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Sample records for voluntary contractions mvcs

  1. Cortical and spinal excitability during and after lengthening contractions of the human plantar flexor muscles performed with maximal voluntary effort.

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    Daniel Hahn

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the sites of potential specific modulations in the neural control of lengthening and subsequent isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs versus purely isometric MVCs of the plantar flexor muscles, when there is enhanced torque during and following stretch. Ankle joint torque during maximum voluntary plantar flexion was measured by a dynamometer when subjects (n = 10 lay prone on a bench with the right ankle tightly strapped to a foot-plate. Neural control was analysed by comparing soleus motor responses to electrical nerve stimulation (M-wave, V-wave, electrical stimulation of the cervicomedullary junction (CMEP and transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (MEP. Enhanced torque of 17 ± 8% and 9 ± 8% was found during and 2.5-3 s after lengthening MVCs, respectively. Cortical and spinal responsiveness was similar to that in isometric conditions during the lengthening MVCs, as shown by unchanged MEPs, CMEPs and V-waves, suggesting that the major voluntary motor pathways are not subject to substantial inhibition. Following the lengthening MVCs, enhanced torque was accompanied by larger MEPs (p ≤ 0.05 and a trend to greater V-waves (p ≤ 0.1. In combination with stable CMEPs, increased MEPs suggest an increase in cortical excitability, and enlarged V-waves indicate greater motoneuronal output or increased stretch reflex excitability. The new results illustrate that neuromotor pathways are altered after lengthening MVCs suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of the enhanced torque are not purely mechanical in nature.

  2. Plyometric training improves voluntary activation and strength during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

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    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Mueller, Karoline; Heise, Sandra; Gube, Martin; Beuster, Nico; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Fischer, Dagmar-C; Bruhn, Sven

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated effects of plyometric training (6 weeks, 3 sessions/week) on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) strength and neural activation of the knee extensors during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Maximum voluntary torques (MVT) during the different types of contraction were measured at 110° knee flexion (180°=full extension). The interpolated twitch technique was applied at the same knee joint angle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to measure voluntary activation. In addition, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal at MVT was calculated. The twitch torque signal induced by electrical nerve stimulation at rest was used to evaluate training-related changes at the muscle level. In addition, jump height in countermovement jump was measured. After training, MVT increased by 20Nm (95% CI: 5-36Nm, P=0.012), 24Nm (95% CI: 9-40Nm, P=0.004) and 27Nm (95% CI: 7-48Nm, P=0.013) for isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs compared to controls, respectively. The strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation during isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs by 7.8% (95% CI: 1.8-13.9%, P=0.013), 7.0% (95% CI: 0.4-13.5%, P=0.039) and 8.6% (95% CI: 3.0-14.2%, P=0.005), respectively. Changes in the twitch torque signal of the resting muscle, induced by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve, were not observed, indicating no alterations at the muscle level, whereas jump height was increased. Given the fact that the training exercises consisted of eccentric muscle actions followed by concentric contractions, it is in particular relevant that the plyometric training increased MVC strength and neural activation of the quadriceps muscle regardless of the contraction mode. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electromyographic signal and force comparisons during maximal voluntary isometric contraction in water and on dry land.

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    Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Alberton, Cristine Lima; da Silva, Eduardo Marczwski; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to compare surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal and force production during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs) in water and on dry land. The reproducibility of sEMG and isometric force measurements between water and dry land environments was also assessed. Nine women performed MVC for elbow flexion and extension, hip flexion, and extension against identical fixed resistance in both environments. The sEMG signal from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris was recorded with waterproof adhesives placed over each electrode. The sEMG and force production showed no significant difference between water and dry land, except for HEX (p = 0.035). In addition, intraclass correlation coefficient values were significant and ranged from moderate to high (0.66-0.96) for sEMG and force production between environments. These results showed that the environment did not influence the sEMG and force in MVC.

  4. Electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction.

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    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Passelergue, Philippe; Dupui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) reverses the order of recruitment of motor units (MU) observed with voluntary muscular contraction (VOL) since under ES, large MU are recruited before small MU. The superimposition of ES onto VOL (superimposed technique: application of an electrical stimulus during a voluntary muscle action) can theoretically activate more motor units than VOL performed alone, which can engender an increase of the contraction force. Two superimposed techniques can be used: (i) the twitch interpolation technique (ITT), which consists of interjecting an electrical stimulus onto the muscle nerve; and (ii) the percutaneous superimposed electrical stimulation technique (PST), where the stimulation is applied to the muscle belly. These two superimposed techniques can be used to evaluate the ability to fully activate a muscle. They can thus be employed to distinguish the central or peripheral nature of fatigue after exhausting exercise. In general, whatever the technique employed, the superimposition of ES onto volitional exercise does not recruit more MU than VOL, except with eccentric actions. Nevertheless, the neuromuscular response associated with the use of the superimposed technique (ITT and PST) depends on the parameter of the superimposed current. The sex and the training level of the subjects can also modify the physiological impact of the superimposed technique. Although the motor control differs drastically between training with ES and VOL, the integration of the superimposed technique in training programmes with healthy subjects does not reveal significant benefits compared with programmes performed only with voluntary exercises. Nevertheless, in a therapeutic context, training programmes using ES superimposition compensate volume and muscle strength deficit with more efficiency than programmes using VOL or ES separately.

  5. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

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    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  6. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

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    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  7. Gamma loop contributing to maximal voluntary contractions in man.

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    Hagbarth, K E; Kunesch, E J; Nordin, M; Schmidt, R; Wallin, E U

    1986-01-01

    A local anaesthetic drug was injected around the peroneal nerve in healthy subjects in order to investigate whether the resulting loss in foot dorsiflexion power in part depended on a gamma-fibre block preventing 'internal' activation of spindle end-organs and thereby depriving the alpha-motoneurones of an excitatory spindle inflow during contraction. The motor outcome of maximal dorsiflexion efforts was assessed by measuring firing rates of individual motor units in the anterior tibial (t.a.) muscle, mean voltage e.m.g. from the pretibial muscles, dorsiflexion force and range of voluntary foot dorsiflexion movements. The tests were performed with and without peripheral conditioning stimuli, such as agonist or antagonist muscle vibration or imposed stretch of the contracting muscles. As compared to control values of t.a. motor unit firing rates in maximal isometric voluntary contractions, the firing rates were lower and more irregular during maximal dorsiflexion efforts performed during subtotal peroneal nerve blocks. During the development of paresis a gradual reduction of motor unit firing rates was observed before the units ceased responding to the voluntary commands. This change in motor unit behaviour was accompanied by a reduction of the mean voltage e.m.g. activity in the pretibial muscles. At a given stage of anaesthesia the e.m.g. responses to maximal voluntary efforts were more affected than the responses evoked by electric nerve stimuli delivered proximal to the block, indicating that impaired impulse transmission in alpha motor fibres was not the sole cause of the paresis. The inability to generate high and regular motor unit firing rates during peroneal nerve blocks was accentuated by vibration applied over the antagonistic calf muscles. By contrast, in eight out of ten experiments agonist stretch or vibration caused an enhancement of motor unit firing during the maximal force tasks. The reverse effects of agonist and antagonist vibration on the

  8. The effect of sustained low-intensity contractions on supraspinal fatigue in human elbow flexor muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Gandevia, Simon C; Todd, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    Subjects quickly fatigue when they perform maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Much of the loss of force is from processes within muscle (peripheral fatigue) but some occurs because voluntary activation of the muscle declines (central fatigue). The role of central fatigue during submaximal...... contractions is not clear. This study investigated whether central fatigue developed during prolonged low-force voluntary contractions. Subjects (n=9) held isometric elbow flexions of 15% MVC for 43 min. Voluntary activation was measured during brief MVCs every 3 min. During each MVC, transcranial magnetic...... several minutes while MVC torque only returned to approximately 85% baseline. The resting twitch showed no recovery. Thus, as well as fatigue in the muscle, the prolonged low-force contraction produced progressive central fatigue, and some of this impairment of the subjects' ability to drive the muscle...

  9. Hierarchical control of motor units in voluntary contractions.

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    De Luca, Carlo J; Contessa, Paola

    2012-01-01

    For the past five decades there has been wide acceptance of a relationship between the firing rate of motor units and the afterhyperpolarization of motoneurons. It has been promulgated that the higher-threshold, larger-soma, motoneurons fire faster than the lower-threshold, smaller-soma, motor units. This relationship was based on studies on anesthetized cats with electrically stimulated motoneurons. We questioned its applicability to motor unit control during voluntary contractions in humans. We found that during linearly force-increasing contractions, firing rates increased as exponential functions. At any time and force level, including at recruitment, the firing rate values were inversely related to the recruitment threshold of the motor unit. The time constants of the exponential functions were directly related to the recruitment threshold. From the Henneman size principle it follows that the characteristics of the firing rates are also related to the size of the soma. The "firing rate spectrum" presents a beautifully simple control scheme in which, at any given time or force, the firing rate value of earlier-recruited motor units is greater than that of later-recruited motor units. This hierarchical control scheme describes a mechanism that provides an effective economy of force generation for the earlier-recruited lower force-twitch motor units, and reduces the fatigue of later-recruited higher force-twitch motor units-both characteristics being well suited for generating and sustaining force during the fight-or-flight response.

  10. Percent voluntary inactivation and peak force predictions with the interpolated twitch technique in individuals with high ability of voluntary activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herda, Trent J; Walter, Ashley A; Hoge, Katherine M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Cramer, Joel T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and peak force prediction capability of the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) performed during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in subjects with the ability to maximally activate their plantar flexors. Twelve subjects performed two MVCs and nine submaximal contractions with the ITT method to calculate percent voluntary inactivation (%VI). Additionally, two MVCs were performed without the ITT. Polynomial models (linear, quadratic and cubic) were applied to the 10–90% VI and 40–90% VI versus force relationships to predict force. Peak force from the ITT MVC was 6.7% less than peak force from the MVC without the ITT. Fifty-eight percent of the 10–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with nonlinear models; however, all 40–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with linear models. Regardless of the polynomial model or the contraction intensities used to predict force, all models underestimated the actual force from 22% to 28%. There was low sensitivity of the ITT method at high contraction intensities and the predicted force from polynomial models significantly underestimated the actual force. Caution is warranted when interpreting the % VI at high contraction intensities and predicted peak force from submaximal contractions

  11. Trainability of muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction: comparison between bodybuilders and nonathletes.

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    Sumiaki Maeo

    Full Text Available Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE. Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes. The electromyograms (EMGs of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE. The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01 than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%. There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03. Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction.

  12. Trainability of Muscular Activity Level during Maximal Voluntary Co-Contraction: Comparison between Bodybuilders and Nonathletes

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    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (Pbodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233

  13. The origin of activity in the biceps brachii muscle during voluntary contractions of the contralateral elbow flexor muscles

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    Zijdewind, Inge; Butler, Jane E.; Gandevia, Simon C.; Taylor, Janet L.

    During strong voluntary contractions, activity is not restricted to the target muscles. Other muscles, including contralateral muscles, often contract. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to analyse the origin of these unintended contralateral contractions (termed "associated"

  14. Does hip joint positioning affect maximal voluntary contraction in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae and sartorius muscles?

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    Bernard, J; Beldame, J; Van Driessche, S; Brunel, H; Poirier, T; Guiffault, P; Matsoukis, J; Billuart, F

    2017-11-01

    Minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is presumed to provide functional and clinical benefits, whereas in fact the literature reveals that gait and posturographic parameters following THA do not recover values found in the general population. There is a significant disturbance of postural sway in THA patients, regardless of the surgical approach, although with some differences between approaches compared to controls: the anterior and anterolateral minimally invasive approaches seem to be more disruptive of postural parameters than the posterior approach. Electromyographic (EMG) study of the hip muscles involved in surgery [gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and sartorius (S)] could shed light, the relevant literature involves discordant methodologies. We developed a methodology to assess EMG activity during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the GMax, GMed, TFL and sartorius muscles as a reference for normalization. A prospective study aimed to assess whether hip joint positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect the EMG signal during a maximal voluntary contraction. Hip positioning and the learning curve on an MVC test affect EMG signal during MVC of GMax, GMed, TFL and S. Thirty young asymptomatic subjects participated in the study. Each performed 8 hip muscle MVCs in various joint positions recorded with surface EMG sensors. Each MVC was performed 3 times in 1 week, with the same schedule every day, controlling for activity levels in the preceding 24h. EMG activity during MVC was expressed as a ratio of EMG activity during unipedal stance. Non-parametric tests were applied. Statistical analysis showed no difference according to hip position for abductors or flexors in assessing EMG signal during MVC over the 3 sessions. Hip abductors showed no difference between abduction in lateral decubitus with hip straight versus hip flexed: GMax (19.8±13.7 vs. 14.5±7.8, P=0.78), GMed (13.4±9.0 vs. 9.9±6

  15. The importance of cutaneous feedback on neural activation during maximal voluntary contraction

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    Cruz-Montecinos, Carlos; Maas, Huub; Pellegrin-Friedmann, Carla; Tapia, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of cutaneous feedback on neural activation during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the ankle plantar flexors. Methods: The effects of cutaneous plantar anaesthesia were assessed in 15 subjects and compared to 15 controls,

  16. Comparison of maximal voluntary isometric contraction and hand-held dynamometry in measuring muscle strength of patients with progressive lower motor neuron syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Mans, E.; de Visser, M.; van den Berg-Vos, R. M.; Franssen, H.; de Jong, J. M. B. V.; van den Berg, L. H.; Wokke, J. H. J.; de Haan, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Context. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction, a method quantitatively assessing muscle strength, has proven to be reliable, accurate and sensitive in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hand-held dynamometry is less expensive and more quickly applicable than maximal voluntary isometric contraction.

  17. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

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    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Weippert, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Josefin; Wegner, Katharina; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven

    2015-05-13

    This study investigated effects of caffeine ingestion (8 mg/kg) on maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and voluntary activation of the quadriceps during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Fourteen subjects ingested caffeine and placebo in a randomized, controlled, counterbalanced, double-blind crossover design. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and 1 h after oral caffeine and placebo intake. MVTs were measured and the interpolated twitch technique was applied during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to assess voluntary activation. Furthermore, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal was calculated and evoked spinal reflex responses (H-reflex evoked at rest and during weak isometric voluntary contraction) as well as twitch torques were analyzed. Caffeine increased MVT by 26.4 N m (95%CI: 9.3-43.5 N m, P = 0.004), 22.5 N m (95%CI: 3.1-42.0 N m, P = 0.025) and 22.5 N m (95%CI: 2.2-42.7 N m, P = 0.032) for isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation. Explosive voluntary strength and voluntary activation at the onset of contraction were significantly increased following caffeine ingestion. Changes in spinal reflex responses and at the muscle level were not observed. Data suggest that caffeine ingestion induced an acute increase in voluntary activation that was responsible for the increased strength regardless of the contraction mode.

  18. Dynamic clinical measurements of voluntary vaginal contractions and autonomic vaginal reflexes.

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    Broens, Paul M A; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M

    2014-12-01

    The vaginal canal is an active and responsive canal. It has pressure variations along its length and shows reflex activity. At present, the prevailing idea is that the vaginal canal does not have a sphincter mechanism. It is hypothesized that an active vaginal muscular mechanism exists and might be involved in the pathophysiology of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of a canalicular vaginal "sphincter mechanism" by measuring intravaginal pressure at different levels of the vaginal canal during voluntary pelvic floor contractions and during induced reflexive contractions. Sixteen nulliparous women, without sexual dysfunction and pelvic floor trauma, were included in the study. High-resolution solid-state circumferential catheters were used to measure intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions at different levels in the vaginal canal. Voluntary intravaginal pressure measurements were performed in the left lateral recumbent position only, while reflexive intravaginal pressure measurements during slow inflation of a vaginal balloon were performed in the left lateral recumbent position and in the sitting position. Intravaginal pressures and vaginal contractions were the main outcome measures. In addition, a general demographic and medical history questionnaire was administered to gain insight into the characteristics of the study population. Fifteen out of the sixteen women had deep and superficial vaginal high-pressure zones. In one woman, no superficial high-pressure zone was found. The basal and maximum pressures, as well as the duration of the autonomic reflexive contractions significantly exceeded the pressures and the duration of the voluntary contractions. There were no significant differences between the reflexive measurements obtained in the left lateral recumbent and the sitting position. The two high-pressure zones found in this study, as a result of voluntary contractions and, even more pronounced

  19. Postural adjustments associated with voluntary contraction of leg muscles in standing man.

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    Nardone, A; Schieppati, M

    1988-01-01

    The postural adjustments associated with a voluntary contraction of the postural muscles themselves have been studied in the legs of normal standing men. We focussed on the following questions. Do postural adjustments precede the focal movement as in the case of movements of the upper limb? Which muscle(s) are involved in the task of stabilizing posture? Can the same postural muscle be activated in postural stabilization and in voluntary movement at the same time, in spite of the opposite changes in activity possibly required by these conditions? Six subjects standing on a dynamometric platform were asked to rise onto the tips their toes by contracting their soleus muscles, or to rock on their heels by contracting their tibialis anterior muscles. The tasks were made in a reaction time (RT) situation or in a self-paced mode, standing either freely or holding onto a stable structure. Surface EMGs of leg and thigh muscles, and the foot-floor reaction forces were recorded. The following results were obtained in the RT mode, standing freely. 1. Rising onto toe tips: a striking silent period in soleus preceded its voluntary activation; during this silent period, a tibialis anterior burst could be observed in three subjects; these anticipatory activities induced a forward sway, as monitored by a change in the force exerted along the x axis of the platform. 2. Rocking on heels: an enhancement in tonic EMG of soleus was observed before tibialis anterior voluntary burst, at a mean latency from the go-signal similar to that of the silent period; this anticipatory activity induced a backward body sway. 3. Choice RT conditions showed that the above anticipatory patterns in muscle activity were pre-programmed, specific for the intended tasks, and closely associated with the focal movement. When both tasks were performed in a self-paced mode, all the above EMG and mechanical features were more pronounced and unfolded in time. If the subjects held onto the frame, the early

  20. Brain Functional Connectivity is Different during VoluntaryConcentric and Eccentric Muscle Contraction

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    Wan X Yao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies report greater activation in the cortical motor network in controlling eccentric contraction (EC than concentric contraction (CC of human skeletal muscles despite lower activation level of the muscle associated with EC. It is unknown, however, whether the strength of functional coupling between the primary motor cortex (M1 and other involved areas in the brain differs as voluntary movements are controlled by a network of regions in the primary, secondary and association cortices. Examining fMRI-based functional connectivity (FC offers an opportunity to measure strength of such coupling. To address the question, we examined functional MRI (fMRI data acquired during EC and CC (20 contractions each with similar movement distance and speed of the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle in 11 young (20-32 years and healthy individuals and estimated FC between the M1 and a number of cortical regions in the motor control network. The major findings from the behavioral and fMRI-based FC analysis were that (1 no significant differences were seen in movement distance, speed and stability between the EC and CC; (2 significantly stronger mean FC was found for CC than EC. Our finding provides novel insights for a better understanding of the control mechanisms underlying voluntary movements produced by EC and CC. The finding is potentially helpful for guiding the development of targeted sport training and/or therapeutic programs for performance enhancement and injury prevention.

  1. Effects of contraction duration on low-frequency fatigue in voluntary and electrically induced exercise of quadriceps muscle in humans.

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    Ratkevicius, A; Skurvydas, A; Povilonis, E; Quistorff, B; Lexell, J

    1998-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate if low-frequency fatigue (LFF) dependent on the duration of repeated muscle contractions and to compare LFF in voluntary and electrically induced exercise. Male subjects performed three 9-min periods of repeated isometric knee extensions at 40% maximal voluntary contraction with contraction plus relaxation periods of 30 plus 60 s, 15 plus 30 s and 5 plus 10 s in protocols 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The same exercise protocols were repeated using feedback-controlled electrical stimulation at 40% maximal tetanic torque. Before and 15 min after each exercise period, knee extension torque at 1, 7, 10, 15, 20, 50 and 100 Hz was assessed. During voluntary exercise, electromyogram root mean square (EMGrms) of the vastus lateralis muscle was evaluated. The 20-Hz torque:100-Hz torque (20:100 Hz torque) ratio was reduced more after electrically induced than after voluntary exercise (P exercise, the decrease in 20:100 Hz torque ratio was gradually (P exercise, the decrease in 20:100 Hz torque ratio and the increase in EMGrms were greater in protocol 1 (P exercise and that the electrically induced exercise produced a more pronounced LFF compared to voluntary exercise of submaximal intensity. It is suggested that compensatory recruitment of faster-contracting motor units is an additional factor affecting the severity of LFF during voluntary exercise.

  2. Comparison in muscle damage between maximal voluntary and electrically evoked isometric contractions of the elbow flexors.

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    Jubeau, Marc; Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2012-02-01

    This study compared between maximal voluntary (VOL) and electrically stimulated (ES) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage to investigate whether ES would induce greater muscle damage than VOL. Twelve non-resistance-trained men (23-39 years) performed VOL with one arm and ES with the contralateral arm separated by 2 weeks in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Both VOL and ES (frequency 75 Hz, pulse duration 250 μs, maximally tolerated intensity) exercises consisted of 50 maximal isometric contractions (4-s on, 15-s off) of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (160°). Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC), range of motion, muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following exercise. The average peak torque over the 50 isometric contractions was greater (P < 0.05) for VOL (32.9 ± 9.8 N m) than ES (16.9 ± 6.3 N m). MVC decreased greater and recovered slower (P < 0.05) after ES (15% lower than baseline at 96 h) than VOL (full recovery). Serum CK activity increased (P < 0.05) only after ES, and the muscles became more sore and tender after ES than VOL (P < 0.05). These results showed that ES induced greater muscle damage than VOL despite the lower torque output during ES. It seems likely that higher mechanical stress imposed on the activated muscle fibres, due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment in ES, resulted in greater muscle damage.

  3. Muscle tissue oxygenation, pressure, electrical, and mechanical responses during dynamic and static voluntary contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Pernille; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Søgaard, Karen

    2006-01-01

    tension (rTO(2)) would be larger during dynamic (DYN) than intermittent static (IST) low force contractions; and that (2) oxygen tension would remain lower in the resting periods subsequent to DYN as compared to those following IST. Eight subjects performed elbow flexions with identical time......-tension products: (1) DYN as a 20 degrees elbow movement of 2 s concentric and 2 s eccentric followed by a 4 s rest; and (2) IST with a 4 s contraction followed by a 4 s rest. Each session was performed for 1 min at 10 and 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The force, bipolar surface EMG, MMG, IMP, rTO......, respectively), and a similar picture was seen for the eccentric phase. However, no differences were seen in rTO(2) in either the contraction or the rest periods. In a prolonged rest period (8 s) after the sessions, DYN but not IST showed rTO(2) above baseline level. In conclusion, rTO(2) in DYN and IST were...

  4. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  5. Motor unit firing during and after voluntary contractions of human thenar muscles weakened by spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    Spinal cord injury may change both the distribution and the strength of the synaptic input within a motoneuron pool and therefore alter force gradation. Here, we have studied the relative contributions of motor unit recruitment and rate modulation to force gradation during voluntary contractions of

  6. Correlation between maximum voluntary contraction and endurance measured by digital palpation and manometry: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Faní Fitz

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Digital palpation and manometry are methods that can provide information regarding maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and endurance of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM, and a strong correlation between these variables can be expected. Objective: To investigate the correlation between MVC and endurance, measured by digital palpation and manometry. Method: Forty-two women, with mean age of 58.1 years (±10.2, and predominant symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI, were included. Examination was firstly conducted by digital palpation and subsequently using a Peritron manometer. MVC was measured using a 0-5 score, based on the Oxford Grading Scale. Endurance was assessed based on the PERFECT scheme. Results: We found a significant positive correlation between the MVC measured by digital palpation and the peak manometric pressure (r=0.579, p<0.001, and between the measurements of the endurance by Peritron manometer and the PERFECT assessment scheme (r=0.559, P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results revealed a positive and significant correlation between the capacity and maintenance of PFM contraction using digital and manometer evaluations in women with predominant symptoms of SUI.

  7. Effect of vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise on subsequent muscle activity during maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; Porcari, John P; Scheunke, Mark D

    2004-11-01

    This investigation was designed to determine if vibration during fatiguing resistance exercise would alter associated patterns of muscle activity. A cross-over design was employed with 8 subjects completing a resistance exercise bout once with a vibrating dumbbell (V) (44 Hz, 3 mm displacement) and once without vibration (NV). For both exercise bouts, 10 sets were performed with a load that induced concentric muscle failure during the 10th repetition. The appropriate load for each set was determined during a pretest. Each testing session was separated by 1 week. Electromyography (EMG) was obtained from the biceps brachii muscle at 12 different time points during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at a 170 degrees elbow angle after each set of the dumbbell exercise. The time points were as follows: pre (5 minutes before the resistance exercise bout), T1-T10 (immediately following each set of resistance exercise), and post (15 minutes after the resistance exercise bout). EMG was analyzed for median power frequency (MPF) and maximum (mEMG). NV resulted in a significant decrease in MPF at T1-T4 (p recruitment of high threshold motor units during fatiguing contractions. This may indicate the usage of vibration with resistance exercise as an effective tool for strength training athletes.

  8. Voluntary low-force contraction elicits prolonged low-frequency fatigue and changes in surface electromyography and mechanomyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Madeleine, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Controversies exist regarding objective documentation of fatigue development with low-force contractions. We hypothesized that non-exhaustive, low-force muscle contraction may induce prolonged low-frequency fatigue (LFF) that in the subsequent recovery period is detectable by electromyography (EMG......) and in particular mechanomyography (MMG) during low-force rather than high-force test contractions. Seven subjects performed static wrist extension at 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 10 min (10%MVC10 min). Wrist force response to electrical stimulation of extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) quantified...... LFF. EMG and MMG were recorded from ECR during static test contractions at 5% and 80% MVC. Electrical stimulation, MVC, and test contractions were performed before 10%MVC10 min and at 10, 30, 90 and 150 min recovery. In spite of no changes in MVC, LFF persisted up to 150 min recovery but did...

  9. Comparison between electrically evoked and voluntary isometric contractions for biceps brachii muscle oxidative metabolism using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2009-09-01

    This study compared voluntary (VOL) and electrically evoked isometric contractions by muscle stimulation (EMS) for changes in biceps brachii muscle oxygenation (tissue oxygenation index, DeltaTOI) and total haemoglobin concentration (DeltatHb = oxygenated haemoglobin + deoxygenated haemoglobin) determined by near-infrared spectroscopy. Twelve men performed EMS with one arm followed 24 h later by VOL with the contralateral arm, consisting of 30 repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for the first 60 s, and maximal intensity contractions thereafter (MVC for VOL and maximal tolerable current at 30 Hz for EMS) until MVC decreased approximately 30% of pre-exercise MVC. During the 30 contractions at 30% MVC, DeltaTOI decrease was significantly (P < 0.05) greater and DeltatHb was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for EMS than VOL, suggesting that the metabolic demand for oxygen in EMS is greater than VOL at the same torque level. However, during maximal intensity contractions, although EMS torque (approximately 40% of VOL) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than VOL, DeltaTOI was similar and tHb was significantly (P < 0.05) lower for EMS than VOL towards the end, without significant differences between the two sessions in the recovery period. It is concluded that the oxygen demand of the activated biceps brachii muscle in EMS is comparable to VOL at maximal intensity.

  10. A comparison of two gluteus maximus EMG maximum voluntary isometric contraction positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret Contreras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to compare the peak electromyography (EMG of the most commonly-used position in the literature, the prone bent-leg (90° hip extension against manual resistance applied to the distal thigh (PRONE, to a novel position, the standing glute squeeze (SQUEEZE.Methods. Surface EMG electrodes were placed on the upper and lower gluteus maximus of thirteen recreationally active females (age = 28.9 years; height = 164 cm; body mass = 58.2 kg, before three maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC trials for each position were obtained in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion.Results. No statistically significant (p < 0.05 differences were observed between PRONE (upper: 91.94%; lower: 94.52% and SQUEEZE (upper: 92.04%; lower: 85.12% for both the upper and lower gluteus maximus. Neither the PRONE nor SQUEEZE was more effective between all subjects.Conclusions. In agreement with other studies, no single testing position is ideal for every participant. Therefore, it is recommended that investigators employ multiple MVIC positions, when possible, to ensure accuracy. Future research should investigate a variety of gluteus maximus MVIC positions in heterogeneous samples.

  11. Voluntary drive-dependent changes in vastus lateralis motor unit firing rates during a sustained isometric contraction at 50% of maximum knee extension force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, PW; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the expected inter-subject variability in voluntary drive of the knee extensor muscles during a sustained isometric contraction to the changes in firing rates of single motor units. Voluntary activation, as established with super-imposed electrical

  12. Local muscle metabolic demand induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary contractions at different force levels: a NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makii Muthalib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC. However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC and MVC (VOL-MVC level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y. Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  13. Local Muscle Metabolic Demand Induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Voluntary Contractions at Different Force Levels: A NIRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Kerr, Graham; Nosaka, Kazunori; Perrey, Stephane

    2016-06-13

    Functional Muscle metabolic demand during contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been consistently documented to be greater than voluntary contractions (VOL) at the same force level (10-50% maximal voluntary contraction-MVC). However, we have shown using a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique that local muscle metabolic demand is similar between NMES and VOL performed at MVC levels, thus controversy exists. This study therefore compared biceps brachii muscle metabolic demand (tissue oxygenation index-TOI and total hemoglobin volume-tHb) during a 10s isometric contraction of the elbow flexors between NMES (stimulation frequency of 30Hz and current level to evoke 30% MVC) and VOL at 30% MVC (VOL-30%MVC) and MVC (VOL-MVC) level in 8 healthy men (23-33-y). Greater changes in TOI and tHb induced by NMES than VOL-30%MVC confirm previous studies of a greater local metabolic demand for NMES than VOL at the same force level. The same TOI and tHb changes for NMES and VOL-MVC suggest that local muscle metabolic demand and intramuscular pressure were similar between conditions. In conclusion, these findings indicate that NMES induce a similar local muscle metabolic demand as that of maximal VOL.

  14. The effects of patterned electrical stimulation combined with voluntary contraction on spinal reciprocal inhibition in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary contraction (VC) on the modulation of reciprocal inhibition induced by patterned electrical stimulation (PES) in healthy individuals. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this study. PES was applied to the common peroneal nerve...... a soleus H-reflex conditioning-test paradigm at the time points of before, immediately after, 10 min after, 20 min after, and 30 min after the tasks. PES+VC increased the amount of reciprocal inhibition, with after-effects lasting up to 20 min. PES alone increased reciprocal inhibition and maintained...

  15. Epidemiology of pedestrian-MVCs by road type in Cluj, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Cara; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Rus, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Pedestrian-motor vehicle (PMV) crash rates in Romania are among the highest in all of Europe. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of pedestrian-MVCs in Cluj County, Romania, on the two major types of roadways: national or local. Cluj County police crash report data from 2010 were used to identify pedestrian, driver and crash characteristics of pedestrian-MVCs. Crashes with available location data were geocoded and road type (national or local) for each crash was determined. Distributions of crash characteristics were examined by road type and multivariable logistic regression models were built to determine predictors of crash road type. Crashes occurring on national roads involved more teenagers and adults, while those on local roads involved more young children (0-12) and older adults (65+) (pRomania. Results from this study suggest that factors leading to PMV crashes on national roads are more likely to involve driver-related causes compared with local roads. Intervention priorities to reduce pedestrian crashes on national roads should be directed towards driver behaviour on national roads. Further examination of driver and pedestrian behaviours related to crash risk on both national and local roads, such as distraction and speeding, is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction to a Pilates exercise program: an assessor-masked randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Luiza; de Jarmy Di Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin; Rodrigues, Claudinei Alves; Stüpp, Liliana; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC) to a Pilates exercise program in sedentary nulliparous women. Fifty-seven healthy nulliparous and physically inactive women were randomized to a Pilates exercise program (PEP) with or without PFMC. Forty-eight women concluded this study (24 participants for each group). Each woman was evaluated before and after the PEP, by a physiotherapist and an urogynecologist (UG). Neither of the professionals was revealed to them. This physiotherapist measured their pelvic floor muscle strength by using both a perineometer (Peritron) and vaginal palpation (Oxford Scale). The UG, who performed 3D perineal ultrasound examinations, collected their data and evaluated the results for pubovisceral muscle thickness and the levator hiatus area (LA). Both professionals were blinded to the group allocation. The protocol for both groups consisted of 24 bi-weekly 1-h individual sessions of Pilates exercises, developed by another physiotherapist who specializes in PFM rehabilitation and the Pilates technique. The PEP+ PFMC group showed significantly greater strength improvements than the PEP group when comparing the Oxford scale, vaginal pressure and pubovisceral muscle thickness during contraction measurements at baseline and post-treatment. Our findings suggest that adding a voluntary PFMC to a Pilates exercise program is more effective than Pilates alone in improving PFM strength in sedentary nulliparous women.

  17. Motor unit recruitment in human biceps brachii during sustained voluntary contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Zachary A; Maerz, Adam H; Litsey, Jane C; Enoka, Roger M

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of the difference between the recruitment threshold of a motor unit and the target force of the sustained contraction on the discharge of the motor unit at recruitment. The discharge characteristics of 53 motor units in biceps brachii were recorded after being recruited during a sustained contraction. Some motor units (n = 22) discharged action potentials tonically after being recruited, whereas others (n = 31) discharged intermittent trains of action potentials. The two groups of motor units were distinguished by the difference between the recruitment threshold of the motor unit and the target force for the sustained contraction: tonic, 5.9 +/- 2.5%; intermittent, 10.7 +/- 2.9%. Discharge rate for the tonic units decreased progressively (13.9 +/- 2.7 to 11.7 +/- 2.6 pulses s(-1); P = 0.04) during the 99 +/- 111 s contraction. Train rate, train duration and average discharge rate for the intermittent motor units did not change across 211 +/- 153 s of intermittent discharge. The initial discharge rate at recruitment during the sustained contraction was lower for the intermittent motor units (11.0 +/- 3.3 pulses s(-1)) than the tonic motor units (13.7 +/- 3.3 pulses s(-1); P = 0.005), and the coefficient of variation for interspike interval was higher for the intermittent motor units (34.6 +/- 12.3%) than the tonic motor units (21.2 +/- 9.4%) at recruitment (P = 0.001) and remained elevated for discharge duration (34.6 +/- 9.2% versus 19.1 +/- 11.7%, P motor units were recorded at two different target forces below recruitment threshold (5.7 +/- 1.9% and 10.5 +/- 2.4%). Each motor unit exhibited the two discharge patterns (tonic and intermittent) as observed for the 53 motor units. The results suggest that newly recruited motor units with recruitment thresholds closer to the target force experienced less synaptic noise at the time of recruitment that resulted in them discharging action potentials at more regular

  18. Myofibrillar proteolysis in response to voluntary or electrically stimulated muscle contractions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Trappe, T; Crameri, R M

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge about the effects of exercise on myofibrillar protein breakdown in human subjects is limited. Our purpose was to measure the changes in the degradation of myofibrillar proteins in response to different ways of eliciting muscle contractions using the local interstitial 3-methyl-histidine......Knowledge about the effects of exercise on myofibrillar protein breakdown in human subjects is limited. Our purpose was to measure the changes in the degradation of myofibrillar proteins in response to different ways of eliciting muscle contractions using the local interstitial 3-methyl....... Only after ES did the histochemical stainings show significant disruption of cytoskeletal proteins. Furthermore, intracellular disruption and destroyed Z-lines were markedly more pronounced in ES vs VOL. In conclusion, the local level of interstitial 3-MH in the skeletal muscle was significantly...... enhanced after ES compared with VOL immediately after exercise, while the level of 3-MH did not change in the post-exercise period after VOL. These results indicate that the local myofibrillar breakdown is accelerated after ES associated with severe myofiber damage....

  19. Effects of training programs based on ipsilateral voluntary and stimulated contractions on muscle strength and monopedal postural control of the contralateral limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Mohamed Abdelhafid; Noé, Frederic; Nouar, Merbouha Boulahbel; Paillard, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    To compare the effects of unilateral strength training by stimulated and voluntary contractions on muscle strength and monopedal postural control of the contralateral limb. 36 non-active healthy male subjects were recruited and split randomly into three groups. Two groups of 12 subjects took part in a strength-training program (3 sessions a week over 8 weeks) comprising 43 contractions of the quadriceps femoris of the ipsilateral limb (at 20% of the MVC). One group carried out voluntary contractions exclusively (VOL group), while the other group benefited exclusively from electro-induced contractions (NMES group). The other 12 subjects formed the control (CON) group. Assessments of MVC and monopedal postural control in static and dynamic postural tasks were performed with the ipsilateral (ISPI) and contralateral (CONTRA) limbs before (PRE) and after (POST) completion of the training program. After the training program, the MVC of the IPSI and CONTRA limbs increased similarly for both experimental groups (VOL and NMES). There were no significant improvements of monopedal postural control for the IPSI or CONTRA limbs in either the VOL or NMES experimental group. No change was observed for the CON group over the protocol period. The purposed training program with NMES vs VOL contractions induced strength gains but did not permit any improvement of contralateral monopedal postural control in healthy young subjects. This has potential for therapeutic application and allows clinicians to focus their training programs on dynamic and poly-articular exercises to improve the postural control in young subjects.

  20. Detection of surface electromyography recording time interval without muscle fatigue effect for biceps brachii muscle during maximum voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Abdullah Ruhi; Arpinar-Avsar, Pinar

    2010-08-01

    The effects of fatigue on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) parameters were examined by using force and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the biceps brachii muscles (BBM) of 12 subjects. The purpose of the study was to find the sEMG time interval of the MVC recordings which is not affected by the muscle fatigue. At least 10s of force and sEMG signals of BBM were recorded simultaneously during MVC. The subjects reached the maximum force level within 2s by slightly increasing the force, and then contracted the BBM maximally. The time index of each sEMG and force signal were labeled with respect to the time index of the maximum force (i.e. after the time normalization, each sEMG or force signal's 0s time index corresponds to maximum force point). Then, the first 8s of sEMG and force signals were divided into 0.5s intervals. Mean force, median frequency (MF) and integrated EMG (iEMG) values were calculated for each interval. Amplitude normalization was performed by dividing the force signals to their mean values of 0s time intervals (i.e. -0.25 to 0.25s). A similar amplitude normalization procedure was repeated for the iEMG and MF signals. Statistical analysis (Friedman test with Dunn's post hoc test) was performed on the time and amplitude normalized signals (MF, iEMG). Although the ANOVA results did not give statistically significant information about the onset of the muscle fatigue, linear regression (mean force vs. time) showed a decreasing slope (Pearson-r=0.9462, pfatigue starts after the 0s time interval as the muscles cannot attain their peak force levels. This implies that the most reliable interval for MVC calculation which is not affected by the muscle fatigue is from the onset of the EMG activity to the peak force time. Mean, SD, and range of this interval (excluding 2s gradual increase time) for 12 subjects were 2353, 1258ms and 536-4186ms, respectively. Exceeding this interval introduces estimation errors in the maximum amplitude calculations

  1. Neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during isometric maximal, submaximal and submaximal fatiguing voluntary contractions in knee osteoarthrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Mau-Moeller

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthrosis (KOA is commonly associated with a dysfunction of the quadriceps muscle which contributes to alterations in motor performance. The underlying neuromuscular mechanisms of muscle dysfunction are not fully understood. The main objective of this study was to analyze how KOA affects neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscle during different contraction intensities.The following parameters were assessed in 20 patients and 20 healthy controls: (i joint position sense, i.e. position control (mean absolute error, MAE at 30° and 50° of knee flexion, (ii simple reaction time task performance, (iii isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT and root mean square of the EMG signal (RMS-EMG, (iv torque control, i.e. accuracy (MAE, absolute fluctuation (standard deviation, SD, relative fluctuation (coefficient of variation, CV and periodicity (mean frequency, MNF of the torque signal at 20%, 40% and 60% IMVT, (v EMG-torque relationship at 20%, 40% and 60% IMVT and (vi performance fatigability, i.e. time to task failure (TTF at 40% IMVT.Compared to the control group, the KOA group displayed: (i significantly higher MAE of the angle signal at 30° (99.3%; P = 0.027 and 50° (147.9%; P < 0.001, (ii no significant differences in reaction time, (iii significantly lower IMVT (-41.6%; P = 0.001 and tendentially lower RMS-EMG of the rectus femoris (-33.7%; P = 0.054, (iv tendentially higher MAE of the torque signal at 20% IMVT (65.9%; P = 0.068, significantly lower SD of the torque signal at all three torque levels and greater MNF at 60% IMVT (44.8%; P = 0.018, (v significantly increased RMS-EMG of the vastus lateralis at 20% (70.8%; P = 0.003 and 40% IMVT (33.3%; P = 0.034, significantly lower RMS-EMG of the biceps femoris at 20% (-63.6%; P = 0.044 and 40% IMVT (-41.3%; P = 0.028 and tendentially lower at 60% IMVT (-24.3%; P = 0.075 and (vi significantly shorter TTF (-51.1%; P = 0.049.KOA is not only associated with a deterioration of IMVT

  2. Maximal voluntary contraction force, SR function and glycogen resynthesis during the first 72 h after a high-level competitive soccer game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine maximal voluntary knee-extensor contraction force (MVC force), sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and muscle glycogen levels in the days after a high-level soccer game when players ingested an optimised diet. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus...... lateralis muscle biopsy and a blood sample collected in a control situation and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after a competitive soccer game. MVC force, SR function, muscle glycogen, muscle soreness and plasma myoglobin were measured. MVC force sustained over 1 s was 11 and 10% lower (P ...

  3. Voluntary Control of Residual Antagonistic Muscles in Transtibial Amputees: Feedforward Ballistic Contractions and Implications for Direct Neural Control of Powered Lower Limb Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Stephanie; Huang, He

    2018-04-01

    Discrete, rapid (i.e., ballistic like) muscle activation patterns have been observed in ankle muscles (i.e., plantar flexors and dorsiflexors) of able-bodied individuals during voluntary posture control. This observation motivated us to investigate whether transtibial amputees are capable of generating such a ballistic-like activation pattern accurately using their residual ankle muscles in order to assess whether the volitional postural control of a powered ankle prosthesis using proportional myoelectric control via residual muscles could be feasible. In this paper, we asked ten transtibial amputees to generate ballistic-like activation patterns using their residual lateral gastrocnemius and residual tibialis anterior to control a computer cursor via proportional myoelectric control to hit targets positioned at 20% and 40% of maximum voluntary contraction of the corresponding residual muscle. During practice conditions, we asked amputees to hit a single target repeatedly. During testing conditions, we asked amputees to hit a random sequence of targets. We compared movement time to target and end-point accuracy. We also examined motor recruitment synchronization via time-frequency representations of residual muscle activation. The result showed that median end-point error ranged from -0.6% to 1% maximum voluntary contraction across subjects during practice, which was significantly lower compared to testing ( ). Average movement time for all amputees was 242 ms during practice and 272 ms during testing. Motor recruitment synchronization varied across subjects, and amputees with the highest synchronization achieved the fastest movement times. End-point accuracy was independent of movement time. Results suggest that it is feasible for transtibial amputees to generate ballistic control signals using their residual muscles. Future work on volitional control of powered power ankle prostheses might consider anticipatory postural control based on ballistic-like residual

  4. Voluntary low-force contraction elicits prolonged low-frequency fatigue and changes in surface electromyography and mechanomyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Madeleine, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Controversies exist regarding objective documentation of fatigue development with low-force contractions. We hypothesized that non-exhaustive, low-force muscle contraction may induce prolonged low-frequency fatigue (LFF) that in the subsequent recovery period is detectable by electromyography (EMG...

  5. Army Corps of Engineers and Gulf Region Division Contingency Contracting in Iraq/Afghanistan: Sustaining Civilian Voluntary Workforce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brosch, Paige H; Clemons, Travis; Wigfall, Henry

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to describe, analyze, and recommend the strategy and process of using an Army volunteer civilian contracting deployable workforce in Iraq and Afghanistan particularly in terms of the U.S...

  6. Intrarater Reliability of Muscle Strength and Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Imbalance Ratios During Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Maximal Voluntary Contractions Using the Isoforce Dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Moeller, Anett; Gube, Martin; Felser, Sabine; Feldhege, Frank; Weippert, Matthias; Husmann, Florian; Tischer, Thomas; Bader, Rainer; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Martin

    2017-08-17

    To determine intrasession and intersession reliability of strength measurements and hamstrings to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios (H/Q ratios) using the new isoforce dynamometer. Repeated measures. Exercise science laboratory. Thirty healthy subjects (15 females, 15 males, 27.8 years). Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for (1) strength parameters, that is peak torque, mean work, and mean power for concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contractions; isometric maximal voluntary torque (IMVT); rate of torque development (RTD), and (2) H/Q ratios, that is conventional concentric, eccentric, and isometric H/Q ratios (Hcon/Qcon at 60 deg/s, 120 deg/s, and 180 deg/s, Hecc/Qecc at -60 deg/s and Hiso/Qiso) and functional eccentric antagonist to concentric agonist H/Q ratios (Hecc/Qcon and Hcon/Qecc). High reliability: CV 0.90; moderate reliability: CV between 10% and 20%, ICC between 0.80 and 0.90; low reliability: CV >20%, ICC Strength parameters: (a) high intrasession reliability for concentric, eccentric, and isometric measurements, (b) moderate-to-high intersession reliability for concentric and eccentric measurements and IMVT, and (c) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability but low intersession reliability for RTD. (2) H/Q ratios: (a) moderate-to-high intrasession reliability for conventional ratios, (b) high intrasession reliability for functional ratios, (c) higher intersession reliability for Hcon/Qcon and Hiso/Qiso (moderate to high) than Hecc/Qecc (low to moderate), and (d) higher intersession reliability for conventional H/Q ratios (low to high) than functional H/Q ratios (low to moderate). The results have confirmed the reliability of strength parameters and the most frequently used H/Q ratios.

  7. Fatigue reduces the complexity of knee extensor torque fluctuations during maximal and submaximal intermittent isometric contractions in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue increases the amplitude of fluctuations in torque output during isometric contractions, but the effect of fatigue on the temporal structure, or complexity, of these fluctuations is not known. We hypothesised that fatigue would result in a loss of temporal complexity and a change in fractal scaling of the torque signal during isometric knee extensor exercise. Eleven healthy participants performed a maximal test (5 min of intermittent maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs), and a submaximal test (contractions at a target of 40% MVC performed until task failure), each with a 60% duty factor (6 s contraction, 4 s rest). Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling of torque were quantified by calculating approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scaling exponent α. Fresh submaximal contractions were more complex than maximal contractions (mean ± SEM, submaximal vs. maximal: ApEn 0.65 ± 0.09 vs. 0.15 ± 0.02; SampEn 0.62 ± 0.09 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02; DFA α 1.35 ± 0.04 vs. 1.55 ± 0.03; all P torque, fatigue reduces the neuromuscular system's adaptability to external perturbations. PMID:25664928

  8. Effects of Acupuncture Therapy on the EMG Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Tibialis Anterior during Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se In Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been increasingly used in the treatment of muscle damage associated with sports activities. However, studies on the immediate effects of one-time acupuncture on the muscles of athletes are clearly lacking. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effects of acupuncture therapy on the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC electromyography (EMG of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. This study was conducted among 20 healthy male college students who had no musculoskeletal disease. The participants were subjected to 3 different experimental conditions and subsequently grouped based on these conditions: real acupuncture, sham acupuncture, and control. A 7-day washout period was implemented to avoid any transient effects on the physiological and psychological conditions of the participants. Subsequently, an electromyogram patch was attached on the most developed area in the middle of the origin and insertion of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles. The percent MVIC, which was used to standardize the signal from the electromyogram, was determined, and the maximal value from the MVIC of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles was measured. The MVIC EMG activities of both femoris (F = 6.633, p = 0.003 and tibialis anterior (F = 5.216, p = 0.008 muscles were significantly different among all groups. Accordingly, the results of a posthoc test showed that the real acupuncture group had higher MVIC EMG activities in the femoris (p = 0.002 and tibialis anterior (p = 0.006 muscles compared with the control group. These results suggest that treatment with real acupuncture resulted in significantly higher MVIC EMG activities of the rectus femoris and tibialis anterior muscles than the other treatments. Hence, acupuncture may be helpful in the improvement of muscle strength among athletes in the physical fitness field.

  9. Voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Thurstan B

    1986-05-10

    Brewin comments upon James Rachels' The End of Life (Oxford University Press; 1986) and Voluntary Euthanasia (Peter Owen; 1986), a compilation edited by A.B. Downing and B. Smoker that is an expanded version of a 1969 work by Britain's Voluntary Euthanasia Society. Rachels maintains that it is illogical to distinguish between active and passive euthanasia. In Voluntary Euthanasia, 17 contributors argue the pros and cons of the issue. The Voluntary Euthanasia Society proposes that mentally competent persons be allowed by law to request euthanasia, either when taken ill or by advance directive. Brewin says he is almost but not quite convinced by the arguments for legalized voluntary euthanasia. He is concerned about the "slippery slope," the uncertainties of prognosis and quality of life judgments, the pressures to which the terminally ill or aged might be subjected, and the potentially negative impact of euthanasia on the physician patient relationship.

  10. Torque decrease during submaximal evoked contractions of the quadriceps muscle is linked not only to muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowski, Boris; Lepers, Romuald; Martin, Alain

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the neuromuscular mechanisms involved in the torque decrease induced by submaximal electromyostimulation (EMS) of the quadriceps muscle. It was hypothesized that torque decrease after EMS would reflect the fatigability of the activated motor units (MUs), but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited as a result of changes in axonal excitability threshold. Two experiments were performed on 20 men to analyze 1) the supramaximal twitch superimposed and evoked at rest during EMS (Experiment 1, n = 9) and 2) the twitch response and torque-frequency relation of the MUs activated by EMS (Experiment 2, n = 11). Torque loss was assessed by 15 EMS-evoked contractions (50 Hz; 6 s on/6 s off), elicited at a constant intensity that evoked 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The same stimulation intensity delivered over the muscles was used to induce the torque-frequency relation and the single electrical pulse evoked after each EMS contraction (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, supramaximal twitch was induced by femoral nerve stimulation. Torque decreased by ~60% during EMS-evoked contractions and by only ~18% during MVCs. This was accompanied by a rightward shift of the torque-frequency relation of MUs activated and an increase of the ratio between the superimposed and posttetanic maximal twitch evoked during EMS contraction. These findings suggest that the torque decrease observed during submaximal EMS-evoked contractions involved muscular mechanisms but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited due to changes in axonal excitability. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Loss of knee extensor torque complexity during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions occurs exclusively above the critical torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The complexity of knee extensor torque time series decreases during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions. We hypothesized that because of peripheral fatigue, this loss of torque complexity would occur exclusively during contractions above the critical torque (CT). Nine healthy participants performed isometric knee extension exercise (6 s of contraction, 4 s of rest) on six occasions for 30 min or to task failure, whichever occurred sooner. Four trials were performed above CT (trials S1-S4, S1 being the lowest intensity), and two were performed below CT (at 50% and 90% of CT). Global, central, and peripheral fatigue were quantified using maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) with femoral nerve stimulation. The complexity of torque output was determined using approximate entropy (ApEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis-α scaling exponent (DFA-α). The MVC torque was reduced in trials below CT [by 19 ± 4% (means ± SE) in 90%CT], but complexity did not decrease [ApEn for 90%CT: from 0.82 ± 0.03 to 0.75 ± 0.06, 95% paired-samples confidence intervals (CIs), 95% CI = -0.23, 0.10; DFA-α from 1.36 ± 0.01 to 1.32 ± 0.03, 95% CI -0.12, 0.04]. Above CT, substantial reductions in MVC torque occurred (of 49 ± 8% in S1), and torque complexity was reduced (ApEn for S1: from 0.67 ± 0.06 to 0.14 ± 0.01, 95% CI = -0.72, -0.33; DFA-α from 1.38 ± 0.03 to 1.58 ± 0.01, 95% CI 0.12, 0.29). Thus, in these experiments, the fatigue-induced loss of torque complexity occurred exclusively during contractions performed above the CT. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  13. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  14. Knowledge of Repetitions Range Affects Force Production in Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Halperin, Saied J. Aboodarda, Fabien A. Basset, David G. Behm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have examined pacing strategies with cyclical activities (running and cycling. It has been demonstrated that males employ different pacing strategies during repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs dependent upon a known endpoint. Since different fatiguing mechanisms have been identified between the genders, it is not known if females use comparable pacing strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine if informing female subjects regarding the number of MVCs to perform would affect force and electromyography (EMG. Twenty well-trained females completed 3 fatiguing protocols in a randomized order. In the control condition participants were informed they would perform twelve MVCs and then actually completed twelve. In the unknown condition they were not told how many MVCs to perform but were stopped after twelve. In the deception condition they were initially informed to perform 6 MVCs, but after the 6th MVC they were asked to perform a few more MVCs and were stopped after twelve. During the first 6 MVCs, forces in the deception condition were greater compared to the unknown (p = 0.021, ES = 0.65, 5% and control (p = 0.022, ES = 0.42, 3% conditions. No differences were found between conditions in the last 6 MVCs. A main effect for repetitions showed force deficits during the first 6 MVCs (p = 0.000, ES = 1.81, 13% and last 6 MVCs (p = 0.05, ES = 0.34, 3%. No differences were found between conditions in biceps and triceps EMG. However, EMG decreased during the first 6 MVCs for biceps (p = 0.001, ES = 1.0, 14% and triceps (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76, 14% across conditions. No differences were found in the last 6 MVCs. The anticipation of performing fewer MVCs led to increased force, whereas no endpoint led to decreased force production.

  15. 76 FR 2035 - Procedures for Protests and Contracts Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... an alleged breach of that contract. A contract dispute does not require, as a prerequisite, the...-0840; Notice No. 10-18] RIN 2120-AJ82 Procedures for Protests and Contracts Dispute AGENCY: Federal... brought against the FAA and contract disputes brought against or by the FAA. It would also add a voluntary...

  16. 76 FR 55217 - Procedures for Protests and Contracts Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... an alleged breach of that contract. A contract dispute does not require, as a prerequisite, the...-0840; Amdt. No. 17-1] RIN 2120-AJ82 Procedures for Protests and Contracts Dispute AGENCY: Federal... contract disputes brought against or by the FAA. It also adds a voluntary dispute avoidance and early...

  17. Rethinking voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyles, Byron J; Costreie, Sorin

    2013-12-01

    Our goal in this article is to explicate the way, and the extent to which, euthanasia can be voluntary from both the perspective of the patient and the perspective of the health care providers involved in the patient's care. More significantly, we aim to challenge the way in which those engaged in ongoing philosophical debates regarding the morality of euthanasia draw distinctions between voluntary, involuntary, and nonvoluntary euthanasia on the grounds that drawing the distinctions in the traditional manner (1) fails to reflect what is important from the patient's perspective and (2) fails to reflect the significance of health care providers' interests, including their autonomy and integrity.

  18. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  19. Voluntary Becomes Mandatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, William

    Voluntary bench-bar press guidelines have evolved over the past 15 years as a way of resolving the conflict between the right of the accused to a fair trial and the right of the press to cover such a trial. In 1980, however, a Washington state judge required reporters to sign an affidavit stating that they would follow the state's guidelines.…

  20. The roles of incentives and voluntary cooperation for contractual compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Gächter, Simon; Kessler, Esther; Königstein, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Efficiency under contractual incompleteness often requires voluntary cooperation in situations where self-regarding incentives for contractual compliance are present as well. Here we provide a comprehensive experimental analysis based on the gift-exchange game of how explicit and implicit incentives affect cooperation. We first show that there is substantial cooperation under non-incentive compatible contracts. Incentive-compatible contracts induce best-reply effort and crowd out any voluntar...

  1. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  2. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  3. Bound to treatment: the Ulysses contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, R

    1984-06-01

    Several commentators have proposed a novel legal mechanism, the "Ulysses contract" or "voluntary commitment contract," to permit mental patients with recurrent treatable disorders to consent in advance to treatment which they might reject at a time when their cognitive abilities are impaired. Dresser discusses the legal ramifications of precommitment, the implications of basing consent on a patient's past rather than current wishes, problems of enforcing Ulysses contracts given the uncertainties of psychiatric diagnosis, and the inherent paternalism of these precommitment agreements.

  4. Disincentives to voluntary transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Current legal, regulatory and institutional standards and practices provide several disincentives for a utility wishing to engage in voluntary wheeling transactions, and are discussed here. These disincentives largely arise from the fact that regulation, like the transmission system itself, is based on the notion of integrated utilities engaging in transactions largely for reliability reasons. Factors which fall into this category are: a pricing regime based on embedded costs, the ratemaking treatment of revenues derived from coordination and transmission services, and several provisions in legislation and FERC regulations

  5. Illness, suffering and voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2007-02-01

    It is often accepted that we may legitimately speak about voluntary euthanasia only in cases of persons who are suffering because they are incurably injured or have an incurable disease. This article argues that when we consider the moral acceptability of voluntary euthanasia, we have no good reason to concentrate only on persons who are ill or injured and suffering.

  6. Voluntary Disclosure and Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the disclosure strategy of firms that face uncertainty regarding the investor's response to a voluntary disclosure of the firm's private information.This paper distinguishes itself from the existing disclosure literature in that firms do not use voluntary disclosures to separate

  7. Operant Variability and Voluntary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuringer, Allen; Jensen, Greg

    2010-01-01

    A behavior-based theory identified 2 characteristics of voluntary acts. The first, extensively explored in operant-conditioning experiments, is that voluntary responses produce the reinforcers that control them. This bidirectional relationship--in which reinforcer depends on response and response on reinforcer--demonstrates the functional nature…

  8. Status of voluntary restraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, W. [SWOKA Institute for Strategic Consumer Behaviour, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2000-05-01

    Do people enjoying a higher status, especially those with a higher education, constrain their consumption more than others? In general, higher status and high levels of consumption go hand in hand. But the greater availability of luxury goods has led to a decline in their exclusivity. Since environmental awareness has increased, a countercurrent may be possible. It is possible that certain high status groups, the environmentally aware trendsetters, can now be distinguished by their voluntary restraint rather than by their conspicuous consumption. This hypothesis formed the basis for a sociological doctoral project at the University of Amsterdam. The research was conducted under the umbrella of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change.

  9. Voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle in cases with neck/shoulder pain compared to healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Katrine Tholstrup; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Subjects reporting neck/shoulder pain have been shown to generate less force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the shoulder muscles compared to healthy controls. This has been suggested to be caused by a pain-related decrease in voluntary activation (VA) rather than lack of...

  10. Voluntary agreements in environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    A typically voluntary agreement is signed between the authorities and an industrial sector in order to reduce the emission of environmentally harmful substances. There are many different types of agreements. Voluntary agreements are not strictly voluntary, since in the background there is often some kind of ''threat'' about taxation or fees if the industry is unwilling to cooperate. This type of agreements has become popular in many OECD countries during the last decades. In Norway there are only a few agreements of this type. Experience with the use of voluntary agreements as well as research show that they are less cost-effective than market-based instruments such as taxes and quota systems. If there are great restrictions on the use of taxes and quota systems because of information- or measurement problems, or because these instruments are not politically acceptable, then voluntary agreements may be an interesting alternative. Thus, voluntary agreements are best used as a supplement to other instruments in some niche areas of the environmental policy. In some cases, voluntary agreements may be used between two countries or at a regional level, for example within the EU

  11. Regulating a Polluting Oligopoly : Emission Tax or Voluntary Agreement ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mala David

    2003-01-01

    This paper compares, in a polluting oligopoly, an emission tax and a form of environmental policy called voluntary agreement (VA). There are here two ways of reducing pollution: output contraction and endof- pipe abatement. Given the imperfect competition, firms' reaction to the tax is sub-optimal. They reduce output excessively in order to raise the price and do not abate enough. The VA is a take-it-or-leaveit contract on abatement effort, offered to the firms with the threat of a tax. It ha...

  12. Green Power Partnership Long-term Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page lists Partners that signed a contract to purchase green power for 5 years or more.

  13. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    long-term contracts that would reduce the risk of relying on revenue the voluntary green power market. Although no simple solutions are identified, a proposal for integrating RECs into a load based cap-and-trade system is presented. Keywords: Renewable Energy Certificate (REC); Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS); emission offset; additionality; attributes

  14. Comparing Voluntary and Mandatory Gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kuindersma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gameplay is commonly considered to be a voluntary activity. Game designers generally believe that voluntary gameplay is essentially different from mandatory gameplay. Such a belief may be a challenge for serious games, as instruction is usually mandatory. The article describes the outcomes of two experiments on the impact of voluntariness on the learning effect and enjoyment of a serious game. In the first experiment freedom of choosing to play a serious game was studied, with participants who had volunteered to participate. The results suggested that, contrary to the opinion of many game designers, being required to play a serious game does not automatically take the fun out of the game. The second experiment had voluntary participants and mandatory participants, who had to participate as part of a homework assignment. The outcomes show that mandatory participants enjoyed the game as much as the voluntary participants, even if they had to play the game for a minimum required time. These studies indicate that mandatory gameplay does not reduce enjoyment and learning effect.

  15. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  16. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  17. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  18. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  19. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Contributions of central command and muscle feedback to sympathetic nerve activity in contracting human skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBoulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During voluntary contractions, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA to contracting muscles increases in proportion to force but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To shed light on these mechanisms, particularly the influences of central command and muscle afferent feedback, the present study tested the hypothesis that MSNA is greater during voluntary compared with electrically-evoked contractions. Seven male subjects performed a series of 1-minute isometric dorsiflexion contractions (left leg separated by 2-minute rest periods, alternating between voluntary and electrically-evoked contractions at similar forces (5-10 % of maximum. MSNA was recorded continuously (microneurography from the left peroneal nerve and quantified from cardiac-synchronised, negative-going spikes in the neurogram. Compared with pre-contraction values, MSNA increased by 51 ± 34 % (P 0.05. MSNA analysed at 15-s intervals revealed that this effect of voluntary contraction appeared 15-30 s after contraction onset (P < 0.01, remained elevated until the end of contraction, and disappeared within 15 s after contraction. These findings suggest that central command, and not feedback from contracting muscle, is the primary mechanism responsible for the increase in MSNA to contracting muscle. The time-course of MSNA suggests that there is a longer delay in the onset of this effect compared with its cessation after contraction.

  1. Voluntary euthanasia: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Belgium legalised voluntary euthanasia in 2002, thus ending the long isolation of the Netherlands as the only country in which doctors could openly give lethal injections to patients who have requested help in dying. Meanwhile in Oregon, in the United States, doctors may prescribe drugs for terminally ill patients, who can use them to end their life--if they are able to swallow and digest them. But despite President Bush's oft-repeated statements that his philosophy is to 'trust individuals to make the right decisions' and his opposition to 'distant bureaucracies', his administration is doing its best to prevent Oregonians acting in accordance with a law that its voters have twice ratified. The situation regarding voluntary euthanasia around the world is therefore very much in flux. This essay reviews ethical arguments regarding voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide from a utilitarian perspective. I shall begin by asking why it is normally wrong to kill an innocent person, and whether these reasons apply to aiding a person who, when rational and competent, asks to be killed or given the means to commit suicide. Then I shall consider more specific utilitarian arguments for and against permitting voluntary euthanasia.

  2. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...

  3. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  4. The voluntary offset - approaches and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After having briefly presented the voluntary offset mechanism which aims at funding a project of reduction or capture of greenhouse gas emissions, this document describes the approach to be followed to adopt this voluntary offset, for individuals as well as for companies, communities or event organisations. It describes other important context issues (projects developed under the voluntary offset, actors of the voluntary offsetting market, market status, offset labels), and how to proceed in practice (definition of objectives and expectations, search for needed requirements, to ensure the meeting of requirements with respect to expectations). It addresses the case of voluntary offset in France (difficult implantation, possible solutions)

  5. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  6. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  7. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  8. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Evaluation of higher order statistics parameters for multi channel sEMG using different force levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    The electromyograpy (EMG) signal provides information about the performance of muscles and nerves. The shape of the muscle signal and motor unit action potential (MUAP) varies due to the movement of the position of the electrode or due to changes in contraction level. This research deals with evaluating the non-Gaussianity in Surface Electromyogram signal (sEMG) using higher order statistics (HOS) parameters. To achieve this, experiments were conducted for four different finger and wrist actions at different levels of Maximum Voluntary Contractions (MVCs). Our experimental analysis shows that at constant force and for non-fatiguing contractions, probability density functions (PDF) of sEMG signals were non-Gaussian. For lesser MVCs (below 30% of MVC) PDF measures tends to be Gaussian process. The above measures were verified by computing the Kurtosis values for different MVCs.

  10. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  11. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  13. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced: 1. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities (adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 1989); 2. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency (approved by the General Conference on 29 September 1989)

  14. Voluntary work, a diversity of forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Joep de Hart

    2009-01-01

    Original title: Vrijwilligerswerk in meervoud. By international standards, the level of participation in voluntary work in the Netherlands is high, and the signs are that this will continue. On the other hand, the type of voluntary work and the groups in which it is concentrated are changing.

  15. Changing Dynamics in the Voluntary Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This presentation, presented at the Renewable Energy Markets Conference in December 2014, outlines the voluntary market in 2013, including community choice aggregation and community solar.

  16. PREDICTING VOLUNTARY INTAKE ON MEDIUM QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found a good relationship between the rate constant for fermentation and ... By dividing voluntary feed intake into the ... voluntary feed intake will be equal to the rate at which the rumen is ... per abomosum to prevent any deficiency in protein restricting .... McDougall's saliva and was not included in the calculation of the lust ...

  17. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  18. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  19. Dynamic imaging of skeletal muscle contraction in three orthogonal directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopata, R.G.; van Dijk, J.P; Pillen, S.; Nillisen, M.M.; Maas, H.; Thijssen, J.M.; Stegeman, D.F.; Korte, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a multidimensional strain estimation method using biplane ultrasound is presented to assess local relative deformation (i.e., local strain) in three orthogonal directions in skeletal muscles during induced and voluntary contractions. The method was tested in the musculus biceps

  20. Dynamic imaging of skeletal muscle contraction in three orthogonal directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopata, R.G.P.; Dijk, J.P. van; Pillen, S.; Nillesen, M.M.; Maas, H.; Thijssen, J.M.; Stegeman, D.F.; Korte, C.L. de

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a multidimensional strain estimation method using biplane ultrasound is presented to assess local relative deformation (i.e., local strain) in three orthogonal directions in skeletal muscles during induced and voluntary contractions. The method was tested in the musculus biceps

  1. Learning Contracts in Undergraduate Courses: Impacts on Student Behaviors and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Timothy; Scharf, Lauren F. V

    2013-01-01

    This project studied the effect of individualized, voluntary learning contracts for 18 students who performed poorly in the first part of the semester. Contracts were hypothesized to increase commitment and motivation, and lead to changes in behaviors and course performance. Self-reported prioritization and learning-related behaviors (completion…

  2. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  3. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH ABOUT VOLUNTARY TURNOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALET EREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes individual and organizational variables that affect voluntary turnover are determined in the special defence and security companies. A binomial logistic regression model is used to estimate voluntary turnover.  Binomial Logistic regression, reliability test (scale alfa, variance (ANOVA, Post-hoc/Tukey, correlation (Pearson and other basic statistical techniques  with SPSS 13 statistical packet program was used in the analyzes ofresearch data. The study finds that; situation of suppose working, number of child, number of death child, number of home’s moving, support of rent, total monthly income of household, last work’s region, number of prizes, affect voluntary turnover are determined.

  4. Effect of voluntary physical activity initiated at age 7 months on skeletal hindlimb and cardiac muscle function in mdx mice of both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Arnaud; Benchaouir, Rachid; Joanne, Pierre; Peat, Rachel A; Mougenot, Nathalie; Agbulut, Onnik; Butler-Browne, Gillian

    2015-11-01

    The effects of voluntary activity initiated in adult mdx (C57BL/10ScSc-DMD(mdx) /J) mice on skeletal and cardiac muscle function have not been studied extensively. We studied the effects of 3 months of voluntary wheel running initiated at age 7 months on hindlimb muscle weakness, increased susceptibility to muscle contraction-induced injury, and left ventricular function in mdx mice. We found that voluntary wheel running did not worsen the deficit in force-generating capacity and the force drop after lengthening contractions in either mdx mouse gender. It increased the absolute maximal force of skeletal muscle in female mdx mice. Moreover, it did not affect left ventricular function, structural heart dimensions, cardiac gene expression of inflammation, fibrosis, or remodeling markers. These results indicate that voluntary activity initiated at age 7 months had no detrimental effects on skeletal or cardiac muscles in either mdx mouse gender. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Efeitos na medida do ângulo Q com a contração isométrica voluntária máxima do músculo quadricipital Efectos en la medida del ángulo Q con la contracción isométrica voluntária máxima del musculo cuadricipital Effects in the Q angle measurement with maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.G. Belchior

    2006-02-01

    examination situations, having the quadriceps relaxed and in a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC through radiographic measurement, aiming to contribute to the assessment and treatment of patients with patelofemoral disorder (PFD. Through the standard radiological method twenty 21 years old mean women (40 knees were assessed. All individuals were positioned supine using a U-podalic stabilizer, having their lower limbs relaxed, using a plumb film on the anterior tuberosity of the tibia. For the statistical analysis, the averages for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups in a relaxed and MVIC status, as well as the Student's t-test with p < 0.05 significance level were used. The mean values to the Q angle compared to the asymptomatic group were 17.15º on relaxation, and 14.5º on MVIC, while the asymptomatic group presented 21.45º, and 15.8º, respectively. The results in the equality analysis between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups on the relaxed status attained a p = 0.004, and to the maximal voluntary isometric contraction, p = 0.29. Considering the data attained in the present study, it can be verified that in a relaxing status, there is a difference between the value of the Q angle among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, being found a higher value in the FPD bearers, while in a maximal isometric contraction of the quadriceps muscle no statistical difference was found in the present study, with a reduction in the angle in both groups.

  6. Support for Voluntary Euthanasia with No Logical Slippery Slope to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskal, Steven

    2018-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that acceptance of voluntary euthanasia does not generate commitment to either non-voluntary euthanasia or euthanasia on request. This is accomplished through analysis of John Keown's and David Jones's slippery slope arguments, and rejection of their view that voluntary euthanasia requires physicians to judge patients as better off dead. Instead, voluntary euthanasia merely requires physicians to judge patients as within boundaries of appropriate deference. This paper develops two ways of understanding and defending voluntary euthanasia on this model, one focused on the independent value of patients' autonomy and the other on the evidence of well-being provided by patients' requests. Both avoid the purported slippery slopes and both are independently supported by an analogy to uncontroversial elements of medical practice. Moreover, the proposed analyses of voluntary euthanasia suggest parameters for the design of euthanasia legislation, both supporting and challenging elements of existing laws in Oregon and the Netherlands.

  7. Motor Unit Interpulse Intervals During High Force Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2016-01-01

    We examined the means, medians, and variability for motor-unit interpulse intervals (IPIs) during voluntary, high force contractions. Eight men (mean age = 22 years) attempted to perform isometric contractions at 90% of their maximal voluntary contraction force while bipolar surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles. Surface EMG signal decomposition was used to determine the recruitment thresholds and IPIs of motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels ≥ 96.0%. Motor units with high recruitment thresholds demonstrated longer mean IPIs, but the coefficients of variation were similar across all recruitment thresholds. Polynomial regression analyses indicated that for both muscles, the relationship between the means and standard deviations of the IPIs was linear. The majority of IPI histograms were positively skewed. Although low-threshold motor units were associated with shorter IPIs, the variability among motor units with differing recruitment thresholds was comparable.

  8. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  9. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  10. Pedagogical Aspects of Voluntary School Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Jármai Erzsébet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of voluntary work has been exceedingly appreciated in the last few decades. This is not surprising at all, because it is highly profitable according to the related estimated data. There are 115,9 million people doing voluntary work only in Europe, which means that they would create the world's 7th biggest economy with EUR 282 billion value creation if they formed an individual state. The organizations know that voluntary work has several advantages apart from the economic benefits. It is profitable both for the society and for the individuals as well. Several researches have proven that voluntary work positively influences the development of the personality, because the key-competencies - such as: co-operation, empathy, solidarity, conflict handling, problem solving, etc. - expected in the labor market can be improved.

  11. Contemplated Suicide Among Voluntary and Involuntary Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Wilson, Cedric

    1978-01-01

    This study explored anomic and egoistic dimensions of contemplated suicide among voluntary and involuntary retired males. Results indicated a direct relationship between anomie and egoism on the one hand, and contemplation of suicide on the other. (Author)

  12. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...

  13. Control of the voluntary splitting of photovoltaic projects and unique purchase contract - Decree of the 26 June 2015 modifying the decree of the 4 March 2011 defining the purchase conditions for the electricity produced by installations using solar radiation like those concerned in the 3. of the article 2 of the decree 2000-1196 of the 6 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leloup, Lea

    2015-01-01

    This article comments a recent decree which aims at struggling against artificial splitting of solar installations, i.e. the possibility for solar electricity producers to circumvent tariffs and ask for a better purchase tariff through requests for distinct contracts. The author describes this problem, and analyses how this struggle is strengthened by new legal arrangements. She also outlines that no more parcel division will be tolerated

  14. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)

  15. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 13 June 2001; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC(45)/RES/9)

  16. Weaker Seniors Exhibit Motor Cortex Hypoexcitability and Impairments in Voluntary Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Taylor, Janet L; Hong, S Lee; Law, Timothy D; Russ, David W

    2015-09-01

    Weakness predisposes seniors to a fourfold increase in functional limitations. The potential for age-related degradation in nervous system function to contribute to weakness and physical disability has garnered much interest of late. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that weaker seniors have impairments in voluntary (neural) activation and increased indices of GABAergic inhibition of the motor cortex, assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Young adults (N = 46; 21.2±0.5 years) and seniors (N = 42; 70.7±0.9 years) had their wrist flexion strength quantified along with voluntary activation capacity (by comparing voluntary and electrically evoked forces). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure motor-evoked potential amplitude and silent period duration during isometric contractions at 15% and 30% of maximum strength. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure intracortical facilitation and short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition. The primary analysis compared seniors to young adults. The secondary analysis compared stronger seniors (top two tertiles) to weaker seniors (bottom tertile) based on strength relative to body weight. The most novel findings were that weaker seniors exhibited: (i) a 20% deficit in voluntary activation; (ii) ~20% smaller motor-evoked potentials during the 30% contraction task; and (iii) nearly twofold higher levels of long-interval intracortical inhibition under resting conditions. These findings indicate that weaker seniors exhibit significant impairments in voluntary activation, and that this impairment may be mechanistically associated with increased GABAergic inhibition of the motor cortex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 78 FR 69793 - Voluntary Remedial Actions and Guidelines for Voluntary Recall Notices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ...'' and ``hard copy'' as possible forms of direct voluntary recall notice. Because firms often lack... formatting of a voluntary recall notice in the form of a press release should comport with the most current... transmitted using an electronic medium and in hard copy form. Acceptable forms of, and means for...

  19. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  20. The Client's Perspective on Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Donaher, Joe; Stergiou, Erin

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary stuttering is a strategy that has been suggested for use in the clinical literature but has minimal empirical data regarding treatment outcomes. The purpose of the present study is to explore client perspectives regarding the impact of the use of this strategy on the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of stuttering. The present study used an original survey designed to explore the intended purpose. A total of 206 adults who stutter were included in the final data corpus. Responses were considered with respect to the type of voluntary stuttering the participants reportedly produced and the location of use. A client perceives significantly greater affective, behavioral, and cognitive benefits from voluntary stuttering when the production is closely matched to the client's actual stutter and when it is used outside the clinical environment. To enhance client perception of associated benefits, clinicians should encourage use of voluntary stuttering that closely matches the client's own stuttering. Clinicians should also facilitate practice of voluntary stuttering outside of the therapy room. Finally, clinicians should be aware that clients, at least initially, may not perceive any benefits from the use of this strategy.

  1. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  2. Delivery mechanisms: voluntary vs command and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierans, T.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Canada's Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program was debated. The generally accepted view is that the voluntary program to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000 has failed. However, the author suggested that the issues and processes are complicated and that we should not give up too soon. Time is needed to refine the market instruments that we are dealing with. Also, there are substantial economic barriers to fully meet target figures, among them the fact that municipalities, universities, social services and health care industries are chronically capital rationed and don't have the money to respond to the VCR program. Other sectors of the economy capitalized and regulated by government, have not seen much success in the VCR program either. The central argument is that while voluntary programs are probably not the answer, binding agreements or government-run schemes are even less likely to succeed

  3. SEA Screening of voluntary Climate Change Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Wejs, Anja

    2013-01-01

    that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation...... rests upon a docu- mentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical...... and adap- tation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon...

  4. ASPECTS REGARDING CORPORATE MANDATORY AND VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Adina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights theoretical aspects regarding corporate mandatory and voluntary disclosure. Since financial and business reporting are important information sources for different stakeholders, especially for publicly traded companies, the business reporting is increasingly oriented to the need of different users. In order to make rational investment decisions, users of corporate annual and interim reports require an extensive range of information. The increasing needs of the users persuade different international bodies and researchers to investigate the improvements that can be done in business reporting. The results of those studies usually were different reporting models. Because voluntary dimension of corporate disclosure involve the manifestation of free choice of the firm and its managers, we have considered as necessary to achieve a theoretical analysis of the main costs and profits of the voluntary disclosure policy.

  5. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  6. Voluntary agreements - a measure for energy-efficiency in industry? Lessons from a Swedish programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Anna- Lisa [Department of Sociology, Lund University P.O. Box 114, SE-221 00, Lund, (Sweden); Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika [Environmental Strategies Research Group, P.O. Box 2142, SE-103 14, Stockholm, (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Voluntary agreements represent a policy instrument for applying new knowledge, routines or technology to specified issues. The traditional role of an authority when using information, and taking economic, or administrative measures is that of an initiator and controller. Voluntary agreements, on the other hand, represent a communication process between an authority and a partner where relations of dependency and mutuality are more important in advancing the programme. This article analyses and discusses the motivational aspects of voluntary agreements, the role of the contract, advising, information, education, time planning and the importance of reporting and evaluation in energy-efficiency programmes. Besides sociological and communication theories, the discussion is based on the outcome of an evaluation of a Swedish energy-efficiency programme. Among the conclusions are that communication processes have to be planned and implemented in time sequences and steps of measures, which was partially neglected in the Swedish programme. Also, agreements between partners have to be defined in ways valid for all partners. In the Swedish programme, quantitative goals, at least measured in kWh, were impossible to achieve for some industries. On the other hand, most industries reported progress in side effects of energy efficiency as for example transportation policy for products, recirculation of waste material, lighting policy and behaviour, qualifications for ISO labelling. Information in combination with voluntary agreements can be efficient for industrial energy conservation. The education and auditing that was part of the Swedish programme were highly appreciated and added to the achievements. (Author)

  7. Cardioprotective Effects of Voluntary Exercise in a Rat Model: Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regular exercise at moderate intensity reduces cardiovascular risks. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play a major role in cardiac remodeling, facilitating physiological adaptation to exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of voluntary physical exercise on the MMP-2 enzyme activity and to investigate the cardiac performance by measurement of angina susceptibility of the heart, the basal blood pressure, the surviving aorta ring contraction, and the cardiac infarct size after I/R-induced injury. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into control and exercising groups. After a 6-week period, the serum level of MMP-2, basal blood pressure, cardiac angina susceptibility (the ST segment depression provoked by epinephrine and 30 s later phentolamine, AVP-induced heart perfusion and aorta ring contraction, infarct size following 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion, and coronary effluent MMP-2 activity were measured. Results. Voluntary wheel-running exercise decreased both the sera (64 kDa and 72 kDa and the coronary effluent (64 kDa MMP-2 level, reduced the development of ST depression, improved the isolated heart perfusion, and decreased the ratio of infarct size. Conclusion. 6 weeks of voluntary exercise training preserved the heart against cardiac injury. This protective mechanism might be associated with the decreased activity of MMP-2.

  8. Sex differences in neuromuscular function after repeated eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrea; Baxter, Jake; Eischer, Claire; Gage, Matt; Hunter, Sandra; Yoon, Tejin

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the mechanisms for force and power reduction during and up to 48 h after maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles in young men and women. 13 men (22.8 ± 2.6 years) and 13 women (21.6 ± 2.2 years) performed 150 maximal effort eccentric contractions (5 sets of 30) with the knee extensor muscles at 60° s -1 . Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVCC) were performed before and after the 150 eccentric contractions. The MVCCs involved a set of two isokinetic contractions at 60° s -1 and sets of isotonic contractions performed at seven different resistance loads (1 N m, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% MVIC). Electrical stimulation was used during the MVICs and at rest to determine changes in voluntary activation and contractile properties. At baseline, men were stronger than women (MVIC: 276 ± 48 vs. 133 ± 37 N m) and more powerful (MVCC: 649 ± 77 vs. 346 ± 78 W). At termination of the eccentric contractions, voluntary activation, resting twitch amplitude, and peak power during concentric contractions at the seven loads and at 60° s -1 decreased (P  0.05) with no sex differences. Central mechanisms were primarily responsible for the depressed maximal force production up to 48 h after repeated eccentric contractions of the knee extensors and these mechanisms were similar in men and women.

  9. Biofeedback, voluntary control, and human potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, P

    1986-03-01

    This paper examines some of the philosophical and scientific relationships involving self-control, voluntary control, and psychophysiologic self-regulation. The role of biofeedback in mediating conscious and unconscious processes is explored. Demonstrations of superior voluntary control and its relationship to belief, confidence, and expectation are examined. Biofeedback demonstrates the potential of control to oneself, creating confidence in one's ability to establish enhanced and peak performance in athletics, education, and psychophysiologic therapy. Emphasis is placed on the power of images in all human functioning, and in enhancing human potential.

  10. The bible and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-03-15

    Are beliefs about and behaviors towards the Bible associated with voluntary euthanasia attitudes? Using General Social Survey data and multivariate logistic regression, I find that individuals' views of the authorship and epistemological status of the Bible; the importance of the Bible in making decisions; and the frequency in which individuals read the Bible are associated with negative voluntary euthanasia attitudes, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic predictors. I find that the importance of the Bible in making decisions accounts for the effect of frequency of reading the Bible and viewing the Bible as the inspired word of God.

  11. A Free Market Requires Voluntary Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard

    and not consumer sovereignty. I argue that asset ownership is less important than true consumer sovereignty, which again is the essential argument for why capitalism is the superior mode of resource allocation and social organization. The paper analyzes how our understanding of markets and voluntary actions...... are essential to the construct of consumer sovereignty. Understanding the degree of voluntary actions in a given commercial setting has implications for both business strategy and policy making. This paper thus aims to contribute to explain why restricted markets become crony capitalism....

  12. The empirical slippery slope from voluntary to non-voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penney

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evidence for the empirical argument that there is a slippery slope between the legalization of voluntary and non-voluntary euthanasia. The main source of evidence in relation to this argument comes from the Netherlands. The argument is only effective against legalization if it is legalization which causes the slippery slope. Moreover, it is only effective if it is used comparatively-to show that the slope is more slippery in jurisdictions which have legalized voluntary euthanasia than it is in jurisdictions which have not done so. Both of these elements are examined comparatively.

  13. Decentralized trade with bargaining and voluntary matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Sloth, Birgitte; Hendon, Ebbe

    1994-01-01

    Rubinstein and Wolinsky (1990) study a market with one seller, two buyers, and voluntary matching. Both the competitive outcomepc and the bilateral bargaining outcomepb are possible in subgame perfect equilibrium. We consider two variations. First, if there is a cost larger thanpc−pc to the seller...

  14. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983. PMID:2033626

  15. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983.

  16. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-11-06

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency.

  17. Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The texts of the following rules are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency: I. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities; II. Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency

  18. Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary intake, nitrogen metabolism and rumen fermentation patterns in sheep given cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and fine-stem stylo legume hays as ... utilisation, the negative nitrogen retentions might indicate the inadequacy of the specific legume hays used as nitrogen supplementary feeds to sheep fed a basal diet

  19. VOLUNTARY INTEREST ARBITRATION IN THE ETHIOPIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Birhanu is currently working as the Manager of the Legal Research and Advisory Division ... forth voluntary interest arbitration to the attention of lawyers, employees, .... being selective is a poor design since the basic rules of this law are not .... courts to review interest arbitrators decision on the merit by way of appeal.

  20. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... measures so that Contingency planning information can be shared with Participants to enable them to plan... Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) Table of Contents Abbreviations Definitions Preface I. Purpose II... of VISA Contingency Provisions A. General B. Notification of Activation C. Voluntary Capacity D...

  1. Staff's perceptions of voluntary assertiveness skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVanel, Sarah; Morris, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians' ability to be assertive when unsure or concerned about procedures, treatment modalities, or patients' symptoms is key in reducing risk and preventing sentinel events. In this article, the authors provide a framework for generic, voluntary assertiveness communication skills workshops that any educator can implement.

  2. 25 CFR 38.14 - Voluntary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.14 Voluntary services. (a... receiving credit for their work (i.e., student teaching) from an education institution, the agreement will... Regulations Governing Responsibilities and Conduct. (e) Travel and other expenses. The decision to reimburse...

  3. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A

  4. Voluntary Community Organisations in Metropolitan Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    that voluntary community work in relation to public urban regeneration is much more than the public’s engagement in project planning processes. Contrary to temporary urban regeneration projects, VCOs are much more permanently embedded in the neighbourhood, and volunteers are motivated by both self-interest...

  5. Improving voluntary medical male circumcision standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been demonstrated to reduce the transmission of HIV by 60%. Scaling up VMMC services requires that they be of high quality, socially accepted, and effective. We evaluated an intervention aimed at improving VMMC standards adherence and patient follow-up rates in nine ...

  6. School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

  7. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.

  8. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  9. Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost effectiveness of facility and home based HIV voluntary counseling and ... Background: In Uganda, the main stay for provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and testing uptake among students in Bahir Dar University: A case control study. ... Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Effective Coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing ... The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for Voluntary Counseling and testing services in major health facilities ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary ... The commonest reason for not donating blood was fear to damage of health as reported in ... to arouse the interest of the general public in voluntary blood donation exercises.

  13. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari, İzzet

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO 2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO 2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  14. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  15. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  16. Moving from voluntary euthanasia to non-voluntary euthanasia: equality and compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraskekara, Kumar; Bagaric, Mirko

    2004-09-01

    The recent Dutch law legalising active voluntary euthanasia will reignite the euthanasia debate. An illuminating method for evaluating the moral status of a practice is to follow the implications of the practice to its logical conclusion. The argument for compassion is one of the central arguments in favour of voluntary active euthanasia. This argument applies perhaps even more forcefully in relation to incompetent patients. If active voluntary euthanasia is legalised, arguments based on compassion and equality will be directed towards legalising active non-voluntary euthanasia in order to make accelerated termination of death available also to the incompetent. The removal of discrimination against the incompetent has the potential to become as potent a catch-cry as the right to die. However, the legalisation of non-voluntary euthanasia is undesirable. A review of the relevant authorities reveals that there is no coherent and workable "best interests" test which can be invoked to decide whether an incompetent patient is better off dead. This provides a strong reason for not stepping onto the slippery path of permitting active voluntary euthanasia.

  17. 75 FR 47607 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey. This is a.... Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: Will be assigned upon approval. Form Number: None...

  18. 77 FR 36566 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs...

  19. 77 FR 55487 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Activities; Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Voluntary Customer Survey... forms of information. Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB Number: 1651-0135. Abstract: Customs and...

  20. 75 FR 27563 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Activities: Voluntary Customer Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of... collection requirement concerning a Voluntary Customer Survey. This request for comment is being made... soliciting comments concerning the following information collection: Title: Voluntary Customer Survey. OMB...

  1. 37 CFR 351.2 - Voluntary negotiation period; settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary negotiation period... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.2 Voluntary negotiation period..., the Copyright Royalty Judges will announce the beginning of a voluntary negotiation period and will...

  2. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  3. Concept of contracting authority

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  4. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  5. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  6. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  7. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  8. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  9. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  10. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  11. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  12. A concept analysis of voluntary active euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenglin

    2006-01-01

    Euthanasia has a wide range of classifications. Confusion exists in the application of specific concepts to various studies. To analyze the concept of voluntary active euthanasia using Walker and Avant's concept analysis method. A comprehensive literature review from various published literature and bibliographies. Clinical, ethical, and policy differences and similarities of euthanasia need to be debated openly, both within the medical profession and publicly. Awareness of the classifications about euthanasia may help nurses dealing with "end of life issues" properly.

  13. Stressors and Coping among Voluntary Sports Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, AJ; Didymus, F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sports coaching has been identified as a naturally stressful occupation. Coaches must be able to competently and effectively manage stress that is inherent in competitive sport and perform under pressure. Yet, limited research exists that has explored coaches’ experiences of psychological stress. The research that does exist has mainly focused on full-time, elite coaches who represent just 3% of the coaching workforce in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Despite the voluntary coaching wo...

  14. Canada's voluntary industrial energy conservation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Jr., C. A.

    1979-07-01

    The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)

  15. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  16. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  17. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  18. Dystonic neck muscles show a shift in relative autospectral power during isometric contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, E.; Nijmeijer, S. W. R.; Forbes, P. A.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Van Der Helm, F. C. T.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; Happee, R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify effects of a deviant motor drive in the autospectral power of dystonic muscles during voluntary contraction in cervical dystonia patients. Methods: Submaximal (20%) isometric head-neck tasks were performed with the head fixed, measuring surface EMG of the sternocleidomastoid,

  19. LONG-LASTING SUPERNORMAL CONDUCTION-VELOCITY AFTER SUSTAINED MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION IN HUMAN MUSCLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHOEVEN, JH; VANWEERDEN, TW; ZWARTS, MJ

    Local muscle fatigue (1 min maximal voluntary contraction) and recovery were studied by means of surface and invasive EMG on elbow flexors to record the changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), median power frequency (MPF), integrated EMG (IEMG), and force. The main finding was a

  20. Voluntary activation of ankle muscles is accompanied by subcortical facilitation of their antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend S.; Zuur, Abraham Theodoor; Nielsen, Jens B.

    2010-01-01

    Flexion and extension movements are organized reciprocally, so that extensor motoneurones in the spinal cord are inhibited when flexor muscles are active and vice versa. During and just prior to dorsiflexion of the ankle, soleus motoneurones are thus inhibited as evidenced by a depression......) or soleus muscle of the left ankle. TMS was applied to the hotspot of TA and soleus muscles on separate days. Stimuli were delivered prior to and at the beginning of contraction. Soleus MEPs were significantly facilitated when TMS was applied 50 ms prior to onset of plantar flexion. Surprisingly, soleus...... was increased prior to plantar flexion, but not prior to dorsiflexion. These findings suggest that voluntary contraction at the ankle is accompanied by preceding facilitation of antagonists by a subcortical motor programme. This may help to ensure that the direction of movement may be changed quickly...

  1. Livable Housing Design: The voluntary provision of inclusive housing in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Louise Ward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the voluntary provision of inclusive housing. The impetus for the study is the Livable Housing Design initiative, an agreement among Australian housing industry and community leaders in 2010 to a national guideline and voluntary strategy with a target to provide minimum access features in all new housing by 2020. Situated in and around Brisbane, Australia, the study problematises the assumption that the housing industry will respond voluntarily; an assumption which this study concludes is unfounded. The Livable Housing Design initiative asks individual agents to consider the needs of people beyond the initial contract, to proceed with objective reasoning and to do the right thing voluntarily. Instead, the study found that interviewees focused on their immediate contractual obligations, were reluctant to change established practices and saw little reason to do more than was legally required of them. This paper argues that the highly-competitive and risk-averse nature of the industry works against a voluntary approach for inclusive housing and, if the 2020 target of the Livable Housing Design.

  2. Voluntary reduction of force variability via modulation of low-frequency oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Casamento-Moran, Agostina; Yacoubi, Basma; Christou, Evangelos A

    2017-09-01

    Visual feedback can influence the force output by changing the power in frequencies below 1 Hz. However, it remains unknown whether visual guidance can help an individual reduce force variability voluntarily. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether an individual can voluntarily reduce force variability during constant contractions with visual guidance, and whether this reduction is associated with a decrease in the power of low-frequency oscillations (0-1 Hz) in force and muscle activity. Twenty young adults (27.6 ± 3.4 years) matched a force target of 15% MVC (maximal voluntary contraction) with ankle dorsiflexion. Participants performed six visually unrestricted contractions, from which we selected the trial with the least variability. Following, participants performed six visually guided contractions and were encouraged to reduce their force variability within two guidelines (±1 SD of the least variable unrestricted trial). Participants decreased the SD of force by 45% (P  0.2). The decrease in force variability was associated with decreased low-frequency oscillations (0-1 Hz) in force (R 2  = 0.59), which was associated with decreased low-frequency oscillations in EMG bursts (R 2  = 0.35). The reduction in low-frequency oscillations in EMG burst was positively associated with power in the interference EMG from 35 to 60 Hz (R 2  = 0.47). In conclusion, voluntary reduction of force variability is associated with decreased low-frequency oscillations in EMG bursts and consequently force output. We provide novel evidence that visual guidance allows healthy young adults to reduce force variability voluntarily likely by adjusting the low-frequency oscillations in the neural drive.

  3. New staff contract policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  4. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  5. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  6. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  7. Voluntary euthanasia: ethical concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K; Chaloner, C

    Euthanasia is a highly emotive and contentious subject, giving rise to a great deal of debate. However, despite its frequent exposure in public and professional media, there appears to be a lack of clarity about the concepts and definitions used in the euthanasia debate. This suggests that discussions on this subject are inadequately informed and ineffectual. The ethical focus of the euthanasia debate concerns the moral legitimacy of 'voluntary euthanasia'. This article provides an overview and clarification of some of the key ethical issues at the centre of that debate.

  8. Mediation –Voluntary or Mandatory Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ROSU

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Part of modifications brought through 370/2009 Act to the 192/2006 Law concerning mediation and structure of mediator profession have been interpreted as establishing a preliminary mediation procedure before intimating the courts of law, in civil and commercial matters. This interpretation is in excess of operative legal provisions. Although the law in modified form stipulates the compulsoriness of judicial authorities and other jurisdictional bodies to inform the parties about the possibility and the dvantages of using mediation procedure and the obligation to guide the parties to resort at mediation, this circumstances does not affect the mediation particular voluntary nature.

  9. Ankle voluntary movement enhancement following robotic-assisted locomotor training in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varoqui, Deborah; Niu, Xun; Mirbagheri, Mehdi M

    2014-03-31

    In incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI), sensorimotor impairments result in severe limitations to ambulation. To improve walking capacity, physical therapies using robotic-assisted locomotor devices, such as the Lokomat, have been developed. Following locomotor training, an improvement in gait capabilities-characterized by increases in the over-ground walking speed and endurance-is generally observed in patients. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these improvements, we studied the effects of Lokomat training on impaired ankle voluntary movement, known to be an important limiting factor in gait for iSCI patients. Fifteen chronic iSCI subjects performed twelve 1-hour sessions of Lokomat training over the course of a month. The voluntary movement was qualified by measuring active range of motion, maximal velocity peak and trajectory smoothness for the spastic ankle during a movement from full plantar-flexion (PF) to full dorsi-flexion (DF) at the patient's maximum speed. Dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscle strength was quantified by isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Clinical assessments were also performed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG), the 10-meter walk (10MWT) and the 6-minute walk (6MWT) tests. All evaluations were performed both before and after the training and were compared to a control group of fifteen iSCI patients. After the Lokomat training, the active range of motion, the maximal velocity, and the movement smoothness were significantly improved in the voluntary movement. Patients also exhibited an improvement in the MVC for their ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexor muscles. In terms of functional activity, we observed an enhancement in the mobility (TUG) and the over-ground gait velocity (10MWT) with training. Correlation tests indicated a significant relationship between ankle voluntary movement performance and the walking clinical assessments. The improvements of the kinematic and kinetic parameters of the ankle voluntary movement

  10. Measuring voluntary quadriceps activation: Effect of visual feedback and stimulus delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Brittney A; Harkey, Matthew H; Arguelles, Gabrielle D; Blackburn, J Troy; Ryan, Eric D; Pietrosimone, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Quadriceps voluntary activation, assessed via the superimposed burst technique, has been extensively studied in a variety of populations as a measure of quadriceps function. However, a variety of stimulus delivery techniques have been employed, which may influence the level of voluntary activation as calculated via the central activation ratio (CAR). The purpose was to determine the effect of visual feedback, stimulus delivery, and perceived discomfort on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) peak torque and the CAR. Quadriceps CAR was assessed in 14 individuals on two days using three stimulus delivery methods; (1) manual without visual feedback, (2) manual with visual feedback, and (3) automated with visual feedback. MVIC peak torque and the CAR were not different between the automated with visual feedback (MVIC=3.25, SE=0.14Nm/kg; CAR=88.63, SE=1.75%) and manual with visual feedback (MVIC=3.26, SE=0.13Nm/kg, P=0.859; CAR=89.06, SE=1.70%, P=0.39) stimulus delivery methods. MVIC (2.99, SE=0.12Nm/kg) and CAR (85.32, SE=2.10%) were significantly lower using manual without visual feedback compared to manual with visual feedback and automated with visual feedback (CAR P<0.001; MVIC P<0.001). Perceived discomfort was lower in the second session (P<0.05). Utilizing visual feedback ensures participant MVIC, and may provide a more accurate assessment of quadriceps voluntary activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  12. Keberadaan Corporate Governance Dan Kondisi Financial Distressed Terhadap Voluntary Disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Riesanti Edie

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm's operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997).Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdi...

  13. KEBERADAAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN KONDISI FINANCIAL DISTRESSED TERHADAP VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesanti Edie Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary disclosure meant giving information to public either about fi nancial or non-fi -nancial regarding the fi rm’s operations without any legal requirement (Fishman and Hagerty, 1997.Giving information about voluntary disclosure enables all the concerned parties obtaining more relevantinformation about the strategies and critical elements of the fi rms. In this study, we examinedthe impact of corporate governance and fi nancial distress condition on the level of voluntary informationdisclosure. This research used a sample of manufacture fi rms listed in Indonesian stockexchange. Based on data processing using sample above, we found that corporate governance andfi nancial distress could be associated with the voluntary disclosure level.

  14. Voluntary Work: Between Citizenship and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Barreiro Carballal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the appearance of a series of new political subjects in democratic society at the change of the millennium, political subjects that the author considers of substantial importance in the realm of Constitutional Law. These include National Law 6/1996 concerning voluntary work, the variety of laws concerning voluntary work and finally the Organic Law, which regulates the Right to Association of March 7 2002. These are all clear examples of the recent and intense interest by the part of the administration in colonizing this until recently ignored territory. In Spain, it has been curious to note how the protagonists have changed in the debate about political participation. In the 1970s, it was seen that only parties and unions could transform society. In the 1980s, the new social movements were the only voices capable of correcting savage capitalism. Since the 1990s, only volunteers are understood to be capable of offering a bit of hope to the cloudy realm of social and political participation.

  15. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  16. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  17. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  18. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  19. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  20. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p...

  1. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  2. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  3. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  4. Utilizing Physiological Principles of Motor Unit Recruitment to Reduce Fatigability of Electrically-Evoked Contractions: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, Trevor S; Ainsley, Emily N; Claveria-Gonzalez, Francisca C; Luu, M John; Miller, Dylan J; Wiest, Matheus J; Collins, David F

    2018-04-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used to produce contractions to restore movement and reduce secondary complications for individuals experiencing motor impairment. NMES is conventionally delivered through a single pair of electrodes over a muscle belly or nerve trunk using short pulse durations and frequencies between 20 and 40Hz (conventional NMES). Unfortunately, the benefits and widespread use of conventional NMES are limited by contraction fatigability, which is in large part because of the nonphysiological way that contractions are generated. This review provides a summary of approaches designed to reduce fatigability during NMES, by using physiological principles that help minimize fatigability of voluntary contractions. First, relevant principles of the recruitment and discharge of motor units (MUs) inherent to voluntary contractions and conventional NMES are introduced, and the main mechanisms of fatigability for each contraction type are briefly discussed. A variety of NMES approaches are then described that were designed to reduce fatigability by generating contractions that more closely mimic voluntary contractions. These approaches include altering stimulation parameters, to recruit MUs in their physiological order, and stimulating through multiple electrodes, to reduce MU discharge rates. Although each approach has unique advantages and disadvantages, approaches that minimize MU discharge rates hold the most promise for imminent translation into rehabilitation practice. The way that NMES is currently delivered limits its utility as a rehabilitative tool. Reducing fatigability by delivering NMES in ways that better mimic voluntary contractions holds promise for optimizing the benefits and widespread use of NMES-based programs. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic Clinical Measurements of Voluntary Vaginal Contractions and Autonomic Vaginal Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, Paul M. A.; Spoelstra, Symen K.; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C. M.

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionThe vaginal canal is an active and responsive canal. It has pressure variations along its length and shows reflex activity. At present, the prevailing idea is that the vaginal canal does not have a sphincter mechanism. It is hypothesized that an active vaginal muscular mechanism exists

  6. Student Friendly Technique to Demonstrate Coordination between Postural (Involuntary) and Voluntary Muscle Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Wes

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography is a very useful technique for a number of clinical and research applications in physiology and other life science applications. We have adapted this technique as a student exercise to explore important aspects of postural control. With minimal effort and some mathematical calculations this student friendly technique efficiently demonstrates the interaction of anticipatory, or feedforward, mechanisms and feedback correction from sensory input.

  7. The nature of corticospinal paths driving human motoneurones during voluntary contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Jane E; Larsen, Thomas S; Gandevia, Simon C

    2007-01-01

    The properties of the human motor cortex can be studied non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Stimulation at high intensity excites corticospinal cells with fast conducting axons that make direct connections to motoneurones of human upper limb muscles, while low...

  8. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  9. THE EFFECT OF STIMULUS ANTICIPATION ON THE INTERPOLATED TWITCH TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane C. Button

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of expected and unexpected interpolated stimuli (IT during a maximum voluntary contraction on quadriceps force output and activation. Two groups of male subjects who were either inexperienced (MI: no prior experience with IT tests or experienced (ME: previously experienced 10 or more series of IT tests received an expected or unexpected IT while performing quadriceps isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs. Measurements included MVC force, quadriceps and hamstrings electromyographic (EMG activity, and quadriceps inactivation as measured by the interpolated twitch technique (ITT. When performing MVCs with the expectation of an IT, the knowledge or lack of knowledge of an impending IT occurring during a contraction did not result in significant overall differences in force, ITT inactivation, quadriceps or hamstrings EMG activity. However, the expectation of an IT significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced MVC force (9.5% and quadriceps EMG activity (14.9% when compared to performing MVCs with prior knowledge that stimulation would not occur. While ME exhibited non-significant decreases when expecting an IT during a MVC, MI force and EMG activity significantly decreased 12.4% and 20.9% respectively. Overall, ME had significantly (p < 0.0001 higher force (14.5% and less ITT inactivation (10.4% than MI. The expectation of the noxious stimuli may account for the significant decrements in force and activation during the ITT

  10. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  11. JURIDICAL WILL IN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the business law, almost all judicial relationships of private law are obligational juridical relationships which are made up of legal acts and facts. The most important legal act is the contract since it is the basis of the social life in any community meaning that it represents the most important economic and juridical instrument for the participants to a contract. The persons are free and equal in society and, consequently, no power is valid and fundamental unless it relies on their consent, namely on a contract. So, the existence of a civil contract relies on the principles of consensualism, a perception based on moral rules to observe one’s promises, to have good faith and to observe the interests of your fellow creature. The exterior manifestation, the expression or declaration of the juridical will constitutes the consent of such person in making the structure of contract. The declared will must correspond to the person’s real will and the adoption and declaration of the juridical will must take place consciously. Any contract that does not derive from juridical will is null and the civilizing character is inexistent. The principles giving sense to consensualism is the one of agreement between parties so as to produce legal effects by itself and it is enough for the conclusion of a contract, regardless of the form in which it is exteriorized, a principle expressed by the Latin adagio pacta sunt servanda.

  12. Haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...

  13. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has not...

  14. Voluntary counseling and testing for HIV among high school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-09-24

    Sep 24, 2012 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Voluntary .... cigarettes, alcohol or going to night clubs before their majority and these activities are associated with sexual activity. ... Ngwakongnwi E, Quan H. Sex differentials in the use of centres for voluntary counseling and testing for HIV in Cameroon. Afr J AIDS ...

  15. Factors that affect voluntary vaccination of children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide

    2015-03-10

    Some important vaccinations are not included in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Japan. Voluntary vaccinations are usually paid as an out-of-pocket expense. Low voluntary vaccination coverage rates and high target disease incidence are assumed to be a consequence of voluntary vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with voluntary vaccination patterns in children. We conducted an online survey of 1243 mothers from a registered survey panel who had at least one child 2 months to <3 years of age. The voluntary vaccination mainly correlated positively with annual household income and mothers' positive opinions about voluntary vaccinations, but negatively with number of children. Financial support, especially for low income households and households with more than one child, may motivate parents to vaccinate their children. Communication is also an important issue. More opportunities for education and information about voluntary vaccinations should be provided to mothers without distinguishing between voluntary and routine vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Costly Disclosures in a Voluntary Disclosure Model with an Opponent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes voluntary disclosure equilibria when the voluntary disclosure model presented inWAGENHOFER (1990) is modified so as to include fixed disclosure costs as used in VERRECCHIA (1983). It turns out that incorporating both disclosure and proprietary costs rules out full disclosure

  17. Human dignity and the future of the voluntary active euthanasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia – however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, ...

  18. Efficiency of voluntary closing hand and hook prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, G.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Delft Institute of Prosthetics and Orthotics has started a research program to develop an improved voluntary closing, body-powered hand prosthesis. Five commercially available voluntary closing terminal devices were mechanically tested: three hands [Hosmer APRL VC hand, Hosmer Soft VC Male hand,

  19. Bottlenecks and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report surveys the central points in the literature about contracts on geographical price differences and transmission rights in the power market. It is commonly believed that such contracts may reduce market power and contribute to better network investments. The theoretical debate is in part unfinished and largely based on very stylised assumptions. There is some indication that such contracts may not be very useful in practice. But they may be useful in some cases, perhaps in particular when power is transported outside limited surplus areas and for certain investment decisions where there is no systems operator with a natural responsibility

  20. Contract management survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-10-01

    Spending on clinical contracts continues to outpace spending on business services, but may be leveling off. The 12th annual Contract Management Survey shows that the performance of clinical vendors is now comparable to business service vendors in meeting savings targets. Both business and clinical vendors are receiving higher marks from hospital leaders, but execs quickly respond to low marks by bringing the service back in-house of changing vendors. This report examines trends in outsourcing, satisfaction levels, the decision-making process, contract features and performance, and spending.

  1. 2001 contract management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    For the second year running, hospitals are spending more on clinical outsourcing than on business services. The Eleventh Annual Contract Services Survey shows that, in clinical areas, executives use outsourcing to acquire specialized expertise with cost savings secondary. Reducing costs and FTEs are the primary reasons for outsourcing business operations. Business service contracts are more likely to meet expectations for cost savings. Overall, satisfaction levels are up, but in some areas there's still a lot of room for improvement. This report examines current trends in outsourcing, strategies for the future, satisfaction levels, the decisionmaking process, contract features, and costs.

  2. The contract - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The contract is the last and final step of project planning and the first step of project implementation. The contract has to specify in detail and to the point, as concisely as possible, the complete scope of supplies and work, define all technical particulars and requirements, put forward the conditions of legal, regulatory, administrative and financial procedure, prepare for operating and maintenance instructions to be issued after commissioning. In short, the contract is expected to be a reliable instrument during the manufacturing and construction period as well as a guide-book to assist the owner afterwards in the operation and maintenance of the plant. (orig./FW) [de

  3. Voluntary chemical castration of a mental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1988-06-04

    Britain's High Court recently overruled two decisions of the Mental Health Act Commission that denied certification of a voluntary experimental drug treatment to a mental patient, holding that the standard for informed consent is determined not by the subjective judgment of the commissioners but by whether the patient knows the nature and likely effects of treatment and that its use in his case is a novel one. The background facts of the case involving a 27-year-old pedophile receiving goserelin implantations to reduce testosterone levels are presented and the issues of jurisdiction under the Mental Health Act 1983 and the commissioners' duty to act fairly and to consider the likely benefits of treatment are discussed.

  4. The institutional dynamics of voluntary organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    What features of institutional change do voluntary organisations contain? This question is debated in the civil society literature, but often under different headlines, like social entrepreneurship or social movement theory. The question of voluntarism is often not taken into account. This paper...... organisations. I establish a theoretical frame of institutional dynamic, build primarily on J.G. March's theory on exploration and exploitation. I focus on two organisational arrangements drawn from the theory: The degree of strategic decision-making and the degree of diversity among the volunteers. I use...... builds upon the premise that institutional dynamic is connected to peoples ability to act according to their free will.  But only in the ideal version are they able to make a complete connection between free will and action. This is also the case for volunteers. The loose-coupled connection...

  5. The value relevance of voluntary disclosure in the annual report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banghøj, Jesper; Plenborg, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines if the level of voluntary disclosure affects the association between current returns and future earnings. Economic theory suggests that firms might find it advantageous to provide additional pieces of information (i.e., voluntary disclosure) to investors and analysts (Verrecchia...... 1983). Our results indicate that more voluntary disclosure does not improve the association between current returns and future earnings; i.e. current returns do not reflect more future earnings news. This finding raises the question whether voluntary information in the annual report contains value...... relevant information about future earnings or if investors are simply not capable of incorporating voluntary information in the firm value estimates. Key words: Disclosure, future earnings, informativeness...

  6. Beliefs in and About God and Attitudes Toward Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2018-06-01

    I use data from the General Social Survey to evaluate several hypotheses regarding how beliefs in and about God predict attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that certainty in the belief in God significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that belief in a caring God and in a God that is the primary source of moral rules significantly predicts negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I also find that respondents' beliefs about the how close they are to God and how close they want to be with God predict negative attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' attitudes about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to their beliefs in and about God.

  7. Implementation of voluntary agreements for energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Low-energy efficiency and environmental pollution have long been taken as key problems of Chinese industry, although a number of command-and-control and economic instruments have been adopted in the last few decades. In this paper, policy and legislation development for voluntary agreements were summarized. The voluntary agreements pilot project in two iron and steel companies in Shandong Province as well as other cases were analyzed. In order to identify the existing problems in Chinese cases, comparison was made between China and industrialized countries in the practices of energy efficiency voluntary agreements. Based on the analysis, detained recommendations, including the use of supporting policies for voluntary agreements, were raised. It is expected that voluntary agreements could play a more important role in energy efficiency improvement of Chinese industry

  8. Priming voluntary autobiographical memories: Implications for the organisation of autobiographical memory and voluntary recall processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, John H; Clevinger, Amanda M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to show that voluntary autobiographical memories could be primed by the prior activation of autobiographical memories. Three experiments demonstrated voluntary memory priming with three different approaches. In Experiment 1 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their elementary school years. In a subsequent memory task primed participants were asked to recall memories from any time period, and they produced significantly more memories from their elementary school years than unprimed participants. In Experiment 2 primed participants were asked to recall what they were doing when they had heard various news events occurring between 1998 and 2005. Subsequently these participants produced significantly more memories from this time period than unprimed participants. In Experiment 3 primed participants were asked to recall memories from their teenage years. Subsequently these participants were able to recall more memories from ages 13-15 than unprimed participants, where both had only 1 second to produce a memory. We argue that the results support the notion that episodic memories can activate one another and that some of them are organised according to lifetime periods. We further argue that the results have implications for the reminiscence bump and voluntary recall of the past.

  9. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  10. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  11. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  12. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  13. 75 FR 34148 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency...) announces its adoption of three standards for the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification... DHS to develop and implement a Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness Accreditation and Certification...

  14. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  15. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer (PCO)–program manager (PM) relationship in...marketing terms, finding that disconfirmed expectations lead to consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The former approach presents the idea that if an...individual exerts effort, the expectation is that successful performance will occur leading to a desired result. In contracting, the theory might be

  16. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  17. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  18. Evidence of long term muscle fatigue following prolonged intermittent contractions based on mechano- and electromyograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, K; Blangsted, A K; Jørgensen, L V

    2003-01-01

    The focus of the present study is the long term element of muscle fatigue provoked by prolonged intermittent contractions at submaximal force levels and analysed by force, surface electromyography (EMG) and mechanomyogram (MMG). It was hypothesized that fatigue related changes in mechanical...... performance of the biceps muscle are more strongly reflected in low than in high force test contractions, more prominent in the MMG than in the EMG signal and less pronounced following contractions controlled by visual compared to proprioceptive feedback. Further, it was investigated if fatigue induced by 30...... min intermittent contractions at 30% as well as 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) lasted more than 30 min recovery. In six male subjects the EMG and MMG were recorded from the biceps brachii muscle during three sessions with fatiguing exercise at 10% with visual feedback and at 30% MVC...

  19. Effect of age and gender on the surface electromyogram during various levels of isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh; Kalra, Chandan; Burne, John; Bastos, Teodiano

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the effects of age and gender on the surface electromyogram while performing isometric contraction. Experiments were conducted with two age groups--Young (Age: 20-29) and Old (Age: 60-69) where they performed sustained isometric contractions at various force levels (50%, 75%, 100% of maximum voluntary contraction). Traditional features such as root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) were computed from the recorded sEMG. The result indicates that the MDF of sEMG was not significantly affected by age, but was impacted by gender in both age groups. Also there was a significant change in the RMS of sEMG with age and gender at all levels of contraction. The results also indicate a large inter-subject variation. This study will provide an understanding of the underlying physiological effects of muscle contraction and muscle fatigue in different cohorts.

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT VIOLATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhan Othman

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. It is argued that the antecedents of PCV lead to a sense of  injustice. These will then create the emotional response that is indicative of PCV. It is also argued that an outcome of this PCV experience is reduced OCB and the emergence of a new outlook towards employment relationship. Data was collected from a Malaysian company that initiated a voluntary separation scheme as part of an effort to downsize its work force. The finding of this study provides partial support for the model.

  1. Tomographic elastography of contracting skeletal muscles from their natural vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Karim G.; Archer, Akibi

    2009-11-01

    Conventional elastography techniques require an external mechanical or radiation excitation to measure noninvasively the viscoelastic properties of skeletal muscles and thus monitor human motor functions. We developed instead a passive elastography technique using only an array of skin-mounted accelerometers to record the low-frequency vibrations of the biceps brachii muscle naturally generated during voluntary contractions and to determine their two-dimensional directionality. Cross-correlating these recordings provided travel-times measurements of these muscle vibrations between multiple sensor pairs. Travel-time tomographic inversions yielded spatial variations of their propagation velocity during isometric elbow flexions which indicated a nonuniform longitudinal stiffening of the biceps.

  2. VOLUNTARY NOISE MAPPING FOR SMART CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Poslončec-Petrić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems. i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the

  3. Voluntary Noise Mapping for Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslončec-Petrić, V.; Vuković, V.; Frangeš, S.; Bačić, Ž.

    2016-09-01

    One of the main concept objectives of smart cities is to create a quality living environment that is long-term sustainable and economically justified. In that context, modern cities are aware of the exposure to various forms of physical and non-physical pollution that needs to be remediated, eliminated or reduced. To achieve that it is necessary to quality determine the sources and reasons of each pollution. The most prominent examples of physical pollution that affects the quality of life of citizens in cities are light and noise pollution. Noise pollution or noise, is mostly the consequence of road and rail traffic in cities and it directly affects the health of citizens. Traffic control, reduction of peak congestion, dispersion and traffic redirection or building protective barriers, are ways that cities use to reduce the amount of noise or its effects. To make these measures efficient it is necessary to obtain the information related to the level of noise in certain areas, streets, cities. To achieve this, smart cities use noise mapping. The city of Zagreb since 2012, participates in the i-SCOPE project (interoperable Smart City services trough Open Platform for urban Ecosystems). i-SCOPE delivers an open platform on top of which it develops, three "smart city" services: optimization of energy consumption through a service for accurate assessment of solar energy potential and energy loss at building level, environmental monitoring through a real-time environmental noise mapping service leveraging citizen's involvement will who act as distributed sensors city-wide measuring noise levels through an application on their mobile phones and improved inclusion and personal mobility of aging and diversely able citizens through an accurate personal routing service. The students of Faculty of Geodesy University of Zagreb, who enrolled in the course Thematic Cartography, were actively involved in the voluntary data acquisition in order to monitor the noise in real time

  4. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  5. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  6. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  7. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  8. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  9. Monetary reward speeds up voluntary saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lewis L; Chen, Y Mark; Zhou, Wu; Mustain, William D

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have shown that reward contingency is critical for sensorimotor learning, and reward expectation speeds up saccades in animals. Whether monetary reward speeds up saccades in human remains unknown. Here we addressed this issue by employing a conditional saccade task, in which human subjects performed a series of non-reflexive, visually-guided horizontal saccades. The subjects were (or were not) financially compensated for making a saccade in response to a centrally-displayed visual congruent (or incongruent) stimulus. Reward modulation of saccadic velocities was quantified independently of the amplitude-velocity coupling. We found that reward expectation significantly sped up voluntary saccades up to 30°/s, and the reward modulation was consistent across tests. These findings suggest that monetary reward speeds up saccades in human in a fashion analogous to how juice reward sped up saccades in monkeys. We further noticed that the idiosyncratic nasal-temporal velocity asymmetry was highly consistent regardless of test order, and its magnitude was not correlated with the magnitude of reward modulation. This suggests that reward modulation and the intrinsic velocity asymmetry may be governed by separate mechanisms that regulate saccade generation.

  10. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  11. Expectations and voluntary attrition in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a series of findings generated during a larger study which aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the reasons why nursing students voluntarily leave pre-registration nursing programmes. In this study, significant incongruence was found to exist between student expectations of pre-registration nursing programmes and the reality of these programmes following entry. The resulting dissonance was identified as an important factor in student decisions to voluntarily withdraw. A single case study design was selected to explore the causes of voluntary attrition in nursing students within a School of Nursing and Midwifery. The study population was obtained through purposeful sampling and consisted of 15 students who had previously voluntarily withdrawn from pre-registration nursing programmes. A semi-structured interview method was used to collect data from study participants. The interview schedule developed for use in the study reflected the key components of the conceptual model of higher education (HE) student attrition (Tinto, 1975, 1987, 1993). All interviews were tape recorded to facilitate later transcription. The Cyclical or Interactive Model of Qualitative Research (Miles and Huberman, 1994) was used to analyse data collected from study participants. This paper describes the unrealistic range of expectations which nursing students have of nursing, the information sources and experiences which inform student expectations and how ambiguous expectations contributed to voluntarily attrition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultramar Ltd voluntary challenge action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    Ultramar Limited (Ltd.) operates a refinery in St-Romuald, Quebec, where crude oil is converted to high-grade petroleum products destined for markets in both Canada and the United States. In this document, the measures implemented to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reductions in support of the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program have been highlighted. The reference year for this report is 1990. The emphasis was placed on energy efficiency improvements. The target set by Ultramar Ltd. is a one per cent annual energy efficiency improvement, to be averaged over the period 1995-2005. The one per cent reduction in energy efficiency per year has been attained over the past three years by Ultramar Ltd. It was accomplished mainly through reduced energy consumption and increased plant capacity associated to minimal increases in energy consumption. For the year 2000, Ultramar achieved an improvement of 12 per cent over 1990. Some of the measures implemented included: personnel awareness concerning the importance of energy efficiency, maintenance and operational improvements, and capital investment program. Currently underway or recently completed initiatives included stream leaks and traps, flare losses reduction, and crude pre-heat exchangers. The various measures were briefly described, and the company indicated it fells confident that its energy efficiency, as measured by the Solomon Index, will be at least 10 per cent over the period 1995-2005. 2 figs

  13. Should Government Facilitate Voluntary Pension Plans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma L. Nielson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Several proposals have surfaced recently that government develop and offer some sort of voluntary pension plan (VPP. This paper examines areas of public policy on pensions where changes should take place with or without the development of a VPP, including those that promote greater harmonization, portability, and labour mobility. Similarly, the challenges of inertia and annuitization are areas in which a VPP is only one of several available policy devices. In the final analysis, two key arguments provide the only compelling reasons to support the establishment of large, economically efficient funds: that their assets could be managed professionally and efficiently and that they could reduce the distraction from employers’ primary goals. Neither of these arguments, however, offers convincing evidence that VPPs should be developed by government rather than by the private sector. Ultimately, the marketplace will determine whether the additional option of a VPP is needed and whether it is offered on terms that make it more attractive than the other available alternatives.

  14. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Azevedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  15. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  16. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  17. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  18. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  19. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  20. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  1. Relation between Peak Power Output in Sprint Cycling and Maximum Voluntary Isometric Torque Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Mehdi; Goodall, Stuart; Barratt, Paul; Rowley, Nicola; Leeder, Jonathan; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-08-01

    From a cycling paradigm, little has been done to understand the relationships between maximal isometric strength of different single joint lower body muscle groups and their relation with, and ability to predict PPO and how they compare to an isometric cycling specific task. The aim of this study was to establish relationships between maximal voluntary torque production from isometric single-joint and cycling specific tasks and assess their ability to predict PPO. Twenty male trained cyclists participated in this study. Peak torque was measured by performing maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extensors, knee flexors, dorsi flexors and hip extensors whilst instrumented cranks measured isometric peak torque from MVC when participants were in their cycling specific position (ISOCYC). A stepwise regression showed that peak torque of the knee extensors was the only significant predictor of PPO when using SJD and accounted for 47% of the variance. However, when compared to ISOCYC, the only significant predictor of PPO was ISOCYC, which accounted for 77% of the variance. This suggests that peak torque of the knee extensors was the best single-joint predictor of PPO in sprint cycling. Furthermore, a stronger prediction can be made from a task specific isometric task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recovery of voluntary and evoked muscle performance following intermittent-sprint exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; King, Monique; Skein, Melissa

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of hot conditions on the acute recovery of voluntary and evoked muscle performance and physiological responses following intermittent exercise. Seven youth male and six female team-sport athletes performed two sessions separated by 7 d, involving a 30-min exercise protocol and 60-min passive recovery in either 22 degrees C or 33 degrees C and 40% relative humidity. The exercise protocol involved a 20-s maximal sprint every 5 min, separated by constant-intensity exercise at 100 W on a cycle ergometer. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and a resting evoked twitch (Pf) of the right knee extensors were assessed before and immediately following exercise and again 15, 30, and 60 min postexercise, and capillary blood was obtained at the same time points to measure lactate, pH, and HCO3. During and following exercise, core temperature, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured. No differences (P=0.73 to 0.95) in peak power during repeated sprints were present between conditions. Postexercise MVC was reduced (Pheat (83+/-10 vs 74+/-11% recovered). Both heart rate and core temperature were significantly higher (Precovery in the heat. Capillary blood values did not differ between conditions at any time point, whereas sessional RPE was higher 60 min postexercise in the heat. The current data suggests that passive recovery in warm temperatures not only delays cardiovascular and thermal recovery, but may also slow the recovery of MVC and RPE.

  3. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  4. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  5. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  6. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal......This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...

  7. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  8. Implementation of Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is an effective HIV ... Through this project, the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group will apply more than 20 ... training, and technical assistance to pilot the expansion of CVCT in local ...

  9. Implementation of Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couples' Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (CVCT) is an effective HIV ... Through this project, the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group will apply more than ... to provide support, training, and technical assistance to pilot the expansion of ...

  10. Belief in Life After Death and Attitudes Toward Voluntary Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Research has documented associations among religious affiliation, religious practice, and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia, yet very few studies have investigated how particular religious beliefs influence these attitudes. I use data from the General Social Survey (GSS; N = 19,967) to evaluate the association between the belief in life after death and attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. I find that those who believe in life after death are significantly less likely than those who do not believe in life after death or those who doubt the existence of life after death to have positive attitudes toward voluntary euthanasia. These associations hold even after controlling for religious affiliation, religious attendance, views of the Bible, and sociodemographic factors. The findings indicate that to understand individuals' views about voluntary euthanasia, one must pay attention to individuals' particular religious beliefs.

  11. Current concerns in involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus volunta...... concern related involuntary and voluntary memories. The findings support the view that involuntary and voluntary remembering is subject to similar motivational constraints.......Involuntary autobiographical memories are conscious memories of personal events that come to mind with no preceding attempts at retrieval. It is often assumed that such memories are closely related to current concerns - i.e., uncompleted personal goals. Here we examined involuntary versus voluntary...... (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered current concerns measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (PCI; Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of current concern related...

  12. State of the Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Annual report of sales and number of customers in voluntary green power markets, including utility green pricing programs, utility green partnerships, competitive suppliers, unbundled renewable energy certificates, community choice aggregations, power purchase agreements, and community solar.

  13. Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection Amongst Patients Booked for Surgical Operations. ... The effectiveness (yield) of lay counseling in HIV testing by resident doctors who have not ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Assessment of factors associated with voluntary counseling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Tsehaye Tewabe1, Bikes Destaw2, Mengesha Admassu2, Bayeh Abera3. Abstract. Background: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one of the cornerstones for successful implementation of .... mosquito bites and sharing toilets. Correct ...

  15. Voluntary codes: private governance, the public interest and innovation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Kernaghan

    2004-01-01

    This volume is a logical extension of the Office of Consumer Affairs' work in the area of voluntary codes that may assist all parties in developing a better understanding of the strengths, weaknesses...

  16. Turkish nursing students' attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanikkerem, Emre; Üstgörül, Sema; Karakus, Asli; Baydar, Ozge; Esmeray, Nicole; Ertem, Gül

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate Turkish nursing students' attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion.. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and June 2015, comprising students of Ege University Nursing Faculty and Celal Bayar University School of Health, located in two different cities of Turkey. Data was collected with a three-part questionnaire, focussing on students' characteristics, the knowledge of abortion law in Turkey and attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis.. The mean score of students' attitude towards voluntary induced abortion was 39.8±7.9 which shows that nursing students moderately support abortion. Female students, students coming from upper class in society, and students who had higher family income and sexual experiences had more supportiveness attitudes towards voluntary induced abortion (pabortion.

  17. Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an analysis. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines ways in which the various sources of law can be modified in such ...

  18. Voluntary non-monetary approaches for implementing conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Dicks, Lynn V.; Herzon, Irina; Kukkala, Aija S.; Sutherland, William J.; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-01-01

    The voluntary non-monetary approach to conservation refers to actions that citizens or organizations could voluntarily implement in their area of influence without the incentive of monetary compensations. To be effectively implemented by untrained actors, actions should be clearly defined, straightforward to implement and not require specific scientific knowledge. The costs of actions should also be sufficiently affordable to be widely applied without monetary incentives. A voluntary non-mone...

  19. Comparative Research of Navy Voluntary Education at Operational Commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    into a national and international market. This is especially effects land-grant institutions who can educate the citizens within their state by...RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS by Christopher B. Veenhuis March 2017 Thesis Co-Advisors: William Hatch Chad...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF NAVY VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AT OPERATIONAL COMMANDS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  20. Voluntary "involuntary" commitment--the briar-patch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1980-01-01

    Szasz and others have pointed out that many so-called voluntary admissions to mental hospitals have various elements of coercion involved, and are thus not truly voluntary. The author contends that the converse situation is also true, that many patients admitted under involuntary commitment papers arrange for their own commitments. Reasons for such choices are discussed in the context of a review of the literature and several case histories.

  1. Skeletal muscle collagen content in humans after high-force eccentric contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Donnelly, Alan E; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-force eccentric muscle contractions on collagen remodeling and on circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) in humans. Nine volunteers [5 men and 4 women, mean age 23 (SD...... 4) yr] each performed a bout of 100 maximum voluntary eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Muscle biopsies were taken before exercise and on days 4 and 22 afterward. Image analysis of stained tissue sections was used to quantify endomysial collagen staining intensity. Maximum voluntary...... contractile force declined by 39 +/- 23% (mean +/- SD) on day 2 postexercise and recovered thereafter. Serum creatine kinase activity peaked on day 4 postexercise (P Collagen type IV staining intensity increased significantly on day 22 postexercise to 126 +/- 29% (mean +/- SD) of preexercise values...

  2. Voluntary inhibitory motor control over involuntary tic movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos; Rothwell, John; Haggard, Patrick

    2018-03-06

    Inhibitory control is crucial for normal adaptive motor behavior. In hyperkinesias, such as tics, disinhibition within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loops is thought to underlie the presence of involuntary movements. Paradoxically, tics are also subject to voluntary inhibitory control. This puzzling clinical observation questions the traditional definition of tics as purely involuntary motor behaviors. Importantly, it suggests novel insights into tic pathophysiology. In this review, we first define voluntary inhibitory tic control and compare it with other notions of tic control from the literature. We then examine the association between voluntary inhibitory tic control with premonitory urges and review evidence linking voluntary tic inhibition to other forms of executive control of action. We discuss the somatotopic selectivity and the neural correlates of voluntary inhibitory tic control. Finally, we provide a scientific framework with regard to the clinical relevance of the study of voluntary inhibitory tic control within the context of the neurodevelopmental disorder of Tourette syndrome. We identify current knowledge gaps that deserve attention in future research. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  4. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  5. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  6. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  7. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  8. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  9. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  10. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  11. Facilitation of soleus but not tibialis anterior motor evoked potentials before onset of antagonist contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Zuur, Abraham Theodore; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: It is well documented that corticospinal projections to motoneurons of one muscle inhibit antagonist motoneurons through collaterals to reciprocally organized spinal inhibitory interneurons. During and just prior to dorsiflexion of the ankle, soleus motoneurons are thus inhibited...... the MEP is evoked. Methods: Seated subjects (n=11) were instructed to react to an auditory cue by contracting either the tibialis anterior (TA) or soleus muscle of the left ankle to 30% of their maximal dorsiflexion voluntary contraction (MVC) or plantar flexion MVC, respectively. Focal TMS at 1.2 x motor...

  12. Development of muscle fatigue as assessed by electromyography and mechanomyography during continuous and intermittent low-force contractions: effects of the feedback mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Søgaard, Karen

    2002-01-01

    ) and proprioceptive (displacement control) feedback was investigated during intermittent (6 s contraction, 4 s rest) and continuous static contractions at 10% and 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean force, force fluctuation, rating of perceived exertion and root mean square (RMS) and mean power...... with the EMG, while the decrease in MPF values was more consistent for the EMG compared with the MMG signal. During the intermittent contractions, the main effect was on MPF for both EMG and MMG. Lower force fluctuation and larger rating of perceived exertion ( P

  13. Maximal Voluntary Activation of the Elbow Flexors Is under Predicted by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Compared to Motor Point Stimulation Prior to and Following Muscle Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward W. J. Cadigan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic (TMS and motor point stimulation have been used to determine voluntary activation (VA. However, very few studies have directly compared the two stimulation techniques for assessing VA of the elbow flexors. The purpose of this study was to compare TMS and motor point stimulation for assessing VA in non-fatigued and fatigued elbow flexors. Participants performed a fatigue protocol that included twelve, 15 s isometric elbow flexor contractions. Participants completed a set of isometric elbow flexion contractions at 100, 75, 50, and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC prior to and following fatigue contractions 3, 6, 9, and 12 and 5 and 10 min post-fatigue. Force and EMG of the bicep and triceps brachii were measured for each contraction. Force responses to TMS and motor point stimulation and EMG responses to TMS (motor evoked potentials, MEPs and Erb's point stimulation (maximal M-waves, Mmax were also recorded. VA was estimated using the equation: VA% = (1−SITforce/PTforce × 100. The resting twitch was measured directly for motor point stimulation and estimated for both motor point stimulation and TMS by extrapolation of the linear regression between the superimposed twitch force and voluntary force. MVC force, potentiated twitch force and VA significantly (p < 0.05 decreased throughout the elbow flexor fatigue protocol and partially recovered 10 min post fatigue. VA was significantly (p < 0.05 underestimated when using TMS compared to motor point stimulation in non-fatigued and fatigued elbow flexors. Motor point stimulation compared to TMS superimposed twitch forces were significantly (p < 0.05 higher at 50% MVC but similar at 75 and 100% MVC. The linear relationship between TMS superimposed twitch force and voluntary force significantly (p < 0.05 decreased with fatigue. There was no change in triceps/biceps electromyography, biceps/triceps MEP amplitudes, or bicep MEP amplitudes throughout the fatigue protocol at

  14. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...and Contract Authority Understanding the roles of contracting versus command authority and command relationships is a fundamental that must be...Audit 12-7 (2012) described the CENTCOM-JTSCC (C- JTSCC) formation and command relationship : In April 2010, CENTCOM issued a fragmentary order to

  15. Fractal based complexity measure and variation in force during sustained isometric muscle contraction: effect of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Bastos, Teodiano

    2012-01-01

    This study has investigated the effect of age on the fractal based complexity measure of muscle activity and variance in the force of isometric muscle contraction. Surface electromyogram (sEMG) and force of muscle contraction were recorded from 40 healthy subjects categorized into: Group 1: Young - age range 20-30; 10 Males and 10 Females, Group 2: Old - age range 55-70; 10 Males and 10 Females during isometric exercise at Maximum Voluntary contraction (MVC). The results show that there is a reduction in the complexity of surface electromyogram (sEMG) associated with aging. The results demonstrate that there is an increase in the coefficient of variance (CoV) of the force of muscle contraction and a decrease in complexity of sEMG for the Old age group when compared with the Young age group.

  16. Selective fatigue of fast motor units after electrically elicited muscle contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Taku; Kimura, Tetsuya; Moritani, Toshio

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the electrophysiological manifestations of selective fast motor unit (MU) activation by electrical stimulation (ES) of knee extensor muscles. In six male subjects, test contraction measurement at 40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was performed before and at every 5 min (5, 10, 15 and 20 min) during 20-min low intensity intermittent exercise of either ES or voluntary contractions (VC) at 10% MVC (5-s isometric contraction and 5-s rest cycles). Both isolated intramuscular MU spikes obtained from three sets of bipolar fine-wire electrodes and surface electromyogram (EMG) were simultaneously recorded and were analyzed by means of a computer-aided intramuscular spike amplitude-frequency analysis and frequency power spectral analysis, respectively. Results indicated that mean MU spike amplitude, particularly those MUs with relatively large amplitude, was significantly reduced while those MUs with small spike amplitude increased their firing rate during the 40% MVC test contraction after the ES. This was accompanied by the increased amplitude of surface EMG (rmsEMG). However, no such significant changes in the intramuscular and surface EMGs were observed after VC. These findings indicated differential MU activation patterns in terms of MU recruitment and rate coding characteristics during ES and VC, respectively. Our data strongly suggest the possibility of "an inverse size principle" of MU recruitment during ES.

  17. Environmental labelling of electricity delivery contracts in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaaberger, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the electricity market allows customers to choose between suppliers. As a consequence, customers may demand electricity from specified sources of energy. In Sweden, the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC), operates a system of environmental labelling of electricity delivery contracts since 1996. Labelling is available for suppliers offering electricity from renewable sources of energy with some additional criteria. Companies may acquire a licence to use the label by showing ability to deliver such electricity and by agreeing to be audited. The system is private independent. It is operating on the bases of credibility earned by the SSNC during 90 years as an environmental organisation and 10 years as operator of environmental labelling of consumer products. The system is market oriented, compatible with WTO and EU market principles, and independent of governmental environmental restrictions, subsidy or quota systems. It is relying on voluntary agreements. The results are desirable if only a few by electricity under labelled contracts as well as if every customer do so. The market is growing. A majority of the suppliers have a license and may offer labelled contracts. In the year 2000, 7% of all electricity sold to final consumers was sold under labelled contracts

  18. Cross-cultural attitudes toward voluntary sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1985-06-01

    The degree to which voluntary sterilization (VS) is accepted as a form of fertility control throughout the world was assessed by examining the prevalence and legal status of VS in all countries for which information was available and by examining current religious and traditional attitudes toward VS. Information on VS prevalence for 73 countries indicates that in 28 countries, 10% of all eligible couples rely on VS. In a number of countries, including Korea, New Zealand, Panama, US, and Puerto Rico, 25% or more of all currently married women of reproductive age rely on VS. VS prevalence rates tend to be higher in Asian countries than in African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. In a number of countries, the average age and family size of VS acceptors is declining. Information on the legal status of VS for 124 countries indicates that 22 countries have laws which permit or encourage VS. These countries contain 13.4% of the world's population. In 54 countries, representing 60% of the world's population, there are no laws restricting VS, and VS is generally assumed to be legal. In 29 countries, representing 14% of world's population, the legal status of VS is unclear. In the remaining 29 countries, sterilization is forbidden except for medical or eugenic reasons. The degree to which these laws actually restrict VS varies from country to country. For example in Indonesia VS is illegal but widely practiced. Although some religious teachings discourage sterilization, the impact of religion on VS varies considerably from country to country. In the Catholic countries of Panama, Dominican Republic, and Philippines the prevalence of VS is high, and in the Catholic countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay the prevalence of VS is low. VS prevalence is generally low in Muslim countries, but high in the Muslim countries of Tunisia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. VS prevalence is high in the Buddhist country of Thailand but low in the Buddhist country of Burma

  19. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  20. Contracting in a Foreign Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodeschin, Darrin

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis investigates and compares the different contracting structures of the U.S. Army, the UN, and Apple as well as the duties and responsibilities of the contracting individuals within these organizations...

  1. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  2. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  3. Age-related differences in muscle fatigue vary by contraction type: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avin, Keith G; Law, Laura A Frey

    2011-08-01

    During senescence, despite the loss of strength (force-generating capability) associated with sarcopenia, muscle endurance may improve for isometric contractions. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic meta-analysis of young versus older adults, considering likely moderators (ie, contraction type, joint, sex, activity level, and task intensity). A 2-stage systematic review identified potential studies from PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EBSCOhost: ERIC, EBSCOhost: Sportdiscus, and The Cochrane Library. Studies reporting fatigue tasks (voluntary activation) performed at a relative intensity in both young (18-45 years of age) and old (≥ 55 years of age) adults who were healthy were considered. Sample size, mean and variance outcome data (ie, fatigue index or endurance time), joint, contraction type, task intensity (percentage of maximum), sex, and activity levels were extracted. Effect sizes were (1) computed for all data points; (2) subgrouped by contraction type, sex, joint or muscle group, intensity, or activity level; and (3) further subgrouped between contraction type and the remaining moderators. Out of 3,457 potential studies, 46 publications (with 78 distinct effect size data points) met all inclusion criteria. A lack of available data limited subgroup analyses (ie, sex, intensity, joint), as did a disproportionate spread of data (most intensities ≥ 50% of maximum voluntary contraction). Overall, older adults were able to sustain relative-intensity tasks significantly longer or with less force decay than younger adults (effect size=0.49). However, this age-related difference was present only for sustained and intermittent isometric contractions, whereas this age-related advantage was lost for dynamic tasks. When controlling for contraction type, the additional modifiers played minor roles. Identifying muscle endurance capabilities in the older adult may provide an avenue to improve functional capabilities, despite a clearly established decrement in

  4. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  5. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  6. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  7. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  8. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  9. Between Status and Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  10. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  11. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  12. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  13. Non-turnkey contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  14. Non-turnkey contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, S

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have a chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf.

  15. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  16. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  17. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  18. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  19. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  20. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  1. Voluntary muscle activation and evoked volitional-wave responses as a function of torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hight, Robert E; Quarshie, Alwyn T; Black, Christopher D

    2018-08-01

    This study employed a unique stimulation paradigm which allowed for the simultaneous assessment of voluntary activation levels (VA) via twitch-interpolation, and the evoked V-wave responses of the plantar flexors during submaximal and maximal contractions. Test-retest reliability was also examined. Fourteen participants repeated a stimulation protocol over four visits to assess VA and evoked V-wave amplitude across torque levels ranging from 20% to 100% MVC. MVC torque and EMG amplitude were also measured. VA increased nonlinearly with torque production and plateaued by 80% MVC. V-wave amplitude increased linearly from 20% to 100% MVC. There were no differences in any dependent variable across visits (p > 0.05). VA demonstrated moderate to substantial reliability across all torque levels (ICC = 0.76-0.91) while V-wave amplitude exhibited fair to moderate reliability from 40% to 100% (ICC = 0.48-0.74). We were able to reliably collect VA and the V-wave simultaneously in the plantar flexors. Collection of VA and V-wave during the same contraction provides distinct information regarding the contribution of motor-unit recruitment and descending cortico-spinal drive/excitability to force production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Market Motivations for Voluntary Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha

    2016-07-01

    Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.

  3. Voluntary health insurance in the European Union: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah M S

    2002-01-01

    The authors examine the role and nature of the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union and review the impact of public policy, at both the national and E.U. levels, on the development of this market in recent years. The conceptual framework, based on a model of industrial analysis, allows a wide range of policy questions regarding market structure, conduct, and performance. By analyzing these three aspects of the market for voluntary health insurance, the authors are also able to raise questions about the equity and efficiency of voluntary health insurance as a means of funding health care in the European Union. The analysis suggests that the market for voluntary health insurance in the European Union suffers from significant information failures that seriously limit its potential for competition or efficiency and also reduce equity. Substantial deregulation of the E.U. market for voluntary health insurance has stripped regulatory bodies of their power to protect consumers and poses interesting challenges for national regulators, particularly if the market is to expand in the future. In a deregulated environment, it is questionable whether this method of funding health care will encourage a more efficient and equitable allocation of resources.

  4. Enrollment in mental health courts: voluntariness, knowingness, and adjudicative competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Allison D; Hoover, Steven; Summers, Alicia; Steadman, Henry J

    2010-04-01

    Mental health courts (MHCs) are rapidly expanding as a form of diversion from jails and prisons for persons with mental illness charged with crimes. Although intended to be voluntary, little is known about this aspect of the courts. We examined perceptions of voluntariness, and levels of knowingness and legal competence among 200 newly enrolled clients of MHCs at two courts. Although most clients claimed to have chosen to enroll, at the same time, most claimed not to have been told the court was voluntary or told of the requirements prior to entering. The majority knew the "basics" of the courts, but fewer knew more nuanced information. A minority also were found to have impairments in legal competence. Implications are discussed.

  5. How should Australia regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy

    2012-12-01

    This article invites consideration of how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It attempts to pose this question as neutrally as possible, acknowledging that both prohibition and legalisation of such conduct involve decisions about regulation. It begins by charting the wider field of law at the end of life, before considering the repeated, but ultimately unsuccessful, attempts at law reform in Australia. The situation in Australia is contrasted with permissive jurisdictions overseas where voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide are lawful. The authors consider the arguments for and against legalisation of such conduct along with the available empirical evidence as to what happens in practice both in Australia and overseas. The article concludes by outlining a framework for deliberating on how Australia should regulate voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide. It asks a threshold question of whether such conduct should be criminal acts (as they presently are), the answer to which then leads to a range of possible regulatory options.

  6. Mobilising voluntary contributions in public urban regeneration – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Agger, Annika

    Research on volunteerism indicates that one third of all adults in Denmark regularly contribute with voluntary labour in social relief work, community-based organizations, non-governmental organizations, or otherwise. In this paper we ask if and how urban regeneration might benefit from...... in relation to public policy arenas and activities, particularly within urban policy and the community development fields. A categorization is proposed as regards different ways and models of civic engagement and major challenges are outlined. The paper is first step of a research project exploring potential...... the apparently strong growth in voluntarism. Although there seems to be a large potential for involving volunteers and voluntary organisations, systematic analysis of recent years’ urban regeneration projects in Denmark shows that the sustainability of voluntary contributions is limited. While initial enrolling...

  7. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure...... implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  8. Voluntary agreement for the new energy and environmental policies goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaro, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the field of public policies innovative instruments based on market mechanisms and voluntary action by economical subjects meet a growing favour. This emerges also from the proceedings of the recent National Conference on Energy and the Environment, held in Rome in November 1998. From a planning policy, directly implemented by public bodies and often characterised by a strong rigidity, we are now passing to a new policy style, based on main trends and principles and implemented, at least in a priority way, through a mechanism of pacts and agreements among a variety of actors. This article, starting from an introduction on the nature and the functioning limits of voluntary agreements and, on these bases, presents some hypothesis on the ways and the necessary conditions to develop a concrete system of voluntary agreements in the country, in order to reach the new energy and environmental policies goals [it

  9. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  10. Final voluntary release assessment/corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-12

    The US Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office (DOE-CAO) has completed a voluntary release assessment sampling program at selected Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Voluntary Release Assessment/Corrective Action (RA/CA) report has been prepared for final submittal to the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) Region 6, Hazardous Waste Management Division and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous and Radioactive Materials Bureau to describe the results of voluntary release assessment sampling and proposed corrective actions at the SWMU sites. The Voluntary RA/CA Program is intended to be the first phase in implementing the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and corrective action process at the WIPP. Data generated as part of this sampling program are intended to update the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) for the WIPP (Assessment of Solid Waste Management Units at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), NMED/DOE/AIP 94/1. This Final Voluntary RA/CA Report documents the results of release assessment sampling at 11 SWMUs identified in the RFA. With this submittal, DOE formally requests a No Further Action determination for these SWMUs. Additionally, this report provides information to support DOE`s request for No Further Action at the Brinderson and Construction landfill SWMUs, and to support DOE`s request for approval of proposed corrective actions at three other SWMUs (the Badger Unit Drill Pad, the Cotton Baby Drill Pad, and the DOE-1 Drill Pad). This information is provided to document the results of the Voluntary RA/CA activities submitted to the EPA and NMED in August 1995.

  11. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  12. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  13. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  14. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  15. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  16. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  17. A problem for the idea of voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N

    1999-01-01

    I question whether, in those cases where physician-assisted suicide is invoked to alleviate unbearable pain and suffering, there can be such a thing as voluntary euthanasia. The problem is that when a patient asks to die under such conditions there is good reason to think that the decision to die is compelled by the pain, and hence not freely chosen. Since the choice to die was not made freely it is inadvisable for physicians to act in accordance with it, for this may be contrary to the patient's genuine wishes. Thus, what were thought to be cases of voluntary euthanasia might actually be instances of involuntary euthanasia. PMID:10390679

  18. Voluntary vs directed siting -- or somewhere in-between?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.B.

    1994-04-01

    Waste siting gridlock in the United States and Canada has led to experimentation with voluntary and hybrid or ``mixed mode`` siting. We review nuclear and hazardous waste voluntary siting (VS) results for selected cases in the U.S, and Canada. Findings indicate that VS is not a panacea, but that current siting efforts are inadequate tests of its potential. We suggest trials of improved VS protocols and more effort on hybrid approaches in which the developer chooses the site but is required to reach agreement on conditions with local stakeholders. Mixed mode siting may be better suited to the US context and its three-tiered governmental system.

  19. Voluntary CSR vs. mandatory CSR : the sound of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sarna, Bhavesh

    2016-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) laws are an area of exploration and there is debate over preference to voluntary CSR laws or to mandatory CSR laws. The objective is to con-duct a micro-level study to explore the employee’s preferences for mandatory CSR laws or voluntary CSR laws. There is some existing literature on this topic at the macro-level and goal is to extend and contribute to the literature about this topic by studying the pref-erence at the micro-level. A qualitative study bas...

  20. Board composition, mimetic behaviour and corporate voluntary disclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshayani Arshad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of board composition and mimetic behaviour on the extent and credibility of corporate voluntary disclosure. The investigation is based on the annual reports of 155 Malaysian listed companies during the period when these companies faced new corporate governance regulation. This study provides evidence that under the influence of dominant owners on board, management voluntary disclosure decisions are driven by incentives to conform when their company is structured to meet expectations of good corporate governance. Such incentive seems to override incentives to disclose credible information to outside investors

  1. Voluntariness of consent to HIV clinical research: A conceptual and empirical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Obtaining voluntary informed consent for research participation is an ethical imperative, yet there appears to be little consensus regarding what constitutes a voluntary consent decision. An instrument to assess influences on participants' consent decision and perceived voluntariness was developed and piloted in two South African HIV clinical trials. The pilot study found high levels of perceived voluntariness. The feeling of having no choice but to participate was significantly associated with lower perceived voluntariness. Overall the data suggest that it is possible to obtain voluntary and valid consent for research participants in ethically complex HIV clinical trials in a developing country context.

  2. Market Brief. Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Armstrong, Philip [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  3. Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P.; Bird, L.

    2012-09-01

    This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.

  4. Effect of Knee Joint Angle and Contraction Intensity on Hamstrings Coactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Lowery, Madeleine M; DE Vito, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of knee joint angle and contraction intensity on the coactivation of the hamstring muscles (when acting as antagonists to the quadriceps) in young and older individuals of both sexes. A total of 25 young (24 ± 2.6 yr) and 26 older (70 ± 2.5 yr) healthy men and women participated. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the knee extensors and flexors was assessed at two knee joint angles (90° and 60°, 0° = full extension). At each angle, participants performed submaximal contractions of the knee extensors (20%, 50%, and 80% maximal voluntary isometric contraction), whereas surface EMG was simultaneously acquired from the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles to assess the level (EMG root-mean-square) of agonist activation and antagonist coactivation. Subcutaneous adipose tissue in the areas corresponding to surface EMG electrode placements was measured via ultrasonography. The contractions performed at 90° knee flexion demonstrated higher levels of antagonist coactivation (all P < 0.01) and agonist activation (all P < 0.01) as a function of contraction intensity compared with the 60° knee flexion. Furthermore, after controlling for subcutaneous adipose tissue, older participants exhibited a higher level of antagonist coactivation at 60° knee flexion compared with young participants (P < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that 1) the antagonist coactivation is dependent on knee joint angle and contraction intensity and 2) subcutaneous adipose tissue may affect the measured coactivation level likely because of a cross-talk effect. Antagonist coactivation may play a protective role in stabilizing the knee joint and maintaining constant motor output.

  5. IPP fuel contracts - creating certain contracts for uncertain times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, I. [Coddington International Pty. Ltd., Milsons Point, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal contracts for the new Asian Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are examined. Since most IPPs will be selling to state electricity utilities, often in competition with power plant using other fuels, coal based IPPs must negotiate advantageous coal supply contracts several years before the commissioning of a plant, and must ensure security of supply for at least the life of the construction loan. A more recent trend in the developed world is the Merchant IPP, where there is no guaranteed electricity sale. Lenders are wary of IPPs relying an imported coal, and insist on binding fuel contracts, while coal companies are wary of the quantity of information demanded by these lenders. A full understanding of the risks involved is needed; and a method of price indexation for the contracts. Contracts must also specify security of supply, coal quality, freight contracts and other details. 2 figs.

  6. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    While the object of nuclear contracts is specific, these contracts are concluded according to proven techniques based on general regulations on contracts. Following a review of contract classification, they are differentiated according to the nature of the co-contracting parties, the purpose of the contract itself, the procedure for drawing up the contracts, and payment. The operations prior to the contract vary in that they may include a call for tenders, an option for delays or a letter of intent. (NEA) [fr

  7. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  8. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  9. Contracts in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  10. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  11. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  13. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  14. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  15. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  16. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  17. Forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions in rock climbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kodejška

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bouldering and lead climbing are divergent disciplines of the sport of rock climbing. Bouldering moves are short and powerful, whilst sport climbing is longer and require a greater degree of endurance. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contraction between lead climbers (LC and boulderers (BO. Methods. Eight BO and twelve LC completed maximal finger flexor strength test and sustained contractions to exhaustion at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Differences between BO and LC in maximal strength, time to exhaustion, force time integral (FTI, and tissue oxygenation (SmO2 were assessed by t-test for independent samples. Results. LC showed significantly lower level of average tissue oxygenation (BO 38.9% SmO2, s = 7.4; LC 28.7% SmO2, s = 7.1 and maximal tissue deoxygenation (BO 25.6% SmO2, s = 8.2; LC 13.5% SmO2, s = 8.5. LC demonstrated significantly lower finger flexor strength (519 N, s = 72 than BO (621 N, s = 142. LC sustained a longer time of contraction (not significantly (BO 52.2 s, s = 11.5; LC 60.6 s, s = 13 and achieved a similar value of FTI (BO 17421 Ns, s = 4291; LO 17476 Ns, s = 5036 in the endurance test. Conclusions. The results showed lower deoxygenation during sustained contraction in BO than LC despite similar FTI, indicating different local metabolic pathways in both groups.

  18. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  19. Fear Of Stigmatization As Barrier To Voluntary Hiv Counselling And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this qualitative study was to identify psychosocial correlates of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), with an emphasis on the association between fear of AIDS-related stigma and willingness to have an HIV test. Methods: The study was executed in Limpopo Province at University of ...

  20. Factors infuencing the use of voluntary counselling and testing by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the factors influencing the use of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) by university students. This was done by undertaking an exploratory and descriptive qualitative study. Data were collected using focus group discussions (FGDs) and field notes. Thematic analysis was done. The study revealed ...

  1. Making Sense of Voluntary Participation: A Theoretical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Vernon D.; Agnitsch, Kerry A.; Zhao, Lijun; Mullick, Rehan

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of community attachment on voluntary citizen participation in rural community improvement projects. We do so by modifying the original systemic model of community attachment (Kasarda and Janowitz 1974) and combining it with tenets of rational choice and social embeddedness theories. The modified model is then…

  2. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; de Visser, Marianne; de Jong, Bareld A.; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Sargeant, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Quadriceps strength, maximal anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA), maximal voluntary activation (MVA), and maximal relaxation rate (MRR) were studied in 48 subjects with a past history of polio, 26 with and 22 without postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), and in 13 control subjects. It was also

  3. Voluntary Cancellation of a Pesticide Product or Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    A registrant can cancel the registration of a pesticide product or cancel a use from the product’s label at any time as stated in Section 6(f) of FIFRA. Learn how to request a voluntary cancellation or use deletion.

  4. 75 FR 57477 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Creighton Center for Health Services Research and Patient Safety (CHRP) Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  5. 75 FR 75473 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... entity of Harbor Medical, Inc., of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  6. 75 FR 75471 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of..., LLC of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement... or component organizations whose mission and primary activity is to conduct activities to improve...

  7. 75 FR 57281 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Organizations: Voluntary delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS ACTION: Notice... Patient Safety Corporation of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  8. 75 FR 75472 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS. ACTION: Notice of.... Patient Safety Group (A Component of Helmet Fire, Inc. of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  9. 75 FR 57048 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION... Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109... the listing of PSOs, which are entities or component organizations whose mission and primary activity...

  10. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control.We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ.Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  11. Voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in fishing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local beliefs and practices about voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) may influence uptake and effectiveness. Data were gathered through interviews with 40 people from four ethnically mixed fishing communities in Uganda. Some men believed that wound healing could be promoted by contact with vaginal fluids ...

  12. Domestic and International Nuclear Energy Voluntary Consensus Standards Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces the reader to the domestic and international standards development organizations (SDOs) and their structures and operations. It also identifies some of the support and subject matter needs for the development of standards on the subject of nuclear energy. The support needs are described with regard to organizational structure and subject-matter-expert (SME) participation that is required for producing voluntary consensus standards. The subject matter needs are described with regard to growing technologies and objectives that approach the boundaries of existing standards; implementation of knowledge; and safety of people, facilities, and the environment. Standards are proposed, developed, and produced by SMEs with the support of industry and government organizations. The voluntary consensus standards development process is, as its name implies, a voluntary effort. The problem in today's competitive market, impacted by global economic uncertainty, is that the voluntary participation is shifting from a collaborative industry and SME effort to a nearly SME-only one. This shift places a financial and/or time burden on the SMEs to the point that they are purposely withdrawing from the standards development process, both domestically and internationally. The standards development process desperately needs participation from more and younger SMEs. The report includes several suggestions on how this can be addressed.

  13. Serious gaming and voluntary laparoscopic skills training : A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E.; Dankelman, J.; Schijven, M.P.; Lange, J.F.; Wentink, M.; Stassen, L.P.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the

  14. Voluntary Imitation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisio, Ambra; Casteran, Matthieu; Ballay, Yves; Manckoundia, Patrick; Mourey, France; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e., a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with AD. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator. PMID:27014056

  15. Privatizing or socializing corporate responsibility: business participation in voluntary programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, L.W.; Burgoon, B.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores why companies choose some Corporate Responsibility initiatives over others. The focus is on competing voluntary programs to oversee and protect labor standards. These programs may differ with regard to two aspects: the governance of the program and the financial and managerial

  16. Effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary eyeblinks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Karla

    Full Text Available Eyeblinks, whether reflexive or voluntary, play an important role in protecting our vision. When viewing pictures, reflexive eyeblinks are known to be modulated by the emotional state induced thereby. More specifically, the hedonic valence (unpleasantness-pleasantness induced by the picture has been shown to have a linear relationship with the amplitude of a startle blink elicited during picture viewing. This effect has been attributed to congruence between an ongoing state and task demands: an unpleasant emotional state is assumed to bias our attention towards potentially harmful stimuli, such as startle tones. However, recent research suggests that the valence-specific modulation may not be limited to the sensory parts of the reflexive pathway related to startle responses. Here, we examined the effect of emotional picture viewing on voluntary (in response to a written command eyeblinks in adult humans. Emotional modulation of startle blinks was also evaluated. We found that when viewing unpleasant pictures, the amplitude of reflexive eyeblinks was augmented, but the amplitude of voluntary eyeblinks was unaffected. Nevertheless, the response latencies of voluntary eyeblinks were found to be delayed during the viewing of pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures. We conclude that these results support the theory that emotional experience augments sensory processing specific to potentially harmful stimuli. Further, the emotional state seems not to exert an effect on voluntarily elicited motor activity.

  17. Early Experiences Implementing Voluntary School District Mergers in Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John D.; Glesner, Talia J.; Meyers, Herman W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of an initiative to encourage voluntary school district mergers in Vermont. The law was intended to increase educational opportunities for Vermont students while reducing costs. Three research activities were conducted to understand how districts and supervisory unions around the state responded to the new…

  18. Board and auditor interlocks and voluntary disclosure in annual reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly

  19. Serious gaming and voluntary laparoscopic skills training: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdaasdonk, E. G. G.; Dankelman, J.; Schijven, M. P.; Lange, J. F.; Wentink, M.; Stassen, L. P. S.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses the issue of voluntary training of a standardized online competition (serious gaming) between surgical residents. Surgical residents were invited to join a competition on a virtual reality (VR) simulator for laparoscopic motor skills. A final score was calculated based on the

  20. 7 CFR 766.354 - Voluntary conveyance of chattel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) An Agency application form; (2) A current financial statement. If the borrower is an entity, all entity members must provide current financial statements; (3) Information on present and future... subpart B of 7 CFR part 1956 before or in conjunction with the voluntary conveyance offer if the value of...

  1. Rapid, minimally invasive adult voluntary male circumcision: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is a priority HIV preventive intervention. To facilitate VMMC scale-up, the World Health Organization is seeking circumcision techniques that are faster, easier, and safer than open surgical methods. Objective. To compare open surgical circumcision with suturing v.

  2. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A. Jackowich, BA

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others. Jackowich RA, Vale R, Vale K, Wassersug RJ, and Johnson TW. Voluntary genital ablations: Contrasting the cutters and their clients. Sex Med 2014;2:121–132.

  3. A cardiorespiratory classifier of voluntary and involuntary electrodermal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdic Ervin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrodermal reactions (EDRs can be attributed to many origins, including spontaneous fluctuations of electrodermal activity (EDA and stimuli such as deep inspirations, voluntary mental activity and startling events. In fields that use EDA as a measure of psychophysiological state, the fact that EDRs may be elicited from many different stimuli is often ignored. This study attempts to classify observed EDRs as voluntary (i.e., generated from intentional respiratory or mental activity or involuntary (i.e., generated from startling events or spontaneous electrodermal fluctuations. Methods Eight able-bodied participants were subjected to conditions that would cause a change in EDA: music imagery, startling noises, and deep inspirations. A user-centered cardiorespiratory classifier consisting of 1 an EDR detector, 2 a respiratory filter and 3 a cardiorespiratory filter was developed to automatically detect a participant's EDRs and to classify the origin of their stimulation as voluntary or involuntary. Results Detected EDRs were classified with a positive predictive value of 78%, a negative predictive value of 81% and an overall accuracy of 78%. Without the classifier, EDRs could only be correctly attributed as voluntary or involuntary with an accuracy of 50%. Conclusions The proposed classifier may enable investigators to form more accurate interpretations of electrodermal activity as a measure of an individual's psychophysiological state.

  4. 21 CFR 20.113 - Voluntary product defect reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... confidential commercial or financial information and in § 20.63 for personal privacy. (b) If the report is... would identify the person submitting the report and any data or information falling within the exemption... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Voluntary product defect reports. 20.113 Section...

  5. 15 CFR 30.74 - Voluntary self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or any other agency of the United States Government, has learned the same or substantially similar... be deemed to have made a voluntary self-disclosure under this section unless the individual making... disclosure subsequently completes the narrative account required by paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the...

  6. RESEARCH Voluntary informed consent and good clinical practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of South Africa (1996) and applicable legislation, it is apparent that voluntary informed ... Seoul, 2008);4 Ethics in Health Research: Principles, Structures and. Processes (Department of Health 2004 – 'ethical guidelines' for the purpose of this ... workers have a legal duty to obtain a patient's informed consent for any medical ...

  7. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  8. Voluntary habitual dislocation of the hip in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H; Theander, G; Danielsson, L [Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1980-01-01

    The clinical and radiologic findings in a child with habitual voluntary dislocation of the hip are reported. Observations made in this case and in 6 others on record suggest that this rare condition is a specific pediatric entity with a good prognosis.

  9. Voluntary sport clubs and the social policy agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Magda; Slender, Hans; Wiggers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Local governments, traditionally an important partner of voluntary sport clubs in the Netherlands, are increasingly influencing clubs into involvement in social projects and activities. Although it is not clear what contribution sports clubs can play in this social policy agenda, or whether this

  10. A dynamic analysis of voluntary agreement implementation in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco Garcia, Maria Maria; Sosa, A.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive historical analysis of failure and success factors during the implementation phase of environmental voluntary agreements (VAs) in Mexico. Secondary source data suggest that over the past two decades, perceptions of VAs have changed, and the purpose of this paper was

  11. Demographics as predictors of practice of HIV voluntary counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the demographic variables predicting the practice of HIV Voluntary Counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. Thus, a descriptive survey research was adopted for the study. One thousand, nine hundred and eighty eight (1988) secondary school adolescents were sampled from ...

  12. Voluntary Counselling And Testing (VCT) Among Urban Residents in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Sub-Saharan Africa is home to two-thirds of all people living with HIV/AIDS. Nigeria has the third highest population of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) is rapidly becoming an important component of HIV/AIDS prevention and care strategy.

  13. Force-directed design of a voluntary closing hand prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, H.; Herder, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a body-powered voluntary closing prosthetic hand. It is argued that the movement of the fingers before establishing a grip is much less relevant for good control of the object held than the distribution of forces once the object has been contacted. Based on this

  14. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  15. Voluntary imitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease (AD primarily manifests as cognitive deficits, the implicit sensorimotor processes that underlie social interactions, such as automatic imitation, seem to be preserved in mild and moderate stages of the disease, as is the ability to communicate with other persons. Nevertheless, when AD patients face more challenging tasks, which do not rely on automatic processes but on explicit voluntary mechanisms and require the patient to pay attention to external events, the cognitive deficits resulting from the disease might negatively affect patients’ behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary motor imitation, i.e. a volitional mechanism that involves observing another person’s action and translating this perception into one’s own action, was affected in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further, we tested whether this ability was modulated by the nature of the observed stimulus by comparing the ability to reproduce the kinematic features of a human demonstrator with that of a computerized-stimulus. AD patients showed an intact ability to reproduce the velocity of the observed movements, particularly when the stimulus was a human agent. This result suggests that high-level cognitive processes involved in voluntary imitation might be preserved in mild and moderate stages of AD and that voluntary imitation abilities might benefit from the implicit interpersonal communication established between the patient and the human demonstrator.

  16. Development and Operation of a Voluntary Audit Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jerome R.

    This report describes a voluntary audit program implemented by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). The comprehensive audit program was developed to assure that all corporate programs adhere to the ETS Standards for Quality and Fairness. The standards address issues which relate to all ETS activities such as accountability, confidentiality of…

  17. Human Economy and Entrepreneurial Learning in a Voluntary Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    2014-01-01

    "Based on five months anthropological field study in a British affiliate of an American charity in London, Revsbech asks what does learning look like in a social voluntary organization for youth. Her chapter argues that volunteers develop entrepreneurial abilities by shifting flexibly between...

  18. Announcement, observation and honesty in the voluntary contributions game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denant-Boemont, L.; Masclet, D.; Noussair, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of pre-play announcements and ex-post observation of decisions on voluntary public good provision. We find that requiring announcements, in conjunction with making contribution decisions public, has a significantly positive effect on the average level of

  19. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  20. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  1. Incentive contracts and time use

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Viking Eriksson; Jaime Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies on incentive contracts have primarily been concerned with the effects on employees’ productivity and earnings. The productivity increases associated with such contracts may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ non-work activities, testing whether incentive contracts lead to a change in the allocation of time across work and non-work activities. In doing so, we distinguish between two effects,...

  2. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  3. Judges, commerce and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Gava, John

    2010-01-01

    John Gava, Reader at Adelaide Law School, considers the question how should judges decide commercial cases, in particular, contract cases? He looks at the circumstances and impact of the use of contract law, with attention on common law contract and market needs. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by SALS at the IALS (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, Un...

  4. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  5. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  6. Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of antenatal-linked voluntary counseling and HIV testing in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons and options for Ghana. ... Voluntary counselling and HIV testing has become an integral part of HIV prevention ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. 78 FR 60020 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Voluntary Customer Satisfaction Surveys ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of... Treasury is soliciting comments concerning the Customer Satisfaction Survey. DATES: Written comments should..., WV 26106-1328, (304) 480- 8150. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Voluntary Customer Satisfaction...

  8. 76 FR 62 - Interpretive Standards for Systemic Compensation Discrimination and Voluntary Guidelines for Self...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... 1250-ZA00 Interpretive Standards for Systemic Compensation Discrimination and Voluntary Guidelines for... Order 11246 with respect to Systemic Compensation Discrimination (Standards) and Voluntary Guidelines... Compensation Discrimination [[Page 63

  9. Neural mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary recall: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicoline Marie; Gjedde, Albert; Kupers, Ron

    2008-01-25

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies on episodic memory retrieval have primarily focused on volitional memory tasks. However, some conscious memories arise involuntarily, i.e. without a strategic retrieval attempt, yet little is known about the neural network underlying involuntary episodic memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether voluntary and involuntary recall are mediated by separate cortical networks. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 12 healthy subjects during voluntary and involuntary cued recall of pictures and a control condition with no episodic memory requirements. Involuntary recall was elicited by using an incidental memory task. Compared to the control condition, voluntary and involuntary recall were both associated with significant regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) increases in posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG; BA 23), left precuneus (BA 7), and right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35/36). In addition, rCBF in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC; BA 8/9) and left precuneus (BA 7) was significantly larger during voluntary compared to involuntary recall, while rCBF was enhanced in left dorsolateral PFC (BA 9) during involuntary recall. The findings corroborate an association of the right PFC with a strategic component of episodic memory retrieval. Moreover, they show for the first time that it is possible to activate the medial temporal lobe, the PCG, and the precuneus, regions normally associated with retrieval success, without this strategic element. The relatively higher activity in precuneus during voluntary compared to involuntary recall suggests that activity in this region co-varies not only with retrieval success but also with retrieval intentionality.

  10. The voluntary safeguards offer of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    During negotiations of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) concerns were expressed by non-nuclear-weapon States that their acceptance of Agency safeguards would put them at a disadvantage vis-a-vis the nuclear-weapon States. To allay these concerns, the United States and the United Kingdom in December 1967 made voluntary offers to accept Agency safeguards on their peaceful nuclear activities. Subsequently, France made a voluntary offer, the safeguards agreement for which was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in February 1978, with a view to encouraging acceptance of Agency safeguards by additional States. More recently, in February 1985 the Board approved the safeguards agreement for the voluntary offer of the USSR, made inter alia to encourage further acceptance of Agency safeguards. These safeguards agreements with nuclear-weapon-States have two important features in common: Namely, they result from voluntary offers to accept safeguards rather than from multilateral or bilateral undertakings, and they give the Agency the right but generally not an obligation to apply its safeguards. The agreements differ in certain respects, the most noteworthy of which is the scope of the nuclear activities covered by each offer. The agreements of the United States and United Kingdom are the broadest, covering all peaceful nuclear activities in each country. The safeguards agreement for the US voluntary offer has been in force since December 1980. Now is an appropriate time to review the experience with the agreement's implementation during its first four years, as well as its history and salient features

  11. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  12. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  13. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  14. Unfair contract terms in B2C contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its textual similarity to the Unfair Terms Directive 1993, Chapter 8 of the proposed CESL, on ‘Unfair contract terms’, can benefit from two decades of interpretative experience which is likely to provide a comparably high degree of instant legal certainty to contracting parties.

  15. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  16. Which wider social roles? : An analysis of social roles ascribed to voluntary sports clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waardenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    It has long been established that voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) are ascribed a prominent social role by governments. Several scholars highlight the ascribed social values in sport policy to voluntary sports clubs and their possible implications for these voluntary organizations. Most of these

  17. 5 CFR 630.1014 - Movement between voluntary leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave bank...

  18. 15 CFR 764.8 - Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott... ENFORCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.8 Voluntary self-disclosures for boycott violations. This section... provisions. Voluntary self-disclosures are a mitigating factor with respect to any enforcement action that...

  19. 75 FR 60773 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...] Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency... concerns in the Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program (PS-Prep...-53 (the 9/11 Act) mandated DHS to establish a voluntary private sector preparedness accreditation and...

  20. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  1. 31 CFR 353.64 - Payment, reinvestment, or exchange-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. 353.64 Section 353.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations..., Incompetents, Aged Persons, Absentees, et al. § 353.64 Payment, reinvestment, or exchange—voluntary guardian of... recognition as voluntary guardian for the purpose of redeeming the owner's bonds, if the total redemption...

  2. 31 CFR 315.64 - Payment, reinvestment, or exchange-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. 315.64 Section 315.64 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... exchange—voluntary guardian of an incapacitated person. (a) Payment of bonds. When an adult owner of bonds... an application for recognition as voluntary guardian for the purpose of redeeming the owner's bonds...

  3. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  4. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses while using specialists for ... 2 Definition of Contract and Owner. Mining ... equipment maintenance, scheduling and budgeting ..... No. Region. Amount Spent on. Contract Mining. ($ billion). Percent of. Total. 1 ... cost and productivity data based on a large range.

  5. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule 7 Performance...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  6. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  7. On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space H . We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic ...

  8. Alternative staffing services. Contract transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, C

    1992-03-01

    Contract medical transcription services can be of great assistance in meeting the demands for transcription, without jeopardizing patient, physician, or institutional confidentiality. You simply must require the contract service to provide at least the same degree of protection and preservation of confidentiality that you should require inhouse. To achieve this you must make these requirements explicit, comprehensive, comprehensible, believable, and enforceable. Discuss the requirements with prospective contractors. Review them at least annually with existing contractors and when contracts are due for renewal. Be sure to specify the consequence of breaching confidentiality, and if there are breaches, enforce the terms of the contract. Consult your institution's legal counsel both in developing the contract and in enforcing its provisions. Take into consideration your department's and institution's policies, AHIMA's statement on confidentiality, as well as local, state, and federal laws. Above all, never lose sight of the patient. Ultimately, it is not patient information that you are obligated to protect. It is the patient.

  9. Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a formal model for distributed systems, where each participant advertises its requirements and obligations as behavioural contracts, and where multiparty sessions are started when a set of contracts allows to synthesise a choreography. Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature. It supports sessions where the number of participants is not determined beforehand, and keeps CO2's ability to rule out participants that are culpable if contracts are not fulfilled at runtime. We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants — i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.

  10. Standard form contracts and a smart contract future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin B. Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a budding market of widespread smart contract implementation on the horizon, there is much conversation about how to regulate this new technology. Discourse on standard form contracts (SFCs and how they have been adopted in a digital environment is useful toward predicting how smart contracts might be interpreted. This essay provides a critical review of the discourse surrounding digitised SFCs and applies it to issues in smart contract regulation. An exploration of the literature surrounding specific instances SFCs finds that it lacks a close examination of the textual and documentary aspects of SFCs, which are particularly important in a digital environment as a shift in medium prompts a different procedural process. Instead, common perspectives are either based on outdated notions of paper versions of these contracts or on ideologies of industry and business that do not sufficiently address the needs of consumers/users in the digital age. Most importantly, noting the failure of contract law to address the inequities of SFCs in this environment can help prevent them from being codified further with smart contracts.

  11. [Ulysses contract in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Saya, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Over the last twenty years we have witnessed a growing focus on the rights of the ill people. The debate on informed consent and a new redefinition of the therapeutic relationship is constantly evolving. With this article, we propose a critical literature review of the so-called "Ulysses contract" or "psychiatric advance directives". It refers to the will that a subject expresses in writing, or orally, about the treatments he or she wishes or does not wish to be subject to if the time comes when it may be impossible to express his/her consent. This can especially occur in those with psychiatric disorders with serious clinical involvement and remitting-relapse (typically bipolar disorder, but also chronic delusional disorders and schizophrenia). In this context, the question is whether during intercritical periods the patient may or may not leave instructions to their care-givers. This aspect opens up to a series of interdisciplinary problems. In this article, we want to show the complexity of this debate from a clinical, ethical, legal and psychodynamic point of view, emphasizing the strengths and the major criticisms of the psychiatric advance directives for each area.

  12. Landsat 6 contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  13. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  14. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2015 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The voluntary green power market refers to the sale and procurement of renewable energy for voluntary purposes by residential and commercial customers. This report reviews seven green power procurement mechanisms: utility green pricing programs, utility green tariffs, voluntary unbundled renewable energy certificates, competitive supplier green power, community choice aggregations, voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs), and community solar. This report details the status of trends of those seven green power procurement mechanisms in 2015. Three trends -- significant growth of the voluntary PPA project pipeline, innovative green power mechanisms developed by utilities, and geographic expansion of green power mechanisms -- suggest that the green power market is likely to continue to grow in coming years.

  15. 7 CFR 631.14 - Contract violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.14 Contract violations. Contract violations, determinations and appeals will be handled in accordance with the terms of the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations. 631.14 Section 631.14 Agriculture...

  16. 48 CFR 46.314 - Transportation contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation contracts... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.314 Transportation contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-14, Inspection of Transportation, in solicitations and contracts for freight...

  17. 24 CFR 891.560 - HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract. 891.560 Section 891... Assistance § 891.560 HAP contract. (a) HAP contract. The housing assistance payments contract sets forth.... (b) HAP contract execution. (1) Upon satisfactory completion of the project, the Borrower and HUD...

  18. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GREP Contracts 1 product... Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal Service identifies general contract terms that... methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant...

  19. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  20. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  1. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  2. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  3. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  4. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  5. Peer Reviews: a voluntary means of enhancing operating culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, R.

    1996-01-01

    In the nuclear energy industry, and also in other fields, excellent experience has been gained from the regular accumulation of expert evidence of power station operation through external organizations or teams. In 1991, the World Association of Nuclear Operations (WANO) initiated a pilot programme for voluntary 'Peer Reviews'. The success of this first exercise in gathering expert evidence led to the introduction of the 'Peer Review' programme in 1993 as one of the standard programmes of WANO. The object was to increase the safety and reliability of nuclear power stations throughout the world. WANO Peer Reviews are voluntary and are carried out at the request of a member. They are oriented towards special WANO performance objectives and criteria, which have been established by the management of WANO. (orig.) [de

  6. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  7. Does Voluntary Governance Work? : Insights from Specialty Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Macgregor, Finlay

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural businesses contribute to sustainability problems, but they are also increasingly central to the effort to develop solutions. One way of moving toward sustainability is through regulatory governance. In this thesis, I analyze a tool of regulatory governance called voluntary market-based regulatory initiatives. Specifically, I investigate two types of initiatives, certification and disclosure, involving businesses and consumers in regulatory governance. I researched these types of ...

  8. Factors explaining voluntary participation in PACE-Vaquita

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Avila

    2011-01-01

    Vaquita marina, a small species of porpoise endemic to the Northern Gulf of California in Mexico, is the world’s most endangered cetacean species. With the purpose of preserving vaquita, the Mexican government launched PACE-Vaquita in 2008. This voluntary program offers an innovative schedule of compensations: as in a payment for conservation program, PACE-Vaquita compensates for temporary reductions in fishing reductions in fishing effort; as in a program to accelerate technology adoption,PA...

  9. INTOXICACIÓN VOLUNTARIA POR ESTRICNINA VOLUNTARY POISONING BY STRYCHNINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Albero Boadas Morales

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The strychnine is a stimulating alkaloid of the central nervous system of restricted use in Venezuela for the elimination of dogs by the Coordination of Zoonosis of the Ministry of the Popular Power for the Health. In this paper a case is described of a patient with voluntary poisoning with a greater than lethal dose of strychnine. The opportune diagnosis and the satisfactory response to the treatment allowed to preserve the life of the patient and to limit the complications.

  10. A chain-retrieval model for voluntary task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, André; Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    To account for the findings obtained in voluntary task switching, this article describes and tests the chain-retrieval model. This model postulates that voluntary task selection involves retrieval of task information from long-term memory, which is then used to guide task selection and task execution. The model assumes that the retrieved information consists of acquired sequences (or chains) of tasks, that selection may be biased towards chains containing more task repetitions and that bottom-up triggered repetitions may overrule the intended task. To test this model, four experiments are reported. In Studies 1 and 2, sequences of task choices and the corresponding transition sequences (task repetitions or switches) were analyzed with the help of dependency statistics. The free parameters of the chain-retrieval model were estimated on the observed task sequences and these estimates were used to predict autocorrelations of tasks and transitions. In Studies 3 and 4, sequences of hand choices and their transitions were analyzed similarly. In all studies, the chain-retrieval model yielded better fits and predictions than statistical models of event choice. In applications to voluntary task switching (Studies 1 and 2), all three parameters of the model were needed to account for the data. When no task switching was required (Studies 3 and 4), the chain-retrieval model could account for the data with one or two parameters clamped to a neutral value. Implications for our understanding of voluntary task selection and broader theoretical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Voluntary agreements and community development as CSR in innovation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ramani, S.V.; Mukherjee, V.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper examines how an innovating firm decides between two forms of voluntary agreements (VA) in a context, where a non-governmental organization (NGO) rather than a regulator watches over citizens' interests. The innovation generates profit and consumer surplus as well as environmental damage. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the innovation process is considered in terms of a redistribution of profit towards community development, with or without additional abatement e...

  12. Analysis of the 314th Contracting Squadrons Contract Management Capability Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Jr, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project is to analyze the 314th Contracting Squadron contracting processes and requirement target areas for improvement efforts by the application of the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM...

  13. Hub nodes inhibit the outbreak of epidemic under voluntary vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Haifeng; Wang Binghong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: bhwang@ustc.edu.cn; Zhang Jie; Small, Michael [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: ensmall@polyu.edu.hk; Zhou Changsong [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-02-15

    It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.

  14. Hub nodes inhibit the outbreak of epidemic under voluntary vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haifeng; Wang Binghong; Zhang Jie; Small, Michael; Zhou Changsong

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly believed that epidemic spreading on scale-free networks is difficult to control and that the disease can spread even with a low infection rate, lacking an epidemic threshold. In this paper, we study epidemic spreading on complex networks under the framework of game theory, in which a voluntary vaccination strategy is incorporated. In particular, individuals face the 'dilemma' of vaccination: they have to decide whether or not to vaccinate according to the trade-off between the risk and the side effects or cost of vaccination. Remarkably and quite excitingly, we find that disease outbreak can be more effectively inhibited on scale-free networks than on random networks. This is because the hub nodes of scale-free networks are more inclined to take self-vaccination after balancing the pros and cons. This result is encouraging as it indicates that real-world networks, which are often claimed to be scale free, can be favorably and easily controlled under voluntary vaccination. Our work provides a way of understanding how to prevent the outbreak of diseases under voluntary vaccination, and is expected to provide valuable information on effective disease control and appropriate decision-making.

  15. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  16. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  17. Physics of muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  18. Physics of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called 'descending limb' of the isometric tetanus.

  19. Contraction ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskij, Yu.B.; Kulikov, V.V.; Nekutchaev, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge and a definition of their arising propagation mechanism accounting for the specificity of elementary pocesses characteristic of argon are presented. (author)

  20. Defense Threat Reduction Agency > Contracts > Contract Award Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Command Senior Enlisted Leader Media News News Archive Strategic Plan Videos Mission Research Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current Justifications & Approvals Careers Who We Are Our Values Strategic Recruiting Programs Professional

  1. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-01-01

    The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is...

  2. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  3. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  4. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  5. 48 CFR 542.1107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 542.1107 Contract... clause may be used in indefinite-delivery definite-quantity contracts for Stock or Special Order Program...

  6. 42 CFR 422.504 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage... determinations of amounts payable under the contract. (iv) Properly reflect all direct and indirect costs claimed..., contracts, and subcontracts. (vi) Franchise, marketing, and management agreements. (vii) Schedules of...

  7. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humprey, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  8. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  9. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to substitute contract units. At the discretion of the PHA and subject to all PBV requirements, the HAP contract...

  10. 23 CFR 635.121 - Contract time and contract time extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.121 Contract time and contract time extensions. (a) The STD should have adequate written procedures for the determination of contract... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract time and contract time extensions. 635.121...

  11. Price management mechanisms and the gas contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pricing objectives and risk management strategies that can be achieved through the proper use of the standard gas contract, were discussed. Main topics of discussion were: (1) gas sales contract and convertible pricing, (2) gas contract and imbedded hedging, gas contracts and exchange traded instruments, (4) gas contracts fixed for floating swaps, and OTC options and exotics, (5) options and exotic price structures, and (6) advantages and disadvantages of using the gas contract versus the swap agreement

  12. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  13. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  14. Contracting and Performance in Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi; Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    As part of New Public Management (NPM), contracting represents a supplement to the traditional hierarchical and rule-based managing of relations between actors in order to improve performance (Fortin and van Hassel 2000; Greve and Ejersbo 2002; Drewry et al. 2005; Verhoest 2005). To various degrees...... higher goal attainment when agency head experience that the department balance dialogue and autonomy with some element of control in the process of internal contracting (Bjørnholt and Salomonsen 2011). This implies, that effective steering include a combination of decentralized management...... and how a balanced use of internal contracting leads to a better performance. These findings are then theoretically interpreted based upon a combination of literature on agencification as well as public management. We compare contracting across all Danish agencies based on a combination of survey...

  15. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  16. Contraction of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  17. Construction contracts law and management

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Will; Murdoch, John

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling textbook has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the legislation, administration and management of construction contracts. It now includes comparisons of working with JCT, NEC3, and FIDIC contracts throughout. Introducing this topic at the core of construction law and management, this book provides students with a one-stop reference on construction contracts. Significant new material covers: procurement tendering developments in dispute settlement commentary on all key legislation, case law and contract amendments In line with new thinking in construction management research, this authoritative guide is essential reading for every construction undergraduate and an extremely useful source of reference for practitioners.

  18. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  19. Non-renewal of contracts

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  20. Contractions of quantum algebraic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, A.; Sfetsos, K.

    2010-01-01

    A general framework for obtaining certain types of contracted and centrally extended algebras is reviewed. The whole process relies on the existence of quadratic algebras, which appear in the context of boundary integrable models. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2013 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts to indefinite contracts) was officially launched last week.  The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 9 August 2013 for a period of four weeks (until 8 September 2013). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: Information on the location of these sessions will be provided in due course on the CERN announcements page. HR Department

  2. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  3. Reliability of surface electromyography activity of gluteal and hamstring muscles during sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2018-04-01

    Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Strength training to contraction failure increases voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle shortly after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elin Karin; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    to the abstract to increase trial transparency.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed...

  5. Relationship between isometric contraction intensity and muscle hardness assessed by ultrasound strain elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Takayuki; Tsujimura, Toru; Shimizu, Takuya; Watanabe, Takemasa; Lau, Wing Yin; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-05-01

    Ultrasound elastography is used to assess muscle hardness or stiffness; however, no previous studies have validated muscle hardness measures using ultrasound strain elastography (SE). This study investigated the relationship between plantar flexor isometric contraction intensity and gastrocnemius hardness assessed by SE. We hypothesised that the muscle would become harder linearly with an increase in the contraction intensity of the plantar flexors. Fifteen young women (20.1 ± 0.8 years) performed isometric contractions of the ankle plantar flexors at four different intensities (25, 50, 75, 100% of maximal voluntary contraction force: MVC) at 0° plantar flexion. Using SE images, the strain ratio (SR) between the muscle and an acoustic coupler (elastic modulus 22.6 kPa) placed over the skin was calculated (muscle/coupler); pennation angle and muscle thickness were measured for the resting and contracting conditions. SR decreased with increasing contraction intensity from rest (1.28 ± 0.20) to 25% (0.99 ± 0.21), 50% (0.61 ± 0.15), 75% (0.34 ± 0.1) and 100% MVC (0.20 ± 0.05). SR decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing MVC from rest to 75% MVC, but levelled off from 75 and 100% MVC. SR was negatively correlated with pennation angle (r = -0.80, P < 0.01) and muscle thickness ( r= -0.78,  P< 0.01). SR appears to represent muscle hardness changes in response to contraction intensity changes, in the assumption that the gastrocnemius muscle contraction intensity is proportional to the plantar flexion intensity. We concluded that gastrocnemius muscle hardness changes could be validly assessed by SR, and the force-hardness relationship was not linear.

  6. Analysis of Developed Country's Export Contract and Contract Risk and Development of Sample Contract and Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-10-01

    This paper aimed at developing legal support for the non nuclear power plant industry's export. This study aids establishing government policy and promoting export of non nuclear power plant industry. This paper treated analysis of contractual risk and caution before entering into contract. To promote continuing export result, governmental and legal aids and guide will be required continuously. This study showed risks related with export contract and explained export control acts and procedures

  7. Motor unit recruitment and bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram during a sustained contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Zachary A; Terry, Mary E; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Litsey, Jane C; Enoka, Roger M

    2008-06-01

    Bursts of activity in the surface electromyogram (EMG) during a sustained contraction have been interpreted as corresponding to the transient recruitment of motor units, but this association has never been confirmed. The current study compared the timing of trains of action potentials discharged by single motor units during a sustained contraction with the bursts of activity detected in the surface EMG signal. The 20 motor units from 6 subjects [recruitment threshold, 35.3 +/- 11.3% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force] that were detected with fine wire electrodes discharged 2-9 trains of action potentials (7.2 +/- 5.6 s in duration) when recruited during a contraction that was sustained at a force below its recruitment threshold (target force, 25.4 +/- 10.6% MVC force). High-pass filtering the bipolar surface EMG signal improved its correlation with the single motor unit signal. An algorithm applied to the surface EMG was able to detect 75% of the trains of motor unit action potentials. The results indicate that bursts of activity in the surface EMG during a constant-force contraction correspond to the transient recruitment of higher-threshold motor units in healthy individuals, and these results could assist in the diagnosis and design of treatment in individuals who demonstrate deficits in motor unit activation.

  8. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H; Matzon, A; Hindhede, J; Bejder, A; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K

    2014-10-01

    In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD) or a carbohydrate group (PLA). Subjects completed 12 weeks maximal knee extensor training with one leg using eccentric contractions and the other using concentric contractions. Before and after training cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps and patellar tendon CSA was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging and a isometric strength test was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD). Quadriceps CSA increased by 7.3 ± 1.0% (P tendon CSA increased by 14.9 ± 3.1% (P effect of contraction mode. MVC and RFD increased by 15.6 ± 3.5% (P effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training - irrespective of contraction mode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Agonist contraction during intermittent theta burst stimulation enhances motor cortical plasticity of the wrist flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdamadi, J L; Suzuki, L Y; Meehan, S K

    2015-03-30

    Differences in cortical control across the different muscles of the upper limb may mitigate the efficacy of TMS interventions targeting a specific muscle. The current study sought to determine whether weak concurrent contraction during TMS could enhance the efficacy of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) in the forearm flexors. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were elicited from the flexor (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) motor cortical hotspots before and after iTBS over the FCR cortical hotspot. During iTBS the FCR was either relaxed (iTBS-Relax) or tonically contracted to 10% of maximum voluntary force (iTBS-Contract). iTBS-Relax failed to produce consistent potentiation of MEPFCR amplitude. Individuals with a relatively lower RMTFCR compared RMTECR demonstrated MEPFCR facilitation post-iTBS-Relax. Individuals with relatively higher RMTFCR demonstrated less facilitation and even suppression of MEPFCR amplitude. iTBS-Contract facilitated MEPFCR amplitude but only for MEPFCR evoked from the ECR hotspot. Interactions between overlapping cortical representations determine the efficacy of iTBS. Tonic contraction increases the efficacy of iTBS by enhancing the volume of the cortical representation. However, metaplastic effects may attenuate the enhancement of MEP gain at the motor cortical hotspot. The use of TMS as an adjunct to physical therapy should account for inter-muscle interactions when targeting muscles of the forearm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Voluntary cleanup of the Ames chemical disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboas, A.L.; Freeman, R.; Peterson, J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.

  12. Belief in miracles and attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shane

    2017-04-01

    Results of logistic regression analysis of data from the General Social Survey (N = 1,799) find that those who have a strong belief in miracles are more likely to say that a person with an incurable illness should not be allowed to accept medical treatments that painlessly hasten death than those who have a less strong belief in miracles or do not believe in miracles, net of respondents' religious affiliations, frequency of religious attendance, views of the Bible, and other sociodemographic controls. Results highlight the need to consider specific religious beliefs when predicting individuals' attitudes towards voluntary euthanasia.

  13. Role of Voluntary Employee Turnover in Textile Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaz, Yasir; Rahman, Tanzil ur; Siraji, Md. Naeemullah

    2009-01-01

    The role of voluntary employee turnover (VET) in textile industry has significance in this era over the globe. Textile industry is labour intensive with similar to agriculture industry in Pakistan and it has excessive VET as compared to other industries. Pakistan’s textile products are high quality and much exploit in the world. It contributes in economic growth with 8.5% share in GDP. This industry mainly based on domestic labour and major portion of cost includes in the textile garment prod...

  14. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We...... of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas...

  15. Mangling the models: Real-life experiences in voluntary siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Social scientists are accumulating a growing body of research to guide the development of communications models for siting controversial facilities. The models emphasize building consensus by involving all stakeholders, including opponents, in the decision-making process from its earliest stages. Communications should focus on issues and concerns that are most relevant to the people in the involved community. Finally, trust must be built through local control of the decision-making process. This paper presents experiences in the voluntary siting process for the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility for spent nuclear fuel in three locations: Grant County, North Dakota, Fremont County, Wyoming, and the Mescalero Apache nation in New Mexico

  16. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  17. Negotiating the voluntary siting of nuclear waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussler, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator which was created by Congress with the purpose of seeking a voluntary host State or Indian tribe for a high level nuclear waste repository or monitored retrievable storage facility. Given the history of the Federal government's efforts at siting such facilities, this would appear to be an impossible mission. Since commencing operations in August 1990, the Office has accomplished perhaps more than had been expected. Some of the approaches it has taken to implementing this mission may be applicable to other endeavors

  18. Board diversity and corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD in the annual reports of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rouf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the extant and nature of corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD in corporate annual reports of Bangladesh. Specifically, examine the relationship between board diversity and corporate voluntary disclosures. The paper is based on a sample of 106 listed non-financial companies in Dhaka Stock Exchanges (DSE from the period 2007-2011 and all the companies are selected by Judgment Sampling. The study is used ordinary least squares regression model to examine the relationship between explanatory variables and voluntary disclosure. Using an unweighted relative disclosure index for measuring voluntary disclosure, the empirical results indicate that Percentage Female Director (PFD, Board Leadership Structure (BLS and Total Assets (TA are positively association with corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD. In contrast, the extent of corporate voluntary disclosure is negatively associated with a Percentage of equity owned by the insiders to all equity of the firm higher management ownership

  19. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  20. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the awa...