents, were recorded in the two monkeys, respectively. We were able to reconstruct forelimb joint kinematics from the temporal firing pattern of a subset of DRG neurons using sparse linear regression (SLiR) analysis, suggesting that DRG neuronal ensembles encoded information about joint kinematics. Furthermore, we estimated the spike timing of the DRG neuronal ensembles from joint kinematics using an integrate-and-fire model (IF) incorporating the SLiR algorithm. The temporal change of firing frequency of a subpopulation of neurons was reconstructed precisely from forelimb kinematics using the SLiR. The estimated firing pattern of the DRG neuronal ensembles encoded forelimb joint angles and velocities as precisely as the originally recorded neuronal activity. These results suggest that a simple model can be used to generate an accurate estimate of the spike timing of DRG neuronal ensembles from forelimb joint kinematics, and is useful for designing a proprioceptive decoder in a brain machine interface.

  9. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...... in various parts of the viral life cyclus. Most of the receptors encoded by human pathogenic virus are still orphan receptors, i.e. the endogenous ligand is unknown. In the few cases where it has been possible to characterize these receptors pharmacologically, they have been found to bind a broad spectrum...... expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....

  10. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan eOstojic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity. Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain.

  11. 7 CFR 4290.585 - Voluntary decrease in RBIC's Regulatory Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in RBIC's Regulatory Capital. 4290... INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Managing the Operations of a RBIC Voluntary Decrease in Regulatory Capital § 4290.585 Voluntary decrease in RBIC's Regulatory Capital. You must obtain the Secretary's prior...

  12. 13 CFR 107.585 - Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in Licensee's... SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Managing the Operations of a Licensee Voluntary Decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital § 107.585 Voluntary decrease in Licensee's Regulatory Capital. You must obtain...

  13. 5 CFR 630.1014 - Movement between voluntary leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave...

  14. 5 CFR 630.1016 - Termination of a voluntary leave bank program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of a voluntary leave bank program. 630.1016 Section 630.1016 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1016 Termination of a voluntary leave...

  15. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  16. 78 FR 70915 - Notice of December 11 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Notice of December 11 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid... Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA). Date: Wednesday, December 11, 2013. Time: 2:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m... on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE 6116-01-P...

  17. 78 FR 30267 - Notice of June 12 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of June 12 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United States Agency... Committee Act, notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA... Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  18. 78 FR 3878 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid AGENCY... renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid for a two-year period beginning January 10... Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  19. 75 FR 81205 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... DEVELOPMENT Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid AGENCY: United States Agency for... Voluntary Foreign Aid for a two-year period beginning January 15, 2011 is necessary and in the public... Hubbard, Executive Director, Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency...

  20. FLOSS strategies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabaso, NM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mabaso_2006_D.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 FLOSS Strategies Presented... at Govtech Nhlanhla Mabaso Open Source Centre Manager November 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za FLOSS in support of strategic Objectives • Competitiveness Exporting knowledge & skills • Investment Attracting meaningful...

  1. Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunin, Frédérique; Schmedake, Thomas A.; Link, Jamie R.; Li, Yang Yang; Koh, Jennifer; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Sailor, Michael J.

    2002-09-01

    Strategies to encode or label small particles or beads for use in high-throughput screening and bioassay applications focus on either spatially differentiated, on-chip arrays or random distributions of encoded beads. Attempts to encode large numbers of polymeric, metallic or glass beads in random arrays or in fluid suspension have used a variety of entities to provide coded elements (bits)-fluorescent molecules, molecules with specific vibrational signatures, quantum dots, or discrete metallic layers. Here we report a method for optically encoding micrometre-sized nanostructured particles of porous silicon. We generate multilayered porous films in crystalline silicon using a periodic electrochemical etch. This results in photonic crystals with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features, whose wavelengths are determined by the etching parameters. Millions of possible codes can be prepared this way. Micrometre-sized particles are then produced by ultrasonic fracture, mechanical grinding or by lithographic means. A simple antibody-based bioassay using fluorescently tagged proteins demonstrates the encoding strategy in biologically relevant media.

  2. Multicore-based 3D-DWT video encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano, Vicente; López-Granado, Otoniel; Malumbres, Manuel P.; Migallón, Hector

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional wavelet transform (3D-DWT) encoders are good candidates for applications like professional video editing, video surveillance, multi-spectral satellite imaging, etc. where a frame must be reconstructed as quickly as possible. In this paper, we present a new 3D-DWT video encoder based on a fast run-length coding engine. Furthermore, we present several multicore optimizations to speed-up the 3D-DWT computation. An exhaustive evaluation of the proposed encoder (3D-GOP-RL) has been performed, and we have compared the evaluation results with other video encoders in terms of rate/distortion (R/D), coding/decoding delay, and memory consumption. Results show that the proposed encoder obtains good R/D results for high-resolution video sequences with nearly in-place computation using only the memory needed to store a group of pictures. After applying the multicore optimization strategies over the 3D DWT, the proposed encoder is able to compress a full high-definition video sequence in real-time.

  3. 20 years of DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Luca; Leimbacher, Markus; Wichert, Moreno; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2011-12-28

    The identification of specific binding molecules is a central problem in chemistry, biology and medicine. Therefore, technologies, which facilitate ligand discovery, may substantially contribute to a better understanding of biological processes and to drug discovery. DNA-encoded chemical libraries represent a new inexpensive tool for the fast and efficient identification of ligands to target proteins of choice. Such libraries consist of collections of organic molecules, covalently linked to a unique DNA tag serving as an amplifiable identification bar code. DNA-encoding enables the in vitro selection of ligands by affinity capture at sub-picomolar concentrations on virtually any target protein of interest, in analogy to established selection methodologies like antibody phage display. Multiple strategies have been investigated by several academic and industrial laboratories for the construction of DNA-encoded chemical libraries comprising up to millions of DNA-encoded compounds. The implementation of next generation high-throughput sequencing enabled the rapid identification of binding molecules from DNA-encoded libraries of unprecedented size. This article reviews the development of DNA-encoded library technology and its evolution into a novel drug discovery tool, commenting on challenges, perspectives and opportunities for the different experimental approaches.

  4. The Effect of Six Weeks-Voluntary Wheel Running on Brain Amyloid Beta (1-42 Levels of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Fallah-Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyloid Beta (1-42 is derived from amyloid precursor protein and plays a critical role in AD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running on brain Amyloid beta (1-42 in the diabetic rats induced with alloxan. Materials and Methods: 28 male rats weight 185±1 were assigned randomly to 4 groups (N=7: normal control (C, training (T, control-diabetic (CD and diabetic-training (DT. Diabetes was induced with injecting Alloxan (120 mg/kg dissolved in saline intraperitoneal. Results: 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running decreased the cortex Aβ1-42 in T and DT groups. Aβ1-42 levels significantly decreased in the T and DT in compare with C and CD (p<0.001, respectively. Also Aβ1-42 levels significantly increased in the CD in compare with C (p<0.001.Conclusion: voluntary exercise had positive effects on decreasing of Aβ1-42 levels during 6 weeks. Therefore it can be recommended as therapeutic strategy for diabetes.

  5. Voluntary return programmes in Bolivia and Spain in the context of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sònia Parella Rubio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 onwards, the economic crisis experienced by countries such as Spain marked a turning point in migratory flows. As a result, faced with the serious reality of unemployment and the precariousness of the Spanish labour market, the option of return has become the last resort for some immigrants, and an attractive strategy for governments (of both countries of origin and destination, which attempt to manage return using special programmes. From this point of view, the aim of this paper is to examine the assisted voluntary return programmes in Spain and Bolivia and their suitability to the dynamics of return, beginning with an exhaustive review of the programmes and the perceptions on them expressed by Bolivian immigrants as part of the survey «Circulation and Return», carried out within the framework of the RETTRANS project.

  6. Adoption of voluntary water-pollution reduction technologies and water quality perception among Danish farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of voluntary nutrient reduction technologies among Danish farmers is relatively low despite the introduction of a number of incentives to do so. With data from 267 farmers, this study analyzes the level of adoption of these technologies and the farmers’ perception of water quality......, existing regulatory measures and their implementation strategies. In general, farmers perceive the water quality to be above average and indicate a strong opposition to penalties for non-compliance. Results of two ordered probit models on adoption and perception show a significant importance of farm...... and soil types, farm size and slopes and information availability. These findings point to the need for increased information dissemination on water quality requirements both at national and regional levels and technical and institutional support for the existing and future incentives....

  7. Geometric uncertainties in voluntary deep inspiration breath hold radiotherapy for locally advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josipovic, Mirjana; Persson, Gitte Bjørnsen Fredberg; Dueck, Jenny;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) increases lung volume and can potentially reduce treatment-related toxicity in locally advanced lung cancer. We estimated geometric uncertainties in visually guided voluntary DIBH and derived the appropriate treatment margins for different...... image-guidance strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventeen patients were included prospectively. An optical marker-based respiratory monitoring with visual guidance enabled comfortable DIBHs, adjusted to each patient's performance. All patients had three consecutive DIBH CTs at each of the treatment...... fractions 2, 16 and 31. DIBH reproducibility was evaluated as inter- and intra-fractional variations in lung volume, tumour position and differential motion between primary tumour and mediastinal lymph nodes. RESULTS: Lung volume increased by median 60% in DIBH. Inter- and intra-fractional lung volume...

  8. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2015 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The voluntary green power market refers to the sale and procurement of renewable energy for voluntary purposes by residential and commercial customers. This report reviews seven green power procurement mechanisms: utility green pricing programs, utility green tariffs, voluntary unbundled renewable energy certificates, competitive supplier green power, community choice aggregations, voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs), and community solar. This report details the status of trends of those seven green power procurement mechanisms in 2015. Three trends -- significant growth of the voluntary PPA project pipeline, innovative green power mechanisms developed by utilities, and geographic expansion of green power mechanisms -- suggest that the green power market is likely to continue to grow in coming years.

  9. Benefits of voluntary industry standards: The triumph of experience over regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Leary, J.T. [National Mining Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Voluntary international standards for mining machinery may gradually replace many national regulations. The days of establishing voluntary standards nation by nation, inhibiting the important flow of international trade, could be numbered. This does not mean that nations will cease domestic regulatory activities within their boundaries, but rulemaking will pay considerable attention to voluntary international standards and will likely strive for compatibility with voluntary international standards. International standards setting bodies are developing standards for machine safety. When these standards are complete and adopted, some nations will require machinery to comport with them. International commerce in products that do not conform to these voluntary international standards may be discouraged.

  10. Mechanomyographic responses during voluntary ramp contractions of the human first dorsal interosseous muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akataki, Kumi; Mita, Katsumi; Watakabe, Makoto; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanomyogram (MMG) and force relationship of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle as well as the biceps brachii (BB) muscle during voluntary isometric ramp contractions, and to elucidate the MMG responses resulting from the intrinsic motor unit (MU) activation strategy of FDI muscle with reference to the MMG of BB muscle. The subjects were asked to exert ramp contractions of FDI and BB muscle from 5% to 70% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at a constant rate of 10% MVC/s. In FDI muscle, the root-mean-squared amplitude (RMS) of the MMG decreased slowly with force up to 21%, and then a progressive increase was followed by a relatively rapid decrease beyond 41% MVC. The RMS/%MVC relationship in BB muscle consisted of an initial slow increase followed by a rapid increase from 23% MVC and a progressive decrease beyond 61% MVC. With respect to the mean power frequency (MPF), FDI muscle demonstrated no obvious inflection point in the MPF/%MVC relationship compared with that in BB muscle. Namely, the MPF of FDI muscle increased linearly through the force levels exerted. In contrast to FDI muscle, the MPF/%MVC relationship in BB muscle was decomposed into four specific regions: (1) a relative rapidly increase (62% MVC). The different MMG responses between FDI and BB muscles are considered to reflect the fact that the MU activation strategy varies among different muscles in relation to their morphology and histochemical type. Namely, the rate coding of the MUs plays a more prominent role in force production in relatively small FDI muscle than does MU recruitment compared with their respective roles in the relatively large BB muscle.

  11. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  12. Current concerns in involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus voluntary...... (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered current concerns measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (PCI; Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of current concern related...... contents. However, memories related to current concerns were rated as more central to the person's identity, life story and expectations for the future than non-concern related memories, irrespective of mode of recall. Depression and PTSD symptoms correlated positively with the proportion of current...

  13. Serious gaming and voluntary laparoscopic skills training: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaasdonk, E G G; Dankelman, J; Schijven, M P; Lange, J F; Wentink, M; Stassen, L P S

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the task performance of three exercises and was presented to all the participants through an online database on the Internet. The resident with the best score would win a lap-top computer. During three months, 31 individuals from seven hospitals participated (22 surgical residents, 3 surgeons and six interns). A total of 777 scores were logged in the database. In order to out-perform others some participants scheduled themselves voluntarily for additional training. More attempts correlated with higher scores. The serious gaming concept may enhance voluntary skills training. Online data capturing could facilitate monitoring of skills progression in surgical trainees and enhance (VR) simulator validation.

  14. Voluntary Sleep Choice and Its Effects on Bayesian Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Drummond, Sean P A; Dyche, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether voluntary sleep restriction at commonly experienced levels impacts decision making in a Bayesian choice task. Participants recruited were largely traditional age college students from a regional state university (n = 100) and a federal military academy (n = 99; n = 56 and 43, respectively, used in final analysis). Sleep was measured by actigraphy over a one-week period, followed by performance of a decision task. The task involved two sources of information, base rate odds and sample evidence, with subjects asked to make a probability judgment. Results found that subjects with nightly sleep sleep deprived = SD), relative to those with > 7 hr, placed less decision weight on new evidence, relative to base rate information, in making difficult choices. This result is strongest among female subjects. For easier choices, voluntary SD did not affect relative decision weights placed on the two sources of available information.

  15. Voluntary language switching in English-Spanish bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Although bilingual children frequently switch between languages, the psycholinguistic mechanisms underlying the emerging ability to control language choice are unknown. We examined the mechanisms of voluntary language switching in English-Spanish bilingual children during a picture-naming task under two conditions: 1) single-language naming in English and in Spanish; 2) either-language naming, when the children could use whichever language they wanted. The mechanism of inhibitory control was examined by analyzing local switching costs and global mixing costs. The mechanism of lexical accessibility was examined by analyzing the properties of the items children chose to name in their non-dominant language. The children exhibited significant switching costs across both languages and asymmetrical mixing costs; they also switched into their non-dominant language most frequently on highly accessible items. These findings suggest that both lexical accessibility and inhibition contribute to language choice during voluntary language switching in children. PMID:26889376

  16. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perisic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant, a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease

  17. Voluntary childlessness in marriage and family textbooks, 1950-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancey, L; Dumais, S A

    2009-04-01

    We perform a content analysis of twenty marriage and family textbooks published between 1950 and 2000 to study how the voluntarily childless are presented in undergraduate courses. Throughout the time period studied, independence, pursuit of a career, and romance were prominent themes in the representation of voluntary childlessness. Other themes emerged specific to each decade - the 1950s portrayed parenthood as a challenge, while the 1990s concentrated on alleviating negative stereotypes of the voluntarily childless.

  18. MYOELECTRIC ALTERATIONS AFTER VOLUNTARY INDUCED HIGH - AND LOW - FREQUENCY FATIGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Strojnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find whether voluntary induced high- and low-frequency peripheral fatigue exhibit specific alteration in surface EMG signal (SEMG during evoked and maximum voluntary contractions. Ten male students of physical education performed 60 s long stretch-shortening cycle (SSC exercise with maximal intensity and 30 s long concentric (CON exercise with maximal intensity. To verify voluntary induced peripheral fatigue, knee torques during low- (T20 and high-frequency electrical stimulation (T100 of relaxed vastus lateralis muscle (VL were obtained. Contractile properties of the VL were measured with passive twitch and maximal voluntary knee extension test (MVC. Changes in M-waves and SEMG during MVC test were used to evaluate the differences in myoelectrical signals. T100/T20 ratio decreased by 10.9 ± 8.4 % (p < 0.01 after the SSC exercise and increased by 35.9 ± 17.5 % (p < 0.001 after the CON exercise. Significant SEMG changes were observed only after the CON exercise where peak to peak time of the M-waves increased by 9.2 ± 13.3 % (p < 0.06, SEMG amplitude during MVC increased by 32.9 ± 21.6 % (p < 0.001 and SEMG power spectrum median frequency decreased by 11.0 ± 10.5 % (p < 0.05. It is concluded that high frequency fatigue wasn't reflected in SEMG, however the SEMG changes after the CON seemed to reflect metabolic changes due to acidosis

  19. [Mandatory or voluntary vaccinations? Juridical and medico-legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molendini, L O; Zanetti, A; Buzzi, F

    2003-01-01

    The Italian juridical and legislative aspects of vaccination based on a compulsory system are presented considering the medico-legal questions. The prospective of a voluntary system, as anticipated by many normatives and other official documents, is examined. The experience of some local health authorities on cases of in observance of the vaccinal obligation are detailed Finally professional risks for vaccinal operators are examined and the need of specific guidelines for parents' consent to compulsory vaccination during infancy is prospected.

  20. Developing voluntary standards for district nurse education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Mary

    2016-05-01

    This article charts the development of a project, funded by the Queen's Nursing Institute and Queen's Nursing Institute Scotland, to develop voluntary standards that reflect the contemporary and future practice of district nurses. The standards are designed to enhance, but not replace, the Nursing and Midwifery Council standards for district nurse specialist practice. The project encompassed the four UK countries and gathered data from a wide range of sources to inform the new standards that were launched in September 2015.

  1. Conditional vs. Voluntary Contribution Mechanism – An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reischmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Conditional Contribution Mechanism for public good provision gives all agents the possibility to condition their contribution on the total level of contribution provided by all agents. In this experimental study the mechanism's performance is compared to the performance of the Voluntary Contribution Mechanism. In an environment with binary contribution and linear valuations subjects play the mechanisms in a repeated setting. The mechanisms are compared in one case of complete informati...

  2. Social contact networks and disease eradicability under voluntary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Ana; Bauch, Chris T

    2009-02-01

    Certain theories suggest that it should be difficult or impossible to eradicate a vaccine-preventable disease under voluntary vaccination: Herd immunity implies that the individual incentive to vaccinate disappears at high coverage levels. Historically, there have been examples of declining coverage for vaccines, such as MMR vaccine and whole-cell pertussis vaccine, that are consistent with this theory. On the other hand, smallpox was globally eradicated by 1980 despite voluntary vaccination policies in many jurisdictions. Previous modeling studies of the interplay between disease dynamics and individual vaccinating behavior have assumed that infection is transmitted in a homogeneously mixing population. By comparison, here we simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable SEIR infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether to vaccinate based on infection risks from neighbors, and based on vaccine risks. When neighborhood size is small, rational vaccinating behavior results in rapid containment of the infection through voluntary ring vaccination. As neighborhood size increases (while the average force of infection is held constant), a threshold is reached beyond which the infection can break through partially vaccinated rings, percolating through the whole population and resulting in considerable epidemic final sizes and a large number vaccinated. The former outcome represents convergence between individually and socially optimal outcomes, whereas the latter represents their divergence, as observed in most models of individual vaccinating behavior that assume homogeneous mixing. Similar effects are observed in an extended model using smallpox-specific natural history and transmissibility assumptions. This work illustrates the significant qualitative differences between behavior-infection dynamics in discrete contact-structured populations versus continuous unstructured populations. This work also shows how disease eradicability in

  3. Combined application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary muscular contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Electromyostimulation (EMS) and voluntary muscle contraction (VC) constitute different modes of muscle activation and induce different acute physiological effects on the neuromuscular system. Long-term application of each mode of muscle activation can produce different muscle adaptations. It seems theoretically possible to completely or partially cumulate the muscle adaptations induced by each mode of muscle activation applied separately. This work consisted of examining the literature concerning the muscle adaptations induced by long-term application of the combined technique (CT) [i.e. EMS is combined with VC - non-simultaneously] compared with VC and/or EMS alone in healthy subjects and/or athletes and in post-operative knee-injured subjects. In general, CT induced greater muscular adaptations than VC whether in sports training or rehabilitation. This efficiency would be due to the fact that CT can facilitate cumulative effects of training completely or partially induced by VC and EMS practiced alone. CT also provides a greater improvement of the performance of complex dynamic movements than VC. However, EMS cannot improve coordination between different agonistic and antagonistic muscles and thus does not facilitate learning the specific coordination of complex movements. Hence, EMS should be combined with specific sport training to generate neuromuscular adaptations, but also allow the adjustment of motor control during a voluntary movement. Likewise, in a therapeutic context, CT was particularly efficient to accelerate recovery of muscle contractility during a rehabilitation programme. Strength loss and atrophy inherent in a traumatism and/or a surgical operation would be more efficiently compensated with CT than with VC. Furthermore, CT also restored more functional abilities than VC. Finally, in a rehabilitation context, EMS is complementary to voluntary exercise because in the early phase of rehabilitation it elicits a strength increase, which is necessary

  4. High-speed camera characterization of voluntary eye blinking kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyung-Ah; Shipley, Rebecca J; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Ezra, Daniel G; Rose, Geoff; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2013-08-01

    Blinking is vital to maintain the integrity of the ocular surface and its characteristics such as blink duration and speed can vary significantly, depending on the health of the eyes. The blink is so rapid that special techniques are required to characterize it. In this study, a high-speed camera was used to record and characterize voluntary blinking. The blinking motion of 25 healthy volunteers was recorded at 600 frames per second. Master curves for the palpebral aperture and blinking speed were constructed using palpebral aperture versus time data taken from the high-speed camera recordings, which show that one blink can be divided into four phases; closing, closed, early opening and late opening. Analysis of data from the high-speed camera images was used to calculate the palpebral aperture, peak blinking speed, average blinking speed and duration of voluntary blinking and compare it with data generated by other methods previously used to evaluate voluntary blinking. The advantages of the high-speed camera method over the others are discussed, thereby supporting the high potential usefulness of the method in clinical research.

  5. Voluntary Saccadic Eye Movements Ride the Attentional Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze

    2016-10-01

    Visual perception seems continuous, but recent evidence suggests that the underlying perceptual mechanisms are in fact periodic-particularly visual attention. Because visual attention is closely linked to the preparation of saccadic eye movements, the question arises how periodic attentional processes interact with the preparation and execution of voluntary saccades. In two experiments, human observers made voluntary saccades between two placeholders, monitoring each one for the presentation of a threshold-level target. Detection performance was evaluated as a function of latency with respect to saccade landing. The time course of detection performance revealed oscillations at around 4 Hz both before the saccade at the saccade origin and after the saccade at the saccade destination. Furthermore, oscillations before and after the saccade were in phase, meaning that the saccade did not disrupt or reset the ongoing attentional rhythm. Instead, it seems that voluntary saccades are executed as part of an ongoing attentional rhythm, with the eyes in flight during the troughs of the attentional wave. This finding for the first time demonstrates that periodic attentional mechanisms affect not only perception but also overt motor behavior.

  6. Preliminary study: voluntary food intake in dogs during tryptophan supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, Víctor; González-Ortiz, Gemma; Villaverde, Cecilia; Hervera, Marta; Mariotti, Valentina Maria; Manteca, Xavier; Baucells, María Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Tryptophan, a precursor of important molecules such as serotonin, melatonin and niacin, is an essential amino acid for dogs. In pigs, tryptophan supplementation has been shown to induce a significant increase in food intake. The aim of the present study was to assess whether long-term tryptophan supplementation increases voluntary food intake in dogs and to observe whether this was accompanied by a change in serum ghrelin. In the present study, sixteen adult Beagle dogs were used, with four male and four female dogs fed diets supplemented with tryptophan (1 g/dog per d) during 81 d (Trp) and four male and four female dogs that were not supplemented (control). A voluntary food intake test was performed during 5 d following the supplementation period. The Trp group tended to show a higher food intake during the voluntary food intake test (58.0 (SE 5.37) v. 77.5 (SE 3.65) g/kg metabolic weight per d; P = 0.074). No significant differences were found for serum ghrelin concentrations.

  7. Negative emotional outcomes attenuate sense of agency over voluntary actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Michiko; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-21

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling that one's voluntary actions produce external sensory events [1, 2]. Several psychological theories hypothesized links between SoA and affective evaluation [3-6]. For example, people tend to attribute positive outcomes to their own actions, perhaps reflecting high-level narrative processes that enhance self-esteem [3]. Here we provide the first evidence that such emotional modulations also involve changes in the low-level sensorimotor basis of agency. The intentional binding paradigm [1] was used to quantify the subjective temporal compression between a voluntary action and its sensory consequences, providing an implicit measure of SoA. Emotional valence of action outcomes was manipulated by following participants' key-press actions with negative or positive emotional vocalizations [7], or neutral sounds. We found that intentional binding was reduced for negative compared to positive or neutral outcomes. Discriminant analyses identified a change in time perception of both actions and their negative outcomes, demonstrating that the experience of action itself is subject to affective modulation. A small binding benefit was also found for positive action outcomes. Emotional modulation of SoA may contribute to regulating social behavior. Correctly tracking the valenced effects of one's voluntary actions on other people could underlie successful social interactions.

  8. Modulation in voluntary neural drive in relation to muscle soreness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringard, A.; Puchaux, K.; Noakes, T. D.; Perrey, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether (1) spinal modulation would change after non-exhausting eccentric exercise of the plantar flexor muscles that produced muscle soreness and (2) central modulation of the motor command would be linked to the development of muscle soreness. Ten healthy subjects volunteered to perform a single bout of backward downhill walking exercise (duration 30 min, velocity 1 ms−1, negative grade −25%, load 12% of body weight). Neuromuscular test sessions [H-reflex, M-wave, maximal voluntary torque (MVT)] were performed before, immediately after, as well as 1–3 days after the exercise bout. Immediately after exercise there was a −15% decrease in MVT of the plantar flexors partly attributable to an alteration in contractile properties (−23% in electrically evoked mechanical twitch). However, MVT failed to recover before the third day whereas the contractile properties had significantly recovered within the first day. This delayed recovery of MVT was likely related to a decrement in voluntary muscle drive. The decrease in voluntary activation occurred in the absence of any variation in spinal modulation estimated from the H-reflex. Our findings suggest the development of a supraspinal modulation perhaps linked to the presence of muscle soreness. PMID:17978834

  9. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-12-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

  10. Sodium Reduction in Processed Foods in Brazil: Analysis of Food Categories and Voluntary Targets from 2011 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. F. Nilson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person is over twice the international recommendations, and 70–90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011–2017 and there was a significant 8–34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.

  11. Sodium Reduction in Processed Foods in Brazil: Analysis of Food Categories and Voluntary Targets from 2011 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Eduardo A F; Spaniol, Ana M; Gonçalves, Vivian S S; Moura, Iracema; Silva, Sara A; L'Abbé, Mary; Jaime, Patricia C

    2017-07-12

    Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70-90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011-2017) and there was a significant 8-34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.

  12. Null space imaging: nonlinear magnetic encoding fields designed complementary to receiver coil sensitivities for improved acceleration in parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leo K; Stockmann, Jason P; Galiana, Gigi; Constable, R Todd

    2012-10-01

    To increase image acquisition efficiency, we develop alternative gradient encoding strategies designed to provide spatial encoding complementary to the spatial encoding provided by the multiple receiver coil elements in parallel image acquisitions. Intuitively, complementary encoding is achieved when the magnetic field encoding gradients are designed to encode spatial information where receiver spatial encoding is ambiguous, for example, along sensitivity isocontours. Specifically, the method generates a basis set for the null space of the coil sensitivities with the singular value decomposition and calculates encoding fields from the null space vectors. A set of nonlinear gradients is used as projection imaging readout magnetic fields, replacing the conventional linear readout field and phase encoding. Multiple encoding fields are used as projections to capture the null space information, hence the term null space imaging. The method is compared to conventional Cartesian SENSitivity Encoding as evaluated by mean squared error and robustness to noise. Strategies for developments in the area of nonlinear encoding schemes are discussed. The null space imaging approach yields a parallel imaging method that provides high acceleration factors with a limited number of receiver coil array elements through increased time efficiency in spatial encoding.

  13. Geometric Hyperplanes: Desargues Encodes Doily

    CERN Document Server

    Saniga, Metod

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the generalized quadrangle of order two is fully encoded in the properties of the Desargues configuration. A point of the quadrangle is represented by a geometric hyperplane of the Desargues configuration and its line by a set of three hyperplanes such that one of them is the complement of the symmetric difference of the remaining two and they all share a pair of non-collinear points.

  14. Genetically encoded norbornene directs site-specific cellular protein labelling via a rapid bioorthogonal reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Kathrin; Davis, Lloyd; Torres-Kolbus, Jessica; Chou, Chungjung; Deiters, Alexander; Chin, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    The site-specific incorporation of bioorthogonal groups via genetic code expansion provides a powerful general strategy for site-specifically labelling proteins with any probe. However, the slow reactivity of the bioorthogonal functional groups that can be encoded genetically limits the utility of this strategy. We demonstrate the genetic encoding of a norbornene amino acid using the pyrrolysyl tRNA synthetase/tRNACUA pair in Escherichia coli and mammalian cells. We developed a series of tetr...

  15. Repeatability of maximal voluntary force and of surface EMG variables during voluntary isometric contraction of quadriceps muscles in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainoldi, A; Bullock-Saxton, J E; Cavarretta, F; Hogan, N

    2001-12-01

    The repeatability of initial values and rate of change of EMG signal mean spectral frequency (MNF), average rectified values (ARV), muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was investigated in the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of both legs of nine healthy male subjects during voluntary, isometric contractions sustained for 50 s at 50% MVC. The values of MVC were recorded for both legs three times on each day and for three subsequent days, while the EMG signals have been recorded twice a day for three subsequent days. The degree of repeatability was investigated using the Fisher test based upon the ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA), the Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Data collected showed a high level of repeatability of MVC measurement (normalized SEM from 1.1% to 6.4% of the mean). MNF and ARV initial values also showed a high level of repeatability (ICC>70% for all muscles and legs except right VMO). At 50% MVC level no relevant pattern of fatigue was observed for the VMO and VL muscles, suggesting that other portions of the quadriceps might have contributed to the generated effort. These observations seem to suggest that in the investigation of muscles belonging to a multi-muscular group at submaximal level, the more selective electrically elicited contractions should be preferred to voluntary contractions.

  16. Prepared for the future? Evaluating the costs and benefits of voluntary work for natural disaster management under a changing climate - data on recent flood events, stakeholder needs and policy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Brucker, Anja; Seebauer, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary emergency and relief services, such as fire brigades or rescue organisations, form the backbone of disaster management in most of European countries. In Austria, disaster management relies on the cooperation between governmental and non-governmental institutions: When a disaster occurs, the volunteer organizations act as auxiliaries to the responsible disaster management authority. The assessment of costs and benefits of these emergency services is a crucial component of risk and disaster management strategies, since public means are getting scarcer and these costs can reach critical levels for low-income municipalities. As extreme events and emergency operations are likely to increase due to climate change, the efficient allocation of public budgets for risk and disaster management becomes more important. Hence, both, the costs and the benefits must be known, but voluntary and professional work is hardly documented and assessed comprehensively. Whereas the costs of emergency services can be calculated using market values and an analysis of public and institutional budgets, the benefits of voluntary efforts cannot be assessed easily. We present empirical data on costs of voluntary and professional emergency services during the floods of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria and Germany on different scales, obtained from public authorities, fire brigades and by means of public surveys. From these results, we derive a calculation framework and data requirements for assessing costs of emergency services. To consider the different stakeholders needs of administration, emergency institutions and voluntary members, we carried out workshops, first to identify future challenges in voluntary work for disaster management instigated by climate change and second, to develop approaches how the voluntary system can be uphold when facing increasing adverse impacts of natural hazards. The empirical results as well as the workshop outcome shall be translated into policy

  17. Screening and identification of virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjee, Sumona; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Mukherjee, Sunil K

    2008-01-01

    RNA silencing, including RNA interference, is a novel method of gene regulation and one of the potent host-defense mechanisms against the viruses. In the course of evolution, the viruses have encoded proteins with the potential to suppress the host RNA silencing mechanism as a counterdefense strategy. The virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressors (RSSs) can serve as important biological tools to dissect the detailed RNA silencing pathways and also to evolve the antiviral strategies. Screening and identification of the RSSs are indeed of utmost significance in the field of plant biotechnology. We describe two Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) reporter-based plant assay systems that rely on two different principles, namely reversal of silencing and enhancement of rolling circle replication (RCR) of geminiviral replicon. These proof-of-concept examples and assay systems could be used to screen various plant, animal, and insect viral ORFs for identification of the RSS activities.

  18. Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, V E; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2014-03-01

    The success of an automatic milking system is generally reliant upon the voluntary movement of cows around the farm system and the correct management of incentives to achieve a targeted level of cow traffic. The present study investigated the effect of providing a small feed reward as an incentive at milking on the premilking voluntary waiting time of cows milked on a prototype robotic rotary in an Australian pasture-based dairy. The 2 treatments were "feed on" (concentrate offered at milking) and "feed off" (no concentrate offered at milking), with data from a single herd of 168 lactating dairy cows collected over 16d. A survival analysis with time-varying covariates was used to model the voluntary waiting times of cows in the premilking yard. The median time cows spent waiting before milking was 129 min and after 4h just over 70% of the cows had exited the yard (volunteered for milking). When feed was provided, cows were faster to exit the premilking yard (shorter time spent waiting) and waited just over half the time (0.53×) they did during the "feed off" treatment. Heifers exited the premilking yard more rapidly than cows in later lactations, with older cows spending at least 1.40 times longer in the yard before milking. Average daily milk yield along with stage of lactation and fetching cows from the paddock also influenced cow traffic in the premilking yard. As the number of cows in the premilking yard increased, voluntary waiting time also increased. At a queue length of 20 or more cows, the negative effect on waiting time of an additional cow entering the yard was less than that when fewer than 20 cows were present. Results demonstrated that feeding a small reward on the robotic rotary platform can reduce the time cows spend in the premilking yard, leading to a potential reduction in the risk of congestion at the dairy, particularly during times of high demand. Minimizing congestion will likely benefit multiple aspects of the voluntary milking operation

  19. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  20. A neural population model incorporating dopaminergic neurotransmission during complex voluntary behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Fürtinger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing brain activity during complex voluntary motor behaviors that require the recruitment of multiple neural sites is a field of active research. Our current knowledge is primarily based on human brain imaging studies that have clear limitations in terms of temporal and spatial resolution. We developed a physiologically informed non-linear multi-compartment stochastic neural model to simulate functional brain activity coupled with neurotransmitter release during complex voluntary behavior, such as speech production. Due to its state-dependent modulation of neural firing, dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a key role in the organization of functional brain circuits controlling speech and language and thus has been incorporated in our neural population model. A rigorous mathematical proof establishing existence and uniqueness of solutions to the proposed model as well as a computationally efficient strategy to numerically approximate these solutions are presented. Simulated brain activity during the resting state and sentence production was analyzed using functional network connectivity, and graph theoretical techniques were employed to highlight differences between the two conditions. We demonstrate that our model successfully reproduces characteristic changes seen in empirical data between the resting state and speech production, and dopaminergic neurotransmission evokes pronounced changes in modeled functional connectivity by acting on the underlying biological stochastic neural model. Specifically, model and data networks in both speech and rest conditions share task-specific network features: both the simulated and empirical functional connectivity networks show an increase in nodal influence and segregation in speech over the resting state. These commonalities confirm that dopamine is a key neuromodulator of the functional connectome of speech control. Based on reproducible characteristic aspects of empirical data, we suggest a number

  1. Achieving the HIV prevention impact of voluntary medical male circumcision: lessons and challenges for managing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.

  2. Voluntary driven elbow orthosis with speed controlled tremor suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eHerrnstadt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology is gradually becoming commonplace in the medical sector and in the service of patients. Medical conditions that have benefited from significant technological development include stroke, for which rehabilitation with robotic devices is administered, and surgery assisted by robots. Robotic devices have also been proposed for assistance of movement disorders. Pathological tremor, among the most common movement disorders, is such one example. In practice, the dissemination and availability of tremor suppression robotic systems has been limited. Devices in the marketplace tend to either be non-ambulatory or to target specific functions such as eating and drinking.We have developed a one degree-of-freedom (DOF elbow orthosis that could be worn by an individual with tremor. A speed controlled voluntary driven suppression approach is implemented with the orthosis. Typically tremor suppression methods estimate the tremor component of the signal and produce a canceling counterpart signal. The suggested approach, instead estimates the voluntary component of the motion. A controller then actuates the orthosis based on the voluntary signal while simultaneously rejecting the tremorous motion.In this work, we tested the suppressive orthosis using a 1 DOF robotic system that simulates the human arm. The suggested suppression approach does not require a model of the human arm. Moreover, the human input along with the orthosis forearm gravitational forces, of nonlinear nature, are considered as part of the disturbance to the suppression system. Therefore, the suppression system can be modeled linearly. Nevertheless, the orthosis forearm gravitational forces can be compensated by the suppression system.The electromechanical design of the orthosis is presented, and data from an Essential Tremor patient is used as the human input. Velocity tracking results demonstrate an RMS error of 0.31 rad/s, and a power spectral density shows a reduction of

  3. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle contraction may be directly linked to muscle fatigue.

  4. THE VOLUNTARY HEALTH INSURANCE IN BULGARIA - HISTORY, DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia M. Shtereva-Nikolova; Nikolay A. Popov; Tsvetelina M. Petrova-Gotova

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show the history and development of the Voluntary Health Insurance (VHI) in Bulgaria and the recent regulatory changes. During the investigated period (2003–2012) the market increases over seven times, the number of working and licensed VHI funds grew over three times. The regulatory changes in 2013 require re-licensing and higher capital, which reduced the number of the VHI companies. We analyze the changes in the market and how VHI funds succeed to meet the inc...

  5. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated.

  6. [Neurons that encode sound direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, J L

    In the auditory system, the inner ear breaks down complex signals into their spectral components, and encodes the amplitude and phase of each. In order to infer sound direction in space, a computation on each frequency component of the sound must be performed. Space specific neurons in the owl s inferior colliculus respond only to sounds coming from a particular direction and represent the results of this computation. The interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD define the auditory space for the owl and are processed in separate neural pathways. The parallel pathways that process these cues merge in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus where the space specific neurons are selective to combinations of ITD and ILD. How do inputs from the two sources interact to produce combination selectivity to ITD ILD pairs? A multiplication of postsynaptic potentials tuned to ITD and ILD can account for the subthreshold responses of these neurons to ITD ILD pairs. Examples of multiplication by neurons or neural circuits are scarce, but many computational models assume the existence of this basic operation. The owl s auditory system uses such operation to create a 2 dimensional map of auditory space. The map of space in the owl s auditory system shows important similarities with representations of space in the cerebral cortex and other sensory systems. In encoding space or other stimulus features, individual neurons appear to possess analogous functional properties related to the synthesis of high order receptive fields.

  7. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability during voluntary contraction with concurrent electrical stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomofumi Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available While previous studies have assessed changes in corticospinal excitability following voluntary contraction coupled with electrical stimulation (ES, we sought to examine, for the first time in the field, real-time changes in corticospinal excitability. We monitored motor evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation and recorded the MEPs using a mechanomyogram, which is less susceptible to electrical artifacts. We assessed the MEPs at each level of muscle contraction of wrist flexion (0%, 5%, or 20% of maximum voluntary contraction during voluntary wrist flexion (flexor carpi radialis (FCR voluntary contraction, either with or without simultaneous low-frequency (10 Hz ES of the median nerve that innervates the FCR. The stimulus intensity corresponded to 1.2 × perception threshold. In the FCR, voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation significantly increased corticospinal excitability compared with FCR voluntary contraction without median nerve stimulation (p<0.01. In addition, corticospinal excitability was significantly modulated by the level of FCR voluntary contraction. In contrast, in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR, FCR voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation significantly decreased corticospinal excitability compared with FCR voluntary contraction without median nerve stimulation (p<0.05. Thus, median nerve stimulation during FCR voluntary contraction induces reciprocal changes in cortical excitability in agonist and antagonist muscles. Finally we also showed that even mental imagery of FCR voluntary contraction with median nerve stimulation induced the same reciprocal changes in cortical excitability in agonist and antagonist muscles. Our results support the use of voluntary contraction coupled with ES in neurorehabilitation therapy for patients.

  8. Effect of voluntary exercise on BDNF/TrkB gene expression and alcohol intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Josefine

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running is rewarding and believed to activate the same brain reward system as in alcohol and drug addiction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-known growth factor widely expressed in the brain, is modulated by both voluntary exercise and alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate how voluntary exercise affects the expression levels of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in brain regions involved in positive and negative reinforcement. Additionally we want...

  9. Impact of Canada's Voluntary Agreement on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2006-01-01

    On April 5, 2005, a voluntary agreement between the automobile industry and government officials of Canada was reached to commit to greenhouse gas emission reductions through the year 2010. This report compares Canada's voluntary agreement with other voluntary and mandatory greenhouse gas reduction programs around the world in terms of what technologies are likely to be deployed and how much vehicle fuel consumption is likely to improve. It investigates various methods and measurement approac...

  10. Maximal force, voluntary activation and muscle soreness after eccentric damage to human elbow flexor muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartwuth, O; Taylor, JL; Gandevia, SC

    2005-01-01

    Muscle damage reduces voluntary force after eccentric exercise but impaired neural drive to the muscle may also contribute. To determine whether the delayed-onset muscle soreness, which develops ∼1 day after exercise, reduces voluntary activation and to identify the possible site for any reduction, voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles was examined with both motor cortex and motor nerve stimulation. We measured maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVC), twitch torque, muscle soreness and voluntary activation in eight subjects before, immediately after, 2 h after, 1, 2, 4 and 8 days after eccentric exercise. Motor nerve stimulation and motor cortex stimulation were used to derive twitch torques and measures of voluntary activation. Eccentric exercise immediately reduced the MVC by 38 ± 3% (mean ±s.d., n = 8). The resting twitch produced by motor nerve stimulation fell by 82 ± 6%, and the estimated resting twitch by cortical stimulation fell by 47 ± 15%. While voluntary torque recovered after 8 days, both measures of the resting twitch remained depressed. Muscle tenderness occurred 1–2 days after exercise, and pain during contractions on days 1–4, but changes in voluntary activation did not follow this time course. Voluntary activation assessed with nerve stimulation fell 19 ± 6% immediately after exercise but was not different from control values after 2 days. Voluntary activation assessed by motor cortex stimulation was unchanged by eccentric exercise. During MVCs, absolute increments in torque evoked by nerve and cortical stimulation behaved differently. Those to cortical stimulation decreased whereas those to nerve stimulation tended to increase. These findings suggest that reduced voluntary activation contributes to the early force loss after eccentric exercise, but that it is not due to muscle soreness. The impairment of voluntary activation to nerve stimulation but not motor cortical stimulation suggests that the activation deficit lies in the

  11. A policy analysis of voluntary agreements for energy efficiency in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Anders; Krarup, Signe; Kraemer, Trine Pipi [AKF, Inst. of Local Government Studies, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    To a growing degree voluntary agreements are used as an energy policy instrument in industrial energy policy in Europe. This paper investigates voluntary agreements of Great Britain, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden. The paper analyses the design and effects of these agreements and on this background discusses general implications of using voluntary agreements as a policy instrument in industrial energy policy. (au) EFP-95. 23 refs.

  12. Does long-term object priming depend on the explicit detection of object identity at encoding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos A.; Mayes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear whether objects have to be explicitly identified at encoding for reliable behavioral long-term object priming to occur. We conducted two experiments that investigated long-term object and non-object priming using a selective-attention encoding manipulation that reduces explicit object identification. In Experiment 1, participants either counted dots flashed within an object picture (shallow encoding) or engaged in an animacy task (deep encoding) at study, whereas, at test, they performed an object-decision task. Priming, as measured by reaction times (RTs), was observed for both types of encoding, and was of equivalent magnitude. In Experiment 2, non-object priming (faster RTs for studied relative to unstudied non-objects) was also obtained under the same selective-attention encoding manipulation as in Experiment 1, and the magnitude of the priming effect was equivalent between experiments. In contrast, we observed a linear decrement in recognition memory accuracy across conditions (deep encoding of Experiment 1 > shallow encoding Experiment 1 > shallow encoding of Experiment 2), suggesting that priming was not contaminated by explicit memory strategies. We argue that our results are more consistent with the identification/production framework than the perceptual/conceptual distinction, and we conclude that priming of pictures largely ignored at encoding can be subserved by the automatic retrieval of two types of instances: one at the motor level and another at an object-decision level. PMID:25852594

  13. Does long-term object priming depend on the explicit detection of object identity at encoding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos A; Mayes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear whether objects have to be explicitly identified at encoding for reliable behavioral long-term object priming to occur. We conducted two experiments that investigated long-term object and non-object priming using a selective-attention encoding manipulation that reduces explicit object identification. In Experiment 1, participants either counted dots flashed within an object picture (shallow encoding) or engaged in an animacy task (deep encoding) at study, whereas, at test, they performed an object-decision task. Priming, as measured by reaction times (RTs), was observed for both types of encoding, and was of equivalent magnitude. In Experiment 2, non-object priming (faster RTs for studied relative to unstudied non-objects) was also obtained under the same selective-attention encoding manipulation as in Experiment 1, and the magnitude of the priming effect was equivalent between experiments. In contrast, we observed a linear decrement in recognition memory accuracy across conditions (deep encoding of Experiment 1 > shallow encoding Experiment 1 > shallow encoding of Experiment 2), suggesting that priming was not contaminated by explicit memory strategies. We argue that our results are more consistent with the identification/production framework than the perceptual/conceptual distinction, and we conclude that priming of pictures largely ignored at encoding can be subserved by the automatic retrieval of two types of instances: one at the motor level and another at an object-decision level.

  14. Long-term paired associative stimulation can restore voluntary control over paralyzed muscles in incomplete chronic spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, Anastasia; Lioumis, Pantelis; Zubareva, Aleksandra; Brandstack, Nina; Kuusela, Linda; Kirveskari, Erika; Savolainen, Sarianna; Ylinen, Aarne; Mäkelä, Jyrki P

    2016-01-01

    Emerging therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury aim at sparing or restoring at least part of the corticospinal tract at the acute stage. Hence, approaches that strengthen the weak connections that are spared or restored are crucial. Transient plastic changes in the human corticospinal tract can be induced through paired associative stimulation, a noninvasive technique in which transcranial magnetic brain stimulation is synchronized with electrical peripheral nerve stimulation. A single paired associative stimulation session can induce transient plasticity in spinal cord injury patients. It is not known whether paired associative stimulation can strengthen neuronal connections persistently and have therapeutic effects that are clinically relevant. We recruited two patients with motor-incomplete chronic (one para- and one tetraplegic) spinal cord injuries. The patients received paired associative stimulation for 20-24 weeks. The paraplegic patient, previously paralyzed below the knee level, regained plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the ankles of both legs. The tetraplegic patient regained grasping ability. The newly acquired voluntary movements could be performed by the patients in the absence of stimulation and for at least 1 month after the last stimulation session. In this unblinded proof-of-principle demonstration in two subjects, long-term paired associative stimulation induced persistent and clinically relevant strengthening of neural connections and restored voluntary movement in previously paralyzed muscles. Further study is needed to confirm whether long-term paired associative stimulation can be used in rehabilitation after spinal cord injury by itself and, possibly, in combination with other therapeutic strategies.

  15. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  16. Voluntary activation of human knee extensors measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, S; Romer, L M; Ross, E Z

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability and reliability of a transcranial magnetic stimulation twitch interpolation technique for measuring voluntary activation of a lower limb muscle group. Cortical voluntary activation of the knee extensors was determined in nine healthy men on two separate visits by measuring superimposed twitch torques evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during isometric knee extensions of varying intensity. Superimposed twitch amplitude decreased linearly with increasing voluntary torque between 50 and 100% of mean maximal torque, allowing estimation of resting twitch amplitude and subsequent calculation of voluntary activation. There were no systematic differences for maximal voluntary activation within day (mean +/- s.d. 90.9 +/- 6.2 versus 90.7 +/- 5.9%; P = 0.98) or between days (90.8 +/- 6.0 versus 91.2 +/- 5.7%; P = 0.92). Systematic bias and random error components of the 95% limits of agreement were 0.23 and 9.3% within day versus 0.38 and 7.5% between days. Voluntary activation was also determined immediately after a 2 min maximal voluntary isometric contraction; in four of these subjects, voluntary activation was determined 30 min after the sustained contraction. Immediately after the sustained isometric contraction, maximal voluntary activation was reduced from 91.2 +/- 5.7 to 74.2 +/- 12.0% (P knee extensors.

  17. Is there a place for voluntary active euthanasia in modern-day medicine?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogunbanjo, GA; Knapp van Bogaert, D

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses various ethical and legal concepts regarding euthanasia and includes notions such as physician-assisted suicide, assisted suicide, voluntary active euthanasia, killing versus...

  18. Role of feedback in voluntary control of heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, S B; Levenson, R W; Hinrichsen, J J; Gryll, S L

    1975-06-01

    The relative effectiveness of biofeedback techniques on the voluntary control of heart rate was examined by randomly assigning 32 Ss to one of four feedback conditions in a bi-directional heart-rate control task: (1) no feedback, (2) binary feedback--S was signaled when an interbeat interval had changed in the correct direction, (3) "real-time," proportional feedback--S was provided information about the relative duration of successive interbeat intervals, and (4) numerical, proportional feedback--each interbeat interval was represented as a numeral indicating its relationship to pre-trial mean by direction and magnitude. Significant over-all heart-rate changes were evidenced for both increase and decrease directions, but no differences were found between the feedback conditions. While these data suggest that feedback may be a relatively insignificant factor in voluntary heart-rate control, it was recommended that further investigation examine the role of feedback within the context of other training, mediating and motivational variables.

  19. Maternal Silences: Motherhood and Voluntary Childlessness in Contemporary Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Llewellyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Christianity, there is an ideology of motherhood that pervades scripture, ritual, and doctrine, yet there is an academic silence that means relatively little space has been given to motherhood and mothering, and even less to voluntary childlessness, from a faith perspective. By drawing on qualitative in-depth interviews with Christian women living in Britain, narrating their experiences of motherhood and voluntary childlessness, I suggest there are also lived maternal silences encountered by women in contemporary Christianity. There is a maternal expectation produced through church teaching, liturgy and culture that constructs women as ‘maternal bodies’ (Gatrell 2008; this silences and marginalises women from articulating their complex relationship with religion, motherhood, and childlessness in ways that challenge their spiritual development. However, this article also introduces the everyday and intentional tactics women employ to disrupt the maternal expectation, and hereby interrupt the maternal silence.

  20. Individual finger contribution in submaximal voluntary contraction of gripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong-Ku; Lee, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Dae-Min; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate individual finger force and contribution to a gripping force, the difference between actual and expected finger forces and subjective discomfort rating at 10 different submaximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) levels (10-100% in 10 increments). Seventy-two participants randomly exerted gripping force with a multi-finger force measurement system. The individual finger force, gripping force and discomfort increased as %MVC levels increased. The middle and ring fingers exerted more force and contributed to a gripping force more than the index and little fingers due to their larger mass fractions of the digit flexor muscles. It was apparent at MVC; however, the index finger increased its contribution and exerted even more force than expected at more than 50% MVC. Subjective discomfort supported the results of the objective measures. This could explain the conflicting findings between index and ring fingers in previous finger contribution studies. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Hand tool design is of special interest in ergonomics due to its association with musculoskeletal disorders in the hand. This study reveals a different contribution pattern of the fingers in submaximal voluntary contraction of gripping exertion.

  1. Inspiratory muscle training lowers the oxygen cost of voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Louise A; Tecklenburg-Lund, Sandra L; Chapman, Robert F; Stager, Joel M; Wilhite, Daniel P; Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) alters the oxygen cost of breathing (Vo(2RM)) during voluntary hyperpnea. Sixteen male cyclists completed 6 wk of IMT using an inspiratory load of 50% (IMT) or 15% placebo (CON) of maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi(max)). Prior to training, a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test was performed to determine Vo(2) and ventilation (V(E)) at multiple workloads. Pre- and post-training, subjects performed three separate 4-min bouts of voluntary eucapnic hyperpnea (mimic), matching V(E) that occurred at 50, 75, and 100% of Vo(2 max). Pi(max) was significantly increased (P muscles following a period of IMT may facilitate increased O(2) availability to the active muscles during exercise. These data suggest that IMT may reduce the O(2) cost of ventilation during exercise, providing an insight into mechanism(s) underpinning the reported improvements in whole body endurance performance; however, this awaits further investigation.

  2. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  3. Regulation of animal experimentation: Canada's program of voluntary control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, H C

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), is an autonomous advisory and supervisory body responsible for surveillance of experimental animal care and use in Canada's universities, government laboratories and pharmaceutical houses. Its 20-organization membership includes representatives of government, industry, academia and the humane movement. CCAC's voluntary peer review program depends heavily on institutional animal care committees who evaluate the ethical aspects of animal study protocols, and provide day-to-day surveillance of animal care. Its scientific teams, each of which also includes an appointee of the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies (CFHS), conduct assessments based on CCAC's "Guide to the Care and Use of Experimental Animals" (Volume 1, 1980; Volume 2, 1984). Canada's two major funding agencies, the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), have recently stated that, in the event of an institution's continued non-compliance with CCAC requirements, sanctions may include the "freezing or withdrawal of any or all research programs funded by either or both Research Councils in an institution". This presentation describes the CCAC program of voluntary peer review and examines historic aspects of animal issues in Canada, from that country's early reliance on the fur trade, to today's almost defunct harp seal fishery, from Banting and Best's discovery of insulin, to development of the pacemaker.

  4. Searching for the majority: algorithms of voluntary control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Fan

    Full Text Available Voluntary control of information processing is crucial to allocate resources and prioritize the processes that are most important under a given situation; the algorithms underlying such control, however, are often not clear. We investigated possible algorithms of control for the performance of the majority function, in which participants searched for and identified one of two alternative categories (left or right pointing arrows as composing the majority in each stimulus set. We manipulated the amount (set size of 1, 3, and 5 and content (ratio of left and right pointing arrows within a set of the inputs to test competing hypotheses regarding mental operations for information processing. Using a novel measure based on computational load, we found that reaction time was best predicted by a grouping search algorithm as compared to alternative algorithms (i.e., exhaustive or self-terminating search. The grouping search algorithm involves sampling and resampling of the inputs before a decision is reached. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the implications of voluntary control via algorithms of mental operations.

  5. Proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, Joseph; Mallhi, R S; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-10-01

    The Rh system is the major blood group system besides ABO system. Even after proper blood grouping and cross matching there is a possibility of alloimmunization and antibody production in the recipients against the Rh or minor blood group antigens like Kell, MNSs, Duffy etc. Keeping in view the heavy financial burden of complete phenotyping of blood; the determination of only Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and adverse events in multitransfusion cases. To determine the proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors with a view to generate blood bank data for constitution of panel of blood donors for multipurpose utilities. Identification of Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test by the test tube method on 10,133 healthy voluntary donors. The phenotypic frequencies of Rh blood groups in the studied population were D-92.25%, C-87.55%, E-26.55%, c-51.06% and e-98.42%. Thus 'e' was the most common and E was the least common of all the Rh types. Phenotypically DCCee group was the most common phenotype and dccee was least common type. Determination of Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and avoiding adverse events in multitransfusion cases.

  6. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Jed J W; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R; Apostol, Marcin I; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2009-09-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of beta-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct beta-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  7. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David; (Cornell); (HHMI)

    2009-12-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  8. Dynamical encoding of cursive handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Y; Tishby, N

    1994-01-01

    A model-based approach to on-line cursive handwriting analysis and recognition is presented and evaluated. In this model, on-line handwriting is considered as a modulation of a simple cycloidal pen motion, described by two coupled oscillations with a constant linear drift along the line of the writing. By slow modulations of the amplitudes and phase lags of the two oscillators, a general pen trajectory can be efficiently encoded. These parameters are then quantized into a small number of values without altering the writing intelligibility. A general procedure for the estimation and quantization of these cycloidal motion parameters for arbitrary handwriting is presented. The result is a discrete motor control representation of the continuous pen motion, via the quantized levels of the model parameters. This motor control representation enables successful word spotting and matching of cursive scripts. Our experiments clearly indicate the potential of this dynamic representation for complete cursive handwriting recognition.

  9. Genetically Encoded Sensors for Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, Karen; Fehr, Marcus; Hilpert, Melanie; Lager, Ida; Lalonde, Sylvie; Looger, Loren L.; Okumoto, Sakiko; Persson, Jörgen; Schmidt, Anja; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Metabolomics, i.e., the multiparallel analysis of metabolite changes occurring in a cell or an organism, has become feasible with the development of highly efficient mass spectroscopic technologies. Functional genomics as a standard tool helped to identify the function of many of the genes that encode important transporters and metabolic enzymes over the past few years. Advanced expression systems and analysis technologies made it possible to study the biochemical properties of the corresponding proteins in great detail. We begin to understand the biological functions of the gene products by systematic analysis of mutants using systematic PTGS/RNAi, knockout and TILLING approaches. However, one crucial set of data especially relevant in the case of multicellular organisms is lacking: the knowledge of the spatial and temporal profiles of metabolite levels at cellular and subcellular levels. Methods We therefore developed genetically encoded nanosensors for several metabolites to provide a basic set of tools for the determination of cytosolic and subcellular metabolite levels in real time by using fluorescence microscopy. Results Prototypes of these sensors were successfully used in vitro and also in vivo, i.e., to measure sugar levels in fungal and animal cells. Conclusions One of the future goals will be to expand the set of sensors to a wider spectrum of substrates by using the natural spectrum of periplasmic binding proteins from bacteria and by computational design of proteins with altered binding pockets in conjunction with mutagenesis. This toolbox can then be applied for four-dimensional imaging of cells and tissues to elucidate the spatial and temporal distribution of metabolites as a discovery tool in functional genomics, as a tool for high-throughput, high-content screening for drugs, to test metabolic models, and to analyze the interplay of cells in a tissue or organ. PMID:15688353

  10. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei-Xin, E-mail: weixinliu@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Gu, Shou-Zhi [Department of Anatomy, Seirei Christopher College, Hamamatsu 433-8558 (Japan); Sang, Li-Xuan [Department of Cadre Ward II, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Dai, Cong [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Hai-Lan [Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China)

    2015-04-10

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  11. Relationships between skinfold thickness and electromyographic and mechanomyographic amplitude recorded during voluntary and non-voluntary muscle actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Phillip M; Fry, Andrew C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible correlations between skinfold thicknesses and the a terms from the log-transformed electromyographic (EMGRMS) and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS)-force relationships, EMG M-Waves, and MMG gross lateral movements (GLM). Forty healthy subjects performed a 6-s isometric ramp contraction from 5% to 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction with EMG and MMG sensors placed on the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). A single electrical stimulus was applied to the femoral nerve to record the EMG M-waves and MMG GLMs. Skinfold thickness was assessed at the site of each electrode. Pearson's product correlation coefficients were calculated comparing skinfold thicknesses with the a terms from the log-transformed EMGRMS-and MMGRMS-force relationships, EMG M-waves, and MMG GLMs. There were no significant cor1relations (p>0.05) between the a terms and skinfold thicknesses for the RF and VL from the EMGRMS and MMGRMS-force relationships. However, there were significant correlations (pskinfold thicknesses and the EMG M-waves and MMG GLMs for the RF (r=-0.521, -0.376) and VL (r=-0.479, -0.484). Relationships were only present between skinfold thickness and the amplitudes of the EMG and MMG signals during the non-voluntary muscle actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Percent voluntary inactivation and peak force predictions with the interpolated twitch technique in individuals with high ability of voluntary activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Trent J; Walter, Ashley A; Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Hoge, Katherine M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Cramer, Joel T

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and peak force prediction capability of the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) performed during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in subjects with the ability to maximally activate their plantar flexors. Twelve subjects performed two MVCs and nine submaximal contractions with the ITT method to calculate percent voluntary inactivation (%VI). Additionally, two MVCs were performed without the ITT. Polynomial models (linear, quadratic and cubic) were applied to the 10-90% VI and 40-90% VI versus force relationships to predict force. Peak force from the ITT MVC was 6.7% less than peak force from the MVC without the ITT. Fifty-eight percent of the 10-90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with nonlinear models; however, all 40-90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with linear models. Regardless of the polynomial model or the contraction intensities used to predict force, all models underestimated the actual force from 22% to 28%. There was low sensitivity of the ITT method at high contraction intensities and the predicted force from polynomial models significantly underestimated the actual force. Caution is warranted when interpreting the % VI at high contraction intensities and predicted peak force from submaximal contractions.

  13. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitrey Gajjar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues.The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Results: Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07% followed by D (95.40%, C (88.77%, c (55.89% and E (17.88%. The frequency of the Kell antigen (K was 1.78 %. Discussion: The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4% and north Indian donors (93.6 was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85% and lower than in the Chinese (99%. The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the ′e′ antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K was found in only 101 (1.78 % donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5% but

  14. Partial phenotyping in voluntary blood donors of Gujarat State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Maitrey; Patel, Tarak; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Patel, Kruti; Shah, Mamta; Prajapati, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Partial phenotyping of voluntary blood donors has vital role in transfusion practice, population genetic study and in resolving legal issues. The Rh blood group is one of the most complex and highly immunogenic blood group known in humans. The Kell system, discovered in 1946, is the third most potent system at triggering hemolytic transfusion reactions and consists of 25 highly immunogenic antigens. Knowledge of Rh & Kell phenotypes in given population is relevant for better planning and management of blood bank; the main goal is to find compatible blood for patients needing multiple blood transfusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Rh & Kell phenotype of voluntary donors in Gujarat state. The present study was conducted by taking 5670 samples from random voluntary blood donors coming in blood donation camp. Written consent was taken for donor phenotyping. The antigen typing of donors was performed by Qwalys-3(manufacturer: Diagast) by using electromagnetic technology on Duolys plates. Out of 5670 donors, the most common Rh antigen observed in the study population was e (99.07%) followed by D (95.40%), C (88.77%), c (55.89%) and E (17.88%). The frequency of the Kell antigen (K) was 1.78 %. The antigen frequencies among blood donors from Gujarat were compared with those published for other Indian populations. The frequency of D antigen in our study (95.4%) and north Indian donors (93.6) was significantly higher than in the Caucasians (85%) and lower than in the Chinese (99%). The frequencies of C, c and E antigens were dissimilar to other ethnic groups while the 'e' antigen was present in high frequency in our study as also in the other ethnic groups. Kell antigen (K) was found in only 101 (1.78 %) donors out of 5670. Frequency of Kell antigen in Caucasian and Black populations is 9% & 2% respectively. The most common Kell phenotype was K-k+, not just in Indians (96.5%) but also in Caucasians (91%), Blacks (98%) and Chinese (100%). Phenotype

  15. Options for REDD+ Voluntary Certification to Ensure Net GHG Benefits, Poverty Alleviation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dutschke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to compare and evaluate the practical applicability to REDD+ of ten forest management, social, environmental and carbon standards that are currently active worldwide: Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB, CCB REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (CCBA REDD+ S&E, CarbonFix Standard (CFS, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, Global Conservation Standard (GCS, ISO 14064:2006, Plan Vivo Standard, Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC, SOCIALCARBON Standard and the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS. We developed a framework for evaluation of these standards relative to each other using four substantive criteria: (1 poverty alleviation, (2 sustainable management of forests (SMF, (3 biodiversity protection, (4 quantification and assessment of net greenhouse gas (GHG benefits; and two procedural criteria: (5 monitoring and reporting, and (6 certification procedures. REDD programs require assessment of GHG benefits, monitoring, reporting and certification. Our analysis shows that only the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS treats these three criteria comprehensively. No standard provides comprehensive coverage of the social and other environmental criteria. FSC, PEFC and CarbonFix provide comprehensive assessments of the sustainable forest management criterion. CCBA REDD+ S&E, CCB, and GCS provide comprehensive coverage of the biodiversity and poverty alleviation criteria. Experience in using these standards in pilot projects shows that projects are currently combining several standards as part of their strategy to improve their ability to attract investment, but costs of implementing several certification schemes is a concern. We conclude that voluntary certification provides useful practical experience that should feed into the design of the international REDD+ regime.

  16. Understanding the effects of past flood events and perceived and estimated flood risks on individuals' voluntary flood insurance purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard; Jackson, Nida; Goidel, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance. It is found that the estimated flood hazard conveyed through the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) flood maps, the intensities and consequences of past storms and flooding events, and perceived flood-related risks significantly affect individual's voluntary purchase of flood insurance. This behavior is also influenced by home ownership, trust in local government, education, and income. These findings have several important policy implications. First, FEMA's flood maps have been effective in conveying local flood risks to coastal residents, and correspondingly influencing their decisions to voluntarily seek flood insurance in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Flood maps therefore should be updated frequently to reflect timely and accurate information about flood hazards. Second, policy makers should design strategies to increase homeowners' trust in the local government, to better communicate flood risks with residents, to address the affordability issue for the low-income, and better inform less educated homeowners through various educational programs. Future studies should examine the voluntary flood insurance behavior across countries that are vulnerable to flooding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of knowledge and attitude among college-going students toward voluntary blood donation from north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra SK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shailesh Kumar Mishra,1 Suchet Sachdev,1 Neelam Marwaha,1 Ajit Avasthi21Department of Transfusion Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, IndiaIntroduction: The study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of college-going students toward voluntary blood donation and to bring out and compare the reasons for donating or not donating blood.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,000 college-going students after taking their consent for participation using a prevalidated, self-administered, structured questionnaire after its content and construct validation.Results: The difference in the means of the level of knowledge among the donor (mean: 14.71±2.48 and nondonor students (mean: 11.55±2.82 was statistically significant. There was significant impact of previous blood donation on the level of knowledge in donor students. The attitude toward blood donation was more positive among blood donor as compared to nondonor students, and the difference in their means was statistically significant. About one in two (45.8% college-going students fear that either they are not fit enough to donate blood (26.8% or that they will become weak (19% after blood donation. Almost one in four (27.4% have fear of needle pain; therefore, they do not come forward for blood donation.Interpretation and conclusion: The most significant reason hindering blood donation comes out to be related to health of the individual donor. The findings of this study conclude that the national targets of voluntary blood donation could be better met with specific blood donor information, education, motivation, and recruitment strategies focusing on the myths and misconceptions prevalent in the donor demographic area of that particular region, specifically targeting high-school children in countries developing a volunteer donor base.Keywords: knowledge, attitude, voluntary blood

  18. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  19. Superior Memorizers Employ Different Neural Networks for Encoding and Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eMallow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL to memorize large amounts of information. The method of loci, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, fMRI data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  20. Drug discovery with DNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Fabian; Mannocci, Luca; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2010-09-15

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries represent a novel avenue for the facile discovery of small molecule ligands against target proteins of biological or pharmaceutical importance. Library members consist of small molecules covalently attached to unique DNA fragments that serve as amplifiable identification barcodes. This encoding allows the in vitro selection of ligands at subpicomolar concentrations from large library populations by affinity capture on a target protein of interest, in analogy to established technologies for the selection of binding polypeptides (e.g., antibodies). Different library formats have been explored by various groups, allowing the construction of chemical libraries comprising up to millions of DNA-encoded compounds. Libraries before and after selection have been characterized by PCR amplification of the DNA codes and subsequent relative quantification of library members using high-throughput sequencing. The most enriched compounds have then been further analyzed in biological assays, in the presence or in the absence of linked DNA. This article reviews experimental strategies used for the construction of DNA-encoded chemical libraries, revealing how selection, decoding, and hit validation technologies have been used for drug discovery programs.

  1. Quantum-dots-encoded-microbeads based molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixi; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; He, Qinghua; Ma, Hui

    2016-03-15

    Quantum dots encoded microbeads have various advantages such as large surface area, superb optical properties and the ability of multiplexing. Molecularly imprinted polymer that can mimic the natural recognition entities has high affinity and selectivity for the specific analyte. Here, the concept of utilizing the quantum dots encoded microbeads as the supporting material and the polydopamine as the functional monomer to form the core-shell molecular imprinted polymer was proposed for the first time. The resulted imprinted polymer can provide various merits: polymerization can complete in aqueous environment; fabrication procedure is facile and universal; the obvious economic advantage; the thickness of the imprinting layer is highly controllable; polydopamine coating can improve the biocompatibility of the quantum dot encoded microbeads. The rabbit IgG binding and flow cytometer experiment result showed the distinct advantages of this strategy: cost-saving, facile and fast preparation procedure. Most importantly, the ability for the multichannel detection, which makes the imprinted polydopamine modified encoded-beads very attractive in protein pre-concentration, recognition, separation and biosensing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 3 CFR - Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Population Planning Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 23, 2009 Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning Memorandum for the Secretary of State the... subsequently extended the policy to “voluntary population planning” assistance provided by the Department of...

  3. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  4. NDRC Released the Interim Measures on Voluntary Emission Reductions of GHG Trading and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    National Development and Reform Commission issued the Interim Measures on Voluntary Emission Reduction of GHG Trading and Management (hereafter referred to as" Interim Measures") on June, 13th, 2012, which is formulated to encourage project-based voluntary emission reductions and ensure the proper operation of trading activities.

  5. 29 CFR 1608.3 - Circumstances under which voluntary affirmative action is appropriate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circumstances under which voluntary affirmative action is... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.3 Circumstances under which voluntary affirmative action is appropriate. (a) Adverse...

  6. The challenges of adopting voluntary health, safety and environment measures for manufactured nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Tickner, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the use of voluntary environmental programs in the United States in the past, and applies the lessons learned from these experiences to the regulation of nanomaterials. The authors found that the key elements of any voluntary environmental program should be incentives...

  7. 13 CFR 108.585 - Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital. 108.585 Section 108.585 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Decrease in Regulatory Capital § 108.585 Voluntary decrease in NMVC Company's Regulatory Capital. You must...

  8. 16 CFR 1031.5 - Criteria for Commission involvement in voluntary standards activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission involvement in the development of voluntary safety standards for consumer products: (a) The... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for Commission involvement in voluntary standards activities. 1031.5 Section 1031.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT...

  9. 49 CFR 27.11 - Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance....11 Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance planning. (a) Remedial action. (1) If the... activity in violation of this part, the recipient shall take such remedial action as the...

  10. 9 CFR 317.345 - Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of single-ingredient, raw products. 317.345 Section 317.345 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.345 Guidelines for voluntary nutrition labeling of...

  11. 9 CFR 317.343 - Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. 317.343 Section 317.343 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.343 Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. (a) In...

  12. 9 CFR 381.443 - Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. 381.443 Section 381.443 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 381.443 Significant participation for voluntary nutrition labeling. (a) In...

  13. 78 FR 60020 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Bureau of the Fiscal Service Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Voluntary Customer Satisfaction... Customer Satisfaction Survey. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before November 30, 2013 to...: Title: Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Survey to Implement Executive Order 12862 OMB Number:...

  14. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015...

  15. 5 CFR 630.1013 - Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs. 630.1013 Section 630.1013 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1013...

  16. 14 CFR 234.10 - Voluntary disclosure of on-time performance codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary disclosure of on-time performance codes. 234.10 Section 234.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRLINE SERVICE QUALITY PERFORMANCE REPORTS § 234.10 Voluntary...

  17. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary dri

  18. 7 CFR 1955.10 - Voluntary conveyance of real property by the borrower to the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... will submit the voluntary conveyance offer, the case file and a narrative report to the appropriate... on present income and potential earning ability. Exception for SFH loans: FmHA or its successor... with the effective date being the date the voluntary conveyance is closed. If an oral lease is in...

  19. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authority, and the changes in organizational structure it expects to make as the result of projected... description of the types of personnel actions anticipated as a result of the agency's need for voluntary early... voluntary early retirement, which may be made based on the following criteria: (A) 1 or more organizational...

  20. 78 FR 13855 - Notice of March 14 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT Notice of March 14 Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United States... Aid (ACVFA). Date: Thursday, March 14, 2013. Time: 2:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. Location: Ronald Reagan... on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  1. Application of a Uniform Price Quality Adjusted Discount Auction for Assigning Voluntary Separation Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    7 4. Temporary Early Retirement Authority (TERA) ............................7 C. PROBLEMS...Special Separation Benefit TERA Temporary Early Retirement Allowance USMCMP United States Marine Corps Manpower Planners VSI Voluntary Separation...system, the voluntary separation incentive, the special 2 separation benefit, and the Temporary Early Retirement Authority (TERA) to accomplish

  2. 78 FR 48413 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Violations of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Violations of the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security... an investigation or prosecution is necessary and to reach a settlement with violators. Voluntary self...

  3. 77 FR 45718 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Voluntary Service); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Voluntary Service); Comment Request AGENCY... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Voluntary Service, VA Form 10... certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies...

  4. 21 CFR 515.23 - Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.23 Voluntary revocation of medicated feed mill license. A license issued...

  5. Voluntary compliance beyond the letter of the Law : Reciprocity and fair play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, Hans; Peeters, B.; Gribnau, H.; Badisco, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the obligation to pay taxes. It starts from the idea of voluntary taxation. In ancient Athens, the wealthy had a moral obligation to pay a periodic voluntary contribution (‘liturgy’). They paid for religious festivals and military expeditions which benefited society. This

  6. NMDA receptors and memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard G M

    2013-11-01

    It is humbling to think that 30 years have passed since the paper by Collingridge, Kehl and McLennan showing that one of Jeff Watkins most interesting compounds, R-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (d-AP5), blocked the induction of long-term potentiation in vitro at synapses from area CA3 of the hippocampus to CA1 without apparent effect on baseline synaptic transmission (Collingridge et al., 1983). This dissociation was one of the key triggers for an explosion of interest in glutamate receptors, and much has been discovered since that collectively contributes to our contemporary understanding of glutamatergic synapses - their biophysics and subunit composition, of the agonists and antagonists acting on them, and their diverse functions in different networks of the brain and spinal cord. It can be fairly said that Collingridge et al.'s (1983) observation was the stimulus that has led, on the one hand, to structural biological work at the atomic scale describing the key features of NMDA receptors that enables their coincidence function to happen; and, on the other, to work with whole animals investigating the contributions that calcium signalling via this receptor can have on rhythmical activities controlled by spinal circuits, memory encoding in the hippocampus (the topic of this article), visual cortical plasticity, sensitization in pain, and other functions. In this article, I lay out how my then interest in long-term potentiation (LTP) as a model of memory enabled me to recognise the importance of Collingridge et al.'s discovery - and how I and my colleagues endeavoured to take things forward in the area of learning and memory. This is in some respects a personal story, and I tell it as such. The idea that NMDA receptor activation is essential for memory encoding, though not for storage, took time to develop and to be accepted. Along the way, there have been confusions, challenges, and surprises surrounding the idea that activation of NMDA receptors can

  7. A history of the pedagogy of voluntary attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungdalh, Anders Kruse

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the pedagogical recommendations within late nineteenth century psychological literature on voluntary attention, focusing on what was then understood as pathological conditions of attention. The purpose of the article is double. First, to investigate the reasoning embedded...... in the educational exercises with which to capture and retain the attention of students. What is the link between the educational practices of the late nineteenth century and the psychological interest in the concept of attention within this time period? And second, to explore the epistemological and methodological...... power of the pathological. Is it possible to examine the concept of attention through a focus on its pathological forms? The article demonstrates how the pedagogical recommendations embedded in the late nineteenth century psychological literature on attention aim to develop disinterested citizens...

  8. Regulating bodily integrity: cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Aileen

    2012-12-01

    Cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation share a number of features. Both procedures are patient-driven forms of body shaping that can only be performed by surgeons, and therefore the procedures require the imprimatur of the medical profession to be lawful. Both invoke identity construction as a central legitimating factor that renders the procedures therapeutic. The legal regulation of surgery is subsumed within general principles regulating medical practice, where autonomy and consent are constituted as fundamental authorising principles. The legitimacy of consent to surgical intervention operates unevenly in relation to these two forms of surgery. Amputation of healthy limbs is presumed to be non-therapeutic. Capacity is closely interrogated and minutely scrutinised. Consent to cosmetic surgery, by contrast, is presumed to be a valid expression of autonomy and self-determination.

  9. Developing a user-centered voluntary medical incident reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Gong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Medical errors are one of leading causes of death among adults in the United States. According to the Institute of Medicine, reporting of medical incidents could be a cornerstone to learn from errors and to improve patient safety, if incident data are collected in a properly structured format which is useful for the detection of patterns, discovery of underlying factors, and generation of solutions. Globally, a number of medical incident reporting systems were deployed for collecting observable incident data in care delivery organizations (CDO) over the past several years. However, few researches delved into design of user-centered reporting system for improving completeness and accuracy of medical incident collection, let alone design models created for other institutes to follow. In this paper, we introduce the problems identified in a current using voluntary reporting system and our effort is being made towards complete, accurate and useful user-centered new reporting system through a usability engineering process.

  10. Non-voluntary passive euthanasia: the social consequences of euphemisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Gwen M

    2007-11-01

    Non-voluntary passive euthanasia, the commonest form of euthanasia, is seldom mentioned in the UK. This article illustrates how the legal reasoning in Airedale NHS Trust v Bland contributed towards this conceptual deletion. By upholding the impermissibility of euthanasia, whilst at the same time permitting 'euthanasia' under the guise of 'withdrawing futile treatment', it is argued that the court (logically) allowed (withdrawing futile treatment and euthanasia). The Bland reasoning was incorporated into professional guidance, which extended the court's ruling to encompass patients who, unlike Anthony Bland, were sentient. But since the lawfulness of (withdrawing futile treatment and euthanasia) hinges on the futility of treatment, and since the guidance provides advice about withdrawing treatment from patients who differ from those considered in court, the lawfulness of such 'treatment decisions' is unclear. Legislation is proposed in order to redress the ambiguity that arose when moral decisions about 'euthanasia' were translated into medical decisions about 'treatment'.

  11. Remote guidance of untrained turtles by controlling voluntary instinct behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serin Lee

    Full Text Available Recently, several studies have been carried out on the direct control of behavior in insects and other lower animals in order to apply these behaviors to the performance of specialized tasks in an attempt to find more efficient means of carrying out these tasks than artificial intelligence agents. While most of the current methods cause involuntary behavior in animals by electronically stimulating the corresponding brain area or muscle, we show that, in turtles, it is also possible to control certain types of behavior, such as movement trajectory, by evoking an appropriate voluntary instinctive behavior. We have found that causing a particular behavior, such as obstacle avoidance, by providing a specific visual stimulus results in effective control of the turtle's movement. We propose that this principle may be adapted and expanded into a general framework to control any animal behavior as an alternative to robotic probes.

  12. Voluntary sodium intake during effort in hot environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Hershco, A.

    1982-01-01

    The factors that influence the amount of salt that a person adds to his food at mealtime, and the part played by the general requirement for salt in the daily diet stemming from the coluntary input of salt are studied. Careful measurements of salt intake and outflow were performed on ten marchers in a high temperature environment who were given individual salt shakers that were weighed before and after each meal. Some marchers were told to add salt to their meals on specific days. No parallelity was found between the voluntary sodium intake and the general sodium intake, the excretion of sodium in the urine or the environmental heat stress. Individual food habit was found to be the most important factor.

  13. Phase Encoding of Shots in Pre-Stack Seismic Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GHIGLIA, DENNIS C.; MORTON, SCOTT A.; OBER, CURTIS C; ROMERO, LOUIS

    1999-09-02

    Frequency-domain shot-record migration can produce higher quality images than Kirchhoff migration but typically at a greater cost. The computational cost of shot-record migration is the product of the number of shots in the survey and the expense of each individual migration. Many attempts to reduce this cost have focused on the speed of the individual migrations, trying to achieve a better trade-off between accuracy and speed. Another approach is to reduce the number of migrations. We investigate the simultaneous migration of shot records using frequency-domain shot-record migration algorithms. The difficulty with this approach is the production of so-called cross terms between unrelated shot and receiver wavefields, which generate unwanted artifacts or noise in the final image. To reduce these artifacts and obtain an image comparable in quality to the single-shot-per-migration result, we have introduced a process called phase encoding which shifts or disperses these cross terms. The process of phase encoding thus allows one to trade signal-to-noise ratio for the speed of migrating the entire survey. Several encoding functions and two application strategies have been tested. The first strategy, combining multiple shots per migration and using each shot only once, provides a reduction in computation directly related to the number of shots combined. The second strategy, performing multiple migrations of all the shots in the survey, provides a means to reduce the cross-term noise through stacking the resulting images. The additional noise in both strategies may be tolerated if it is no stronger than the inherent seismic noise in the migrated image, and if the final image is achieved with less cost.

  14. An Empirical Evaluation of Private Landowner Participation in Voluntary Forest Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauneckis, Derek; York, Abigail M.

    2009-09-01

    The use of voluntary programs targeting resource conservation on private land has become increasingly prevalent in environmental policy. Voluntary programs potentially offer significant benefits over regulatory and market-based approaches. This article examines the factors affecting landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs using a combination of parcel-level GIS and remotely sensed data and semi-structured interviews of landowners in Monroe County, Indiana. A logistic regression model is applied to determine the probability of participation based on landowner education, membership in other non-forest voluntary programs, dominant land use activity, parcel size, distance from urban center, land resource portfolios, and forest cover. Both land use activity and the spatial configuration of a landholder’s resource portfolio are found to be statistically significant with important implications for the design and implementation of voluntary programs.

  15. An empirical evaluation of private landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauneckis, Derek; York, Abigail M

    2009-09-01

    The use of voluntary programs targeting resource conservation on private land has become increasingly prevalent in environmental policy. Voluntary programs potentially offer significant benefits over regulatory and market-based approaches. This article examines the factors affecting landowner participation in voluntary forest conservation programs using a combination of parcel-level GIS and remotely sensed data and semi-structured interviews of landowners in Monroe County, Indiana. A logistic regression model is applied to determine the probability of participation based on landowner education, membership in other non-forest voluntary programs, dominant land use activity, parcel size, distance from urban center, land resource portfolios, and forest cover. Both land use activity and the spatial configuration of a landholder's resource portfolio are found to be statistically significant with important implications for the design and implementation of voluntary programs.

  16. Voluntary exercise counteracts Aβ25-35-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Xu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jinrong; Sun, Jianguo; Gao, Junying; Wu, Ting; Xiao, Ming

    2013-11-01

    Exercise has been shown to enhance hippocampus-related cognition and slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether voluntary exercise directly decreases the neurotoxicity of amyloid peptide (Aβ) needs to be determined. In the present study, two-month old male C57bl/6 mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with Aβ25-35, and then allowed for voluntary exercise for 12 days. Y-maze test revealed that voluntary exercise mitigated spatial memory impairment induced by Aβ25-35. Consistently, Aβ25-35 treated mice with exercise showed reduced neuronal degeneration and synaptic protein loss in the hippocampus compared with sedentary controls. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly ameliorated oxidative stress markers and increased vessel branches in the hippocampus of Aβ25-35 treated mice. Our results suggest that voluntary exercise counteracts the neurotoxicity of Aβ by reducing oxidative stress and increasing angiogenesis, which may underlie the beneficial effect of exercise on AD.

  17. Rational behavior is a ‘double-edged sword’ when considering voluntary vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Wenyao; Wang, Binghong

    2012-10-01

    Of particular importance for public health is how to understand strategic vaccination behavior in social networks. Social learning is a central aspect of human behavior, and it thus shapes vaccination individuals’ decision-making. Here, we study two simple models to address the impact of the more rational decision-making of individuals on voluntary vaccination. In the first model, individuals are endowed with memory capacity for their past experiences of dealing with vaccination. In addition to their current payoffs, they also take account of the historical payoffs that are discounted by a memory-decaying factor. They use such overall payoffs (weighing the current payoffs and historical payoffs) to reassess their vaccination strategies. Those who have higher overall payoffs are more likely imitated by their social neighbors. In the second model, individuals do not blindly learn the strategies of neighbors; they also combine the fraction of infection in the past epidemic season. If the fraction of infection surpasses the perceived risk threshold, individuals will increase the probability of taking vaccination. Otherwise, they will decrease the probability of taking vaccination. Then we use evolutionary game theory to study the vaccination behavior of people during an epidemiological process. To do this, we propose a two-stage model: individuals make vaccination decisions during a yearly vaccination campaign, followed by an epidemic season. This forms a feedback loop between the vaccination decisions of individuals and their health outcomes, and thus payoffs. We find that the two more rational decision-making models have nontrivial impacts on the vaccination behavior of individuals, and, as a result, on the final fraction of infection. Our results highlight that, from an individual’s viewpoint, the decisions are optimal and more rational. However, from the social viewpoint, the strategies of individuals can give rise to distinct outcomes. Namely, the rational

  18. Suprachiasmatic vasopressin and the circadian regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Holly C; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; Karatsoreos, Ilia N; Koletar, Margaret M; Ralph, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    A role for arginine vasopressin in the circadian regulation of voluntary locomotor behavior (wheel running activity) was investigated in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Spontaneous nocturnal running was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by systemic injections of vasopressin, and also in a concentration-dependent manner by microinjections directly into the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Pre-injections of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist into the nucleus reduced the suppression of behavior by vasopressin. Ethogram analyses revealed that peripheral drug injections predominantly increased grooming, flank marking, and sleep-related behaviors. Central injections did not induce sleep, but increased grooming and periods of 'quiet vigilance' (awake but not moving). Nocturnal behavioral profiles following either peripheral or central injections were similar to those shown by untreated animals in the hour prior to the onset of nocturnal wheel running. Site control vasopressin injections into the medial preoptic area or periaqueductal gray increased flank marking and grooming, but had no significant effect on locomotion, suggesting behavioral specificity of a vasopressin target near the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Both peripheral and central administration increased FOS-like immunoreactivity in the retinorecipient core of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. The distribution of FOS-positive cells overlapped the calbindin subregion, but was more extensive, and most calbindin-positive cells did not co-express FOS. We propose a model of temporal behavioral regulation wherein voluntary behavior, such as nocturnal locomotor activity, is inhibited by the activity of neurons in the suprachiasmatic ventrolateral core that project to the posterior hypothalamus and are driven by rhythmic vasopressin input from the dorsomedial shell.

  19. Epidemiologic profile and triggering factors of voluntary poisoning in teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, Nicolai; Jitareanu, Cristina; Frasinariu, Otilia Elena; Ciomaga, Irina Mihaela; Rugina, Aniela Luminita; Streanga, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Self-poisoning is an important medical and social problem in adolescents. We performed an observational cross-sectional retrospective study on a group of 219 adolescents admitted for voluntary intoxications at “St. Mary” Children's Emergency Hospital, Iasi during 1 year period. Epidemiological aspects and triggering factors have been analyzed. Data collected from the patients’ files were centralized in an SPSS 18.0 database and processed with confidence interval of 95%. We found that pharmaceutical drugs have been usually involved (34.7%), mostly in girls (56.3% vs. 15.5%; P = 0.0001). The most frequently cited reason for poisoning was family conflict, with a relative risk (RR) 1.43 times higher in girls, as well as scholar conflict (RR = 1.39). A great percentage of the monitored girls presented severe depression (23.3% vs. 6.9%; P = 0.001), with an RR more than 3 times higher than in the case of boys. All cases evolved favorably, no death having been recorded, even if 18 teenagers initially presented an extremely serious condition, being admitted in various stages of coma (Glasgow coma scale score poisonings with pharmaceutical drugs was more common in girls and the use of drug and alcohol intoxication was found especially in boys. The most common pharmaceutical drug involved in self-poisoning was acetaminophen. Psychological disorders and family or school conflicts are the most important triggering factors of voluntary poisoning. Risk factors should be identified after stabilizing the patient, and actions should be taken in order to prevent a fatal recurrence. PMID:28151858

  20. Downregulation of cough by exercise and voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  1. Novelty's effect on memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Janenaite, Sigita; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    It is often thought that novelty benefits memory formation. However, support for this idea mostly comes from paradigms that are open to alternative explanations. In the present study we manipulated novelty in a word-learning task through task-irrelevant background images. These background images were either standard (presented repeatedly), or novel (presented only once). Two types of background images were used: Landscape pictures and fractals. EEG was also recorded during encoding. Contrary to the idea that novelty aids memory formation, memory performance was not affected by the novelty of the background. In the evoked response potentials, we found evidence of distracting effects of novelty: both the N1 and P3b components were smaller to words studied with novel backgrounds, and the amplitude of the N2b component correlated negatively with subsequent retrieval. We conclude that although evidence from other studies does suggest benefits on a longer time scale, novelty has no instantaneous benefits for learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  3. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S McMurray

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50, rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  4. Encoder designed to work in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toop, L.

    2007-05-15

    Dynapar has developed the Acuro AX71 absolute encoder for use on offshore or land-based oil rig operations. It provides feedback on the operation of automated systems such as draw works, racking systems, rotary tables and top drives. By ensuring that automated systems function properly, this encoder responds to a need by the oil and gas industry to keep workers safe and improve efficiency, particularly for operations in rugged situations. The encoder provides feedback from motor systems to controllers, giving information about position and speed of downhole drill bits. This newly developed encoder is better than commonly used incremental encoders which are not precise in strong electrical noise environments. Rather, the absolute encoder uses a different method of reporting to the controller. A digital signal is transmitted constantly as the device operates. It is less susceptible to noise issues. It is highly accurate, tolerant of noise and is not affected by power outages. However, the absolute encoder is generally more delicate in drilling applications with high ambient temperatures and shock levels. Dynapar addressed this issue by developing compact stainless steel housing that is useful for corrosion resistance in marine applications. The AX71 absolute encoder can withstand up to 100 G of mechanical shock and ambient temperatures of up to 60 degrees C. The encoder is ATEX certified without barriers, and offers the high resolution feedback of 4,000 counts of multiturn rotation and 16,000 counts of position. 1 fig.

  5. Neural correlates of sensory prediction errors in monkeys: evidence for internal models of voluntary self-motion in the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathleen E; Brooks, Jessica X

    2015-02-01

    During self-motion, the vestibular system makes essential contributions to postural stability and self-motion perception. To ensure accurate perception and motor control, it is critical to distinguish between vestibular sensory inputs that are the result of externally applied motion (exafference) and that are the result of our own actions (reafference). Indeed, although the vestibular sensors encode vestibular afference and reafference with equal fidelity, neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing selectively encode vestibular exafference. The mechanism underlying this reafferent suppression compares the brain's motor-based expectation of sensory feedback with the actual sensory consequences of voluntary self-motion, effectively computing the sensory prediction error (i.e., exafference). It is generally thought that sensory prediction errors are computed in the cerebellum, yet it has been challenging to explicitly demonstrate this. We have recently addressed this question and found that deep cerebellar nuclei neurons explicitly encode sensory prediction errors during self-motion. Importantly, in everyday life, sensory prediction errors occur in response to changes in the effector or world (muscle strength, load, etc.), as well as in response to externally applied sensory stimulation. Accordingly, we hypothesize that altering the relationship between motor commands and the actual movement parameters will result in the updating in the cerebellum-based computation of exafference. If our hypothesis is correct, under these conditions, neuronal responses should initially be increased--consistent with a sudden increase in the sensory prediction error. Then, over time, as the internal model is updated, response modulation should decrease in parallel with a reduction in sensory prediction error, until vestibular reafference is again suppressed. The finding that the internal model predicting the sensory consequences of motor commands adapts for new

  6. Functional properties of Virus-Encoded and Virus-Regulated 7TM Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2014-01-01

    During co-evolution with their hosts, viruses have developed several survival strategies that involve exploitation of 7TM receptors. These include virus-encoded 7TM receptors and ligands and viral regulation of endogenous receptors. Many functional properties have been ascribed to virus-exploited 7......-herpesvirus-encoded BILF1 receptors, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded US28 receptor and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-regulated EBI2 (or GPR183), 2) the tissue tropism and virus-dissemination properties, exemplified by the murine CMV-encoded M33, and 3) the tumorigenic properties, exemplified...... by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-encoded ORF74, HCMV-US28 and EBV-BILF1. Given the general high “druggability” of 7TM receptors, and the recent progress in the understanding of in particular immune evasive functions of the virus-exploited 7TM receptors, we put a special emphasis on the progress of novel anti...

  7. An experimental test of voluntary strategies to promote urban water demand management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Spinks, Anneliese; Russell, Sally; McCrea, Rod; Stewart, Rodney; Gardner, John

    2013-01-15

    In light of the current and future threats to global water security the current research focuses on trialing interventions to promote urban water conservation. We report an experimental study designed to test the long-term impact of three different interventions on household water consumption in South East Queensland. Participants from 221 households were recruited and completed an initial survey, and their houses were fitted with smart water meters which measured total water usage at 5 s intervals. Households were allocated into one of four conditions: a control group and three interventions groups (water saving information alone, information plus a descriptive norm manipulation, and information plus tailored end-user feedback). The study is the first to use smart water metering technology as a tool for behaviour change as well as a way to test the effectiveness of demand management interventions. Growth curve modelling revealed that compared to the control, the three intervention groups all showed reduced levels of household consumption (an average reduction of 11.3 L per person per day) over the course of the interventions, and for some months afterwards. All interventions led to significant water savings, but long-term household usage data showed that in all cases, the reduction in water use resulting from the interventions eventually dissipated, with water consumption returning to pre-intervention levels after approximately 12 months. Implications for water demand management programs are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of the environmental enrichment on the severity of psychological dependence and voluntary methamphetamine consumption in methamphetamine withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajheidari, Samira; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2015-01-01

    Previously results have been shown that chronic methamphetamine causes dependence, withdrawal syndrome and drug craving. Also, environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown protective effects in several animal models of addiction. This study evaluated effect of the EE on the anxiety-depression profile and voluntary METH consumption in METH-dependent rats after abstinence. The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (2 mg/kg, at 12 h intervals) of METH over a period of 14 days. METH dependent rats reared in standard environment (SE) or EE during spontaneous METH withdrawal which lasted 30 days. Then, the rats were tested for anxiety (the elevated plus maze-EPM) and depression (forced swim test-FST) and also voluntary consumption of METH using a two-bottle choice paradigm (TBC). The results showed that the EE rats exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries (P Environmental enrichment seems to be one of the strategies in reduction of behavioral deficits and the risk of relapse induced by METH withdrawal.

  9. Selection of DNA-encoded small molecule libraries against unmodified and non-immobilized protein targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Chen, Zitian; Li, Yizhou; Sun, Dawei; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Yanyi; Li, Xiaoyu

    2014-09-15

    The selection of DNA-encoded libraries against biological targets has become an important discovery method in chemical biology and drug discovery, but the requirement of modified and immobilized targets remains a significant disadvantage. With a terminal protection strategy and ligand-induced photo-crosslinking, we show that iterated selections of DNA-encoded libraries can be realized with unmodified and non-immobilized protein targets.

  10. O-space imaging: Highly efficient parallel imaging using second-order nonlinear fields as encoding gradients with no phase encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, Jason P; Ciris, Pelin Aksit; Galiana, Gigi; Tam, Leo; Constable, R Todd

    2010-08-01

    Recent improvements in parallel imaging have been driven by the use of greater numbers of independent surface coils placed so as to minimize aliasing along the phase-encode direction(s). However, gains from increasing the number of coils diminish as coil coupling problems begin to dominate and the ratio of acceleration gain to expense for multiple receiver chains becomes prohibitive. In this work, we redesign the spatial-encoding strategy in order to gain efficiency, achieving a gradient encoding scheme that is complementary to the spatial encoding provided by the receiver coils. This approach leads to "O-space" imaging, wherein the gradient shapes are tailored to an existing surface coil array, making more efficient use of the spatial information contained in the coil profiles. In its simplest form, for each acquired echo the Z2 spherical harmonic is used to project the object onto sets of concentric rings, while the X and Y gradients are used to offset this projection within the imaging plane. The theory is presented, an algorithm is introduced for image reconstruction, and simulations reveal that O-space encoding achieves high encoding efficiency compared to sensitivity encoding (SENSE) radial k-space trajectories, and parallel imaging technique with localized gradients (PatLoc), suggesting that O-space imaging holds great potential for accelerated scanning.

  11. Hesitance towards voluntary medical male circumcision in Lesotho: reconfiguring global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on work examining HIV prevention initiatives in Lesotho, this paper considers the hesitation of national state actors towards the new strategy for HIV prevention - voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Lesotho offers a representative case study on global health governance, given the country's high HIV burden and heavy dependence on foreign donor nations to implement local HIV prevention initiatives. In this paper, I use the case of VMMC opposition in Lesotho to examine how the new era of 'partnerships' has shifted the architecture of contemporary global health, specifically considering how global agreements are translated or negotiated into local practice. I argue that Lesotho's domestic policy-makers, in employing national statistics to assess if VMMC is an effective approach to addressing the local epidemic, are asserting a claim of expertise. In doing so, they challenge the traditional structures of global health politics, which have largely been managed by experts and funders from and in the global North. I explore the development of global VMMC policy, what drives Lesotho's resistance to comply, and consider the impact renegotiation efforts may have on future global health architecture.

  12. Cellular encoding for interactive evolutionary robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruau, F.C.; Quatramaran, K.

    1996-01-01

    This work reports experiments in interactive evolutionary robotics. The goal is to evolve an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to control the locomotion of an 8-legged robot. The ANNs are encoded using a cellular developmental process called cellular encoding. In a previous work similar experiments ha

  13. A METHOD OF SHAPE ENCODING AND RETRIEVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xianglin; Song Lei; Shen Lansun

    2002-01-01

    A method of shape encoding and retrieval is proposed in this letter, which uses centripetal code to encode shape and extracts shape's convex for retrieval. For the rotation invariance and translation invariance of the centripetal code and the normalization of convex,the proposed retrieval method is similarity transform resistant, Experimental results confirm this capability.

  14. The Arabic Diatessaron Project: Digitalizing, Encoding, Lemmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Lancioni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Arabic Diatessaron Project (henceforth ADP is an international research project in Digital Humanities that aims to collect, digitalise and encode all known manuscripts of the Arabic Diatessaron (henceforth AD, a text that has been relatively neglected in scholarly research. ADP’s final goal is to provide a number of tools that can enable scholars to effectively query, compare and investigate all known variants of the text that will be encoded as far as possible in compliance with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI guidelines. The paper addresses a number of issues involved in the process of digitalising manuscripts included in the two existing editions (Ciasca 1888 and Marmardji 1935, adding variants in unedited manuscripts, encoding and lemmatising the text. Issues involved in the design of the ADP include presentation of variants, choice of the standard text, applicability of TEI guidelines, automatic translation between different encodings, cross-edition concordances and principles of lemmatisation.

  15. Factors related to voluntary parental decision-making in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Nelson, Robert M

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine demographic and contextual correlates of voluntariness in parents making research or treatment decisions for their children with cancer. Participants included 184 parents of children with cancer who made a decision about enrolling the child in a research or treatment protocol within the previous 10 days. Parents completed questionnaires that assessed voluntariness, external influence by others, concern that the child's care would be negatively affected if the parent did not agree, time pressure, information adequacy, and demographics. Lower perceived voluntariness was associated with lower education, male gender, minority status, and not having previous experience with a similar decision. Parents who reported lower voluntariness also perceived more external influence and time pressure, had more concern about the child's care being negatively affected if they declined, and perceived that they had either too much or not enough information about the decision. In a multivariate regression, education, minority status, gender, external influence, and too little information remained significantly associated with voluntariness. Several groups of parents appear to be at risk for decreased voluntariness when making research or treatment decisions for their seriously ill children, including fathers, nonwhite parents, and those with less education. Parental voluntariness may be enhanced by helping parents to mitigate the effects of unhelpful or unwanted influences by others and ensuring that their information needs are met.

  16. Differences in twitch potentiation between voluntary and stimulated quadriceps contractions of equal intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeau, M; Gondin, J; Martin, A; Van Hoecke, J; Maffiuletti, N A

    2010-02-01

    This study compared the extent of twitch and M-wave potentiation (POT) between voluntary and stimulated quadriceps contractions performed at the same intensity. Sixteen healthy men completed 10-s isometric knee extensions at 40% of the maximal voluntary contraction torque under electrical stimulation and voluntary conditions. Single stimuli were delivered to the femoral nerve to evoke twitches before (PRE) and from 3 to 600 s after the end of each conditioning contraction. Changes in twitch contractile properties and M-wave characteristics were compared between the conditions. The extent of twitch peak torque POT was smaller for the stimulated (122+/-20% of PRE) than for the voluntary condition (133+/-20% of PRE). The magnitude of POT for the maximal rate of twitch torque development was also smaller for the stimulated trial. Rectus femoris M-wave amplitude was potentiated by the voluntary but not by the stimulated contraction. It was concluded that stimulated contractions resulted in smaller twitch and M-wave POT than voluntary contractions, despite equivalent torque output and duration. The spatially and temporally fixed recruitment of motor units with electrical stimulation and therefore the lower number of activated motor units compared with voluntary actions of equal intensity could explain the present findings.

  17. The Improved Sensitivity to Crossmodal Asynchrony Caused by Voluntary Action: Comparing Combinations of Sensory Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimichi Kitagawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The brain has to assess the fine temporal relationship between voluntary actions and their sensory effects to achieve precise spatiotemporal control of body movement. Recently we found that voluntary action improved the subsequent perceptual temporal discrimination between somatosensory and auditory events. In voluntary condition, participants actively pressed a button and a noise burst was presented at various onset asynchronies relative to the button press. The participants made either ‘sound-first’ or ‘touch-first’ responses. We found that the temporal order judgment performance in the voluntary condition (as indexed by just noticeable difference was significantly better than that when their finger was passively stimulated (passive condition. Temporal attention and comparable involuntary movement did not explain the improvement caused by the voluntary action. The results suggest that predicting sensory consequences via a ‘forward’ model enhances perceptual temporal resolution for precise control of the body. The present study examined whether this improved temporal sensitivity caused by the voluntary action is also observed for the other combinations of sensory modalities. We compared the effects of voluntary action on the temporal sensitivity between auditory-somatosensory, visual-somatosensory, and somatosensory-somatosensory stimulus pairs.

  18. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Nenert

    Full Text Available Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA. All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN. Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  19. A model for visual memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2014-01-01

    Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  20. Least-squares reverse time migration of marine data with frequency-selection encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-06-24

    The phase-encoding technique can sometimes increase the efficiency of the least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) by more than one order of magnitude. However, traditional random encoding functions require all the encoded shots to share the same receiver locations, thus limiting the usage to seismic surveys with a fixed spread geometry. We implement a frequency-selection encoding strategy that accommodates data with a marine streamer geometry. The encoding functions are delta functions in the frequency domain, so that all the encoded shots have unique nonoverlapping frequency content, and the receivers can distinguish the wavefield from each shot with a unique frequency band. Because the encoding functions are orthogonal to each other, there will be no crosstalk between different shots during modeling and migration. With the frequency-selection encoding method, the computational efficiency of LSRTM is increased so that its cost is comparable to conventional RTM for the Marmousi2 model and a marine data set recorded in the Gulf of Mexico. With more iterations, the LSRTM image quality is further improved by suppressing migration artifacts, balancing reflector amplitudes, and enhancing the spatial resolution. We conclude that LSRTM with frequency-selection is an efficient migration method that can sometimes produce more focused images than conventional RTM. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  1. Reflex changes in muscle spindle discharge during a voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniss, A M; Gandevia, S C; Burke, D

    1988-03-01

    1. This study was undertaken to determine whether low-threshold cutaneous and muscle afferents from mechanoreceptors in the foot reflexly affect fusimotor neurons innervating the plantar and dorsiflexors of the ankle during voluntary contractions. 2. Recordings were made from 29 identified muscle spindle afferents innervating triceps surae and the pretibial flexors. Trains of electrical stimuli (5 stimuli, 300 impulses per second) were delivered to the sural nerve at the ankle (intensity: 2-4 times sensory threshold) and to the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle (intensity: 1.5-3 times motor threshold for the small muscles of the foot). The stimuli were delivered while the subject maintained an isometric voluntary contraction of the receptor-bearing muscle, sufficient to accelerate the discharge of each spindle ending. This ensured that the fusimotor neurons directed to the ending were active and influencing the spindle discharge. The effects of these stimuli on muscle spindle discharge were assessed using raster displays, frequencygrams, poststimulus time histograms (PSTHs) and cumulative sums ("CUSUMs") of the PSTHs. Reflex effects onto alpha-motoneurons were determined from poststimulus changes in the averaged rectified electromyogram (EMG). Reflex effects of these stimuli onto single-motor units were assessed in separate experiments using PSTHs and CUSUMs. 3. Electrical stimulation of the sural or posterior tibial nerves at nonnoxious levels had no significant effect on the discharge of the 14 spindle endings in the pretibial flexor muscles. The electrical stimuli also produced no significant change in discharge of 11 of 15 spindle endings in triceps surae. With the remaining four endings in triceps surae, the overall change in discharge appeared to be an increase for two endings (at latencies of 60 and 68 ms) and a decrease for two endings (at latencies of 110 and 150 ms). The difference in the incidence of the responses of spindle endings in tibialis

  2. Photoacoustic imaging using genetically encoded reporters: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunker, Joanna; Yao, Junjie; Laufer, Jan; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2017-07-01

    Genetically encoded contrast in photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is complementary to the intrinsic contrast provided by endogenous absorbing chromophores such as hemoglobin. The use of reporter genes expressing absorbing proteins opens the possibility of visualizing dynamic cellular and molecular processes. This is an enticing prospect but brings with it challenges and limitations associated with generating and detecting different types of reporters. The purpose of this review is to compare existing PAI reporters and signal detection strategies, thereby offering a practical guide, particularly for the nonbiologist, to choosing the most appropriate reporter for maximum sensitivity in the biological and technological system of interest.

  3. Road blocks in achieving a 100% voluntary blood donation rate in the South Asian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodfield Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary blood donation rates are not high in the South Asian region, except in a few countries. The reasons for this are outlined and the roadblocks for improvement of the situation noted. The need for increased planning, both regionally and nationally, is emphasized and some factors that inhibit voluntary blood donation are mentioned. There is a real need to move from a system of reliance on ′replacement′ donors to a fully nonremunerated voluntary blood donation system, and the examples and lessons from successful countries should be carefully studied.

  4. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nicholas, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  5. The determinants of voluntary disclosure in Saudi Arabia:an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Habbash, Murya; Hussainey, Khaled; Ibrahim, Awad

    2016-01-01

    Our study has three objectives. The first is to determine the voluntary disclosure level in Saudi Arabia. The second is to compare this level with that of some other Arab countries. The third is to identify the main drivers of voluntary disclosure in Saudi Arabia. We use a 54-item disclosure checklist and apply the regression and content analyses to examine a sample of 361 firm-year observations of firms listed on Saudi Stock Exchange during 2007-2011. We find the voluntary disclosure average...

  6. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  7. Towards an integrated design of voluntary approaches and standardization processes: An analysis of issues and trends in the Italian regulation on ground coupled heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzi, Francesco, E-mail: f.rizzi@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Frey, Marco, E-mail: frey@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Iraldo, Fabio, E-mail: f.iraldo@sssup.it [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna - Istituto di Management, P.zza Martiri della Liberta 33, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} We investigate GCHP regulation development from an entrepreneurial perspective. {yields} Threats in booming market orient entrepreneurs toward green management. {yields} Command and control regulation is not sufficient to guarantee market sustainability. {yields} Voluntary regulation encourage best performers to invest in long-term strategies. {yields} Bottom-up regulation design advances integration of process and product standards. - Abstract: Despite the lack of specific incentives, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) installations are booming in Italy both in the private and public sectors. Such rapid growth is coupled with increasing concern for environmental and technical performances since no comprehensive regulation and reliable standards currently exist. This paper discusses potential schemes aimed at balancing mandatory and voluntary requirements by using SWOT-based techniques and examining the opinions of sectoral leaders. The analysis suggests that standardization and voluntary schemes are perceived as efficient and effective tools to encourage the greening of Italian GCHP-SMEs in the short-term while laying the foundations for sustainable policies in the longer run. A potential scheme is discussed that was simulated by reflecting the supply-side of the market, and which involves process and product standards.

  8. Movement-related cortical activation with voluntary pinch task: simultaneous monitoring of near-infrared spectroscopy signals and movement-related cortical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yosuke; Fukuda, Masafumi; Oishi, Makoto; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate hemodynamic and electrophysiological motor cortex responses to voluntary finger pinching in humans, with simultaneous recording of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals and movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP). Six healthy, right-handed subjects performed 100 trials of voluntary right-thumb index-finger pinching with about a 10-second interval at their own pace. Throughout the session, 48 regions over the bilateral motor cortex were assessed by NIRS, while MRCP and electromyogram (EMG) were simultaneously monitored. MRCP started 1536+/-58 ms before EMG onset and peaked 127+/-24 ms after EMG onset. NIRS data showed bilateral prefrontal cortex at 0.5+/-0.1 s before EMG onset and bilateral dorsal premotor cortex activations at 0.6+/-0.1 s before EMG onset. The hand area of the sensorimotor cortex was activated left-dominantly, seen obviously peaked at 3.7+/-0.2 s after EMG onset. The comparison between MRCP and NIRS results raised the possibility that the vascular response to neural activity occurs within 4 s with a voluntary pinch task. These results indicate that our technique allows detailed study of the motor control. Our method is a promising strategy for event-related motor control and neurovascular coupling studies.

  9. Corporate Social Responsibility through Voluntary Commitment in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises – the Case of the ‘Heilbronn Declaration’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Stehr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility has grown popular among discussions in economics and societies worldwide. To a growing extent customers make their buying decisions underCSR aspects. Enterprises try to follow up with CSR strategies. But often a gap has to be detected between the theoretical approach of CSR and practical implementations within the entrepreneurial reality. This article introduces a possible approach of closing the gap within CSR implementation. The ‘Heilbronn Declaration’ is a voluntary agreement of enterprises and institutions in Germany especially of the Heilbronn-Franconia region. The approach of the ‘Heilbronn Declaration’ targets the decisive factors of success or failure, the achievements of the implementation and best practices regarding CSR. A form of responsible entrepreneurship shall be initiated to meet the requirements of stakeholders’ trust in economy. Therefore it has been elaborated by academics together with enterprises and their shareholders. It is an approach to make voluntary commitment more binding. Its scientific base may allowdevelopment of indicators for CSR implementation in business ventures and institutions to finalize in a CSR audit. The innovative approach of the ‘Heilbronn Declaration’ is theintegration of the prospective signatories into discussion on the idea and purpose of business from the very first beginning.Keywords: sustainability, corporate social responsibility, innovation, voluntary commitment, authentic CSR, small and medium sized enterprises (SME

  10. Distinct Developmental Origins Manifest in the Specialized Encoding of Movement by Adult Neurons of the External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Paul D.; Larvin, Joseph T.; Duffell, James M.; Garas, Farid N.; Doig, Natalie M.; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Duguid, Ian C.; Bogacz, Rafal; Butt, Simon J.B.; Magill, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transcriptional codes initiated during brain development are ultimately realized in adulthood as distinct cell types performing specialized roles in behavior. Focusing on the mouse external globus pallidus (GPe), we demonstrate that the potential contributions of two GABAergic GPe cell types to voluntary action are fated from early life to be distinct. Prototypic GPe neurons derive from the medial ganglionic eminence of the embryonic subpallium and express the transcription factor Nkx2-1. These neurons fire at high rates during alert rest, and encode movements through heterogeneous firing rate changes, with many neurons decreasing their activity. In contrast, arkypallidal GPe neurons originate from lateral/caudal ganglionic eminences, express the transcription factor FoxP2, fire at low rates during rest, and encode movements with robust increases in firing. We conclude that developmental diversity positions prototypic and arkypallidal neurons to fulfil distinct roles in behavior via their disparate regulation of GABA release onto different basal ganglia targets. PMID:25843402

  11. Sound Localization Strategies in Three Predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare some of the neural strategies for sound localization and encoding interaural time differences (ITDs) in three predatory species of Reptilia, alligators, barn owls and geckos. Birds and crocodilians are sister groups among the extant archosaurs, while geckos are lepidosau...... spatial locations, while geckos may use a meter strategy or population code composed of broadly sensitive neurons that represent ITD via changes in the firing rate.......In this paper, we compare some of the neural strategies for sound localization and encoding interaural time differences (ITDs) in three predatory species of Reptilia, alligators, barn owls and geckos. Birds and crocodilians are sister groups among the extant archosaurs, while geckos are lepidosaurs....... Despite the similar organization of their auditory systems, archosaurs and lizards use different strategies for encoding the ITDs that underlie localization of sound in azimuth. Barn owls encode ITD information using a place map, which is composed of neurons serving as labeled lines tuned for preferred...

  12. Hierarchical control of motor units in voluntary contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Carlo J; Contessa, Paola

    2012-01-01

    For the past five decades there has been wide acceptance of a relationship between the firing rate of motor units and the afterhyperpolarization of motoneurons. It has been promulgated that the higher-threshold, larger-soma, motoneurons fire faster than the lower-threshold, smaller-soma, motor units. This relationship was based on studies on anesthetized cats with electrically stimulated motoneurons. We questioned its applicability to motor unit control during voluntary contractions in humans. We found that during linearly force-increasing contractions, firing rates increased as exponential functions. At any time and force level, including at recruitment, the firing rate values were inversely related to the recruitment threshold of the motor unit. The time constants of the exponential functions were directly related to the recruitment threshold. From the Henneman size principle it follows that the characteristics of the firing rates are also related to the size of the soma. The "firing rate spectrum" presents a beautifully simple control scheme in which, at any given time or force, the firing rate value of earlier-recruited motor units is greater than that of later-recruited motor units. This hierarchical control scheme describes a mechanism that provides an effective economy of force generation for the earlier-recruited lower force-twitch motor units, and reduces the fatigue of later-recruited higher force-twitch motor units-both characteristics being well suited for generating and sustaining force during the fight-or-flight response.

  13. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation in diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-11-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) cause exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and are important differential diagnoses to exercise-induced asthma. The diagnostic method for EILOs includes provocation to induce the obstruction followed by a verification of the obstruction and the degree thereof. The objective of the present study was to examine if a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test could induce laryngeal obstructions laryngoscopically identical in subtypes and development as seen during an exercise test. EVH and exercise testing with continuous laryngoscopy were performed during a screening of two national athletic teams (n = 67). The laryngoscopic recordings were examined for usability, abnormalities and maximal supraglottic and glottic obstruction using two currently available methods (Eilomea and CLE-score). The participants were asked questions on ERRS, and whether the symptoms experienced during each provocation matched those experienced during regular training. A total of 39 completed both tests. There were no significant differences in subtypes and development thereof, the experience of symptoms, and specificity and sensitivity between the methods. Significantly more recordings obtained during the exercise test were usable for evaluation primarily due to resilient mucus on the tip of the fiber-laryngoscope in the EVH test. Only recordings of six athletes from both provocation methods were usable for evaluation using the Eilomea method (high-quality demand). Amongst these, a linear correlation was found for the glottic obstruction. EVH tests can induce EILOs. However, the present test protocol needs adjustments to secure better visualisation of the larynx during provocation.

  14. Ethical challenges in voluntary blood donation in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, L P; Tetali, S

    2007-03-01

    The National Blood Policy in India relies heavily on voluntary blood donors, as they are usually assumed to be associated with low levels of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). In India, it is mandatory to test every unit of blood collected for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, syphilis and malaria. Donors come to the blood bank with altruistic intentions. If donors test positive to any of the five infections, their blood is discarded. Although the blood policy advocates disclosure of TTI status, donors are not, in practice, informed about their results. The onus is on the donor to contact the blood bank. Out of approximately 16 000 donations in the past 2 years, 438 tested positive for TTI, including 107 for HIV. Only 20% of the donors contacted the blood bank; none of them were HIV positive. Disclosure by blood banks of TTI status by telephone or mail has resulted in serious consequences for some donors. Health providers face an ethical dilemma, in the absence of proper mechanisms in place for disclosure of test results, regarding notification to donors who may test positive but remain ignorant of their TTI status. Given the high cost of neglecting to notify infected donors, the authors strongly recommend the use of rapid tests before collecting blood, instead of the current practice, which takes 3 h to obtain results, and disclosure of results directly to the donor by a counsellor, to avoid dropouts and to ensure confidentiality.

  15. Impaired Interlimb Coordination of Voluntary Leg Movements in Poststroke Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Chiao

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate interlimb coordination of the lower extremities is particularly important for a variety of functional human motor behaviors such as jumping, kicking a ball, or simply walking. Specific interlimb coordination patterns may be especially impaired after a lesion to the motor system such as stroke, yet this has not been thoroughly examined to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate the motor deficits in individuals with chronic stroke and hemiparesis when performing unilateral versus bilateral inphase versus bilateral antiphase voluntary cyclic ankle movements. We recorded ankle angular trajectories and muscle activity from the dorsiflexors and plantarflexors and compared these between subjects with stroke and a group of healthy age-matched control subjects. Results showed clear abnormalities in both the kinematics and EMG of the stroke subjects, with significant movement degradation during the antiphase task compared with either the unilateral or the inphase task. The abnormalities included prolonged cycle durations, reduced ankle excursions, decreased agonist EMG bursts, and reduced EMG modulation across movement phases. By comparison, the control group showed nearly identical performance across all task conditions. These findings suggest that stroke involving the corticospinal system projection to the leg specifically impairs one or more components of the neural circuitry involved in lower extremity interlimb coordination. The express susceptibility of the antiphase pattern to exaggerated motor deficits could contribute to functional deficits in a number of antiphase leg movement tasks, including walking. PMID:20463199

  16. A model of voluntary turnover among hospital CEOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, P A; Kimball, P A

    1995-01-01

    This study examines factors contributing to hospital CEOs' voluntary decisions to leave their positions in 1990. Using a longitudinal design, we contrast 49 leavers with 1,362 stayers. We view turnover as influenced by both "push" factors that promote leaving (dissatisfaction with the position) and "hump" factors that need to be overcome (the cost of job change). Push factors giving rise to dissatisfaction include lower compensation, the predecessor's termination, and value incongruity between the CEO and the hospital. Testing the impact of key variables from Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership, we show that task-oriented leaders are relatively less satisfied when compared with relationship-oriented leaders. CEOs also express less satisfaction in low-situational control settings, a measure heavily influenced by perceived inadequate support from medical staff and subordinates. "Hump" factors that deterred leaving included family-related obstacles such as spouse's work or children's school, features mentioned most often by younger CEOs. The study suggests that boards should structure competitively paid positions with opportunities to generate support from the medical staff and subordinates. Recruiters for CEO positions are apprised of the importance of nonwork features in CEOs' willingness to consider new positions.

  17. Voluntary Body Donation: The Gift that Lives on Forever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, S.; Rao, M. Vittoo; Sumangala; Supriya, G.; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-10-01

    Body donation is a gracious act, Shankarcharaya firmly believed in concept of Body Donation or Organ Donation and said Iddham sharirum paropakarum i.e. the body is for use of others and death is not the end, it is the beginning. Anatomy is important basic subject for medicalstudents, both U.G. & P.G. Best method of Anatomy learning is by dissection on human cadavers, which remains principle teaching tool. Human cadavers for purpose of study are a scarcity with mushrooming of medical institutions in this country. Unclaimed bodies are no more origin of cadavers. Whole Body donation is the need of the hour. A Voluntary Body Donation is defined as the act of giving oneís Body after death for Medical research and education. In this article a survey was done in S.V.S. Medical & Dental Colleges Faculty members and medical exhibition visitors which include lawyers, engineers, teachers and others during the year of 2010. The body donation including organ donation and various factors such as age, religion, culture and donorís attitude are discussed. Body donation provides the students and medical researchers with unparalleled opportunities to study the human body. Computers nor books cannot totally replace body dissection in learning the anatomy.

  18. Voluntary medical male circumcision in resource-constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobian, Aaron A R; Adamu, Tigistu; Reed, Jason B; Kiggundu, Valerian; Yazdi, Youseph; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Throughout East and Southern Africa, the WHO recommends voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to reduce heterosexual HIV acquisition. Evidence has informed policy and the implementation of VMMC programmes in these countries. VMMC has been incorporated into the HIV prevention portfolio and more than 9 million VMMCs have been performed. Conventional surgical procedures consist of forceps-guided, dorsal slit or sleeve resection techniques. Devices are also becoming available that might help to accelerate the scale-up of adult VMMC. The ideal device should make VMMC easier, safer, faster, sutureless, inexpensive, less painful, require less infrastructure, be more acceptable to patients and should not require follow-up visits. Elastic collar compression devices cause vascular obstruction and necrosis of foreskin tissue and do not require sutures or injectable anaesthesia. Collar clamp devices compress the proximal part of the foreskin to reach haemostasis; the distal foreskin is removed, but the device remains and therefore no sutures are required. Newer techniques and designs, such as tissue adhesives and a circular cutter with stapled anastomosis, are improvements, but none of these methods have achieved all desirable characteristics. Further research, design and development are needed to address this gap to enable the expansion of the already successful VMMC programmes for HIV prevention.

  19. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E.; Rabotyagov, Sergey S.

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at 217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and 160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  20. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E; Rabotyagov, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at $217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and $160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  1. Damping of the wrist joint during voluntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, T E; Cloutier, C

    1998-10-01

    Damping characteristics of the musculoskeletal system were investigated during rapid voluntary wrist flexion movements. Oscillations about the final position were induced by introducing a load with the characteristics of negative damping, which artificially reduced the damping of the wrist. Subjects responded to increases in the negatively damped load by stronger cocontraction of wrist flexor and extensor muscles during the stabilization phase of the movement. However, their ability to counteract the effects of the negatively damped load diminished as the negative damping increased. Consequently, the number and frequency of oscillations increased. The oscillations were accompanied by phase-locked muscle activity superimposed on underlying tonic muscle activation. The wrist stiffness and damping coefficient increased with the increased cocontraction that accompanied more negatively damped loads, although changes in the damping coefficient were less systematic than the stiffness. Analysis of successive half-cycles of the oscillation revealed that the wrist stiffness and damping coefficient increased, despite decreasing muscle activation, as oscillation amplitude and velocity declined. This indicates that the inverse dependence of the damping coefficient on oscillation velocity contributes significantly to damping of joint motion. It is suggested that this property helps to offset a negative contribution to damping from the stretch reflex.

  2. Voluntary Truck and Bus Fuel-Economy-Program marketing plan. Final technical report, September 29, 1980-January 29, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the program is to improve the utilization of fuel by commercial trucks and buses by updating and implementing specific approaches for educating and monitoring the trucking industry on methods and means of conserving fuels. The following outlines the marketing plan projects: increase use of program logo by voluntary program members and others; solicit trade publication membership and support; brief Congressional delegations on fuel conservation efforts; increase voluntary program presence before trade groups; increase voluntary program presence at truck and trade shows; create a voluntary program display for use at trade shows and in other areas; review voluntary program graphics; increase voluntary program membership; and produce placemats carrying fuel conservation messages; produce a special edition of Fuel Economy News, emphasizing the driver's involvement in fuel conservation; produce posters carrying voluntary program fuel conservation message. Project objectives, activities, and results for each project are summarized.

  3. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  4. Voluntary Certification of Agricultural Products in Competitive Markets: The Consideration of Boundedly Rational Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujin Pu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market competition creates strategic incentives for firms to communicate private information about their own product quality through certification. Although voluntary certification has recently gained importance in the agricultural industry, information asymmetry is not always completely addressed. This study analyzes how the relative proportion of boundedly rational consumers in the market influences the effectiveness of voluntary certification mechanisms by using a duopoly game model of high- and low-quality firms. The presented results show that a change in the proportion of boundedly rational consumers leads to different certification behaviors and a different market equilibrium. We also find that the existence of boundedly rational consumers is an important factor in the failure of voluntary certification. Indeed, when the relative proportion of such consumers is very high, voluntary certification is ineffective at improving market efficiency.

  5. 78 FR 59036 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Cogent Patient Safety Organization, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Cogent Patient Safety Organization, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act...

  6. 78 FR 40146 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Northern Metropolitan Patient Safety Institute AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement...

  7. 76 FR 7853 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Oregon Patient Safety Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Oregon Patient Safety Commission AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: Oregon Patient Safety Commission: AHRQ has accepted...

  8. 78 FR 6819 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From The Connecticut Hospital Association...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From The Connecticut Hospital Association Federal Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of delisting. SUMMARY: The Patient Safety...

  9. 76 FR 7855 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Community Medical Foundation for Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Community Medical Foundation for Patient Safety AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Community Medical Foundation for Patient...

  10. 76 FR 9350 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization: AHRQ...

  11. 76 FR 71345 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Emergency Medicine Patient Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... relinquishment from Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation of its status as a Patient Safety...

  12. Exploring Privacy Management on Facebook: Motivations and Perceived Consequences of Voluntary Disclosure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waters, Susan; Ackerman, James

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the perceived motivations and consequences of voluntary disclosure of Facebook active users using a survey administered to college students in a public‐speaking course. College...

  13. 16 CFR 1031.7 - Commission support of voluntary standards activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or subsidizing technical assistance, including research, health science data, and engineering support.... (5) Providing assistance on methods of disseminating information and education about the voluntary... conflicting State and local regulations. (8) Monitoring the number and market share of products conforming...

  14. The voluntary community health movement in India: a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Bhatia, G

    1996-12-01

    There has been a prolific growth of voluntary organizations in India since independence in 1947. One of the major areas of this growth has been in the field of community health. The purpose of this article is to historically trace the voluntary movement in community health in India, analyze the current status, and predict future trends of voluntary efforts. A review of the literature in the form of a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis was the method of this study. Some of the key trends which emerged as the priority areas for progress and for strengthening voluntary organizations in the future were enhancing linkages between health and development; building upon collective force; greater utilization of participatory training; establishing egalitarian and effectual linkages for decision making at the international level; developing self-reliant community-based models; and the need for attaining holistic empowerment at individual, organizational, and community levels through "duty consciousness" as opposed to merely asking for rights.

  15. EPA Releases Guidance on a Voluntary Pilot Program to Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the start of a voluntary pilot program to evaluate the usefulness and acceptability of a mathematical tool that estimates the toxicological classification of a chemical, which is used in the GHS.

  16. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Belyeu, K.; Kuskova-Burns, K.

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This report surveys utilities, competitive suppliers, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, and, for the first time, the community choice aggregation market. This report finds that the voluntary market totaled 62 million megawatt-hours in 2013. Approximately 5.4 million customers are purchasing green power. This report presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing, and administrative expenses. The report also details trends in REC tracking systems, REC pricing in voluntary and compliance markets, community and crowd-funded solar, and interest in renewable energy by the information and communication technologies sector.

  17. 78 FR 57818 - Commission Participation and Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1031 Commission Participation and Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  18. A candidate syntenic genetic locus is associated with voluntary exercise levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostrzewa, E.; Brandys, M. K.; van Lith, H. A.; Kas, M. J H

    2015-01-01

    Individual levels of physical activity, and especially of voluntary physical exercise, highly contribute to the susceptibility for developing metabolic, cardiovascular diseases, and potentially to psychiatric disorders. Here, we applied a cross-species approach to explore a candidate genetic region

  19. 75 FR 78257 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... in evaluating reports of alleged injuries and adverse reactions from the use of cosmetics. The... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  20. On the potential of voluntary environmental programmes for the built environment: A critical analysis of LEED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary environmental programmes (VEPs) are increasingly gaining traction as a means of improving the environmental performance of buildings and their occupants. These programmes are of interest because they incentivise developers, property owners and occupants to improve such performance voluntar

  1. Pavlov's conceptualization of voluntary movements within the framework of the theory of higher nervous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1998-01-01

    Pavlov became interested in the nature of voluntary movements after receiving Konorski and Miller's letter in 1928 describing their experiments on conditioning of motor movements in dogs. Their paradigmatic experiment involved presenting an indifferent stimulus, followed by passive raising of the dog's leg and then reinforcement. If the same stimulus was provided during a number of trials, the animal lifted its corresponding leg. In 1928 Pavlov asked his students to condition motor movements in his laboratory. Although their findings were equivocal, Pavlov incorporated the so-called voluntary movements into his theory of higher nervous activity. Voluntary movements were responses to external environmental contingencies. On the cortical level, the motor analyzer's cells had both afferent and efferent functions. In Pavlov's view, the motor analyzer's cells established connections with the afferent cells of other sensory analyzers. Pavlov held that motor movements, as responses to external and internal environments, give humans the illusion of voluntary behavior.

  2. Voluntary Early Retirement Is a Painless Way to Prune Your Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    The steps necessary to establish most voluntary early retirement incentive plans include establishing a variable-rate incentive, a minimum qualifying salary, a minimum qualifying age, and a method of payment. (Author/IRT)

  3. 78 FR 48413 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Antiboycott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Antiboycott Violations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Notice... industry to voluntarily self-disclose Antiboycott violations. II. Method of Collection Submitted on paper...

  4. 75 FR 43486 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self-Disclosure of Antiboycott...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Self- Disclosure of Antiboycott Violations AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce ACTION: Notice... Regulations (EAR) by providing a method for industry to voluntarily self-disclose antiboycott violations...

  5. The impacts of product market competition on the quantity and quality of voluntary disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Saeidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between product market competition and voluntary disclosure among 124 selected firms listed on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2004-2013. The study uses Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (HHI and Lerner (LLIA index to measure competition in terms of capacity and price, respectively. In addition, the study uses the questionnaire developed by Botosan (1997 [Botosan, C. A. (1997. Disclosure level and the cost of equity capital. Accounting Review, 72(3, 323-349.] to measure voluntary disclosure. Using linear regression technique, the study has determined that there was a meaningful, direct and positive relationship between voluntary disclosure and competition in terms of price (LLIA. In addition, the results indicate that there was a meaningful and reverse relationship between voluntary disclosure and competition in terms of capacity (HHI.

  6. Voluntary Debt Reduction Operations. Bolivia, México, and Beyond Voluntary Debt Reduction Operations. Bolivia, México, and Beyond...

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Voluntary Debt Reduction Operations. Bolivia, México, and Beyond This paper studies two recent voluntary operations of debt reduction: Bolivia's buy-back and Mexico's exchange of loans for bonds. This argued that the buy-back had a cost for Bolivia and, hence, it required a political decision when comparing this option to other alternative use of its scarce foreign exchange resources. In the case of Mexico, it is shown that the operation, which can be seen as an indirect buy-back, gave...

  7. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wogulis, Mark

    2017-04-04

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  8. Chemical Space of DNA-Encoded Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini, Raphael M; Randolph, Cassie

    2016-07-28

    In recent years, DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) have attracted considerable attention as a potential discovery tool in drug development. Screening encoded libraries may offer advantages over conventional hit discovery approaches and has the potential to complement such methods in pharmaceutical research. As a result of the increased application of encoded libraries in drug discovery, a growing number of hit compounds are emerging in scientific literature. In this review we evaluate reported encoded library-derived structures and identify general trends of these compounds in relation to library design parameters. We in particular emphasize the combinatorial nature of these libraries. Generally, the reported molecules demonstrate the ability of this technology to afford hits suitable for further lead development, and on the basis of them, we derive guidelines for DECL design.

  9. Informing the scaling up of voluntary medical male circumcision efforts through the use of theory of reasoned action: survey findings among uncircumcised young men in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Dhillon, Preeti; Greene, Jessica L; Makadzange, Panganai; Khumlao, Philisiwe; Shekhar, Navendu

    2015-04-01

    Assessing predictors of intention to circumcise can help to identify effective strategies for increasing uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Grounded in the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the current study of uncircumcised males ages 13-29 in Swaziland (N = 1,257) employed multivariate logistic regression to determine predictors of VMMC intention. The strongest predictors were strongly disagreeing/disagreeing that sex was more painful for a circumcised man (odds ratio [OR] = 4.37; p = theory to explore young men's intention to circumcise and can help inform interventions aimed at increasing uptake of VMMC.

  10. The Role of Small Farmer Cooperatives in the Management of Voluntary Coffee Certifications in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Snider, Anna Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary certifications offer consumers information on the process in which products are produced. They can use this information to make more informed purchasing decisions and to espouse the issues of sustainability they deem important. Voluntary coffee certifications were some of the first certifications available to consumers. These certifications are purported to promote environmental, social and financial sustainability in the countries of coffee production, but empirical evidence shows ...

  11. DOES VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE LEVEL AFFECT THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore whether voluntary disclosure level affects the value relevance of accounting information from an investor’s perspective on Kuwait Stock Exchange (KSE). Based on the assumption that an increased focus on the informational needs of investors should increase the value relevance of the information contained in financial statements we expect that value relevance will increase along with increases in the level of voluntary disclosure. As a consequence, we expect that gre...

  12. Leading by words: A voluntary contribution experiment with one-way communication

    OpenAIRE

    Koukoumelis, Anastasios; Levati, Maria Vittoria; Weisser, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study a voluntary contribution mechanism with one-way communication. The relevance of one person's words is assessed by assigning exogenously the role of the "communicator" to one group member. Contrary to the view that the mutual exchange of promises is necessary for the cooperation-enhancing effect of communication, we ï¬ nd that, compared to a standard voluntary contribution mechanism with no communication, one-way communication signiï¬ cantly increases contributions and ...

  13. Raping and making love are different concepts: so are killing and voluntary euthanasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, J.

    1988-01-01

    The distinction between 'kill' and 'help to die' is argued by analogy with the distinction between 'rape' and 'make love to'. The difference is the consent of the receiver of the act, therefore 'kill' is the wrong word for an act of active voluntary euthanasia. The argument that doctors must not be allowed by law to perform active voluntary euthanasia because this would recognise an infringement of the sanctity of life ('the red light principle') is countered by comparing such doctors with th...

  14. Superimposed electrical stimulation comfortably improves the endurance of maximal voluntary contractions.

    OpenAIRE

    Boisgontier, Matthieu; Moineau, Bastien; Nougier, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; AIM: Electrical stimulation has shown to improve muscle endurance in sub-maximal contractions but sessions were painful due to the electric stimuli parameters. Therefore, the present study tested the effects of the superimposed electrical stimulation technique using comfortable current on endurance in repetitions of maximal voluntary contraction. METHODS: Seventeen young healthy subjects performed fifty maximal voluntary contractions of the triceps brachii in two condi...

  15. The Effect of Equity Strategies on Girls' Computer Usage in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Marian C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This investigation of the effect of school-based equity strategies on seventh and eighth grade girls' voluntary computer usage found that girls in schools where the strategies were implemented used computers more than boys; the reverse was true in the control schools. Reasons why the intervention was successful are suggested. (LRW)

  16. Clustering of polarization-encoded images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallat, Jihad; Collet, Christophe; Takakura, Yoshitate

    2004-01-10

    Polarization-encoded imaging consists of the distributed measurements of polarization parameters for each pixel of an image. We address clustering of multidimensional polarization-encoded images. The spatial coherence of polarization information is considered. Two methods of analysis are proposed: polarization contrast enhancement and a more-sophisticated image-processing algorithm based on a Markovian model. The proposed algorithms are applied and validated with two different Mueller images acquired by a fully polarimetric imaging system.

  17. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lyttleton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  18. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  19. The simultaneous perception of auditory–tactile stimuli in voluntary movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao eHao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND, an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory–tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy.

  20. Facilitation of corticospinal tract excitability by transcranial direct current stimulation combined with voluntary grip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Wook; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2013-08-26

    Previous studies have established that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a powerful technique for the deliberate manipulation of the activity of human cerebral cortex. Moreover, it has also been shown that the non-exhausted voluntary motor exercise increases the excitability of corticospinal tract. We conducted this study to define the facilitation effect following anodal tDCS combined with the voluntary grip exercise as compared with single use of tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. Our result showed that the combination of anodal tDCS with voluntary grip exercise produced a 2-fold increase in the amplitude of MEP as compared with single use of anodal tDCS or voluntary grip exercise. In conclusion, our result could indicate that the treatment outcomes of brain and neurorehabilitation using tDCS would be better when tDCS is combined with the appropriate method of voluntary exercise as compared with single use of tDCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. WATER TEMPERATURE, VOLUNTARY DRINKING AND FLUID BALANCE IN DEHYDRATED TAEKWONDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khamnei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject's plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status.

  2. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2014 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, Erin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-16

    NREL's annual report on green power markets summarizes status and trends in the voluntary demand for renewable energy. U.S. green power markets have become more complex over time as state-level policies have enabled more avenues for green power purchases. In recent years, community solar, community choice aggregation (CCA), and voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs) have significantly increased the number of U.S. voluntary green power customers. The community solar model has grown rapidly with 90 projects in 25 states by 2015. Renewable energy sales in CCAs declined slightly in 2014 in response to less favorable economic conditions in Illinois. At the same time, several California CCAs continued to grow, and many more communities are planning to pursue green power through aggregation. Voluntary green power purchasing through bi-lateral PPAs took off in 2014 due to several large-scale agreements signed by information and communication technology firms. Traditional green power options, such as utility green pricing programs and voluntary RECs markets, also grew in 2014. Current trends suggest strong continued growth in U.S. voluntary green power markets.

  3. Physiological alterations of maximal voluntary quadriceps activation by changes of knee joint angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R; Awiszus, F

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different angles of the knee joint on voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle, estimating the ability of a subject to activate a muscle maximally by means of voluntary contraction. Isometric torque measurement was performed on 6 healthy subjects in 5 degrees intervals between 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee joint flexion. Superimposed twitches at maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and at a level of 60% and 40% of the MVC were applied and the voluntary activation estimated. At between 30 degrees and 75 degrees of knee flexion, the maximal extension torque increased at an average rate of 2.67 +/- 0.6 Nm/degree, followed by a decline with further flexion. However, throughout the joint-angle range tested, voluntary activation increased on average by 0.37%/degree with a maximum at 90 degrees of flexion. Due to the influence of joint position it is not possible to generalize results obtained at the knee joint angle of 90 degrees of flexion, which is usually used for the quadriceps twitch-interpolation technique. Consequently, it is useful to investigate voluntary activation deficits in knee joint disorders at a range of knee joint angles that includes, in particular, the more extended joint angles used frequently during daily activity.

  4. The simultaneous perception of auditory-tactile stimuli in voluntary movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ogata, Taiki; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Kwon, Jinhwan; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND), an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory-tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy.

  5. The simultaneous perception of auditory–tactile stimuli in voluntary movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiao; Ogata, Taiki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Kwon, Jinhwan; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous perception of multimodal information in the environment during voluntary movement is very important for effective reactions to the environment. Previous studies have found that voluntary movement affects the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli. However, the results of these experiments are not completely consistent, and the differences may be attributable to methodological differences in the previous studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of voluntary movement on the simultaneous perception of auditory and tactile stimuli using a temporal order judgment task with voluntary movement, involuntary movement, and no movement. To eliminate the potential effect of stimulus predictability and the effect of spatial information associated with large-scale movement in the previous studies, we randomized the interval between the start of movement and the first stimulus, and used small-scale movement. As a result, the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) during voluntary movement shifted from the tactile stimulus being first during involuntary movement or no movement to the auditory stimulus being first. The just noticeable difference (JND), an indicator of temporal resolution, did not differ across the three conditions. These results indicate that voluntary movement itself affects the PSS in auditory–tactile simultaneous perception, but it does not influence the JND. In the discussion of these results, we suggest that simultaneous perception may be affected by the efference copy. PMID:26441799

  6. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2011-10-01

    This report documents the status and trends of 'compliance'--renewable energy certificate (REC) markets used to meet state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements--and 'voluntary' markets--those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Today, 29 states and the District of Columbia have an RPS, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, and all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents REC activities and trends in the United States. The compliance REC market analysis includes analysis of REC trading, regional REC markets, REC tracking systems, types of compliance RECs, compliance REC pricing trends, and an overview of compliance with RPS polices. The voluntary REC analysis presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing and administrative expenses, voluntary REC pricing, and the voluntary carbon offsets market. The report concludes with a discussion of upcoming guidance from the Federal Trade Commission on green marketing claims, the emergence of community solar programs, and the potential impact of Dodd-Frank regulations on the REC market.

  7. Neurally Encoding Time for Olfactory Navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jun Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately encoding time is one of the fundamental challenges faced by the nervous system in mediating behavior. We recently reported that some animals have a specialized population of rhythmically active neurons in their olfactory organs with the potential to peripherally encode temporal information about odor encounters. If these neurons do indeed encode the timing of odor arrivals, it should be possible to demonstrate that this capacity has some functional significance. Here we show how this sensory input can profoundly influence an animal's ability to locate the source of odor cues in realistic turbulent environments-a common task faced by species that rely on olfactory cues for navigation. Using detailed data from a turbulent plume created in the laboratory, we reconstruct the spatiotemporal behavior of a real odor field. We use recurrence theory to show that information about position relative to the source of the odor plume is embedded in the timing between odor pulses. Then, using a parameterized computational model, we show how an animal can use populations of rhythmically active neurons to capture and encode this temporal information in real time, and use it to efficiently navigate to an odor source. Our results demonstrate that the capacity to accurately encode temporal information about sensory cues may be crucial for efficient olfactory navigation. More generally, our results suggest a mechanism for extracting and encoding temporal information from the sensory environment that could have broad utility for neural information processing.

  8. Functional transcriptomics in the post-ENCODE era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Jonathan M; Frankish, Adam; Harrow, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous effort committed to the annotation of the human genome sequence, most notably perhaps in the form of the ENCODE project. One of the major findings of ENCODE, and other genome analysis projects, is that the human transcriptome is far larger and more complex than previously thought. This complexity manifests, for example, as alternative splicing within protein-coding genes, as well as in the discovery of thousands of long noncoding RNAs. It is also possible that significant numbers of human transcripts have not yet been described by annotation projects, while existing transcript models are frequently incomplete. The question as to what proportion of this complexity is truly functional remains open, however, and this ambiguity presents a serious challenge to genome scientists. In this article, we will discuss the current state of human transcriptome annotation, drawing on our experience gained in generating the GENCODE gene annotation set. We highlight the gaps in our knowledge of transcript functionality that remain, and consider the potential computational and experimental strategies that can be used to help close them. We propose that an understanding of the true overlap between transcriptional complexity and functionality will not be gained in the short term. However, significant steps toward obtaining this knowledge can now be taken by using an integrated strategy, combining all of the experimental resources at our disposal.

  9. [Vasectomy and tubal ligation: medicopsychological aspects of voluntary sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, M

    1982-06-01

    Various psychological aspects of voluntary surgical sterilization are examined. Women's own bodies are protected through sterilization from all the risks of pregnancy, but there is an altruistic element of vasectomy which may be perceived by men either positively or as a sacrifice or mutilition. The greater prevalence of female sterilization thus seems logical. Some psychologists view vasectomy as representing the realization of castration fantasies, but despite occurrence of cases which might seem to legitimate this view, most vasectomized men are married adults who have fathered several children and have otherwise proven their maturity. The status of voluntary sterilization appears to differ in the Third World, where rapid population growth threatens collective survival, and in developed countries whose growth rates are low or negative. Requests for reversal are increasingly frequent as women undergo sterilization at younger ages. Remarriage, a change of mind by the couple, or death of a child are the most frequently cited reasons for reversal requests. Reports of the psychological consequences of sterilization tend to vary in different studies, largely because of differences in the socioeconomic and cultural status of the populations studied and also perhaps because some studies are more superficial than others. In numerous questionnaire surveys mostly done in Anglo-Saxon countries, typically 90-99% of subjects have reported themselves satisfied with the results. The great majority report no regrets, an unchanged or improved marital relationship, and an increase in sexual pleasure. Less heterogeneous samples of persons undergoing sterilization for reasons other than simple contraceptive convenience have sometimes given less positive results. Age, economic status, number of children, marital relationship, educational level, religious and moral convictions, and history of medical or psychological problems can all affect satisfaction with sterilization. Men in

  10. Time-dependent cortical activation in voluntary muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Fang, Yin; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yao, Wanxiang; Yue, Guang H

    2011-01-01

    This study was to characterize dynamic source strength changes estimated from high-density scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) at different phases of a submaximal voluntary muscle contraction. Eight healthy volunteers performed isometric handgrip contractions of the right arm at 20% maximal intensity. Signals of the handgrip force, electromyography (EMG) from the finger flexor and extensor muscles and 64-channel EEG were acquired simultaneously. Sources of the EEG were analyzed at 19 time points across preparation, execution and sustaining phases of the handgrip. A 3-layer boundary element model (BEM) based on the MNI (Montréal Neurological Institute) brain MRI was used to overlay the sources. A distributed current density model, LORETA L1 norm method was applied to the data that had been processed by independent component analysis (ICA). Statistical analysis based on a mixed-effects polynomial regression model showed a significant and consistent time-dependent non-linear source strength change pattern in different phases of the handgrip. The source strength increased at the preparation phase, peaked at the force onset time and decreased in the sustaining phase. There was no significant difference in the changing pattern of the source strength among Brodmann's areas 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. These results show, for the first time, a high time resolution increasing-and-decreasing pattern of activation among the sensorimotor regions with the highest activity occurs at the muscle activity onset. The similarity in the source strength time courses among the cortical centers examined suggests a synchronized parallel function in controlling the motor activity.

  11. Voluntary Participation in Regional Fisheries Management Council Meetings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wilson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient and unrepresentative participation in voluntary public hearings and policy discussions has been problematic since Aristotle's time. In fisheries, research has shown that involvement is dominated by financially resourceful and extreme-opinion stakeholders and tends to advantage groups that have a lower cost of attendance. Stakeholders may exhibit only one or all of these traits but can be still similarly advantaged. The opposites of these traits tend to characterize the disadvantaged, such as the middle-ground opinions, the less wealthy or organized, and the more remote stakeholders. Remoteness or distance is the most straightforward and objective of these characteristics to measure. We analyzed the New England Fishery Management Council's sign-in sheets for 2003–2006, estimating participants' travel distance and associations with the groundfish, scallop, and herring industries. We also evaluated the representativeness of participation by comparing attendance to landings and permit distributions. The distance analysis showed a significant correlation between attendance levels and costs via travel distance. These results suggest a potential bias toward those stakeholders residing closer to meeting locations, possibly disadvantaging parties who are further and must incur higher costs. However, few significant differences were found between the actual fishing industry and attendee distributions, suggesting that the geographical distribution of the meeting attendees is statistically similar to that of the larger fishery. The interpretation of these results must take into consideration the limited time span of the analysis, as policy changes may have altered the industry make-up and location prior to our study. Furthermore, the limited geographical input of stakeholders may lend bias to the Council's perception of ecological and social conditions throughout the spatial range of the fishery. These factors should be further considered in

  12. Voluntary HIV counseling and testing during prenatal care in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zubaran Goldani

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Voluntary HIV counseling and testing are provided to all Brazilian pregnant women with the purpose of reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to assess characteristics of HIV testing and identify factors associated with HIV counseling and testing. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out comprising 1,658 mothers living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Biological, reproductive and social variables were obtained from mothers by means of a standardized questionnaire. Being counseling about HIV testing was the dependent variable. Confidence intervals, chi-square test and hierarchical logistic model were used to determine the association between counseling and maternal variables. RESULTS: Of 1,658 mothers interviewed, 1,603 or 96.7% (95% CI: 95.7-97.5 underwent HIV testing, and 51 or 3.1% (95% CI: 2.3-4.0 were not tested. Four (0.2% refused to undergo testing after counseling. Of 51 women not tested in this study, 30 had undergone the testing previously. Of 1,603 women tested, 630 or 39.3% (95% CI: 36.9-41.7 received counseling, 947 or 59.2% (95% CI: 56.6-61.5 did not, and 26 (1.6% did not inform. Low income, lack of prenatal care, late beginning of prenatal care, use of rapid testing, and receiving prenatal in the public sector were variables independently associated with a lower probability of getting counseling about HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirmed the high rate of prenatal HIV testing in Porto Alegre. However, women coming from less privileged social groups were less likely to receive information and benefit from counseling.

  13. FREE CASH FLOW AS PART OF VOLUNTARY REPORTING. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrea Laura Georgeta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as main objective to reflect the state of literature regarding free cash flow, and to withdraw the main pro's and con's in order to create an objective image upon this indicator. The main idea generating this research was the growing interest on cash flow reporting. As many say, 'Cash Flow is King', while in Anglo Saxon countries the interest of investors and analysts in concentrated on operating cash flow, as the most important indicator of the probability of bankruptcy. In this context, voluntary additional reporting, like free cash flow may come either as an aid in providing the fair view or as an opportunistically reported figure. Throughout the paper, the intention was to provide answers to three main research questions: What are the definition and calculation method of free cash flow? Why is there an interest in free cash flow reporting? What is the impact of free cash flow on the agency theory? In order to provide relevant conclusions, four international data basis were used, and related articles and studies were extracted. The results proved that there is no generally accepted definition and computing method, while the format depends on the end-user of the report (shareholders, investors, analysts, bankers, a.s.o.. As stated below, this aspect generates confusion and lack of comparability, giving room to creative accounting techniques. Moreover, the interest on free cash flow reporting is connected mainly to liquidity assessment, company valuation and investors choice. Still, in the context of agency theory, results show that in presence of high free cash flow, managers tend to make investment choices that satisfy their personal interest and that generate low efficiency and profitability for the company. The contribution to current state of research is providing a literature review study, focused on a comparative approach, as well as on underlying an objective image upon a debatable financial indicator and

  14. Effects of voluntary constraining of thoracic displacement during hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Mulholland, M B; Cherniack, N S; Altose, M D

    1987-11-01

    The study evaluated the interrelationships between the extent of thoracic movements and respiratory chemical drive in shaping the intensity of the sensation of dyspnea. Normal subjects rated their sensations of dyspnea as PCO2 increased during free rebreathing and during rebreathing while ventilation was voluntarily maintained at a constant base-line level. Another trial evaluated the effects on the intensity of dyspnea, of voluntary reduction in the level of ventilation while PCO2 was held constant. During rebreathing, there was a power function relationship between changes in PCO2 and the intensity of dyspnea. At a given PCO2, constraining tidal volume and breathing frequency to the prerebreathing base-line level resulted in an increase in dyspnea. The fractional differences in the intensity of dyspnea between free and constrained rebreathing were independent of PCO2. However, the absolute difference in the intensity of dyspnea between free and constrained rebreathing enlarged with increasing hypercapnia. At PCO2 of 50 Torr, this difference correlated significantly with the increase in both minute ventilation (r = 0.675) and tidal volume (r = 0.757) above the base line during free rebreathing. Similarly, during steady-state hypercapnia at 50 Torr PCO2, the intensity of dyspnea increased progressively as ventilation was voluntarily reduced from the spontaneously adopted free-breathing level. These results indicate that dyspnea increases with the level of respiratory chemical drive but that the intensity of the sensation is further accentuated when ventilation is constrained below that demanded by the level of chemical drive. This may be explained by a loss of inhibitory feedback from lung or chest wall mechanoreceptors acting on brain stem and/or cortical centers.

  15. Voluntary wheel running: a review and novel interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin

    1998-07-01

    Voluntary wheel running by animals is an activity that has been observed and recorded in great detail for almost a century. This review shows that it is performed, often with startling intensity and coordination, by a wide variety of wild, laboratory and domestic species with diverse evolutionary histories. However, despite the plethora of published studies on wheel running, there is considerable disagreement between many findings, thus leading to a lack of consensus on explanations of the causality and function. In the initial part of this review, I discuss the internal and external factors that may be involved in the causality of this behaviour, with an emphasis on disparities in both the factual and theoretical development of the subject. I then address the various proposed functions of wheel running, again highlighting evidence to the contrary. This leads to the conclusion that any single theory on the basis of wheel running is likely to be simplistic with little generality. I then present a novel, behaviour-based interpretation in which it is argued that wheel running has no directly analogous naturally occurring behaviour, it is (sometimes) performed for its own sake per se rather than as a redirected or substitute activity, and studies on motivation show that wheel running is self-reinforcing and perceived by animals as 'important'. This review proposes that wheel running may be an artefact of captive environments or of the running-wheel itself, possibly resulting from feedback dysfunction. I also discuss the ubiquity and intensity of its performance, along with its great plasticity and maladaptiveness, all indicating that if it is an artefact, it is nevertheless one of great interest to behavioural science. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  16. Standardized voluntary force measurement in a lower extremity rehabilitation robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolliger Marc

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isometric force measurements in the lower extremity are widely used in rehabilitation of subjects with neurological movement disorders (NMD because walking ability has been shown to be related to muscle strength. Therefore muscle strength measurements can be used to monitor and control the effects of training programs. A new method to assess isometric muscle force was implemented in the driven gait orthosis (DGO Lokomat. To evaluate the capabilities of this new measurement method, inter- and intra-rater reliability were assessed. Methods Reliability was assessed in subjects with and without NMD. Subjects were tested twice on the same day by two different therapists to test inter-rater reliability and on two separate days by the same therapist to test intra-rater reliability. Results Results showed fair to good reliability for the new measurement method to assess isometric muscle force of lower extremities. In subjects without NMD, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.72 to 0.97 and intra-rater reliability from 0.71 to 0.90. In subjects with NMD, ICC ranged from 0.66 to 0.97 for inter-rater and from 0.50 to 0.96 for intra-rater reliability. Conclusion Inter- and intra- rater reliability of an assessment method for measuring maximal voluntary isometric muscle force of lower extremities was demonstrated. We suggest that this method is a valuable tool for documentation and controlling of the rehabilitation process in patients using a DGO.

  17. Can influenza epidemics be prevented by voluntary vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Vardavas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous modeling studies have identified the vaccination coverage level necessary for preventing influenza epidemics, but have not shown whether this critical coverage can be reached. Here we use computational modeling to determine, for the first time, whether the critical coverage for influenza can be achieved by voluntary vaccination. We construct a novel individual-level model of human cognition and behavior; individuals are characterized by two biological attributes (memory and adaptability that they use when making vaccination decisions. We couple this model with a population-level model of influenza that includes vaccination dynamics. The coupled models allow individual-level decisions to influence influenza epidemiology and, conversely, influenza epidemiology to influence individual-level decisions. By including the effects of adaptive decision-making within an epidemic model, we can reproduce two essential characteristics of influenza epidemiology: annual variation in epidemic severity and sporadic occurrence of severe epidemics. We suggest that individual-level adaptive decision-making may be an important (previously overlooked causal factor in driving influenza epidemiology. We find that severe epidemics cannot be prevented unless vaccination programs offer incentives. Frequency of severe epidemics could be reduced if programs provide, as an incentive to be vaccinated, several years of free vaccines to individuals who pay for one year of vaccination. Magnitude of epidemic amelioration will be determined by the number of years of free vaccination, an individuals' adaptability in decision-making, and their memory. This type of incentive program could control epidemics if individuals are very adaptable and have long-term memories. However, incentive-based programs that provide free vaccination for families could increase the frequency of severe epidemics. We conclude that incentive-based vaccination programs are necessary to control

  18. Discovery of small-molecule interleukin-2 inhibitors from a DNA-encoded chemical library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimbacher, Markus; Zhang, Yixin; Mannocci, Luca; Stravs, Michael; Geppert, Tim; Scheuermann, Jörg; Schneider, Gisbert; Neri, Dario

    2012-06-18

    Libraries of chemical compounds individually coupled to encoding DNA tags (DNA-encoded chemical libraries) hold promise to facilitate exceptionally efficient ligand discovery. We constructed a high-quality DNA-encoded chemical library comprising 30,000 drug-like compounds; this was screened in 170 different affinity capture experiments. High-throughput sequencing allowed the evaluation of 120 million DNA codes for a systematic analysis of selection strategies and statistically robust identification of binding molecules. Selections performed against the tumor-associated antigen carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) yielded potent inhibitors with exquisite target specificity. The binding mode of the revealed pharmacophore against IL-2 was confirmed by molecular docking. Our findings suggest that DNA-encoded chemical libraries allow the facile identification of drug-like ligands principally to any protein of choice, including molecules capable of disrupting high-affinity protein-protein interactions.

  19. Visually Improved Image Compression by Combining EZW Encoding with Texture Modeling using Huffman Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay U. Kale

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for image compression which uses the Wavelet-based Image/Texture Coding Hybrid (WITCH scheme [1] in combination with Huffman encoder. It implements a hybrid coding approach, while nevertheless preserving the features of progressive and lossless coding. The hybrid scheme was designed to encode the structural image information by Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW encoding algorithm [2] and the stochastic texture in a model-based manner and this encoded data is then compressed using Huffman encoder. The scheme proposed here achieves superior subjective quality while increasing the compression ratio by more than a factor of three or even four. With this technique, it is possible to achieve compression ratios as high as 10 to 12 but with some minor distortions in the encoded image.

  20. Adjacent regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces produce phase-antagonist signals during voluntary walking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Daniel; Nedic, Andrej; Urbanchek, Melanie; Cederna, Paul; Gillespie, R Brent

    2017-04-24

    obtained for Control and RPNI suggests the latter constructs activate independently during both stance and swing, and contain minimal crosstalk. In-vivo myoelectric RPNI activity encodes neural activation patterns associated with gait. Adjacent RPNIs neurotized with agonist/antagonist nerves display activity amplitudes similar to Control during voluntary walking. The distinct and expected activation patterns indicate the RPNI may provide independent signaling in humans, suitable for motorized prosthesis control.